WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevent foodborne illness

  1. Food safety: emerging trends in foodborne illness surveillance and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe-Sellers, Beverly J; Beattie, Samuel E

    2004-11-01

    Between 250 and 350 million Americans are estimated to suffer acute gastroenteritis annually, with 25% to 30% thought to be caused by foodborne illnesses. Most vulnerable to foodborne diseases are elderly people, pregnant women, immune-compromised people, and children. While bacterial causes such as Salmonella are widely recognized and monitored as foodborne infections, other important bacterial causes such as Clostridium perfringens , Bacillus cereus , and Staphylococcus aureus are less well known. While the majority of cases of foodborne diseases are of unknown cause, bacteria and viruses are the most likely causative agents. Caliciviridae (Norwalk-like) virus cases are more difficult to identify, but represent the most common cause of known and probably unknown cases. Fresh produce has to be added to the traditional list of foods requiring careful selection and handling to prevent foodborne disease. To assess the disease burden in the United States, morbidity and mortality surveillance activities are done by several networks and systems with collaboration among federal agencies and health departments. Not all important causes are being equally monitored. Critical behaviors by food processors, food retailers, foodservice personnel, and consumers can reduce the risk of foodborne illness episodes. Dietetics professionals can more readily monitor new developments and update knowledge and practice through online resources.

  2. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from becoming ill,” says Marjorie Davidson, Ph.D., education team leader in FDA’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Wash hands. It seems basic, but not everyone ...

  3. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from becoming ill,” says Marjorie Davidson, Ph.D., education team leader in FDA’s Center for Food Safety ... Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials ...

  4. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from becoming ill,” says Marjorie Davidson, Ph.D., education team leader in FDA’s Center for Food Safety ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  5. Potential of fermented papaya beverage in the prevention of foodborne illness incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh, S.P.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illness is recognized as an emerging infectious disease. The incidence of foodborne infections is common and the majority cases are undiagnosed or unreported. Apart from some diarrhea or minor gastrointestinal problem, some foodborne pathogenic microbes may cause death, particularly to those people with weakened immune system. In this study, we have developed a new fermented papaya beverage using symbiotic culture of yeast and acetic acid bacteria under controlled biofermentation process. An in-vitro assessment of fermented papaya beverage against few foodborne pathogenic microorganism was conducted to determine its minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC>99. Three types of foodborne pathogen: Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 53648, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (isolated from infectious chicken were selected. From minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC>99 assay, both fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages have shown 100% killing rate against three selected foodborne pathogenic microbes. Inversely, non-fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages indicated no inhibition at all. In fact, further dilution of fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages demonstrated different degree of MBC>99 and brix value, but the pH value remained less than 3.5. These findings indicated the combination of soluble solid compounds presents in both fermented papaya beverage and product acidity play an important role in the inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms. The preliminary promising results of this work have shown that the great potential of fermented papaya beverages as a preventive measure to reduce the incidence of foodborne illness.

  6. Foodborne Germs and Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What Causes Food Poisoning? Many different disease-causing germs can contaminate ... email address: Enter Email Address What’s this? Submit What's this? Submit Button ... of Foodborne Illness in the U.S. Food Safety is a CDC Winnable Battle Foodborne Illness ...

  7. Foodborne Illness Retrospective

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-07

    Dr. Paul Mead and Dr. Peter Drotman discuss the historic October 1999 article, Food-related Illness and Death in the United States.  Created: 5/7/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/7/2015.

  8. Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States -- Burden of Foodborne Illness: Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specifically in focusing efforts on the top known pathogens and identifying the additional causes of foodborne illness and death. CDC provides estimates for two major groups of foodborne illnesses Known foodborne pathogens — 31 pathogens known to cause foodborne illness. Many ...

  9. Irradiation's promise: fewer foodborne illnesses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.

    1986-01-01

    Food irradiation offers a variety of potential benefits to the food supply. It can delay ripening and sprouting of fruits and vegetables, and substitute for chemical fumigants to kill insects. However, one of the most important benefits of food irradiation is its potential use for destroying microbial pathogens that enter the food supply, including the two most common disease causing bacteria: salmonella and campylobacter. Animal products are one of the primary carriers of pathogens. Food borne illnesses are on the rise, and irradiation of red meats and poultry could significantly reduce their occurrence. Food irradiation should be examined more closely to determine its possible benefits in curtailing microbial diseases

  10. New U.S. Foodborne Illness Estimate

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-13

    This podcast discusses CDC's report on new estimates of illnesses due to eating contaminated food in the United States. Dr. Elaine Scallan, assistant professor at the University of Colorado and former lead of the CDCs FoodNet surveillance system, shares the details from the first new comprehensive estimates of foodborne illness in the U.S. since 1999.  Created: 12/13/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 12/15/2010.

  11. Estimated Cost to a Restaurant of a Foodborne Illness Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Sarah M; Asti, Lindsey; Nyathi, Sindiso; Spiker, Marie L; Lee, Bruce Y

    2018-01-01

    Although outbreaks of restaurant-associated foodborne illness occur periodically and make the news, a restaurant may not be aware of the cost of an outbreak. We estimated this cost under varying circumstances. We developed a computational simulation model; scenarios varied outbreak size (5 to 250 people affected), pathogen (n = 15), type of dining establishment (fast food, fast casual, casual dining, and fine dining), lost revenue (ie, meals lost per illness), cost of lawsuits and legal fees, fines, and insurance premium increases. We estimated that the cost of a single foodborne illness outbreak ranged from $3968 to $1.9 million for a fast-food restaurant, $6330 to $2.1 million for a fast-casual restaurant, $8030 to $2.2 million for a casual-dining restaurant, and $8273 to $2.6 million for a fine-dining restaurant, varying from a 5-person outbreak, with no lost revenue, lawsuits, legal fees, or fines, to a 250-person outbreak, with high lost revenue (100 meals lost per illness), and a high amount of lawsuits and legal fees ($1 656 569) and fines ($100 000). This cost amounts to 10% to 5790% of a restaurant's annual marketing costs and 0.3% to 101% of annual profits and revenue. The biggest cost drivers were lawsuits and legal fees, outbreak size, and lost revenue. Pathogen type affected the cost by a maximum of $337 000, the difference between a Bacillus cereus outbreak (least costly) and a listeria outbreak (most costly). The cost of a single foodborne illness outbreak to a restaurant can be substantial and outweigh the typical costs of prevention and control measures. Our study can help decision makers determine investment and motivate research for infection-control measures in restaurant settings.

  12. Reporting of Foodborne Illness by U.S. Consumers and Healthcare Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Mandernach

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During 2009–2010, a total of 1,527 foodborne disease outbreaks were reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC (2013. However, in a 2011 CDC report, Scallan et al. estimated about 48 million people contract a foodborne illness annually in the United States. Public health officials are concerned with this under-reporting; thus, the purpose of this study was to identify why consumers and healthcare professionals don’t report foodborne illness. Focus groups were conducted with 35 consumers who reported a previous experience with foodborne illness and with 16 healthcare professionals. Also, interviews with other healthcare professionals with responsibility of diagnosing foodborne illness were conducted. Not knowing who to contact, being too ill, being unsure of the cause, and believing reporting would not be beneficial were all identified by consumers as reasons for not reporting foodborne illness. Healthcare professionals that participated in the focus groups indicated the amount of time between patients’ consumption of food and seeking treatment and lack of knowledge were barriers to diagnosing foodborne illness. Issues related to stool samples such as knowledge, access and cost were noted by both groups. Results suggest that barriers identified could be overcome with targeted education and improved access and information about the reporting process.

  13. Reporting of Foodborne Illness by U.S. Consumers and Healthcare Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Susan; Rajagopal, Lakshman; Strohbehn, Catherine; Stokes, Nathan; Meyer, Janell; Mandernach, Steven

    2013-01-01

    During 2009–2010, a total of 1,527 foodborne disease outbreaks were reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2013). However, in a 2011 CDC report, Scallan et al. estimated about 48 million people contract a foodborne illness annually in the United States. Public health officials are concerned with this under-reporting; thus, the purpose of this study was to identify why consumers and healthcare professionals don’t report foodborne illness. Focus groups were conducted with 35 consumers who reported a previous experience with foodborne illness and with 16 healthcare professionals. Also, interviews with other healthcare professionals with responsibility of diagnosing foodborne illness were conducted. Not knowing who to contact, being too ill, being unsure of the cause, and believing reporting would not be beneficial were all identified by consumers as reasons for not reporting foodborne illness. Healthcare professionals that participated in the focus groups indicated the amount of time between patients’ consumption of food and seeking treatment and lack of knowledge were barriers to diagnosing foodborne illness. Issues related to stool samples such as knowledge, access and cost were noted by both groups. Results suggest that barriers identified could be overcome with targeted education and improved access and information about the reporting process. PMID:23965924

  14. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Chi-wai Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14% episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets.

  15. Attribution of foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths to food commodities by using outbreak data, United States, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, John A; Hoekstra, Robert M; Ayers, Tracy; Tauxe, Robert V; Braden, Christopher R; Angulo, Frederick J; Griffin, Patricia M

    2013-03-01

    Each year, >9 million foodborne illnesses are estimated to be caused by major pathogens acquired in the United States. Preventing these illnesses is challenging because resources are limited and linking individual illnesses to a particular food is rarely possible except during an outbreak. We developed a method of attributing illnesses to food commodities that uses data from outbreaks associated with both simple and complex foods. Using data from outbreak-associated illnesses for 1998-2008, we estimated annual US foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths attributable to each of 17 food commodities. We attributed 46% of illnesses to produce and found that more deaths were attributed to poultry than to any other commodity. To the extent that these estimates reflect the commodities causing all foodborne illness, they indicate that efforts are particularly needed to prevent contamination of produce and poultry. Methods to incorporate data from other sources are needed to improve attribution estimates for some commodities and agents.

  16. Attribution of Foodborne Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths to Food Commodities by using Outbreak Data, United States, 1998–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Robert M.; Ayers, Tracy; Tauxe, Robert V.; Braden, Christopher R.; Angulo, Frederick J.; Griffin, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    Each year, >9 million foodborne illnesses are estimated to be caused by major pathogens acquired in the United States. Preventing these illnesses is challenging because resources are limited and linking individual illnesses to a particular food is rarely possible except during an outbreak. We developed a method of attributing illnesses to food commodities that uses data from outbreaks associated with both simple and complex foods. Using data from outbreak-associated illnesses for 1998–2008, we estimated annual US foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths attributable to each of 17 food commodities. We attributed 46% of illnesses to produce and found that more deaths were attributed to poultry than to any other commodity. To the extent that these estimates reflect the commodities causing all foodborne illness, they indicate that efforts are particularly needed to prevent contamination of produce and poultry. Methods to incorporate data from other sources are needed to improve attribution estimates for some commodities and agents. PMID:23622497

  17. Foodborne illnesses in Brazil: control measures for 2014 FIFA World Cup travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Ana Carolina; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2014-03-13

    Foodborne diseases are typically caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with micro-organisms or their toxins, resulting in gastrointestinal disorders and in some severe cases hospitalization and death. In Brazil, foodborne illnesses are caused mainly by Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The most important contributing factors for outbreaks are exposure of foods to unsuitable temperatures, inadequate food preparation and contamination of raw material or water used to prepare food. Recently, aiming to prevent foodborne illnesses during the 2014 FIFA World Cup, Brazil has developed a risk-based evaluation tool able to assess and grade Brazilian food services in cities that will host football matches. This tool has been used by the Brazilian sanitary surveillance officers during the inspection of facilities where food services. This is considered an innovative preventative sanitary action because it was created based on scientific information, statistical calculation and on risks of foodborne diseases occurrence. In this mini-review we summarize general data, control measures and how travellers can prevent foodborne illness in Brazil during the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

  18. Comparing Sporadic and Outbreak-associated Foodborne Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-11-04

    Dr. Eric Ebel, a veterinarian and risk analyst with USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service, discusses his article on sporadic and outbreak-associated cases of foodborne illness.  Created: 11/4/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/4/2016.

  19. A Platform for Crowdsourced Foodborne Illness Surveillance: Description of Users and Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Patrick; Nsoesie, Elaine Okanyene

    2017-07-05

    Underreporting of foodborne illness makes foodborne disease burden estimation, timely outbreak detection, and evaluation of policies toward improving food safety challenging. The objective of this study was to present and evaluate Iwaspoisoned.com, an openly accessible Internet-based crowdsourcing platform that was launched in 2009 for the surveillance of foodborne illness. The goal of this system is to collect data that can be used to augment traditional approaches to foodborne disease surveillance. Individuals affected by a foodborne illness can use this system to report their symptoms and the suspected location (eg, restaurant, hotel, hospital) of infection. We present descriptive statistics of users and businesses and highlight three instances where reports of foodborne illness were submitted before the outbreaks were officially confirmed by the local departments of health. More than 49,000 reports of suspected foodborne illness have been submitted on Iwaspoisoned.com since its inception by individuals from 89 countries and every state in the United States. Approximately 95.51% (42,139/44,119) of complaints implicated restaurants as the source of illness. Furthermore, an estimated 67.55% (3118/4616) of users who responded to a demographic survey were between the ages of 18 and 34, and 60.14% (2776/4616) of the respondents were female. The platform is also currently used by health departments in 90% (45/50) of states in the US to supplement existing programs on foodborne illness reporting. Crowdsourced disease surveillance through systems such as Iwaspoisoned.com uses the influence and familiarity of social media to create an infrastructure for easy reporting and surveillance of suspected foodborne illness events. If combined with traditional surveillance approaches, these systems have the potential to lessen the problem of foodborne illness underreporting and aid in early detection and monitoring of foodborne disease outbreaks. ©Patrick Quade, Elaine Okanyene

  20. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cooler or off the grill for more than two hours. Never leave food out for more than ... barbecue to an outdoor party, eat it within two hours of purchase. In addition to bringing a ...

  1. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to ... in FDA’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Wash hands. It seems basic, but not everyone ...

  2. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and placed in an insulated container. If bringing hot take-out food such as fried chicken or barbecue to an outdoor party, eat it within two hours of purchase. In addition to bringing a grill and fuel for cooking to an outdoor location, remember to pack a food thermometer to check that your meat ...

  3. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advisory Committees Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, ...

  4. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dispositivos Médicos Dispositivos que Emiten Radiación Fraude en la Salud Medicamentos Nutrición Productos Veterinarios Productos de Tabaco Salud Infantil Salud de la Mujer Suplementos Dietéticos Vacunas, Sangre y Productos Biológicos ...

  5. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dispositivos Médicos Dispositivos que Emiten Radiación Fraude en la Salud Medicamentos Nutrición Productos Veterinarios Productos de Tabaco Salud Infantil Salud de la Mujer Suplementos Dietéticos Vacunas, Sangre y Productos Biológicos ...

  6. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas Cosméticos Dispositivos Médicos Dispositivos que ... de la Mujer Suplementos Dietéticos Vacunas, Sangre y Productos Biológicos Page Last Updated: 12/13/2017 ...

  7. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to top More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas ...

  8. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content ... Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas Cosméticos Dispositivos Mé ...

  9. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers ... Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas Cosmé ...

  10. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dicos Dispositivos que Emiten Radiación Fraude en la Salud Medicamentos Nutrición Productos Veterinarios Productos de Tabaco Salud Infantil Salud de la Mujer Suplementos Dietéticos ...

  11. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seconds, especially after using the bathroom and before cooking or eating. If you’re in an outdoor ... addition to bringing a grill and fuel for cooking to an outdoor location, remember to pack a ...

  12. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home ... Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas Cosméticos ...

  13. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eating outdoors in warm weather presents a food safety challenge. Bacteria in food multiply faster at temperatures ... so summer heat makes the basics of food safety especially important. “Fortunately, there are a lot of ...

  14. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit ... Fortunately, there are a lot of steps consumers can take to keep family and friends from becoming ...

  15. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bathroom, use a water jug, some soap, and paper towels. Consider carrying moist disposable towelettes for cleaning ... Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content ...

  16. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in warm weather presents a food safety challenge. Bacteria in food multiply faster at temperatures between 40° ... meat. Cook food thoroughly. To kill any harmful bacteria that may be present, use a food thermometer. ...

  17. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For ... 2017 back to top More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food ...

  18. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when the temperature is above 90°F. Keep hot food hot. Hot food should be kept at or above 140°F. Hot food should be wrapped well and placed in an insulated container. If bringing hot take-out food such as fried chicken or ...

  19. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the microwave, oven or stove to reduce grilling time, do so immediately before the food goes on ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  20. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety ...

  1. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bacteria in food multiply faster at temperatures between 40°F and 140°F, so summer heat makes ... Cold food should be held at or below 40°F. Foods like chicken salad and desserts that ...

  2. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are brown all the way through, not pink. Chicken should be cooked to at least 165°F. ... bringing hot take-out food such as fried chicken or barbecue to an outdoor party, eat it ...

  3. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hours. Never leave food out for more than one hour when the temperature is above 90°F. ... 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) Contact ...

  4. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... re in an outdoor setting with no bathroom, use a water jug, some soap, and paper towels. Consider carrying ... plate has first been washed in hot, soapy water. Keep utensils and surfaces ... the counter. And if you want to use some of the marinade as a sauce on ...

  5. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases Consumer Updates About FDA Contact ...

  6. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Wash hands well and often, with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after using ... an outdoor setting with no bathroom, use a water jug, some soap, and paper towels. Consider carrying ...

  7. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... especially important. “Fortunately, there are a lot of steps consumers can take to keep family and friends ... cooler or off the grill for more than two hours. Never leave food out for more than ...

  8. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... t use a plate that previously held raw meat, poultry, or seafood for anything else unless the ... portion. Don’t reuse marinade that contained raw meat. Cook food thoroughly. To kill any harmful bacteria ...

  9. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases Consumer Updates About FDA Contact ...

  10. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer ... More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation- ...

  11. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Barbecue Basics: Tips to ...

  12. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... safety challenge. Bacteria in food multiply faster at temperatures between 40°F and 140°F, so summer ... out for more than one hour when the temperature is above 90°F. Keep hot food hot. ...

  13. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... But eating outdoors in warm weather presents a food safety challenge. Bacteria in food multiply faster at temperatures ... F, so summer heat makes the basics of food safety especially important. “Fortunately, there are a lot of ...

  14. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... êµì–´ | Tagalog | Русский | العربية | Kreyòl Ayisyen | Français | Polski | Português | Italiano | Deutsch | 日本語 | فارسی | English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics ...

  15. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Combination Products Advisory Committees Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & ...

  16. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  17. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pin it Email Print Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Español It’s the season for picnics, cookouts, and ... 13/2017 Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  18. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  19. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas ...

  20. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... formats, see Instructions for Downloading Viewers and Players . Language Assistance Available: Español | 繁體ä¸æ–‡ | Tiếng Việt | ... Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New ...

  1. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heat makes the basics of food safety especially important. “Fortunately, there are a lot of steps consumers ... the microwave, oven or stove to reduce grilling time, do so immediately before the food goes on ...

  2. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... food in the refrigerator, not out on the counter. And if you want to use some of ... bacteria that may be present, use a food thermometer. Hamburgers should be cooked to 160°F. If ...

  3. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products ... the season for picnics, cookouts, and other outdoor parties. But eating outdoors in warm weather presents a food safety ...

  4. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, ...

  5. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Products Advisory Committees Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  6. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Barbecue ...

  7. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos on Flickr FDA Archive Combination Products Advisory Committees Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International ...

  8. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 語 | فارسی | English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  9. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates ... Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos ...

  10. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest ...

  11. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... formats, see Instructions for Downloading Viewers and Players . Language Assistance Available: Español | 繁體ä¸æ–‡ | ... FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR ...

  12. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... does it. Wash hands well and often, with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially ... with no bathroom, use a water jug, some soap, and paper towels. Consider carrying moist disposable towelettes ...

  13. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in FDA’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Wash hands. It seems basic, but not everyone ... Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  14. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas Cosméticos Dispositivos Médicos Dispositivos que Emiten Radiación Fraude en la Salud Medicamentos Nutrición Productos Veterinarios Productos de Tabaco Salud ...

  15. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... formats, see Instructions for Downloading Viewers and Players . Language Assistance Available: Español | 繁體ä¸æ–‡ | Tiếng Việt | ... Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire ...

  16. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Español It’s the season for picnics, cookouts, and other outdoor parties. ...

  17. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bathroom, use a water jug, some soap, and paper towels. Consider carrying moist disposable towelettes for cleaning ... State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest ...

  18. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home ...

  19. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Committees Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & ...

  20. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it Email Print Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Español It’s the season for picnics, cookouts, and other ... Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas Cosméticos Dispositivos Médicos ...

  1. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos ...

  2. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... re in an outdoor setting with no bathroom, use a water jug, some soap, and paper towels. Consider carrying ... raw food separate from cooked food. Don’t use a plate that previously ... in hot, soapy water. Keep utensils and surfaces clean. Marinate food in ...

  3. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 ... Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International ...

  4. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Linkedin Pin it Email Print Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Español It’s the season for picnics, cookouts, ...

  5. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content ...

  6. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español ... parties. But eating outdoors in warm weather presents a food safety challenge. Bacteria in food multiply faster ...

  7. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at least 20 seconds, especially after using the bathroom and before cooking or eating. If you’re in an outdoor setting with no bathroom, use a water jug, some soap, and paper ...

  8. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... outdoors in warm weather presents a food safety challenge. Bacteria in food multiply faster at temperatures between ... Last Updated: 12/13/2017 Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see ...

  9. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be wrapped well and placed in an insulated container. If bringing hot take-out food such as ... placed directly on ice or in a shallow container set in a deep pan filled with ice. ...

  10. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page content Skip to search Skip to topics menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of ... and Players . Language Assistance Available: Español | 繁體ä¸æ–‡ | Tiếng Việt | 한êµì–´ | ...

  11. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases Consumer Updates About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  12. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Products Advisory Committees Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance ...

  13. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disposable towelettes for cleaning your hands. Keep raw food separate from cooked food. Don’t use a plate that previously held ... soapy water. Keep utensils and surfaces clean. Marinate food in the refrigerator, not out on the counter. ...

  14. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... surfaces clean. Marinate food in the refrigerator, not out on the counter. And if you want to ... going on, but food should not be left out of the cooler or off the grill for ...

  15. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En ... Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  16. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... t use a plate that previously held raw meat, poultry, or seafood for anything else unless the plate ... pack a food thermometer to check that your meat and poultry reach a safe internal temperature. When re-heating ...

  17. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Españ ... Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 ...

  18. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular ...

  19. Climate Change, Foodborne Pathogens and Illness in Higher-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, I R; Barker, G C

    2018-02-14

    We present a review of the likely consequences of climate change for foodborne pathogens and associated human illness in higher-income countries. The relationships between climate and food are complex and hence the impacts of climate change uncertain. This makes it difficult to know which foodborne pathogens will be most affected, what the specific effects will be, and on what timescales changes might occur. Hence, a focus upon current capacity and adaptation potential against foodborne pathogens is essential. We highlight a number of developments that may enhance preparedness for climate change. These include the following: Adoption of novel surveillance methods, such as syndromic methods, to speed up detection and increase the fidelity of intervention in foodborne outbreaks Genotype-based approaches to surveillance of food pathogens to enhance spatiotemporal resolution in tracing and tracking of illness Ever increasing integration of plant, animal and human surveillance systems, One Health, to maximise potential for identifying threats Increased commitment to cross-border (global) information initiatives (including big data) Improved clarity regarding the governance of complex societal issues such as the conflict between food safety and food waste Strong user-centric (social) communications strategies to engage diverse stakeholder groups The impact of climate change upon foodborne pathogens and associated illness is uncertain. This emphasises the need to enhance current capacity and adaptation potential against foodborne illness. A range of developments are explored in this paper to enhance preparedness.

  20. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  1. Understanding the Relationships Between Inspection Results and Risk of Foodborne Illness in Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Petrona; Hedberg, Craig W

    2016-10-01

    Restaurants are important settings for foodborne disease outbreaks and consumers are increasingly using restaurant inspection results to guide decisions about where to eat. Although public posting of inspection results may lead to improved sanitary practices in the restaurant, the relationship between inspection results and risk of foodborne illness appears to be pathogen specific. To further examine the relationship between inspection results and the risk of foodborne disease outbreaks, we evaluated results of routine inspections conducted in multiple restaurants in a chain (Chain A) that was associated with a large Salmonella outbreak in Illinois. Inspection results were collected from 106 Chain A establishments in eight counties. Forty-six outbreak-associated cases were linked to 23 of these Chain A restaurants. There were no significant differences between the outbreak and nonoutbreak restaurants for overall demerit points or for the number of demerit points attributed to hand washing or cross-contamination. Our analyses strongly suggest that the outbreak resulted from consumption of a contaminated fresh produce item without further amplification within individual restaurants. Inspections at these facilities would be unlikely to detect or predict the foodborne illness outbreak because there are no Food Code items in place to stop the introduction of contaminated food from an otherwise approved commercial food source. The results of our study suggest that the agent and food item pairing and route of transmission must be taken into consideration to improve our understanding of the relationship between inspection results and the risk of foodborne illness in restaurants.

  2. Foodborne urinary tract infections (FUTIs: a new paradigm for antimicrobial-resistant foodborne illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora eNordstrom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most common bacterial infections worldwide. Disproportionately affecting women, UTIs exact a substantial public burden each year in terms of direct medical expenses, decreased quality of life, and lost productivity. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among strains of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli challenges successful treatment of UTIs. Community-acquired UTIs were long considered sporadic infections, typically caused by the patients’ native gastrointestinal microbiota; however, the recent recognition of UTI outbreaks with probable foodborne origins has shifted our understanding of UTI epidemiology. Along with this paradigm shift come new opportunities to disrupt the infection process and possibly quell increasing resistance, including the elimination of nontherapeutic antimicrobial use in food-animal production.

  3. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Campylobacter Foodborne Illness in Raw Beef Offal Consumption in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jiyeon; Lee, Jeeyeon; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Ha, Jimyeong; Yoon, Ki-Sun; Yoon, Yohan

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness caused by the intake of raw beef offal in South Korea. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in raw beef offal (liver and tripe) was investigated by plating samples on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar with Preston enrichment broth. Data were collected about storage temperature and length of storage of raw beef offal, and probabilistic distributions for the data were determined, using @RISK software. Predictive models were developed to describe the fate of Campylobacter in raw beef offal, and the amount and frequency of consumption and dose-response model were surveyed. Subsequently, these data were used to estimate the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness caused by the intake of raw beef offal. Of 80 beef offal samples, 1 (1.25%) was contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni . Predictive models were used for exposure assessment. An exponential distribution was selected to represent beef offal consumption by people who eat this occasionally, with a mean of 60.2 g and 3.6% monthly consumption frequency. Simulations using @RISK predicted that the probability of Campylobacter foodborne illness per person per month is 1.56 × 10 -5 for home consumption and 1.74 × 10 -5 for restaurant consumption in South Korea, which indicates the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness by intake of raw beef offal in South Korea.

  4. Using Role-Play to Enhance Foodborne Illness Crisis Management Capacity in the Produce Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreske, Audrey; Ducharme, Diane; Gunter, Chris; Phister, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne illness outbreaks have measurable public health effects and often lead to negative produce industry impacts. Reducing loss following a crisis event requires a management plan, although many fresh produce industry members don't have one. Evidence-based workshops using a role-play simulated outbreak were delivered to impact crisis…

  5. Reporting of Outbreaks of Foodborne Illness under the International Health Regulations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-27

    During the past 20 years, the global food trade has increased and, with it, the potential for the spread of foodborne illnesses caused by imported foods. The World Health Organization in 2007 implemented new International Health Regulations which help guide reporting of foodborne outbreaks. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Scott McNabb discusses a study in the September 2008 issue of the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases which analyzed foodborne outbreaks in Australia in the early part of this decade and assessed how many would have been reported under the current health regulations.  Created: 8/27/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/27/2008.

  6. Foodborne illness among school children in Ga east, Accra | Malm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A food borne illness was reported in Ga- East district of Greater Accra Region among school children in May, 2007 after eating food provided at school. The objective of the investigation was to determine the source, mode of contamination and the causative agent. Methods: A case-control study was conducted, ...

  7. Estimates of the Burden of Foodborne Illness in Canada for 30 Specified Pathogens and Unspecified Agents, Circa 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Regan; Flockhart, Logan; Pintar, Katarina; Pollari, Frank; Fazil, Aamir; Nesbitt, Andrea; Marshall, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Estimates of foodborne illness are important for setting food safety priorities and making public health policies. The objective of this analysis is to estimate domestically acquired, foodborne illness in Canada, while identifying data gaps and areas for further research. Estimates of illness due to 30 pathogens and unspecified agents were based on data from the 2000–2010 time period from Canadian surveillance systems, relevant international literature, and the Canadian census population for 2006. The modeling approach required accounting for under-reporting and underdiagnosis and to estimate the proportion of illness domestically acquired and through foodborne transmission. To account for uncertainty, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to generate a mean estimate and 90% credible interval. It is estimated that each year there are 1.6 million (1.2–2.0 million) and 2.4 million (1.8–3.0 million) episodes of domestically acquired foodborne illness related to 30 known pathogens and unspecified agents, respectively, for a total estimate of 4.0 million (3.1–5.0 million) episodes of domestically acquired foodborne illness in Canada. Norovirus, Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter spp., and nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. are the leading pathogens and account for approximately 90% of the pathogen-specific total. Approximately one in eight Canadians experience an episode of domestically acquired foodborne illness each year in Canada. These estimates cannot be compared with prior crude estimates in Canada to assess illness trends as different methodologies were used. PMID:23659355

  8. Exploring the relationship between food access and foodborne illness by using spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Bruce; Watson, Susannah; Mackay, Kevin; Isaacs, Sandy

    2013-09-01

    There is some evidence that neighborhood deprivation increases residents' risk of foodborne illnesses. Because urban areas with the least available access to adequate amounts of nutritious or affordable food options (or "food deserts") also tend to be the most deprived areas within a city, it is hypothesized that food access and foodborne illness risk are linked. However, the complexity of tracking numbers and sources of gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses often leads researchers to speculate about reasons for disproportionate rates of pathogen outbreaks among demographic groups. This study explores the suitability of existing data to examine associations between food deserts and the spatial distribution of GI illnesses in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A spatial analysis by using GIS software methodology was used to identify and map food retail outlets and accessibility, as well as GI illness outbreaks and sales of antidiarrhea, antinausea, and rehydration products (used as a proxy for GI cases) within the city, based on available data. Statistical analysis of the maps shows no statistical relationship between location, access to food outlets, and rates of GI illness. The analysis points to shortfalls and gaps in the existing data, which leaves us unable to draw conclusions either supporting or refuting our hypothesis. This article includes recommendations to improve the current system of illness reporting and to continue to refine the definition and process of mapping food access issues. A more comprehensive set of data would enable municipalities to more easily identify groups most at risk, depending on exposures and the type of pathogen, and reduce the occurrence of foodborne disease.

  9. [Prevalence of emerging foodborne pathogens and illness: Campylobacter and Listeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriero, Anna Maria; Damiani, Gianfranco; Neve, Caterina Bianca; Bianchi, Aurora; Ronconi, Alessandra; Laurenti, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the proportion of food samples, examined by the Italian Istituti Zooprofilattici Sperimentali (Experimental Zooprophylactic Institutes) in the years 2000-2005, positive for Campylobacter and Listeria. A correlation was found between food samples found positive for Listeria in the years 2002-2005 and the number of hospitalisations for Listeria illness in the same years (as reported in hospital discharge abstract forms). This confirms that attention should be given in the evaluation of phenomena known to be under reported and for which data are collected and analysed by different methods.

  10. Foodborne Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... paralysis, severe dehydration, and HUS. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition The following steps may help relieve the symptoms ... be washed under running water just before eating, cutting, or cooking. A produce brush can be used ...

  11. An outbreak of foodborne illness among attendees of a wedding reception in Wisconsin likely caused by Arcobacter butzleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappi, Victoria; Archer, John R; Cebelinski, Elizabeth; Leano, Fe; Besser, John M; Klos, Rachel F; Medus, Carlota; Smith, Kirk E; Fitzgerald, Collette; Davis, Jeffrey P

    2013-03-01

    Arcobacter species, primarily Arcobacter butzleri, are widely distributed among animals, infrequently isolated from humans, and previously not associated with outbreaks of foodborne illness. We report results of an investigation of a foodborne outbreak that occurred among attendees of a wedding reception in Wisconsin, United States, and was likely caused by A. butzleri. We conducted a case-control study among reception attendees and a laboratory investigation to determine the extent, source, and cause of the outbreak. A clinical case was defined as diarrhea in an attendee with illness onset ≤7 days following the wedding reception. The case-control study included 47 of 51 case patients and 43 non-ill attendees. Results demonstrated that consuming broasted chicken was the only factor significantly associated with illness (odds ratio 10.51; 95% confidence interval 1.28, 476.4). Five patients provided stool specimens. Comprehensive culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing did not detect common bacterial or viral pathogens. Subsequent testing with PCRs targeting 16S/23S rDNA of the three most clinically relevant Arcobacter spp. and the rpoB/C gene of A. butzleri provided products confirmed as A. butzleri (four patients) and A. cryaerophilus (one patient) by sequence analysis. The results of this investigation suggest that A. butzleri should be considered an agent that can cause outbreaks of foodborne illness. Rigorous investigation of outbreaks of undetermined etiology is valuable for incrementally increasing our understanding of emerging agents causing foodborne illnesses.

  12. Potential of social media as a tool to combat foodborne illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin; Raymond, Benjamin; Powell, Douglas

    2014-07-01

    The use of social media platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter, has been increasing substantially in recent years and has affected the way that people access information online. Social media rely on high levels of interaction and user-generated context shared through established and evolving social networks. Health information providers must know how to successfully participate through social media in order to meet the needs of these online audiences. This article reviews the current research on the use of social media for public health communication and suggests potential frameworks for developing social media strategies. The extension to food safety risk communication is explored, considering the potential of social media as a tool to combat foodborne illness.

  13. Assessment of Meat and Poultry Product Recalls Due to Salmonella Contamination: Product Recovery and Illness Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Scott A; Sampedro, Fernando; Hedberg, Craig W

    2017-08-01

    Data from the recalls of meat and poultry products from 2000 through 2012 due to Salmonella contamination were used to assess the factors associated with the recovery of the recalled product and to develop quantitative models to estimate the number of illnesses prevented by recalls. The percentage of product recovered following a recall action was not dependent on establishment size, recall expansions, complexity of the distribution chain, type of distribution, amount of time between the production and recall dates, or number of pounds of product recalled. However, illness-related recalls were associated with larger amounts of recalled product, smaller percentages of recalled product recovered, a greater number of days between the production date and recall date, and nationwide distribution than were recalls that were not illness related. In addition, the detection of recall-associated illnesses appeared to be enhanced in states with strong foodborne illness investigation systems. The number of Salmonella illnesses prevented by recalls was based on the number of illnesses occurring relative to the number of pounds consumed, which was then extrapolated to the number of pounds of recalled product recovered. A simulation using a program evaluation and review technique probability distribution with illness-related recalls from 2003 through 2012 estimated that there were 19,000 prevented Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Recalls not associated with illnesses from 2000 through 2012 prevented an estimated additional 8,300 Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Although further improvements to ensure accurate and complete reporting should be undertaken, our study demonstrates that recalls are an important tool for preventing additional Salmonella illnesses. Moreover, additional training resources dedicated to public health agencies for enhancing foodborne illness detection, investigations, and rapid response and reporting would

  14. Foodborne disease and the preventive role of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, D.

    1992-01-01

    In view on the enormous health and economic consequences of foodborne diseases, irradiation decontamination and disinfestation of pathogen-containing foods must be considered one of the most significant recent contributions to public health made by food science and technology. Food irradiation has an important part to play with in the promotion of food safety and in the reduction of food losses. The unwarranted rejection of the process, often based on a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails, may hamper its use in most countries that could benefit most

  15. Foodborne illness incidence rates and food safety risks for populations of low socioeconomic status and minority race/ethnicity: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2013-08-15

    While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe.

  16. Foodborne Illness Incidence Rates and Food Safety Risks for Populations of Low Socioeconomic Status and Minority Race/Ethnicity: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Quinlan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe.

  17. Foodborne Illness-Causing Organisms in the U.S.: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grave threats to all persons. ORGANISM Bacillus cereus Campylobacter jejuni Clostridium botulinum COMMON NAME OF ILLNESS B. ... to-eat deli meats Noroviruses Variously called viral gastroenteritis, winter diarrhea, acute non- bacterial gastroenteritis, food poisoning, ...

  18. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks--United States, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    Foodborne agents cause an estimated 48 million illnesses annually in the United States, including 9.4 million illnesses from known pathogens. CDC collects data on foodborne disease outbreaks submitted from all states and territories through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. During 2008, the most recent year for which data are finalized, 1,034 foodborne disease outbreaks were reported, which resulted in 23,152 cases of illness, 1,276 hospitalizations, and 22 deaths. Among the 479 outbreaks with a laboratory-confirmed single etiologic agent reported, norovirus was the most common, accounting for 49% of outbreaks and 46% of illnesses. Salmonella was the second most common, accounting for 23% of outbreaks and 31% of illnesses. Among the 218 outbreaks attributed to a food vehicle with ingredients from only one of 17 defined food commodities, the top commodities to which outbreaks were attributed were poultry (15%), beef (14%), and finfish (14%), whereas the top commodities to which outbreak-related illnesses were attributed were fruits and nuts (24%), vine-stalk vegetables (23%), and beef (13%). Outbreak surveillance provides insights into the agents that cause foodborne illness, types of implicated foods, and settings where transmission occurs. Public health, regulatory, and food industry professionals can use this information to target prevention efforts against pathogens and foods that cause the most foodborne disease outbreaks.

  19. Preventing Heat-Related Illness or Death of Outdoor Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventing Heat-related Illness or Death of Outdoor Workers Summary Outdoor workers in agricul- ture, construction, and other industries ... a great deal of exertional and environ- mental heat stress that may lead to severe illness or ...

  20. Analysis of as a cause of foodborne illness and its associated differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Uk Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Recently kudoa septempuctata in olive flounders is suggested as a cause of food poisoning, however whether kudoa septempuctata can affect human gastrointestinal systems is controversial and its pathogenecity remains unclear. In view of the field epidemiology, food poisonings caused by kudoa septempuctata should be distinguished from those caused by Staphylococcus aureus and bacillus cereus. METHODS The statistics of food poisoning investigations published by Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2013-2015 were reviewed. The characteristics of kudoa septempuctata food poisoning reported by Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were reviewed. Information regarding clinical symptoms or epidemiology was extracted. RESULTS Total eleven kudoa septempuctata food poisoning cases were analyzed. Food poisonings caused by kudoa septempuctata, Staphylococcus aureus and bacillus cereus have clinical and epidemiological similarities. Forty five percent of food poisoning outbreaks occurred in Korea was concluded as unknown. The food poisoning caused by Staphylococcus aureus and bacillus cereus accounted for 4.5% (50/1,092 of all food poisoning outbreaks in Korea between 2013 and 2015. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests the possibilities of misdiagnosis in the investigations of food poisoning by Staphylococcus aureus and bacillus cereus with kudoa septempuctata.

  1. Illness Among Paralympic Athletes: Epidemiology, Risk Markers, and Preventative Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse Van Rensburg, Dina Christina; Schwellnus, Martin; Derman, Wayne; Webborn, Nick

    2018-05-01

    Paralympic athletes have unique preexisting medical conditions that predispose them to increased risk of illness, but data are limited to studies conducted during the last 3 Paralympic Games. This article reviews the epidemiology of illness (risk, patterns, and predictors) in Paralympic athletes and provides practical guidelines for illness prevention. The incidence rate of illness (per 1000 athlete-days) in Paralympic athletes is high in Summer (10.0-13.2) and Winter (18.7) Paralympic Games. The authors propose general and specific guidelines on preventative strategies regarding illness in these athletes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Parasites and Foodborne Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or undercooked meats such as pork, wild boar, bear, bobcat, cougar, fox, wolf, dog, horse, seal, or ... with coordination and have heart and breathing problems. Death may occur in severe cases. When will symptoms ...

  3. Integrating Mental Illness Prevention into Community-Based Undergraduate Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, Mary St. John; Higgins, Sally

    2003-01-01

    Recent research on temperament and attachment theory highlights the importance of early intervention to helping children develop secure attachments and prevent mental illnesses. A mental illness curriculum for nursing students should integrate concepts from psychiatry and public health to prepare community-based for participation in intervention.…

  4. Viruses of foodborne origin: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd EC

    2015-04-01

    , there is a high cost for prevention, control, and treatment of infections. Control measures are limited, but include proper clean-up and disinfection after vomiting or diarrhea, and prevention of food contact by infected individuals. As diagnostics improve, more foodborne illnesses relating to enteric viruses are expected to be identified, especially in developing countries where there are little data today. Keywords: foodborne, enteric viruses, shellfish, food workers, prevention, control, ready-to-eat food

  5. Estimating the burden of foodborne disease, South Korea, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Su; Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Soon Ho; Kim, Soon Han; Park, Ki Hwan; Bahk, Gyung Jin

    2015-03-01

    Estimating the actual occurrence of foodborne illness is challenging because only a small proportion of foodborne illnesses are confirmed and reported. Many studies have attempted to accurately estimate the overall number of cases of foodborne illness, but none have attempted to estimate the burden of foodborne disease in South Korea. This study used data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA), a public health surveillance system in South Korea, to calculate the number of cases and hospitalizations due to 18 specific pathogens and unspecified agents commonly transmitted through contaminated food between 2008 and 2012 in South Korea while accounting for uncertainty in the estimate. The estimated annual occurrences of foodborne illness were 336,138 (90% credible interval [CrI]: 258,379-430,740), with inpatient stays (hospitalizations), outpatient visits (foodborne disease infections), and patients' experiences (without visiting physicians) accounting for 2.3% (n=7809 [90% CrI: 7016-8616]), 14.4% (n=48,267 [90% CrI: 45,883-50,695]) and 83.3% (n=280,062 [90% CrI: 201,795-374,091]), respectively. Escherichia coli, including enterohemorrhagic E. coli, caused most illnesses, followed by nontyphoidal Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, hepatitis A virus, and norovirus. These results will be useful to food safety policymakers for the prevention and control of foodborne pathogens in South Korea.

  6. Pressure ulcer prevention in patients with advanced illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Chu, E Foy; Reddy, Madhuri

    2013-03-01

    Pressure ulcers can be challenging to prevent, particularly in patients with advanced illnesses. This review summarizes the relevant literature since 2011. Through a MEDLINE and CINAHL database search from January 1, 2011 to June 1, 2012, a total of 14 abstracts were found addressing the prevention of pressure ulcers in persons with advanced illness. Search terms included pressure ulcer, prevention, and control. Advanced illness was defined as patients transitioning from curative to supportive and palliative care. Ten original studies and four review articles specifically addressed pressure ulcer prevention. There were four articles that specifically addressed patients with advanced illness. The studies varied in quality. One systematic review, one randomized controlled trial, three prospective trials, two retrospective trials, one cost-effectiveness analysis, one quality improvement project, one comparative descriptive design, and four review articles were found. The interventions for pressure ulcer prevention were risk assessment, repositioning, surface selection, nutritional support and maintenance of skin integrity with or without incontinence. The quality of pressure ulcer prevention studies in persons with advanced illness is poor. Increased number and higher quality studies are needed to further investigate this important topic for these fragile patients.

  7. Preventing the Epidemic of Mental Ill Health: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Robson , Anthony ,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Diet, lifestyle and environment do not just affect a person's health, they also determine the health of their children and possibly the health of their grandchildren. Mental ill health is an epidemic worldwide because of the combined effect of the modern diet and a sedentary lifestyle. Primary prevention of mental ill health starts, crucially, with optimal adult nutrition before the inception of pregnancy, includes breastfeeding, and continues throughout the life of th...

  8. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Current pathogenic Escherichia coli foodborne outbreak cases and therapy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Chun; Lin, Chih-Hung; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Fang, Jia-You

    2017-08-01

    Food contamination by pathogenic microorganisms has been a serious public health problem and a cause of huge economic losses worldwide. Foodborne pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination, such as that with E. coli O157 and O104, is very common, even in developed countries. Bacterial contamination may occur during any of the steps in the farm-to-table continuum from environmental, animal, or human sources and cause foodborne illness. To understand the causes of the foodborne outbreaks by E. coli and food-contamination prevention measures, we collected and investigated the past 10 years' worldwide reports of foodborne E. coli contamination cases. In the first half of this review article, we introduce the infection and symptoms of five major foodborne diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes: enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli/enterohemorrhagic E. coli (STEC/EHEC), Shigella/enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). In the second half of this review article, we introduce the foodborne outbreak cases caused by E. coli in natural foods and food products. Finally, we discuss current developments that can be applied to control and prevent bacterial food contamination.

  10. Attributing human foodborne illness to food sources and water in Latin America and the Caribbean using data from outbreak investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Vieira, Antonio; Perez, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    by each category was used to define the probability that an outbreak was caused by a source. For the calculation of the number of outbreaks attributed to each source, simple-food outbreaks were attributed to the single food category in question, and complex-food outbreaks were partitioned to each category......Foodborne pathogens are responsible for an increasing burden of disease worldwide. Knowledge on the contribution of different food sources and water for disease is essential to prioritize food safety interventions and implement appropriate control measures. Source attribution using outbreak data......&C). Foods implicated in outbreaks were classified by their ingredients as simple foods (i.e. belonging to one single food category), or complex foods (i.e. belonging to multiple food categories). For each agent, the data from simple-food outbreaks were summarized, and the proportion of outbreaks caused...

  11. 75 FR 35360 - Injury and Illness Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... implementation of a safety and health program as a way of demonstrating good faith. Similarly, in its first... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 Injury and Illness Prevention Program AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION...

  12. 75 FR 23637 - Injury and Illness Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... safety and health program as a way of demonstrating good faith. Similarly, in its first decision, the... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 Injury and Illness Prevention Program AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION...

  13. Foodborne Disease Outbreaks in Correctional Institutions-United States, 1998-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Mariel A; Luna-Gierke, Ruth E; Griffin, Patricia M; Vieira, Antonio R

    2017-07-01

    To present the first update on the epidemiology of US foodborne correctional institution outbreaks in 20 years. We analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System to describe correctional institution outbreaks from 1998 to 2014 and compare them with other foodborne outbreaks. Two hundred foodborne outbreaks in correctional institutions were reported, resulting in 20 625 illnesses, 204 hospitalizations, and 5 deaths. Median number of outbreak-associated illnesses per 100 000 population per year was 45 (range = 11-141) compared with 7 (range = 4-10) for other outbreaks. These outbreaks accounted for 6% (20 625 of 358 330) of outbreak-associated foodborne illnesses. Thirty-seven states reported at least 1 outbreak in a correctional institution. Clostridium perfringens (28%; 36 of 128) was the most frequently reported single etiology. The most frequently reported contributing factor was food remaining at room temperature (37%; 28 of 76). Incarcerated persons suffer a disproportionate number of outbreak-associated foodborne illnesses. Better food safety oversight and regulation in correctional food services could decrease outbreaks. Public Health Implications. Public health officials, correctional officials, and food suppliers can work together for food safety. Clearer jurisdiction over regulation of correctional food services is needed.

  14. Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aspinall, Willy

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs) resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as expos......Background Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs) resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods...... as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the findings of a structured expert elicitation providing globally comparable food source attribution estimates for 11 major FBDs in each of 14 world subregions. Methods and findings We used Cooke’s Classical Model...

  15. Cost of Hospitalization for Foodborne Diarrhea: A Case Study from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van Minh; Tran, Tuan Anh; Ha, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Viet Hung

    2015-11-01

    Vietnam is undergoing a rapid social and economic developments resulting in speedy urbanization, changes in methods for animal production, food marketing systems, and food consumption habits. These changes will have major impacts on human exposures to food poisoning. The present case study aimed to estimate hospitalization costs of foodborne diarrhea cases in selected health facilities in Vietnam. This is a facility-based cost-of-illness study conducted in seven health facilities in Northern Vietnam. All suspect cases of foodborne diarrhea, as diagnosed by doctors, who admitted to the studied health facilities during June-August, 2013 were selected. Costs associated with hospitalization for foodborne diseases were estimated from societal perspective using retrospective approach. We included direct and indirect costs of hospitalization of foodborne diarrhea cases. During the study period, 87 foodborne diarrhea cases were included. On average, the costs per treatment episode and per hospitalization day for foodborne diarrhea case were US$ 106.9 and US$ 33.6 respectively. Indirect cost (costs of times to patient, their relatives due to the patient's illness) made up the largest share (51.3%). Direct medical costs accounted for 33.8%; direct non-medical costs (patient and their relatives) represented 14.9%. Cost levels and compositions varied by level of health facilities. More attentions should be paid on prevention, control of foodborne diarrhea cases in Vietnam. Ensuring safety of food depends on efforts of everyone involved in food chain continuum, from production, processing, and transport to consumption.

  16. Old friends in new places: exploring the role of extraintestinal E.coli in intestinal disease and foodborne illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergence of new antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli pathotypes associated with human disease has led to an investigation in terms of the origins of these pathogens. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, unspecified agents are responsible for 38.4 million out of the 48 m...

  17. Foodborne enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: from gut pathogenesis to new preventive strategies involving probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Charlène; Sivignon, Adeline; de Wiele, Tom Van; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are a major cause of traveler's diarrhea and infant mortality in developing countries. Given the rise of antibiotic resistance worldwide, there is an urgent need for the development of new preventive strategies. Among them, a promising approach is the use of probiotics. Although many studies, mostly performed under piglet digestive conditions, have shown the beneficial effects of probiotics on ETEC by interfering with their survival, virulence or adhesion to mucosa, underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This review describes ETEC pathogenesis, its modulation by human gastrointestinal cues as well as novel preventive strategies with a particular emphasis on probiotics. The potential of in vitro models simulating human digestion in elucidating probiotic mode of action will be discussed.

  18. An Improved Multiplex Real-Time SYBR Green PCR Assay for Analysis of 24 Target Genes from 16 Bacterial Species in Fecal DNA Samples from Patients with Foodborne Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Jun; Etoh, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Keiji; Watahiki, Masanori; Shima, Tomoko; Kameyama, Mitsuhiro; Horikawa, Kazumi; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Goto, Ryoichi; Shirabe, Komei

    2016-05-20

    Here, we developed a new version of our original screening system (Rapid Foodborne Bacterial Screening 24; RFBS24), which can simultaneously detect 24 genes of foodborne pathogens in fecal DNA samples. This new version (RFBS24 ver. 5) detected all known stx2 subtypes, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (STh genotype), and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (trh2), which were not detected by the original RFBS24 assay. The detection limits of RFBS24 ver. 5 were approximately 5.6 × 10(-2)-5.6 × 10(-5) (ng DNA)/reaction, significantly lower (10- to 100-fold) than those of the original RFBS24 for the 22 target genes analyzed here. We also tested the new assay on fecal DNA samples from patients infected with Salmonella, Campylobacter, or enterohemorrhagic E. coli. The number of bacterial target genes detected by RFBS24 ver. 5 was greater than that detected by RFBS24. RFBS24 ver. 5 combined with an Ultra Clean Fecal DNA Isolation Kit showed adequate performance (sensitivity and specificity 89% and 100%, respectively, for Salmonella spp. and 100% and 83%, respectively, for Campylobacter jejuni) in terms of rapid detection of a causative pathogen during foodborne-illness outbreaks. Thus, RFBS24 ver. 5 is more useful than the previous assay system for detection of foodborne pathogens and offers quick simultaneous analysis of many targets and thus facilitates rapid dissemination of information to public health officials.

  19. Attending Weak Signals: The Prevention of Work-related Illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Liff

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the characteristics of communication among managers, human resource (HR experts, and occupational health care specialists, as they deal with such informal information as weak signals in the prevention of work-related illnesses, using a theoretical framework in which the prevention of work-related illness is analogous to theory on crisis management. This is a qualitative study in which individual and focus-group interviews were conducted in a Swedish context with occupational health care specialists, managers, and HR experts. The results suggest that organizational solutions have failed and continue to fail at controlling workers’ health problems, although the main difficulty is not in identifying the ‘right’ individually oriented weak signals. Rather, it is upper management’s reliance on formal information (e.g., statistics and surveys – because of the difficulty in supplementing it with informal information (e.g., rumors and gossip – that makes it difficult to improve traditional health and safety work

  20. A foodborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Lisby, M.; Vestergaard, L. S.

    2009-01-01

    Foodborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis are uncommon. In Denmark human cases are generally infrequently diagnosed. In 2005 an outbreak of diarrhoea affected company employees near Copenhagen. In all 99 employees were reported ill; 13 were positive for Cryptosporidium hominis infection. Two...

  1. High-Altitude Illnesses: Physiology, Risk Factors, Prevention, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude illnesses encompass the pulmonary and cerebral syndromes that occur in non-acclimatized individuals after rapid ascent to high altitude. The most common syndrome is acute mountain sickness (AMS which usually begins within a few hours of ascent and typically consists of headache variably accompanied by loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, disturbed sleep, fatigue, and dizziness. With millions of travelers journeying to high altitudes every year and sleeping above 2,500 m, acute mountain sickness is a wide-spread clinical condition. Risk factors include home elevation, maximum altitude, sleeping altitude, rate of ascent, latitude, age, gender, physical condition, intensity of exercise, pre-acclimatization, genetic make-up, and pre-existing diseases. At higher altitudes, sleep disturbances may become more profound, mental performance is impaired, and weight loss may occur. If ascent is rapid, acetazolamide can reduce the risk of developing AMS, although a number of high-altitude travelers taking acetazolamide will still develop symptoms. Ibuprofen can be effective for headache. Symptoms can be rapidly relieved by descent, and descent is mandatory, if at all possible, for the management of the potentially fatal syndromes of high-altitude pulmonary and cerebral edema. The purpose of this review is to combine a discussion of specific risk factors, prevention, and treatment options with a summary of the basic physiologic responses to the hypoxia of altitude to provide a context for managing high-altitude illnesses and advising the non-acclimatized high-altitude traveler.

  2. Contributing factors in restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks, FoodNet sites, 2006 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L Hannah; Rosenblum, Ida; Nicholas, David; Phan, Quyen; Jones, Timothy F

    2013-11-01

    An estimated 48 million cases of foodborne illness occur each year in the United States, resulting in approximately 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Over half of all foodborne disease outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are associated with eating in restaurants or delicatessens. We reviewed data from restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks to better understand the factors that contribute to these outbreaks. Data on restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks reported by sites participating in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) were analyzed to characterize contributing factors reported in foodborne disease outbreaks and the levels of evidence used to identify these factors. Of 457 foodborne disease outbreaks reported in 2006 and 2007 by FoodNet sites, 300 (66%) were restaurant associated, and of these 295 (98%) had at least one reported contributing factor. One to nine (with a median of two) contributing factors were reported per outbreak. Of the 257 outbreaks with a single etiology reported, contributing factors associated with food worker health and hygiene were reported for 165 outbreaks (64%), factors associated with food preparation practices within the establishment were reported for 88 outbreaks (34%), and factors associated with contamination introduced before reaching the restaurant were reported for 56 outbreaks (22%). The pronounced role of food workers in propagating outbreaks makes it clear that more work is needed to address prevention at the local level. Food workers should be instructed not to prepare food while ill to prevent the risk of transmitting pathogens.

  3. Increase in Multistate Foodborne Disease Outbreaks-United States, 1973-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Von D; Bennett, Sarah D; Mungai, Elisabeth; Gieraltowski, Laura; Hise, Kelley; Gould, L Hannah

    2015-11-01

    Changes in food production and distribution have increased opportunities for foods contaminated early in the supply chain to be distributed widely, increasing the possibility of multistate outbreaks. In recent decades, surveillance systems for foodborne disease have been improved, allowing officials to more effectively identify related cases and to trace and identify an outbreak's source. We reviewed multistate foodborne disease outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System during 1973-2010. We calculated the percentage of multistate foodborne disease outbreaks relative to all foodborne disease outbreaks and described characteristics of multistate outbreaks, including the etiologic agents and implicated foods. Multistate outbreaks accounted for 234 (0.8%) of 27,755 foodborne disease outbreaks, 24,003 (3%) of 700,600 outbreak-associated illnesses, 2839 (10%) of 29,756 outbreak-associated hospitalizations, and 99 (16%) of 628 outbreak-associated deaths. The median annual number of multistate outbreaks increased from 2.5 during 1973-1980 to 13.5 during 2001-2010; the number of multistate outbreak-associated illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths also increased. Most multistate outbreaks were caused by Salmonella (47%) and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (26%). Foods most commonly implicated were beef (22%), fruits (13%), and leafy vegetables (13%). The number of identified and reported multistate foodborne disease outbreaks has increased. Improvements in detection, investigation, and reporting of foodborne disease outbreaks help explain the increasing number of reported multistate outbreaks and the increasing percentage of outbreaks that were multistate. Knowing the etiologic agents and foods responsible for multistate outbreaks can help to identify sources of food contamination so that the safety of the food supply can be improved.

  4. Epidemiology of restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks, United States, 1998-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, K M; Nisler, A L; Hall, A J; Brown, L G; Gould, L H

    2017-02-01

    Although contamination of food can occur at any point from farm to table, restaurant food workers are a common source of foodborne illness. We describe the characteristics of restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks and explore the role of food workers by analysing outbreaks associated with restaurants from 1998 to 2013 reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. We identified 9788 restaurant-associated outbreaks. The median annual number of outbreaks was 620 (interquartile range 618-629). In 3072 outbreaks with a single confirmed aetiology reported, norovirus caused the largest number of outbreaks (1425, 46%). Of outbreaks with a single food reported and a confirmed aetiology, fish (254 outbreaks, 34%) was most commonly implicated, and these outbreaks were commonly caused by scombroid toxin (219 outbreaks, 86% of fish outbreaks). Most outbreaks (79%) occurred at sit-down establishments. The most commonly reported contributing factors were those related to food handling and preparation practices in the restaurant (2955 outbreaks, 61%). Food workers contributed to 2415 (25%) outbreaks. Knowledge of the foods, aetiologies, and contributing factors that result in foodborne disease restaurant outbreaks can help guide efforts to prevent foodborne illness.

  5. Analysis of epidemiological data of foodborne outbreak reported in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: The knowledge of bacterial agent of foodborne diseases and determination of antimicrobial resistance pattern are helpful to reduce the rate of foodborne outbreaks, the cost of treatment. The prevention control of outbreaks is also very important.

  6. Immunological biosensing of foodborne pathogenic bacteria using electrochemical and light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) detection platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that contaminated foods account for 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3000 deaths per year in the United States alone. Of these cases,9.4 million have been attributed to 31 major foodborne pathogens. Microbial culture-bas...

  7. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks - United States, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L Hannah; Walsh, Kelly A; Vieira, Antonio R; Herman, Karen; Williams, Ian T; Hall, Aron J; Cole, Dana

    2013-06-28

    to assess changes in the food commodities associated most frequently with outbreaks that might occur following improvements in food safety or changes in consumption patterns or food preparation practices. Prevention of foodborne disease depends on targeted interventions at appropriate points from food production to food preparation. Efforts to reduce foodborne illness should focus on the pathogens and food commodities causing the most outbreaks and outbreak-associated illnesses, including beef, poultry, fish, and produce.

  8. СHILDREN OF MEGAPOLISES WHO FALL ILL FREQUENTLY: ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION PREVENTION AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Torshkhoeva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to prevention and treatment of acute respiratory diseases children of megapolises who fall ill frequently. The authors prove the thesis that children falling ill frequently and residing in mega cities, and not only in Russia, have a similar immune status, according to which not only therapeutic but also preventive immunomodulatory treatment courses must be administered to them.Key words: frequently ill children, bacterial immunomodulation, cytokinic status.

  9. Foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bintsis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne pathogens are causing a great number of diseases with significant effects on human health and economy. The characteristics of the most common pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Cronobacter sakazakii, Esherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococccus aureus, Vibrio spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica, viruses (Hepatitis A and Noroviruses and parasites (Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis, together with some important outbreaks, are reviewed. Food safety management systems based on to classical hazard-based approach has been proved to be inefficient, and risk-based food safety approach is now suggested from leading researchers and organizations. In this context, a food safety management system should be designed in a way to estimate the risks to human health from food consumption and to identify, select and implement mitigation strategies in order to control and reduce these risks. In addition, the application of suitable food safety education programs for all involved people in the production and consumption of foods is suggested.

  10. Premorbid obesity, but not nutrition, prevents critical illness-induced muscle wasting and weakness

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, Chloë; Marques, Mirna; Derde, Sarah; Vander Perre, Sarah; Dufour, Thomas; Thiessen, Steven; Güiza, Fabian; Janssens, Thomas; Hermans, Greet; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; De Bock, Katrien; Van den Berghe, Greet; Langouche, Lies

    2017-01-01

    Background The ‘obesity paradox’ of critical illness refers to better survival with a higher body mass index. We hypothesized that fat mobilized from excess adipose tissue during critical illness provides energy more efficiently than exogenous macronutrients and could prevent lean tissue wasting. Methods In lean and premorbidly obese mice, the effect of 5 days of sepsis-induced critical illness on body weight and composition, muscle wasting, and weakness was assessed, each with fas...

  11. Contributing Factors in Restaurant-Associated Foodborne Disease Outbreaks, FoodNet Sites, 2006 and 2007†

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOULD, L. HANNAH; ROSENBLUM, IDA; NICHOLAS, DAVID; PHAN, QUYEN; JONES, TIMOTHY F.

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 48 million cases of foodborne illness occur each year in the United States, resulting in approximately 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Over half of all foodborne disease outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are associated with eating in restaurants or delicatessens. We reviewed data from restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks to better understand the factors that contribute to these outbreaks. Data on restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks reported by sites participating in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) were analyzed to characterize contributing factors reported in foodborne disease outbreaks and the levels of evidence used to identify these factors. Of 457 foodborne disease outbreaks reported in 2006 and 2007 by FoodNet sites, 300 (66%) were restaurant associated, and of these 295 (98%) had at least one reported contributing factor. One to nine (with a median of two) contributing factors were reported per outbreak. Of the 257 outbreaks with a single etiology reported, contributing factors associated with food worker health and hygiene were reported for 165 outbreaks (64%), factors associated with food preparation practices within the establishment were reported for 88 outbreaks (34%), and factors associated with contamination introduced before reaching the restaurant were reported for 56 outbreaks (22%). The pronounced role of food workers in propagating outbreaks makes it clear that more work is needed to address prevention at the local level. Food workers should be instructed not to prepare food while ill to prevent the risk of transmitting pathogens. PMID:24215683

  12. Preventive measures and lifestyle habits against exertional heat illness in radiation decontamination workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Shota; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Sato, Sei; Hidaka, Tomoo; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Nakano, Shinichi; Koyama, Kikuo; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-09-28

    The aim of this study was to reveal the current state of preventive measures and lifestyle habits against heat illness in radiation decontamination workers and to examine whether young radiation decontamination workers take less preventive measures and have worse lifestyle habits than the elder workers. This was a cross-sectional study. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 1,505 radiation decontamination workers in Fukushima, Japan. Five hundred fifty-eight men who replied and answered all questions were included in the statistical analysis. The questionnaire included age, duration of decontamination work, previous occupation, lifestyle habit, and preventive measures for heat illness. We classified age of the respondents into five groups: decontamination workers are more likely to have worse lifestyle habits and take insufficient preventive measures for heat illness. This may be the cause of higher incidence of heat illness among young workers.

  13. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for preventing skeletal-muscle weakness and wasting in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A.; Roig, Marc; Karatzanos, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) therapy may be useful in early musculoskeletal rehabilitation during acute critical illness. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of NMES for preventing skeletal-muscle weakness and wasting in critically...

  14. Assessment of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157 Illnesses Prevented by Recalls of Beef Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Scott A; Sampedro, Fernando; Hedberg, Craig W

    2015-09-01

    Beef product recall data from 2005 through 2012 associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 contamination were used to develop quantitative models to estimate the number of illnesses prevented by recalls. The number of illnesses prevented was based on the number of illnesses that occurred relative to the number of pounds consumed, then extrapolated to the number of pounds of recalled product recovered. A simulation using a Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) probability distribution with illness-related recalls estimated 204 (95% credible interval, 117-333) prevented STEC O157 illnesses from 2005 through 2012. Recalls not associated with illnesses had more recalled product recovered and prevented an estimated 83 additional STEC O157 illnesses. Accounting for underdiagnosis resulted in an estimated total of 7500 STEC O157 illnesses prevented over 8 years. This study demonstrates that recalls, although reactive in nature, are an important tool for averting further exposure and illnesses.

  15. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks - United States, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    Foodborne illnesses are a major health burden in the United States. Most of these illnesses are preventable, and analysis of outbreaks helps identify control measures. Although most cases are sporadic, investigation of the portion that occur as part of recognized outbreaks can provide insights into the pathogens, food vehicles, and food-handling practices associated with foodborne infections. CDC collects data on foodborne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) from all states and territories through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FBDSS). This report summarizes epidemiologic data on FBDOs reported during 2006 (the most recent year for which data have been analyzed). A total of 1,270 FBDOs were reported, resulting in 27,634 cases and 11 deaths. Among the 624 FBDOs with a confirmed etiology, norovirus was the most common cause, accounting for 54% of outbreaks and 11,879 cases, followed by Salmonella (18% of outbreaks and 3,252 cases). Among the 11 reported deaths, 10 were attributed to bacterial etiologies (six Escherichia coli O157:H7, two Listeria monocytogenes, one Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, and one Clostridium botulinum), and one was attributed to a chemical (mushroom toxin). Among outbreaks caused by a single food vehicle, the most common food commodities to which outbreak-related cases were attributed were poultry (21%), leafy vegetables (17%), and fruits/nuts (16%). Public health professionals can use this information to 1) target control strategies for specific pathogens in particular foods along the farm-to-table continuum and 2) support good food-handling practices among restaurant workers and the public.

  16. A brief review of foodborne zoonoses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, D; Shi, Z; Wei, J; Ma, Z

    2011-10-01

    Foodborne zoonoses have a major impact on public health in China. Its booming economy and rapid socioeconomic changes have affected food production, food supplies and food consumption habits, resulting in an increase in the number of outbreaks of foodborne zoonoses. Both emerging and re-emerging foodborne zoonoses have attracted increasing national and international attention in recent years. This paper briefly reviews the main foodborne zoonoses that have had a major impact on public health over the last 20 years in China. The major causative microorganisms, including foodborne bacteria, parasites and viruses, are discussed. The prevention and control of foodborne zoonoses are difficult challenges in China. The information provided here may aid the development of effective prevention and control strategies for foodborne zoonoses.

  17. Preventive family service coordination for parents with a mental illness in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, H.J.; Hosman, C.M.H.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Hoencamp, E.; Willems, W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    TOPIC: The Preventive Basic Care Management (PBCM) program is a Dutch service coordination program for parents with mental illnesses, which focuses on organizing tailored support from various services for parents and their children from a preventive perspective. PURPOSE: The article discusses our

  18. Visual Analytics of Surveillance Data on Foodborne Vibriosis, United States, 1973-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer N. Sims

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illnesses caused by microbial and chemical contaminants in food are a substantial health burden worldwide. In 2007, human vibriosis (non-cholera Vibrio infections became a notifiable disease in the United States. In addition, Vibrio species are among the 31 major known pathogens transmitted through food in the United States. Diverse surveillance systems for foodborne pathogens also track outbreaks, illnesses, hospitalization and deaths due to non-cholera vibrios. Considering the recognition of vibriosis as a notifiable disease in the United States and the availability of diverse surveillance systems, there is a need for the development of easily deployed visualization and analysis approaches that can combine diverse data sources in an interactive manner. Current efforts to address this need are still limited. Visual analytics is an iterative process conducted via visual interfaces that involves collecting information, data preprocessing, knowledge representation, interaction, and decision making. We have utilized public domain outbreak and surveillance data sources covering 1973 to 2010, as well as visual analytics software to demonstrate integrated and interactive visualizations of data on foodborne outbreaks and surveillance of Vibrio species. Through the data visualization, we were able to identify unique patterns and/or novel relationships within and across datasets regarding (i causative agent; (ii foodborne outbreaks and illness per state; (iii location of infection; (iv vehicle (food of infection; (v anatomical site of isolation of Vibrio species; (vi patients and complications of vibriosis; (vii incidence of laboratory-confirmed vibriosis and V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks. The additional use of emerging visual analytics approaches for interaction with data on vibriosis, including non-foodborne related disease, can guide disease control and prevention as well as ongoing outbreak investigations.

  19. Novel preharvest strategies involving the use of experimental chlorate preparations and nitro-based compounds to prevent colonization of food-producing animals by foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R C; Harvey, R B; Byrd, J A; Callaway, T R; Genovese, K J; Edrington, T S; Jung, Y S; McReynolds, J L; Nisbet, D J

    2005-04-01

    Foodborne diseases caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Campylobacter species are of public health and economic significance. Shedding of these pathogens during production and slaughter are risks for contamination of products for human consumption. Consequently, strategies are sought to prevent or reduce the carriage of these pathogens in food animals before slaughter. Experimental products containing chlorate salts have been proven efficacious in reducing concentrations of E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium in the gut of cattle, sheep, swine, and poultry when administered as feed or water additives. Mechanistically, chlorate selectively targets bacteria expressing respiratory nitrate reductase activity, such as most members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, as this enzyme catalyzes the reduction of chlorate to lethal chlorite. Most beneficial gut bacteria lack respiratory nitrate reductase activity, and thus the technology appears compatible with many bacteria exhibiting competitive exclusion capabilities. More recently, select nitrocompounds have been investigated as potential feed additives, and although these nitrocompounds significantly reduce pathogens on their own, evidence indicates that they may most effectively be used to complement the bactericidal activity of chlorate. A particularly attractive aspect of the nitrocompound technology is that, as potent inhibitors of ruminal methanogenesis, they may allow producers the opportunity to recoup costs associated with their use. At present, neither chlorate nor the nitrocompounds have been approved as feed additives by the US Food and Drug Administration, and consequently they are not yet available for commercial use.

  20. Emergence of salsa and guacamole as frequent vehicles of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, 1973-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Magdalena E; Mody, Rajal K; Mahon, Barbara E; Doyle, Michael P; Herman, Karen M; Tauxe, Robert V

    2013-04-01

    Fresh salsa and guacamole often contain diced raw produce, are often made in large batches, and are often poorly refrigerated, which may make them prone to contamination that can cause foodborne illness. The safety of salsa and guacamole is increasingly important as these foods gain popularity. Since 1973, local, state, and territorial health departments have voluntarily reported foodborne disease outbreaks to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FDOSS) using a standard reporting form. FDOSS used paper-based reporting for 1973-1997 and switched to electronic reporting for 1998-2008. We reviewed all reports of outbreaks during 1973-2008 in which salsa or guacamole was reported as a vehicle. We found 136 outbreaks in which salsa or guacamole was reported as a possible vehicle, which resulted in 5,658 illnesses. Of these 136 salsa- or guacamole-associated (SGA) outbreaks additional possible food vehicles were reported for 33 (24%) outbreaks. There were no SGA outbreaks reported before 1984. Among reported outbreaks, most were caused by norovirus (24%), nontyphoidal Salmonella (19%), and Shigella (7%). Eighty-four percent of outbreaks were caused by foods prepared in restaurants or delis; of these, 19% reported ill foodworkers, and 29% reported improper storage as possible contributing factors. Among all foodborne disease outbreaks with a reported food vehicle during 1984-1997, 26 (0.9%) of 2,966 outbreaks were SGA, and during 1998-2008, 110 (1.4%) of 7,738 outbreaks were SGA. The number of reported foodborne disease outbreaks attributable to salsa or guacamole increased in the United States from 1984 to 2008, especially in later years, and especially in restaurants. Fresh salsa and guacamole require careful preparation and storage. Focused prevention strategies should reduce the risk of illness and ensure that these foods are enjoyed safely.

  1. Effects of a suicide prevention programme for hospitalised patients with mental illness in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Won Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Park, Jeong Soon

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the effects of a suicide prevention programme on the levels of depression, self-esteem, suicidal ideation and spirituality in patients with mental illness. Instances of suicide have significant correlations with depression, low self-esteem, suicidal ideation and a low level of spirituality in the victims. Therefore, addressing depression, low self-esteem and suicidal ideation as suicide risk factors and increasing levels of spirituality can constitute an effective programme to prevent suicide among patients with mental illness. The study was a quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group, nonsynchronised design. The study sample consisted of 45 patients with mental illness who had been admitted to the psychiatric unit in a university hospital in South Korea. The patients were assigned to control and experimental groups of 23 and 22 members, respectively. The suicide prevention programme was conducted with the experimental group over four weeks and included eight sessions (two per week). The control group received only routine treatments in the hospital. The experimental group that participated in the programme had significantly decreased mean scores for depression and suicidal ideation compared with the control group. However, there were no significant differences in the mean scores for self-esteem and spirituality between the groups. The suicide prevention programme might be usefully applied as a nursing intervention for patients hospitalised in psychiatric wards or clinics where the goals are to decrease depression and suicidal ideation. Typical treatments for hospitalised patients with mental illness are not enough to prevent suicide. Intervention for suicide prevention needs to apply an integrated approach. The suicide prevention programme using an integrated approach is more effective in reducing depression and suicidal ideation in patients with mental illness than applying routine treatments in the hospital. © 2013 John Wiley

  2. Interventions to prevent and control food-borne diseases associated with a reduction in traveler's diarrhea in tourists to Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, David V M; Walters, Christine; Dockery-Brown, Cheryl; McNab, André; Ashley, Deanna E C

    2004-01-01

    In 1996 a study found that approximately one in four tourists to Jamaica were affected with traveler's diarrhea (TD) during their stay. That year the Ministry of Health initiated a program for the prevention and control of TD. The aim of this ongoing program was to reduce attack rates of TD from 25% to 12% over a 5-year period by improving the environmental health and food safety standards of hotels. Hotel-based surveillance procedures for TD were implemented in sentinel hotels in Negril and Montego Bay in 1996, Ocho Rios in 1997, and Kingston in 1999. A structured program provided training and technical assistance to nurses, food and beverage staff, and environmental sanitation personnel in the implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point principles for monitoring food safety standards. The impact of interventions on TD was assessed in a survey of tourists departing from the international airport in Montego Bay in 1997-1998 and from the international airport in Kingston in 1999-2000. The impact of the training and technical assistance program on food safety standards and practices was assessed in hotels in Ocho Rios as of 1998 and in Kingston from 1999. At the end of May 2002, TD incidence rates were 72% lower than in 1996, when the Ministry of Health initiated its program for the prevention and control of TD. Both hotel surveillance data and airport surveillance data suggest that the vast majority of travelers to Kingston and southern regions are not afflicted with TD during their stay. The training and technical assistance program improved compliance to food safety standards over time. Interventions to prevent and control TD in visitors to Jamaica are positively associated with a reduction in TD in the visitor population and improvements in food safety standards and practices in hotels.

  3. Estimating the burden of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne illness caused by Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus by using population-based telephone survey data, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, 2005 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Kunihiro; Kasuga, Fumiko; Iwasaki, Emiko; Inagaki, Shunichi; Sakurai, Yoshiharu; Komatsu, Mayumi; Toyofuku, Hajime; Angulo, Frederick J; Scallan, Elaine; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2011-10-01

    Most cases of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne disease are not ascertained by public health surveillance because the ill person does not always seek medical care and submit a stool sample for testing, and the laboratory does not always test for or identify the causative organism. We estimated the total burden of acute gastroenteritis in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, using data from two 2-week cross-sectional, population-based telephone surveys conducted in 2006 and 2007. To estimate the number of acute gastroenteritis illnesses caused by Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Miyagi Prefecture, we determined the number of cases for each pathogen from active laboratory-based surveillance during 2005 to 2006 and adjusted for seeking of medical care and submission of stool specimens by using data from the population-based telephone surveys. Monte Carlo simulation was used to incorporate uncertainty. The prevalence of acute gastroenteritis in the preceding 4 weeks was 3.3% (70 of 2,126) and 3.5% (74 of 2,121) in the winter and summer months, yielding an estimated 44,200 episodes of acute gastroenteritis each year in this region. Among people with acute gastroenteritis, the physician consultation rate was 32.0%, and 10.9% of persons who sought care submitted a stool sample. The estimated numbers of Campylobacter-, Salmonella-, and V. parahaemolyticus -associated episodes of acute gastroenteritis were 1,512, 209, and 100 per 100,000 population per year, respectively, in this region. These estimates are significantly higher than the number of reported cases in surveillance in this region. Cases ascertained from active surveillance were also underrepresented in the present passive surveillance, suggesting that complementary surveillance systems, such as laboratory-based active surveillance in sentinel sites, are needed to monitor food safety in Japan.

  4. Pediatric heat-related illness: recommendations for prevention and management [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Roberta J; Kim, Tommy Y; Chaudhari, Pradip

    2017-08-22

    Infants, children, and adolescents are at increased risk for heat-related illness due to their inability to remove themselves from dangerous environments. Evidence shows that morbidity and mortality from heat illness is related to the length of time core temperature is elevated, so rapid reduction and accurate serial measurements are crucial to prevention of organ system damage and death. The primary methods of patient cooling are conduction (ice-water immersion, cold packs) and convection (moisture and moving air). The choice of method used may depend on availability of equipment, but there is evidence that can guide optimal use of resources. This issue presents evidence-based recommendations and best practices in heat-illness resuscitation, including managing children who are obese, have special needs or take medications, and advocacy for prevention strategies. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  5. Elicitation of cognitions related to HIV risk behaviors in persons with mental illnesses: implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennille, Julie; Solomon, Phyllis; Fishbein, Martin; Blank, Michael

    2009-01-01

    An important step in research using the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior (TRA/TPB) is conducting an elicitation process to identify topic and population specific cognitions. This study explored HIV risk behaviors in persons with mental illnesses and introduces findings from focus groups conducted during the development phase of an HIV primary and secondary prevention intervention study. Researchers held four focus groups with persons with mental illnesses focused on HIV risks and condom use. Participants discussed sexual side effects of psychotropic medications as a potential cause of both medication non-adherence and HIV risk behaviors. The intersection of these two issues is specific to this population. We conclude with the recommendation that HIV primary and secondary prevention intervention for persons with mental illnesses must incorporate the promotion of healthy sexuality, including attention to sexual side effects of psychotropic medications.

  6. Prevention Research Matters: Fitness for People with Mental Illness Who are Overweight

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-12-14

    People with serious mental illness who are overweight or obese can benefit from taking part in a fitness program called InSHAPE where they receive help with fitness, weight loss, and even grocery shopping on a budget.  Created: 12/14/2017 by Prevention Research Centers Program.   Date Released: 12/14/2017.

  7. Comparison of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to prevent delirium in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, L. D.; Hutton, Brian; Guenette, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Delirium is characterized by acute changes in mental status including inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered level of consciousness, and is highly prevalent in critically ill adults. Delirium has adverse consequences for both patients and the healthcare system; however......, at this time, no effective treatment exists. The identification of effective prevention strategies is therefore a clinical and research imperative. An important limitation of previous reviews of delirium prevention is that interventions were considered in isolation and only direct evidence was used. Our......-randomized trials of critically ill adults evaluating any pharmacological, non-pharmacological, or multi-component intervention for delirium prevention, administered in or prior to (i.e., peri-operatively) transfer to the ICU. Two authors will independently screen search results and extract data from eligible...

  8. Disease burden of foodborne pathogens in the Netherlands, 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, A.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122; Haagsma, J.A.; Mangen, M.J.J.; Kemmeren, J.M.; Verhoef, L.; Vijgen, S.M.; Wilson, M; Friesema, I.H.; Kortbeek, L.M.; van Duynhoven, Y.T.; van Pelt, W.

    2012-01-01

    To inform risk management decisions on control, prevention and surveillance of foodborne disease, the disease burden of foodborne pathogens is estimated using Disability Adjusted Life Years as a summary metric of public health. Fourteen pathogens that can be transmitted by food are included in the

  9. Foodborne parasites from wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund

    2015-01-01

    The majority of wild foods consumed by humans are sourced from intensively managed or semi-farmed populations. Management practices inevitably affect wildlife density and habitat characteristics, which are key elements in the transmission of parasites. We consider the risk of transmission...... of foodborne parasites to humans from wildlife maintained under natural or semi-natural conditions. A deeper understanding will be useful in counteracting foodborne parasites arising from the growing industry of novel and exotic foods....

  10. 'Old' and 'new' institutions for persons with mental illness: treatment, punishment or preventive confinement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    2008-09-01

    Despite countless promises for a better life by national commissions, governments and the international community, there has evolved a vicious cycle of neglect, abandonment, indignity, cruel and inhuman treatment, and punishment of persons with mental illness. This shameful history of benign, and sometimes malignant, neglect of persons with mental illness is well understood, with the deep stigma and unredressed discrimination, the deplorable living conditions, and the physical and social barriers preventing their integration and full participation in society. The maltreatment of this vulnerable population has been reinforced by the hurtful stereotypes of incompetency and dangerousness. The belief that persons with mental illness are uniformly dangerous is an equally harmful myth. It provides policy makers with an ostensible justification to exercise control over persons with mental illness, even if they have not committed a violent offence. However, research demonstrates that the class of persons with most mental illnesses is no more dangerous than other populations, and that the vast majority of violence is committed by persons without mental illness. This article will show how this vulnerable population has been unconscionably treated. First, the gross violations of human rights that have occurred, and continue to occur, in 'old' psychiatric institutions will be examined. The deinstitutionalization movement, however, resulted in new places of confinement for this population, such as jails, prisons and homeless shelters. The second part of this paper will explore the new realities of criminal confinement of persons with mental illness. As we will see, incarceration of this vulnerable population in the criminal justice system has caused enormous suffering. If Dostoyevsky was correct that the 'degree of civilization... can be judged by entering its prisons', then by that measure, we are a deeply uncivilized society.

  11. Epidemiology of Foodborne Disease Outbreaks Caused by Clostridium perfringens, United States, 1998–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, Julian E.; Gould, L. Hannah; Mahon, Barbara E.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is estimated to be the second most common bacterial cause of foodborne illness in the United States, causing one million illnesses each year. Local, state, and territorial health departments voluntarily report C. perfringens outbreaks to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. Our analysis included outbreaks confirmed by laboratory evidence during 1998–2010. A food item was implicated if C. perfringens was isolated from food or based on epidemiologic evidence. Implicated foods were classified into one of 17 standard food commodities when possible. From 1998 to 2010, 289 confirmed outbreaks of C. perfringens illness were reported with 15,208 illnesses, 83 hospitalizations, and eight deaths. The number of outbreaks reported each year ranged from 16 to 31 with no apparent trend over time. The annual number of outbreak-associated illnesses ranged from 359 to 2,173, and the median outbreak size was 24 illnesses. Outbreaks occurred year round, with the largest number in November and December. Restaurants (43%) were the most common setting of food preparation. Other settings included catering facility (19%), private home (16%), prison or jail (11%), and other (10%). Among the 144 (50%) outbreaks attributed to a single food commodity, beef was the most common commodity (66 outbreaks, 46%), followed by poultry (43 outbreaks, 30%), and pork (23 outbreaks, 16%). Meat and poultry outbreaks accounted for 92% of outbreaks with an identified single food commodity. Outbreaks caused by C. perfringens occur regularly, are often large, and can cause substantial morbidity yet are preventable if contamination of raw meat and poultry products is prevented at the farm or slaughterhouse or, after contamination, if these products are properly handled and prepared, particularly in restaurants and catering facilities. PMID:23379281

  12. Epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks caused by Clostridium perfringens, United States, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, Julian E; Gould, L Hannah; Mahon, Barbara E

    2013-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens is estimated to be the second most common bacterial cause of foodborne illness in the United States, causing one million illnesses each year. Local, state, and territorial health departments voluntarily report C. perfringens outbreaks to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. Our analysis included outbreaks confirmed by laboratory evidence during 1998-2010. A food item was implicated if C. perfringens was isolated from food or based on epidemiologic evidence. Implicated foods were classified into one of 17 standard food commodities when possible. From 1998 to 2010, 289 confirmed outbreaks of C. perfringens illness were reported with 15,208 illnesses, 83 hospitalizations, and eight deaths. The number of outbreaks reported each year ranged from 16 to 31 with no apparent trend over time. The annual number of outbreak-associated illnesses ranged from 359 to 2,173, and the median outbreak size was 24 illnesses. Outbreaks occurred year round, with the largest number in November and December. Restaurants (43%) were the most common setting of food preparation. Other settings included catering facility (19%), private home (16%), prison or jail (11%), and other (10%). Among the 144 (50%) outbreaks attributed to a single food commodity, beef was the most common commodity (66 outbreaks, 46%), followed by poultry (43 outbreaks, 30%), and pork (23 outbreaks, 16%). Meat and poultry outbreaks accounted for 92% of outbreaks with an identified single food commodity. Outbreaks caused by C. perfringens occur regularly, are often large, and can cause substantial morbidity yet are preventable if contamination of raw meat and poultry products is prevented at the farm or slaughterhouse or, after contamination, if these products are properly handled and prepared, particularly in restaurants and catering facilities.

  13. Exercise and Life-Satisfactory-Fitness: Complementary Strategies in the Prevention and Rehabilitation of Illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Jennen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderate training of an endurance nature, but also other exercise activities, not only has a preventive effect on various illnesses and pre-illness states such as the metabolic syndrome and cancer, but is also effective in treating patients in the rehabilitation phase after illness, e.g. cardiovascular or cancer. Our investigation demonstrates that even low level physical activity has a very good preventive effect too, which is enhanced when it is accompanied by mental activity and psychological well-being. In total, we investigated 13 000 people on the basis of socio-economic panel polls with respect to life contentment, health status and leisure-time activities. Life contentment is positively linked to contentment with labor, which seems to be an essential aspect with regard to the increasing number of unemployed people in Europe. The second important factor is health-promoting activities during leisure time. Exercise, especially, has a significant influence on life satisfaction as a feeling of physical fitness feeling is regarded as synonymous with good health. The results underline the psycho-neuroimmunological network, which stabilizes our health and shows that different activities in older adults have a significant effect on the aging process and age-related illnesses. Besides the various activities that are important in this arena, namely muscle and mental mobility (‘brawn and brain’, a third component must be taken into consideration: life contentment in the form of a successful retrospective view and a positive outlook, embedded in a psychosocial family environment (‘brood’ and integrated in a stress-free biotope, where life does make sense. Alternative and complementary strategies should be considered in light of these three aspects when we think about additional anti-inflammatory strategies in preventing diseases or treating them and their relapses.

  14. Water- and foodborne viruses: current developments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the major advances made in preventive health care and food technology, water and foodborne transmission of human enteric viruses is a well-recognised widespread public health problem.1-3. Factors such as changing lifestyles and demographics, faster and more frequent travel, decreasing water supplies and ...

  15. Preventing heat illness in the anticipated hot climate of the Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakamu, Takeyasu; Wada, Koji; Smith, Derek R; Endo, Shota; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-09-19

    Amid the effects of global warming, Tokyo has become an increasingly hot city, especially during the summertime. To prepare for the upcoming 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics in Tokyo, all participants, including the athletes, staff, and spectators, will need to familiarize themselves with Tokyo's hot and humid summer conditions. This paper uses the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index, which estimates the risk of heat illness, to compare climate conditions of sports events in Tokyo with the conditions of the past three Summer Olympics (held in Rio de Janeiro, London, and Beijing) and to subsequently detail the need for establishing appropriate countermeasures. We compared WBGT results from the past three Summer Olympics with the same time periods in Tokyo during 2016. There was almost no time zone where a low risk of heat illness could be expected during the time frame of the upcoming 2020 Tokyo Olympics. We also found that Tokyo had a higher WBGT than any of those previous host cities and is poorly suited for outdoor sporting events. Combined efforts by the official organizers, government, various related organizations, and the participants will be necessary to deal with these challenging conditions and to allow athletes to perform their best, as well as to prevent heat illnesses among staff and spectators. The sporting committees, as well as the Olympic organizing committee, should consider WBGT measurements in determining the venues and timing of the events to better avoid heat illness and facilitate maximum athletic performance.

  16. Pharmacological Therapy for the Prevention and Treatment of Weakness After Critical Illness: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Stephen J; Newman, Richard; Brett, Stephen J; Griffith, David M

    2016-06-01

    ICU-acquired weakness is a common complication of critical illness and can have significant effects upon functional status and quality of life. As part of preliminary work to inform the design of a randomized trial of a complex intervention to improve recovery from critical illness, we sought to identify pharmacological interventions that may play a role in this area. We systematically reviewed the published literature relating to pharmacological intervention for the treatment and prevention of ICU-acquired weakness. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL+, Web of Science, and both U.S. and European trial registries up to July 2014 alongside reviews and reference lists from populations with no age or language restrictions. We included studies that reported a measure of muscle structure or physical function as an outcome measure. We estimated pooled odds ratios and 95% CI using data extracted from published articles or where available, original data provided by the authors. Assessment of bias was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. The current body of evidence does not support the use of any pharmacological agent in this setting, although maintaining euglycemia may reduce the prevalence of critical illness polyneuropathy. At present, no pharmacological intervention can be recommended to prevent or treat ICU-acquired weakness. Further research is required into this field to include more novel agents such as myostatin inhibitors. Challenges in the conduct of research in this area are highlighted.

  17. Intervention to Prevent Mental Ill-Health Among Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Michélsen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychological strain in working life is gaining ever more attention. Health care workers are often under extreme emotional stress, which can become so overwhelming that they show signs of mental ill-health. This project aimed to develop a model for sustainable psychological support within a hospital clinic to prevent mental ill-health among employees. Mental strains at work and mental ill-health among clinic employees were mapped out, after which interventions for psychological support were designed in collaboration with employees. The interventions were conducted over one year and evaluated. Throughout the process the clinic received continuous feedback. Both questionnaires and interviews were used. The results of identifying mental strains and conducting interventions showed that employees experienced mental strain at work and perceived a need for support. Intervention evaluations showed that the project provided support, new insights, and an increased acceptance for long-term prevention of mental strain. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies supported the results. The conclusion was that increased legitimacy for mental strain at work and continuous feedback between clinic management and employees, as well as organizational circumstances are important factors when developing long-term intervention programs with various forms of psychological support.

  18. Polypharmacy and Delirium in Critically Ill Older Adults: Recognition and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garpestad, Erik; Devlin, John W

    2017-05-01

    Among older adults, polypharmacy is a sequelae of admission to the intensive care unit and is associated with increased medication-associated adverse events, drug interactions, and health care costs. Delirium is prevalent in critically ill geriatric patients and medications remain an underappreciated modifiable risk for delirium in this setting. This article reviews the literature on polypharmacy and delirium, with a focus on highlighting the relationships between polypharmacy and delirium in critically ill, older adults. Discussed are clinician strategies on how to recognize and reduce medication-associated delirium and recommendations that help prevent polypharmacy when interventions to reduce the burden of delirium in this vulnerable population are being formulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A role for communities in primary prevention of chronic illness? Case studies in regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Judy; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Cargo, Margaret; Larkins, Sarah; Preston, Robyn

    2013-08-01

    In regional Australia "communities of place," defined as bounded geographic locations with a local society, undertake community-wide primary prevention programs. In helping to prevent chronic illness, communities provide valuable resources to the health system. To understand the role of community-health sector partnerships for primary prevention and the community contextual factors that affect them, we studied eight partnerships. We used an embedded multiple case study design and collected data through interviews, nonparticipant observation, and document analysis. These data were analyzed using a typology of community-health sector partnerships and community interaction theory to frame the key community contextual factors that affected partnerships. The dominant factor affecting all partnerships was the presence of a collective commitment that communities brought to making the community a better place through developing health. We call this a communitarian approach. Additional research to investigate factors influencing a communitarian approach and the role it plays in partnerships is required.

  20. The mental health benefits of regular physical activity, and its role in preventing future depressive illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert Stanton,1 Brenda Happell,1 Peter Reaburn2 1Institute for Health and Social Science Research, Centre for Mental Health Nursing Innovation and School of Nursing and Midwifery, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD, Australia; 2School of Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD, Australia Abstract: There is a large body of literature which examines the mental health benefits of physical activity. In general, studies report an inverse, dose dependent relationship between leisure-time physical activity participation, and mental health outcomes. Studies also show a positive association between maximal aerobic capacity and general well-being. More recent studies have confirmed the positive effects of physical activity participation on cognition, including the treatment and prevention of dementia. The current exercise prescription suggested for the treatment of depression is similar to that recommended to the general population for the development and maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness. There is also strong evidence from large population level studies that long term physical activity participation reduces the risk of future depressive illness. From the available evidence, it would appear that physical activity performed at a frequency, intensity, and duration which is substantially less than that required for the development and maintenance of cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in the general population, may afford significant benefits in reducing the risk of future depressive illness. This may be particularly encouraging for people with prior depressive illness, or at high risk of future depressive illness, since this vulnerable population already faces significant barriers to physical activity participation over and above those encountered by the general population. Keywords: exercise, major depression, depressive disorder, preventive medicine

  1. Risk and preventive factors for heat illness in radiation decontamination workers after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakamu, Takeyasu; Hidaka, Tomoo; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Jinnouchi, Takanobu; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Nakano, Shinichi; Koyama, Kikuo; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal factors related to heat illness in radiation decontamination workers and determine effective preventive measures. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 1,505 radiation decontamination workers. The questionnaire included age, sex, duration of decontamination work, previous occupation, education provided by employers regarding heat illness, preventive action against heat illness, and subjective symptoms of heat illness during work. We included 528 men, who replied and answered all questions, in the statistical analysis. Subjective symptoms of heat illness were categorized as "no symptoms", "Grade I" and "Grade II" according to severity. A multiple linear regression model was used to determine the factors associated with the severity of heat illness. The mean age of the subjects was 47.6 years old (standard deviation: 13.4). Of the 528 workers, 316 (59.8%) experienced heat illness symptoms (213 at Grade I and 103 at Grade II). The results of the stepwise selection revealed that age, outdoor manual labor, adequate sleep, use of a cool vest, and salt intake were selected as preventive factors, whereas living in a company dormitory or temporary housing, wearing light clothing, and consuming breakfast were selected as risk factors for heat illness. Both working conditions and living environment are associated with heat illness in radiation decontamination workers. Type of housing and sleep are also strongly related to heat illness during work. Employers should consider not only the working conditions of the employee but also the employee's daily living conditions, in order to prevent heat illness.

  2. Monitoring stress and recovery: new insights for the prevention of injuries and illnesses in elite youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Michel S; Visscher, Chris; Arends, Suzanne; Zwerver, Johannes; Post, Wendy J; Lemmink, Koen Apm

    2010-09-01

    Elite youth soccer players have a relatively high risk for injuries and illnesses due to increased physical and psychosocial stress. The aim of this study is to investigate how measures to monitor stress and recovery, and its analysis, provide useful information for the prevention of injuries and illnesses in elite youth soccer players. 53 elite soccer players between 15 and 18 years of age participated in this study. To determine physical stress, soccer players registered training and match duration and session rating of perceived exertion for two competitive seasons by means of daily training logs. The Dutch version of the Recovery Stress Questionnaire for athletes (RESTQ-Sport) was administered monthly to assess the psychosocial stress-recovery state of players. The medical staff collected injury and illness data using the standardised Fédération Internationale de Football Association registration system. ORs and 95% CIs were calculated for injuries and illnesses using multinomial regression analyses. The independent measures were stress and recovery. During the study period, 320 injuries and 82 illnesses occurred. Multinomial regression demonstrated that physical stress was related to both injury and illness (range OR 1.01 to 2.59). Psychosocial stress and recovery were related the occurrence of illness (range OR 0.56 to 2.27). Injuries are related to physical stress. Physical stress and psychosocial stress and recovery are important in relation to illness. Individual monitoring of stress and recovery may provide useful information to prevent soccer players from injuries and illnesses.

  3. WHO Initiative to Estimate the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelaar, Arie H.; Cawthorne, Amy; Angulo, Fred

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundThe public health impact of foodborne diseases globally is unknown. The WHO Initiative to Estimate the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases was launched out of the need to fill this data gap. It is anticipated that this effort will enable policy makers and other stakeholders to set...... appropriate, evidence-informed priorities in the area of food safety. MethodsThe Initiative aims to provide estimates on the global burden of foodborne diseases by age, sex, and region; strengthen country capacity for conducting burden of foodborne disease assessments in parallel with food safety policy...... analyses; increase awareness and commitment among Member States for the implementation of food safety policy and standards; and encourage countries to use burden of foodborne disease estimates for cost-effectiveness analyses of prevention, intervention, and control measures. To estimate the global burden...

  4. Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-17

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in noroviruses, discusses foodborne norovirus outbreaks.  Created: 9/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/17/2012.

  5. Food Safety and Foodborne Disease in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Scott

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been a growing recognition of the involvement of the home in several public health and hygiene issues. Perhaps the best understood of these issues is the role of the home in the transmission and acquisition of foodborne disease. The incidence of foodborne disease is increasing globally. Although foodborne disease data collection systems often miss the mass of home-based outbreaks of sporadic infection, it is now accepted that many cases of foodborne illness occur as a result of improper food handling and preparation by consumers in their own kitchens. Some of the most compelling evidence has come from the international data on Salmonella species and Campylobacter species infections.

  6. Foodborne outbreaks in Canada linked to produce: 2001 through 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, G K; MacDonald, D; Landry, L; Farber, J M

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables have been increasing in occurrence worldwide. Canada has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of fresh fruits and vegetables in the world. In this article, we review the foodborne disease outbreaks linked to produce consumption in Canada from 2001 through 2009. The 27 produce-related outbreaks included an estimated 1,549 cases of illness. Bacterial infection outbreaks represented 66% of the total. Among these, Salmonella was the most frequent agent (50% of outbreaks) followed by Escherichia coli (33%) and Shigella (17%). Cyclospora cayetanensis was the only parasite detected and was associated with seven outbreaks. Among the foodborne viruses, only hepatitis A was implicated in two outbreaks. The food vehicles most commonly implicated in outbreaks were leafy greens and herbs (26% of outbreaks), followed by seed sprouts (11%). Contamination sources and issues related to the future control of fresh produce-related foodborne disease outbreaks also are discussed.

  7. Raw grated beetroot linked to several outbreaks of sudden-onset gastrointestinal illness, Finland 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacks, A; Toikkanen, S; Pihlajasaari, A; Johansson, T; Hakkinen, M; Hemminki, K; Hokkanen, P; Käpyaho, A; Kärnä, A; Valkola, K; Niskanen, T; Takkinen, J; Kuusi, M; Rimhanen-Finne, R

    2013-08-01

    In 2010, 7/44 (16%) reported foodborne outbreaks in Finland were linked with raw beetroot consumption. We reviewed data from the national outbreak registry in order to hypothesize the aetiology of illness and to prevent further outbreaks. In the seven outbreaks, 124 cases among 623 respondents were identified. Consumption of raw beetroot was strongly associated with gastrointestinal illness (relative risk 8∙99, 95% confidence interval 6∙06-13∙35). The illness was characterized by sudden onset of gastrointestinal symptoms; the median incubation time was 40 min and duration of illness 5 h. No common foodborne pathogens or toxins were found in either clinical or beetroot samples, but all tested beetroot samples were of poor quality according to total bacterial counts. Beta-haemolytic Pseudomonas fluorescens was detected in several beetroot samples but its effect on human health is unknown. No outbreaks were reported after the Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira advised against serving raw beetroot in institutional canteens.

  8. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, Arie H; Kirk, Martyn D; Torgerson, Paul R; Gibb, Herman J; Hald, Tine; Lake, Robin J; Praet, Nicolas; Bellinger, David C; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Gargouri, Neyla; Speybroeck, Niko; Cawthorne, Amy; Mathers, Colin; Stein, Claudia; Angulo, Frederick J; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2015-01-01

    Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Foodborne

  9. Implementing exertional heat illness prevention strategies in US high school football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Comstock, R Dawn; Casa, Douglas J

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 6500 high school football athletes are treated annually for exertional heat illness (EHI). In 2009, the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA)-led Inter-Association Task Force (NATA-IATF) released preseason heat acclimatization guidelines to help athletes become accustomed to environmental factors contributing to EHI. This study examines compliance with NATA-IATF guidelines and related EHI prevention strategies. The study used a cross-sectional survey completed by 1142 certified athletic trainers (AT), which captured compliance with 17 NATA-IATF guidelines and EHI prevention strategies in high school football during the 2011 preseason. On average, AT reported football programs complying with 10.4 NATA-IATF guidelines (SD = 3.2); 29 AT (2.5%) reported compliance with all 17. Guidelines with the lowest compliance were as follows: "Single-practice days consisted of practice no more than three hours in length" (39.7%); and "During days 3-5 of acclimatization, only helmets and shoulder pads should be worn" (39.0%). An average of 7.6 EHI prevention strategies (SD = 2.5) were used. Common EHI prevention strategies were as follows: having ice bags/cooler available (98.5%) and having a policy with written instructions for initiating emergency medical service response (87.8%). Programs in states with mandated guidelines had higher levels of compliance with guidelines and greater prevalence of EHI prevention strategies. A low proportion of surveyed high school football programs fully complied with all 17 NATA-IATF guidelines. However, many EHI prevention strategies were voluntarily implemented. State-level mandated EHI prevention guidelines may increase compliance with recognized best practices recommendations. Ongoing longitudinal monitoring of compliance is also recommended.

  10. Efficacy of a diazepam suppository at preventing febrile seizure recurrence during a single febrile illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Yu; Okumura, Akihisa; Kondo, Taiki; Magota, Miyuki; Kawabe, Shinji; Kando, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Hideaki; Natsume, Jun; Negoro, Tamiko; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi

    2009-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of diazepam suppositories at preventing febrile seizure recurrence during a single febrile illness to determine how to treat children with a febrile seizure on presentation at the hospital. We studied 203 children with febrile seizures from December 2004 through March 2006. On admission between December 2004 and May 2005, a diazepam suppository was administered to the patients. Patients seen between June 2005 and March 2006 were not treated with antiepileptic drugs on admission. We saw a significant difference in the rate of recurrence of febrile seizures between children treated with diazepam and those who were not. Recurrences were observed in 2 (2.1%) of 95 children treated with diazepam and in 16 (14.8%) of 108 untreated children. For the 108 untreated patients, the median age was 22.8 months in those with recurrences and 30.6 months in those without, confirming that a younger age was related to a recurrence. A diazepam suppository after a febrile seizure will reduce the incidence of recurrent febrile seizures during the same febrile illness. However, a diazepam suppository after a febrile seizure should be used after carefully considering the benefits and potential adverse effects.

  11. Mandatory physical exercise for the prevention of mental illness in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Bitonte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Medical students experience higher rates of mental illness than the general population. With competition rising for success in medical school, and residency, increasing incidence of distress are leading this population to experience higher rates of thoughts of dropping out of school, and even suicide. Since many stigmas deter medical students from receiving mental health counseling, such as the perceived inability to handle the stresses of medical school, and the potential lack of competitiveness for residencies if reported, prevention of mental illness may be a better course to take in reducing prevalence in this population. Regular exercise has demonstrated a positive effect on not only promoting physical health, but also mental health. Exercise encourages a healthy mood, positive self esteem, and better cognition, while decreasing the chances of depression, anxiety, and burnout. Implementing exercise time into medical school curriculums, just like the basic sciences, albeit for less time in the day, could provide a feasible way to ensure that all students are taking time to partake in this important activity for their well being. Though medical schools are rigid with attempts to make changes in their curriculum, thirty minutes a day, three to five times a week of exercise of the students’ choice not only is more cost effective than counseling, but it also reduces the chances that they will experience burnout, which if left untreated could transcend into a compromised training experience.

  12. Effects of preventive family service coordination for parents with mental illnesses and their children, a RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Henny J; Janssens, Jan M A M; Hoencamp, Erik; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Hosman, Clemens M H

    2015-06-01

    Children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) are at increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders, especially when parenting is compromised by multiple risk factors. Due to fragmented services, these families often do not get the support they need. Can coordination between services, as developed in the Preventive Basic Care Management (PBCM) program, improve parenting and prevent child behavioral problems? This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) compared the effectiveness of PBCM with a control condition. Ninety-nine outpatients of a community mental health center were randomized to intervention or control. Primary outcomes included parenting quality (assessed by the HOME instrument), parenting skills (parenting skills subscale of FFQ), and parenting stress (PDH). Secondary outcomes are child behavioral problems (SDQ). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after 9 and 18 months. Effects were analyzed by Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance. Most families were single-parent families belonging to ethnic minorities. The results of the first RCT on effects of PBCM suggest that this intervention is feasible and has a positive effect on parenting skills. There was no evidence for effects on the quality of parenting and parenting stress, nor preventive effects on child behavioral problems. Replication studies in other sites, with more power, including monitoring of the implementation quality and studying a broader palette of child outcomes are needed to confirm the positive effects of PBCM. Long-term prospective studies are needed to investigate if improved parenting skills lead to positive effects in the children in the long run. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. WHO Initiative to Estimate the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelaar, Arie H.; Cawthorne, Amy; Angulo, Fred

    2013-01-01

    appropriate, evidence-informed priorities in the area of food safety. MethodsThe Initiative aims to provide estimates on the global burden of foodborne diseases by age, sex, and region; strengthen country capacity for conducting burden of foodborne disease assessments in parallel with food safety policy...... analyses; increase awareness and commitment among Member States for the implementation of food safety policy and standards; and encourage countries to use burden of foodborne disease estimates for cost-effectiveness analyses of prevention, intervention, and control measures. To estimate the global burden...... (expressed in disability-adjusted life-years), the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) focused on the contamination of food with enteric and parasitic pathogens, chemicals, and toxins. FindingsStudy findings will provide the technical background and challenges of assessing the burden...

  14. Monitoring stress and recovery : New insights for the prevention of injuries and illnesses in elite youth soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.S.; Visscher, C.; Arends, S.; Zwerver, Hans; Post, Wendy; Lemmink, K.A.

    Objective Elite youth soccer players have a relatively high risk for injuries and illnesses due to increased physical and psychosocial stress. The aim of this study is to investigate how measures to monitor stress and recovery, and its analysis, provide useful information for the prevention of

  15. Foodborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Organic Foods in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R Reid; Zakhour, Christine M; Gould, L Hannah

    2016-11-01

    Consumer demand for organically produced foods is increasing in the United States as well as globally. Consumer perception often credits organic foods as being safer than conventionally produced foods, although organic standards do not directly address safety issues such as microbial or chemical hazards. We reviewed outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System where the implicated food was reported to be organic. Information collected for each outbreak included the year, state, number of illnesses, pathogen, and implicated food. We identified 18 outbreaks caused by organic foods from 1992 to 2014, resulting in 779 illnesses, 258 hospitalizations, and 3 deaths; 56% of outbreaks occurred from 2010 to 2014. Nine outbreaks occurred in a single state, and nine outbreaks were multistate. Salmonella sp. (44% of outbreaks) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (33%) were the most commonly occurring pathogens. Eight of the outbreaks were attributed to produce items, four to unpasteurized dairy products, two to eggs, two to nut and seed products, and two to multi-ingredient foods. Fifteen (83%) outbreaks were associated with foods that were definitely or likely U.S. Department of Agriculture certified. More foodborne outbreaks associated with organic foods in the United States have been reported in recent years, in parallel with increases in organic food production and consumption. We are unable to assess risk of outbreaks due to organic foods compared with conventional foods because foodborne outbreak surveillance does not systematically collect food production method. Food safety requires focused attention by consumers, regardless of whether foods are produced organically or conventionally. Consumers should be aware of the risk of milk and produce consumed raw, including organic.

  16. An Outbreak of Foodborne Botulism in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona R Loutfy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a rare paralytic illness resulting from a potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in Canada is predominately due to C botulinum type E and affects mainly the First Nations and Inuit populations. The most recent outbreak of botulism in Ontario was in Ottawa in 1991 and was caused by C botulinum type A. We report an outbreak of foodborne type B botulism in Ontario, which implicated home-canned tomatoes. The outbreak was characterized by mild symptoms in two cases and moderately severe illness in one case. The investigation shows the importance of considering the diagnosis of botulism in patients presenting with cranial nerve and autonomic dysfunction, especially when combined with gastrointestinal complaints; it also highlights the importance of proper home canning technique.

  17. Risk Prediction Models in Psychiatry: Toward a New Frontier for the Prevention of Mental Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Francesco; Attademo, Luigi; Cleary, Sean D; Luther, Charles; Shim, Ruth S; Quartesan, Roberto; Compton, Michael T

    2017-05-01

    We conducted a systematic, qualitative review of risk prediction models designed and tested for depression, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychotic disorders. Our aim was to understand the current state of research on risk prediction models for these 5 disorders and thus future directions as our field moves toward embracing prediction and prevention. Systematic searches of the entire MEDLINE electronic database were conducted independently by 2 of the authors (from 1960 through 2013) in July 2014 using defined search criteria. Search terms included risk prediction, predictive model, or prediction model combined with depression, bipolar, manic depressive, generalized anxiety, posttraumatic, PTSD, schizophrenia, or psychosis. We identified 268 articles based on the search terms and 3 criteria: published in English, provided empirical data (as opposed to review articles), and presented results pertaining to developing or validating a risk prediction model in which the outcome was the diagnosis of 1 of the 5 aforementioned mental illnesses. We selected 43 original research reports as a final set of articles to be qualitatively reviewed. The 2 independent reviewers abstracted 3 types of data (sample characteristics, variables included in the model, and reported model statistics) and reached consensus regarding any discrepant abstracted information. Twelve reports described models developed for prediction of major depressive disorder, 1 for bipolar disorder, 2 for generalized anxiety disorder, 4 for posttraumatic stress disorder, and 24 for psychotic disorders. Most studies reported on sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the (receiver operating characteristic) curve. Recent studies demonstrate the feasibility of developing risk prediction models for psychiatric disorders (especially psychotic disorders). The field must now advance by (1) conducting more large

  18. Melatonin and melatonin agonists to prevent and treat delirium in critical illness: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Foster

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium is a syndrome characterized by acute fluctuations and alterations in attention and arousal. Critically ill patients are at particularly high risk, and those that develop delirium are more likely to experience poor clinical outcomes such as prolonged duration of ICU and hospital length of stay, and increased mortality. Melatonin and melatonin agonists (MMA have the potential to decrease the incidence and severity of delirium through their hypnotic and sedative-sparing effects, thus improving health-related outcomes. The objective of this review is to synthesize the available evidence pertaining to the efficacy and safety of MMA for the prevention and treatment of ICU delirium. Methods We will search Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, and CINAHL to identify studies evaluating MMA in critically ill populations. We will also search http://apps.who.int/trialsearch for ongoing and unpublished studies and PROSPERO for registered reviews. We will not impose restrictions on language, date, or journal of publication. Authors will independently screen for eligible studies using pre-defined criteria; data extraction from eligible studies will be performed in duplicate. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Scale and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale will be used to assess the risk of bias and quality of randomized and non-randomized studies, respectively. Our primary outcome of interest is delirium incidence, and secondary outcomes include duration of delirium, number of delirium- and coma-free days, use of physical and chemical (e.g., antipsychotics or benzodiazepines restraints, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU and hospital length of stay, mortality, long-term neurocognitive outcomes, hospital discharge disposition, and adverse events. We will use Review Manager (RevMan to pool effect estimates from included studies. We will present results as relative risks with

  19. In vitro effects of pomegranate juice and pomegranate polyphenols on foodborne viral surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; Sangster, Mark Y; D'Souza, Doris H

    2010-12-01

    Pomegranate juice (PJ) has gained popularity because of its associated antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its effects against epidemiologically significant foodborne viruses have not been investigated. In the absence of culturable human noroviruses, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), murine norovirus (MNV-1), and MS2 (ssRNA) bacteriophage were used as foodborne viral surrogates. The aim of this research was to study the effects of PJ and pomegranate polyphenols (PP) on foodborne viral infectivity. Viruses at high (∼ 7 log(10) PFU/mL) or low (∼ 5 log(10) PFU/mL) titers were mixed with equal volumes of PJ, 8, 16, and 32 mg/mL of PP, or water (control) and incubated for 1 h at room temperature. Viral infectivity after treatments was evaluated using standardized plaque assays. PJ decreased the titer of FCV-F9, MNV-1, and MS2 by 2.56, 1.32, and 0.32 log(10) PFU/mL, respectively, for low titers and 1.20, 0.06, and 0.63 log(10) PFU/mL, respectively, for high titers. Interestingly, FCV-F9 was undetectable after exposure to the three tested PP solutions using both low and high titers. MNV-1 at low initial titers was reduced by 1.30, 2.11, and 3.61 log(10) PFU/mL and at high initial titers by 1.56, 1.48, and 1.54 log(10) PFU/mL with 4, 8, and 16 mg/mL of PP treatment, respectively. MS2 at low initial titers was reduced by 0.41, 0.45, and 0.93 log(10) PFU/mL and at high initial titers by 0.32, 0.41, and 0.72 log(10) PFU/mL after 4, 8, and 16 mg/mL of PP treatment, respectively. PJ and PP resulted in titer reductions of foodborne virus surrogates after 1 h exposure, showing promise for use in hurdle technologies and/or for therapeutic or preventive use. To suggest the use of PJ and PP as natural remedies for foodborne viral illness prevention, their mechanism of action against viral infectivity needs to be further investigated.

  20. Assessment of preemptive treatment to prevent severe candidiasis in critically ill surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piarroux, Renaud; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Balvay, Patrick; Tran, Véronique; Blasco, Gilles; Millon, Laurence; Boillot, Annie

    2004-12-01

    To assess the efficacy of a preemptive antifungal therapy in preventing proven candidiasis in critically ill surgical patients. Before/after intervention study, with 2-yr prospective and 2-yr historical control cohorts. Surgical intensive care unit (SICU) in a university-affiliated hospital. Nine hundred and thirty-three patients, 478 in the prospective group and 455 in the control group, with SICU stay > or =5 days. During the prospective period, systematic mycological screening was performed on all patients admitted to the SICU, immediately at admittance and then weekly until discharge. A corrected colonization index was used to assess intensity of Candida mucosal colonization. Patients with corrected colonization index > or =0.4 received early preemptive antifungal therapy (fluconazole intravenously: loading dose 800 mg, then 400 mg/day for 2 wks). End points of this study were the frequency of proven candidiasis, especially SICU-acquired candidiasis. During the retrospective period, 32 patients of 455 (7%) presented with proven candidiasis: 22 (4.8%) were imported and 10 (2.2%) were SICU-acquired cases. During the prospective period, 96 patients with corrected colonization index > or =0.4 of 478 received preemptive antifungal treatment and only 18 cases (3.8%) of proven candidiasis were diagnosed; all were imported infections. Candida infections occurred more frequently in the control cohort (7% vs. 3.8%; p = .03). Incidence of SICU-acquired proven candidiasis significantly decreased from 2.2% to 0% (p test). Incidence of proven imported candidiasis remained unchanged (4.8% vs. 3.8%; p = .42). No emergence of azole-resistant Candida species (especially Candida glabrata, Candida krusei) was noted during the prospective period. Targeted preemptive strategy may efficiently prevent acquisition of proven candidiasis in SICU patients. Further studies are being performed to assess cost-effectiveness of this strategy and its impact on selection of azole

  1. Case management helps prevent criminal justice recidivism for people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin; Zahnd, Elaine

    2017-09-11

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss how case management can decrease recidivism for people with serious mental illness (SMI) because people with SMI are at high risk for incarceration and recidivism. Design/methodology/approach Examples of successful case management models for formerly incarcerated individuals with SMI found through a secondary analysis of qualitative data and an analysis of the literature are presented. Findings Currently, no international, national, or statewide guidelines exist to ensure that formerly incarcerated individuals with SMI receive case management upon community reentry despite evidence that such services can prevent further criminal justice involvement. Recommendations include establishment of and evaluation of best practices for case management. In addition, the authors recommend additional funding for case management with the goal of greatly increasing the number of individuals with SMI leaving the criminal justice system in their ability to access adequate case management. Originality/value Providing effective case management tailored to the needs of formerly incarcerated people with SMI improves their quality of life and reduces their involvement in the criminal justice system with clear positive outcomes for public safety and public health.

  2. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 22 Foodborne Bacterial, Protozoal, and Viral Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn D Kirk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases are important worldwide, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. To our knowledge, we present the first global and regional estimates of the disease burden of the most important foodborne bacterial, protozoal, and viral diseases.We synthesized data on the number of foodborne illnesses, sequelae, deaths, and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs, for all diseases with sufficient data to support global and regional estimates, by age and region. The data sources included varied by pathogen and included systematic reviews, cohort studies, surveillance studies and other burden of disease assessments. We sought relevant data circa 2010, and included sources from 1990-2012. The number of studies per pathogen ranged from as few as 5 studies for bacterial intoxications through to 494 studies for diarrheal pathogens. To estimate mortality for Mycobacterium bovis infections and morbidity and mortality for invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica infections, we excluded cases attributed to HIV infection. We excluded stillbirths in our estimates. We estimate that the 22 diseases included in our study resulted in two billion (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1.5-2.9 billion cases, over one million (95% UI 0.89-1.4 million deaths, and 78.7 million (95% UI 65.0-97.7 million DALYs in 2010. To estimate the burden due to contaminated food, we then applied proportions of infections that were estimated to be foodborne from a global expert elicitation. Waterborne transmission of disease was not included. We estimate that 29% (95% UI 23-36% of cases caused by diseases in our study, or 582 million (95% UI 401-922 million, were transmitted by contaminated food, resulting in 25.2 million (95% UI 17.5-37.0 million DALYs. Norovirus was the leading cause of foodborne illness causing 125 million (95% UI 70-251 million cases, while Campylobacter spp. caused 96 million (95% UI 52-177 million foodborne illnesses. Of all foodborne diseases, diarrheal

  3. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 22 Foodborne Bacterial, Protozoal, and Viral Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Martyn D; Pires, Sara M; Black, Robert E; Caipo, Marisa; Crump, John A; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Döpfer, Dörte; Fazil, Aamir; Fischer-Walker, Christa L; Hald, Tine; Hall, Aron J; Keddy, Karen H; Lake, Robin J; Lanata, Claudio F; Torgerson, Paul R; Havelaar, Arie H; Angulo, Frederick J

    2015-12-01

    Foodborne diseases are important worldwide, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. To our knowledge, we present the first global and regional estimates of the disease burden of the most important foodborne bacterial, protozoal, and viral diseases. We synthesized data on the number of foodborne illnesses, sequelae, deaths, and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), for all diseases with sufficient data to support global and regional estimates, by age and region. The data sources included varied by pathogen and included systematic reviews, cohort studies, surveillance studies and other burden of disease assessments. We sought relevant data circa 2010, and included sources from 1990-2012. The number of studies per pathogen ranged from as few as 5 studies for bacterial intoxications through to 494 studies for diarrheal pathogens. To estimate mortality for Mycobacterium bovis infections and morbidity and mortality for invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica infections, we excluded cases attributed to HIV infection. We excluded stillbirths in our estimates. We estimate that the 22 diseases included in our study resulted in two billion (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1.5-2.9 billion) cases, over one million (95% UI 0.89-1.4 million) deaths, and 78.7 million (95% UI 65.0-97.7 million) DALYs in 2010. To estimate the burden due to contaminated food, we then applied proportions of infections that were estimated to be foodborne from a global expert elicitation. Waterborne transmission of disease was not included. We estimate that 29% (95% UI 23-36%) of cases caused by diseases in our study, or 582 million (95% UI 401-922 million), were transmitted by contaminated food, resulting in 25.2 million (95% UI 17.5-37.0 million) DALYs. Norovirus was the leading cause of foodborne illness causing 125 million (95% UI 70-251 million) cases, while Campylobacter spp. caused 96 million (95% UI 52-177 million) foodborne illnesses. Of all foodborne diseases, diarrheal and

  4. Use of Extract of Citrus sinensis as an antimicrobial agent for foodborne zoonotic pathogens and spoilage bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne pathogens remain global health problems despite concerted efforts to control the transmission of these microorganisms through food. The resurgence of drug resistant bacteria has renewed interest in developing and testing new sources of antimicrobial agents to control foodborne illness. Thi...

  5. Regulation and its role in the prevention of building-associated illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besch, E L

    1989-01-01

    Many groups have as their common goal the maintenance of acceptable indoor air quality, which protects occupants from adverse health effects and discomfort, but no one group possesses the interest or expertise to deal with all of the IAQ issues. Nonetheless, conclusions can be made regarding available alternatives to mitigate indoor air quality problems, including building-associated illness. It has been suggested that congressional action is needed in three areas related to BAI and IAQ: Recognition that controlling outdoor air only--even if "health based"--will not result in substantial improvement of public health; Definition of responsibilities for achieving healthful indoor environments; and Resolution of jurisdictional disputes between various federal agencies. Through their studies of buildings whose occupants complained of building-associated illness, NIOSH and others have concluded that inadequate supply and distribution of outdoor air to indoor spaces are the most common causes of SBS. Nonetheless, there are no reports of follow-up studies which confirm that the recommended ventilation upgrades actually solved the IAQ problems. Other reports indicate that maintenance, energy management, and air distribution are as important as ventilation rate. Corrective action, therefore, should include these issues. Systematic research directed toward providing cost-effective and innovative solutions should be the driving force. Rather than regulation, governments should assist in funding the necessary research, providing educational, technical and legal assistance, and developing policy options directed at reducing indoor air pollutants. In those cases where the specific causes of IAQ problems can be identified, remedial actions should be immediately implemented utilizing available technology. It has been suggested that "sick buildings" resulted from too much emphasis on efficency and safety and not enough on occupant health and well-being. Because health has been

  6. Drivers of uncertainty in estimates of foodborne gastroenteritis incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Kathryn; Ford, Laura; Kirk, Martyn D

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of the incidence of foodborne illness are increasingly used at national and international levels to quantify the burden of disease and advocate for improvements in food safety. The calculation of such estimates involves multiple datasets and several disease multipliers, applied to dozens of pathogens. Unsurprisingly, this process often produces wide interval estimates. Using a model of foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia, we calculate the contribution of both data and multipliers to the width of the interval. We then compare pathogen-specific estimates of the proportion of gastroenteritis that is foodborne from national-level studies conducted in Canada, Greece, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Overall, we estimate that 74% (range 63-92%) of the interval width for foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia is a result of uncertainty in the proportion of gastroenteritis that is due to contaminated food. Across national studies, we find considerable variability in point estimates and the width of interval estimates for the foodborne proportion for relatively common pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and norovirus. While some uncertainty in estimates of gastroenteritis incidence is inevitable, an understanding of the drivers of this uncertainty can help to focus further research. In particular, this work highlights the value of studies quantifying the routes of transmission for common pathogens.

  7. [The efficacy of intermittent pneumatic compression in the prevention of venous thromboembolism in medical critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuan; Zeng, Wei; Zhou, Hong; Zheng, Bi-xia; Cheng, Jin-chuan; Li, Xiao-yu; Jiang, Yuan-pu; Jiang, Li-dong; Li, Xiao-jin

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) in the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in medical critically ill patients. A prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted. One hundred and sixty-two medical critically ill patients were randomly assigned to IPC group and control group by random number table after admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) from June 2008 to June 2010. Patients under anticoagulation medicine therapy were excluded. Patients in the IPC group were treated with IPC to prevent VTE after ICU admission. No measures were taken to prevent VTE in the control group. The rate of VTE [deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE)], duration of mechanical ventilation(MV), the length of stay in ICU, rate of non-sudden cardiac death and ICU mortality rate and related side-effects of IPC were compared during the subsequent 28 days between two groups. Compared with control group, IPC group was shown to have a significantly lower rate of DVT [3.80%(3/79) vs. 19.28%(16/83), P0.05). No related side-effects were found in the IPC group. IPC can prevent VTE, and lower the rate of non-sudden cardiac death, and it is safe in medical critically ill patients.

  8. Determination of future prevention strategies in elite track and field: analysis of Daegu 2011 IAAF Championships injuries and illnesses surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Edouard, Pascal; Fischetto, Giuseppe; Adams, Bob; Depiesse, Frédéric; Mountjoy, Margo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses during international Athletics Championships, by improving the medical surveillance coverage, in order to determine future prevention strategies. Design Prospective recording of newly occurred injuries and illnesses. Setting 13th International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics 2011 in Daegu, Korea. Participants National team and Local Organising Committee physicians; and 1851 registered athletes. Main outcome measures Incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses. Results 82% of athletes were covered by medical teams participating with a response rate of 94%. A total of 249 injuries were reported, representing an incidence of 134.5 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, and 119 (48%) resulted in time loss from sport. A total of 185 injuries affected the lower limb (74%). Hamstring strain was the main diagnosis and 67% resulted in absence from sport. Overuse (n=148; 59%) was the predominant cause. A total of 126 illnesses were reported, signifying an incidence of 68.1 per 1000 registered athletes. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common reported diagnosis (18%), followed by exercise-induced dehydration (12%), and gastroenteritis/diarrhoea (10%). The highest incidences of injuries were found in combined events and middle and long-distance events, and of illness in race walking events. Conclusion During elite Athletics World Championships, 135 injuries, 60 time-loss injuries and 68 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes were reported. Higher risks of injuries were found in combined events and long-distance runs. Preventive interventions should focus on overuse injuries and hamstring strains, decreasing the risk of transmission of infectious diseases, appropriate event scheduling and heat acclimatisation. PMID:22522588

  9. Determination of future prevention strategies in elite track and field: analysis of Daegu 2011 IAAF Championships injuries and illnesses surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Edouard, Pascal; Fischetto, Giuseppe; Adams, Bob; Depiesse, Frédéric; Mountjoy, Margo

    2012-06-01

    To determine the incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses during international Athletics Championships, by improving the medical surveillance coverage, in order to determine future prevention strategies. Prospective recording of newly occurred injuries and illnesses. 13th International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics 2011 in Daegu, Korea. National team and Local Organising Committee physicians; and 1851 registered athletes. Incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses. 82% of athletes were covered by medical teams participating with a response rate of 94%. A total of 249 injuries were reported, representing an incidence of 134.5 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, and 119 (48%) resulted in time loss from sport. A total of 185 injuries affected the lower limb (74%). Hamstring strain was the main diagnosis and 67% resulted in absence from sport. Overuse (n=148; 59%) was the predominant cause. A total of 126 illnesses were reported, signifying an incidence of 68.1 per 1000 registered athletes. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common reported diagnosis (18%), followed by exercise-induced dehydration (12%), and gastroenteritis/diarrhoea (10%). The highest incidences of injuries were found in combined events and middle and long-distance events, and of illness in race walking events. During elite Athletics World Championships, 135 injuries, 60 time-loss injuries and 68 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes were reported. Higher risks of injuries were found in combined events and long-distance runs. Preventive interventions should focus on overuse injuries and hamstring strains, decreasing the risk of transmission of infectious diseases, appropriate event scheduling and heat acclimatisation.

  10. Illness representation on H1N1 influenza and preventive behaviors in the Hong Kong general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Lau, Joseph T F

    2015-12-01

    This study examined illness representations of new influenza Human Swine Influenza A (H1N1) and association with H1N1 preventive behaviors among 300 Chinese adults using a population-based randomized telephone survey. Results showed that relatively few participants thought H1N1 would have serious consequences (12%-15.7%) and few showed negative emotional responses toward H1N1 (9%-24.7%). The majority of the participants thought H1N1 could be controlled by treatment (70.4%-72.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that treatment control (odds ratio = 1.78) and psychological attribution (odds ratio = .75) were associated with intention to take up influenza vaccination. Emotional representations were associated with lower likelihood of wearing face mask (odds ratio = .77) and hand washing (odds ratio = .67). Results confirm that illness representation variables are associated with H1N1 preventive behaviors. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Foodborne (1973-2013) and Waterborne (1971-2013) Disease Outbreaks - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey-Mattia, Daniel; Roberts, Virginia A; Vieira, Antonio; Fullerton, Kathleen E

    2016-10-14

    CDC collects data on foodborne and waterborne disease outbreaks reported by all U.S. states and territories through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FDOSS) (http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/fdoss/surveillance/index.html) and the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance), respectively. These two systems are the primary source of national data describing the number of reported outbreaks; outbreak-associated illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths; etiologic agents; water source or implicated foods; settings of exposure; and other factors associated with recognized foodborne and waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States.

  12. Oral hygiene care for critically ill patients to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Zongdao; Xie, Huixu; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Q.; Wu, Yan; Chen, E.; Ng, Linda; Worthington, Helen V.; Needleman, Ian; Furness, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia developing in persons who have received mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. VAP is a potentially serious complication in these patients who are already critically ill. Oral hygiene care (OHC), using either a mouthrinse, gel, toothbrush, or combination, together with aspiration of secretions may reduce the risk of VAP in these patients. To assess the effects of OHC on the incidence of VAP in critically ill patients receivi...

  13. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, Metabolism, Pathogenesis and Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Sharon V. R.; Harvey, Roger B.; Hume, Michael E.; Phillips, Timothy D.; Anderson, Robin C.; Nisbet, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illnesses worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them a serious public health threat. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered to be the most important enteropathogens of this genus and their ability to colonize and survive in a wide variety of animal species and habitats make them extremely difficult to control. This article reviews the historical and emerging importance of this bacterial group and addresses aspects of the human infections they cause, their metabolism and pathogenesis, and their natural reservoirs in order to address the need for appropriate food safety regulations and interventions. PMID:24287853

  14. Oral hygiene care for critically ill patients to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fang; Xie, Huixu; Worthington, Helen V; Furness, Susan; Zhang, Qi; Li, Chunjie

    2016-10-25

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia developing in people who have received mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. VAP is a potentially serious complication in these patients who are already critically ill. Oral hygiene care (OHC), using either a mouthrinse, gel, toothbrush, or combination, together with aspiration of secretions, may reduce the risk of VAP in these patients. To assess the effects of oral hygiene care on incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation in hospital intensive care units (ICUs). We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 17 December 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2015, Issue 11), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 17 December 2015), Embase Ovid (1980 to 17 December 2015), LILACS BIREME Virtual Health Library (1982 to 17 December 2015), CINAHL EBSCO (1937 to 17 December 2016), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to 14 January 2013), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1994 to 14 January 2013), Wan Fang Database (January 1984 to 14 January 2013) and VIP Database (January 2012 to 4 May 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials to 17 December 2015. We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of OHC (mouthrinse, swab, toothbrush or combination) in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. At least two review authors independently assessed search results, extracted data and assessed risk of bias in included studies. We contacted study authors for additional information. We pooled data from trials with similar interventions and outcomes. We reported risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous

  15. Rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration of foodborne pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    into focus with the 1990s outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy that was linked to the human outbreak of Creutzfeldt Jakob's Disease. Serology is still an important tool in preventing foodborne pathogens to enter the human food supply through meat and milk from animals. One of the primary uses...

  16. Expanding the value of qualitative theories of illness experience in clinical practice: a grounded theory of secondary heart disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ononeze, V; Murphy, A W; MacFarlane, A; Byrne, M; Bradley, C

    2009-06-01

    Qualitative theories of illness experience are about the individual interpretations of the psychosocial and cultural aspects of living with illness. Thus, they contribute to a better understanding of health and health care provision. In this paper, we examine how a grounded theory (GT) of heart disease experience can inform secondary prevention. In-depth interviews of individual experience of heart disease were conducted with 26 patients, using GT iterative data collection and analysis framework. A GT was compiled from data and examined within a sociocultural framework to ascertain how experience influenced health behaviour. Despite individual contextual variations, the theory of 'keeping it going' describes the study sample's common attitude to living with heart disease. The theory was adequate in explaining secondary cardiac behaviour, because it identified the aspects of patients' beliefs and attitudes which are key to effective secondary prevention. The assessment of the impact of illness experience on health behaviour within a sociocultural framework helped to articulate the strong influence of social and contextual factors. The study offers an appropriate explanatory framework for encouraging health behaviour change. It emphasizes the importance of interventions being relevant to individual perceptions and interpretations. It provides a framework for designing and evaluating cardiac interventions and the theoretical principles which underpin them.

  17. Experiences with influenza-like illness and attitudes regarding influenza prevention--United States, 2003-04 influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-17

    Despite advances in medical treatment, influenza results in approximately 36,000 deaths each year in the United States. Vaccination has been a mainstay of influenza prevention, with annual vaccination recommended for adults and children at high risk; efforts to interrupt person-to-person transmission are also important. In October 2003, CDC recommended that health-care facilities implement a Universal Respiratory Hygiene Strategy, including providing masks or facial tissues in waiting rooms to persons with respiratory symptoms. To gather information on influenza-like illness (ILI) and attitudes regarding prevention of ILI (including use of vaccine and respiratory hygiene), CDC and 11 Emerging Infections Programs (EIPs) conducted a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian adults in February 2004. This report summarizes the results of that survey, which determined that 43% of adults and 69% of children aged 6 months-17 years with ILI visited a health-care provider for the illness. Eight percent of adults with ILI reported having been asked by a health-care provider to wear a mask; 82% said they would wear a mask if requested. With the limited availability of influenza vaccine this season, the use of masks by persons with cough illnesses in health-care settings, a component of the Universal Respiratory Hygiene Strategy, might be a helpful and acceptable method for decreasing influenza transmission.

  18. Fish-Associated Foodborne Disease Outbreaks: United States, 1998-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kelly A; Nakao, Jolene H; Taylor, Ethel V; Eggers, Carrie; Gould, Lydia Hannah

    2017-09-01

    Each year in the United States, ∼260,000 people get sick from contaminated fish. Fish is also the most commonly implicated food category in outbreaks. We reviewed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System for outbreaks resulting from consumption of fish during the period 1998-2015. We found 857 outbreaks associated with fish, resulting in 4815 illnesses, 359 hospitalizations, and 4 deaths. The median number of illnesses per outbreak was three (range: 2-425). The annual number of fish-associated outbreaks declined from an average of 62 per year during the period 1998-2006 to 34 per year during the period 2007-2015. Hawaii (221 outbreaks [26%]) and Florida (203 [24%]) reported the most outbreaks. Among 637 outbreaks (74%) with a confirmed etiology, scombrotoxin (349 [55%]) and ciguatoxin (227 [36%]) were by far most common. Most outbreak-associated illnesses were caused by scombrotoxin (1299 [34%]), Salmonella (978 [26%]), and ciguatoxin (894 [23%]). Most hospitalizations were caused by Salmonella (97 [31%]) and ciguatoxin (96 [31%]). Norovirus (105 average illnesses; range: [6-380]) and Salmonella (54 [3-425]) caused the largest outbreaks. Fish types implicated most often were tuna (37%), mahi-mahi (10%), and grouper (9%). The etiology-fish pairs responsible for the most outbreaks were scombrotoxin and tuna (223 outbreaks), scombrotoxin and mahi-mahi (64), and ciguatoxin and grouper (54). The pairs responsible for the most illnesses were scombrotoxin and tuna (720 illnesses) and Salmonella and tuna (660). Of the 840 outbreaks (98%) with a single location of food preparation, 52% were associated with fish prepared in a restaurant and 33% with fish prepared in a private home. Upstream control measures targeted to the most common etiologies and controls during processing and preparation could further reduce outbreaks caused by fish.

  19. Rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens: principles, applications, advantages and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases. PMID:25628612

  20. Rapid Methods for the Detection of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens: Principles, Applications, Advantages and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law eJodi Woan-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR, multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases.

  1. Recruitment, Methods, and Descriptive Results of a Physiologic Assessment of Latino Farmworkers: The California Heat Illness Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Diane C; Castro, Javier; Armitage, Tracey L; Vega-Arroyo, Alondra J; Moyce, Sally C; Tancredi, Daniel J; Bennett, Deborah H; Jones, James H; Kjellstrom, Tord; Schenker, Marc B

    2017-07-01

    The California heat illness prevention study (CHIPS) devised methodology and collected physiological data to assess heat related illness (HRI) risk in Latino farmworkers. Bilingual researchers monitored HRI across a workshift, recording core temperature, work rate (metabolic equivalents [METs]), and heart rate at minute intervals. Hydration status was assessed by changes in weight and blood osmolality. Personal data loggers and a weather station measured exposure to heat. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect demographic and occupational information. California farmworkers (n = 588) were assessed. Acceptable quality data was obtained from 80% of participants (core temperature) to 100% of participants (weight change). Workers (8.3%) experienced a core body temperature more than or equal to 38.5 °C and 11.8% experienced dehydration (lost more than 1.5% of body weight). Methodology is presented for the first comprehensive physiological assessment of HRI risk in California farmworkers.

  2. Resisting "Reason": A Comparative Anthropological Study of Social Differences and Resistance toward Health Promotion and Illness Prevention in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann; Andersen, Rikke Sand; Risør, Mette Bech; Vedsted, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Social differences in health and illness are well documented in Denmark. However, little is known about how health practices are manifested in the everyday lives of different social classes. We propose acts of resistance and formation of health subjectivities as helpful concepts to develop our understanding of how dominant health discourses are appropriated by different social classes and transformed into different practices promoting health and preventing illness. Based on fieldwork in two different social classes, we discuss how these practices both overtly and subtly challenge the normative power of the health promotion discourse. These diverse and ambiguous forms of everyday resistance illustrate how and when situated concerns move social actors to subjectively appropriate health promotion messages. Overall, the different forms of resistance elucidate how the standardized awareness and education campaigns may perpetuate the very inequalities they try to diminish. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  3. Effects of Preventive Family Service Coordination for Parents With Mental Illnesses and Their Children, a RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, H.J.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Hoencamp, E.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Hosman, C.M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) are at increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders, especially when parenting is compromised by multiple risk factors. Due to fragmented services, these families often do not get the support they need. Can coordination between services, as

  4. Associations between the patient-centered medical home and preventive care and healthcare quality for non-elderly adults with mental illness: A surveillance study analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bowdoin, Jennifer J.; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Puleo, Elaine; Keller, David; Roche, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) may improve outcomes for non-elderly adults with mental illness, but the extent to which PCMHs are associated with preventive care and healthcare quality for this population is largely unknown. Our study addresses this gap by assessing the associations between receipt of care consistent with the PCMH and preventive care and healthcare quality for non-elderly adults with mental illness. Methods This surveillance study used self-reported data fo...

  5. Applied Genomics of Foodborne Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book provides a timely and thorough snapshot into the emerging and fast evolving area of applied genomics of foodborne pathogens. Driven by the drastic advance of whole genome shot gun sequencing (WGS) technologies, genomics applications are becoming increasingly valuable and even essential...... in studying, surveying and controlling foodborne microbial pathogens. The vast opportunities brought by this trend are often at odds with the lack of bioinformatics know-how among food safety and public health professionals, since such expertise is not part of a typical food microbiology curriculum and skill...

  6. Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the findings of a structured expert elicitation providing globally comparable food source attribution estimates for 11 major FBDs in each of 14 world subregions.We used Cooke's Classical Model to elicit and aggregate judgments of 73 international experts. Judgments were elicited from each expert individually and aggregated using both equal and performance weights. Performance weighted results are reported as they increased the informativeness of estimates, while retaining accuracy. We report measures of central tendency and uncertainty bounds on food source attribution estimate. For some pathogens we see relatively consistent food source attribution estimates across subregions of the world; for others there is substantial regional variation. For example, for non-typhoidal salmonellosis, pork was of minor importance compared to eggs and poultry meat in the American and African subregions, whereas in the European and Western Pacific subregions the importance of these three food sources were quite similar. Our regional results broadly agree with estimates from earlier European and North American food source attribution research. As in prior food source attribution research, we find relatively wide uncertainty bounds around our median estimates.We present the first worldwide estimates of the proportion of specific foodborne diseases attributable to specific food exposure routes. While we find substantial uncertainty around central tendency estimates, we believe these estimates provide the best currently available basis on which to link FBDs and specific foods in many parts of the world

  7. Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aspinall, Willy; Cooke, Roger; Corrigan, Tim; Havelaar, Arie; Angulo, Frederick; Gibb, Herman; Kirk, Martyn; Lake, Robin; Speybroeck, Niko; Torgerson, Paul; Hald, Tine

    2017-01-01

    Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs) resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the findings of a structured expert elicitation providing globally comparable food source attribution estimates for 11 major FBDs in each of 14 world subregions. We used Cooke's Classical Model to elicit and aggregate judgments of 73 international experts. Judgments were elicited from each expert individually and aggregated using both equal and performance weights. Performance weighted results are reported as they increased the informativeness of estimates, while retaining accuracy. We report measures of central tendency and uncertainty bounds on food source attribution estimate. For some pathogens we see relatively consistent food source attribution estimates across subregions of the world; for others there is substantial regional variation. For example, for non-typhoidal salmonellosis, pork was of minor importance compared to eggs and poultry meat in the American and African subregions, whereas in the European and Western Pacific subregions the importance of these three food sources were quite similar. Our regional results broadly agree with estimates from earlier European and North American food source attribution research. As in prior food source attribution research, we find relatively wide uncertainty bounds around our median estimates. We present the first worldwide estimates of the proportion of specific foodborne diseases attributable to specific food exposure routes. While we find substantial uncertainty around central tendency estimates, we believe these estimates provide the best currently available basis on which to link FBDs and specific foods in many parts of the world, providing guidance

  8. Cost of preventing workplace heat-related illness through worker breaks and the benefit of climate-change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Jun'ya; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Honda, Yasushi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2017-06-01

    The exposure of workers to hot environments is expected to increase as a result of climate change. In order to prevent heat-related illness, it is recommended that workers take breaks during working hours. However, this would lead to reductions in worktime and labor productivity. In this study, we estimate the economic cost of heat-related illness prevention through worker breaks associated with climate change under a wide range of climatic and socioeconomic conditions. We calculate the worktime reduction based on the recommendation of work/rest ratio and the estimated future wet bulb glove temperature, which is an index of heat stresses. Corresponding GDP losses (cost of heat-related illness prevention through worker breaks) are estimated using a computable general equilibrium model throughout this century. Under the highest emission scenario, GDP losses in 2100 will range from 2.6 to 4.0% compared to the current climate conditions. On the other hand, GDP losses will be less than 0.5% if the 2.0 °C goal is achieved. The benefit of climate-change mitigation for avoiding worktime loss is comparable to the cost of mitigation (cost of the greenhouse gas emission reduction) under the 2.0 °C goal. The relationship between the cost of heat-related illness prevention through worker breaks and global average temperature rise is approximately linear, and the difference in economic loss between the 1.5 °C goal and the 2.0 °C goal is expected to be approximately 0.3% of global GDP in 2100. Although climate mitigation and socioeconomic development can limit the vulnerable regions and sectors, particularly in developing countries, outdoor work is still expected to be affected. The effectiveness of some adaptation measures such as additional installation of air conditioning devices or shifting the time of day for working are also suggested. In order to reduce the economic impacts, adaptation measures should also be implemented as well as pursing ambitious climate change

  9. Oral hygiene care for critically ill patients to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Fang; Xie, Huixu; Worthington, Helen; Furness, Susan; Qi, Zhang; Li, Chunjie

    2016-01-01

    Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia developing in people who have received mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. VAP is a potentially serious complication in these patients who are already critically ill. Oral hygiene care (OHC), using either a mouthrinse, gel, toothbrush, or combination, together with aspiration of secretions, may reduce the risk of VAP in these patients. Objectives To assess the effects of oral hygiene care on incidence of ventil...

  10. Multimorbidity, Mental Illness, and Quality of Care: Preventable Hospitalizations among Medicare Beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Ajmera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Individuals with multimorbidity are vulnerable to poor quality of care due to issues related to care coordination. Ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations (ACSHs are widely accepted quality indicators because they can be avoided by timely, appropriate, and high-quality outpatient care. Objective. To examine the association between multimorbidity, mental illness, and ACSH. Study Design. We used a longitudinal panel design with data from multiple years (2000–2005 of Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Individuals were categorized into three groups: (1 multimorbidity with mental illness (MM/MI; (2 MM/no MI; (3 no MM. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to analyze the association between multimorbidity and ACSH. Results. Any ACSH rates varied from 10.8% in MM/MI group to 8.8% in MM/No MI group. Likelihood of any ACSH was higher among beneficiaries with MM/MI (AOR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.14, 2.30 and MM (AOR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.12, 2.11 compared to beneficiaries without multimorbidity. There was no statistically significant difference in likelihood of ACSH between MM/MI and MM/No MI groups. Conclusion. Multimorbidity (with or without MI had an independent and significant association with any ACSH. However, presence of mental illness alone was not associated with poor quality of care as measured by ACSH.

  11. Preventable infant mortality and quality of health care: maternal perception of the child's illness and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salime Hadad

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study used a qualitative methodology to analyze the discourse of mothers from Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, whose infant children had died from what were considered avoidable causes (diarrhea, malnutrition, and pneumonia, seeking to elucidate the factors associated with utilization of health care services. Identification of the illness by the mother was related to perception of specific alterations in the child's state of health. Analysis of the alterations helped identify the principal characteristics ascribed to each alteration and their relationship to the search for treatment. The authors also studied the mother's assessment of treatment received at health care facilities; 43.0% of the cases involved problems related to the structure of health care services or the attending health care professionals. In 46.0% of the cases, mothers associated the child's death with flaws in the health care service. The study group showed a variety of interpretations of illness, often distinct from the corresponding biomedical concepts. The fact that attending health care personnel overlooked or underrated the mother's perception of the illness and the lack of communications between health care personnel and the child's family had an influence on the child's evolution and subsequent death.

  12. Understanding preventive health screening services use in persons with serious mental illness: how does integrated behavioral health primary care compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Glen L; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Suo, Shannon; Mccarron, Robert M; Koike, Alan; Onate, John; Carter, Cameron S

    2015-01-01

    People with serious mental illness have reduced life expectancy, in large part due to reduced access to medical services and underutilization of preventive health services. This is a cross-sectional study that compared preventive services use in an integrated behavioral health primary care clinic (IBHPC) with two existing community mental health programs. Participants completed questionnaires about preventive health services use that contained 33 questions about demographic clinical information, and use of preventive health services, from October 2010 to December 2012. Services examined included mammogram, Papanicolaou Test, prostate specific antigen, digital rectal exam, fecal occult blood test, and flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy; blood pressure, height and weight, cholesterol, and blood sugar for diabetes; and influenza immunization, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) antibodies. A health service utilization score was developed and used as primary outcome for data analyses. In the multivariate analyses female gender (p compared to White), program type (p compared to one community mental health program (p compared another (p = 0.34). There was high variability in use of individual services among the clinical programs. More studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of integrated care in improving use of health screening services. Characteristics of the clinic in relation to use of preventive services deserve further study. © 2015, The Author(s).

  13. The Impact of Rurality on 30-Day Preventable Readmission, Illness Severity, and Risk of Mortality for Heart Failure Medicare Home Health Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsueh-Fen; Carlson, Erin; Popoola, Taiye; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2016-01-01

    To examine the impact of rurality on 30-day preventable readmission, and the illness severity and risk of mortality for 30-day preventable readmissions. We analyzed heart failure Medicare beneficiaries who received home health services for postacute care after hospital discharge in 2009. The study was a cross-sectional design with the unit of analysis as the home health episode for postacute care. Data sources included the following: Medicare Beneficiary Summary File, Medicare Provider Analysis Review, Outcome Assessment Information Set, Home Health Agency Research Identifiable File, and Area Health Resources File. The dependent variables were 30-day preventable readmission, and the extreme/major level of illness severity and of risk of mortality for a 30-day preventable readmission. The key independent variable was rurality defined as remote rural, adjacent rural, and micropolitan areas, with urban areas in the reference group. Home health beneficiaries in remote rural areas had 27% lower 30-day preventable readmission than those in urban areas. Home health beneficiaries in adjacent rural areas were 33% less likely to have high illness severity at readmission due to a preventable condition than those in urban areas. Geographical location affects preventable readmission and illness severity of preventable readmission. Patients' geographic location along with patients' risk factors should be taken into consideration in the risk adjustment model for the financial incentive program that penalizes home health agencies with high preventable readmissions. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  14. Evaluation of Occupational Therapy Workshops to Prevent Work-Related Injuries or Illnesses among Vocational Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecours, Alexandra; Therriault, Pierre-Yves

    2018-01-01

    The few studies aiming to evaluate prevention interventions provided by occupational therapists in health at work were conducted in work settings. However, to intervene in primary prevention, developing occupational therapy interventions with students learning a trade is relevant. The objective is to evaluate workshops designed and set up by…

  15. Effectiveness of heat and moisture exchangers in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; Nunes, Altacílio Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    Patients may acquire ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) by aspirating the condensate that originates in the ventilator circuit upon use of a conventional humidifier. The bacteria that colonize the patients themselves can proliferate in the condensate and then return to the airways and lungs when the patient aspirates this contaminated material. Therefore, the use of HME might contribute to preventing pneumonia and lowering the VAP incidence. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the use of HME impacts the probability of VAP occurrence in critically ill patients. On the basis of the acronym "PICO" (Patient, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome), the question that guided this review was "Do critically ill patients under invasive mechanical ventilation present lower VAP incidence when they use HME as compared with HH?". Two of the authors of this review searched the databases PUBMED/Medline, The Cochrane Library, and Latin-American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, LILACS independently; they used the following keywords: "heat and moisture exchanger", AND "heated humidifier", AND "ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention". This review included papers in the English language published from January 1990 to December 2012. This review included ten studies. Comparison between the use of HME and HH did not reveal any differences in terms of VAP occurrence (OR = 0.998; 95% CI: 0.778-1.281). Together, the ten studies corresponded to a total sample of 1077 and 953 patients in the HME and HH groups, respectively; heterogeneity among the investigations was low (I(2) heat and moisture exchangers and VAP. Despite the methodological limitations found in selected clinical trials, the current meta-analysis suggests that HME does not decrease VAP incidence or mortality in critically ill patients.

  16. [Foodborne infections and intoxications in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the epidemiology of foodborne outbreaks in Poland in 2010. The evaluation of the epidemiological situation was based on data from outbreak investigation forms, reported by Sanitary and Epidemiological Stations to the Department of Epidemiology, NIPH-NIH. In 2010 a notable increase in the number of cases reported with a bacterial infection was observed. This increase however did not exceeded the median number of cases reported in 2004-2008. In 2010 392 foodborne infections and food poisoning involving 6994 cases (outbreaks involving 4 person or more) and 145 foodborne outbreaks (where 2-3 persons became ill were reported. S. Enteritidis was the most frequently etiological agent in outbreaks associated with bacterial infection (32.9% of outbreaks 22.4% cases). Viruses caused 26% of outbreaks affected 30% of cases. In 38.3% outbreaks the etiological agent could not be established. The main vehicle of foodborne outbreaks were meals prepared from (> 3) raw meats (4.6% of outbreaks, 10.9% cases) and meals prepared using milk and eggs (9.9% of outbreaks 5.7% cases). The most frequent places of contamination included farms who produced goods for human consumption (11.5% of outbreaks, 5.0% of cases). Private residences (113 outbreaks with 745 cases) and hospitals were the most common place where food poisoning outbreaks occurred. In 2010 there were 6 outbreaks where more than 100 people were affected in these settings. Like in previous years, in 2010 the etiological agents, vehicle and sources of infection were not identified in most foodborne outbreaks. In order to decrease the number of outbreaks with undetermined etiological agent, the spectrum of routine laboratory tests of samples taken in outbreaks should be broaden.

  17. HIV/STI Prevention Among Heterosexually Active Black Adolescents With Mental Illnesses: Focus Group Findings for Intervention Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Wingood, Gina; Reason, Janaiya; Mack, Niya

    Heterosexually active Black adolescents with mental illnesses are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. However, few HIV/STI prevention interventions exist for this demographic. We held seven focus groups (N = 33) to elucidate social, cultural, and psychological factors that influence HIV/STI risk-related sexual behaviors in this understudied population. Seven themes emerged: (a) Blackness and media portrayals, (b) Blackness as a source of cultural resilience and pride, (c) psychosocial determinants of condom use, (d) consequences of engaging in sexual activity, (e) attitudes and beliefs toward sexual behaviors, (f) benefits of sexual activity, and (g) coping mechanisms. Participants also supported the feasibility of and interest in HIV/STI prevention programs integrated with mental health treatment. Transportation, potential breaches of confidentiality, and time were noted barriers to participation. Psychoeducational, skills-based programs are needed to address the sequelae of mental illnesses as they relate to the sexual decision-making process in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Administration of Azithromycin and Prevention of Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Preschool Children With a History of Such Illnesses: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharier, Leonard B; Guilbert, Theresa W; Mauger, David T; Boehmer, Susan; Beigelman, Avraham; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Jackson, Daniel J; Baxi, Sachin N; Benson, Mindy; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Cabana, Michael; Castro, Mario; Chmiel, James F; Covar, Ronina; Daines, Michael; Gaffin, Jonathan M; Gentile, Deborah Ann; Holguin, Fernando; Israel, Elliot; Kelly, H William; Lazarus, Stephen C; Lemanske, Robert F; Ly, Ngoc; Meade, Kelley; Morgan, Wayne; Moy, James; Olin, Tod; Peters, Stephen P; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Raissy, Hengameh H; Ross, Kristie; Sheehan, William J; Sorkness, Christine; Szefler, Stanley J; Teague, W Gerald; Thyne, Shannon; Martinez, Fernando D

    2015-11-17

    Many preschool children develop recurrent, severe episodes of lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI). Although viral infections are often present, bacteria may also contribute to illness pathogenesis. Strategies that effectively attenuate such episodes are needed. To evaluate if early administration of azithromycin, started prior to the onset of severe LRTI symptoms, in preschool children with recurrent severe LRTIs can prevent the progression of these episodes. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial conducted across 9 academic US medical centers in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's AsthmaNet network, with enrollment starting in April 2011 and follow-up complete by December 2014. Participants were 607 children aged 12 through 71 months with histories of recurrent, severe LRTIs and minimal day-to-day impairment. Participants were randomly assigned to receive azithromycin (12 mg/kg/d for 5 days; n = 307) or matching placebo (n = 300), started early during each predefined RTI (child's signs or symptoms prior to development of LRTI), based on individualized action plans, over a 12- through 18-month period. The primary outcome measure was the number of RTIs not progressing to a severe LRTI, measured at the level of the RTI, that would in clinical practice trigger the prescription of oral corticosteroids. Presence of azithromycin-resistant organisms in oropharyngeal samples, along with adverse events, were among the secondary outcome measures. A total of 937 treated RTIs (azithromycin group, 473; placebo group, 464) were experienced by 443 children (azithromycin group, 223; placebo group, 220), including 92 severe LRTIs (azithromycin group, 35; placebo group, 57). Azithromycin significantly reduced the risk of progressing to severe LRTI relative to placebo (hazard ratio, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.41-0.98], P = .04; absolute risk for first RTI: 0.05 for azithromycin, 0.08 for placebo; risk difference, 0.03 [95% CI, 0

  19. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks--United States, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    Known pathogens cause an estimated 9.4 million foodborne illnesses annually in the United States. CDC collects data on foodborne disease outbreaks submitted by all states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico through CDC's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. Data reported for each outbreak include the number of illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths; the etiologic agent; the implicated food vehicle; and other factors involved in food preparation and consumption. During 2009-2010, a total of 1,527 foodborne disease outbreaks (675 in 2009 and 852 in 2010) were reported, resulting in 29,444 cases of illness, 1,184 hospitalizations, and 23 deaths. Among the 790 outbreaks with a single laboratory-confirmed etiologic agent, norovirus was the most commonly reported, accounting for 42% of outbreaks. Salmonella was second, accounting for 30% of outbreaks. Among the 299 outbreaks attributed to a food composed of ingredients from one of 17 predefined, mutually exclusive food commodities, those most often implicated were beef (13%), dairy (12%), fish (12%), and poultry (11%). The commodities in the 299 outbreaks associated with the most illnesses were eggs (27% of illnesses), beef (11%), and poultry (10%). Public health, regulatory, and food industry professionals can use this information when creating targeted control strategies along the farm-to-table continuum for specific agents, specific foods, and specific pairs of agents and foods. This information also supports efforts to promote safe food-handling practices among food workers and the public.

  20. Chlorhexidine, toothbrushing, and preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Cindy L; Grap, Mary Jo; Jones, Deborah J; McClish, Donna K; Sessler, Curtis N

    2009-09-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To examine the effects of mechanical (toothbrushing), pharmacological (topical oral chlorhexidine), and combination (toothbrushing plus chlorhexidine) oral care on the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Critically ill adults in 3 intensive care units were enrolled within 24 hours of intubation in a randomized controlled clinical trial with a 2 x 2 factorial design. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of pneumonia at the time of intubation and edentulous patients were excluded. Patients (n = 547) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: 0.12% solution chlorhexidine oral swab twice daily, toothbrushing thrice daily, both toothbrushing and chlorhexidine, or control (usual care). Ventilator-associated pneumonia was determined by using the Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS). The 4 groups did not differ significantly in clinical characteristics. At day 3 analysis, 249 patients remained in the study. Among patients without pneumonia at baseline, pneumonia developed in 24% (CPIS >or=6) by day 3 in those treated with chlorhexidine. When data on all patients were analyzed together, mixed models analysis indicated no effect of either chlorhexidine (P = .29) or toothbrushing (P = .95). However, chlorhexidine significantly reduced the incidence of pneumonia on day 3 (CPIS >or=6) among patients who had CPIS Toothbrushing had no effect on CPIS and did not enhance the effect of chlorhexidine. Chlorhexidine, but not toothbrushing, reduced early ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients without pneumonia at baseline.

  1. Malaria Prevention, Mefloquine Neurotoxicity, Neuropsychiatric Illness, and Risk-Benefit Analysis in the Australian Defence Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart McCarthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Defence Force (ADF has used mefloquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis since 1990. Mefloquine has been found to be a plausible cause of a chronic central nervous system toxicity syndrome and a confounding factor in the diagnosis of existing neuropsychiatric illnesses prevalent in the ADF such as posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. Overall health risks appear to have been mitigated by restricting the drug’s use; however serious risks were realised when significant numbers of ADF personnel were subjected to clinical trials involving the drug. The full extent of the exposure, health impacts for affected individuals, and consequences for ADF health management including mental health are not yet known, but mefloquine may have caused or aggravated neuropsychiatric illness in large numbers of patients who were subsequently misdiagnosed and mistreated or otherwise failed to receive proper care. Findings in relation to chronic mefloquine neurotoxicity were foreseeable, but this eventuality appears not to have been considered during risk-benefit analyses. Thorough analysis by the ADF would have identified this long-term risk as well as other qualitative risk factors. Historical exposure of ADF personnel to mefloquine neurotoxicity now also necessitates ongoing risk monitoring and management in the overall context of broader health policies.

  2. Mosquito-borne illnesses in travelers: a review of risk and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaian, Edith; Durham, Melissa J; Hess, Karl; Goad, Jeffery A

    2010-10-01

    In 2008, residents of the United States made 12 million visits to developing countries in Asia, South America, Central America, Oceania, the Middle East, and Africa. Due to the presence of Anopheles, Aedes, and Culex mosquitoes, travel to these destinations poses a risk for diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis that cause significant morbidity and mortality. To gain a better understanding of the major emerging and established travel-related infectious diseases transmitted principally by mosquitoes and the measures for their prevention in U.S. residents who travel to these developing countries, we performed a literature search of the PubMed and MEDLINE databases (January 1950-February 2010). Information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization and relevant references from the publications identified were also reviewed. Vaccines for the prevention of Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever are commercially available to U.S. travelers and should be administered when indicated. However, the prevention of malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya, and West Nile virus relies on personal insect protection measures and chemoprophylaxis for malaria. As the rate of international travel continues to rise, individuals traveling overseas should be made aware of the risk of various infectious diseases and the importance of prevention. Physicians, pharmacists, nurses, and other practitioners can play a vital role in disease education and prevention, including the administration of vaccines and provision of chemoprophylactic drugs.

  3. School-based health education in Yucatan, Mexico about the Chikungunya virus and mosquito illness prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Seungah Choo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV has been rapidly spreading throughout Latin America, utilizing pre-existing vectors to infiltrate the immunologically naïve populations. With the current rise of the Zika Virus, there is an urgent need for more rigorous vector control efforts to prevent further Zika breakout. We designed a schoolbased education module on CHIKV and mosquito prevention and presented it to the local students of ages of 6-18 in a rural town called Sudzal in Yucatan, Mexico. We distributed questionnaires before and after education to test the students’ knowledge of CHIKV and mosquito prevention. Chisquared test was performed to determine the efficacy of the presentation in increasing their knowledge. The education presentation has proven to effectively educate the local residents in several critical methods of mosquito prevention, increasing the average test scores by 67% post-education. These include applying repellent, staying hydrated during recuperation, and cleaning indoor water containers to eliminate breeding sites (P<0.001. Furthermore, the questionnaire captured the residents’ behavioral patterns regarding CHIKV and mosquito prevention and identified cultural, ecological, and socioeconomic factors hindering effective implementation of vector control.

  4. Antibiotic Resistance in Foodborne Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Ciara; Duffy, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Wide-spread antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is now a serious public health issue and multi-antibiotic resistance has been reported in many foodborne pathogens including Salmonella and E. coli. A study to determine antibiotic resistance profiles of a range of Salmonella and Verocytotoxigenic E.coli (VTEC) isolated from Irish foods revealed significant levels of antibiotic resistance in the strains. S. typhimurium DT104 were multiantibiotic resistant with 97% resistant to 7 anti...

  5. Everyday and Exotic Foodborne Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn B Lee

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Everyday foodborne parasites, which are endemic in Canada, include the protozoans Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. However, these parasites are most frequently acquired through unfiltered drinking water, homosexual activity or close personal contact such as in daycare centres and occasionally via a food vehicle. It is likely that many foodborne outbreaks from these protozoa go undetected. Transmission of helminth infections, such as tapeworms, is rare in Canada because of effective sewage treatment. However, a common foodborne parasite of significance is Toxoplasma gondii. Although infection can be acquired from accidental ingestion of oocysts from cat feces, infection can also result from consumption of tissue cysts in undercooked meat, such as pork or lamb. Congenital transmission poses an immense financial burden, costing Canada an estimated $240 million annually. Also of concern is toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients, which may lead to toxoplasmosis encephalitis, the second most common AIDS-related opportunistic infection of the central nervous system. Exotic parasites (ie, those acquired from abroad or from imported food are of growing concern because more Canadians are travelling and the number of Canada?s trading partners is increasing. Since 1996, over 3000 cases of Cyclospora infection reported in the United States and Canada were epidemiologically associated with importation of Guatemalan raspberries. Unlike toxoplasmosis, where strategies for control largely rest with individual practices, control of cyclosporiasis rests with government policy, which should prohibit the importation of foods at high risk.

  6. Preventing Schizophrenia and Severe Mental Illness: A Grand Challenge for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVylder, Jordan E.

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a leading cause of disability and health expenditure worldwide and is associated with homelessness, substance use, familial and social isolation, unemployment, involvement with the criminal justice system, stigma, and excess mortality. Prevention may be feasible through intervention with help-seeking "clinical high-risk"…

  7. Prevention of influenza-related illness in young infants by maternal vaccination during pregnancy [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C Nunes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influenza virus circulates yearly and causes global epidemics. Influenza infection affects all age groups and causes mild to severe illness, and young infants are at particular risk for serious disease. The most effective measure to prevent influenza disease is vaccination; however, no vaccine is licensed for use in infants younger than 6 months old. Thus, there is a crucial need for other preventive strategies in this high-risk age group. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy protects both the mothers and the young infants against influenza infection. Vaccination during pregnancy boosts the maternal antibodies and increases the transfer of immunoglobulin G from the mother to the fetus through the placenta, which confers protection against infection in infants too young to be vaccinated. Data from clinical trials and observational studies did not demonstrate adverse effects to the mother, the fetus, or the infant after maternal influenza vaccination. We present the current data on the effectiveness and safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy in preventing disease in the young infant.

  8. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a Vertebrate Model Host To Study Colonization, Pathogenesis, and Transmission of Foodborne Escherichia coli O157

    OpenAIRE

    Stones, Daniel H.; Fehr, Alexander G. J.; Thompson, Laurel; Rocha, Jacqueline; Perez-Soto, Nicolas; Madhavan, Vipin T. P.; Voelz, Kerstin; Krachler, Anne Marie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Foodborne infections with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are a major cause of diarrheal illness in humans and can lead to severe complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. Cattle and other ruminants are the main reservoir of EHEC, which enters the food chain through contaminated meat, dairy, or vegetables. Here, we describe the establishment of a vertebrate model for foodborne EHEC infection, using larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a host and the protozoan prey Param...

  9. Risk-based estimate of effect of foodborne diseases on public health, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gkogka, E.; Reij, M.W.; Havelaar, A.H.; Zwietering, M.H.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    The public health effects of illness caused by foodborne pathogens in Greece during 1996–2006 was quantified by using publicly available surveillance data, hospital statistics, and literature. Results were expressed as the incidence of different disease outcomes and as disability-adjusted life years

  10. Willingness of Mentally Ill Individuals to Sign Up for a Novel Proposal to Prevent Firearm Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vars, Fredrick E; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B; Shelton, Richard C; Cropsey, Karen L

    2017-08-01

    The study goal was to determine whether a significant number of high suicide risk individuals would confidentially put their own names onto a list to prevent future gun purchases. An anonymous written survey was administered in an inpatient psychiatric unit and two outpatient psychiatric clinics at an academic medical center. Two hundred forty individuals were approached to fill out the survey, of whom 200 (83.3%) did so. Forty-six percent of participants stated that they would put their own name onto the list. This novel suicide prevention proposal, a Do-Not-Sell List, would appeal to many people at high risk for suicide. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  11. Effects of an injury and illness prevention program on occupational safety behaviors among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santaweesuk S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sapsatree Santaweesuk,1,2 Robert S Chapman,1 Wattasit Siriwong1,3 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Srinakarinwirot University Ongkharak Campus, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand; 3Thai Fogarty ITREOH Center, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an Injury and Illness Prevention (IIP program intervention on occupational safety behavior among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok province, Thailand. This was a quasi-experimental study in an intervention group and a control group. It was carried out in two rice farming communities, in which most people are rice farmers with similar socio-demographic characteristics. Multistage sampling was employed, selecting one person per rice farming household. The intervention group was 62 randomly selected rice farmers living in a rural area; another 55 rice farmers served as the control group. A structured face-to-face interview questionnaire was administered to participants to evaluate their safety behaviors in four areas: equipment use, pesticide use, ergonomics, and working conditions. The 2-week intervention program consisted of four elements: 1 health education, 2 safety inspection, 3 safety communication, and 4 health surveillance. Data were collected at baseline and 4 months after the intervention (follow-up. We used a general linear model repeated-measures analysis of variance to assess the mean difference between baseline and follow-up occupational safety behavior points between the intervention and control groups. Pesticide safety behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group compared with the control group. Ergonomics and working conditions points also increased in the intervention group, but not significantly so. The equipment use score decreased in the intervention group. It is necessary to identify and develop further measures to improve occupational safety behaviors. Some

  12. Promising approaches for the treatment and prevention of viral respiratory illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Megremis, Spyridon; Kitsioulis, Nikolaos A; Vangelatou, Olympia; West, Peter; Xepapadaki, Paraskevi

    2017-10-01

    Viral respiratory tract infections are the most common human ailments, leading to enormous health and economic burden. Hundreds of viral species and subtypes have been associated with these conditions, with influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and rhinoviruses being the most frequent and with the highest burden. When considering prevention or treatment of viral respiratory tract infections, potential targets include the causative pathogens themselves but also the immune response, disease transmission, or even just the symptoms. Strategies targeting all these aspects are developing concurrently, and several novel and promising approaches are emerging. In this perspective we overview the entire range of options and highlight some of the most promising approaches, including new antiviral agents, symptomatic or immunomodulatory drugs, the re-emergence of natural remedies, and vaccines and public health policies toward prevention. Wide-scale prevention through immunization appears to be within reach for respiratory syncytial virus and promising for influenza virus, whereas additional effort is needed in regard to rhinovirus, as well as other respiratory tract viruses. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of statins in delirium prevention in critical ill and cardiac surgery patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Kanmanthareddy, Arun; Erwin, Patricia J; Esterbrooks, Dennis J; Morrow, Lee E

    2017-02-01

    The data evaluating the role of statins in delirium prevention in the intensive care unit are conflicting and limited. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature from 1975 to 2015. All English-language adult studies evaluating delirium incidence in statin and statin nonusers were included and studies without a control group were excluded. Mantel-Haenszel model was used to calculate pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Statistical significance was defined as CI not including unity and P value less than .05. Of a total 57 identified studies, 6 were included. The studies showed high heterogeneity (I 2 = 73%) for all and moderate for cardiac surgery studies (I 2 = 55%). Of 289 773 patients, statins were used in 22 292 (7.7%). Cardiac surgery was performed in 4382 (1.5%) patients and 2321 (53.0%) used statins. Delirium was noted in 710 (3.2%) and 3478 (1.3%) of the patients in the statin and nonstatin groups, respectively, with no difference between groups in the total cohort (RR, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.85-1.29]; P = .56) or in cardiac surgery patients (RR, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.68-1.56]; P = .89). In critically ill and cardiac surgery patients, this meta-analysis did not show a benefit with statin therapy in the prevention of delirium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Using near real-time morbidity data to identify heat-related illness prevention strategies in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Sarah; Ising, Amy; Fleischauer, Aaron T; Deyneka, Lana; Vaughan-Batten, Heather; Waller, Anna

    2012-04-01

    Timely public health interventions reduce heat-related illnesses (HRIs). HRI emergency department (ED) visit data provide near real-time morbidity information to local and state public health practitioners and may be useful in directing HRI prevention efforts. This study examined statewide HRI ED visits in North Carolina (NC) from 2008-2010 by age group, month, ED disposition, chief complaint, and triage notes. The mean number of HRI ED visits per day was compared to the maximum daily temperature. The percentage of HRI ED visits to all ED visits was highest in June (0.25%). 15-18 year-olds had the highest percentage of HRI visits and were often seen for sports-related heat exposures. Work-related HRI ED visits were more common than other causes in 19-45 year-olds. Individuals ≥65 years were more likely admitted to the hospital than younger individuals. The mean daily number of HRI ED visits increased by 1.4 for each 1°F (degree Fahrenheit) increase from 90°F to 98°F and by 15.8 for each 1°F increase from 98°F to 100°F. Results indicate that HRI prevention efforts in NC should be emphasized in early summer and targeted to adolescents involved in organized sports, young adults with outdoor occupations, and seniors. At a maximum daily temperature of 98°F, there was a substantial increase in the average daily number of HRI ED visits. ED visit data provide timely, sentinel HRI information. Analysis of this near real-time morbidity data may assist local and state public health practitioners in identification of HRI prevention strategies that are especially relevant to their jurisdictions.

  15. Safety and Efficacy of Antiviral Therapy for Prevention of Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in Immunocompetent Critically Ill Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Nicholas J; Owen, Andrew; Shiels, Sarah C; Millar, Joanne; Woolley, Rebecca; Ives, Natalie; Osman, Husam; Moss, Paul; Bion, Julian F

    2017-06-01

    Latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is present in more than half the adult population, and a viral reactivation (ie, when the virus becomes measurable in body fluids such as blood) can occur in up to one-third of these individuals during episodes of critical illness. To determine whether antiviral therapy is safe and effective for preventing CMV reactivation in a general population of critically ill patients. A single-center, open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial recruited 124 CMV-seropositive patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours in the intensive care unit between January 1, 2012, and January 31, 2014. The mean baseline Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of all patients was 17.6. Patients were randomized to receive anti-CMV prophylaxis with valacyclovir hydrochloride (n = 34) or low-dose valganciclovir hydrochloride (n = 46) for up to 28 days to suppress viral reactivation, or to a control group with no intervention (n = 44). Time to first CMV reactivation in blood within the 28-day follow-up period following initiation of the study drug. Among the 124 patients in the study (46 women and 78 men; mean [SD] age, 56.9 [16.9] years), viral reactivation in the blood occurred in 12 patients in the control group, compared with 1 patient in the valganciclovir group and 2 patients in the valacyclovir group (combined treatment groups vs control: hazard ratio, 0.14; 95% CI 0.04-0.50). Although this trial was not powered to assess clinical end points, the valacyclovir arm was halted prematurely because of higher mortality; 14 of 34 patients (41.2%) had died by 28 days, compared with 5 of 37 (13.5%) patients in the control arm at the point of the decision to halt this arm. Other safety end points showed similar outcomes between groups. Antiviral prophylaxis with valacyclovir or low-dose valganciclovir suppresses CMV reactivation in patients with critical illness. However, given the higher mortality, a

  16. Diarrheal Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-30

    Dr. Steve Monroe, director of CDC’s Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, discusses diarrheal illness, its causes, and prevention.  Created: 8/30/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/31/2011.

  17. Genomic Epidemiology: Whole-Genome-Sequencing–Powered Surveillance and Outbreak Investigation of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiangyu; den Bakker, Henk C.; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2016-01-01

    As we are approaching the twentieth anniversary of PulseNet, a network of public health and regulatory laboratories that has changed the landscape of foodborne illness surveillance through molecular subtyping, public health microbiology is undergoing another transformation brought about by so......-called next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies that have made whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of foodborne bacterial pathogens a realistic and superior alternative to traditional subtyping methods. Routine, real-time, and widespread application of WGS in food safety and public health is on the horizon...

  18. Impact of restaurant hygiene grade cards on foodborne-disease hospitalizations in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Paul A; Leslie, Phillip; Run, Grace; Jin, Ginger Zhe; Reporter, Roshan; Aguirre, Arturo; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2005-03-01

    Although health departments routinely inspect restaurants to assess compliance with established hygienic standards, few data are available on the effectiveness of these efforts in preventing foodborne disease. The study reported here assessed the impact on foodborne-disease hospitalizations in Los Angeles County of a restaurant hygiene grading system that utilized publicly posted grade cards. The grading systm was introduced in January 1998. Hospital discharge data on foodborne-disease hospitalizations were analyzed for Los Angeles County and, as a control, for the rest of California during the period 1993-2000. Ordinary least-squares regression analysis was done to measure the effect of the grading progam on these hospitalizations. After baseline temporal and geographic trends were adjusted for, the restaurant hygiene grading program was associated with a 13.1 percent decrease (p restaurant hygiene grading with public posting of results is an effective intervention for reducing the burden of foodborne disease.

  19. Early interventions for the prevention of post-traumatic stress symptoms in survivors of critical illness: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaspey, Lindsey J; Roberts, Michael B; Mazzarelli, Anthony; Trzeciak, Stephen; Roberts, Brian W

    2017-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is being increasingly reported among survivors of critical illness and injury. Previous work has demonstrated that PTSD reduces patient quality of life and ability to return to work, as well as increases healthcare costs. As such, identifying interventions aimed at preventing the development of critical illness-related PTSD could have an important public health impact. The objective of this systematic review is to collate the world's literature on early interventions aimed at preventing PTSD among survivors of critical illness. We will perform a qualitative systematic review of human clinical trials of interventions aimed at preventing or reducing critical illness-related PTSD symptoms. We will methodically search CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL. We will also search websites containing details on clinical trials registration (National Library of Medicine's ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform), as well as screen reference lists of the articles we select for inclusion to identify additional studies for potential inclusion. Two authors will independently review all search results. After identification and inclusion of articles, we will use a standardised form for data extraction. We will use tables to describe the study type, populations, interventions tested and timing of interventions, outcome measures and effects of interventions on outcome measures compared with control groups. This review will be completed between 1 August 2017 and 31 August 2017. The proposed systematic review will not collect individual patient level data and does not require ethical approval. Results of this study will contribute to the understanding of critical illness-related PTSD and help prompt future research aimed at further developing interventions to prevent PTSD symptoms in survivors of critical illness. This systematic review is registered in the PROSPERO international prospective register of

  20. Cost-effectiveness of preventive case management for parents with a mental illness: A randomized controlled trial from three economic perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, H.J.; Drost, R.M.W.A.; Paulus, A.T.G.; Ruwaard, D.; Hosman, C.M.H.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Evers, S.M.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) are at increased risk for developing costly psychiatric disorders because of multiple risk factors which threaten parenting quality and thereby child development. Preventive basic care management (PBCM) is an intervention aimed at

  1. Metagenomic Approach to Identifying Foodborne Pathogens on Chinese Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeho; Hong, Sanghyun; Kim, You-Tae; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Lee, Ju-Hoon

    2018-02-28

    Foodborne illness represents a major threat to public health and is frequently attributed to pathogenic microorganisms on fresh produce. Recurrent outbreaks often come from vegetables that are grown close to or within the ground. Therefore, the first step to understanding the public health risk of microorganisms on fresh vegetables is to identify and describe microbial communities. We investigated the phyllospheres on Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis , N = 54). 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing targeting the V5-V6 region of 16S rRNA genes was conducted by employing the Illumina MiSeq system. Sequence quality was assessed, and phylogenetic assessments were performed using the RDP classifier implemented in QIIME with a bootstrap cutoff of 80%. Principal coordinate analysis was performed using a weighted Fast UniFrac matrix. The average number of sequence reads generated per sample was 34,584. At the phylum level, bacterial communities were composed primarily of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The most abundant genera on Chinese cabbages were Chryseobacterium, Aurantimonadaceae_g, Sphingomonas , and Pseudomonas . Diverse potential pathogens, such as Pantoea, Erwinia, Klebsiella, Yersinia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Salmonella , and Clostridium were also detected from the samples. Although further epidemiological studies will be required to determine whether the detected potential pathogens are associated with foodborne illness, our results imply that a metagenomic approach can be used to detect pathogenic bacteria on fresh vegetables.

  2. Associations between the patient-centered medical home and preventive care and healthcare quality for non-elderly adults with mental illness: A surveillance study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdoin, Jennifer J; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Puleo, Elaine; Keller, David; Roche, Joan

    2016-08-24

    Patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) may improve outcomes for non-elderly adults with mental illness, but the extent to which PCMHs are associated with preventive care and healthcare quality for this population is largely unknown. Our study addresses this gap by assessing the associations between receipt of care consistent with the PCMH and preventive care and healthcare quality for non-elderly adults with mental illness. This surveillance study used self-reported data for 6,908 non-elderly adults with mental illness participating in the 2007-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Preventive care and healthcare quality measures included: participant rating of all healthcare; cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening; current smoking; smoking cessation advice; flu shot; foot exam and eye exam for people with diabetes; and follow-up after emergency room visit for mental illness. Multiple logistic regression models were developed to compare the odds of meeting preventive care and healthcare quality measures for participants without a usual source of care, participants with a non-PCMH usual source of care, and participants who received care consistent with the PCMH. Compared to participants without a usual source of care, those with a non-PCMH usual source of care had better odds of meeting almost all measures examined, while those who received care consistent with the PCMH had better odds of meeting most measures. Participants who received care consistent with the PCMH had better odds of meeting only one measure compared to participants with a non-PCMH usual source of care. Compared with having a non-PCMH usual source of care, receipt of care consistent with the PCMH does not appear to be associated with most preventive care or healthcare quality measures. These findings raise concerns about the potential value of the PCMH for non-elderly adults with mental illness and suggest that alternative models of primary care are needed to improve outcomes and address

  3. Expert elicitation as a means to attribute 28 enteric pathogens to foodborne, waterborne, animal contact, and person-to-person transmission routes in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ainslie J; Thomas, M Kate; Pintar, Katarina D M

    2015-04-01

    Enteric illness contributes to a significant burden of illness in Canada and globally. Understanding its sources is a critical step in identifying and preventing health risks. Expert elicitation is a powerful tool, used previously, to obtain information about enteric illness source attribution where information is difficult or expensive to obtain. Thirty-one experts estimated transmission of 28 pathogens via major transmission routes (foodborne, waterborne, animal contact, person-to-person, and other) at the point of consumption. The elicitation consisted of a (snowball) recruitment phase; administration of a pre-survey to collect background information, an introductory webinar, an elicitation survey, a 1-day discussion, survey readministration, and a feedback exercise, and surveys were administered online. Experts were prompted to quantify changes in contamination at the point of entry into the kitchen versus point of consumption. Estimates were combined via triangular probability distributions, and medians and 90% credible-interval estimates were produced. Transmission was attributed primarily to food for Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Trichinella spp., all three Vibrio spp. categories explored, and Yersinia enterocolitica. Multisource pathogens (e.g., transmitted commonly through both water and food) such as Campylobacter spp., four Escherichia coli categories, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus were also estimated as mostly foodborne. Water was the primary pathway for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., and person-to-person transmission dominated for six enteric viruses and Shigella spp. Consideration of the point of attribution highlighted the importance of food handling and cross-contamination in the transmission pathway. This study provides source attribution estimates of enteric illness for Canada, considering all possible transmission routes. Further research is necessary to improve our

  4. Approaches to the Surveillance of Foodborne Disease: A Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Laura; Miller, Megge; Cawthorne, Amy; Fearnley, Emily; Kirk, Martyn

    2015-12-01

    Foodborne disease surveillance aims to reduce the burden of illness due to contaminated food. There are several different types of surveillance systems, including event-based surveillance, indicator-based surveillance, and integrated food chain surveillance. These approaches are not mutually exclusive, have overlapping data sources, require distinct capacities and resources, and can be considered a hierarchy, with each level being more complex and resulting in a greater ability to detect and control foodborne disease. Event-based surveillance is generally the least resource-intensive system and makes use of informal data sources. Indicator-based surveillance is seen as traditional notifiable disease surveillance and consists of routinely collected data. Integrated food chain surveillance is viewed as the optimal practice for conducting continuous risk analysis for foodborne diseases, but also requires significant ongoing resources and greater multisectoral collaboration compared to the other systems. Each country must determine the most appropriate structure for their surveillance system for foodborne diseases based on their available resources. This review explores the evidence on the principles, minimum capabilities, and minimum requirements of each type of surveillance and discusses examples from a range of countries. This review forms the evidence base for the Strengthening the Surveillance and Response for Foodborne Diseases: A Practical Manual.

  5. Some Factors Trigger Increasing Foodborne Diseases Cases of Livestock Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Kusumaningsih

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Food is an essential need for various human body activities. Consequently, food must be guaranteed to be free from biological, chemical, and physical contaminants and other hazardous substances that can obstruct health. The presence of various hazardous contaminants in food may result in the appearance of foodborne diseases, i.e. human diseases spread through contaminated food and drinks. Biological contaminants in food can be bacteria, viruses, parasites, moulds, or fungi. The most dangerous biological contaminants that may cause an epidemic disease in human are pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter sakazakii, Shigella, etc. Researchers believe that there are several factors that can be the trigger that increase of foodborne diseases cases such as community demography by increasing the individual groups that are more susceptible to pathogenic foodborne infections, human behaviour related to the changes in the community life style and consumption, the advances in industrial and technological sectors through the increase of large scale food industries concentrated in one location, the global trade or travel, and increasing bacterial resistances against antimicrobials as the result of the increasing the uses of antimicrobials for disease prevention and cure in animals and humans.

  6. Incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food--Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. sites, 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crim, Stacy M; Iwamoto, Martha; Huang, Jennifer Y; Griffin, Patricia M; Gilliss, Debra; Cronquist, Alicia B; Cartter, Matthew; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Blythe, David; Smith, Kirk; Lathrop, Sarah; Zansky, Shelley; Cieslak, Paul R; Dunn, John; Holt, Kristin G; Lance, Susan; Tauxe, Robert; Henao, Olga L

    2014-04-18

    Foodborne disease continues to be an important problem in the United States. Most illnesses are preventable. To evaluate progress toward prevention, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food in 10 U.S. sites, covering approximately 15% of the U.S. population. This report summarizes preliminary 2013 data and describes trends since 2006. In 2013, a total of 19,056 infections, 4,200 hospitalizations, and 80 deaths were reported. For most infections, incidence was well above national Healthy People 2020 incidence targets and highest among children aged <5 years. Compared with 2010-2012, the estimated incidence of infection in 2013 was lower for Salmonella, higher for Vibrio, and unchanged overall.† Since 2006-2008, the overall incidence has not changed significantly. More needs to be done. Reducing these infections requires actions targeted to sources and pathogens, such as continued use of Salmonella poultry performance standards and actions mandated by the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). FoodNet provides federal and state public health and regulatory agencies as well as the food industry with important information needed to determine if regulations, guidelines, and safety practices applied across the farm-to-table continuum are working.

  7. Preliminary incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food - Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. sites, 2006-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crim, Stacy M; Griffin, Patricia M; Tauxe, Robert; Marder, Ellyn P; Gilliss, Debra; Cronquist, Alicia B; Cartter, Matthew; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Blythe, David; Smith, Kirk; Lathrop, Sarah; Zansky, Shelley; Cieslak, Paul R; Dunn, John; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly; Henao, Olga L

    2015-05-15

    Foodborne illnesses represent a substantial, yet largely preventable, health burden in the United States. In 10 U.S. geographic areas, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food. This report summarizes preliminary 2014 data and describes changes in incidence compared with 2006-2008 and 2011-2013. In 2014, FoodNet reported 19,542 infections, 4,445 hospitalizations, and 71 deaths. The incidence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium infections declined in 2014 compared with 2006-2008, and the incidence of infection with Campylobacter, Vibrio, and Salmonella serotypes Infantis and Javiana was higher. Compared with 2011-2013, the incidence of STEC O157 and Salmonella Typhimurium infections was lower, and the incidence of STEC non-O157 and Salmonella serotype Infantis infections was higher in 2014. Despite ongoing food safety efforts, the incidence of many infections remains high, indicating that further prevention measures are needed to make food safer and achieve national health objectives.

  8. Efficacy and predictors of success of noninvasive ventilation for prevention of extubation failure in critically ill children with heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Punkaj; Kuperstock, Jacob E; Hashmi, Sana; Arnolde, Vickie; Gossett, Jeffrey M; Prodhan, Parthak; Venkataraman, Shekhar; Roth, Stephen J

    2013-04-01

    The study aimed primarily to evaluate the efficacy of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and to identify possible predictors for success of NIV therapy in preventing extubation failure in critically ill children with heart disease. The secondary objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy of prophylactic NIV therapy initiated immediately after tracheal extubation and to determine the characteristics, outcomes, and complications associated with NIV therapy in pediatric cardiac patients. A retrospective review examined the medical records of all children between the ages 1 day and 18 years who sustained acute respiratory failure (ARF) that required NIV in the cardiovascular intensive care unit (CVICU) at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital between January 2008 and June 2010. Patients were assigned to a prophylactic group if NIV was started directly after extubation and to a nonprophylactic group if NIV was started after signs and symptoms of ARF developed. Patients were designated as responders if they received NIV and did not require reintubation during their CVICU stay and nonresponders if they failed NIV and reintubation was performed. The data collected included demographic data, preexisting conditions, pre-event characteristics, event characteristics, and outcome data. The outcome data evaluated included success or failure of NIV, duration of NIV, CVICU length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, and hospital mortality. The two complications of NIV assessed in the study included nasal bridge or forehead skin necrosis and pneumothorax. The 221 eligible events during the study period involved 172 responders (77.8 %) and 49 nonresponders (22.2 %). A total of 201 events experienced by the study cohort received continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), with 156 responders (78 %), whereas 20 events received bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP), with 16 responders (80 %). In the study, 58 events (26.3 %) were assigned to the prophylactic group and 163 events (73

  9. Effectiveness of preventive support groups for children of mentally ill or addicted parents: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Santvoort, Floor; Hosman, Clemens M H; van Doesum, Karin T M; Janssens, Jan M A M

    2014-06-01

    In various countries preventive support groups are offered to children of mentally ill and/or addicted parents to reduce the risk that they will develop problems themselves. This study assessed the effectiveness of Dutch support groups for children aged 8-12 years old in terms of reducing negative cognitions; improving social support, competence, and parent-child interaction (direct intervention goals); and reducing emotional and behavioural problems (ultimate intervention aim). Children from 254 families were randomly assigned to the intervention or a control condition. Parents and children completed questionnaires at baseline and 3 and 6 months later. Emotional and behavioural problems of intervention group children were also assessed 1 year after the start. Univariate analyses of variance showed that children in the intervention group experienced a greater decrease in negative cognitions and sought more social support, immediately after participation and 3 months later, as compared to control group children. They also remained stable in their feelings of social acceptance (competence aspect) immediately after the intervention, whereas these feelings declined in control group children. The intervention and control groups both improved over time in terms of cognitions, competence, parent-child interaction and emotional and behavioural problem scores. Additional improvement in terms of problem scores was found in the intervention group 1 year after baseline. Further enhancement of effectiveness requires re-consideration of the support group goals; it should be studied whether the goals reflect the most important and influential risk and protective factors for this specific population. Besides, effects should be studied over a longer period.

  10. Household costs of dengue illness: secondary outcomes from a randomised controlled trial of dengue prevention in Guerrero state, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Morales-Pérez, Arcadio; Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Serrano-de Los Santos, Felipe René; Dimas-Garcia, Diana Lisseth; Ledogar, Robert J; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2017-05-30

    Dengue is a serious public health problem with an important economic impact. This study used data from a cluster randomised controlled trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention to estimate the household costs of treatment of dengue illness. It examined the economic impact of the trial intervention in the three coastal regions of Mexico's Guerrero State. The 2010 baseline survey covered households in a random sample of 90 clusters in the coastal regions; the clusters were randomly allocated to intervention or control and re-surveyed in 2012. The surveys asked about dengue cases in the last 12 months, expenditures on their treatment, and work or school days lost by patients and care givers. We did not assign monetary value to days lost, since a lost day to a person of low earning power is of equal or higher value to that person than to one who earns more. The 12,312 households in 2010 reported 1020 dengue cases in the last 12 months (1.9% of the sample population). Most (78%) were ambulatory cases, with a mean cost of USD 51 and 10.8 work/school days, rising to USD 96 and 11.4 work/school days if treated by a private physician. Hospitalised cases cost USD 28-94 in government institutions and USD 392 in private hospitals (excluding additional inpatient charges), as well as 9.6-17.3 work/school days. Dengue cases cost households an estimated 412,825 work/school days throughout the three coastal regions. In the follow up survey, 6.1% (326/5349) of households in intervention clusters and 7.9% (405/5139) in control clusters reported at least one dengue case. The mean of days lost per case was similar in intervention and control clusters, but the number of days lost from dengue and all elements of costs for dengue cases per 1000 population were lower in intervention clusters. If the total population of the three coastal regions had received the intervention, some 149,401 work or school days lost per year could have been prevented. The economic effect of

  11. Selection tool for foodborne norovirus outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Linda P B; Kroneman, Annelies; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; Boshuizen, Hendriek; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Koopmans, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Detection of pathogens in the food chain is limited mainly to bacteria, and the globalization of the food industry enables international viral foodborne outbreaks to occur. Outbreaks from 2002 through 2006 recorded in a European norovirus surveillance database were investigated for virologic and epidemiologic indicators of food relatedness. The resulting validated multivariate logistic regression model comparing foodborne (n = 224) and person-to-person (n = 654) outbreaks was used to create a practical web-based tool that can be limited to epidemiologic parameters for nongenotyping countries. Non-genogroup-II.4 outbreaks, higher numbers of cases, and outbreaks in restaurants or households characterized (sensitivity = 0.80, specificity = 0.86) foodborne outbreaks and reduced the percentage of outbreaks requiring source-tracing to 31%. The selection tool enabled prospectively focused follow-up. Use of this tool is likely to improve data quality and strain typing in current surveillance systems, which is necessary for identification of potential international foodborne outbreaks.

  12. Difficulties in Diagnosing Food-Borne Botulism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Forss

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a muscle-paralyzing disease caused by neurotoxins (types A–G produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Symptoms of food-borne botulism most commonly appear 12–36 h after eating contaminated food, but the earliest neurological symptoms may in some cases start abruptly. Here, we report the cases of two patients with food-borne botulism who were admitted to the neurological emergency room as candidates for intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke.

  13. EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2016 for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Igor; Dean, Amy; Eger, Horst; Hubmann, Gerhard; Jandrisovits, Reinhold; Kern, Markus; Kundi, Michael; Moshammer, Hanns; Lercher, Piero; Müller, Kurt; Oberfeld, Gerd; Ohnsorge, Peter; Pelzmann, Peter; Scheingraber, Claus; Thill, Roby

    2016-09-01

    , the emerging electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is more and more recognized by health authorities, disability administrators and case workers, politicians, as well as courts of law. We recommend treating EHS clinically as part of the group of chronic multisystem illnesses (CMI), but still recognizing that the underlying cause remains the environment. In the beginning, EHS symptoms occur only occasionally, but over time they may increase in frequency and severity. Common EHS symptoms include headaches, concentration difficulties, sleep problems, depression, a lack of energy, fatigue, and flu-like symptoms. A comprehensive medical history, which should include all symptoms and their occurrences in spatial and temporal terms and in the context of EMF exposures, is the key to making the diagnosis. The EMF exposure is usually assessed by EMF measurements at home and at work. Certain types of EMF exposure can be assessed by asking about common EMF sources. It is very important to take the individual susceptibility into account. The primary method of treatment should mainly focus on the prevention or reduction of EMF exposure, that is, reducing or eliminating all sources of high EMF exposure at home and at the workplace. The reduction of EMF exposure should also be extended to public spaces such as schools, hospitals, public transport, and libraries to enable persons with EHS an unhindered use (accessibility measure). If a detrimental EMF exposure is reduced sufficiently, the body has a chance to recover and EHS symptoms will be reduced or even disappear. Many examples have shown that such measures can prove effective. To increase the effectiveness of the treatment, the broad range of other environmental factors that contribute to the total body burden should also be addressed. Anything that supports homeostasis will increase a person's resilience against disease and thus against the adverse effects of EMF exposure. There is increasing evidence that EMF exposure has a

  14. National survey of foodborne viruses in Australian oysters at production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Valeria; Hodgson, Kate; McLeod, Catherine; Tan, Jessica; Malhi, Navreet; Turnbull, Alison

    2018-02-01

    Internationally human enteric viruses, such as norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), are frequently associated with shellfish related foodborne disease outbreaks, and it has been suggested that acceptable NoV limits based on end-point testing be established for this high risk food group. Currently, shellfish safety is generally managed through the use of indicators of faecal contamination. Between July 2014 and August 2015, a national prevalence survey for NoV and HAV was done in Australian oysters suitable for harvest. Two sampling rounds were undertaken to determine baseline levels of these viruses. Commercial Australian growing areas, represented by 33 oyster production regions in New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania and Queensland, were included in the survey. A total of 149 and 148 samples were collected during round one and two of sampling, respectively, and tested for NoV and HAV by quantitative RT-PCR. NoV and HAV were not detected in oysters collected in either sampling round, indicating an estimated prevalence for these viruses in Australian oysters of viruses in Australian oysters was consistent with epidemiological evidence, with no oyster-related foodborne viral illness reported during the survey period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Health-related behaviors and effectiveness of trivalent inactivated versus live attenuated influenza vaccine in preventing influenza-like illness among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolpert, Tabitha; Phillips, Christopher J; Sevick, Carter; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Blair, Patrick J; Faix, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the preferred preventive strategy against influenza. Though health behaviors are known to affect immunity and vaccine delivery modes utilize different immune processes, data regarding the preferred influenza vaccine type among adults endorsing specific health-related behaviors (alcohol use, tobacco use, and exercise level) are limited. The relative effectiveness of two currently available influenza vaccines were compared for prevention of influenza-like illness during 2 well-matched influenza seasons (2006/2007, 2008/2009) among US military personnel aged 18-49 years. Relative vaccine effectiveness was compared between those self-reporting and not reporting recent smoking history and potential alcohol problem, and by exercise level using Cox proportional hazard modeling adjusted for sociodemographic and military factors, geographic area, and other health behaviors. 28,929 vaccination events and 3936 influenza-like illness events over both influenza seasons were studied. Of subjects, 27.5% were smokers, 7.7% had a potential alcohol-related problem, 10.5% reported minimal exercise, and 4.4% reported high exercise levels. Overall, the risk of influenza-like illness did not significantly differ between live attenuated and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine recipients (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.06). In the final adjusted model, the relative effectiveness of the 2 vaccine types did not differ by smoking status (p = 0.10), alcohol status (p = 0.21), or activity level (p = 0.11). Live attenuated and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines were similarly effective in preventing influenza-like illness among young adults and did not differ by health-related behavior status. Influenza vaccine efforts should continue to focus simply on delivering vaccine.

  16. EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2015 for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Igor; Dean, Amy; Eger, Horst; Hubmann, Gerhard; Jandrisovits, Reinhold; Johansson, Olle; Kern, Markus; Kundi, Michael; Lercher, Piero; Mosgöller, Wilhelm; Moshammer, Hanns; Müller, Kurt; Oberfeld, Gerd; Ohnsorge, Peter; Pelzmann, Peter; Scheingraber, Claus; Thill, Roby

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases and illnesses associated with unspecific symptoms are on the rise. In addition to chronic stress in social and work environments, physical and chemical exposures at home, at work, and during leisure activities are causal or contributing environmental stressors that deserve attention by the general practitioner as well as by all other members of the health care community. It seems certainly necessary now to take "new exposures" like electromagnetic field (EMF) into account. Physicians are increasingly confronted with health problems from unidentified causes. Studies, empirical observations, and patient reports clearly indicate interactions between EMF exposure and health problems. Individual susceptibility and environmental factors are frequently neglected. New wireless technologies and applications have been introduced without any certainty about their health effects, raising new challenges for medicine and society. For instance, the issue of so-called non-thermal effects and potential long-term effects of low-dose exposure were scarcely investigated prior to the introduction of these technologies. Common EMF sources include Wi-Fi access points, routers and clients, cordless and mobile phones including their base stations, Bluetooth devices, ELF magnetic fields from net currents, ELF electric fields from electric lamps and wiring close to the bed and office desk. On the one hand, there is strong evidence that long-term-exposure to certain EMF exposures is a risk factor for diseases such as certain cancers, Alzheimer's disease and male infertility. On the other hand, the emerging electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is more and more recognized by health authorities, disability administrators and case workers, politicians, as well as courts of law. We recommend treating EHS clinically as part of the group of chronic multisystem illnesses (CMI) leading to a functional impairment (EHS), but still recognizing that the underlying cause remains the

  17. The response of foodborne pathogens to osmotic and desiccation stresses in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Catherine M.; Gianotti, Andrea; Gruzdev, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    In combination with other strategies, hyperosmolarity and desiccation are frequently used by the food processing industry as a means to prevent bacterial proliferation, and particularly that of foodborne pathogens, in food products. However, it is increasingly observed that bacteria, including...... and identifies gaps in knowledge which need to be addressed to ensure the safety of low water activity and desiccated food products....

  18. Foodborne infections and intoxications in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polański, Piotr; Ostrek, Joanna; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of food poisonings and infections in Poland in 2013. The evaluation was based on the analysis of information from reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of food poisonings and infections, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology, NIZP-PZH annual bulletins (Czarkowski MP et al. "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland", 2006-2013. Warsaw, NIPH-NIH and GIS). In 2013 a further decrease in the number of infections and intoxications with bacterial etiology and an increase in the infections of viral etiology was observed. Furthermore 2013 is another year with low number of cases of trichinellosis (9 cases in total). In 2013 a total number of 491 foodborne infections and intoxications outbreaks were reported in which there were 29,179 persons exposed and 5,664 (including 2 193 children up to 14 years of age) persons ill. Hospitalization was required for 1,445 persons. The most frequent etiological agent in those outbreaks was Salmonella spp.--which was responsible for 36,3% of outbreaks and 21,5% of cases. Viruses were responsible for 29,7 of outbreaks and 45,7 cases, in 19,3% of outbreaks no etiological agent was established. Like in 2012 the most frequent vehicle were dishes made from eggs and milk combined with eggs (9,4% of outbreaks). In 65% of outbreaks reported no vehicle could be found. Moreover in 2013 a total number of 3 outbreaks in which more than 100 cases were reported. The increase in the number of foodborne outbreaks of viral etiology shows the need of adjustment some aspects of epidemiological investigations especially such features as: laboratory conformation of etiological agent of ill persons as well as persons involved in the food processing and meals preparing and the aspect of food samples testing.

  19. Development of a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction for rapid and simultaneous identification of common foodborne pathogens in soft cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cremonesi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products can harbor various microorganisms (e.g., Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli arising from animal reservoirs, and which can become important sources of foodborne illness. Therefore, early detection of food pathogens is crucial to prevent diseases. We wished to develop an accurate quantitative protocol based on a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR involving eight individual TaqMan™ reactions to detect simultaneously, without selective enrichment, Listeria spp., L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., verocytotoxin-producing E. coli and Campylobacter spp. in cheese. ddPCR (a third-generation PCR provides absolute quantification of target DNAs without requirement of a standard curve, which simplifies experimentation and data comparability. The accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of the developed ddPCR system were assessed using purified DNA from 50 reference pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains from international or Italian collections and analyzing soft cheese samples artificially contaminated with serial dilutions (from 4×106 to 4×101 CFU/g of pure cultures from the American Type Culture Collection.Finally, the performance of our ddPCR system was compared by parallel testing with quantitative PCR: it gave higher sensitivity (102 CFU/g for the Listeria spp. assay without the necessity of a standard curve.In conclusion, this is the first ddPCR system developed for simultaneous detection of common foodborne pathogens in cheese using a single set of amplification conditions. As such, it could become a useful strategy for high-throughput screening of microorganisms to evaluate the quality and safety of food products.

  20. Development of a Droplet Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction for Rapid and Simultaneous Identification of Common Foodborne Pathogens in Soft Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonesi, Paola; Cortimiglia, Claudia; Picozzi, Claudia; Minozzi, Giulietta; Malvisi, Michela; Luini, Mario; Castiglioni, Bianca

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products can harbor various microorganisms (e.g., Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes , verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli ) arising from animal reservoirs, and which can become important sources of foodborne illness. Therefore, early detection of food pathogens is crucial to prevent diseases. We wished to develop an accurate quantitative protocol based on a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) involving eight individual TaqMan™ reactions to detect simultaneously, without selective enrichment, Listeria spp., L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., verocytotoxin-producing E. coli and Campylobacter spp. in cheese. ddPCR (a "third-generation PCR") provides absolute quantification of target DNAs without requirement of a standard curve, which simplifies experimentation and data comparability. The accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of the developed ddPCR system were assessed using purified DNA from 50 reference pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains from international or Italian collections and analyzing soft cheese samples artificially contaminated with serial dilutions (from 4 × 10 6 to 4 × 10 1 CFU/g) of pure cultures from the American Type Culture Collection. Finally, the performance of our ddPCR system was compared by parallel testing with quantitative PCR: it gave higher sensitivity (10 2 CFU/g for the Listeria spp. assay) without the necessity of a standard curve. In conclusion, this is the first ddPCR system developed for simultaneous detection of common foodborne pathogens in cheese using a single set of amplification conditions. As such, it could become a useful strategy for high-throughput screening of microorganisms to evaluate the quality and safety of food products.

  1. Comparison of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to prevent delirium in critically ill patients: a protocol for a systematic review incorporating network meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burry, L D; Hutton, B; Guenette, M; Williamson, D; Mehta, S; Egerod, I; Kanji, S; Adhikari, N K; Moher, D; Martin, C M; Rose, L

    2016-09-08

    Delirium is characterized by acute changes in mental status including inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered level of consciousness, and is highly prevalent in critically ill adults. Delirium has adverse consequences for both patients and the healthcare system; however, at this time, no effective treatment exists. The identification of effective prevention strategies is therefore a clinical and research imperative. An important limitation of previous reviews of delirium prevention is that interventions were considered in isolation and only direct evidence was used. Our systematic review will synthesize all existing data using network meta-analysis, a powerful statistical approach that enables synthesis of both direct and indirect evidence. We will search Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, and Web of Science from 1980 to March 2016. We will search the PROSPERO registry for protocols and the Cochrane Library for published systematic reviews. We will examine reference lists of pertinent reviews and search grey literature and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for unpublished studies and ongoing trials. We will include randomized and quasi-randomized trials of critically ill adults evaluating any pharmacological, non-pharmacological, or multi-component intervention for delirium prevention, administered in or prior to (i.e., peri-operatively) transfer to the ICU. Two authors will independently screen search results and extract data from eligible studies. Risk of bias assessments will be completed on all included studies. To inform our network meta-analysis, we will first conduct conventional pair-wise meta-analyses for primary and secondary outcomes using random-effects models. We will generate our network meta-analysis using a Bayesian framework, assuming a common heterogeneity parameter across all comparisons, and accounting for correlations in multi-arm studies. We will perform analyses using WinBUGS software. This systematic review

  2. Epidemiology of bacterial toxin-mediated foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks in Australia, 2001 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Fiona J; Polkinghorne, Benjamin G; Fearnley, Emily J

    2016-12-24

    Bacterial toxin-mediated foodborne outbreaks, such as those caused by Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, are an important and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Due to the short incubation period and duration of illness, these outbreaks are often under-reported. This is the first study to describe the epidemiology of bacterial toxin-mediated outbreaks in Australia. Using data collected between 2001 and 2013, we identify high risk groups and risk factors to inform prevention measures. Descriptive analyses of confirmed bacterial toxin-mediated outbreaks between 2001 and 2013 were undertaken using data extracted from the OzFoodNet Outbreak Register, a database of all outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease investigated by public health authorities in Australia. A total of 107 laboratory confirmed bacterial toxin-mediated outbreaks were reported between 2001 and 2013, affecting 2,219 people, including 47 hospitalisations and 13 deaths. Twelve deaths occurred in residents of aged care facilities. Clostridium perfringens was the most commonly reported aetiological agent (81 outbreaks, 76%). The most commonly reported food preparation settings were commercial food preparation services (51 outbreaks, 48%) and aged care facilities (42 outbreaks, 39%). Bacterial toxin outbreaks were rarely associated with food preparation in the home (2 outbreaks, 2%). In all outbreaks, the primary factor contributing to the outbreak was inadequate temperature control of the food. Public health efforts aimed at improving storage and handling practices for pre-cooked and re-heated foods, especially in commercial food preparation services and aged care facilities, could help to reduce the magnitude of bacterial toxin outbreaks.

  3. Early identification systems for emerging foodborne hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, H.J.P.; Kleter, G.A.; Pradini, A.; Dekkers, S.; Bolton, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a non-exhausting overview of early warning systems for emerging foodborne hazards that are operating in the various places in the world. Special attention is given to endpoint-focussed early warning systems (i.e. ECDC, ISIS and GPHIN) and hazard-focussed early warning systems

  4. Rapid methods: the detection of foodborne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, R.R.; Hazeleger, W.C.

    2009-01-01

    Although bacteria are the first type of microorganisms that come to mind when discussing microbial food safety, they are by no means the only pathogenic foodborne microorganisms. Mycotoxin producing moulds, human enteric viruses, protozoan parasites and marine biotoxins are also of importance.

  5. Impacts of globalization on foodborne parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010 an estimated 3% of the world’s population lived outside their country of origin. Among immigrants, tourists, and business travellers worldwide several foodborne parasites are frequently found including Ascaris, Trichiuris, hookworms, Enterobius, Fasciola, Hymenolepis, and several protozoa. T...

  6. Foodborne Disease Outbreaks in the United States: A Historical Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Timothy F; Yackley, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) is important for informing investigation, control, and prevention methods. We examined annual summary FBDO data in the United States from 1938 to 2015, to help understand the epidemiology of outbreaks over time. Due to changes in reporting procedures, before 1998, the mean number of annual outbreaks was 378, and after that, it was 1062. A mean of 42% had a known etiology during 1961-1998; since then the etiology has been identified in ∼65%, with a marked increase in the number of norovirus outbreaks. From 1967 to 1997, a mean of 41% of FBDOs occurred in restaurant settings, increasing to 60% in 1998-2015. Concurrently, the proportion of outbreaks occurring at a home decreased from 25% to 8%. The mean size of outbreaks has decreased over time, and the number of multistate outbreaks has increased. Many social, economic, environmental, technological, and regulatory changes have dramatically affected the epidemiology of foodborne disease over time.

  7. Clinical effectiveness of a silicone foam dressing for the prevention of heel pressure ulcers in critically ill patients: Border II Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, N; Gerdtz, M; Liu, W; Rakis, S; Sage, S; Ng, A W; Tudor, H; McCann, J; Vassiliou, T; Morrow, F; Smith, K; Knott, J; Liew, D

    2015-08-01

    Critically ill patients are at high risk of developing pressure ulcers (PU), with the sacrum and heels being highly susceptible to pressure injuries. The objective of our study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a new multi-layer, self-adhesive soft silicone foam heel dressing to prevent PU development in trauma and critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). A cohort of critically ill patients were enrolled at the Royal Melbourne Hospital. Each patient had the multi-layer soft silicone foam dressing applied to each heel on admission to the emergency department. The dressings were retained with a tubular bandage for the duration of the patients' stay in the ICU. The skin under the dressings was examined daily and the dressings were replaced every three days. The comparator for our cohort study was the control group from the recently completed Border Trial. Of the 191 patients in the initial cohort, excluding deaths, loss to follow-up and transfers to another ward, 150 patients were included in the final analysis. There was no difference in key demographic or physiological variables between the cohorts, apart from a longer ICU length of stay for our current cohort. No PUs developed in any of our intervention cohort patients compared with 14 patients in the control cohort (n=152; psilicone foam dressing under investigation was clinically effective in reducing ICU-acquired heel PUs. The findings also support previous research on the clinical effectiveness of multi-layer soft silicone foam dressings for PU prevention in the ICU.

  8. Giardia: Illness & Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illness & Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Giardia trophozoites stained with trichrome. Credit: Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch, CDC Giardiasis is the most frequently diagnosed intestinal parasitic disease in the United States and among ...

  9. Next generation sequencing-based multigene panel for high throughput detection of food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Chiara; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Ossiprandi, Maria Cristina; Turroni, Francesca; Milani, Christian; Duranti, Sabrina; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Mangifesta, Marta; Alessandri, Giulia; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2017-09-01

    Contamination of food by chemicals or pathogenic bacteria may cause particular illnesses that are linked to food consumption, commonly referred to as foodborne diseases. Bacteria are present in/on various foods products, such as fruits, vegetables and ready-to-eat products. Bacteria that cause foodborne diseases are known as foodborne pathogens (FBPs). Accurate detection methods that are able to reveal the presence of FBPs in food matrices are in constant demand, in order to ensure safe foods with a minimal risk of causing foodborne diseases. Here, a multiplex PCR-based Illumina sequencing method for FBP detection in food matrices was developed. Starting from 25 bacterial targets and 49 selected PCR primer pairs, a primer collection called foodborne pathogen - panel (FPP) consisting of 12 oligonucleotide pairs was developed. The FPP allows a more rapid and reliable identification of FBPs compared to classical cultivation methods. Furthermore, FPP permits sensitive and specific FBP detection in about two days from food sample acquisition to bioinformatics-based identification. The FPP is able to simultaneously identify eight different bacterial pathogens, i.e. Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica, in a given food matrix at a threshold contamination level of 10 1 cell/g. Moreover, this novel detection method may represent an alternative and/or a complementary approach to PCR-based techniques, which are routinely used for FBP detection, and could be implemented in (parts of) the food chain as a quality check. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reaching impaired populations with HIV prevention programs: a clinical trial for homeless mentally ill African-American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, J G; Neff, J A; Theriot, R; Harris, J L; Interrante, J; Graham, M E

    2003-11-01

    This study tested an intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors in a high risk impaired population: homeless African-American, Caucasian and Hispanic men with mental illness. In a comparison group clinical trial, men were assigned to an experimental cognitive-behavioral or a control intervention and followed up over 16 months. Men were recruited from a psychiatric program in two shelters for homeless men in Nashville, Tennessee. An ethnically mixed cohort of subjects (54% African-American, 42% Caucasian and 4% Hispanic) were included in the study. Most had a chronic psychiatric disorder and a co-morbid substance abuse disorder. The 257 participants who were sexually active (130 experimental, 127 control) prior to the trial were the main target of the intervention. An experimental intervention (SexG), adapted from Susser and Associates (51), comprised 6 group sessions. The control intervention was a 6-session HIV educational program. Sexual risk behavior was the primary outcome. The experimental and control groups were compared with respect to the mean score on a sexual risk index. Complete follow-up data were obtained on 257 men (100%) for the initial six-month follow-up. These individuals have been followed for the remainder of the 16-month follow-up. This intervention, (SexG), successfully reduced sexual risk behaviors of homeless mentally ill African-American, Caucasian and Hispanic men. Similar approaches may be effective in other impaired high-risk populations.

  11. Attributing illness to food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.

    2005-01-01

    the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component......Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored...

  12. Attributing illness to food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.

    2005-01-01

    Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored...... the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component...

  13. Malaria prevention reduces in-hospital mortality among severely ill tuberculosis patients: a three-step intervention in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Fina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria and Tuberculosis (TB are important causes of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Malaria prevention reduces mortality among HIV patients, pregnant women and children, but its role in TB patients is not clear. In the TB National Reference Center in Guinea-Bissau, admitted patients are in severe clinical conditions and mortality during the rainy season is high. We performed a three-step malaria prevention program to reduce mortality in TB patients during the rainy season. Methods Since 2005 Permethrin treated bed nets were given to every patient. Since 2006 environmental prevention with permethrin derivates was performed both indoor and outdoor during the rainy season. In 2007 cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was added during the rainy season. Care was without charge; health education on malaria prevention was performed weekly. Primary outcomes were death, discharge, drop-out. Results 427, 346, 549 patients were admitted in 2005, 2006, 2007, respectively. Mortality dropped from 26.46% in 2005 to 18.76% in 2007 (p-value 0.003, due to the significant reduction in rainy season mortality (death/discharge ratio: 0.79, 0.55 and 0.26 in 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively; p-value 0.001 while dry season mortality remained constant (0.39, 0.37 and 0.32; p-value 0.647. Costs of malaria prevention were limited: 2€/person. No drop-outs were observed. Health education attendance was 96-99%. Conclusions Malaria prevention in African tertiary care hospitals seems feasible with limited costs. Vector control, personal protection and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis seem to reduce mortality in severely ill TB patients. Prospective randomized trials are needed to confirm our findings in similar settings. Trial registration number Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN83944306

  14. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Porsbo, Lone Jannok; Boysen, Louise

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2014 in 32 European countries (28 Member States (MS) and four non-MS). Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly re......, molluscs and products thereof’. The report further summarises trends and sources along the food chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile virus and tularaemia....

  15. EFSA and ECDC (European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2013 in 32 European countries (28 Member States and four non-Member States). Campylobacter iosis was the most comm...... chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma , rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile Virus and tularaemia....

  16. Safety in the Heat: a comprehensive program for prevention of heat illness among workers in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Darren; Thomsen, Jens; Harrison, Oliver

    2011-03-01

    The Safety in the Heat program was developed in response to the extreme heat stress conditions experienced by workers in the United Arab Emirates and other Middle Eastern countries each summer, where ambient air temperatures often reach 45°C (135°F) and higher with 90% humidity. A comprehensive, multimedia, economical education and awareness program targeting companies in the region was developed; 465 companies employing 814 996 heat-exposed workers across 6254 work and labor residence sites were reached. Feedback from program participants indicated a high level of support and satisfaction. Results indicated a marked reduction in heat related illness over a period of 2 years (2008-2009) at 2 companies, one of which reported a combined 79.5% decrease in cases (15.3 vs 1.16 cases per 1000 workers) while the other experienced a 50% reduction in serious cases (0.08-0.04 cases per 100,000 work hours).

  17. Emerging Foodborne and Agriculture-Related Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, David H

    2016-08-01

    Viruses rapidly evolve and can emerge in unpredictable ways. Transmission pathways by which foodborne viruses may enter human populations and evolutionary mechanisms by which viruses can become virulent are discussed in this chapter. A majority of viruses emerge from zoonotic animal reservoirs, often by adapting and infecting intermediate hosts, such as domestic animals and livestock. Viruses that are known foodborne threats include hepatitis E virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, adenovirus, and astroviruses, among others. Viruses may potentially evolve and emerge as a result of modern agricultural practices which can concentrate livestock and bring them into contact with wild animals. Examples of viruses that have emerged in this manner are influenza, coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome, and the Nipah virus. The role of bats, bush meat, rodents, pigs, cattle, and poultry as reservoirs from which infectious pathogenic viruses emerge are discussed.

  18. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2014. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Helle; Helwigh, Birgitte; Sørensen, Anna Irene Vedel

    to prevent zoonoses from occurring, it is important to identify which animals and foodstuffs are the main sources of infection. For this purpose information aimed at protecting human health is collected and analysed from all European Union Member States. In 2012, 27 Member States submitted information......,bacterial toxins, viruses and Campylobacter. The most important food sources of the outbreaks were eggs and egg products, followed by mixed food and fish and fish products. Overall, 16 waterborne outbreaks were reported in 2012, caused by calicivirus,verocytotoxigenic E. coli, Cryptosporidium parvum and rotavirus....

  19. 77 FR 74193 - Request for Information on Edel-Kindwall Caisson Tables for Preventing Decompression Illness in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ...-0012; NIOSH-254] Request for Information on Edel-Kindwall Caisson Tables for Preventing Decompression... on decompression tables used for protecting tunneling (caisson) workers from developing decompression... stabilize unstable soil conditions. Caisson work (a water-tight structure that allows underwater...

  20. The clinical impact and preventability of ventilator-associated conditions in critically ill patients who are mechanically ventilated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscedere, John; Sinuff, Tasnim; Heyland, Daren K; Dodek, Peter M; Keenan, Sean P; Wood, Gordon; Jiang, Xuran; Day, Andrew G; Laporta, Denny; Klompas, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Ventilator-associated conditions (VACs) and infection-related ventilator-associated complications (iVACs) are the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's new surveillance paradigms for patients who are mechanically ventilated. Little is known regarding the clinical impact and preventability of VACs and iVACs and their relationship to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). We evaluated these using data from a large, multicenter, quality-improvement initiative. We retrospectively applied definitions for VAC and iVAC to data from a prospective time series study in which VAP clinical practice guidelines were implemented in 11 North American ICUs. Each ICU enrolled 30 consecutive patients mechanically ventilated > 48 h during each of four study periods. Data on clinical outcomes and concordance with prevention recommendations were collected. VAC, iVAC, and VAP rates over time, the agreement (κ statistic) between definitions, associated morbidity/mortality, and independent risk factors for each were determined. Of 1,320 patients, 139 (10.5%) developed a VAC, 65 (4.9%) developed an iVAC, and 148 (11.2%) developed VAP. The agreement between VAP and VAC was 0.18, and between VAP and iVAC it was 0.19. Patients who developed a VAC or iVAC had significantly more ventilator days, hospital days, and antibiotic days and higher hospital mortality than patients who had neither of these conditions. Increased concordance with VAP prevention guidelines during the study was associated with decreased VAP and VAC rates but no change in iVAC rates. VACs and iVACs are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although the agreement between VAC, iVAC, and VAP is poor, a higher adoption of measures to prevent VAP was associated with lower VAP and VAC rates.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne disease outbreaks: United States, 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROWN, A. C.; GRASS, J. E.; RICHARDSON, L. C.; NISLER, A. L.; BICKNESE, A. S.; GOULD, L. H.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Although most non-typhoidal Salmonella illnesses are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment is critical for invasive infections. To describe resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne outbreaks in the United States, we linked outbreaks submitted to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System to isolate susceptibility data in the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Resistant outbreaks were defined as those linked to one or more isolates with resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug. Multidrug resistant (MDR) outbreaks had at least one isolate resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. Twenty-one per cent (37/176) of linked outbreaks were resistant. In outbreaks attributed to a single food group, 73% (16/22) of resistant outbreaks and 46% (31/68) of non-resistant outbreaks were attributed to foods from land animals (P outbreaks from land animals and 8% (3/40) of outbreaks from plant products (P outbreaks attributed to foods from land animals than outbreaks from foods from plants or aquatic animals. Antimicrobial susceptibility data on isolates from foodborne Salmonella outbreaks can help determine which foods are associated with resistant infections. PMID:27919296

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne disease outbreaks: United States, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A C; Grass, J E; Richardson, L C; Nisler, A L; Bicknese, A S; Gould, L H

    2017-03-01

    Although most non-typhoidal Salmonella illnesses are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment is critical for invasive infections. To describe resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne outbreaks in the United States, we linked outbreaks submitted to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System to isolate susceptibility data in the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Resistant outbreaks were defined as those linked to one or more isolates with resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug. Multidrug resistant (MDR) outbreaks had at least one isolate resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. Twenty-one per cent (37/176) of linked outbreaks were resistant. In outbreaks attributed to a single food group, 73% (16/22) of resistant outbreaks and 46% (31/68) of non-resistant outbreaks were attributed to foods from land animals (P outbreaks from land animals and 8% (3/40) of outbreaks from plant products (P outbreaks attributed to foods from land animals than outbreaks from foods from plants or aquatic animals. Antimicrobial susceptibility data on isolates from foodborne Salmonella outbreaks can help determine which foods are associated with resistant infections.

  3. The impact of oral care on oral health status and prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Abdullah; Shafipour, Vida; Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Gholipour Baradari, Afshin; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid

    2017-03-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is one of the most common nosocomial infections which increase mortality rate and length stay of hospitalisation. Oral care would not only improve patient's oral health and well-being, but it can also reduce the incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia. The objective of this study was to identify the impact of oral care practices on oral health status of patients in intensive care unit and the incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia. This clinical trial recruited 100 participants who were randomly assigned to a control group (receiving oral care by nurses) and an intervention group (receiving systematic care by the researcher) during 2015-2016. Beck Oral Assessment Scale was used to determine the required number of times for receiving oral care with regard to patient's oral health in the intervention group. Each care included adjusting endotracheal tube cuff pressure, brushing with toothpaste, using antiseptics and moistening the lips. The oral cavity was examined using BOAS and Mucosal-Plaque Score, and Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score was used for detecting pneumonia. The BOAS scoring showed significant differences between the two groups from the first to fifth day (P<0.001). The mucosal-plaque index was significantly different between the two groups from the third day to fifth day (P<0.001). The incidence rate of pneumonia on the third and fifth day was 10% (5) and 14% (7) in the control group, and 4% (2) and 10% (5) in the intervention group, respectively. The Fisher test did not show significant difference (P=0.538), however, the incidence rate in the intervention group reduced compared with the control group. Although following a systematic oral care program could not significantly decrease the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients compared to the conventional oral care practices, it significantly improved the oral health and mucosal-plaque index. Copyright © 2016

  4. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 11 Foodborne Parasitic Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Torgerson

    2015-12-01

    toxoplasmosis with 825,000 DALYs (95% UI 561,000-1.26 million resulted in the highest burdens in terms of DALYs, mainly due to years lived with disability. Foodborne enteric protozoa, reported elsewhere, resulted in an additional 67.2 million illnesses or 492,000 DALYs. Major limitations of our study include often substantial data gaps that had to be filled by imputation and suffer from the uncertainties that surround such models. Due to resource limitations it was also not possible to consider all potentially foodborne parasites (for example Trypanosoma cruzi.Parasites are frequently transmitted to humans through contaminated food. These estimates represent an important step forward in understanding the impact of foodborne diseases globally and regionally. The disease burden due to most foodborne parasites is highly focal and results in significant morbidity and mortality among vulnerable populations.

  5. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 11 Foodborne Parasitic Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Paul R; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Willingham, Arve Lee; Kasuga, Fumiko; Rokni, Mohammad B; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Fèvre, Eric M; Sripa, Banchob; Gargouri, Neyla; Fürst, Thomas; Budke, Christine M; Carabin, Hélène; Kirk, Martyn D; Angulo, Frederick J; Havelaar, Arie; de Silva, Nilanthi

    2015-12-01

    with 825,000 DALYs (95% UI 561,000-1.26 million) resulted in the highest burdens in terms of DALYs, mainly due to years lived with disability. Foodborne enteric protozoa, reported elsewhere, resulted in an additional 67.2 million illnesses or 492,000 DALYs. Major limitations of our study include often substantial data gaps that had to be filled by imputation and suffer from the uncertainties that surround such models. Due to resource limitations it was also not possible to consider all potentially foodborne parasites (for example Trypanosoma cruzi). Parasites are frequently transmitted to humans through contaminated food. These estimates represent an important step forward in understanding the impact of foodborne diseases globally and regionally. The disease burden due to most foodborne parasites is highly focal and results in significant morbidity and mortality among vulnerable populations.

  6. Protecting the health of the @hlete: how online technology may aid our common goal to prevent injury and illness in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Evert; Bolling, Caroline

    2015-09-01

    Online technology dominates our era and eHealth has become a reality for sports clinicians and researchers. Contemporary online platforms enable self-monitoring and provide tailored feedback to the different stakeholders who play a role in the health and care of athletes. Innovations such as digital monitoring, mobile applications and connected hardware provide the critical tools to solve current enigmas in sports medicine research, and to streamline and facilitate injury prevention, management and rehabilitation. eHealth is not an emerging future of sports medicine-the technology to move our field forward in terms of research and practice is already available. This Analysis is based on Evert Verhagen's keynote presentation at the IOC World Conference on Injury and Illness Prevention in Sport (Monaco, 12 April 2014). It outlines the use of eHealth in research, implementation and practice, and provides an overview of possibilities and opportunities that existing and emerging eHealth solutions provide for sports and exercise medicine and physiotherapy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Effect of a wearable patient sensor on care delivery for preventing pressure injuries in acutely ill adults: A pragmatic randomized clinical trial (LS-HAPI study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickham, David; Berte, Nic; Pihulic, Mike; Valdez, Andre; Mayer, Barbara; Desai, Manisha

    2018-04-01

    Though theoretically sound, studies have failed to demonstrate the benefit of routine repositioning of at-risk patients for the prevention of hospital acquired pressure injuries. To assess the clinical effectiveness of a wearable patient sensor to improve care delivery and patient outcomes by increasing the total time with turning compliance and preventing pressure injuries in acutely ill patients. Pragmatic, investigator initiated, open label, single site, randomized clinical trial. Two Intensive Care Units in a large Academic Medical Center in California. Consecutive adult patients admitted to one of two Intensive Care Units between September 2015 to January 2016 were included (n = 1564). Of the eligible patients, 1312 underwent randomization. Patients received either turning care relying on traditional turn reminders and standard practices (control group, n = 653), or optimal turning practices, influenced by real-time data derived from a wearable patient sensor (treatment group, n = 659). The primary and secondary outcomes of interest were occurrence of hospital acquired pressure injury and turning compliance. Sensitivity analysis was performed to compare intention-to-treat and per-protocol effects. The mean age was 60 years (SD, 17 years); 55% were male. We analyzed 103,000 h of monitoring data. Overall the intervention group had significantly fewer Hospital Acquired Pressure Injuries during Intensive Care Unit admission than the control group (5 patients [0.7%] vs. 15 patients [2.3%] (OR = 0.33, 95%CI [0.12, 0.90], p = 0.031). The total time with turning compliance was significantly different in the intervention group vs. control group (67% vs 54%; difference 0.11, 95%CI [0.08, 0.13], p < 0.001). Turning magnitude (21°, p = 0.923) and adequate depressurization time (39%, p = 0.145) were not statistically different between groups. Among acutely ill adult patients requiring Intensive Care Unit admission, the provision of

  8. [Foodborne disease outbreaks surveillance in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, Andrea; Díaz, Janepsy; Fuentes, Rodrigo; Vaquero, Alejandra; García, Maritza

    2012-10-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks are one of the main health problems globally, having an extensive impact on human welfare. The World Health Organization considers them as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, and responsible for high levels of loss of productivity in developed countries. To describe the epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks according to data contained in an automated surveillance system. Descriptive observational study of notified outbreaks from the surveillance system, between 2005 and 2010 in Chile. The information was based on etiology, temporal and spatial distribution, and epidemiologic description of outbreaks during this period. There were 5,689 notified outbreaks. Most of them occurred during 2006 (1,106 outbreaks, rate 6.7 per 100,000 inhabitants) and 2008 (1,316 outbreaks, rate 7.9 per 100, 000 inhabitants) with an increase during summer. Fifty four percent occurred in the Metropolitan region. The group aged 15 to 44 years old, was the most affected one. Sixty four percent of the outbreaks had the food involved registered, of which fish and fishery products reached 42%. An 81% of the outbreaks did not have a precise etiologic diagnosis. Of all patients involved, 97% were outpatients, 3,2% were hospitalized patients, and 0,1% died. Only 49% of the outbreaks had information about the lack of food safety, with a 34,1% related to food handling procedures. Through the information on the epidemiology of foodborne diseases obtained by the Chilean surveillance system, appropriate control measures could be taken.

  9. TheBrain Gamesstudy: protocol for a randomised controlled trial of computerised cognitive training for preventing mental illness in adolescents with high-risk personality styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewton, Louise; Hodge, Antoinette; Gates, Nicola; Visontay, Rachel; Teesson, Maree

    2017-09-25

    A broad range of mental disorders are now understood as aberrations of normal adolescent brain development. In both adolescents and adults, executive dysfunction has been implicated across a range of mental illnesses, and enhancing executive functioning may prove to be a useful prevention strategy for adolescents at risk for a range of psychopathology. This study will consist of a double-blind, randomised controlled trial with a 12-month follow-up period. Participants will consist of 200 people aged 16-24 years who are at risk for a range of mental disorders based on personality risk factors, but have not experienced a lifetime mental illness as determined by a structured diagnostic interview. Participants will be randomly allocated to either an intervention group who complete an online cognitive training programme specifically targeting executive functioning ability or a control group who complete an online cognitive training programme that has limited executive functioning training potential. Superiority of the executive functioning training programme compared with the control training programme will be assessed at baseline, post-training and at 3-month, 6-month and 12-month follow-up. All assessments will be conducted online. The primary outcome of the study will be general psychopathology as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will include executive functioning ability, day-to-day functioning and alcohol consumption. All analyses will be undertaken using mixed-model repeated measures analysis of variance with planned contrasts. Ethics approval has been obtained from the University of New South Wales Human Research Ethics Committee (HC15094). Results of the trial immediately post-treatment and at 12 months follow-up will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. ACTRN12616000127404; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All

  10. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in Preventing Influenza Illness Among Children During School-based Outbreaks in the 2014-2015 Season in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Peng; Thompson, Mark G; Pan, Yang; Ma, Chunna; Wu, Shuangsheng; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Man; Duan, Wei; Wang, Quanyi

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about vaccine effectiveness (VE) against nonmedically attended A(H3N2) influenza illness during 2014-2015 when the vaccine component appeared to be a poor match with circulating strains. Forty-three eligible school influenza outbreaks in Beijing, China, from November 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014, were included in this study. The VE of 2014-2015 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) was assessed in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza among school-age children through a case-control design, using asymptomatic controls. Influenza vaccination was documented from a vaccination registry. VE was estimated adjusting for age group, sex, rural versus urban area, body mass index, chronic conditions, onset week and schools through a mixed effects logistic regression model. The average coverage rate of 2014-2015 IIV3 among students across the 43 schools was 47.6%. The fully adjusted VE of 2014-2015 IIV3 against laboratory-confirmed influenza was 38% [95% confidence interval (CI): 12%-57%]. Receipt of previous season's (2013-2014) IIV3 significantly modified VE of the 2014-2015 IIV3; children who received both 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 vaccinations had VE of 29% (95% CI: -8% to 53%), whereas VE for children who received 2014-2015 IIV3 only was 54% (95% CI: 8%-77%). VE for 2014-2015 IIV3 against A(H3N2) illness identified in schools was modest. Children who did not receive the prior season's vaccine with a homologous A(H3N2) component may have enjoyed greater protection than repeated vaccinees.

  11. Sodium Bicarbonate Versus Sodium Chloride for Preventing Contrast-Associated Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valette, Xavier; Desmeulles, Isabelle; Savary, Benoit; Masson, Romain; Seguin, Amélie; Sauneuf, Bertrand; Brunet, Jennifer; Verrier, Pierre; Pottier, Véronique; Orabona, Marie; Samba, Désiré; Viquesnel, Gérald; Lermuzeaux, Mathilde; Hazera, Pascal; Dutheil, Jean-Jacques; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; du Cheyron, Damien

    2017-04-01

    To test whether hydration with bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride reduces the risk of contrast-associated acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. Prospective, double-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled study. Three French ICUs. Critically ill patients with stable renal function (n = 307) who received intravascular contrast media. Hydration with 0.9% sodium chloride or 1.4% sodium bicarbonate administered with the same infusion protocol: 3 mL/kg during 1 hour before and 1 mL/kg/hr during 6 hours after contrast medium exposure. The primary endpoint was the development of contrast-associated acute kidney injury, as defined by the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, 72 hours after contrast exposure. Patients randomized to the bicarbonate group (n = 151) showed a higher urinary pH at the end of the infusion than patients randomized to the saline group (n = 156) (6.7 ± 2.1 vs 6.2 ± 1.8, respectively; p bicarbonate group (absolute risk difference, -1.8%; 95% CI [-12.3% to 8.9%]; p = 0.81). The need for renal replacement therapy (five [3.2%] and six [3.9%] patients; p = 0.77), ICU length of stay (24.7 ± 22.9 and 23 ± 23.8 d; p = 0.52), and mortality (25 [16.0%] and 24 [15.9%] patients; p > 0.99) were also similar between the saline and bicarbonate groups, respectively. Except for urinary pH, none of the outcomes differed between the two groups. Among ICU patients with stable renal function, the benefit of using sodium bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride for preventing contrast-associated acute kidney injury is marginal, if any.

  12. Evaluation of the New Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Ventilator-Associated Event Module and Criteria in Critically Ill Children in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosifidis, Elias; Chochliourou, Elpis; Violaki, Asimenia; Chorafa, Elisavet; Psachna, Stavroula; Roumpou, Afroditi; Sdougka, Maria; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the new adult Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ventilator-associated event (VAE) module in critically ill children and compare with the traditionally used CDC definition for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). DESIGN Retrospective observational study of mechanically ventilated children in a pediatric intensive care unit in Greece January 1-December 31, 2011. METHODS Assessment of new adult CDC VAE module including 3 definition tiers: ventilator-associated condition (VAC), infection-related VAC, and possible/probable ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAE-VAP); comparison with traditional CDC criteria for clinically defined pneumonia in mechanically ventilated children (PNEU-VAP). We recorded Pediatric Risk of Mortality score at admission (PRISM III), number of ventilator-days, and outcome. RESULTS Among 119 patients with mechanical ventilation (median [range] number of ventilator-days, 7 [1-183]), 19 patients experienced VAC. Criteria for VAE-VAP were fulfilled in 12 of 19 patients with VAC (63%). Children with either VAC or VAE-VAP were on ventilation more days than patients without these conditions (16.5 vs 5 d, P=.0006 and 18 vs 5 d, PVAC (31.6%), than the patients without new VAE-VAP (14%, P=.007) or VAC (15%, P=.1), respectively. No significant association was found between PNEU-VAP and death. Incidences of PNEU-VAP and VAE-VAP were similar, but the agreement was poor. CONCLUSIONS VAE-VAP and PNEU-VAP found similar prevalence in critically ill children but with poor agreement. However, excess of death was significantly associated only with VAE-VAP. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016:1-5.

  13. An Online Health Prevention Intervention for Youth with Addicted or Mentally Ill Parents : Experiences and Perspectives of Participants and Providers from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woolderink, Marla; Bindels, Jill A. P. M.; Evers, Silvia M. A. A.; Paulus, Aggie T. G.; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; van Schayck, Onno C. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental illnesses affect many people around the world, either directly or indirectly. Families of persons suffering from mental illness or addiction suffer too, especially their children. In the Netherlands, 864,000 parents meet the diagnostic criteria for a mental illness or addiction.

  14. Do leafy green vegetables and their ready-to-eat [RTE] salads carry a risk of foodborne pathogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercanoglu Taban, Birce; Halkman, A Kadir

    2011-12-01

    Over the past 10 years, there is an increasing demand for leafy green vegetables and their ready-to-eat (RTE) salads since people changed their eating habits because of healthier lifestyle interest. Nevertheless fresh leafy green vegetables and their RTE salads are recognized as a source of food poisoning outbreaks in many parts of the world. However, this increased proportion of outbreaks cannot be completely explained by increased consumption and enhanced surveillance of them. Both in Europe and in the USA, recent foodborne illness outbreaks have revealed links between some pathogens and some leafy green vegetables such as mostly lettuces and spinaches and their RTE salads since fresh leafy green vegetables carry the potential risk of microbiological contamination due to the usage of untreated irrigation water, inappropriate organic fertilizers, wildlife or other sources that can occur anywhere from the farm to the fork such as failure during harvesting, handling, processing and packaging. Among a wide range of pathogens causing foodborne illnesses, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes are the most common pathogens that contaminate leafy green vegetables. Children, the elderly, pregnant women and immunocompromised people are the most at risk for developing complications from foodborne illness as a result of eating contaminated leafy greens or their RTE salads. These outbreaks are mostly restaurant associated or they sometimes spread across several countries by international trade routes. This review summarizes current observations concerning the contaminated leafy green vegetables and their RTE salads as important vehicles for the transmission of some foodborne pathogens to humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks...... broiler chicken flocks....

  16. [Critical illness polyneuropathy and critical illness myopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, A; Günther, A; Witte, O W; Axer, H

    2012-11-01

    Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) and critical illness myopathy (CIM) are frequent complications in critically ill patients and both are associated with sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiorgan failure. Major signs are muscle weakness and problems of weaning from the ventilator. Both CIP and CIM lead to elongated times of ventilation, elongated hospital stay, elongated times of rehabilitation and increased mortality. Electrophysiological measurements help to detect CIP and CIM early in the course of the disease. State of the art sepsis therapy is the major target to prevent the development of CIP and CIM. Although no specific therapy of CIP and CIM has been established in the past, the diagnosis generally improves the therapeutic management (weaning from the ventilator, early physiotherapy, etc.). This review provides an overview of clinical and diagnostic features of CIP and CIM and summarizes current pathophysiological and therapeutic concepts.

  17. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  18. Impacts of globalisation on foodborne parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lucy J; Sprong, Hein; Ortega, Ynes R; van der Giessen, Joke W B; Fayer, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Globalisation is a manmade phenomenon encompassing the spread and movement of everything, animate and inanimate, material and intangible, around the planet. The intentions of globalisation may be worthy--but may also have unintended consequences. Pathogens may also be spread, enabling their establishment in new niches and exposing new human and animal populations to infection. The plethora of foodborne parasites that could be distributed by globalisation has only recently been acknowledged and will provide challenges for clinicians, veterinarians, diagnosticians, and everyone concerned with food safety. Globalisation may also provide the resources to overcome some of these challenges. It will facilitate sharing of methods and approaches, and establishment of systems and databases that enable control of parasites entering the global food chain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxoplasmosis as a food-borne infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đurković-Đaković, O.

    2017-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed parasite that infects all mammals, including one third of the world population. Long known to cause disease in the developing foetus and in immunosuppressed individuals, a body of data that has emerged in the past decades suggests its role in human pathology may be even more important. The WHO and FAO have recently established toxoplasmosis as a foodborne infection of global concern, with a disease burden the greatest of all parasitic infections. Transmission of toxoplasmosis occurs by ingesting tissue cysts from undercooked meat and meat products, and oocysts from the environment with contaminated fresh produce or water. This review provides an update on the current understanding of toxoplasmosis, focusing on the risk of infection from food of animal origin, with particular reference to the risk in Serbia and the region of South-East Europe.

  20. The Efficacy of a Viscoelastic Foam Overlay on Prevention of Pressure Injury in Acutely Ill Patients: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Hee; Park, Joohee

    .6%-27.3% over the 2-week data collection period; P = .001). The maximum IP was significantly lower on the VEFO with standard hospital mattress than on the standard hospital mattress (paired t = 8.87, P < .001). Patients managed with a VEFO had a significantly lower incidence of PI than those managed with a standard hospital mattress. Additional research is needed to further characterize the efficacy of the VEFO, its effect on PI healing, and its effect of PI prevention in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients.

  1. Food-borne zoonoses, the EU zoonosis legislation and the prospects for food safety and consumer protection during primary animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, Frans J M; Vågsholm, Ivar; Korkeala, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    Zoonoses are diseases that are transmitted naturally between animals and humans. The control of food-borne zoonoses within the European Union is a prerequisite for assuring a functional internal market and consequently represents an important item on the political agenda. Unfortunately, until recently, gaining a clear view of the current incidence of food-borne zoonoses and the prevalence of its causative agents has been frustrated by the absence of reliable monitoring and reporting systems. Similarly, it has become clear that, Europe wide, one has witnessed only limited success with regard to the control of important food-borne agents such as Salmonella spp. The European Union has adopted legislation to remedy this situation and to control food-borne zoonoses in primary production. This contribution discusses the incentives for introducing EU Directive 2003/99/EC and EU Regulation No. 2160/2003, summarises their essentials and discusses major ramifications of both pieces of legislation for the prevention of food-borne zoonoses. It is concluded that there is reason for cautious optimism concerning human salmonellosis, while for other food-borne zoonoses there should be a call for action.

  2. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie H Havelaar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD, the World Health Organization (WHO established the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG, which here reports their first estimates of the incidence, mortality, and disease burden due to 31 foodborne hazards. We find that the global burden of FBD is comparable to those of the major infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. The most frequent causes of foodborne illness were diarrheal disease agents, particularly norovirus and Campylobacter spp. Diarrheal disease agents, especially non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, were also responsible for the majority of deaths due to FBD. Other major causes of FBD deaths were Salmonella Typhi, Taenia solium and hepatitis A virus. The global burden of FBD caused by the 31 hazards in 2010 was 33 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs; children under five years old bore 40% of this burden. The 14 subregions, defined on the basis of child and adult mortality, had considerably different burdens of FBD, with the greatest falling on the subregions in Africa, followed by the subregions in South-East Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean D subregion. Some hazards, such as non-typhoidal S. enterica, were important causes of FBD in all regions of the world, whereas others, such as certain parasitic helminths, were highly localised. Thus, the burden of FBD is borne particularly by children under five years old-although they represent only 9% of the global population-and people living in low-income regions of the world. These estimates are conservative, i.e., underestimates rather than overestimates; further studies are needed to address the data gaps and limitations of the study. Nevertheless, all stakeholders can contribute to improvements in food

  3. A randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of soft silicone multi-layered foam dressings in the prevention of sacral and heel pressure ulcers in trauma and critically ill patients: the border trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Nick; Gerdtz, Marie; Sage, Sarah; McCann, Jane; Freeman, Amy; Vassiliou, Theresa; De Vincentis, Stephanie; Ng, Ai Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Liu, Wei; Knott, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    The prevention of hospital acquired pressure ulcers in critically ill patients remains a significant clinical challenge. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effectiveness of multi-layered soft silicone foam dressings in preventing intensive care unit (ICU) pressure ulcers when applied in the emergency department to 440 trauma and critically ill patients. Intervention group patients (n = 219) had Mepilex(®) Border Sacrum and Mepilex(®) Heel dressings applied in the emergency department and maintained throughout their ICU stay. Results revealed that there were significantly fewer patients with pressure ulcers in the intervention group compared to the control group (5 versus 20, P = 0·001). This represented a 10% difference in incidence between the groups (3·1% versus 13·1%) and a number needed to treat of ten patients to prevent one pressure ulcer. Overall there were fewer sacral (2 versus 8, P = 0·05) and heel pressure ulcers (5 versus 19, P = 0·002) and pressure injuries overall (7 versus 27, P = 0·002) in interventions than in controls. The time to injury survival analysis indicated that intervention group patients had a hazard ratio of 0·19 (P = 0·002) compared to control group patients. We conclude that multi-layered soft silicone foam dressings are effective in preventing pressure ulcers in critically ill patients when applied in the emergency department prior to ICU transfer. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Attitudes and beliefs about mental illness among church-based lay health workers: experience from a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission trial in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iheanacho, Theddeus; Kapadia, Daniel; Ezeanolue, Chinenye O; Osuji, Alice A; Ogidi, Amaka G; Ike, Anulika; Patel, Dina; Stefanovics, Elina; Rosenheck, Robert; Obiefune, Michael; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2016-01-02

    Common mental disorders are prevalent in Nigeria. Due to stigma and a limited number of trained specialists, only 10% of adults with mental illness in Nigeria receive any care. The Healthy Beginning Initiative is a community-based maternal/child health program that includes screening for perinatal depression and was implemented by lay, volunteer, church-based health advisors (CHAs). The aim of the study was to assess the beliefs and attitudes about mental illness among the CHAs. The study used a cross-sectional survey of 57 CHAs, who completed a 43-item, self-administered questionnaire that assessed their beliefs and attitudes about mental illness. The response rate was 71%. Respondents were mostly female (79%), married (83%) and aged 40-49 years ( M = 41.16 SD = 10.48). Most endorsed possession by evil spirits (84%), traumatic events (81%) and witchcraft (60%) as causes of mental illness. A majority (69%) believed that people with mental illness were a nuisance, and less than half (46%) believed that mental disorders were illnesses like any other illness. It is concluded that stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about mental illness are common among the CHAs. Training for lay health workers in Nigeria should include education on the known bio-psycho-social basis of mental disorders and the role of social inclusion in recovery.

  5. Nanotechnology in food safety and quality assessment: potentiality of nanoparticles in diagnosis of foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primec Maša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A rapid microbial detection in different biological and environmental material is a key of preventing several foodborne diseases. By implementing nanotechnology into food safety sector, a great step towards successful, reliable and sensible detection methods of foodborne pathogens has been achieved. Therefore, the aim of this review was to illustrate some of the principal functions of nanotechnology-based techniques, used for microbial detection in the last few years. Regarding consumer’s health, the review also discusses the question of safety, concerning human exposure to nanomaterials (NMs. Due to their different composition-unique properties, such as greater penetrability, reactivity and high surface to volume ratio, NMs have been coupled to several biomolecules and integrated in special system devices, resulting in improvement of sensitivity in transmitting biological signal informations in a shorter time. Among all the NMs, gold, magnetic and fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs have been widely used, also in microbial diagnosis. Despite the success of linking nanotechnology to detection of foodborne pathogens, the exposure to various NMs could also be a matter of potential risk to human health, although conclusions still need to be definitely proven.

  6. Foodborne disease in Australia: incidence, notifications and outbreaks. Annual report of the OzFoodNet network, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, OzFoodNet continued to enhance surveillance of foodborne diseases across Australia. The OzFoodNet network expanded to cover all Australian states and territories in 2002. The National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health together with OzFoodNet concluded a national survey of gastroenteritis, which found that there were 17.2 (95% C.I. 14.5-19.9) million cases of gastroenteritis each year in Australia. The credible range of gastroenteritis that may be due to food each year is between 4.0-6.9 million cases with a mid-point of 5.4 million. During 2002, there were 23,434 notifications of eight bacterial diseases that may have been foodborne, which was a 7.7 per cent increase over the mean of the previous four years. There were 14,716 cases of campylobacteriosis, 7,917 cases of salmonellosis, 505 cases of shigellosis, 99 cases of yersiniosis, 64 cases of typhoid, 62 cases of listeriosis, 58 cases of shiga toxin producing E. coli and 13 cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome. OzFoodNet sites reported 92 foodborne disease outbreaks affecting 1,819 persons, of whom 5.6 per cent (103/1,819) were hospitalised and two people died. There was a wide range of foods implicated in these outbreaks and the most common agent was Salmonella Typhimurium. Sites reported two outbreaks with potential for international spread involving contaminated tahini from Egypt resulting in an outbreak of Salmonella Montevideo infection and an outbreak of suspected norovirus infection associated with imported Japanese oysters. In addition, there were three outbreaks associated with animal petting zoos or poultry hatching programs and 318 outbreaks of suspected person-to-person transmission. Sites conducted 100 investigations into clusters of gastrointestinal illness where a source could not be identified, including three multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis. OzFoodNet identified important risk factors for foodborne disease infection, including: Salmonella infections due to chicken and

  7. Prevention of coronary heart disease in people with severe mental illnesses: a qualitative study of patient and professionals' preferences for care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazareth Irwin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with severe mental illness (SMI are at increased risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD and there is growing emphasis on the need to monitor their physical health. However, there is little consensus on how services for the primary prevention of CHD should be organised for this patient group. We explored the views of people with SMI and health professionals from primary care and community mental health teams (CMHTs on how best to provide these services. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of patients with SMI (n = 31 and staff from primary care (n = 10 and community mental health teams (n = 25 in North Central London. Transcripts of the qualitative interviews were analysed using a 'framework' approach to identify the main themes in opinions regarding various service models. Results Cardiovascular risk factors in people with SMI were of concern to participants. However, there was some disagreement about the best way to deliver appropriate care. Although staff felt that primary care should take responsibility for risk factor screening and management, patients favoured CHD screening in their CMHT. Problems with both approaches were identified. These included a lack of familiarity in general practice with SMI and antipsychotic side effects and poor communication of physical health issues to the CMHT. Lack of knowledge regarding CHD risk factor screening and difficulties in interpreting screening results and implementing appropriate interventions exist in secondary care. Conclusion Management of physical health care for people with SMI requires complex solutions that cross the primary-secondary care interface. The views expressed by our participants suggest that neither primary nor secondary care services on their own can provide a comprehensive service for all patients. The increased risk of CHD associated with SMI and antipsychotic medications requires flexible solutions with clear

  8. Antibiotic resistance trends and mechanisms in the foodborne pathogen, Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yizhi; Fang, Liangxing; Xu, Changyun; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-11-23

    Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen and is commonly present in food producing animals. This pathogenic organism is highly adaptable and has become increasingly resistant to various antibiotics. Recently, both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization have designated antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter as a serious threat to public health. For the past decade, multiple mechanisms conferring resistance to clinically important antibiotics have been described in Campylobacter, and new resistance mechanisms constantly emerge in the pathogen. Some of the recent examples include the erm(B) gene conferring macrolide resistance, the cfr(C) genes mediating resistance to florfenicol and other antimicrobials, and a functionally enhanced variant of the multidrug resistance efflux pump, CmeABC. The continued emergence of new resistance mechanisms illustrates the extraordinary adaptability of Campylobacter to antibiotic selection pressure and demonstrate the need for innovative strategies to control antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter. In this review, we will briefly summarize the trends of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter and discuss the mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics used for animal production and important for clinical therapy in humans. A special emphasis will be given to the newly discovered antibiotic resistance.

  9. Biocontrol interventions for inactivation of foodborne pathogens on produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post-harvest interventions for control of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed foods are crucial for food safety. Biocontrol interventions have the primary objective of developing novel antagonists in combinations with physical and chemical interventions to inactivate pathogenic microbes. Ther...

  10. Preventing congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, A; Dietz, V J; Wilson, M; Navin, T R; Jones, J L

    2000-03-31

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Acute infections in pregnant women can be transmitted to the fetus and cause severe illness (e.g., mental retardation, blindness, and epilepsy). An estimated 400-4,000 cases of congenital toxoplasmosis occur each year in the United States. Of the 750 deaths attributed to toxoplasmosis each year, 375 (50%) are believed to be caused by eating contaminated meat, making toxoplasmosis the third leading cause of foodborne deaths in this country. Toxoplasma can be transmitted to humans by three principal routes: a) ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked infected meat; b) ingestion of oocysts, an environmentally resistant form of the organism that cats pass in their feces, with exposure of humans occurring through exposure to cat litter or soil (e.g., from gardening or unwashed fruits or vegetables); and c) a newly infected pregnant woman passing the infection to her unborn fetus. RECOMMENDATIONSFOR PREVENTION: Toxoplasma infection can be prevented in large part by a) cooking meat to a safe temperature (i.e., one sufficient to kill Toxoplasma); b) peeling or thoroughly washing fruits and vegetables before eating; c) cleaning cooking surfaces and utensils afterthey have contacted raw meat, poultry, seafood, or unwashed fruits or vegetables; d) pregnant women avoiding changing cat litter or, if no one else is available to change the cat litter, using gloves, then washing hands thoroughly; and e) not feeding raw or undercooked meat to cats and keeping cats inside to prevent acquisition of Toxoplasma by eating infected prey. Priorities for research were discussed at a national workshop sponsored by CDC in September 1998 and include a) improving estimates of the burden of toxoplasmosis, b) improving diagnostic tests to determine when a person becomes infected with Toxoplasma, and c) determining the applicability of national screening programs. Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be

  11. Effect of Short-Term Supplementation with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food or Micronutrients for Children after Illness for Prevention of Malnutrition: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kam, Saskia; Salse-Ubach, Nuria; Roll, Stephanie; Swarthout, Todd; Gayton-Toyoshima, Sayaka; Jiya, Nma Mohammed; Matsumoto, Akiko; Shanks, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished children annually. Malnutrition is not only caused by lack of food and poor infant and child feeding practices but also by illnesses. Breaking the vicious cycle of illness and malnutrition by providing ill children with nutritional supplementation is a potentially powerful strategy for preventing malnutrition that has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, MSF investigated whether incidence of malnutrition among ill children malnutrition rates. Methods and Findings We investigated the effect of supplementation with ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) and a micronutrient powder (MNP) on the incidence of malnutrition in ill children presenting at an outpatient clinic in Goronyo during February to September 2012. A three-armed, partially-blinded, randomised controlled trial was conducted in children diagnosed as having malaria, diarrhoea, or lower respiratory tract infection. Children aged 6 to 59 mo were randomised to one of three arms: one sachet/d of RUTF; two sachets/d of micronutrients or no supplement (control) for 14 d for each illness over 6 mo. The primary outcome was the incidence of first negative nutritional outcome (NNO) during the 6 mo follow-up. NNO was a study-specific measure used to indicate occurrence of malnutrition; it was defined as low weight-for-height z-score (malnutrition. The lack of effect in Goronyo may be due to a high frequency of morbidity, which probably further affects a child’s nutritional status and children’s ability to escape from the illness–malnutrition cycle. The duration of the supplementation may have been too short or the doses of the supplements may have been too low to mitigate the effects of high morbidity and pre-existing malnutrition. An integrated approach combining prevention and treatment of diseases and treatment of moderate malnutrition, rather than prevention of malnutrition by nutritional

  12. Genetic diversity among food-borne and waterborne norovirus strains causing outbreaks in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysén, Maria; Thorhagen, Margareta; Brytting, Maria; Hjertqvist, Marika; Andersson, Yvonne; Hedlund, Kjell-Olof

    2009-08-01

    A total of 101 food-borne and waterborne outbreaks that were caused by norovirus and that resulted in more than 4,100 cases of illness were reported to the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control from January 2002 to December 2006. Sequence and epidemiological data for isolates from 73 outbreaks were analyzed. In contrast to health care-related outbreaks, no clear seasonality could be observed. Sequence analysis showed a high degree of genetic variation among the noroviruses detected. Genogroup II (GII) viruses were detected in 70% of the outbreaks, and of those strains, strains of GII.4 were the most prevalent and were detected in 25% of all outbreaks. The GII.4 variants detected in global outbreaks in health care settings during 2002, 2004, and 2006 were also found in the food-borne outbreaks. GI strains totally dominated as the cause of water-related (drinking and recreational water) outbreaks and were found in 12 of 13 outbreaks. In 14 outbreaks, there were discrepancies among the polymerase and capsid genotype results. In four outbreaks, the polymerase of the recombinant GII.b virus occurred together with the GII.1 or GII.3 capsids, while the GII.7 polymerase occurred together with the GII.6 and GII.7 capsids. Mixed infections were observed in six outbreaks; four of these were due to contaminated water, and two were due to imported frozen berries. Contaminated food and water serve as important reservoirs for noroviruses. The high degree of genetic diversity found among norovirus strains causing food-borne and waterborne infections stresses the importance of the use of broad reaction detection methods when such outbreaks are investigated.

  13. Estimating the burden of foodborne diseases in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Yuko; Gilmour, Stuart; Ota, Erika; Momose, Yoshika; Onishi, Toshiro; Bilano, Ver Luanni Feliciano; Kasuga, Fumiko; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the burden posed by foodborne diseases in Japan using methods developed by the World Health Organization’s Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Methods Expert consultation and statistics on food poisoning during 2011 were used to identify three common causes of foodborne disease in Japan: Campylobacter and Salmonella species and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). We conducted systematic reviews of English and Japanese literature on the complications caused by these pathogens, by searching Embase, the Japan medical society abstract database and Medline. We estimated the annual incidence of acute gastroenteritis from reported surveillance data, based on estimated probabilities that an affected person would visit a physician and have gastroenteritis confirmed. We then calculated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost in 2011, using the incidence estimates along with disability weights derived from published studies. Findings In 2011, foodborne disease caused by Campylobacter species, Salmonella species and EHEC led to an estimated loss of 6099, 3145 and 463 DALYs in Japan, respectively. These estimated burdens are based on the pyramid reconstruction method; are largely due to morbidity rather than mortality; and are much higher than those indicated by routine surveillance data. Conclusion Routine surveillance data may indicate foodborne disease burdens that are much lower than the true values. Most of the burden posed by foodborne disease in Japan comes from secondary complications. The tools developed by FERG appear useful in estimating disease burdens and setting priorities in the field of food safety. PMID:26478611

  14. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  15. Rapid and Specific Methods to Differentiate Foodborne Pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and the New Species Causing Spotty Liver Disease in Chickens, Campylobacter hepaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Thi Thu Hao; Anwar, Arif; Scott, Peter C; Moore, Robert J

    2018-01-22

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli play a major role in bacteria-related foodborne illness in humans. Recently, a newly identified species, Campylobacter hepaticus, was shown to be the causative agent of spotty liver disease in chickens. The pathogenic potential of C. hepaticus in humans is unknown. This new species contains genes usually used to detect C. jejuni and C. coli in DNA-based detection methods, such as the hippuricase (hipO) gene and the glyA (serine hydroxymethyltransferase) gene, with a high degree of similarity. Therefore, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers used to detect these species need to be evaluated carefully to prevent misidentification of these important Campylobacter species. A multiplex PCR was developed and optimized to simultaneously and specifically identify the presence of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. hepaticus in chicken samples containing high-complexity microbiota. The assay represents a new diagnostic tool for investigating the epidemiology of Campylobacter colonization in poultry and environmental samples. It may also be applicable to the investigation of Campylobacter contamination in food and in outbreaks of campylobacteriosis.

  16. Synergy among thymol, eugenol, berberine, cinnamaldehyde and streptomycin against planktonic and biofilm-associated food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Niu, H; Zhang, W; Mu, H; Sun, C; Duan, J

    2015-05-01

    Essential oils have been found to exert antibacterial, antifungal, spasmolytic, and antiplasmodial activity and therapeutic effect in cancer treatment. In this study, the antibacterial activities of four main essential oils' components (thymol (Thy), eugenol (Eug), berberine (Ber), and cinnamaldehyde (Cin)) were evaluated against two food-borne pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium, either alone or in combination with streptomycin. Checkerboard assay demonstrated that Thy and Cin elicited a synergistic effect with streptomycin against L. monocytogenes, while a synergy existed between Cin or Eug and streptomycin against Salm. Typhimurium. Further experiments showed that this synergy was sufficient to eradicate biofilms formed by these two bacteria. Thus, our data highlighted that the combinations of specific components from essential oils and streptomycin were useful for the treatment of food-borne pathogens, which might help prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance through improving antibiotic effectiveness. This study has shown the synergistic effect of four components of essential oil (thymol, eugenol, berberine and cinnamaldehyde) combined with streptomycin on planktonic and biofilm-associated food-borne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium. These findings indicate that combination of specific components of essential oils with streptomycin may provide alternative methods to overcome the problem of food-borne bacteria both in suspension and in biofilm. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Is it possible to reduce foodborne Campylobacter infections in humans through vaccination of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination has been used successfully over the years to eradicate many serious diseases, but what about human foodborne pathogens, such as Campylobacter? Most human cases of Campylobacter infection are associated with consumption of poultry products. Vaccination of poultry to prevent early...... colonization or to reduce the Campylobacter colonization level may be a viable intervention strategy in the future; however, no commercial Campylobacter vaccine is currently available. This case considers the rationale for such a strategy, the forms it could take and the challenges it would involve....

  18. Effect of Short-Term Supplementation with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food or Micronutrients for Children after Illness for Prevention of Malnutrition: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kam, Saskia; Roll, Stephanie; Swarthout, Todd; Edyegu-Otelu, Grace; Matsumoto, Akiko; Kasujja, Francis Xavier; Casademont, Cristian; Shanks, Leslie; Salse-Ubach, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished children annually. Malnutrition is not only caused by lack of food but also by illnesses and by poor infant and child feeding practices. Breaking the vicious cycle of illness and malnutrition by providing ill children with nutritional supplementation is a potentially powerful strategy for preventing malnutrition that has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, MSF investigated whether incidence of malnutrition among ill children malnutrition rate between 8.4% and 11.5% of which 2% to 3% severe malnutrition, more than half (58%) of the population in the district of Kaabong is considered food insecure. Methods and Findings We investigated the effect of two types of nutritional supplementation on the incidence of malnutrition in ill children presenting at outpatient clinics during March 2011 to April 2012 in Kaabong, Karamoja region, Uganda, a resource-poor region where malnutrition is a chronic problem for its seminomadic population. A three-armed, partially-blinded, randomised controlled trial was conducted in children diagnosed with malaria, diarrhoea, or lower respiratory tract infection. Non-malnourished children aged 6 to 59 mo were randomised to one of three arms: one sachet/d of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), two sachets/d of micronutrient powder (MNP), or no supplement (control) for 14 d for each illness over 6 mo. The primary outcome was the incidence of first negative nutritional outcome (NNO) during the 6 mo follow-up. NNO was a study-specific measure used to indicate progression to moderate or severe acute malnutrition; it was defined as weight-for-height z-score malnutrition in eastern Uganda. The low incidence of malnutrition in this population may warrant a more targeted intervention to improve cost effectiveness. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01497236 PMID:26859481

  19. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  20. Genome-wide fitness analyses of the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in in vitro and in vivo models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Stefan P. W.; Gupta, Srishti; Baig, Abiyad

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of foodborne bacterial illness worldwide. Faecal contamination of meat, especially chicken, during processing represents a key route of transmission to humans. There is a lack of insight into the mechanisms driving C. jejuni growth and survival within hosts......-rich and -poor conditions at 4 degrees C and infection of human gut epithelial cells was assessed by Tn-insertion site sequencing (Tn-seq). A total of 331 homologous gene clusters were essential for fitness during in vitro growth in three C. jejuni strains, revealing that a large part of its genome is dedicated...

  1. Foodborne disease investigation across Australia: annual report of the OzFoodNet network, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, OzFoodNet conducted enhanced surveillance of foodborne diseases across Australia, which covered all states and territories. During 2003, there were 23,250 notifications of eight potentially foodborne diseases, of which 67 per cent and 30 per cent were due to Campylobacter and Salmonella infections respectively. The most common Salmonella serotype was Typhimurium, as in previous years. Most S. Enteritidis were acquired overseas, except for Queensland where 52 per cent of infections were acquired locally. Locally acquired S. Enteritidis infections in Australia were predominantly due to phage type 26. The most common serotype of Shiga toxin producing E. coli was O157, although for 49 per cent of notified infections serotype was unknown due to the use of polymerase chain reaction based screening tests. There were 12 materno-foetal listeriosis infections in 2003, which was an increase compared to recent years. During 2003, there were 444 outbreaks of gastroenteritis and foodborne disease recorded. Ninety-nine of these were of foodborne origin affecting 1,686 persons, hospitalising 105 and causing six deaths. A wide range of agents and foods caused these outbreaks, with Salmonella Typhimurium being the most common pathogen. Outbreaks associated with fish and seafood dishes, poultry meat, and Asian style and imported foods were common. Four outbreaks with international implications were reported: an outbreak of Salmonella in Montevideo involving contaminated tahini from the Middle East and three outbreaks of norovirus infection associated with imported Japanese oysters. Outbreak data indicated a need to monitor food safety in aged care settings, restaurants and catering. Eighty-nine investigations into clusters of gastrointestinal illness where a source could not be identified were conducted, including multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis. One multistate investigation of antibiotic resistant Salmonella Paratyphi b Java identified 18 cases who had recent

  2. Variations in the radiation sensitivity of foodborne pathogens associated with complex ready-to-eat food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommers, Christopher H.; Boyd, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are occasionally associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) sandwiches and other 'heat and eat' multi-component RTE products. Ionizing radiation can inactivate foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and RTE meat products. However, less data are available on the ability of low-dose ionizing radiation, doses under 5 kGy typically used for pasteurization purposes, to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on complex multi-component food products. In this study, the efficacy of ionizing radiation to inactivate Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Yersinia enterocolitica on RTE foods including a 'frankfurter on a roll', a 'beef cheeseburger on a bun' and a 'vegetarian cheeseburger on a bun' was investigated. The average D-10 values, the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log 1 of pathogen, by bacterium species, were 0.61, 0.54, 0.47, 0.36 and 0.15 kGy for Salmonella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Y. enterocolitica, respectively when inoculated onto the three product types. These results indicate that irradiation may be an effective means for inactivating common foodborne pathogens including Salmonella spp, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Y. enterocolitica in complex RTE food products such as 'heat and eat' sandwich products

  3. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelaar, Arie H.; Kirk, Martyn D.; Torgerson, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established...... different burdens of FBD, with the greatest falling on the subregions in Africa, followed by the subregions in South-East Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean D subregion. Some hazards, such as non-typhoidal S. enterica, were important causes of FBD in all regions of the world, whereas others, such as certain...... parasitic helminths, were highly localised. Thus, the burden of FBD is borne particularly by children under five years old-although they represent only 9% of the global population-and people living in low-income regions of the world. These estimates are conservative, i.e., underestimates rather than...

  4. Achieving continuous improvement in reductions in foodborne listeriosis: A risk-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone

    2005-01-01

    is the use of a risk-based approach to identify strategies that will have the greatest impact on reducing foodborne listeriosis. A continuum of risk for listeriosis is observed in the human population, ranging from exquisitely sensitive groups, who are highly immunocompromised and at very high risk......) preventing growth of L. monocytogenes to high numbers in foods; and (3) science-based education messages targeted to susceptible populations and their caregivers. Of these strategies, the Expert Panel concluded that preventing growth of L. monocytogenes to high numbers would have the greatest impact......, and hazard analysis critical control point programs to minimize environmental L. monocytogenes contamination and to prevent cross-contamination in processing plants and at retail; (2) an intensive environmental sampling program in plants processing high-risk foods and an effective corrective action plan...

  5. Determination of histamine in milkfish stick implicated in food-borne poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chen; Kung, Hsien-Feng; Wu, Chien-Hui; Hsu, Hui-Mei; Chen, Hwi-Chang; Huang, Tzou-Chi; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    An incident of food-borne poisoning causing illness in 37 victims due to ingestion of fried fish sticks occurred in September 2014, in Tainan city, southern Taiwan. Leftovers of the victims' fried fish sticks and 16 other raw fish stick samples from retail stores were collected and tested to determine the occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. Two suspected fried fish samples contained 86.6 mg/100 g and 235.0 mg/100 g histamine; levels that are greater than the potential hazard action level (50 mg/100 g) in most illness cases. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected fried fish samples, this food-borne poisoning was strongly suspected to be caused by histamine intoxication. Moreover, the fish species of suspected samples was identified as milkfish (Chanos chanos), using polymerase chain reaction direct sequence analysis. In addition, four of the 16 commercial raw milkfish stick samples (25%) had histamine levels greater than the US Food & Drug Administration guideline of 5.0 mg/100 g for scombroid fish and/or products. Ten histamine-producing bacterial strains, capable of producing 373-1261 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine, were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes (4 strains), Enterobacter cloacae (1 strain), Morganella morganii (2 strains), Serratia marcescens (1 strain), Hafnia alvei (1 strain), and Raoultella orithinolytica (1 strain), by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing with polymerase chain reaction amplification. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Determination of histamine in milkfish stick implicated in food-borne poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An incident of food-borne poisoning causing illness in 37 victims due to ingestion of fried fish sticks occurred in September 2014, in Tainan city, southern Taiwan. Leftovers of the victims' fried fish sticks and 16 other raw fish stick samples from retail stores were collected and tested to determine the occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. Two suspected fried fish samples contained 86.6 mg/100 g and 235.0 mg/100 g histamine; levels that are greater than the potential hazard action level (50 mg/100 g in most illness cases. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected fried fish samples, this food-borne poisoning was strongly suspected to be caused by histamine intoxication. Moreover, the fish species of suspected samples was identified as milkfish (Chanos chanos, using polymerase chain reaction direct sequence analysis. In addition, four of the 16 commercial raw milkfish stick samples (25% had histamine levels greater than the US Food & Drug Administration guideline of 5.0 mg/100 g for scombroid fish and/or products. Ten histamine-producing bacterial strains, capable of producing 373–1261 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine, were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes (4 strains, Enterobacter cloacae (1 strain, Morganella morganii (2 strains, Serratia marcescens (1 strain, Hafnia alvei (1 strain, and Raoultella orithinolytica (1 strain, by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing with polymerase chain reaction amplification.

  7. Salmonellosis outbreak due to chicken contact leading to a foodborne outbreak associated with infected delicatessen workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedican, Erin; Miller, Ben; Ziemer, Brian; LeMaster, Pam; Jawahir, Selina; Leano, Fe; Smith, Kirk

    2010-08-01

    Salmonella is the most common bacterial cause of foodborne outbreaks in the United States. Starting in June 2007, investigation of a cluster of Salmonella Montevideo cases with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns resulted in the identification of an outbreak associated with contact with chickens purchased from a single hatchery. Nine Minnesota cases from May through August 2007 were part of this outbreak. Cases with the outbreak PFGE pattern of Salmonella Montevideo continued to occur in Minnesota after August, but none of these cases reported chicken contact. The majority of these cases resided in the same town in rural Minnesota. Routine interviews revealed that all cases from these counties purchased groceries from the same local grocery store, with two specifically reporting consuming items from the grocery store delicatessen in the week before illness. As a result, an investigation into the delicatessen was initiated. Illness histories and stool samples were collected from all delicatessen employees, and food and environmental samples were collected. None of the employees reported experiencing recent gastrointestinal symptoms, but the outbreak PFGE subtype of Salmonella Montevideo was identified from stool from two food workers. Food and environmental samples collected tested negative for Salmonella. One of the positive employees reported having chickens at home, but the animals did not test positive for Salmonella. The positive food workers were excluded from work until they had two consecutive negative stool cultures for Salmonella. There was no evidence of ongoing transmission thereafter. This was an outbreak of Salmonella Montevideo infections that began as an animal-contact-associated outbreak which subsequently resulted in a foodborne outbreak associated with infected food workers. These outbreaks illustrate the complex epidemiology of salmonellosis.

  8. Survival of foodborne pathogens on inshell walnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessington, Tyann; Theofel, Christopher G; Mitcham, Elizabeth J; Harris, Linda J

    2013-09-16

    reductions of 2.6 and 2.1 log CFU/nut were observed for water- and chlorine-treated walnuts, respectively, after storage for 2 weeks at ambient conditions. Bacterial foodborne pathogens are capable of long-term survival on the surface of inshell walnuts even when initial levels are low. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Resilient information networks for coordination of foodborne disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Liaquat; Hassan, Muhammad Rabiul; Wigand, Rolf T

    2015-04-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks are increasingly being seen as a greater concern by public health authorities. It has also become a global research agenda to identify improved pathways to coordinating outbreak detection. Furthermore, a significant need exists for timely coordination of the detection of potential foodborne disease outbreaks to reduce the number of infected individuals and the overall impact on public health security. This study aimed to offer an effective approach for coordinating foodborne disease outbreaks. First, we identify current coordination processes, complexities, and challenges. We then explore social media surveillance strategies, usage, and the power of these strategies to influence decision-making. Finally, based on informal (social media) and formal (organizational) surveillance approaches, we propose a hybrid information network model for improving the coordination of outbreak detection.

  10. Bacterial food-borne pathogens in Indian food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Food technology and food processing techniques have made tremendous advances in preservation of food and ensuring safety of food by killing food-borne pathogens. In addition to old techniques such as pasteurization, canning, dehydration, fermentation and salting, a number of new techniques such as radiation processing, high pressure technology and pulsed electric field technology are being applied for preservation of food and to ensure food safety. Total Quality Management (TQM) concepts have been developed to take care of food safety from farm to table. Hazard Analysis at Critical Control Points (HACCP) is being applied for mass scale production of food to make food free from pathogens. Despite these advances, food-borne diseases have become one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. About two thirds of all the outbreaks are traced to microbial contaminated food. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, food-borne and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases kill an estimated 2 million people annually, including many children. Food safety is a major concern not only for developing countries but also for the developed countries. A number of factors such as emergence of new food-borne pathogens, development of drug resistance in pathogens, changing life style, globalization of the food supply etc. are responsible for the continuous persistence of food-borne diseases. The food-borne disease outbreaks due to E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Campylobacter, are responsible for recall of many foods resulting in heavy losses to food industry. Due to consumer demand, a number of Ready-To-Eat (RTE) minimally processed foods are increasingly marketed; however, there is increased risk of foodborne diseases with these products. Food Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, has been working on food-borne bacterial pathogens particularly Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio and Aeromonasf

  11. Methodological Framework for World Health Organization Estimates of the Global Burden of Foodborne Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Haagsma, Juanita A; Angulo, Frederick J

    2015-01-01

    The Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) was established in 2007 by the World Health Organization to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases (FBDs). This paper describes the methodological framework developed by FERG's Computational Task Force to transform...

  12. Rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorfar, J

    2011-11-01

    As food safety management further develops, microbiological testing will continue to play an important role in assessing whether Food Safety Objectives are achieved. However, traditional microbiological culture-based methods are limited, particularly in their ability to provide timely data. The present review discusses the reasons for the increasing interest in rapid methods, current developments in the field, the research needs, and the future trends. The advent of biotechnology has introduced new technologies that led to the emergence of rapid diagnostic methods and altered food testing practices. Rapid methods are comprised of many different detection technologies, including specialized enzyme substrates, antibodies and DNA, ranging from simple differential plating media to the use of sophisticated instruments. The use of non-invasive sampling techniques for live animals especially came into focus with the 1990s outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy that was linked to the human outbreak of Creutzfeldt Jakob's Disease. Serology is still an important tool in preventing foodborne pathogens to enter the human food supply through meat and milk from animals. One of the primary uses of rapid methods is for fast screening of large number of samples, where most of them are expected to be test-negative, leading to faster product release for sale. This has been the main strength of rapid methods such as real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Enrichment PCR, where a primary culture broth is tested in PCR, is the most common approach in rapid testing. Recent reports show that it is possible both to enrich a sample and enumerate by pathogen-specific real-time PCR, if the enrichment time is short. This can be especially useful in situations where food producers ask for the level of pathogen in a contaminated product. Another key issue is automation, where the key drivers are miniaturization and multiple testing, which mean that not only one instrument is flexible

  13. Summer Savory: From the Selection of Traditional Applications to the Novel Effect in Relief, Prevention, and Treatment of a Number of Serious Illnesses such as Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafie Hamidpour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Savory (Satureja L. plant species have been used for centuries as culinary herbs and spices, as well as traditional remedies for the treatment or relief of various common health symptoms in many parts of the world. Recent studies suggest that the use of some Satureja species is effective in protecting the body against oxidative stress, free radical damage, inflammation, microbial infections, etc., A review of many studies suggests that savory species, in addition to treating minor ordinary ailments, can potentially provide a novel natural prevention or treatment for some chronic and serious illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and Alzheimer’s.

  14. Microfluidic devices for sample preparation and rapid detection of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Krishna; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Dave, Vivek Priy; Ngo, Tien Anh; Chidambara, Vinayaka Aaydha; Than, Linh Quyen; Bang, Dang Duong; Wolff, Anders

    2018-03-10

    Rapid detection of foodborne pathogens at an early stage is imperative for preventing the outbreak of foodborne diseases, known as serious threats to human health. Conventional bacterial culturing methods for foodborne pathogen detection are time consuming, laborious, and with poor pathogen diagnosis competences. This has prompted researchers to call the current status of detection approaches into question and leverage new technologies for superior pathogen sensing outcomes. Novel strategies mainly rely on incorporating all the steps from sample preparation to detection in miniaturized devices for online monitoring of pathogens with high accuracy and sensitivity in a time-saving and cost effective manner. Lab on chip is a blooming area in diagnosis, which exploits different mechanical and biological techniques to detect very low concentrations of pathogens in food samples. This is achieved through streamlining the sample handling and concentrating procedures, which will subsequently reduce human errors and enhance the accuracy of the sensing methods. Integration of sample preparation techniques into these devices can effectively minimize the impact of complex food matrix on pathogen diagnosis and improve the limit of detections. Integration of pathogen capturing bio-receptors on microfluidic devices is a crucial step, which can facilitate recognition abilities in harsh chemical and physical conditions, offering a great commercial benefit to the food-manufacturing sector. This article reviews recent advances in current state-of-the-art of sample preparation and concentration from food matrices with focus on bacterial capturing methods and sensing technologies, along with their advantages and limitations when integrated into microfluidic devices for online rapid detection of pathogens in foods and food production line. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. FOODBORNE VIRUSES AND FOOD HANDLERS TRAINING: A SPECIFIC PROJECT FOR OFFICIAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tentenni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to describe the results of an official control project forwarded on the evaluation of prevention of foodborne viruses diseases. The authors describe the real diffusion of noroviruses and sapoviruses including their general features. The Official control carried out is focused on the valuation of specific prevention measures put in place by food business operators in order to avoid fecal-oral contaminations. Assessment on procedures on GMP, GHP and HACCP were followed by a specific valuation of food handlers training based on a questionnaire .The results show that in small and less developed food industries there is a lack in considering fecal-oral route contaminations and an important need of correct training aimed principally at improving knowledge of Good Hygienic Practices and contamination of food.

  16. Strengthening foodborne diseases surveillance in the WHO African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) cover events of international importance including contaminated food and outbreaks of foodborne disease. The IHR (2005) and other international as well as regional agreements require Member States to strengthen surveillance systems including surveillance for ...

  17. Strengthening foodborne disease surveillance in the WHO African

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OMS

    2012-06-04

    Jun 4, 2012 ... surveillance is the preferred system for foodborne disease surveillance since it allows early detection of ... food safety systems remain fragmented resulting in duplication of efforts and inefficient use of ... estimate burden of disease and the size of the problem; monitor trends and determine whether the ...

  18. Occurrence Of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens In Smoked Fish At ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty five (65) smoked fish samples (30 catfish and 35 Tilapia) were obtained form three retail market locations in Jos South, Nigeria, and screened for foodborne bacterial pathogens. Potential human pathogens were isolated from all the samples studied through culture, growth characteristics, morphological, physiological ...

  19. Hyperspectral microscopy to identify foodborne bacteria with optimum lighting source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral microscopy is an emerging technology for rapid detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Since scattering spectral signatures from hyperspectral microscopic images (HMI) vary with lighting sources, it is important to select optimal lights. The objective of this study is to compare t...

  20. Surface adhesins and exopolymers of selected foodborne pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaglic, Zoran; Desvaux, Mickaël; Weiss, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    of bacterial surface structures are involved in this process and these promote bacterial adhesion in a more or less specific manner. In this review, we will focus on those surface adhesins and exopolymers in selected foodborne pathogens that are involved mainly in primary adhesion. Their role in biofilm...

  1. AOTF hyperspectral microscope imaging for foodborne bacteria detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food safety is an important public health issue worldwide. Researchers have developed many different methods for detecting foodborne pathogens; however, most technologies currently being used have limitations, in terms of speed, sensitivity and selectivity, for practical use in the food industry. Ac...

  2. Simultaneous identification of seven foodborne pathogens and Escherichia coli (pathogenic and nonpathogenic) using capillary electrophoresis-based single-strand conformation polymorphism coupled with multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mi-Hwa; Paek, Se-Hee; Shin, Gi Won; Kim, Hae-Yeong; Jung, Gyoo Yeol; Oh, Sangsuk

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel technique for parallel analysis of eight important foodborne microbes using capillary electrophoresis-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) coupled with multiplex PCR. Specific primers for multiplex PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene were designed, corresponding to eight species of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus, for the species-specific identification and optimal separation of their PCR products in subsequent analysis by CE-SSCP. Multiplex PCR conditions including annealing temperature, extension time, the number of PCR cycles, and primer concentrations were then optimized for simultaneous detection of all target foodborne bacteria. The diagnostic system using CE-SSCP combined with multiplex PCR developed here can be used for rapid investigation of causative agents of foodborne illness. The simplicity and high sensitivity of the method may lead to improved management of safety and illness related to food.

  3. Relating calls to US poison centers for potential exposures to medications to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reporting of influenza-like illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Gillian A; McKeown, Nathanael J; Rodriguez, Sergio; Spyker, Daniel A

    2016-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) monitors influenza like illness (ILI) and the National Poison Data System (NPDS) warehouses call data uploaded by US poison centers regarding reported exposures to medication. We examined the relationship between calls to poison centers regarding reported exposures to medications commonly used to treat ILI and weekly reports of ILI. The CDC reports ILI, by age group, for each of 10 Health and Human Services (HHS) regions. We examined NPDS summary data from calls reported to poison centers regarding reported exposures to acetaminophen, cough/cold medications, and promethazine, for the same weeks, age groups, and HHS regions for influenza seasons 2000-2013. ILI and NPDS exposures were examined using graphical plots, descriptive statistics, stepwise regression analysis, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). About 5,101,841 influenza-like illness cases were reported to the CDC, and 2,122,940 calls regarding reported exposures to medications commonly used to treat ILI, were reported by poison centers to the NPDS over the 13 flu seasons. Analysis of stepwise models of the linear untransformed data involving 24 NPDS data groups and for 60 ILI measures, over the 13 influenza seasons, demonstrated that reported exposures to medications used to treat ILI correlated with reported cases of ILI with a median R(2 )=( )0.489 (min R(2 )=( )0.248, max R(2 )=( )0.717), with mean ± SD of R(2 )=( )0.494 ± 0.121. Median number of parameters used (degrees of freedom - 1) was 7. NPDS data regarding poison center calls for selected ILI medication exposures were highly correlated with CDC ILI data. Since NPDS data are available in real time, it provides complimentary ILI monitoring. This approach may provide public health value in predicting other illnesses which are not currently as thoroughly monitored.

  4. DNA microarray technique for detecting food-borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing GAO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the application of DNA microarray technique for screening and identifying multiple food-borne pathogens. Methods The oligonucleotide probes were designed by Clustal X and Oligo 6.0 at the conserved regions of specific genes of multiple food-borne pathogens, and then were validated by bioinformatic analyses. The 5' end of each probe was modified by amino-group and 10 Poly-T, and the optimized probes were synthesized and spotted on aldehyde-coated slides. The bacteria DNA template incubated with Klenow enzyme was amplified by arbitrarily primed PCR, and PCR products incorporated into Aminoallyl-dUTP were coupled with fluorescent dye. After hybridization of the purified PCR products with DNA microarray, the hybridization image and fluorescence intensity analysis was acquired by ScanArray and GenePix Pro 5.1 software. A series of detection conditions such as arbitrarily primed PCR and microarray hybridization were optimized. The specificity of this approach was evaluated by 16 different bacteria DNA, and the sensitivity and reproducibility were verified by 4 food-borne pathogens DNA. The samples of multiple bacteria DNA and simulated water samples of Shigella dysenteriae were detected. Results Nine different food-borne bacteria were successfully discriminated under the same condition. The sensitivity of genomic DNA was 102 -103pg/ μl, and the coefficient of variation (CV of the reproducibility of assay was less than 15%. The corresponding specific hybridization maps of the multiple bacteria DNA samples were obtained, and the detection limit of simulated water sample of Shigella dysenteriae was 3.54×105cfu/ml. Conclusions The DNA microarray detection system based on arbitrarily primed PCR can be employed for effective detection of multiple food-borne pathogens, and this assay may offer a new method for high-throughput platform for detecting bacteria.

  5. Combined influence of multiple climatic factors on the incidence of bacterial foodborne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Su; Park, Ki Hwan; Bahk, Gyung Jin

    2018-01-01

    Information regarding the relationship between the incidence of foodborne diseases (FBD) and climatic factors is useful in designing preventive strategies for FBD based on anticipated future climate change. To better predict the effect of climate change on foodborne pathogens, the present study investigated the combined influence of multiple climatic factors on bacterial FBD incidence in South Korea. During 2011-2015, the relationships between 8 climatic factors and the incidences of 13 bacterial FBD, were determined based on inpatient stays, on a monthly basis using the Pearson correlation analyses, multicollinearity tests, principal component analysis (PCA), and the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) modeling. Of the 8 climatic variables, the combination of temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, insolation, and cloudiness was significantly associated with salmonellosis (Pclimatic factors. These findings indicate that the relationships between multiple climatic factors and bacterial FBD incidence can be valuable for the development of prediction models for future patterns of diseases in response to changes in climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of molecular typing of foodborne pathogens in European reference laboratories from 2012 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjørring, Susanne; Niskanen, Taina; Torpdahl, Mia; Björkman, Jonas T; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-12-15

    In 2012, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) initiated external quality assessment (EQA) schemes for molecular typing including the National Public Health Reference Laboratories in Europe. The overall aim for these EQA schemes was to enhance the European surveillance of food-borne pathogens by evaluating and improving the quality and comparability of molecular typing. The EQAs were organised by Statens Serum Institut (SSI) and included Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) and Listeria monocytogenes. Inter-laboratory comparable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) images were obtained from 10 of 17 of the participating laboratories for Listeria, 15 of 25 for Salmonella, but only nine of 20 for VTEC. Most problems were related to PFGE running conditions and/or incorrect use of image acquisition. Analysis of the gels was done in good accordance with the provided guidelines. Furthermore, we assessed the multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) scheme for S. Typhimurium. Of 15 laboratories, nine submitted correct results for all analysed strains, and four had difficulties with one strain only. In conclusion, both PFGE and MLVA are prone to variation in quality, and there is therefore a continuous need for standardisation and validation of laboratory performance for molecular typing methods of food-borne pathogens in the human public health sector. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  7. Campylobacter spp. as emerging food-borne pathogen - incidence, detection and resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Smole Možina

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter. coli are the leading cause of bacterial food-borne enteric infection with still increasing incidence in the most developed countries. Consuming and/or handling poultry meat is the most consistent risk factor, linked to the high prevalence of campylobacters in retail poultry meat. Recent data about the incidence of human campylobacteriosis and prevalence of C.jejuni and C. coli in poultry meat are presented. Important aspects of Campylobacter transmission along the food chain are discussed – physiological specificities possibly enabling adaptation and survival in the food production environment as well as the emerging resistance to antimicrobial agents used in veterinary and human medicine. Recent advances in detection and identification methods of Campylobacter spp. are mentioned as a basis for preventive strategies to bring these food-borne pat hogens under control. Recent risk assessments show that mitigation strategies could be applied at different points from food-animals production to the finalconsumptionoffoods.Educating the consumers is important,sincecritical control point remains the hygiene in the final food preparation.

  8. Decompression illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Richard D; Butler, Frank K; Mitchell, Simon J; Moon, Richard E

    2011-01-08

    Decompression illness is caused by intravascular or extravascular bubbles that are formed as a result of reduction in environmental pressure (decompression). The term covers both arterial gas embolism, in which alveolar gas or venous gas emboli (via cardiac shunts or via pulmonary vessels) are introduced into the arterial circulation, and decompression sickness, which is caused by in-situ bubble formation from dissolved inert gas. Both syndromes can occur in divers, compressed air workers, aviators, and astronauts, but arterial gas embolism also arises from iatrogenic causes unrelated to decompression. Risk of decompression illness is affected by immersion, exercise, and heat or cold. Manifestations range from itching and minor pain to neurological symptoms, cardiac collapse, and death. First-aid treatment is 100% oxygen and definitive treatment is recompression to increased pressure, breathing 100% oxygen. Adjunctive treatment, including fluid administration and prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism in paralysed patients, is also recommended. Treatment is, in most cases, effective although residual deficits can remain in serious cases, even after several recompressions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A systematic review of the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers for prevention of illness-related absenteeism in elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Saux Nicole

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Absenteeism due to communicable illness is a major problem encountered by North American elementary school children. Although handwashing is a proven infection control measure, barriers exist in the school environment, which hinder compliance to this routine. Currently, alternative hand hygiene techniques are being considered, and one such technique is the use of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers. Methods A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizer interventions in the elementary school setting. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biological Abstract, CINAHL, HealthSTAR and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched for both randomized and non-randomized controlled trials. Absenteeism due to communicable illness was the primary outcome variable. Results Six eligible studies, two of which were randomized, were identified (5 published studies, 1 published abstract. The quality of reporting was low. Due to a large amount of heterogeneity and low quality of reporting, no pooled estimates were calculated. There was a significant difference reported in favor of the intervention in all 5 published studies. Conclusions The available evidence for the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizer in the school environment is of low quality. The results suggest that the strength of the benefit should be interpreted with caution. Given the potential to reduce student absenteeism, teacher absenteeism, school operating costs, healthcare costs and parental absenteeism, a well-designed and analyzed trial is needed to optimize this hand hygiene technique.

  10. Assessment of the risk of foodborne transmission and burden of hepatitis E in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alexandra; Collineau, Lucie; Stephan, Roger; Müller, Andrea; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2017-02-02

    The objective of this study was i) to quantify the risk of hepatitis E for Swiss consumers by specified pork products and ii) to estimate the total burden of human food-borne hepatitis E in Switzerland. A quantitative risk assessment from slaughter to consumption was carried out according to the Codex Alimentarius framework. In the hazard characterization, assumptions were made due to the lack of a dose-response relationship for oral exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV). The prevalence of HEV in 160 pig livers of 40 different Swiss fattening farms was examined and determined to be 1.3% (CI 0.3%; 4.4%). This result was used as input in the risk assessment model, together with data from other published studies. The annual burden of hepatitis E was estimated in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), using data about hepatitis E cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 at two major hospitals located in the canton Ticino. Only the risk of foodborne hepatitis E from products containing pork liver was evaluated, as those containing only pork meat could not be evaluated because of lack of data on HEV load in pork. Assuming that successful oral infection occurs in 1% of servings contaminated with high HEV loads (>10 5 genome copies), and that acute illness develops in 5% of susceptible consumers, the most likely annual number of foodborne hepatitis E cases in Switzerland was estimated to be 1481 (95% CI 552; 4488) if all products containing pork liver were considered. If only high-risk products, such as plain pork liver and liver sausages (e.g. Saucisse au Foie), were considered, the annual number of cases was estimated to be 176 (95% CI 64; 498). We were unable to calculate the total burden of hepatitis E in Switzerland due to lack of data. Yet, for the canton Ticino, it was shown that a significant increase had occurred from 50 DALY per 100,000 inhabitants in 2015. This change could partly be due to an increased reporting and higher awareness among medical

  11. Drastic decrease of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from humans in Belgium in 2005, shift in phage types and influence on foodborne outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    COLLARD, J. M.; BERTRAND, S.; DIERICK, K.; GODARD, C.; WILDEMAUWE, C.; VERMEERSCH, K.; DUCULOT, J.; VAN IMMERSEEL, F.; PASMANS, F.; IMBERECHTS, H.; QUINET, C.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY In Belgium, non-typhoidal salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis are the two most frequently reported foodborne illnesses. During 2005, a 71% decrease of Salmonella Enteritidis infections compared with the average annual number cases in the period 2000–2004 was recorded by the Belgian National Reference Centre for Salmonella and Shigella. After the peak of 1999, the total number of salmonellosis cases decreased gradually, with the exception of 2003 when an increase was again recorded due to the rise of isolates belonging to the serotype Enteritidis. PT4, the predominant phage type of serotype Enteriditis over recent years (except in 2003), became the second most prevalent phage type in 2005 after PT21. We present in this paper the epidemiology (incidence and trends) of human salmonellosis in Belgium and assess the role of the vaccination programme in layer flocks on the decline of the incidence of human salmonellosis and foodborne outbreaks due to S. Enteritidis. PMID:17645812

  12. Outbreak of foodborne gastroenteritis in a senior high school in South-eastern Ghana: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameme, Donne K; Alomatu, Holy; Antobre-Boateng, Albert; Zakaria, Adam; Addai, Lilian; Fianko, Klutse; Janneh, Bai; Afari, Edwin A; Nyarko, Kofi M; Sackey, Samuel O; Wurapa, Fred

    2016-07-13

    On 4th February 2015, a group of Senior High School students from Fanteakwa district presented to the emergency unit of the district hospital with complaints of abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. All the students had eaten from a specific food vendor and had neither eaten any other common meal that day nor the previous day. A foodborne disease outbreak was suspected. We investigated to verify the outbreak, determine its magnitude, identify the source and implement control measures. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. We reviewed medical records and interviewed patrons of the food vendor. We collected data on age, sex, signs and symptoms, date of illness onset, date of admission, date of discharge, treatments given and outcome. A case of foodborne disease was any person in the school with abdominal pain, vomiting and or diarrhoea from 4th to 11th February 2015 and had eaten from the food vendor. We conducted active case search to identify more cases. We conducted environmental assessment and collected clinical and food samples for laboratory testing. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed using Stata 12.0. A total of 68 cases were recorded giving overall attack rate of 35.79 % (68/190) with no death. Of these, 51.47 % (35/68) were males. Mean age of case-patients was 17.8 (standard deviation +/-1.62). The index case, a 17-year-old female student ate from the food vendor on 4th February at 9:00 am and fell ill at 3:40 pm later that day. Compared to those who ate other food items, students who drank water from container at the canteen were more likely to develop foodborne disease at statistically significant levels [RR = 2.6, 95 % CI = (2.11-3.15)]. Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) and Salmonella species (Salmonella spp) were isolated from water and stew respectively. Clinical features of case-patients were compatible with both organisms. A foodborne gastroenteritis outbreak occurred in a Senior High School in

  13. Outbreak of foodborne gastroenteritis in a senior high school in South-eastern Ghana: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donne K. Ameme

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On 4th February 2015, a group of Senior High School students from Fanteakwa district presented to the emergency unit of the district hospital with complaints of abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. All the students had eaten from a specific food vendor and had neither eaten any other common meal that day nor the previous day. A foodborne disease outbreak was suspected. We investigated to verify the outbreak, determine its magnitude, identify the source and implement control measures. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted. We reviewed medical records and interviewed patrons of the food vendor. We collected data on age, sex, signs and symptoms, date of illness onset, date of admission, date of discharge, treatments given and outcome. A case of foodborne disease was any person in the school with abdominal pain, vomiting and or diarrhoea from 4th to 11th February 2015 and had eaten from the food vendor. We conducted active case search to identify more cases. We conducted environmental assessment and collected clinical and food samples for laboratory testing. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed using Stata 12.0. Results A total of 68 cases were recorded giving overall attack rate of 35.79 % (68/190 with no death. Of these, 51.47 % (35/68 were males. Mean age of case-patients was 17.8 (standard deviation +/-1.62. The index case, a 17-year-old female student ate from the food vendor on 4th February at 9:00 am and fell ill at 3:40 pm later that day. Compared to those who ate other food items, students who drank water from container at the canteen were more likely to develop foodborne disease at statistically significant levels [RR = 2.6, 95 % CI = (2.11–3.15]. Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens and Salmonella species (Salmonella spp were isolated from water and stew respectively. Clinical features of case-patients were compatible with both organisms. Conclusion A

  14. Effect of Short-Term Supplementation with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food or Micronutrients for Children after Illness for Prevention of Malnutrition: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia van der Kam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished children annually. Malnutrition is not only caused by lack of food and poor infant and child feeding practices but also by illnesses. Breaking the vicious cycle of illness and malnutrition by providing ill children with nutritional supplementation is a potentially powerful strategy for preventing malnutrition that has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, MSF investigated whether incidence of malnutrition among ill children <5 y old could be reduced by providing a fortified food product or micronutrients during their 2-wk convalescence period. Two trials, one in Nigeria and one in Uganda, were conducted; here we report on the trial that took place in Goronyo, a rural region of northwest Nigeria with high morbidity and malnutrition rates.We investigated the effect of supplementation with ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF and a micronutrient powder (MNP on the incidence of malnutrition in ill children presenting at an outpatient clinic in Goronyo during February to September 2012. A three-armed, partially-blinded, randomised controlled trial was conducted in children diagnosed as having malaria, diarrhoea, or lower respiratory tract infection. Children aged 6 to 59 mo were randomised to one of three arms: one sachet/d of RUTF; two sachets/d of micronutrients or no supplement (control for 14 d for each illness over 6 mo. The primary outcome was the incidence of first negative nutritional outcome (NNO during the 6 mo follow-up. NNO was a study-specific measure used to indicate occurrence of malnutrition; it was defined as low weight-for-height z-score (<-2 for non-malnourished and <-3 for moderately malnourished children, mid-upper arm circumference <115 mm, or oedema, whichever came first. Of the 2,213 randomised participants, 50.0% were female and the mean age was 20.2 (standard deviation 11.2 months; 160 (7.2% were lost to follow-up, 54 (2.4% were

  15. Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Medicinal Property of Sage (Salvia to Prevent and Cure Illnesses such as Obesity, Diabetes, Depression, Dementia, Lupus, Autism, Heart Disease, and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hamidpour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, sage (Salvia species have been used in traditional medicine for the relief of pain, protecting the body against oxidative stress, free radical damages, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and virus infection, etc., Several studies suggest that sage species can be considered for drug development because of their reported pharmacology and therapeutic activities in many countries of Asia and Middle East, especially China and India. These studies suggest that Salvia species, in addition to treating minor common illnesses, might potentially provide novel natural treatments for the relief or cure of many serious and life-threatening diseases such as depression, dementia, obesity, diabetes, lupus, heart disease, and cancer. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the botanical, chemical, and pharmacological aspects of sage (Saliva.

  16. Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Medicinal Property of Sage (Salvia) to Prevent and Cure Illnesses such as Obesity, Diabetes, Depression, Dementia, Lupus, Autism, Heart Disease, and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidpour, Mohsen; Hamidpour, Rafie; Hamidpour, Soheila; Shahlari, Mina

    2014-04-01

    For a long time, sage (Salvia) species have been used in traditional medicine for the relief of pain, protecting the body against oxidative stress, free radical damages, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and virus infection, etc., Several studies suggest that sage species can be considered for drug development because of their reported pharmacology and therapeutic activities in many countries of Asia and Middle East, especially China and India. These studies suggest that Salvia species, in addition to treating minor common illnesses, might potentially provide novel natural treatments for the relief or cure of many serious and life-threatening diseases such as depression, dementia, obesity, diabetes, lupus, heart disease, and cancer. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the botanical, chemical, and pharmacological aspects of sage (Saliva).

  17. Design of an internet-based health economic evaluation of a preventive group-intervention for children of parents with mental illness or substance use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woolderink, M; Smit, H.F.E.; Zanden, R.; Beecham, J; Knapp, M.; Paulus, A; Evers, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Preventive interventions are developed for children of parents with mental and substance use disorders (COPMI), because these children have a higher risk of developing a psychological or behavioral disorder in the future. Mental health and substance use disorders contribute significantly

  18. HIGH-ALTITUDE ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitya Elvira

    2015-05-01

    Colorado ski resort, Honigman describe AMS incidence of 22% at an altitude of 1850 m to 2750 m, while Dean showed that 42% had symptoms at an altitude of 3000 m. Acclimatization is one of the prevention that can be done before the climbing, in the addition of several treatment such as acetazolamide, dexamethasone, phospodiestrase inhibitor and gingko biloba.Keywords: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema

  19. Identifying and controlling emerging foodborne pathogens: research needs.

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    Systems for managing the risks associated with foodborne pathogens are based on detailed knowledge of the microorganisms and the foods with which they are associated--known hazards. An emerging pathogen, however, is an unknown hazard; therefore, to control it, key data must be acquired to convert the pathogen from an unknown to a known hazard. The types of information required are similar despite the identity of the new agent. The key to rapid control is rapid mobilization of research capabil...

  20. A modified molecular beacons-based multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of eight foodborne pathogens in a single reaction and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinghua; Lyu, Dongyue; Shi, Xiaolu; Jiang, Yixiang; Lin, Yiman; Li, Yinghui; Qiu, Yaqun; He, Lianhua; Zhang, Ran; Li, Qingge

    2014-03-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks are often caused by one of the major pathogens. Early identification of the causal pathogen is crucial for disease control and prevention. We describe a real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) assay that can identify, in a single reaction, up to eight common foodborne bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterobacter sakazakii, and Shigella spp. This multiplex rtPCR assay takes advantage of modified molecular beacons and the multicolor combinational probe coding strategy to discriminate each pathogen and the homo-tag assisted non-dimer (HAND) system to prevent dimer formation. The detection limits of the assay ranged from 1.3×10(3) colony-forming units (CFU)/g stool (L. monocytogenes) to 1.6×10(4) CFU/g stool (Shigella spp.). The target genes were 100% specific as assessed on 986 reference strains covering 41 species since no cross-reactions were observed. The assay was applied to the detection of foodborne pathogens in 11,167 clinical samples and the results were compared with culture methods for further validation. The sensitivity and specificity of the rtPCR were 100% and 99%, respectively. When performed in a 96-well rtPCR system, more than 90 samples could be analyzed within 3 h. Given the high accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and short turn-around time, the established assay could be used for the rapid and reliable identification of the causative pathogens responsible for a certain foodborne disease outbreak and rapid screening of these major foodborne pathogens in laboratory-based surveillance of outpatient clinical samples or even food samples.

  1. Variations in the radiation sensitivity of foodborne pathogens associated with complex ready-to-eat food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, Christopher H. [Food Safety Intervention Technologies Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States)]. E-mail: csommers@errc.ars.usda.gov; Boyd, Glenn [Food Safety Intervention Technologies Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are occasionally associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) sandwiches and other 'heat and eat' multi-component RTE products. Ionizing radiation can inactivate foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and RTE meat products. However, less data are available on the ability of low-dose ionizing radiation, doses under 5 kGy typically used for pasteurization purposes, to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on complex multi-component food products. In this study, the efficacy of ionizing radiation to inactivate Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Yersinia enterocolitica on RTE foods including a 'frankfurter on a roll', a 'beef cheeseburger on a bun' and a 'vegetarian cheeseburger on a bun' was investigated. The average D-10 values, the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log{sub 1} of pathogen, by bacterium species, were 0.61, 0.54, 0.47, 0.36 and 0.15 kGy for Salmonella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Y. enterocolitica, respectively when inoculated onto the three product types. These results indicate that irradiation may be an effective means for inactivating common foodborne pathogens including Salmonella spp, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Y. enterocolitica in complex RTE food products such as 'heat and eat' sandwich products.

  2. Nutrition, Illness, and Injury in Aquatic Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyne, D.B.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Mountjoy, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of

  3. An outbreak of Salmonella gastrointestinal illness in a military camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vernon J; Ong, Alan E S; Auw, Matthew

    2009-03-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonellae are important causes of bacterial food-borne infection, especially in institutional settings. An outbreak of gastrointestinal infection occurred in a military camp in January 2007, and an epidemiological outbreak investigation was conducted. A survey was conducted on soldiers in the camp on their clinical symptoms, and recent meals consumed. After determining the affected meal, a subsequent survey was conducted on those who had eaten the meal. A case-control study was then performed to determine the outbreak's likely food source. Laboratory tests were also conducted to determine the bacteriological cause. Of the 94 responders, 55 (58.5%) met our case definition of gastrointestinal illness. The dinner on 9 January was the most likely affected meal, with the onset of symptoms occurring within 6 to 36 hours. The mashed potato was the most likely food source with an attack rate of 80.7% for those who consumed it versus 32.7% for those who did not (P <0.01). From the multivariate analysis, the mashed potato remained the only food item independently and significantly associated with infection, with a relative risk of infection 9.49 times those who did not consume it (95% CI, 2.73-32.97). Salmonella group E was cultured from 4 individuals. Although no specific contamination was identified, the mashed potato was stored for more than 5 hours before the last serving. Risk during preparation of large quantities of food should be identified a priori, and measures taken to reduce them, to prevent outbreaks.

  4. Effect of Short-Term Supplementation with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food or Micronutrients for Children after Illness for Prevention of Malnutrition: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia van der Kam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished children annually. Malnutrition is not only caused by lack of food but also by illnesses and by poor infant and child feeding practices. Breaking the vicious cycle of illness and malnutrition by providing ill children with nutritional supplementation is a potentially powerful strategy for preventing malnutrition that has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, MSF investigated whether incidence of malnutrition among ill children <5 y old could be reduced by providing a fortified food product or micronutrients during their 2-wk convalescence period. Two trials, one in Nigeria and one in Uganda, were conducted; here, we report on the trial that took place in Kaabong, a poor agropastoral region of Karamoja, in east Uganda. While the region of Karamoja shows an acute malnutrition rate between 8.4% and 11.5% of which 2% to 3% severe malnutrition, more than half (58% of the population in the district of Kaabong is considered food insecure.We investigated the effect of two types of nutritional supplementation on the incidence of malnutrition in ill children presenting at outpatient clinics during March 2011 to April 2012 in Kaabong, Karamoja region, Uganda, a resource-poor region where malnutrition is a chronic problem for its seminomadic population. A three-armed, partially-blinded, randomised controlled trial was conducted in children diagnosed with malaria, diarrhoea, or lower respiratory tract infection. Non-malnourished children aged 6 to 59 mo were randomised to one of three arms: one sachet/d of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF, two sachets/d of micronutrient powder (MNP, or no supplement (control for 14 d for each illness over 6 mo. The primary outcome was the incidence of first negative nutritional outcome (NNO during the 6 mo follow-up. NNO was a study-specific measure used to indicate progression to moderate or severe acute malnutrition; it was

  5. Mental Illness Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News & Events About Us Home > Health Information Share Statistics Research shows that mental illnesses are common in ... of mental illnesses, such as suicide and disability. Statistics Top ı cs Mental Illness Any Anxiety Disorder ...

  6. An assessment of food safety information provision for UK chemotherapy patients to reduce the risk of foodborne infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E W; Redmond, E C

    2017-12-01

    relation to listeriosis prevention practices. Cumulatively, information was inconsistent, insufficient, and varied between resources. The study has identified the need for an effective, standardized food safety resource specifically targeting chemotherapy patients and family caregivers. Such intervention is essential to assist efforts in reducing the risks associated with foodborne infection among chemotherapy patients. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heat Illness in Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Heat illness is a commonly encountered health problem in the Hawaiian Islands. Year round warm temperatures, proximity to the equator, and high humidity combined with a plethora of opportunities for outdoor activities put many individuals at risk. This paper will focus on the physiology, identification, and treatment of varying forms of heat illness. Severe heat illness can be life threatening. All outdoor enthusiasts should have a basic understanding of how to recognize this potentially life-threatening condition and employ preventive measures. We will discuss appropriate management in pre-hospital and hospital settings. Early recognition and cooling are the most crucial aspects of the management of heat illness. PMID:25478301

  8. Heat illness in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sarah

    2014-11-01

    Heat illness is a commonly encountered health problem in the Hawaiian Islands. Year round warm temperatures, proximity to the equator, and high humidity combined with a plethora of opportunities for outdoor activities put many individuals at risk. This paper will focus on the physiology, identification, and treatment of varying forms of heat illness. Severe heat illness can be life threatening. All outdoor enthusiasts should have a basic understanding of how to recognize this potentially life-threatening condition and employ preventive measures. We will discuss appropriate management in pre-hospital and hospital settings. Early recognition and cooling are the most crucial aspects of the management of heat illness.

  9. Can we reduce costs and prevent more unintended pregnancies? A cost of illness and cost-effectiveness study comparing two methods of EHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christine M; Cameron, Sharon

    2013-12-18

    To calculate the cost of an unintended pregnancy in 2011 and use this cost in a cost-effectiveness model comparing ulipristal acetate (UPA) with levonorgestrel (LNG) for emergency hormonal contraception (EHC). Retrospective analysis of published data sources and published cost-effectiveness model. Women presenting in primary care in England for EHC within 24 or 72 h of unprotected sexual intercourse (UPSI). EHC of either LNG (1.5 mg) or UPA (30 mg). The primary outcome measure is the number and direct and indirect costs of an unintended pregnancy. The secondary outcome measure is the consequence of unintended pregnancy: miscarriage, abortion, ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth or live birth. From the comparative clinical studies of EHC we observe that if 125 women receive either LNG or UPA within 72 h of UPSI, there will be one less pregnancy due to method failure in the UPA group than in the LNG group. We calculate the cost of an unintended pregnancy to be £1663 in direct healthcare costs rising to £2922 with the inclusion of social costs. Using these costs in the comparative cost-effectiveness model shows that it costs £194 less in direct health costs alone to prevent one more pregnancy with UPA than with LNG. The inclusion of social costs of pregnancy increases this cost-saving potential to £1453 for each extra pregnancy avoided with UPA compared with LNG. Clinical trials have demonstrated the superior efficacy of UPA compared with LNG as a method of EHC. Given that it costs less overall in health and social costs of pregnancy while preventing more pregnancies, UPA is said to be the dominant treatment, and primary care services should shift to offering UPA as the preferred oral option to women presenting within 24 and 72 h of UPSI.

  10. A non-foodborne norovirus outbreak among school children during a skiing holiday, Austria, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hung-Wei; Schmid, Daniela; Schwarz, Karin; Pichler, Anna-Margaretha; Klein, Heidelinde; König, Christoph; de Martin, Alfred; Allerberger, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Norovirus is increasingly recognized as a leading cause of outbreaks of foodborne disease. We report on an outbreak in Austria that reached a total of 176 cases, affecting pupils and teachers from four schools on a skiing holiday in a youth hostel in the province of Salzburg in December 2007. A questionnaire was sent to the four schools in order to obtain data from persons attending the school trip on disease status, clinical onset, duration of illness and hospitalization. A cohort study was undertaken to identify the sources of infection. The school trip attendees were interviewed by questionnaire or face-to-face on their exposure to food items from the menu provided by the hostel owner. Of the 284 school holiday-makers, 176 fitted the definition of an outbreak case (attack rate 61.9%). A total of 264 persons on the ski holiday participated in the cohort study (response rate 93%). The day-by-day food-specific analyses did not find any food items served on any of five days (December 8-12) of the holiday to be associated with infection risk. The day-specific risk analyses revealed Monday December 10 (RR: 9.04; 95% CI: 6.02-13.6; P Tourism is one of the primary industries in Austria. Timely involvement of the relevant public health authorities is essential in any outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis, irrespective of its genesis.

  11. Development of an oligonucleotide-based microarray to detect multiple foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Biao; He, Yiping; Paoli, George; Gehring, Andrew; Tu, Shu-I; Shi, Xianming

    2010-04-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni are considered important pathogens causing the most food-related human illnesses worldwide. Current methods for pathogen detection have limitations in the effectiveness of identifying multiple foodborne pathogens. In this study, a pathogen detection microarray was developed using various 70-mer oligonucleotides specifically targeting the above pathogens. To reduce the cost of detection, each microarray chip was designed and fabricated to accommodate 12 identical arrays which could be used for screening up to 12 different samples. To achieve high detection sensitivity and specificity, target-specific DNA amplification instead of whole genome random amplification was used prior to microarray analysis. Combined with 14-plex PCR amplification of target sequences, the microarray unambiguously distinguished all 4 pathogens with a detection sensitivity of 1 x 10(-4) ng (approximately 20 copies) of each genomic DNA. Applied the assay to 39 fresh meat samples, 16 samples were found to be contaminated by either 1 or 2 of these pathogens. The co-occurrences of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes in the same meat samples were also observed. Overall, the microarray combined with multiplex PCR method was able to effectively screen single or multiple pathogens in food samples and to provide important genotypic information related to pathogen virulence.

  12. Echinostomiasis: a common but forgotten food-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, T K; Fried, B

    1998-04-01

    Human echinostomiasis, endemic to southeast Asia and the Far East, is a food-borne, intestinal, zoonotic parasitosis attributed to at least 16 species of digenean trematodes transmitted by snails. Two separate life cycles of echinostomes, human and sylvatic, efficiently operate in endemic areas. Clinical symptoms of echinostomiasis include abdominal pain, violent watery diarrhea, and anorexia. The disease occurs focally and transmission is linked to fresh or brackish water habitats. Infections are associated with common sociocultural practices of eating raw or insufficiently cooked mollusks, fish, crustaceans, and amphibians, promiscuous defecation, and the use of night soil (human excrement collected from latrines) for fertilization of fish ponds. The prevalence of infection ranges from 44% in the Philippines to 5% in mainland China, and from 50% in northern Thailand to 9% in Korea. Although the patterns of other food-borne trematodiases have changed in Asia following changes in habits, cultural practices, health education, industrialization, and environmental alteration, human echinostomiasis remains a health problem. The disease is most prevalent in remote rural places among low-wage earners and in women of child bearing age. Echinostomiasis is aggravated by socioeconomic factors such as poverty, malnutrition, an explosively growing free-food market, a lack of supervised food inspection, poor or insufficient sanitation, other helminthiases, and declining economic conditions. Furthermore, World Health Organization control programs implemented for other food-borne helminthiases and sustained in endemic areas are not fully successful for echinostomiasis because these parasites display extremely broad specificity for the second intermediate host and are capable of completing the life cycle without involvement of the human host.

  13. Foodborne infections and intoxications in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrek, Joanna; Baumann-Popczyk, Anna; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of foodborne infections and intoxications in Poland in 2012. The evaluation was based on analysis of information from reports of epidemiological investigations in foodborne outbreaks, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology, NIZP-PZH annual bulletins (Czarkowski MP et al. "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland", 2006-2012. Warsaw, NIPH-NIH and CSI). In Poland in 2012 there was observed decrease in the number of infections intoxications both of bacterial and viral origin. It was recorded only one case of trichinellosis. There were reported 491 outbreaks of foodborne poisonings or infections included 5 774 people, among them 718 children 1-14 years old. Out of them 1 364 people were hospitalized. Unlike last year, the predominant etiological agent in those outbreaks were zoonotic Salmonella serotypes which caused 38.1% outbreaks and 26.7% outbreak cases. The viruses have caused 27.1% of outbreaks and 36.2% of cases. In 23.8% of outbreaks etiological agent has not been established. Most often the settings of an outbreak was a private household - 236 outbreaks and a hospital (84 outbreaks). As in previous years, the most common vehicle of infection were foods prepared with milk and eggs -11.8% of outbreaks and egg dishes - 9.0%. In 57.6% of oubreaks vehicle of infection has not been established. Among outbreaks reported in 2012, there were 4 which involved more than 100 people. In 163 outbreaks of food items had been tested and in 33% of them the results were positive. The increasing negative results of bacteriological examinations of food items, suggested necessity to start testing food contamination with viruses.

  14. Surveillance of Foodborne Pathogens: Towards Diagnostic Metagenomics of Fecal Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Christine; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    Diagnostic metagenomics is a rapidly evolving laboratory tool for culture-independent tracing of foodborne pathogens. The method has the potential to become a generic platform for detection of most pathogens and many sample types. Today, however, it is still at an early and experimental stage...... for data analysis are being developed, and several studies applying diagnostic metagenomics to human clinical samples have been published, detecting, and sometimes, typing bacterial infections. It is possible to obtain a draft genome of the pathogen and to develop methods that can theoretically be applied...... in fecal samples from animals and humans....

  15. Advances and Challenges in Viability Detection of Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexin Zeng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne outbreaks are a serious public health and food safety concern worldwide. There is a great demand for rapid, sensitive, specific, and accurate methods to detect microbial pathogens in foods. Conventional methods based on cultivation of pathogens have been the gold standard protocols; however, they take up to a week to complete. Molecular assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR, sequencing, microarray technologies have been widely used in detection of foodborne pathogens. Among molecular assays, PCR technology conventional and real-time PCR (qPCR is most commonly used in the foodborne pathogen detection because of its high sensitivity and specificity. However, a major drawback of PCR is its inability to differentiate the DNA from dead and viable cells, and this is a critical factor for the food industry, regulatory agencies and the consumer. To remedy this shortcoming, researchers have used biological dyes such as ethidium monoazide (EMA and propidium monoazide (PMA to pretreat samples before DNA extraction to intercalate the DNA of dead cells in food samples, and then proceed with regular DNA preparation and qPCR. By combining PMA treatment with qPCR (PMA-qPCR, scientists have applied this technology to detect viable cells of various bacterial pathogens in foods. The incorporation of PMA into PCR-based assays for viability detection of pathogens in foods has increased significantly in the last decade. On the other hand, some downsides with this approach have been noted, particularly to achieve complete suppression of signal of DNA from the dead cells present in some particular food matrix. Nowadays, there is a tendency of more and more researchers adapting this approach for viability detection; and a few commercial kits based on PMA are available in the market. As time goes on, more scientists apply this approach to a broader range of pathogen detections, this viability approach (PMA or other chemicals such as platinum compound

  16. Advances and Challenges in Viability Detection of Foodborne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dexin; Chen, Zi; Jiang, Yuan; Xue, Feng; Li, Baoguang

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne outbreaks are a serious public health and food safety concern worldwide. There is a great demand for rapid, sensitive, specific, and accurate methods to detect microbial pathogens in foods. Conventional methods based on cultivation of pathogens have been the gold standard protocols; however, they take up to a week to complete. Molecular assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing, microarray technologies have been widely used in detection of foodborne pathogens. Among molecular assays, PCR technology [conventional and real-time PCR (qPCR)] is most commonly used in the foodborne pathogen detection because of its high sensitivity and specificity. However, a major drawback of PCR is its inability to differentiate the DNA from dead and viable cells, and this is a critical factor for the food industry, regulatory agencies and the consumer. To remedy this shortcoming, researchers have used biological dyes such as ethidium monoazide and propidium monoazide (PMA) to pretreat samples before DNA extraction to intercalate the DNA of dead cells in food samples, and then proceed with regular DNA preparation and qPCR. By combining PMA treatment with qPCR (PMA-qPCR), scientists have applied this technology to detect viable cells of various bacterial pathogens in foods. The incorporation of PMA into PCR-based assays for viability detection of pathogens in foods has increased significantly in the last decade. On the other hand, some downsides with this approach have been noted, particularly to achieve complete suppression of signal of DNA from the dead cells present in some particular food matrix. Nowadays, there is a tendency of more and more researchers adapting this approach for viability detection; and a few commercial kits based on PMA are available in the market. As time goes on, more scientists apply this approach to a broader range of pathogen detections, this viability approach (PMA or other chemicals such as platinum compound) may eventually

  17. Understanding the behavior of foodborne pathogens in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Mataragas, Marios; Jespersen, Lene

    2011-01-01

    as the commonly employed preservation/storage techniques throughout the food chain, have on the virulence of pathogens. Quantitative PCR and microarrays are, nowadays, powerful tools used for such determinations. The application of these approaches for the determination of the gene expression in situ, is a new......In recent years and with the significant advancements in instrumentation for molecular biology methods, the focus of food microbiologists, dealing with pathogenic microorganisms in foods, is shifting. Scientists specifically aim at elucidating the effect that the food composition, as well...... field of research for food microbiologists and provides new information regarding virulence potential of foodborne pathogens....

  18. Campylobacter spp. as a foodborne pathogen: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana eSilva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide, causing mild to severe symptoms including serious infections of the extremities and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry, where the intestine is colonized resulting in healthy animals as carriers. This review aims to elucidate and discuss the i genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; ii detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; iii campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors and iv colonization of poultry and control strategies.

  19. Analysis of a food-borne fungal pathogen outbreak: virulence and genome of a Mucor circinelloides isolate from yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Chan; Billmyre, R Blake; Li, Alicia; Carson, Sandra; Sykes, Sean M; Huh, Eun Young; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Ko, Dennis C; Cuomo, Christina A; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-07-08

    Food-borne pathogens are ongoing problems, and new pathogens are emerging. The impact of fungi, however, is largely underestimated. Recently, commercial yogurts contaminated with Mucor circinelloides were sold, and >200 consumers became ill with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Mucoralean fungi cause the fatal fungal infection mucormycosis, whose incidence has been continuously increasing. In this study, we isolated an M. circinelloides strain from a yogurt container, and multilocus sequence typing identified the strain as Mucor circinelloides f. circinelloides. M. circinelloides f. circinelloides is the most virulent M. circinelloides subspecies and is commonly associated with human infections, whereas M. circinelloides f. lusitanicus and M. circinelloides f. griseocyanus are less common causes of infection. Whole-genome analysis of the yogurt isolate confirmed it as being close to the M. circinelloides f. circinelloides subgroup, with a higher percentage of divergence with the M. circinelloides f. lusitanicus subgroup. In mating assays, the yogurt isolate formed sexual zygospores with the (-) M. circinelloides f. circinelloides tester strain, which is congruent with its sex locus encoding SexP, the (+) mating type sex determinant. The yogurt isolate was virulent in murine and wax moth larva host systems. In a murine gastromucormycosis model, Mucor was recovered from fecal samples of infected mice for up to 10 days, indicating that Mucor can survive transit through the GI tract. In interactions with human immune cells, M. circinelloides f. lusitanicus induced proinflammatory cytokines but M. circinelloides f. circinelloides did not, which may explain the different levels of virulence in mammalian hosts. This study demonstrates that M. circinelloides can spoil food products and cause gastrointestinal illness in consumers and may pose a particular risk to immunocompromised patients. Importance: The U.S. FDA reported that yogurt products were contaminated with M

  20. Psychological Outcomes following a nurse-led Preventative Psychological Intervention for critically ill patients (POPPI): protocol for a cluster-randomised clinical trial of a complex intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards-Belle, Alvin; Mouncey, Paul R; Wade, Dorothy; Brewin, Chris R; Emerson, Lydia M; Grieve, Richard; Harrison, David A; Harvey, Sheila; Howell, David; Mythen, Monty; Sadique, Zia; Smyth, Deborah; Weinman, John; Welch, John; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2018-02-08

    Acute psychological stress, as well as unusual experiences including hallucinations and delusions, are common in critical care unit patients and have been linked to post-critical care psychological morbidity such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. Little high-quality research has been conducted to evaluate psychological interventions that could alleviate longer-term psychological morbidity in the critical care unit setting. Our research team developed and piloted a nurse-led psychological intervention, aimed at reducing patient-reported PTSD symptom severity and other adverse psychological outcomes at 6 months, for evaluation in the POPPI trial. This is a multicentre, parallel group, cluster-randomised clinical trial with a staggered roll-out of the intervention. The trial is being carried out at 24 (12 intervention, 12 control) NHS adult, general, critical care units in the UK and is evaluating the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a nurse-led preventative psychological intervention in reducing patient-reported PTSD symptom severity and other psychological morbidity at 6 months. All sites deliver usual care for 5 months (baseline period). Intervention group sites are then trained to carry out the POPPI intervention, and transition to delivering the intervention for the rest of the recruitment period. Control group sites deliver usual care for the duration of the recruitment period. The trial also includes a process evaluation conducted independently of the trial team. This protocol was reviewed and approved by the National Research Ethics Service South Central - Oxford B Research Ethics Committee (reference: 15/SC/0287). The first patient was recruited in September 2015 and results will be disseminated in 2018. The results will be presented at national and international conferences and published in peer reviewed medical journals. ISRCTN53448131; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  1. Nano-particle enhanced impedimetric biosensor for detection of foodborne pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G; Om, A S; Mun, J H

    2007-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of foodborne illness have been increased the need for rapid and sensitive methods for detection of these pathogens. Conventional methods for pathogens detection and identification involve prolonged multiple enrichment steps. Even though some immunological rapid assays are available, these assays still need enrichment steps result in delayed detection. Biosensors have shown great potential for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. They are capable of direct monitoring the antigen-antibody reactions in real time. Among the biosensors, impedimetric biosensors have been widely adapted as an analysis tool for the study of various biological binding reactions because of their high sensitivity and reagentless operation. In this study a nanoparticle-enhanced impedimetric biosensor for Salmonella enteritidis detection was developed which detected impedance changes caused by the attachment of the cells to the anti-Salmonella antibodies immobilized on interdigitated gold electrodes. Successive immobilization of neutravidin followed by anti-Salmonella antibodies was performed to the sensing area to create a biological detection surface. To enhance the impedance responses generated by antigen-antibody reactions, anti-Salmonella antibody conjugated nanoparticles were introduced on the sensing area. Using a portable impedance analyzer, the impedance across the interdigital electrodes was measured after the series of antigen-antibody bindings. Bacteria cells present in solution attached to capture antibodies and became tethered to the sensor surface. Attached bacteria cells changed the dielectric constant of the media between the electrodes thereby causing a change in measured impedance. Optimum input frequency was determined by analyzing frequency characteristics of the biosensor over ranges of applied frequencies from 10 Hz to 400 Hz. At 100 Hz of input frequency, the biosensor was most sensitive to the changes of the bacteria concentration and this frequency

  2. CIGUATERA POISONING: PACIFIC DISEASE, FOODBORNE POISONING FROM FISH IN WARM SEAS AND OCEANS. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezha Zlateva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The review is provoked because of lack of awareness of the medical practitioners in Bulgaria concerning of the ethnology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms and treatment of the ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. This can be a source of prolonged diagnostic delays, as some cases reporting in another country in Europe, for example Germany, Spain and UK. Varna is the sea town with many sailor crews returning from tropical and subtropical regions, or CFP can affect people who travel to the Pacific and Caribbean or ate exotic fish from supermarket. The information of this fish food-borne poisoning is part of student’s education in discipline “Marine medicine” in Medical University, Varna. Materials and methods: To present better information from different authors and last scientific data, we made review of published materials of 58 issues to construct definition, history, etiology, pathogenesis (toxins and mechanisms of action, clinical symptoms, treatment and prevention of the Ciguatera or ichtyosarcotoxicosis, a wide spread food-born poisoning. Results: Ciguatera poisoning is ichtyosarcotoxicosis, a wide-spread foodborne poisoning in people after consumption of flesh of different kinds of fishes in which toxins produced by poisonous microorganisms (Dinoflagellates have accumulated. The poisoning develops by accumulating toxins higher up the food chain starting with toxin producing dinoflagellates (species: Gambierdiscus toxicus, Prorocentrum concavum, Pr. lima, Ostreoposis lenticularis, Ostr. Siamensis and others, continuing with the poisoned algae (species: Portieria, Halymenia, Turbinaria, Sargassum, and after that involving small crustacea and small fishes to greater fishes (vector fishes, genus Herbivores and Carnivores, in which the toxins have been stored in amount, great enough to cause foodborne poisoning in humans. This poisoning is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, but because of its delayed toxic effects, lasting

  3. Developments in Micro- and Nanotechnology for Foodborne Pathogen Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Krista; Misra, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Swomitra

    2018-01-01

    In response to the potential hazards associated with the globalization of the food industry, research has been focused on the development of new sensing techniques to provide the means of contamination detection at any stage in the food supply chain. The demand for on-site detection is growing as pre-emptive sensing of pathogens could eliminate foodborne-related outbreaks and associated healthcare costs. Reduction in food waste is also a driver for point-of-use (POU) sensing, from both an economic and environmental standpoint. The following review discusses the latest advancements in platforms that have the greatest potential for inexpensive, real-time detection, and identification of foodborne pathogens. Specific focus has been placed on the development techniques, which utilize micro- and nanoscale technology. Sample preparation-free techniques are also discussed, as the growing demand to enable POU sensing at any stage in the food supply chain will be a major driver toward the advancements of these nondestructive methods.

  4. Resveratrol—Potential Antibacterial Agent against Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter S. L. Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial foodborne pathogens are a significant health burden and the recent emergence of pathogenic resistant strains due to the excessive use of antibiotics makes it more difficult to effectively treat infections as a result of contaminated food. Awareness of this impending health crisis has spurred the search for alternative antimicrobials with natural plant antimicrobials being among the more promising candidates as these substances have good acceptability and likely low toxicity levels as they have long been used in traditional medicines. Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene is a naturally occurring stilbenoid which has been gaining considerable attention in medical field due to its diverse biological activities - it has been reported to exhibit antioxidant, cardioprotective, anti-diabetic, anticancer, and antiaging properties. Given that resveratrol is phytoalexin, with increased synthesis in response to infection by phytopathogens, there has been interest in exploring its antimicrobial activity. This review aims to provide an overview of the published data on the antibacterial activity of resveratrol against foodborne pathogens, its mechanisms of action as well as its possible applications in food packing and processing; in addition we also summarize the current data on its potential synergism with known antibacterials and future research and applications.

  5. Resveratrol—Potential Antibacterial Agent against Foodborne Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dexter S. L.; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Yap, Wei Hsum; Pusparajah, Priyia; Chuah, Lay-Hong; Ming, Long Chiau; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial foodborne pathogens are a significant health burden and the recent emergence of pathogenic resistant strains due to the excessive use of antibiotics makes it more difficult to effectively treat infections as a result of contaminated food. Awareness of this impending health crisis has spurred the search for alternative antimicrobials with natural plant antimicrobials being among the more promising candidates as these substances have good acceptability and likely low toxicity levels as they have long been used in traditional medicines. Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) is a naturally occurring stilbenoid which has been gaining considerable attention in medical field due to its diverse biological activities - it has been reported to exhibit antioxidant, cardioprotective, anti-diabetic, anticancer, and antiaging properties. Given that resveratrol is phytoalexin, with increased synthesis in response to infection by phytopathogens, there has been interest in exploring its antimicrobial activity. This review aims to provide an overview of the published data on the antibacterial activity of resveratrol against foodborne pathogens, its mechanisms of action as well as its possible applications in food packing and processing; in addition we also summarize the current data on its potential synergism with known antibacterials and future research and applications. PMID:29515440

  6. [Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of hemolysis in foodborne Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peinan; Lü, Guoping; Xu, Baohong

    2012-11-01

    To establish a multiplex PCR method for detecting genes of (alpha-hemolysin (hla), beta-hemolysin (hlb), hemolysin and 16S rDNA, and to learn the distribution of three hemolysin genes and the characteristics of hemolytic phenotype in 148 foodborne Staphylococcus aureus strains, and to classify the strains with cluster analysis. The multiplex PCR method was established and used to detect the genes of alpha-hemolysin, beta-hemolysin, hemolysin and 16S rDNA. The blood agar method was used to detect the characteristics of hemolytic phenotype. The experiment data was analyed with SPSS16.0. 131 strains were positive for hla gene (88.51%), 90 hlb gene (60.81%), 28 hemolysin gene (18.92%). 131 strains had the characteristics of hemolysis (88.51%), while the hemolysis were negative in 17 strains (11.49%). With the clustering factors of the hemolysin genotype and hemolytic phenotype, 148 strains were classified into 12 types from type A to type L with 100% similarity. Among them, type A contained 58 strains (39.19%), type B 37 (25.00%), type C 18 (12.16%). This multiplex PCR method is fast, convenient and specific, and could be used for high-throughput screening of hemolysin genes in S. aureus. Most of the foodborne Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying the hla gene mainly belong to type A and type B.

  7. Surveillance of Foodborne Pathogens: Towards Diagnostic Metagenomics of Fecal Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Christine Andersen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic metagenomics is a rapidly evolving laboratory tool for culture-independent tracing of foodborne pathogens. The method has the potential to become a generic platform for detection of most pathogens and many sample types. Today, however, it is still at an early and experimental stage. Studies show that metagenomic methods, from sample storage and DNA extraction to library preparation and shotgun sequencing, have a great influence on data output. To construct protocols that extract the complete metagenome but with minimal bias is an ongoing challenge. Many different software strategies for data analysis are being developed, and several studies applying diagnostic metagenomics to human clinical samples have been published, detecting, and sometimes, typing bacterial infections. It is possible to obtain a draft genome of the pathogen and to develop methods that can theoretically be applied in real-time. Finally, diagnostic metagenomics can theoretically be better geared than conventional methods to detect co-infections. The present review focuses on the current state of test development, as well as practical implementation of diagnostic metagenomics to trace foodborne bacterial infections in fecal samples from animals and humans.

  8. Factors affecting growth of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel; Anguera, Marina; Oliveira, Marcia; Viñas, Inmaculada

    2010-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua increased by more than 2 log(10) units over a 24 h period on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs stored at 25 and 20 degrees C. L. innocua reached the same final population level at 10 degrees C meanwhile E. coli and Salmonella only increased 1.3 log(10) units after 6 days. Only L. innocua was able to grow at 5 degrees C. No significant differences were observed between the growth of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious', 'Granny Smith' and 'Shampion' apples stored at 25 and 5 degrees C. The treatment of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith' apple plugs with the antioxidants, ascorbic acid (2%) and NatureSeal (6%), did not affect pathogen growth. The effect of passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the growth of E. coli, Salmonella and L. innocua on 'Golden Delicious' apple slices was also tested. There were no significant differences in growth of pathogens in MAP conditions compared with air packaging of 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs, but the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms was inhibited. These results highlight the importance of avoiding contamination of fresh-cut fruit with foodborne pathogens and the maintenance of the cold chain during storage until consumption.

  9. Priority setting of foodborne pathogens: disease burden and costs of selected enteric pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemmeren JM; Mangen MJJ; Duynhoven YTHP van; Havelaar AH; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis causes the highest disease burden among seven evaluated foodborne pathogens. This is the preliminary conclusion of a major study of the disease burden and related costs of foodborne pathogens. The other micro-organisms that were studied are Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp.,

  10. Foodborne pathogens and their risk exposure factors associated with farm vegetables in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssemanda, James Noah; Reij, Martine W.; Middendorp, van Gerrieke; Bouw, El; Plaats, van der Rozemarijn; Franz, Eelco; Muvunyi, Claude Mambo; Bagabe, Mark Cyubahiro; Zwietering, Marcel H.; Joosten, Han

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we tested farm vegetables and agricultural water for the presence of foodborne pathogens, and evaluated farming practices of vegetable farms in Rwanda. Farm vegetable samples were found to be contaminated with foodborne pathogens at considerably high rate (overall 15/99 = 15%).

  11. Foodborne disease outbreak in a resource-limited setting: a tale of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Foodborne diseases (FBD) have emerged as a major public health problem worldwide. Though the global burden of FBD is currently unknown, foodborne diarrhoeal diseases kill 1.9 million children globally every year. On 25th September 2014, health authorities in Eastern Region of Ghana were alerted of a ...

  12. Effect of marinating chicken meat with lemon, green tea, and turmeric against foodborne bacterial pathogenss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne diseases affect millions of people each year. To reduce the incidence of bacterial foodborne pathogens more effective treatment methods are needed. In this study we evaluated the effect of marinating chicken breast fillets with extracts of lemon, green tea, and turmeric against Campylob...

  13. Comprehensive and Rapid Real-Time PCR Analysis of 21 Foodborne Outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fukushima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of four duplex SYBR Green I PCR (SG-PCR assay combined with DNA extraction using QIAamp DNA Stool Mini kit was evaluated for the detection of foodborne bacteria from 21 foodborne outbreaks. The causative pathogens were detected in almost all cases in 2 hours or less. The first run was for the detection of 8 main foodborne pathogens in 5 stool specimens within 2 hours and the second run was for the detection of other unusual suspect pathogens within a further 45 minutes. After 2 to 4 days, the causative agents were isolated and identified. The results proved that for comprehensive and rapid molecular diagnosis in foodborne outbreaks, Duplex SG-PCR assay is not only very useful, but is also economically viable for one-step differentiation of causative pathogens in fecal specimens obtained from symptomatic patients. This then allows for effective diagnosis and management of foodborne outbreaks.

  14. A system for detection and identification of foodborne pathogenic bacteria based on a “Combinatory qPCR” technology

    OpenAIRE

    Piednoir, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    Foodborne outbreaks are important issues worldwide. Two of the most important foodborne pathogens are Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The reference methods to detect foodborne bacteria are international standard operating procedures, ISO methods, which are recognized in the whole world. These methods are mostly culture-based methods that are time consuming (several days) and labor intensive. In order to identify faster the source of foodborne outbreaks, to better manage food-relat...

  15. Illness as Teacher: Learning from Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    This article is a conceptual exploration into the value of illness, bodies and embodied practice in teacher education. It draws on my reflections and practitioner accounts of poor health to investigate the potential to learn from illness. I position myself in this discussion as a non-tenured academic who experiences the challenges of her uncertain…

  16. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine's Front Line Observation Emergency Care Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share ... Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can ...

  17. Illness anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001236.htm Illness anxiety disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) is a preoccupation that physical symptoms are ...

  18. Characterization of Resistance Genes and Plasmids from Outbreaks and Illness Clusters Caused by Salmonella Resistant to Ceftriaxone in the United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folster, Jason P; Grass, Julian E; Bicknese, Amelia; Taylor, Julia; Friedman, Cindy R; Whichard, Jean M

    2017-03-01

    Salmonella is an important cause of foodborne illness; however, quickly identifying the source of these infections can be difficult, and source identification is a crucial step in preventing additional illnesses. Although most infections are self-limited, invasive salmonellosis may require antimicrobial treatment. Ceftriaxone, an extended-spectrum cephalosporin, is commonly used for treatment of salmonellosis. Previous studies have identified a correlation between the food animal/retail meat source of ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella and the type of resistance gene and plasmid it carries. In this study, we examined seven outbreaks of ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella infections, caused by serotypes Typhimurium, Newport, Heidelberg, and Infantis. All isolates were positive for a plasmid-encoded bla CMY gene. Plasmid incompatibility typing identified five IncI1 and two IncA/C plasmids. Both outbreaks containing bla CMY -IncA/C plasmids were linked to consumption of cattle products. Three of five outbreaks with bla CMY -IncI1 (ST12) plasmids were linked to a poultry source. The remaining IncI1 outbreaks were associated with ground beef (ST20) and tomatoes (ST12). In addition, we examined isolates from five unsolved clusters of ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella infections and used our plasmid-encoded gene findings to predict the source. Overall, we identified a likely association between the source of ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella outbreaks and the type of resistance gene/plasmid it carries.

  19. Studying Physically Ill Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rosalie F.; Kahana, Eva

    Research with older persons suffering from physical illness presents numerous challenges to gerontologists. Issues of conceptualization pertaining to the definition of illness, its location in the research paradigm, and the context in which illness occurs must be addressed prior to dealing with methodological problems. Access to physically ill…

  20. Kynetic resazurin assay (KRA) for bacterial quantification of foodborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Yaxal; Mandel, Arkady; Lilge, Lothar

    2012-03-01

    Fast detection of bacterial concentrations is important for the food industry and for healthcare. Early detection of infections and appropriate treatment is essential since, the delay of treatments for bacterial infections tends to be associated with higher mortality rates. In the food industry and in healthcare, standard procedures require the count of colony-forming units in order to quantify bacterial concentrations, however, this method is time consuming and reports require three days to be completed. An alternative is metabolic-colorimetric assays which provide time efficient in vitro bacterial concentrations. A colorimetric assay based on Resazurin was developed as a time kinetic assay (KRA) suitable for bacterial concentration measurements. An optimization was performed by finding excitation and emission wavelengths for fluorescent acquisition. A comparison of two non-related bacteria, foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, was performed in 96 well plates. A metabolic and clonogenic dependence was established for fluorescent kinetic signals.

  1. Hepatitis E - a “new” foodborne disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirbiš, A.; Raspor Lainšček, P.

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis E (HE) is a zoonosis caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). The disease that used to be problematic only in developing regions with inadequate water supplies and poor sanitary conditions is now considered one of the foodborne diseases in industrialized countries as well. According to current knowledge, the main reservoir of the virus is linked to domestic swine and wild boar. Consumption of raw or undercooked pork meat and liver is considered as a risk factor for HE human infection, together with some other sources of infection like blood transfusion or organ transplantation. Although the number of cases has been rising in the last decade, HEV is still a generally unknown virus among the general public. Consumers need to be warned and educated about HEV and its potential sources of contamination within the food supply chain.

  2. Foodborne Listeria monocytogenes: A Real Challenge in Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Pusztahelyi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen, and the detection and differentiation of this bacterium from the nonpathogenic Listeria species are of great importance to the food industry. Differentiation of Listeria species is very difficult, even with the sophisticated MALDI-TOF MS technique because of the close genetic relationship of the species and the usual gene transfer. The present paper emphasizes the difficulties of the differentiation through the standardized detection and confirmation according to ISO 11290-1:1996 and basic available L. monocytogenes detection methods and tests (such as API Listeria test, MALDI-TOF MS analysis, and hly gene PCR. With the increase of reports on the pathogenesis of atypical Listeria strains in humans, the significance of species level determination has become questionable, especially in food quality control, and the detection of pathogenic characteristics seems to be more relevant.

  3. A review on detection methods used for foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne pathogens have been a cause of a large number of diseases worldwide and more so in developing countries. This has a major economic impact. It is important to contain them, and to do so, early detection is very crucial. Detection and diagnostics relied on culture-based methods to begin with and have developed in the recent past parallel to the developments towards immunological methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA and molecular biology-based methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The aim has always been to find a rapid, sensitive, specific and cost-effective method. Ranging from culturing of microbes to the futuristic biosensor technology, the methods have had this common goal. This review summarizes the recent trends and brings together methods that have been developed over the years.

  4. A review of foodborne bacterial and parasitic zoonoses in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Bryant, J E

    2013-12-01

    Vietnam has experienced unprecedented economic and social development in recent years, and the livestock sector is undergoing significant transformations. Although food animal production is still dominated by small-scale 'backyard' enterprises with mixed crop-livestock or livestock-aquatic systems, there is a trend towards more intensive and vertically integrated operations. Changes in animal production, processing and distribution networks for meat and animal products, and the shift from wet markets to supermarkets will undoubtedly impact food safety risks in Vietnam in unforeseen and complex ways. Here, we review the available published literature on bacterial and parasitic foodborne zoonoses (FBZ) in Vietnam. We report on clinical disease burden and pathogen prevalence in animal reservoirs for a number of important FBZ, and outline opportunities for future research.

  5. Campylobacter spp. as a Foodborne Pathogen: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana; Leite, Daniela; Fernandes, Mariana; Mena, Cristina; Gibbs, Paul Anthony; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide. Symptoms can range from mild to serious infections of the children and the elderly and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry. Intestinal colonization results in healthy animals as carriers. In contrast with the most recent published reviews that cover specific aspects of Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, this broad review aims at elucidating and discussing the (i) genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; (ii) detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; (iii) campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors; and (iv) colonization of poultry and control strategies. PMID:21991264

  6. Tips to Prevent Illness from Clostridium Perfringens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some strains produce a toxin that causes diarrhea. What are common food sources of C. perfringens ? Meat and poultry are ... Anyone can get food poisoning from C. perfringens . What are the symptoms of C. perfringens food poisoning? People with C. perfringens food poisoning develop ...

  7. Update on antibiotic resistance in foodborne Lactobacillus and Lactococcus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eDevirgiliis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli represent a major Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB component within the complex microbiota of fermented foods obtained from meat, dairy and vegetable sources. Lactococci, on the other hand, are typical of milk and fermented dairy products, which in turn represent the vast majority of fermented products. As is the case for all species originating from the environment, foodborne lactobacilli and lactococci consist of natural, uncharacterized strains, whose biodiversity depends on geographical origin, seasonality, animal feeding/plant growth conditions. Although a few species of opportunistic pathogens have been described in lactobacilli and lactococci, they are mostly non-pathogenic, Gram-positive bacteria displaying probiotic features. Since antibiotic resistant (AR strains do not constitute an immediate threat to human health, scientific interest for detailed studies on AR genes in these species has been greatly hindered. However, increasing evidence points at a crucial role for foodborne LAB as reservoir of potentially transmissible AR genes, underlining the need for further, more detailed studies aimed at identifying possible strategies to avoid AR spread to pathogens through fermented food consumption. The availability of a growing number of sequenced bacterial genomes has been very helpful in identifying the presence/distribution of mobile elements associated with AR genes, but open questions and knowledge gaps still need to be filled, underlining the need for systematic and datasharing approaches to implement both surveillance and mechanistic studies on transferability of AR genes. In the present review we report an update of the recent literature on AR in lactobacilli and lactococci following the 2006 EU-wide ban of the use of antibiotics as feed additives in animal farming, and we discuss the limits of the present knowledge in evaluating possible risks for human health.

  8. Survival of selected foodborne pathogens on dry cured pork loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Partera, Ángela M; Cardoso-Toset, Fernando; Jurado-Martos, Francisco; Astorga, Rafael J; Huerta, Belén; Luque, Inmaculada; Tarradas, Carmen; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime

    2017-10-03

    The safety of ready-to-eat products such as cured pork loins must be guaranteed by the food industry. In the present study, the efficacy of the dry curing process of pork loins obtained from free-range pigs in the reduction of three of the most important foodborne pathogens is analysed. A total of 28 pork loin segments, with an average weight of 0.57±0.12kg, were divided into four groups with three being inoculated by immersion with 7logCFU/ml of either Salmonella Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli or Listeria innocua and the last one inoculated by immersion with sterile medium (control group). The loin segments were treated with a seasoning mixture of curing agents and spices, packed in a synthetic sausage casing and cured for 64days. Microbiological analysis, pH and water activity (a w ) were assessed at four stages. The values of pH and a w decreased with curing time as expected. S. Typhimurium and C. coli dropped significantly (3.28 and 2.14 log units, respectively), but limited reduction of L. innocua (0.84 log unit) was observed along the curing process. In our study, three factors were considered critical: the initial concentration of the bacteria, the progressive reduction of pH and the reduction of a w values. Our results encourage performing periodic analysis at different stages of the manufacturing of dry cured pork loins to ensure the absence of the three evaluated foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Epidemiological situation of foodborne diseases in Santiago, Chile in 1999-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Valeria; Solari, Verónica; Alvarez, Isabel M; Arellano, Carolina; Vidal, Roberto; Carreño, Mónica; Mamani, Nora; Fuentes, David; O'Ryan, Miguel; Muñoz, Víctor

    2002-05-01

    Foodborne diseases are becoming an important cause of morbidity in Chile. In the Metropolitan Region of Chile, the Environmental Health Service started a surveillance program for foodborne diseases in 1994. In 2000, this program was complemented with an etiologic study of individuals involved in outbreaks. To report the incidence of foodborne outbreaks in the Metropolitan Region of Chile and its causative agents. One hundred ninety outbreaks of foodborne diseases were reported in 1999 and 260 in 2000. The Southern Metropolitan health service had the higher incidence rates (7.5 in 1999 and 8.2 in 2000). The mean attack rates were 25% in both periods, affecting 1248 individuals in 1999 and 1774 in 2000. In 18% of outbreaks, a pathogen was identified; the most frequent agents were Salmonella Spp, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella. In 15% of subjects, the cause was histamine or chemical agents. In the rest of the cases, the cause was not identified. The foods with higher risk of causing foodborne diseases were hot prepared dishes, home made goat cheese and meats. The incidence rates of foodborne disease in Metropolitan Area of Chile are high and maybe underestimate, only in a low rate of outbreaks was possible to have samples for etiologic studies. For a better understanding of this problem, timely notification of foodborne diseases must be encouraged and educational campaigns about the proper manipulation of food items must be implemented.

  10. Homeless mentally ill or mentally ill homeless?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, C I; Thompson, K S

    1992-06-01

    Mainstream psychiatry conceptualizes people who are homeless and mentally ill as distinct from other homeless persons because it is thought that their status stems from their mental disorder and the poor implementation of deinstitutionalization. The authors believe this dichotomy is illusory. They present data indicating that recent socioeconomic and political shifts contributed greatly to homelessness among all groups, regardless of mental illness; that those with and without mental illness have similar biographical and demographic profiles; that high levels of mental distress are common to all homeless persons; and that few mentally ill homeless persons require involuntary hospitalization. This perspective suggests novel responses that de-emphasize clinical solutions and focus on empowerment, consumerism, entitlement, community-level interventions, and closer alliances with other advocates for the homeless.

  11. Whole Genome DNA Sequence Analysis of Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee obtained from related peanut butter foodborne outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Wilson

    during future outbreaks. Using WGS can delimit contamination sources for foodborne illnesses across multiple outbreaks and reveal otherwise undetected DNA sequence differences essential to the tracing of bacterial pathogens as they emerge.

  12. Antagonistic activity of dairy lactobacilli against gram-foodborne pathogens - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i1.18776

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Geria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-five strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from artisanal raw milk cheese, presumptively identified and tested against one dairy Escherichia coli strain. Six lactobacilli, exhibiting antagonistic activity, were identified at the species level and their action was evaluated against four strains of Gram-foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O26, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. 1023, and Salmonella Typhimurium and the control strain Escherichia coli ATCC 45922. The antagonistic activity was determined by spot method and the inhibition zones were measured by Autodesk AutoCAD 2007. Three strains, all Lactobacillus paracasei, were active against all the pathogens; the other strains, all Lactobacillus plantarum, showed antagonistic activity against some pathogens. This study highlights the intense and different antagonistic activity induced by lactobacilli against various foodborne pathogens thus demonstrating that using selected lactic acid bacteria strains as adjunct cultures could be an effective strategy to prevent the development of foodborne pathogens in artisanal raw milk cheeses, and thus improving their safety.

  13. An approach towards public health and foodborne human listeriosis--the Austrian Listeria monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asperger, H; Wagner, M; Brandl, E

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Milk Hygiene, Milk Technology and Food Science has launched a Listeria monitoring for Austrian cheese factories in 1988 which is nowadays a valuable tool to control the safety of cheese production. It is a means to qualify the proper hygienic conditions in the participating cheese plants. Proper hygiene protects cheese plants from getting contaminated by L. monocytogenes. The preventive elimination of foodborne pathogens facilitates a thriving economical development of the domestic cheese industry as contamination by L. monocytogenes may lead to a stop of delivery, product recall and other costly measures. This report comprehensively describes the principle of the monitoring including a description of the microbiological and molecular tools. It summarizes data on the detection frequency of Listeria contamination with respect to the different matrices under investigation. Furthermore an overview is given on the course of 17 contamination periods in 10 cheese plants and the outcome of the decontamination endeavours is described. Apart from epidemiological investigations, this report summarizes data regarding molecular species confirmation in the genus Listeria as the species assignment was comparatively examined by both conventional microbiology and molecular tools. Genotyping by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis was applied in three plants which were confronted with a long term contamination period. The data presented in this paper rely on results which were collected through a decade of investigation (1990-2000).

  14. The association between foodborne and orofecal pathogens and allergic sensitisation -- EuroPrevall study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Jacqueline J.; Wong, Gary W. K.; Potts, James; Ogorodova, Ludmila M.; Fedorova, Olga S.; Mahesh, P. A.; Sakellariou, Alexandros; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Knulst, André C.; Versteeg, Serge A.; Kroes, Aloys C. M.; Vossen, Ann C. T. M.; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Kummeling, Ischa; Burney, Peter; van Ree, Ronald; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2014-01-01

    An inverse association between markers of exposure to foodborne and orofecal pathogens and allergic sensitization has been reported. However, the findings of epidemiological studies have not been consistent. This study investigated the relationship between antibodies to hepatitis A, Toxoplasma

  15. The association between foodborne and orofecal pathogens and allergic sensitisation - EuroPrevall study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, J.J.; Wong, G.W.K.; Potts, J.; Ogorodova, L.M.; Fedorova, O.S.; Mahesh, P.A.; Sakellariou, A.; Papadopoulos, N.G.; Knulst, A.C.; Versteeg, S.A.; Kroes, A.C.M.; Vossen, A.C.T.M.; Campos Ponce, M.; Kummeling, I.; Burney, P.; van Ree, R.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An inverse association between markers of exposure to foodborne and orofecal pathogens and allergic sensitization has been reported. However, the findings of epidemiological studies have not been consistent. This study investigated the relationship between antibodies to hepatitis A,

  16. Detection and characterization of foodborne pathogenic bacteria with hyperspectral microscope imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid detection and identification of pathogenic microorganisms naturally occurring during food processing are important in developing intervention and verification strategies. In the poultry industry, contamination of poultry meat with foodborne pathogens (especially, Salmonella and Campylobacter) ...

  17. Grape seed extract for foodborne virus reduction on produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2013-05-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have antibacterial properties with few current studies on antiviral activity. Recently, we reported the effects of GSE against foodborne viral surrogates in vitro. This study evaluated the application of GSE (commercial Gravinol-S) against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1), on model produce. Washed and air-dried lettuce (3 × 3 cm(2)) and jalapeno peppers (25-30 g) were inoculated with FCV-F9, MNV-1, or HAV at high (∼7 log10 PFU/ml) or low (∼5 log10 PFU/ml) titers, and treated with 0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/ml GSE or water for 30 s to 5 min. Treatments were stopped/diluted with cell-culture media containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and evaluated using plaque assays. At high titers, FCV-F9 was reduced by 2.33, 2.58, and 2.71 log10 PFU on lettuce; and 2.20, 2.74, and 3.05 log10 PFU on peppers after 1 min using 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively. Low FCV-F9 titers could not be detected after 1 min at all three GSE concentrations. Low titer MNV-1 was reduced by 0.2-0.3 log10 PFU on lettuce and 0.8 log10 PFU on peppers, without reduction of high titer. GSE at 0.25-1 mg/ml after 1 min caused 0.7-1.1 and 1-1.3 log10 PFU reduction for high and low HAV titers, respectively on both commodities. Instrumental color analysis showed no significant differences between treated and untreated produce. GSE shows potential for foodborne viral reduction on produce as part of hurdle technologies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Trisodium phosphate for foodborne virus reduction on produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2011-06-01

    Human noroviruses (NoVs) are recognized as the major cause of acute nonbacterial foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks in both developed and developing countries. They are resistant to most chemical inactivation processes, and can survive in the environment for long periods. The aim of this research was to apply trisodium phosphate (TSP) on spiked produce (lettuce and peppers) for the reduction of foodborne NoV surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), and murine norovirus (MNV-1). Washed and dried lettuce (3 × 3 cm²) and Jalapeno peppers (25-30 g/pepper) were spiked with FCV-F9 and MNV-1 at titers of ∼7 log₁₀ plaque forming unit (PFU)/mL or ∼5 log₁₀ PFU/mL and dried aseptically in a biosafety hood for 5 min. Samples were treated with 2% TSP, 5% TSP, 200 mg/L sodium hypochlorite, or water for 15 or 30 sec. Treatments were immediately neutralized with cell culture media containing 10% fetal bovine serum, and viruses were recovered and evaluated using standardized plaque assays. No significant differences between the two contact times on viral reduction was observed (p > 0.05). All three chemicals reduced FCV-F9 titers at ∼5 log₁₀ PFU/mL to undetectable levels, but MNV-1 at ∼5 log₁₀ PFU/mL was decreased by ∼2-3 log₁₀ PFU/mL with 200 mg/L sodium hypochlorite and 2% TSP, and to undetectable levels by 5% TSP. FCV-F9 at ∼7 log₁₀ PFU/mL was reduced by >5 log₁₀ PFU/mL with 2% TSP, in comparison to 200 mg/L sodium hypochlorite that showed ≤ 1.4 log₁₀ PFU/mL reduction. MNV-1 at ∼7 log₁₀ PFU/mL was decreased by ∼2-3.4 log₁₀ PFU/mL with 2% TSP; and by PFU/mL with 200 mg/L sodium hypochlorite. FCV-F9 and MNV-1 at ∼7 log₁₀ PFU/mL were reduced to undetectable levels by 5% TSP. Treatments by 5% TSP for 30 sec did not result in any statistically significant color changes of the tested produce. TSP at 5% appears suitable as an alternative treatment to chlorine washes for NoV reduction on produce

  19. Serious Illnesses and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Serious Illnesses and Breastfeeding Page Content Article Body For some new mothers, concerns about breastfeeding revolve less around their babies’ physical condition than ...

  20. [Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of foodborne parasitic diseases among middle school students in Xuzhou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhou; Ya-Peng, Liu; Li, Li

    2017-12-26

    To investigate the status of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of foodborne parasitic diseases among middle school students in Xuzhou City, so as to provide a reference to the health education. A total of four middle schools were selected and their students were investigated with the basic information questionnaire and questions of foodborne parasitic diseases. The awareness rates of parasitic diseases, hazards and transmission were 56.50%, 66.33% and 70.50% respectively. The awareness rates of transmission of the diseases in the senior high school students and urban students were higher than those in the junior middle school students and rural students ( χ 2 = 8.684, 8.470, both P eating raw food were higher among the female students than those among the male students ( χ 2 = 7.675, 15.230, both P eating raw food was higher among the senior high school students than that among the junior middle school students ( χ 2 = 49.276, P eat food that might be infected with foodborne parasites, and the proportion of girls was higher than that of the boys ( χ 2 = 11.690, P eating food that might be infected with foodborne parasites, and 81% of the students would plan to get rid of bad habits. The cognition of foodborne parasitic diseases is poor among the middle school students in Xuzhou City. The health education work on foodborne parasitic diseases should be strengthened.

  1. Reflections on a career in public health: evolving foodborne pathogens, environmental health, and food safety programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Frank L

    2002-12-01

    Events affecting environmental health and food safety policy, programs and organization and emerging or identified foodborne diseases are reviewed by decade. The review starts with the impact of the 1940s war years on environmental sanitation, as it was called, and disease control. It continues with the intensifying disease surveillance and improvements in sanitation of the 1950s and the improvements in foodborne-disease surveillance and the reorganization of environmental programs of the 1960s. Many previously unknown foodborne pathogens were identified, and more changes in environmental policy came about in the 1970s. Evaluation of foodborne-disease control measures were initiated. In the 1980s, evaluation of major foodborne-disease problems came to the forefront. In the 1990s, the media and consumer groups became aware of foodborne-disease problems and concerned with the environment. The first decade of the 21st century will be faced with continuing dilemmas posed by emerging diseases and will need to provide solutions through the balancing of science, education, and politics.

  2. Effect of Activated Plastic Films on Inactivation of Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Soriano Cuadrado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, low density polyethylene films were activated by co-extrusion with zinc oxide, zinc acetate or potassium sorbate. Films were also surface-activated with tyrosol singly or in combination with lactic acid or p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Activated films were tested on Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The combinations showing greatest inhibition zones and broadest inhibitory spectrum were the films activated with tyrosol plus p-hydroxybenzoic acid. A small delay in growth of Listeria innocua was observed on seabream packed in ZnO-activated films during refrigerated storage for 7 days. When films activated with 2.5% tyrosol or with 1.5% tyrosol plus 0.5 p-hydroxybenzoic acid were used for vacuum packaging of smoked salmon and smoked tuna challenged with cocktails of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes strains, the combination of tyrosol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid improved inactivation of both pathogens during chill storage compared to films singly activated with tyrosol. The best results were obtained in smoked salmon, since no viable pathogens were detected after 7 days of chill storage for the activated film. Results from the study highlight the potential of plastic films surface-activated with tyrosol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in the control of foodborne pathogens in smoked seafood.

  3. Food-borne tonsillopharyngitis outbreak in a hospital cafeteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertugrul, B M; Erol, N; Emek, M; Ozturk, B; Saylak, O M; Cetin, K; Sakarya, S

    2012-02-01

    A food-borne tonsillopharyngitis outbreak was reported between 9th and 13th of February, 2008, in Söke State Hospital, Aydın, Turkey. This descriptive cohort study was carried out immediately after the outbreak. In order to determine the probable origin, a questionnaire involving demographical features, clinical features, and possible risk factors was distributed to 403 persons. The participants of the questionnaire (n = 403) were divided into two groups: the study group (n = 252); those with any two of the following three complaints; sore throat, fever, and dizziness, and the control group (n = 151); those without these complaints. This investigation revealed that 252 people were affected by this outbreak. Group A β-hemolytic streptococci were isolated from the throat cultures of 63 affected individuals (25%) and an employee working in the patisserie that made desserts served for lunch. Since the number of people who ate the milky dessert was statistically higher compared to the non-eaters, the milky dessert was thought to be the origin of the outbreak. We suggest that throat infections among employees working in food production may cause outbreaks of upper respiratory tract infections.

  4. Delirium in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slooter, A J C; Van De Leur, R R; Zaal, I J

    2017-01-01

    Delirium is common in critically ill patients and associated with increased length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and long-term cognitive impairment. The pathophysiology of delirium has been explained by neuroinflammation, an aberrant stress response, neurotransmitter imbalances, and neuronal network alterations. Delirium develops mostly in vulnerable patients (e.g., elderly and cognitively impaired) in the throes of a critical illness. Delirium is by definition due to an underlying condition and can be identified at ICU admission using prediction models. Treatment of delirium can be improved with frequent monitoring, as early detection and subsequent treatment of the underlying condition can improve outcome. Cautious use or avoidance of benzodiazepines may reduce the likelihood of developing delirium. Nonpharmacologic strategies with early mobilization, reducing causes for sleep deprivation, and reorientation measures may be effective in the prevention of delirium. Antipsychotics are effective in treating hallucinations and agitation, but do not reduce the duration of delirium. Combined pain, agitation, and delirium protocols seem to improve the outcome of critically ill patients and may reduce delirium incidence. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanomaterial-based sensors for detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens and toxins as well as pork adulteration in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stephen Inbaraj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food safety draws considerable attention in the modern pace of the world owing to rapid-changing food recipes and food habits. Foodborne illnesses associated with pathogens, toxins, and other contaminants pose serious threat to human health. Besides, a large amount of money is spent on both analyses and control measures, which causes significant loss to the food industry. Conventional detection methods for bacterial pathogens and toxins are time consuming and laborious, requiring certain sophisticated instruments and trained personnel. In recent years, nanotechnology has emerged as a promising field for solving food safety issues in terms of detecting contaminants, enabling controlled release of preservatives to extend the shelf life of foods, and improving food-packaging strategies. Nanomaterials including metal oxide and metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and quantum dots are gaining a prominent role in the design of sensors and biosensors for food analysis. In this review, various nanomaterial-based sensors reported in the literature for detection of several foodborne bacterial pathogens and toxins are summarized highlighting their principles, advantages, and limitations in terms of simplicity, sensitivity, and multiplexing capability. In addition, the application through a noncross-linking method without the need for any surface modification is also presented for detection of pork adulteration in meat products.

  6. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be caused by overexposure to the sun or any situation that involves extreme heat. Young children and the elderly are most at risk, ...

  7. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine's Front Line Observation Emergency Care Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can ...

  8. An outbreak of foodborne norovirus gastroenteritis linked to a restaurant in Melbourne, Australia, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun P. Coutts

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In May 2014 an outbreak of norovirus occurred among patrons of a restaurant in Melbourne, Australia. Investigations were conducted to identify the infectious agent, mode of transmission and source of illness, and to implement controls to prevent further transmission. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted to test the hypothesis that food served at the restaurant between 9 and 15 May 2014 was the vehicle for infection. A structured questionnaire was used to collect demographic, illness and food exposure data from study participants. To ascertain whether any food handlers had experienced gastroenteritis symptoms and were a possible source of infection, investigators contacted and interviewed staff who had worked at the restaurant between 9 and 16 May 2014. Results: Forty-six cases (including 16 laboratory-confirmed cases of norovirus and 49 controls were interviewed and enrolled in the study. Results of the analysis revealed a statistically significant association with illness and consumption of grain salad (OR: 21.6, 95% CI: 1.8–252.7, p = 0.015 and beetroot dip (OR: 22.4, 95% CI: 1.9–267.0, p = 0.014. An interviewed staff member who reported an onset of acute gastrointestinal illness on 12 May 2014 had prepared salads on the day of onset and the previous two days. Discussion: The outbreak was likely caused by person-to-food-to-person transmission. The outbreak emphasizes the importance of the exclusion of symptomatic food handlers and strict hand hygiene practices in the food service industry to prevent contamination of ready-to-eat foods and the kitchen environment.

  9. 78 FR 67253 - Improve Tracking of Workplace Injuries and Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... the causes and prevention of occupational accidents and illnesses'' (29 U.S.C. 657(c)(1)). Section 8(c... suggested by the records. OSHA consultants conduct a similar review when an establishment has requested a... disorders, respiratory conditions, poisonings, hearing loss, and all other illnesses); Establishment...

  10. Self-management and support needs of chronically ill people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houtum, L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, self-management by patients has been recognized an important aspect of chronic illness care, as it can help avoid preventable mortality and morbidity and improve the quality of life of patients and their families. However, not all people with a chronic illness are able to

  11. Essential oils from herbs against foodborne pathogens in chicken sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Probst, Isabella Silva; Murbach Teles Andrade, Bruna Fernanda; Bérgamo Alves, Fernanda Cristina; Albano, Mariana; Mores Rall, Vera Lucia; Júnior, Ary Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of chicken meat and its products, especially sausage, have increased in recent years. However, this product is susceptible to microbial contamination during manufacturing, which compromises its shelf life. The flavoring and preservative activities of essential oils (EO) have been recognized and the application of these antimicrobial agents as natural active compounds in food preservation has shown promise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ocimum basilicum and Origanum vulgare EO on Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis strains in artificially inoculated samples of fresh chicken sausage. First, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of EO in vitro was determined. The sausage was prepared and kept at ± 4°C; then, the inoculation of individual bacteria was carried out. EO were added at 0.3%, 1.0% and 1.5%v/w. After 0, 5, and 24 hours, the most probable number method (MPN) was performed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to view the damage caused by these EO on bacterial morphology and/or structure. Only the 1.5% concentration was effective in reducing L. monocytogenes. 0.3% of O. vulgare EO was able to reduce the MPN/g of Salmonella Enteritidis (2 log) after 5 hours trials. O. basilicum EO showed no effect on Salmonella after 5 hours, but decreased by 2 log after 24 hours. O. vulgare EO at 1% gave a greater reduction of S. Enteritidis at 5 hours, increasing or maintaining this effect after 24 hours. The results confirmed the potential benefits of use EO in control of foodborne pathogens.

  12. Raising the Level of Analysis of Food-Borne Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostle, James A.; Hubbard, Alan; Scott, James; Cevallos, William; Bates, Sarah J.; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Consuming contaminated food is a well-documented individual-level risk factor for diarrheal disease. The sharing of food also influences the distribution of diarrheal disease risk through a community and region. Understanding this social process at a population level is therefore an important dimension of risk not captured by standard individual-level analyses. We examined social networks related to food-sharing in rural villages at 2 scales: within a village, examining whether connections within these networks clustered or were uniformly spread; and among villages, looking at whether food-sharing networks differed according to the village’s remoteness from a population center. Methods We surveyed 2129 individuals aged 13 years and older in 2003–2004, within a representative (block-randomized) sample of 21 rural villages in Esmeraldas province, northern coastal Ecuador. We calculated degree (number of social contacts) for a social network defined by sharing food. Results Networks of households sharing food differ according to remoteness from a metropolitan center. On average, residents living in “far villages” had 2 more social contacts than those in “close villages,” and 12 more years of residence in their village. Estimates of transmissibility (a measure of outbreak potential) based on network structure varied as much as 2-fold across these villages. Conclusions Food-sharing practices link particular households in rural villages and have implications for the spread of food-borne pathogens. The food-sharing networks in remote rural villages are heterogeneous and clustered, consistent with contemporary theories about disease transmitters. Network-based measures may offer tools for predicting patterns of disease outbreaks, as well as guidance for interventions. PMID:18379421

  13. Total phenolic and flavonoid content and antibacterial activity of Punica granatum L. var. pleniflora flowers (Golnar) against bacterial strains causing foodborne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Arash; Asgarpanah, Jinous; Sadaghiyani, Parisa Nosrati; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2015-10-15

    Flowers of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) var. pleniflora, known as "Golnar" in Iranian traditional medicine have been used for the prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases. In this study, antibacterial activities of ethanol extract of Golnar and its fractions were scientifically evaluated against bacteria causing foodborne diseases including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysantriae, and Salmonella typhi. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract and its fractions were also determined. The antibacterial effect of the ethanol extract and its fractions were primarily evaluated by agar well diffusion and their MIC and MBC were determined by broth macro dilution method. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract and its fractions were measured based on gallic acid and rutin equivalents (GAE and RE), respectively. After evaluation of total phenolic and flavonoid content the chloroform fraction showed the lowest phenolic and flavonoid contents (3.8 mg GAE/g and 1.1 mg RE/g respectively) and the methanol fraction showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents (18.1 mg GEA/g and 3.3 mg RE/g respectively). The total phenolic and flavonoid content was positively associated with the antibacterial activities of the fractions with chloroform extract exhibiting lowest antibacterial activity against E. coli (MIC 25 mg/ml) and the methanol fraction exhibiting the highest antibacterial effect against S. aureus (MIC 0.19 mg/ml). Golnar extract showed antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria causing food poisoning. Therefore, the extract can be used for prevention or treatment of foodborne diseases or as preservative in the food industry. The methanol fraction with the highest phenolic and flavonoid content showed the highest antibacterial effect. This indicates that the phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the extract can be responsible for the

  14. Food-Borne Outbreak Investigation and Molecular Typing: High Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Strains and Importance of Toxin Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denayer, Sarah; Nia, Yacine; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important aetiological agent of food intoxications in the European Union as it can cause gastro-enteritis through the production of various staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in foods. Reported enterotoxin dose levels causing food-borne illness are scarce and varying. Three food poisoning outbreaks due to enterotoxin-producing S. aureus strains which occurred in 2013 in Belgium are described. The outbreaks occurred in an elderly home, at a barbecue event and in a kindergarten and involved 28, 18, and six cases, respectively. Various food leftovers contained coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS). Low levels of staphylococcal enterotoxins ranging between 0.015 ng/g and 0.019 ng/g for enterotoxin A (SEA), and corresponding to 0.132 ng/g for SEC were quantified in the food leftovers for two of the reported outbreaks. Molecular typing of human and food isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and enterotoxin gene typing, confirmed the link between patients and the suspected foodstuffs. This also demonstrated the high diversity of CPS isolates both in the cases and in healthy persons carrying enterotoxin genes encoding emetic SEs for which no detection methods currently exist. For one outbreak, the investigation pointed out to the food handler who transmitted the outbreak strain to the food. Tools to improve staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) investigations are presented. PMID:29261162

  15. An outbreak of food-borne salmonellosis linked to a bread takeaway shop in Ben Tre City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thuan Huu; Le, Ninh Hoang; Cao, Thuy Thanh Diem; Nuorti, J Pekka; Minh, Nguyen Nhu Tran

    2014-09-01

    To identify the vehicle, source, and causative agent of a community-wide food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis. We conducted a case-control study. Cases were city residents diagnosed with gastroenteritis and hospitalized in Ben Tre City from 22 to 25 May 2013; 41 cases were selected randomly from a list of hospitalized patients. Controls were age- and gender-matched healthy neighbours of cases. Participants were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. Samples from patients and food were tested at reference laboratories. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate matched odds ratios (mORs) for the association of gastroenteritis with food items consumed. Of the 41 cases enrolled in the study, 61% were males and the median age was 33 years; cases resided in 12 wards of the City. Of 13 food items consumed by the cases, only stuffed bread was significantly associated with gastroenteritis (mOR 21.3, 95% confidence interval 6.3-71.8). Among the 29 cases who ate stuffed bread, the median time to illness onset was 9h. Patient stool samples and bread samples were positive for Salmonella species. Stuffed bread was the likely vehicle of the outbreak. The laboratory testing capacity for serotypes of Salmonella should be strengthened in Vietnam. Food-handler training in basic food safety measures should be improved. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Food-Borne Outbreak Investigation and Molecular Typing: High Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Strains and Importance of Toxin Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denayer, Sarah; Delbrassinne, Laurence; Nia, Yacine; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2017-12-20

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important aetiological agent of food intoxications in the European Union as it can cause gastro-enteritis through the production of various staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in foods. Reported enterotoxin dose levels causing food-borne illness are scarce and varying. Three food poisoning outbreaks due to enterotoxin-producing S. aureus strains which occurred in 2013 in Belgium are described. The outbreaks occurred in an elderly home, at a barbecue event and in a kindergarten and involved 28, 18, and six cases, respectively. Various food leftovers contained coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS). Low levels of staphylococcal enterotoxins ranging between 0.015 ng/g and 0.019 ng/g for enterotoxin A (SEA), and corresponding to 0.132 ng/g for SEC were quantified in the food leftovers for two of the reported outbreaks. Molecular typing of human and food isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and enterotoxin gene typing, confirmed the link between patients and the suspected foodstuffs. This also demonstrated the high diversity of CPS isolates both in the cases and in healthy persons carrying enterotoxin genes encoding emetic SEs for which no detection methods currently exist. For one outbreak, the investigation pointed out to the food handler who transmitted the outbreak strain to the food. Tools to improve staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) investigations are presented.

  17. Food-Borne Outbreak Investigation and Molecular Typing: High Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Strains and Importance of Toxin Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Denayer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important aetiological agent of food intoxications in the European Union as it can cause gastro-enteritis through the production of various staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs in foods. Reported enterotoxin dose levels causing food-borne illness are scarce and varying. Three food poisoning outbreaks due to enterotoxin-producing S. aureus strains which occurred in 2013 in Belgium are described. The outbreaks occurred in an elderly home, at a barbecue event and in a kindergarten and involved 28, 18, and six cases, respectively. Various food leftovers contained coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS. Low levels of staphylococcal enterotoxins ranging between 0.015 ng/g and 0.019 ng/g for enterotoxin A (SEA, and corresponding to 0.132 ng/g for SEC were quantified in the food leftovers for two of the reported outbreaks. Molecular typing of human and food isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and enterotoxin gene typing, confirmed the link between patients and the suspected foodstuffs. This also demonstrated the high diversity of CPS isolates both in the cases and in healthy persons carrying enterotoxin genes encoding emetic SEs for which no detection methods currently exist. For one outbreak, the investigation pointed out to the food handler who transmitted the outbreak strain to the food. Tools to improve staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP investigations are presented.

  18. Geospatial Mapping of Early Cases in Multistate Foodborne Disease Outbreaks: A Strategy To Expedite Identification of Contaminated Imported Produce, United States, 2006 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen Parker, Cary; McKenna, Crystal; Wise, Matthew; Gezon, Christopher; Klontz, Karl C

    2017-10-05

    From 1998 to 2008, produce-related illness outbreaks accounted for roughly one-half of reported foodborne outbreaks in the United States. In 2013, Mexico accounted for approximately 50 and 30% of the monetary value of all vegetables and fruits, respectively, imported into the United States. We used historical import data to examine the correlation between the port of entry for five implicated produce vehicles from five multistate outbreaks and the geospatial and temporal distribution of illnesses in the corresponding outbreaks in the United States. For comparison, we analyzed the geospatial and temporal distribution of cases from two U.S. multistate outbreaks associated with domestically grown produce. The geospatial distribution of illnesses in the two outbreaks linked to domestic produce differed from that of the import-related produce outbreaks. The results of our pilot study suggest that geospatial distribution of early-onset cases may be used to identify ports of entry for produce likely to be responsible for causing multistate outbreaks in the United States and that targeted sampling of produce items from these ports of entry may expedite identification of an outbreak vehicle.

  19. The most important parasites in Serbia involving the foodborne route of transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, J. M.; Prodanov-Radulović, J. Z.; Vasilev, S. D.

    2017-09-01

    Food can be an important route for transmission of parasites to humans. Compared to other foodborne pathogens in Serbia, foodborne (or potentially foodborne) parasites do not get the attention they undoubtedly deserve. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the most important parasitic pathogens that can be transmitted by food, and that cause disease in humans: Echinococcus, Trichinella, Taenia solium and Toxoplasma gondii. For each of these pathogens, the severity of human diseases they cause, incidence, mortality and case fatality rate among humans in Serbia as well as their prevalence in animal species in Serbia are described. Some of the described foodborne parasites can induce severe disease symptoms in humans associated with high case fatality rates, while others can cause massive outbreaks. All of the aforementioned parasites occur throughout Serbia and cause both severe public health problems and substantial economic losses in livestock production. In conclusion, the control measures of foodborne parasites certainly need to include education of farmers and improvement of veterinary sanitary measures in animal farming and animal waste control.

  20. [Characteristics of heat illness in older people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Mitsunaga; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Kuzuya, Masafumi; Kitagawa, Yoshimi

    2008-05-01

    As summer become hotter due to rapid climate change, older people suffering from heat illness are increasing. The aim of our study was to examine the characteristics of older people who suffered from heat illness. We analyzed the 65 years or older patients admitted for acute care of Nagoya Ekisaikai Hospital via the emergency department (ED) during the summer seasons of 2006 and 2007. Demographic data, functional status, use situation of care services, climate of the onset day, use of an air conditioners, and cognitive status, length of hospital stay and disposition following their discharge were recorded. During the study period, 104 patients visited the ED because of heat illness. Twenty older patients were admitted for acute care. In hospitalized patients, the mean length of stay was 27.5+/-18.6 days. Sixty percent of patients were discharged to long-term care facilities (12/20). Sixteen patients suffered from heat illness inside their home. Most of the patients had characteristics such as living alone or with their spouses only (14/16), cognitive dysfunction (12/16), lack or no use of an air conditioner (11/16) , no use of care service (11/16) , and preserved functional status (10/16) . Many older patients suffered from heat illness in their home, and their ED visits were associated with prolonged admissions and post-discharge institutionalizations. It is important to give education to prevent heat illness in older people.

  1. [Delirium in the critically ill patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Renata Fittipaldi; Nácul, Flávio Eduardo

    2006-06-01

    Delirium is a frequent finding in the critically ill patient. Although it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, it is often not recognized by intensive care doctors. This review will address the main issues regarding delirium in critically ill patients. Definition, incidence, mortality, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of delirium in the critically ill. Deliriumis defined as a disturbance of consciousness, attention, cognition and perception that occurs frequently in critically ill patients. It occurs in as many as 80% of mechanically ventilated ICU patients. Risk factors for delirium include acute systemic illnesses, older age, pre-existing cognitive impairment, sleep deprivation, and medications with anticholinergic activity. Although new assessment tools are available for rapidly and accurately measuring deliriumin critically ill patients, healthcare professionals still do not regularly monitor for this condition. In recent years, the emphasis in the approach to delirium has shifted to systematic screening and prevention. Haloperidol remains the standard treatment for delirium, but there is some evidence for the efficacy of risperidone.

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant and antifungal properties of the traditional plants against foodborne fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzadeh, A; Javan, A Jebeli; Shokri, H; Abbaszadeh, S; Keykhosravy, K

    2016-03-01

    To determine the antioxidant and antifungal activities of the essential oils from five aromatic herbs, including Thymus vulgaris, Chamaemelum nobile, Ziziphora clinopodioides, Zingiber officinale and Cuminum cyminum, against different Aspergillus and Penicillium species. The oils were subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The susceptibility test for the oils was carried out in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) using microdilution method. The values of the essential oils in DPPH assay were as follows: T. vulgaris (450.11±5.23 μg/mL), Ch. nobile (602.73±4.8 μg/mL), Ziz. clinopodioides (1238.82±9.3 μg/mL), Cu. cyminum (1255.52±8.92 μg/mL) and Zin. officinale (5595.06±8.24 μg/mL). Our findings also indicated a strong activity against tested fungi for the oil of T. vulgaris (1250 μg/mL), followed by Cu. cyminum (1416 μg/mL), Zin. officinale (1833 μg/mL), Ziz. clinopodioides (2166 μg/mL) and Ch. nobile (3750 μg/mL). This study confirmed the excellent antifungal and antioxidant properties of the essential oils, especially T. vulgaris, against foodborne pathogenic fungi. Owing to their strong protective features, these oils could be used in ethno-medicine as preventers of lipid peroxidation and cellular damage, and in food industries as preservers of foodstuffs against spoilage fungi. Also, they could be the candidates to develop new antibiotics and disinfectants to control infective agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth inhibition of foodborne pathogens by kimchi prepared with bacteriocin-producing starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji Yoon; Chang, Hae Choon

    2011-01-01

    Kimchi (starter kimchi) was prepared with Leuconostoc citreum GJ7, a bacteriocin producer, with the objective of preventing growth and/or survival of foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhi, and Staphylococcus aureus. Numbers of the pathogens inoculated to 5.41 to 5.63 log CFU/mL into the filtrate of freshly made starter kimchi remained stable for the first 12 h of incubation at 10 °C. Reductions of 2.69, 2.88, and 3.42 log CFU/mL were observed 48 h after inoculation with E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhi, and S. aureus, respectively. Use of the bacteriocin-producing starter culture for kimchi fermentation significantly reduced the numbers of pathogens in the filtrate. Reductions of 3.85, 4.45, and 5.19 log CFU/mL were observed 48 h after inoculation for E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhi, and S. aureus, respectively. Presumably, the antimicrobial activity came from the ingredients of kimchi such as sulfur-containing compounds, low pH (approximately pH 4.5) produced by the conversion of sugars into organic acids and the bacteriocins potentially produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), such as kimchicin GJ7. Together, these data suggest that addition of a starter culture capable of producing bacteriocins could serve as a strategy to protect the fermented product from delivering pathogens upon consumption and that the kimchi filtrate itself may be used as a food preservative. Practical Application: The adaptation of the starter fermentation into kimchi induced a faster die off of the pathogens as compared to natural fermentation. The in situ bateriocin-production by Leuc. citreum GJ7 in kimchi would act with antimicrobial kimchi ingredients in a synergistic manner to protect the fermented product from delivering pathogens upon consumption.

  4. Bacteriophages to combat foodborne infections caused by food contamination by bacteria of the Campylobacter genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Myga-Nowak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that each year more than 2 million people suffer from diarrheal diseases, resulting from the consumption of contaminated meat. Foodborne infections are most frequently caused by small Gram-negative rods Campylobacter. The hosts of these bacteria are mainly birds wherein they are part of the normal intestinal flora. During the commercial slaughter, there is a likelihood of contamination of carcasses by the bacteria found in the intestinal content. In Europe, up to 90% of poultry flocks can be a reservoir of the pathogen. According to the European Food Safety Authority report from 2015, the number of reported and confirmed cases of human campylobacteriosis exceeds 200 thousands per year, and such trend remains at constant level for several years. The occurrence of growing antibiotic resistance in bacteria forces the limitation of antibiotic use in the animal production. Therefore, the European Union allows only using stringent preventive and hygienic treatment on farms. Achieving Campylobacter free chickens using these methods is possible, but difficult to implement and expensive. Utilization of bacterial viruses – bacteriophages, can be a path to provide the hygienic conditions of poultry production and food processing. Formulations applied in the food protection should contain strictly lytic bacteriophages, be non-pyrogenic and retain long lasting biological activity. Currently, on the market there are available commercial bacteriophage preparations for agricultural use, but neither includes phages against Campylobacter. However, papers on the application of bacteriophages against Campylobacter in chickens and poultry products were published in the last few years. In accordance with the estimates, 2-logarithm reduction of Campylobacter in poultry carcases will contribute to the 30-fold reduction in the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans. Research on bacteriophages against Campylobacter have cognitive and economic

  5. Bacteriophages to combat foodborne infections caused by food contamination by bacteria of the Campylobacter genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myga-Nowak, Magdalena; Godela, Agnieszka; Głąb, Tomasz; Lewańska, Monika; Boratyński, Janusz

    2016-09-26

    It is estimated that each year more than 2 million people suffer from diarrheal diseases, resulting from the consumption of contaminated meat. Foodborne infections are most frequently caused by small Gram-negative rods Campylobacter. The hosts of these bacteria are mainly birds wherein they are part of the normal intestinal flora. During the commercial slaughter, there is a likelihood of contamination of carcasses by the bacteria found in the intestinal content. In Europe, up to 90% of poultry flocks can be a reservoir of the pathogen. According to the European Food Safety Authority report from 2015, the number of reported and confirmed cases of human campylobacteriosis exceeds 200 thousands per year, and such trend remains at constant level for several years. The occurrence of growing antibiotic resistance in bacteria forces the limitation of antibiotic use in the animal production. Therefore, the European Union allows only using stringent preventive and hygienic treatment on farms. Achieving Campylobacter free chickens using these methods is possible, but difficult to implement and expensive. Utilization of bacterial viruses - bacteriophages, can be a path to provide the hygienic conditions of poultry production and food processing. Formulations applied in the food protection should contain strictly lytic bacteriophages, be non-pyrogenic and retain long lasting biological activity. Currently, on the market there are available commercial bacteriophage preparations for agricultural use, but neither includes phages against Campylobacter. However, papers on the application of bacteriophages against Campylobacter in chickens and poultry products were published in the last few years. In accordance with the estimates, 2-logarithm reduction of Campylobacter in poultry carcases will contribute to the 30-fold reduction in the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans. Research on bacteriophages against Campylobacter have cognitive and economic importance. The paper

  6. Food Safety Instruction Improves Knowledge and Behavior Risk and Protection Factors for Foodborne Illnesses in Pregnant Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Patricia; Scharff, Robert; Baker, Susan; LeJeune, Jeffrey; Sofos, John; Medeiros, Lydia

    2017-08-01

    Objective This study compared knowledge and food-handling behavior after pathogen-specific (experimental treatment) versus basic food safety instruction (active control) presented during nutrition education classes for low-income English- and Spanish-language pregnant women. Methods Subjects (n = 550) were randomly assigned to treatment groups in two different locations in the United States. Food safety instruction was part of an 8-lesson curriculum. Food safety knowledge and behavior were measured pre/post intervention. Descriptive data were analyzed by Chi-Square or ANOVA; changes after intervention were analyzed by regression analysis. Results Knowledge improved after intervention in the pathogen-specific treatment group compared to active control, especially among Spanish-language women. Behavior change after intervention for the pathogen-specific treatment group improved for thermometer usage, refrigeration and consumption of foods at high risk for safety; however, all other improvements in behavior were accounted for by intervention regardless of treatment group. As expected, higher pre-instruction behavioral competency limited potential gain in behavior post-instruction due to a ceiling effect. This effect was more dominant among English-language women. Improvements were also linked to formal education completed, a partner at home, and other children in the home. Conclusions for Practice This study demonstrated that pathogen-specific food safety instruction leads to enhance knowledge and food handling behaviors that may improve the public health of pregnant women and their unborn children, especially among Spanish-language women. More importantly, food safety instruction, even at the most basic level, benefited pregnant women's food safety knowledge and food-handling behavior after intervention.

  7. Using Candida oleophila as a biocontriol agens to prevent foodborne Escherichia coli O157 EHEC infections

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yujian; Wei, An; Li, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC O157) is a serious pathogen causing haemorrhagic colitis. In this study, inactivation kinetics of inoculated EHEC O157 and response of EHEC O157 in apple wounds by different concentrations of C. oleophila was investigated. The results presented in this study indicated that EHEC O157 could survive and grow in wounded ?Fuji? apples and extensively proliferate. Water as a decontaminant was ineffective in reducing EHEC O157 in wounded apples. C. oleophila could be a...

  8. Homelessness and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J

    1993-03-01

    In Great Britain 1-2 million people may be homeless. Most homeless people are men, but about 10-25% are women, of whom about half are accompanied by children. Significant mental illness is present in 30-50% of the homeless: functional psychoses predominate; acute distress and personality dysfunction are also prevalent. Co-morbidity of mental illness and substance abuse occurs in 20%, and physical morbidity rates exceed those of domiciled populations. The homeless mentally ill also have many social needs. Pathways to homelessness are complex; deinstitutionalization may be only one possible cause of the increase in the number of homeless people. There is much recent research estimating the extent of mental illness and the characteristics of selected subgroups of accessible homeless people. The evaluation of potential service solutions has received less attention. This review outlines the research, highlights current views on the definition and classification of homeless populations, and offers some guidelines on avenues which need to be explored.

  9. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ICE” in Your Cell Phone Prepare for Disasters Communication With Your Family And Your Doctor About Your ... Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be ...

  10. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  11. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  12. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... if we take away the protection given by vaccination, more and more people will be infected and ...

  13. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... illness) include flushed, hot, dry skin; fainting; a rapid, weak pulse; rapid, shallow breathing; vomiting; and increased body temperature of ... for symptoms that include cool, moist, pale skin, rapid pulse, elevated or lowered blood pressure, nausea, loss ...

  14. Cholera Illness and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection Note: Javascript is disabled or ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Cholera General Information Illness & Symptoms Sources of Infection & Risk ...

  15. Heat Related Illnesses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, R; Cheuvront, S. N; Sawka, M. N

    2006-01-01

    .... The risk of serious heat illness can be markedly reduced by implementing a variety of countermeasures, including becoming acclimated to the heat, managing heat stress exposure, and maintaining hydration...

  16. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of heat stroke or exhaustion. Heat Stroke and Exhaustion Symptoms of early heat exhaustion symptoms ... heavy sweating; nausea; and giddiness. Symptoms of heat stroke (late stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, ...

  17. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Waiting So Long? Admission to the Hospital Heroes on Medicine's Front Line Observation ... illness can be caused by overexposure to the sun or any situation that involves extreme heat. Young children and the elderly are most at risk, but ...

  18. Detection of foodborne pathogens by qPCR: A practical approach for food industry applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-José Chapela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological analysis of food is an integrated part of microbial safety management in the food chain. Monitoring and controlling foodborne pathogens are traditionally carried out by conventional microbiological methods based on culture-dependent approaches in control laboratories and private companies. However, polymerase chain reaction (PCR has revolutionized microbiological analysis allowing detection of pathogenic microorganisms in food, without the necessity of classical isolation and identification. However, at present, PCR and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR are essential analytical tools for researchers working in the field of foodborne pathogens. This manuscript reviews recently described qPCR methods applied for foodborne bacteria detection, serving as economical, safe, and reliable alternatives for application in the food industry and control laboratories. Multiplex qPCR, which allows the simultaneous detection of more than one pathogen in one single reaction, saving considerable effort, time, and money, is emphasized in the article.

  19. Novel strategies to enhance lateral flow immunoassay sensitivity for detecting foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Shan; Lai, Weihua; Xiong, Yonghua; Wei, Hua; Xu, Hengyi

    2015-01-28

    Food contaminated by foodborne pathogens causes diseases, affects individuals, and even kills those affected individuals. As such, rapid and sensitive detection methods should be developed to screen pathogens in food. One current detection method is lateral flow immunoassay, an efficient technique because of several advantages, including rapidity, simplicity, stability, portability, and sensitivity. This review presents the format and principle of lateral flow immunoassay strip and the development of conventional lateral flow immunoassay for detecting foodborne pathogens. Furthermore, novel strategies that can be applied to enhance the sensitivity of lateral flow immunoassay to detect foodborne pathogens are presented; these strategies include innovating new label application, designing new formats of lateral flow immunoassay, combining with other methods, and developing signal amplification systems. With these advancements, detection sensitivity and detection time can be greatly improved.

  20. Asian Implications of Aflatoxin and Dioxin Foodborne Chemical Exposures Based on World Health Organization Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Gibb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All people need food. Unsafe foods; however, may cause diseases ranging from diarrhea to cancer. Chemicals in food are a worldwide health concern. In 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO organized a consultation on the global burden of foodborne diseases. Work to estimate this burden began in 2007 and was carried out by the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG, which included a Chemical and Toxins Disease Task Force. The results of 8 years of work were released in December 2015.

  1. Characterization of a foodborne outbreak caused by Salmonella Enteritidis in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Maria Regina Pires; Cabello, Pedro Hernan; Albuquerque-Junior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Jain, Sona; Candido, Alexandre Luna

    2015-01-01

    In December 2001, an outbreak of foodborne gastroenteritis infected 114 of 161 people who ate at a restaurant in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. The epidemiological and microbiological aspects of the outbreak were characterized. Potato salad made with homemade mayonnaise and stored at unsuitable temperatures was associated with increased risk of foodborne infection. Salmonella Enteritidis was isolated from the diarrheal stools of the hospitalized patients, and genotyping of the fecal samples generated identical randomly amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first and the only record of a gastrointestinal outbreak in Sergipe.

  2. Evaluation of a Performance-Based Expert Elicitation: WHO Global Attribution of Foodborne Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aspinall, W. P.; Cooke, R. M.; Havelaar, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    . This paper presents new findings from a large-scale international SEJ study intended to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease on behalf of WHO. The study involved 72 experts distributed over 134 expert panels, with panels comprising thirteen experts on average. Elicitations were conducted in five....... Equal weights combinations were also calculated. The main conclusions on expert performance are: (1) SEJ does provide a science-based method for attribution of the global burden of foodborne diseases; (2) equal weighting of experts per panel increased statistical accuracy to acceptable levels...

  3. Research Synthesis Methods in an Age of Globalized Risks: Lessons from the Global Burden of Foodborne Disease Expert Elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Angulo, Fred; Bin Hamzah, Wan Mansor

    2016-01-01

    it draws on lessons learned from conducting an expert elicitation as part of the World Health Organizations (WHO) initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease; a study commissioned by the Foodborne Disease Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Expert elicitation is designed to fill gaps...

  4. From ontology selection and semantic web to the integrated information system of food-borne diseases and food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last three decades, the rapid explosion of information and resources on human food-borne diseases and food safety has provided the ability to rapidly determine and interpret the mechanisms of survival and pathogenesis of food-borne pathogens. However, several factors have hindered effective...

  5. Food-borne diseases - the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, D.G.; Koopmans, M.; Verhoef, L.; Duizer, E.; Aidara-Kane, A.; Sprong, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/222364815; Opsteegh, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31149305X; Langelaar, M.; Threfall, J.; Scheutz, F.; van der Giessen, J.; Kruse, H.

    2010-01-01

    The burden of diseases caused by food-borne pathogens remains largely unknown. Importantly data indicating trends in food-borne infectious intestinal disease is limited to a few industrialised countries, and even fewer pathogens. It has been predicted that the importance of diarrhoeal disease,

  6. Sensitive genotyping of foodborne-associated human noroviruses and hepatitis A virus using an array-based platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    The viral pathogens, human norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), are significant contributors of foodborne associated outbreaks. To develop a typing tool for foodborne viruses, a focused, low-density DNA microarray was developed in conjunction with a rapid and high-throughput fluorescent meth...

  7. Global Monitoring of Salmonella Serovar Distribution from the World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network Country Data Bank: Results of Quality Assured Laboratories from 2001 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Vieira, Antonio; Karlsmose, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    most frequently identified serovars of Salmonella isolated from humans from 2001 to 2007 in laboratories from 37 countries that participated in World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network and demonstrated serotyping proficiency in the Global Foodborne Infections Network External...

  8. Prevention of suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health problem in India, probably even bigger than in the West. Suicidal behavior is the best conceptualized as a multifaceted complex problem involving social factors and mental illnesses. Broadly, there are two approaches to suicide prevention; population preventive strategies and high-risk preventive strategies. Population preventive strategies include reducing availability of means for suicide, education of primary care physicians, influencing media portrayal of suicidal behavior, education of the public, telephone helplines, and addressing economic issues associated with suicidal behavior. High-risk preventive strategy includes identifying individuals with high risk of committing suicide, intensively treating mental illness if present, and providing psychosocial support. Thus, prevention requires a multipronged effort with collaboration from various sectors including mental health professionals, social justice department, and macroeconomic policy makers.

  9. The illness/non-illness model: hypnotherapy for physically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, Shaul

    2014-07-01

    This article proposes a focused, novel sub-set of the cognitive behavioral therapy approach to hypnotherapy for physically ill patients, based upon the illness/non-illness psychotherapeutic model for physically ill patients. The model is based on three logical rules used in differentiating illness from non-illness: duality, contradiction, and complementarity. The article discusses the use of hypnotic interventions to help physically ill and/or disabled patients distinguish between illness and non-illness in their psychotherapeutic themes and attitudes. Two case studies illustrate that patients in this special population group can be taught to learn the language of change and to use this language to overcome difficult situations. The model suggests a new clinical mode of treatment in which individuals who are physically ill and/or disabled are helped in coping with actual motifs and thoughts related to non-illness or non-disability.

  10. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  11. 'I don't think I ever had food poisoning'. A practice-based approach to understanding foodborne disease that originates in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Wendy J; Meah, Angela; Dickinson, Angela M; Short, Frances

    2015-02-01

    Food stored, prepared, cooked and eaten at home contributes to foodborne disease which, globally, presents a significant public health burden. The aim of the study reported here was to investigate, analyse and interpret domestic kitchen practices in order to provide fresh insight about how the domestic setting might influence food safety. Using current theories of practice meant the research, which drew on qualitative and ethnographic methods, could investigate people and material things in the domestic kitchen setting whilst taking account of people's actions, values, experiences and beliefs. Data from 20 UK households revealed the extent to which kitchens are used for a range of non-food related activities and the ways that foodwork extends beyond the boundaries of the kitchen. The youngest children, the oldest adults and the family pets all had agency in the kitchen, which has implications for preventing foodborne disease. What was observed, filmed and photographed was not a single practice but a series of entangled encounters and actions embedded and repeated, often inconsistently, by the individuals involved. Households derived logics and principles about foodwork that represented rules of thumb about 'how things are done' that included using the senses and experiential knowledge when judging whether food is safe to eat. Overall, food safety was subsumed within the practice of 'being' a household and living everyday life in the kitchen. Current theories of practice are an effective way of understanding foodborne disease and offer a novel approach to exploring food safety in the home. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Beethoven's creative illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, H

    1989-03-01

    One phase of Beethoven's life, between his 45th and 50th year, characterized by very low creativity and overwhelming stress situations, is subjected to a psychiatric interpretation. The historical background is briefly sketched and 5 precipitating stress factors are outlined. The symptoms of his illness are described, using Beethoven's letters as source material. A brief discussion of Beethoven's musical style prior to and after his illness is based on quotations from three eminent musical scholars. A resume of Beethoven's physical and psychological disorders during his life are given and the conclusion is reached that between 1815 and 1820, Beethoven experienced a creative illness which was psychotic in type, ended in recovery and radically changed his musical creativity.

  13. On being Credibly Ill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2011-01-01

    unexplained symptoms. The study is conducted in Denmark using qualitative interviews with welfare officers and clients. The paper's focus is on how issues of gender and class intersect in the negotiation of illness among welfare officers and clients. The particular client group in question consists...... of individuals that are defined by their lack of a bio-medical diagnosis. Their ‘lack’ of identity accentuates how gender and class become central in the categorisation practices, constructing the ill person as either bio-medically sick or as a person who may be suffering but only from diffuse psychological...... problems. The paper shows that it is predominantly poorly educated women without a bio-medical diagnosis that welfare officers describe as suffering from psychological problems despite the fact that the women themselves focus on physical ailments in their illness stories. Men and better-educated women...

  14. [Mental illness and media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magli, Erica; Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria

    2004-06-01

    Many knowledges on the mental disease that the community possesses are turning out of information disclosed from the media. It's common in the press to connect actions of violence and murders to the mental diseases. For this reason, the reader is induced to infer that murders and other violent actions are more frequent in people who have suffered from mentally ill, than in the general population. The mystifying impression provided by media accrues from the fact that these reports are rarely compensated from positive reports. Objective of the present study is to characterize the type of information concerning mental illness diffused from the local daily paper "Giornale di Brescia" in the year 2001. The results show that many articles connote negatively the mental disease. The journalistic sensationalism, denounced facing the speech of the prejudgment in the comparisons of the mentally ill people, seems to still remain, in the considered year of publication, one unchanging tendency.

  15. Mild processing applied to the inactivation of the main foodborne bacterial pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Orellana, Francisco Jose; Koubaa, Mohamed; do Prado-Silva, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    such as high pressure processing, ultrasounds, pulsed electric fields, UV-light, and atmospheric cold plasma may serve, in some conditions, as useful alternatives to commercial sterilization and pasteurization aiming to destroy foodborne pathogens. Each of these mild technologies has a specific mode...

  16. Multiplex surface plasmon resonance imaging platform for label-free detection of foodborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonellae are among the leading causes of foodborne outbreaks in the United States, and more rapid and efficient detection methods are needed. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) is an emerging optical technique, which allows for rapid and label-free screening of multiple targets simultaneous...

  17. Surface plasmon resonance imaging for label-free detection of foodborne pathogens and toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    More rapid and efficient detection methods for foodborne pathogenic bacteria and toxins are needed to address the long assay time and limitations in multiplex capacity. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) is an emerging optical technique, which allows for rapid and label-free screening of multi...

  18. Label-free screening of foodborne Salmonella using surface plasmon resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 15 pathogens cause approximately 95% of the foodborne infections, it is desirable to develop rapid and simultaneous screening methods for these major pathogens. In this study, we developed an immunoassay for Salmonella based on surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). The sensor surface modif...

  19. Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J Trent; Reinstein, Shelby; Jacob, Megan E; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-10-01

    Niche-marketed food products are rapidly gaining market share in today's society. Consumers are willing to pay premium prices for food perceived to be safer, healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food. This review outlines typical production practices for niche-market beef production systems in the United States and compares prevalence estimates of foodborne pathogens in animals and produce from conventional and niche-market production systems. The two main niches for food animal production are organic and natural productions. Organic and natural beef productions are becoming increasingly popular and there is high consumer demand. Two major differences between conventional beef production systems and niche-market production systems (natural and organic) are in the use of antimicrobials and growth-promoting hormones. The impacts of these production systems on foodborne pathogens in beef cattle are variable and often data are nonexistent. Studies directly comparing conventional and niche-market production systems for dairy, swine, poultry, and produce have observed that the prevalence of foodborne pathogens was seldom statistically different between production systems, but when differences were observed, prevalence was typically greater for the niche-market production systems than the conventional production system. The published literature suggests that the perception of niche-marketed food products being safer and healthier for consumers with regard to foodborne pathogens may not be justified.

  20. Identifying the source of food-borne disease outbreaks: An application of Bayesian variable selection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Rianne; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Teunis, Peter Fm; Höhle, Michael; van de Kassteele, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Early identification of contaminated food products is crucial in reducing health burdens of food-borne disease outbreaks. Analytic case-control studies are primarily used in this identification stage by comparing exposures in cases and controls using logistic regression. Standard epidemiological