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Sample records for prevent flood disasters

  1. Field note from Pakistan floods: Preventing future flood disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Oxley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusually heavy monsoon rains in Northern Pakistan have caused disproportionate levels of extreme flooding and unprecedented flood losses across the entire Indus River basin. Extensive land use changes and environmental degradation in the uplands and lowlands of the river basin together with the construction of a “built environment” out of balance with the functioning, capacities, scale and limits of the local ecosystems have exposed millions of people to an increased risk of extreme #ooding. The catastrophic nature of the August #ooding provides a unique opportunity to fundamentally change Pakistan’s current socio-economic development path by incorporating disaster risk reduction and climate change measures into the post-disaster recovery process to rebuild a safer, more resilient nation. In January 2005 one hundred and sixty-eight nations adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2005-2015 to bring about a “substantial reduction in disaster losses” by 2015. Despite this global initiative a series of major disasters, including the recent flooding in Pakistan, all indicate that we are not on track to achieve the substantial reduction of disaster losses. The following fieldnote considers what can be done to accelerate progress towards implementation of the Hyogo Framework, drawing on insights and lessons learnt from the August flooding to understand how Pakistan and neighbouring countries can prevent a repeat of such catastrophic disasters in future years.

  2. Influence of Flood Detention Capability in Flood Prevention for Flood Disaster of Depression Area

    OpenAIRE

    Chia Lin Chan; Yi Ju Yang; Chih Chin Yang

    2011-01-01

    Rainfall records of rainfall station including the rainfall potential per hour and rainfall mass of five heavy storms are explored, respectively from 2001 to 2010. The rationalization formula is to investigate the capability of flood peak duration of flood detention pond in different rainfall conditions. The stable flood detention model is also proposed by using system dynamic control theory to get the message of flood detention pond in this research. When rainfall freque...

  3. Impact of the new Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction on Paris flood prevention program

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    Thepot Regis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The greater Paris region faces a significant risk of flooding due to potential spill-over from the Seine and the Marne. Because the last major flood occurred in 1910, the event has faded in the collective memory. Consequently, the population and the public authorities have difficulty imagining that such a catastrophe might repeat itself. In parallel, widespread urban expansion into flood zones has considerably aggravated the foreseeable damage if an event of a comparable intensity were to hit the region.In response to this situation, the EPTB Seine Grands Lacs – a public territorial basin establishment– decided to take action to reduce this risk.It began by commissioning a study from the OECD on flood risk prevention in the Seine Basin. This study was presented in January 2014 and highlighted the considerable risk of flooding in or near Paris, which could, affect a total of nearly 5 million people, cause up to €30 billion in direct damage and affect up to 400.000 jobs. It also put forward 14 recommendations that are being implemented by the public authorities, at either the national, basin or local level.The EPTB launched in partnership with the government a second initiative for which it steers and coordinates a coherent, balanced, relevant and gradual programme of 78 flood prevention actions. As a new post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction was adopted in Sendai in March 2015 taking in account lessons learned during the 2005-2015 period, gaps identified and future challenges, this paper addresses the question of the impact of this new international framework on the implementation of the flood prevention of Paris region. One of the main points developed is the necessity to increase public awareness, to enhance disaster preparedness for effective response and to “build back better” in recovery rehabilitation and reconstruction.

  4. Towards flash flood disaster prevention: the SciNetNat Haz proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinos, Papatheodorou; Elena, Tzanou; Carmen, Maftei; Ozgur, Kirca; Hafzullah, Aksoy

    2015-04-01

    Floods occur with a continuously increasing frequency due to climatic changes and cause serious damage in the wider Black Sea area, endangering human life and property. As societies continuously expand, these phenomena are expected to play an increasingly important role, blocking sustainable development unless properly tackled. Flash flood prevention seems at this point, to be the target of effectively mitigating the potential threat. Since in many cases, there is a cross-border character of the problem, collaborative efforts have to be made involving cooperation between countries. To this end, a variety of problems exist, including the "information gap" related to the unavailability of data and the multitude of methodologies used to assess flood hazard; a fact that renders comparison of hazard assessment results and cross border cooperation ineffective. An effort made within the context of the SciNetNatHaz project, suggests a two step approach to produce reliable the results which can lead to decision making regarding designing preventive measures. The first step aims at defining the flood prone areas on a regional scale, using geomorphometric models and readily available topographic data; thus overcoming the problem of data availability for any region of interest. The second step follows a vulnerability and risk assessment of the flood prone areas of interest and focuses on the calculation of flood parameters on a local scale using hydraulic models. Implementation of the full process is based on Open Source software tools so that it can be implemented with minimal costs by anyone interested. Implementation of the proposed procedure in three different cases in Greece and in Romania shows that it can provide accurate and reliable results to support decision making regarding the design of preventive measures. Keywords: Flash floods, hazard assessment, flood disaster prevention, HEC-RAS, SAGA GIS . Acknowledgements: This work is partially funded by the EU through the

  5. Rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks after flooding disasters: Epidemiology, management, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2015-01-01

    To alert clinicians to the climatic conditions that can precipitate outbreaks of the rodent-borne infectious diseases most often associated with flooding disasters, leptospirosis (LS), and the Hantavirus-caused diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS); to describe the epidemiology and presenting clinical manifestations and outcomes of these rodent-borne infectious diseases; and to recommend both prophylactic therapies and effective control and prevention strategies for rodent-borne infectious diseases. Internet search engines, including Google®, Google Scholar®, Pub Med, Medline, and Ovid, were queried with the key words as search terms to examine the latest scientific articles on rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks in the United States and worldwide to describe the epidemiology and presenting clinical manifestations and outcomes of LS and Hantavirus outbreaks. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks following heavy rainfall and flooding disasters. Heavy rainfall encourages excessive wild grass seed production that supports increased outdoor rodent population densities; and flooding forces rodents from their burrows near water sources into the built environment and closer to humans. Healthcare providers should maintain high levels of suspicion for LS in patients developing febrile illnesses after contaminated freshwater exposures following heavy rainfall, flooding, and even freshwater recreational events; and for Hantavirus-caused infectious diseases in patients with hemorrhagic fevers that progress rapidly to respiratory or renal failure following rodent exposures.

  6. Cyber surveillance for flood disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-22

    Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  7. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  8. Opportunities for corruption across Flood Disaster Management (FDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, R. Mohd; Latip, E.; Zawawi, E. M. Ahmad; Ismail, Z.

    2018-02-01

    Flood is one of the major disasters in the world. Despite flood resulted in loss of life and damaged properties, it naturally imparts people to assist the victims that affected by the disaster. Malaysia has experienced many serious flooding events and proper flood disaster management need to be developed and adopted occasionally. Flood Disaster Management (FDM) seemed to be not working effectively especially during the Kelantan prodigious flood in December 2014. There were negative perceptions among victims and Malaysian citizens regarding the disaster management and government authorities in relation to corrupt practices. The FDM can be divided into four phases (i.e., prevention, preparedness, response and recovery) which undoubtedly corruption is perceived to exists in every phase. The aim of this study is to identify opportunities of corruption across FDM phases. The study presents a case study of Kelantan using the quantitative research approach which utilises questionnaire with government and private agencies. Further to that, this paper proved that opportunities for corruption may occur at every phase, undoubtedly response and recovery phase especially activities involving fund and donation are riskier. The findings are hoped to assist in developing an improved FDM in term of increased transparency.

  9. Ecosystem Approach To Flood Disaster Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RK Kamble

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the ten worst disaster prone countries of the world. The country is prone to disasters due to number of factors; both natural and anthropogenic, including adverse geo-climatic conditions, topographical features, environmental degradation, population growth, urbanisation, industrlisation, non-scientific development practices etc. The factors either in original or by accelerating the intensity and frequency of disasters are responsible for heavy toll of human lives and disrupting the life support systems in the country. India has 40 million hectares of the flood-prone area, on an average, flood affect an area of around 7.5 million hectares per year. Knowledge of environmental systems and processes are key factors in the management of disasters, particularly the hydro-metrological ones. Management of flood risk and disaster is a multi-dimensional affair that calls for interdisciplinary approach. Ecosystem based disaster risk reduction builds on ecosystem management principles, strategies and tools in order to maximise ecosystem services for risk reduction. This perspective takes into account the integration of social and ecological systems, placing people at the centre of decision making. The present paper has been attempted to demonstrate how ecosystem-based approach can help in flood disaster risk reduction. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 70-82 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9209

  10. Disaster prevention surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Satoru; Kamiya, Eisei

    2001-01-01

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has supplied many management systems to nuclear reactor institution. 'The nuclear countermeasures-against-calamities special-measures' was enforced. A nuclear entrepreneur has devised the measure about expansion prevention and restoration of a calamity while it endeavors after prevention of generating of a nuclear calamity. Our company have supplied the 'disaster prevention surveillance system' to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokai Research Establishment aiming at strengthening of the monitoring function at the time (after the accident) of the accident used as one of the above-mentioned measures. A 'disaster prevention surveillance system' can share the information on the accident spot in an on-site command place, an activity headquarters, and support organizations, when the serious accident happens. This system is composed of various sensors (temperature, pressure and radiation), cameras, computers and network. (author)

  11. HIGH RISK ZONES ON FLOODS AND LANDSLIDES DISASTERS IN RWANDA

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    Nsengiyumva J.ean Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disaster risk management as an issue at stake worldwide shifts its emphases from post disaster to pre-disaster phases. Management activities required in pre-disaster phases, such as risk assessment, hazard identification, preparedness or preventive and mitigation measures needs detailed information about hazard characteristics, social, economic, structural vulnerability and capacity. That information is not usually available in many different countries, as it is the case in Rwanda. Based on the international experiences and practices, knowledge of disaster prone areas can be assumed as an alternative for detailed information acquisition, thus contributing to effective disaster risk management. Identification of disaster higher risk zones on floods and landslides, can lead to better understanding of disaster risk and putting in place measures for risk reduction. Consequently, as Rwanda is prone to natural hazards with lack of adequate information that is essential for effective disaster risk management, due to limited scientific researches; this study aims to address that gap. The results revealed that some areas of the North-Western parts of Rwanda are highly prone to floods and landslides, namely Burera, Musanze, Rulindo, Nyabihu, Ngororero and Rubavu Districts. This is aggravated by some triggering factors such as steep slopes, soil types, heavy rains, landuse Practices and others. Intensity and frequency of disaster events vary from district to district and this geographical dispersal confirms the non-spatial clustering (as confirmed by Moran’s I analysis of risks due to uneven level of Disaster vulnerabilities, coping capacities and available hazards whereby lack of normal distribution of hazards all over all Districts.

  12. Social media for disaster response during floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilander, D.; van de Vries, C.; Baart, F.; van Swol, R.; Wagemaker, J.; van Loenen, A.

    2015-12-01

    During floods it is difficult to obtain real-time accurate information about the extent and severity of the hazard. This information is very important for disaster risk reduction management and crisis relief organizations. Currently, real-time information is derived from few sources such as field reports, traffic camera's, satellite images and areal images. However, getting a real-time and accurate picture of the situation on the ground remains difficult. At the same time, people affected by natural hazards increasingly share their observations and their needs through digital media. Unlike conventional monitoring systems, Twitter data contains a relatively large number of real-time ground truth observations representing both physical hazard characteristics and hazard impacts. In the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, the intensity of unique flood related tweets during a flood event, peaked at almost 900 tweets per minute during floods in early 2015. Flood events around the world in 2014/2015 yielded large numbers of flood related tweets: from Philippines (85.000) to Pakistan (82.000) to South-Korea (50.000) to Detroit (20.000). The challenge here is to filter out useful content from this cloud of data, validate these observations and convert them to readily usable information. In Jakarta, flood related tweets often contain information about the flood depth. In a pilot we showed that this type of information can be used for real-time mapping of the flood extent by plotting these observations on a Digital Elevation Model. Uncertainties in the observations were taken into account by assigning a probability to each observation indicating its likelihood to be correct based on statistical analysis of the total population of tweets. The resulting flood maps proved to be correct for about 75% of the neighborhoods in Jakarta. Further cross-validation of flood related tweets against (hydro-) meteorological data is to likely improve the skill of the method.

  13. Disaster: Prevention, Preparedness and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Sally

    1981-01-01

    Discission of threat of disaster to library archival materials focuses on prevention (building maintenance, materials storage, fire prevention), preparedness (preplanning, procedures for handling emergencies, finances of recovery operation), and action (instructions for handling damaged materials). Current library activities in disaster planning…

  14. Assessment of factors contributing to flood disaster in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change has brought with it some forms of extreme weather events. One of such is heavy rainfall which often leads to flood. In recent times, flood disaster has been a regular occurrence destroying lives and property. This study was carried out to identify and assess contributing factors to flood disaster in Ibadan ...

  15. Post-flood damage data: requirements for disaster forensic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolan Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disaster forensic investigation analyses the unfolding of a disaster and attempts to identify its multiple causes of damage which can lead to (i improved disaster prevention and management from lessons learnt, and (ii more effective mitigation measures in the aftermath of a disaster. The way in which damage data are collected after a flood event as well as the types of collected data influences their usability within forensic investigations. In order to explore whether or not existing data can be used for disaster forensic analysis, the European Project IDEA (Improving Damage assessments to Enhance cost-benefit Analyses is investigating existing gaps in damage information so as to identify possible paths towards improving data quality. This paper focuses in detail on a forensic analysis of the interlinked damage to economic activities and infrastructure in the Severn floods of 2007 in the UK. Besides investigating the usability of existing data, this research investigated: (i the relative weight of direct and indirect costs to business and infrastructure companies; (ii to what extent damage to infrastructure has impacted on indirect damage to businesses. Finally recommendations for improving the data for use in forensic investigation are offered.

  16. Regional Risk Evaluation of Flood Disasters for the Trunk-Highway in Shaanxi, China

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    Hong-Liang Qi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complicated environment there are various types of highway disasters in Shaanxi Province (China. The damages caused are severe, losses are heavy, and have rapidly increased over the years, especially those caused by flood disasters along the rivers in mountainous areas. Therefore, research on risk evaluations, which play important roles in the prevention and mitigation of highway disasters are very important. An evaluation model was established based on the superposition theory of regional influencing factors to highway flood disasters. Based on the formation mechanism and influencing factors of highway flood disasters, the main influencing factors were selected. These factors include rainstorms, terrain slopes, soil types, vegetation coverage and regional river density, which are based on evaluation indexes from climate conditions and underlying surface of the basin. A regional risk evaluation of highway flood disasters in Shaanxi was established using GIS. The risk index was divided into five levels using statistical methods, in accordance with the regional characteristics of highway flood disasters. Considering the difference in upfront investments, road grade, etc, between expressways and trunk-highways in China, a regional risk evaluation of trunk-highway flood disasters was completed. The evaluation results indicate that the risk evaluation is consistent with the actual situation.

  17. Regional Risk Evaluation of Flood Disasters for the Trunk-Highway in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hong-Liang; Tian, Wei-Ping; Li, Jia-Chun

    2015-10-29

    Due to the complicated environment there are various types of highway disasters in Shaanxi Province (China). The damages caused are severe, losses are heavy, and have rapidly increased over the years, especially those caused by flood disasters along the rivers in mountainous areas. Therefore, research on risk evaluations, which play important roles in the prevention and mitigation of highway disasters are very important. An evaluation model was established based on the superposition theory of regional influencing factors to highway flood disasters. Based on the formation mechanism and influencing factors of highway flood disasters, the main influencing factors were selected. These factors include rainstorms, terrain slopes, soil types, vegetation coverage and regional river density, which are based on evaluation indexes from climate conditions and underlying surface of the basin. A regional risk evaluation of highway flood disasters in Shaanxi was established using GIS. The risk index was divided into five levels using statistical methods, in accordance with the regional characteristics of highway flood disasters. Considering the difference in upfront investments, road grade, etc, between expressways and trunk-highways in China, a regional risk evaluation of trunk-highway flood disasters was completed. The evaluation results indicate that the risk evaluation is consistent with the actual situation.

  18. The Prevention Disaster Program of Flood in 2013 for the 4th Grade Students of Kawatanaka Primary School, Tokushima Prefecture, Japan and Underflow Channels Revealed in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Sanae; Murata, Mamoru

    2017-12-01

    The Typhoon No. 18 caused flood on September 15, 2013 in the Kawata River basin, Yoshinogawa City, Tokushima Prefecture. The Kawata River is a raised river bed of 36.7 m with banks to 40.5 m above sea level. The heavy rain did not destroy the banks but made the river level 39.4 m high and then pressed the underflow channel. As the Kawatanaka primary school is located at 36.2 m height, it was not submerged although the underflow channel overbanked the adjacent playground. An educational program on the prevention and reduction for natural disaster, which consists of science, social studies and presentation, was conducted to 18 students of the 4th grade in the period of integrated study in the Kawatanaka primary school from September 17, 2013. On the first day, flow current markings from 625 holes, 30 cm to 1 mm in diameter, on the playground were observed. The flow currents showed direction from SE to NW. On the basis of their observations on the flow currents that water runs from high to low, the students considered the phenomena as a result of tilting of the ground. They conducted activity as their homework to confirm their hypothesis to know if there is any tilt in the ground. They took plastic bottle filled with water and reviled that the ground had 1 to 2 degrees’ tilt to the NW during the experiment. On the bases of the difference between E to W flow of the Kawata River and their SE to NW estimated current flow on the playground and the fact that the bank of the river was not destroyed, the students suggested that the heavy rain had pressed the underflow channels. The suggested channels were found on the playground, where new school buildings were constructed in 2016, by one of the students who studied the program in 2013.

  19. Conceptualization of a Collaborative Decision Making for Flood Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Aishah Zubir, Siti; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Che Muda, Zakaria; Ghazali, Azrul; Hakimie, Hazlinda; Razak, Normy Norfiza Abdul; Aziz Mat Isa, Abdul; Hasini, Hasril; Sahari, Khairul Salleh Mohamed; Mat Husin, Norhayati; Ezanee Rusli, Mohd; Sabri Muda, Rahsidi; Mohd Sidek, Lariyah; Basri, Hidayah; Tukiman, Izawati

    2016-03-01

    Flooding is the utmost major natural hazard in Malaysia in terms of populations affected, frequency, area extent, flood duration and social economic damage. The recent flood devastation towards the end of 2014 witnessed almost 250,000 people being displaced from eight states in Peninsular Malaysia. The affected victims required evacuation within a short period of time to the designated evacuation centres. An effective and efficient flood disaster management would assure non-futile efforts for life-saving. Effective flood disaster management requires collective and cooperative emergency teamwork from various government agencies. Intergovernmental collaborations among government agencies at different levels have become part of flood disaster management due to the need for sharing resources and coordinating efforts. Collaborative decision making during disaster is an integral element in providing prompt and effective response for evacuating the victims.

  20. Impact of Radio Kogi's flood disaster awareness campaign on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A major natural disaster that occurred in Nigeria in 2012 was the flooding of many places, including Ibaji Local Government Area of Kogi State. The flood ravaged the area, destroying food and property; and rendering the people homeless. Before, during and after the flood, Radio Kogi Lokoja had carried awareness and ...

  1. Statistical approach to flood disaster management and risks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past four decades, economic losses due to flood have increased tremendously and resulted in major loss of human lives and livelihoods, the destruction of economic and social infrastructure, as well as environmental damage. This study focuses on flood disaster management through the establishment of a flood ...

  2. Why are decisions in flood disaster management so poorly supported by information from flood models?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leskens, Anne; Brugnach, Marcela Fabiana; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Schuurmans, W.

    2014-01-01

    Flood simulation models can provide practitioners of Flood Disaster Management with sophisticated estimates of floods. Despite the advantages that flood simulation modeling may provide, experiences have proven that these models are of limited use. Until now, this problem has mainly been investigated

  3. Importance of Integrating High-Resoultion 2D Flood Hazard Maps in the Flood Disaster Management of Marikina City, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapales, Ben Joseph; Mendoza, Jerico; Uichanco, Christopher; Mahar Francisco Amante Lagmay, Alfredo; Moises, Mark Anthony; Delmendo, Patricia; Eneri Tingin, Neil

    2015-04-01

    Flooding has been a perennial problem in the city of Marikina. These incidences result in human and economic losses. In response to this, the city has been investing in their flood disaster mitigation program in the past years. As a result, flooding in Marikina was reduced by 31% from 1992 to 2004. [1] However, these measures need to be improved so as to mitigate the effects of floods with more than 100 year return period, such as the flooding brought by tropical storm Ketsana in 2009 which generated 455mm of rains over a 24-hour period. Heavy rainfall caused the streets to be completely submerged in water, leaving at least 70 people dead in the area. In 2012, the Southwest monsoon, enhanced by a typhoon, brought massive rains with an accumulated rainfall of 472mm for 22-hours, a number greater than that which was experienced during Ketsana. At this time, the local government units were much more prepared in mitigating the risk with the use of early warning and evacuation measures, resulting to zero casualty in the area. Their urban disaster management program, however, can be further improved through the integration of high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps in the city's flood disaster management. The use of these maps in flood disaster management is essential in reducing flood-related risks. This paper discusses the importance and advantages of integrating flood maps in structural and non-structural mitigation measures in the case of Marikina City. Flood hazard maps are essential tools in predicting the frequency and magnitude of floods in an area. An information that may be determined with the use of these maps is the locations of evacuation areas, which may be accurately positioned using high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps. Evacuation of people in areas that are not vulnerable of being inundated is one of the unnecessary measures that may be prevented and thus optimizing mitigation efforts by local government units. This paper also discusses proposals for a more

  4. International Charter Support during Major Flood Disasters in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, G.; Bhatt, C. M.; Diwaker, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    Earth observation (EO) satellites provide near real time, comprehensive, synoptic and multi-temporal coverage of inaccessible areas at frequent intervals, which is required support for a quick response and planning of emergency operations. Owing to their merits, satellite images have become an integral part of disaster management and are being extensively used globally for mapping, monitoring and damage assessment of extreme disaster events. During major disaster, information derived from satellite observation is not only highly useful, it may at times be indispensable because of the unfavourable weather conditions, collapse of communication systems and inaccessibility to the area. Satellite images help in identifying the location of the disaster, its severity and the extent. The International Charter "Space and Major Disasters" has been the major sources of satellite data, in times of catastrophic disasters, due to availability of data from large number of sensors (with 15 organisations as signatories), which can be planned with the required temporal frequency and spectral range to cover a disaster event. During last three years, International Charter has been activated regularly, during major disasters in India. Satellite data from different sensors is obtained and was used for improving the frequency of observations, and extracting detailed information. This is used during floods in Assam (2012), floods in Uttarakhand (2013), cyclone Phailin (2013) and floods in Jammu and Kashmir (2014). The present paper discusses the role of International Charter in effective flood disaster management in India during recent past.

  5. Evaluation of Pre-disaster Planning of Bengawan Solo River Flood Bojonegoro Regency Year 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enov Sayu Mimanggar Mirahesti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Early year of 2014 flood was ranked first in the natural disasters with 69 incidences. Bengawan Solo floods is an annual natural disastersin Bojonegoro. Study’s results in 2011 showed that RHA activities was not maximum that pre-disaster activities should be evaluated. Based on management functions, planning is the very first step. Evaluation of pre-disaster planning is the earliest thing to do to minimize the disasters impact. This study aimed to evaluate activities of floods pre-disaster planning in Bojonegoro year 2014. Data were collected by interview anddocument study. Data were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that based on input components, SOP and facilities had met the standard, while the staff, the type of data, and funds had’nt metthe standard yet. Based on process component, contingency planning had been done according to the standard. Both geomedic mapping and identification of social and economic in the process of activities planning of prevention, mitigation, and disaster response preparedness actions didn’t conduct. Based on the output component, the health department already had a contingency plan, but didn’t have geomedic maps and prevention, mitigation, and disaster response preparedness actions plan. This study concluded that pre-disaster planning activities of Bojonegoro Regency Health Office wasn’t good. The suggestion given are control SOP, increase the staff amount, complete thedata types, allocate funds, make budgettaryplanning, provide vehicles, conduct identification of social and economic, give training to staffs, and make outline of the geomedicmap and prevention, mitigation, and disaster response preparedness actions plan. Keywords: planning, pre-disaster, floods

  6. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathi, Jejal Reddy; Das, Himangshu S.

    2016-01-01

    Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters. PMID:26907313

  7. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathi, Jejal Reddy; Das, Himangshu S

    2016-02-19

    Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters.

  8. For establishment on nuclear disaster prevention system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    For increasing requirement of peoples for review of nuclear disaster countermeasure at a chance of the JCO critical accident, the Japanese Government newly established the 'Special Measure Act on Nuclear Disaster Countermeasure', which was enacted on July 16, 2000. The nuclear business relatives such as electric power company and so forth established the Business program on nuclear disaster prevention in nuclear business relatives' after their consultation with local communities at their construction, under their co-operation. Simultaneously, the electric power industry field decided to intend to provide some sufficient countermeasures to incidental formation of nuclear accident such as start of the Co-operative agreement on nuclear disaster prevention among the nuclear business relatives' and so forth. Here were described on nuclear safety and disaster prevention, nuclear disaster prevention systems at the electric power industry field, abstract on 'Business program on nuclear disaster prevention in nuclear business relatives', preparation of technical assistance system for nuclear disaster prevention, executive methods and subjects on nuclear disaster prevention at construction areas, recent business on nuclear disaster prevention at the Nuclear Technical Center, and subjects on establishment of nuclear disaster prevention system. (G.K.)

  9. Flood Disaster Risk Reduction in municipality-scale in Rio de Janeiro State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japiassú Viana, Viviane; Formiga Johnsson, Rosa Maria; De Gouvello, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    In Brazil, flood disasters causing human damage, pecuniary loss and environmental damage, are mainly due to greater exposure of the population; urban densification on the riverbanks and margins, incurring vulnerability due to changes in river level and climate changes. This article presents the data and studies required in the Brazilian legal basis and analyzes the scales adopted by planners in contrast to the scales demands by the executing agencies in the context of prevention and adaptation to climate change, particularly to flood disaster reduction in municipality-scale.

  10. Ecosystem Approach To Flood Disaster Risk Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    RK Kamble; Abhinav Walia; MG Thakare

    2013-01-01

    India is one of the ten worst disaster prone countries of the world. The country is prone to disasters due to number of factors; both natural and anthropogenic, including adverse geo-climatic conditions, topographical features, environmental degradation, population growth, urbanisation, industrlisation, non-scientific development practices etc. The factors either in original or by accelerating the intensity and frequency of disasters are responsible for heavy toll of human lives and disruptin...

  11. Disaster Risk Management: Urban Flooding and heatstress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaat, Mark; Boogaard, Floris; Kluck, Jeroen; van der Meulen, Leon; Schoof, Govert; Brovelli, Maria Antonia; Minghini, Marco; Negretti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Natural disasters are a growing concern around the globe. In the Netherlands, water has always played an important role as both friend and enemy. To quickly analyze and visualise possible disaster outcomes has been really difficult. In collaboration with engineering company Tauw we improved this

  12. Failure to React Positively to Flood Early Warning Systems: Lessons Learned by Flood Victims from Flash Flood Disasters: The Malaysia Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Sukeri Khalid; Che Su Mustaffa; Mohd Najib Marzuki; Mohd Fo'ad Sakdan; Sapora Sipon; Mohd Taib Ariffin; Shazwani Shafiai

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the issues relating to the role of the flash flood early warning system provided by the Malaysian Government to the communities in Malaysia, specifically during the flash flood disaster in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. Normally, flash flood disasters can occur as a result of heavy rainfall in an area, and that water may possibly cause flooding via streams or narrow channels. The focus of this study is the flash flood disaster which occurred on 23 O...

  13. Introduction to flood control science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong U; Ha, Jin Uk; Kim, Dong Ha; Shin, Hong Ryeol; Song, Seok Hwan; Kim, Jin Gyu; Moon, Heon Cheol

    2003-01-01

    This book covers introduction, industrialization disaster such as Bhopal and Chernobyl disaster, earthquake disaster, volcano disaster, avalanche disaster including loss allocation and prevention measures, and natural fire by showing California, Yellowstone park and similarity between fire and flood. It also introduces climate change and disaster, Earth's greenhouse effect and disaster due to current sea level rise, flood damage, drought disaster, famine and drought, prediction of drought, population problems, outlook of world population, and disaster prevention administration system of Korea.

  14. 44 CFR 206.253 - Insurance requirements for facilities damaged by disasters other than flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facilities damaged by disasters other than flood. 206.253 Section 206.253 Emergency Management and Assistance... by disasters other than flood. (a) Prior to approval of a Federal grant for the restoration of a facility and its contents which were damaged by a disaster other than flood, the Grantee shall notify the...

  15. SERVIR-Africa: Developing an Integrated Platform for Floods Disaster Management in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, Daniel; Korme, Tesfaye; Policelli, Fritz; Irwin, Dan; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    SERVIR-Africa is an ambitious regional visualization and monitoring system that integrates remotely sensed data with predictive models and field-based data to monitor ecological processes and respond to natural disasters. It aims addressing societal benefits including floods and turning data into actionable information for decision-makers. Floods are exogenous disasters that affect many parts of Africa, probably second only to drought in terms of social-economic losses. This paper looks at SERVIR-Africa's approach to floods disaster management through establishment of an integrated platform, floods prediction models, post-event flood mapping and monitoring as well as flood maps dissemination in support of flood disaster management.

  16. An Analysis Of Loko Flood Disaster Resettlement Scheme, In Song ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the socio-economic and political impediments to the planned resettlement scheme for Loko flood disaster victims. A simple random sampling technique was employed to interview 280 household heads by administering to each a questionnaire schedule. Furthermore, purposeful interviews with the ...

  17. Satellites, tweets, forecasts: the future of flood disaster management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Kalas, Milan; Lorini, Valerio; Wania, Annett; Pappenberger, Florian; Salamon, Peter; Ramos, Maria Helena; Cloke, Hannah; Castillo, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Floods have devastating effects on lives and livelihoods around the world. Structural flood defence measures such as dikes and dams can help protect people. However, it is the emerging science and technologies for flood disaster management and preparedness, such as increasingly accurate flood forecasting systems, high-resolution satellite monitoring, rapid risk mapping, and the unique strength of social media information and crowdsourcing, that are most promising for reducing the impacts of flooding. Here, we describe an innovative framework which integrates in real-time two components of the Copernicus Emergency mapping services, namely the European Flood Awareness System and the satellite-based Rapid Mapping, with new procedures for rapid risk assessment and social media and news monitoring. The integrated framework enables improved flood impact forecast, thanks to the real-time integration of forecasting and monitoring components, and increases the timeliness and efficiency of satellite mapping, with the aim of capturing flood peaks and following the evolution of flooding processes. Thanks to the proposed framework, emergency responders will have access to a broad range of timely and accurate information for more effective and robust planning, decision-making, and resource allocation.

  18. Assessment of Flood Disaster Impacts in Cambodia: Implications for Rapid Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Aakash; Bolten, John; Doyle, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Disaster monitoring systems can provide near real time estimates of population and infrastructure affected by sudden onset natural hazards. This information is useful to decision makers allocating lifesaving resources following disaster events. Floods are the world's most common and devastating disasters (UN, 2004; Doocy et al., 2013), and are particularly frequent and severe in the developing countries of Southeast Asia (Long and Trong, 2001; Jonkman, 2005; Kahn, 2005; Stromberg, 2007; Kirsch et al., 2012). Climate change, a strong regional monsoon, and widespread hydropower construction contribute to a complex and unpredictable regional hydrodynamic regime. As such, there is a critical need for novel techniques to assess flood impacts to population and infrastructure with haste during and following flood events in order to enable governments and agencies to optimize response efforts following disasters. Here, we build on methods to determine regional flood extent in near real time and develop systems that automatically quantify the socioeconomic impacts of flooding in Cambodia. Software developed on cloud based, distributed processing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is used to demonstrate spatial and numerical estimates of population, households, roadways, schools, hospitals, airports, agriculture and fish catch affected by severe monsoon flooding occurring in the Cambodian portion of Lower Mekong River Basin in 2011. Results show modest agreement with government and agency estimates. Maps and statistics generated from the system are intended to complement on the ground efforts and bridge information gaps to decision makers. The system is open source, flexible, and can be applied to other disasters (e.g. earthquakes, droughts, landslides) in various geographic regions.

  19. Prevention of debris flow disasters on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Xu, W L; Liu, S J

    2001-07-01

    Chengdu-Kunming Railway is an important transport line on southwestern China. However, this railway's safety is often threatened by debris flows. How to effectively forecast and alarm the debris flow disasters and reduce the losses is the aim to study the prevention system in this paper. The factors to cause or influence debris flow are divided into four parts--the basin environmental factors, the basin meteoric factors, the prevention work's elements and the flood-relief work's elements, and the prevention system is made up of three models--a judgment model to assess the debris flow gully's seriousness, a forecast model to predict the debris flow's occurrence and an alarm model to evaluate the debris flow's disaster. Afterwards, a concise structure chart is worked out and verified by the field data from Chengdu-Kunming Railway. This prevention system will provide beneficial reference for the debris flow's monitoring network to be executed on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.

  20. Integrating human behaviour dynamics into flood disaster risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Botzen, W. J.; Clarke, K. C.; Cutter, S. L.; Hall, J. W.; Merz, B.; Michel-Kerjan, E.; Mysiak, J.; Surminski, S.; Kunreuther, H.

    2018-02-01

    The behaviour of individuals, businesses, and government entities before, during, and immediately after a disaster can dramatically affect the impact and recovery time. However, existing risk-assessment methods rarely include this critical factor. In this Perspective, we show why this is a concern, and demonstrate that although initial efforts have inevitably represented human behaviour in limited terms, innovations in flood-risk assessment that integrate societal behaviour and behavioural adaptation dynamics into such quantifications may lead to more accurate characterization of risks and improved assessment of the effectiveness of risk-management strategies and investments. Such multidisciplinary approaches can inform flood-risk management policy development.

  1. Hospital infection prevention and control issues relevant to extensive floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Mundy, Linda M; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Glen Mayhall, C

    2013-02-01

    The devastating clinical and economic implications of floods exemplify the need for effective global infection prevention and control (IPC) strategies for natural disasters. Reopening of hospitals after excessive flooding requires a balance between meeting the medical needs of the surrounding communities and restoration of a safe hospital environment. Postflood hospital preparedness plans are a key issue for infection control epidemiologists, healthcare providers, patients, and hospital administrators. We provide recent IPC experiences related to reopening of a hospital after extensive black-water floods necessitated hospital closures in Thailand and the United States. These experiences provide a foundation for the future design, execution, and analysis of black-water flood preparedness plans by IPC stakeholders.

  2. Flood Disaster Analysis Using Landsat-8 and SPOT-6 Imagery for Determination of Flooded Areas in Sampang, Madura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukojo, B. M.; Alfiansyah, F.

    2017-12-01

    Based on data of disaster which is defaced by Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Daerah (BPBD) of Sampang that in the period of 2015 - 2017 as many as 25 cases from 31 cases of disaster caused by flood disaster or 80.65% from total disaster. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to create a map of flood vulnerability in Sampang. From the vulnerability map, we can know the area with the impacted flood level in Sampang so that from the map of flood affected areas can be known the extent of the affected area in each class. In this study, two Landsat-8 and SPOT 6 data were used. For Landsat-8 imagery used for land cover on district level disaster level vulnerability maps, while high-resolution SPOT-6 images were used for land cover making maps of flood affected areas Sampang district. With the flood affected areas in this study, it is expected to be used as a determinant of flood affected areas in Sampang district. Based on data processing and analysis it is found that the highest impacted area is located in Sampang district with 12 cases of 17 cases of total flood disaster in Sampang district based on data from BPBD Kabupaten Sampang in 2016. There are 4 classes of flood affected areas in Sampang district i.e. not affected by 9039,540 ha, low impact 46262.881 ha, medium impact 43012.431 ha and high impact of 14009,760 ha.

  3. Risk assessment of urban flood disaster in Jingdezhen City based on analytic hierarchy process and geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D. C.; Huang, J.; Wang, H. M.; Wang, Z. Q.; Wang, W. Q.

    2017-08-01

    The research of urban flood risk assessment and management are of great academic and practical importance, which has become a widespread concern throughout the world. It’s significant to understand the spatial-temporal distribution of the flood risk before making the risk response measures. In this study, the urban region of Jingdezhen City is selected as the study area. The assessment indicators are selected from four aspects: disaster-causing factors, disaster-pregnant environment, disaster-bearing body and the prevention and mitigation ability, by consideration of the formation process of urban flood risk. And then, a small-scale flood disaster risk assessment model is developed based on Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP) and Geographic Information System(GIS), and the spatial-temporal distribution of flood risk in Jingdezhen City is analysed. The results show that the risk decreases gradually from the centre line of Changjiang River to the surrounding, and the areas of high flood disaster risk is decreasing from 2010 to 2013 while the risk areas are more concentred. The flood risk of the areas along the Changjiang River is the largest, followed by the low-lying areas in Changjiang District. And the risk is also large in Zhushan District where the population, the industries and commerce are concentrated. The flood risk in the western part of Changjiang District and the north-eastern part of the study area is relatively low. The results can provide scientific support for flood control construction and land development planning in Jingdezhen City.

  4. Flood disaster risk assessment of rural housings--a case study of Kouqian Town in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-04-03

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and "3S" technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  5. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area. PMID:24705363

  6. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems, taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  7. Effectiveness and reliability of emergency measures for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    Floods in the summer of 2013 in Central Europe demonstrated once again that floods account for a large part of damage and loss of life caused by natural disasters. During flood threats emergency measures, such as sand bags and big bags, are often applied to strengthen the flood defences and attempt

  8. Prevent Injury After a Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventing Violence Pressure Washer Safety Trench Foot or Immersion Foot Emergency Wound Care Wound Management for Healthcare ... as hard hat, safety glasses, hearing protection, heavy work gloves, and cut-resistant legwear. Avoid contact with ...

  9. Evaluation of diseases survelliance studies after flood disaster in Batman province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Akgün

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the contagious diseases surveillance studies after the flood disaster between 31.10.2006 and 02.11.2006 in Batman province. After flood disaster, there had been taken some measures about water sanitation, immunization and organization of the health services and the public education issues.Super chlorination procedure had been applied to drinking water in the city center. The free chlorine levels of 890 water specimens from different areas of the province had been measured and the results were between 0.3 to 0.8 ppm. A random 359 specimens were tested biologically and chemically and they have been found eligible to use. Health units of the municipality had been provided with adequate tetanus vaccine in order to inoculate the persons who had been wounded. Children without adequate childhood vaccinations and immunizations were encouraged to complete their vaccinations in the closest dispensaries. A structural questionnaire had been applied with the aim of collecting data about potential contagious diseases in the area. For the following two weeks after the disaster, 0.6 % of the residents were observed to have gastroenteritis. However, the EPI Curve of the gastroenteritis cases do not show a potential epidemic in the province. Active surveillance system which applies by visiting households is important for taking essential preventive measures; besides, early detecting of potential contagious diseases.

  10. The contribution of disaster management to integrated flood risk management strategies: lessons learned from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolen, B.; van Alphen, J

    2017-01-01

    An integrated flood risk management (IFRM) strategy consist of a comprehensive set of measures to reduce the risk: protective measures (to reduce the probability of a flood), and land use planning and disaster management (to reduce the consequences of a flood. In the Netherlands this is called a

  11. Flood disaster and protection measures in Turkey Case Study: May 1998 flood disaster at North Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurer, Ibrahim; Ozguier, Hamza

    2004-01-01

    Due to geographical location, geology, and topography, Turkey undergoes three main types of natural disasters related to gravity flows; floods, landslides, and snow avalanches. Flooding is second important natural hazard after earthquakes with 18 floods and 23 deaths per year, on average. During 20-21 May 1998, the rainfall which was equal to about four times of long-term mean annual rainfall total of north western Black Sea geographical region of Turkey affected 35.000 m 2 , damaged 1300 km highway, 600 km roads to the villages, and 60 km railway. After the recession of the flood waters, the field survey done proved that 12 highway bridges, 91 small bridges on village roads and 6900 highway culverts, 13.800 m retaining wall and about 500 houses were severely damaged. During the last five years, with the loans and credits provided by World Bank, a series of flood protection structures were designed and built for the rehabilitation of the region. Mostly concentrating on non-structural flood protection studies, a work programme has been drafted in this framework to develop flood management and to reduce or eliminate long-term risk and damage to people and their property from natural hazards and their effects. In this case study, the factors causing the flood disaster are given, and the flood event is analyzed from hydrologic and morphologic points of view. Also the different types of the flood protection measures are exemplified and the experience gained in controlling the flood damages is presented.(Author)

  12. Joint System of the National Hydrometeorology for disaster prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J.; Cho, K.; Lee, Y. S.; Jung, H. S.; Yoo, H. D.; Ryu, D.; Kwon, J.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrological disaster relief expenditure accounts for as much as 70 percent of total expenditure of disasters occurring in Korea. Since the response to and recovery of disasters are normally based on previous experiences, there have been limitations when dealing with ever-increasing localized heavy rainfall with short range in the era of climate change. Therefore, it became necessary to establish a system that can respond to a disaster in advance through the analysis and prediction of hydrometeorological information. Because a wide range of big data is essential, it cannot be done by a single agency only. That is why the three hydrometeorology-related agencies cooperated to establish a pilot (trial) system at Soemjingang basin in 2013. The three governmental agencies include the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) in charge of disaster prevention and public safety, the National Geographic Information Institute (NGII under Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport) in charge of geographical data, and the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) in charge of weather information. This pilot system was designed to be able to respond to disasters in advance through providing a damage prediction information for flash flood to public officers for safety part using high resolution precipitation prediction data provided by the KMA and high precision geographic data by NGII. To produce precipitation prediction data with high resolution, the KMA conducted downscaling from 25km×25km global model to 3km×3km local model and is running the local model twice a day. To maximize the utility of weather prediction information, the KMA is providing the prediction information for 7 days with 1 hour interval at Soemjingang basin to monitor and predict not only flood but also drought. As no prediction is complete without a description of its uncertainty, it is planned to continuously develop the skills to improve the uncertainty of the prediction on weather and its impact

  13. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  14. Well-being, life satisfaction and capabilities of flood disaster victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ootegem, Luc; Verhofstadt, Elsy

    2016-01-01

    The individual well-being of flood disaster victims is examined making use of two concepts: life satisfaction and perceived capabilities in life. These concepts are compared in two samples: a representative sample of Flemish respondents and a specific sample of people that have been the victim of a pluvial flood. Well-being as life satisfaction is found not to be related to past or expected future flooding, whereas well-being as capabilities in life is negatively related to both past and expected future flooding. - Highlights: • Well-being as life satisfaction is not related to past or expected future flooding. • Well-being as capabilities in life is negatively related to flooding. • A disaster can scare people for the future because of the scars that it provokes. • Assess the impact of a disaster not only by monetary damage and life satisfaction.

  15. MSWT-01, flood disaster water treatment solution from common ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Setiawan, Albertus B.; Z, Darman M.

    2013-06-01

    Indonesia has a lot of potential flood disaster places with clean water problems faced. Various solution programs always initiated by Government, companies CSR, and people sporadical actions to provide clean water; with their advantages and disadvantages respectively. One solution is easy to operate for instance, but didn't provide adequate capacity, whereas the other had ideal performance but more costly. This situation inspired to develop a water treatment machine that could be an alternative favor. There are many methods could be choosed; whether in simple, middle or high technology, depends on water source input and output result quality. MSWT, Mobile Surface Water Treatment, is an idea for raw water in flood area, basically made for 1m3 per hour. This water treatment design adopted from combined existing technologies and related literatures. Using common ideas, the highlight is how to make such modular process put in compact design elegantly, and would be equipped with mobile feature due to make easier in operational. Through prototype level experiment trials, the machine is capable for producing clean water that suitable for sanitation and cooking/drinking purposes although using contaminated water input source. From the investment point of view, such machine could be also treated as an asset that will be used from time to time when needed, instead of made for project approach only.

  16. MSWT-01, flood disaster water treatment solution from common ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Setiawan, Albertus B; Darman M Z

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia has a lot of potential flood disaster places with clean water problems faced. Various solution programs always initiated by Government, companies CSR, and people sporadical actions to provide clean water; with their advantages and disadvantages respectively. One solution is easy to operate for instance, but didn't provide adequate capacity, whereas the other had ideal performance but more costly. This situation inspired to develop a water treatment machine that could be an alternative favor. There are many methods could be choosed; whether in simple, middle or high technology, depends on water source input and output result quality. MSWT, Mobile Surface Water Treatment, is an idea for raw water in flood area, basically made for 1m 3 per hour. This water treatment design adopted from combined existing technologies and related literatures. Using common ideas, the highlight is how to make such modular process put in compact design elegantly, and would be equipped with mobile feature due to make easier in operational. Through prototype level experiment trials, the machine is capable for producing clean water that suitable for sanitation and cooking/drinking purposes although using contaminated water input source. From the investment point of view, such machine could be also treated as an asset that will be used from time to time when needed, instead of made for project approach only.

  17. The Tous Dam Disaster of 1982: Risk communication and the origins of integrated flood risk management in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Llobet, A.; Tàbara, J.; Sauri, D.

    2012-12-01

    Disaster Reduction), which emphasized the contextualization of risk and the importance in long-term disaster risk reduction measures such as land use planning. (3) The European Water Framework Directive (2000) and, more recently, the Flood Directive (2007) are exerting a strong influence on the development of a new Spanish flood policy that focuses on preventive measures and integrates, for the first time, ecological concerns and climate change adaptation in flood management strategies.

  18. Estimating the welfare loss to households from natural disasters in developing countries: a contingent valuation study of flooding in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ståle Navrud

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural disasters have severe impacts on the health and well-being of affected households. However, we find evidence that official damage cost assessments for floods and other natural disasters in Vietnam, where households have little or no insurance, clearly underestimate the total economic damage costs of these events as they do not include the welfare loss from mortality, morbidity and reduced well-being experienced by the households affected by the floods. This should send a message to the local communities and national authorities that higher investments in flood alleviation, reduction and adaptive measures can be justified since the social benefits of these measures in terms of avoided damage costs are higher than previously thought. Methods: We pioneer the use of the contingent valuation (CV approach of willingness-to-contribute (WTC labour to a flood prevention program, as a measure of the welfare loss experienced by household due to a flooding event. In a face-to-face household survey of 706 households in the Quang Nam province in Central Vietnam, we applied this approach together with reported direct physical damage in order to shed light of the welfare loss experienced by the households. We asked about households’ WTC labour and multiplied their WTC person-days of labour by an estimate for their opportunity cost of time in order to estimate the welfare loss to households from the 2007 floods. Results: The results showed that this contingent valuation (CV approach of asking about willingness-to-pay in-kind avoided the main problems associated with applying CV in developing countries. Conclusion: Thus, the CV approach of WTC labour instead of money is promising in terms of capturing the total welfare loss of natural disasters to households, and promising in terms of further application in other developing countries and for other types of natural disasters.

  19. Flood disaster subcultures in the Netherlands: the parishes of Borgharen and Itteren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerks, Georg|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07281943X; Engel, Karen; Velotti, Lucia; Warner, Jeroen; Weijs, Bart

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands knows a persistent threat of flooding. To adapt to this dangerous reality, the Dutch have cultivated what disaster research literature has labeled ‘disaster subcultures’ or a set of cultural (tangible and intangible) tools to deal with the recurrent hazard. While there is abundant

  20. Flood Disaster Subcultures in the Netherlands: the Parishes of Borgharen and Itteren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, K.E.; Frerks, G.; Velotti, L.; Warner, J.F.; Weijs, B.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands knows a persistent threat of flooding. To adapt to this dangerous reality, the Dutch have cultivated what disaster research literature has labeled ‘disaster subcultures’ or a set of cultural (tangible and intangible) tools to deal with the recurrent hazard. While there is abundant

  1. Disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal: floods and landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, Surya; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Arcos González, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Nepal has a complicated geophysical structure that is prone to various kinds of disasters. Nepal ranks the most disaster-prone country in the world and has experienced several natural calamities, causing high property and life losses. Disasters are caused by natural processes, but may be increased by human activities. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal. The paper is based on secondary data sources. Major causative factors for floods and landslides are heavy and continuous rainfall, outburst floods, infrastructure failure, and deforestation. Historical data of natural disasters in Nepal show that water-induced disasters have killed hundreds of people and affected thousands every year. Likewise, properties worth millions of US dollars have been damaged. There is an increasing trend toward landslides and floods, which will likely continue to rise if proper intervention is not taken. A positive correlation between water-induced disasters and deaths has been observed. Nepal has a poor Index for Risk Management (INFORM). There are fluctuations in the recording of death data caused by flood and landslides. The Government of Nepal focuses more on the response phase than on the preparedness phase of disasters. The existing disaster management act seems to be weak and outdated. There is a gap in current legal procedure, so the country is in dire need of a comprehensive legal framework. The new proposed act seems to take a much broader approach to disaster management. With a long-term vision of managing disaster risk in the country, the Government of Nepal has begun the Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium (NRRC) in collaboration with development and humanitarian partners. In order to improve the vulnerability of Nepal, an early warning system, mainstreaming disasters with development, research activities, community participation and awareness, and a rainfall monitoring system must all be a focus.

  2. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Korobeynikov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  3. Dealing with flood damages : will prevention, mitigation, and ex post compensation provide for a resilient triangle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suykens, C.B.R.; Priest, Sally; van Doorn - Hoekveld, W.J.; Thuillier, Thomas; van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.

    2016-01-01

    There is a wealth of literature on the design of ex post compensation mechanisms for natural disasters. However, more research needs to be done on the manner in which these mechanisms could steer citizens toward adopting individual-level preventive and protection measures in the face of flood risks.

  4. Of floods, sandbags and simulations: Urban resilience to natural disasters and the performance of disaster management organisations under change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Gunnar; Mueller, Birgit; Frank, Karin; Kuhlicke, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Natural disasters and in particular floods have become a strong threat to urban communities in the last decades. In just eleven years (2002, 2013) two centenary river floods have hit Eastern Germany, causing damages of 9.1 billion € (2002) and 6.7 billion € (2013, first estimate), making them the most costly flood events in German history. Many cities in the Free State of Saxony that were strongly hit by both floods are additionally challenged by demographic change with an ageing society and outmigration leading to population shrinkage. This also constrains the coping capacity of disaster management services, especially those of volunteer-based disaster management organisations such as fire brigades, leading to an increased vulnerability of the community at risk. On the other hand, new technologies such as social media have led to rapid information spread and self-organisation of tremendous numbers of civil volunteers willing to help. How do responsible organisations deal with the challenges associated with demographic change, as well as with expected increases in flood frequency and intensity, and what strategies could enhance their performance in the future? To explore these questions, we developed an agent-based simulation model. It is based on socio-demographic settings of the community, communication and coordination structures of disaster management as well as transportation infrastructure for resources and emergency forces. The model is developed in exchange with relevant stakeholders including experts of local disaster management organisations and authority representatives. The goal of the model is to a) assess the performance of disaster management organisations and determine performance limits with respect to forecast lead times and respective coping times of disaster management organisations and b) use it as a discussion tool with these organisations and authorities to identify weak points as well as new options and strategies to ensure protection

  5. Mapping the vulnerability hotspots over Hindu-Kush Himalaya region to flooding disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shada Elalem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A disproportionate share of the global economic and human losses caused by environmental shocks is borne by people in the developing nations. The mountain region of Hindu-Kush Himalaya (HKH in South Asia is threatened by numerous flooding events annually. An efficient disaster risk reduction often needs to rest upon location-based synoptic view of vulnerability. Resolving this deficit improves the ability to take risk reduction measures in a cost-effective way, and in doing so, strengthens the resilience of societies to flooding disasters. The central aim of this research is to identify the vulnerable locations across HKH boundary from the perspective of reported history of economic and human impacts due to occurrence of flooding disasters. A detailed analysis indicates a very high spatial heterogeneity in flooding disaster occurrence in the past 6 decades. The most recent decade reported highest number of disasters and greater spatial coverage as compared to the earlier decades. The data indicates that, in general, economic impacts of flooding disasters were notably higher in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nepal. On the other hand, vulnerability scenarios with respect to human impacts were diverse for different countries. In terms of morbidity and mortality, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Bhutan and India were detected to be most susceptible to human impacts. Although Bhutan had seen lesser number of flooding disasters, higher population living within disaster prone region make them vulnerable. In summary, complex interactions between natural and socio-economic conditions play a dominant role to define and characterize the type and magnitude of vulnerability of HKH countries to disaster occurrence and their economic and human impacts.

  6. Increasing stress on disaster-risk finance due to large floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, B.; Hochrainer-Stigler, S.; Feyen, L.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Mechler, R.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Bouwer, L.M.; Pflug, G.; Rojas, R.; Ward, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent major flood disasters have shown that single extreme events can affect multiple countries simultaneously, which puts high pressure on trans-national risk reduction and risk transfer mechanisms. So far, little is known about such flood hazard interdependencies across regions and the

  7. Renal services disaster planning: lessons learnt from the 2011 Queensland floods and North Queensland cyclone experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W; Hayes, Bronwyn; Gray, Nicholas A; Hawley, Carmel; Hole, Janet; Mantha, Murty

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Queensland dialysis services experienced two unprecedented natural disasters within weeks of each other. Floods in south-east Queensland and Tropical Cyclone Yasi in North Queensland caused widespread flooding, property damage and affected the provision of dialysis services, leading to Australia's largest evacuation of dialysis patients. This paper details the responses to the disasters and examines what worked and what lessons were learnt. Recommendations are made for dialysis units in relation to disaster preparedness, response and recovery. © 2012 The Authors. Nephrology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  8. 10/11/2001, Flood Disaster. Analyse and Solution For Algiers City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddir, R.; Saoula, S.; Laradi, N.

    In space of 24 hours on November 10, 2001, continuously torrential rainfall reaching 211mm (500.000 m3) on Algiers City made of this last one a dead City. Several dis- tricts of the capital, notably Bab El Oued and the municipality of Oued Koriche as well as the district of the Cool Valley were totally Flooded and plunged into the mud. The damages of this flood are very important. It takes to indicate that the human losses have affected the terrible figure of 750 died, more than 115 missing persons and 4.000 stricken families. Economical damage was estimated at more than 3 Billions Dollars. This study had for objective and direct orientation the analysis of the main causes of this disaster. At the beginning, a coverage of geomorphologic and anthropological Factors that were able to aggravate the situation were analysed with an outline on the domains of the town planning, the architecture, the domain of infrastructures and the behavior aggravating. Finally after a critical study, some propositions of Preventive management of the risk of floods in big Algiers were elaborated, to protect the very rich patrimony in this region, and to foresee economically profitable solutions and protectress.

  9. Natural disaster management in India with focus on floods and cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thattai, Deeptha V.; Sathyanathan, R.; Dinesh, R.; Harshit Kumar, L.

    2017-07-01

    Disasters are of two major kinds, natural and manmade, and affect the community. Natural disasters are caused by natural earth processes like floods, droughts, cyclones, tsunamis, earthquakes and epidemics. Manmade disasters occur due to chemical spills, accidents, terrorism activities etc. India is prone to almost all the major natural disasters. The high population density combined with poor preparedness, planning and management, and rescue and relief measures inevitably lead to huge losses of lives and property every year in the country. This paper analyses the disaster management policy of India and its implementation using two recent case studies - one where a relative degree of success has been achieved (cyclones) and the other where we are still struggling to have even a basic preparedness system in place (floods).

  10. Risk assessment of flood disaster and forewarning model at different spatial-temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Jin, Juliang; Xu, Jinchao; Guo, Qizhong; Hang, Qingfeng; Chen, Yaqian

    2018-05-01

    Aiming at reducing losses from flood disaster, risk assessment of flood disaster and forewarning model is studied. The model is built upon risk indices in flood disaster system, proceeding from the whole structure and its parts at different spatial-temporal scales. In this study, on the one hand, it mainly establishes the long-term forewarning model for the surface area with three levels of prediction, evaluation, and forewarning. The method of structure-adaptive back-propagation neural network on peak identification is used to simulate indices in prediction sub-model. Set pair analysis is employed to calculate the connection degrees of a single index, comprehensive index, and systematic risk through the multivariate connection number, and the comprehensive assessment is made by assessment matrixes in evaluation sub-model. The comparison judging method is adopted to divide warning degree of flood disaster on risk assessment comprehensive index with forewarning standards in forewarning sub-model and then the long-term local conditions for proposing planning schemes. On the other hand, it mainly sets up the real-time forewarning model for the spot, which introduces the real-time correction technique of Kalman filter based on hydrological model with forewarning index, and then the real-time local conditions for presenting an emergency plan. This study takes Tunxi area, Huangshan City of China, as an example. After risk assessment and forewarning model establishment and application for flood disaster at different spatial-temporal scales between the actual and simulated data from 1989 to 2008, forewarning results show that the development trend for flood disaster risk remains a decline on the whole from 2009 to 2013, despite the rise in 2011. At the macroscopic level, project and non-project measures are advanced, while at the microcosmic level, the time, place, and method are listed. It suggests that the proposed model is feasible with theory and application, thus

  11. A relative vulnerability estimation of flood disaster using data envelopment analysis in the Dongting Lake region of Hunan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-H. Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerability to flood disaster is addressed by a number of studies. It is of great importance to analyze the vulnerability of different regions and various periods to enable the government to make policies for distributing relief funds and help the regions to improve their capabilities against disasters, yet a recognized paradigm for such studies seems missing. Vulnerability is defined and evaluated through either physical or economic–ecological perspectives depending on the field of the researcher concerned. The vulnerability, however, is the core of both systems as it entails systematic descriptions of flood severities or disaster management units. The research mentioned often has a development perspective, and in this article we decompose the overall flood system into several factors: disaster driver, disaster environment, disaster bearer, and disaster intensity, and take the interaction mechanism among all factors as an indispensable function. The conditions of flood disaster components are demonstrated with disaster driver risk level, disaster environment stability level and disaster bearer sensitivity, respectively. The flood system vulnerability is expressed as vulnerability = f(risk, stability, sensitivity. Based on the theory, data envelopment analysis method (DEA is used to detail the relative vulnerability's spatiotemporal variation of a flood disaster system and its components in the Dongting Lake region. The study finds that although a flood disaster system's relative vulnerability is closely associated with its components' conditions, the flood system and its components have a different vulnerability level. The overall vulnerability is not the aggregation of its components' vulnerability. On a spatial scale, zones central and adjacent to Dongting Lake and/or river zones are characterized with very high vulnerability. Zones with low and very low vulnerability are mainly distributed in the periphery of the Dongting Lake region

  12. AT THE WHIM OF NATURE "NATURAL DISASTERS": CAUSES AND PREVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Akhand Pratibha; Akhand Archna

    2017-01-01

    This paper seeks to determine the natural disasters, causes and effects on environment. Natural disasters are any catastrophic event that is caused by nature or the natural processes of the earth. It could be related to weather, geology, biology or even factors outside the Earth. Examples are earthquakes, hurricanes, droughts and flooding. Nature is bountiful full of resources used by the living organisms use for their survival and well-being. But nature has its own control systems. Resources...

  13. Economic optimization of flood prevention systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.; Kok, M.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    After the flood disaster of 1953, the Netherlands adopted a rational approach to flood risk management with the use of protection standards determined by means of cost-benefit analysis. Due to scientific and political developments that have recently taken place, an update of the Dutch protection

  14. Predictors of Youths' Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Following a Natural Disaster: The 2010 Nashville, Tennessee, Flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nina C; Felton, Julia W; Cole, David A

    2016-01-01

    Framed by a previously established conceptual model of youths' posttraumatic stress (PTS) responses following a disaster, the current longitudinal study examined the relation of predisaster child characteristics (age, gender, depressive symptoms, ruminative coping), predisaster environmental characteristics (negative life events and supportive and negative friendship interactions), and level of disaster exposure to youths' PTS symptoms in the wake of a natural disaster. Prior to the 2010 Nashville, Tennessee, flood, 239 predominantly Caucasian youth from four elementary and middle schools (ages = 10-15, 56% girls) completed measures of depressive symptoms, rumination, negative life events, and social support in the form of both supportive and negative friendship interactions. Approximately 10 days after returning to school, 125 completed measures of disaster exposure and postflood PTS symptoms. Bivariate correlations revealed that disaster-related PTS symptoms were unrelated to age, gender, or predisaster supportive friendship interactions and significantly positively related to level of disaster exposure and predisaster levels of negative life events, depressive symptoms, rumination, and negative friendship interactions. After controlling for level of disaster exposure and other predisaster child and environmental characteristics, depressive symptoms and negative friendship interactions predicted postdisaster PTS symptoms. The effect of child's flood-related experiences on PTS symptoms was not moderated by any of the preexisting child characteristics or environmental indicators. Faced with limited resources after a natural disaster, school counselors and other health professionals should focus special attention on youths who experienced high levels of disaster-related losses and whose predisaster emotional and interpersonal lives were problematic.

  15. The disaster prevention awareness of foreign residents and disaster management of organizations for foreign employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tan Yen; Sugiki, Nao; Matsuo, Kojiro

    2017-10-01

    Japan is known to have many natural disasters occurrences, especially in recent years, the seismic hazard named "Nankai-trough Disastrous Earthquake" of magnitude 9(M) was predicted and will have caused huge damages. Therefore, disaster management should be well planned and executed to ensure minimal amount of victims and damages from disaster. However, foreign residents are mostly vulnerable and ill-equipped to face such consequences compared to Japanese residents, especially when there is limited information available for foreigners presently. As the influx of foreigner migration has been steadily increasing annually, it is vital for disaster management to be compulsively planned to cope up with the great variety of foreigners' needs from diverse backgrounds accordingly. The purpose of this study is to comprehend foreign residents' disaster prevention awareness, in order to provide a more effective information provision on disaster management, so as to help improve their disaster prevention awareness. Thus, this study is set in Toyohashi city, and the methodology used is by conducting two questionnaires. Firstly, to have an accurate understanding on the awareness of foreign residents towards disasters prevention, the questionnaire is conducted towards foreign university students, on pertinent issues such as on the degree of preparedness and their matters of concern of which is related to natural disasters. Secondly, to comprehend disaster management of organizations, the other focuses on preventive measures adopted by manufacturing industry organizations, such as types of preventive measures as a whole and on the issues and challenges encountered during foreign employee-related enforcement of disaster management. Finally, based both results of the questionnaire, the key factors on effective information provision of disaster management is considered.

  16. Disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal: floods and landslides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaire S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surya Gaire, Rafael Castro Delgado, Pedro Arcos González Unit for Research in Emergency and Disaster, Department of Medicine, University of Oviedo, Campus del Cristo, Oviedo, Asturias, SpainAbstract: Nepal has a complicated geophysical structure that is prone to various kinds of disasters. Nepal ranks the most disaster-prone country in the world and has experienced several natural calamities, causing high property and life losses. Disasters are caused by natural processes, but may be increased by human activities. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal. The paper is based on secondary data sources. Major causative factors for floods and landslides are heavy and continuous rainfall, outburst floods, infrastructure failure, and deforestation. Historical data of natural disasters in Nepal show that water-induced disasters have killed hundreds of people and affected thousands every year. Likewise, properties worth millions of US dollars have been damaged. There is an increasing trend toward landslides and floods, which will likely continue to rise if proper intervention is not taken. A positive correlation between water-induced disasters and deaths has been observed. Nepal has a poor Index for Risk Management (INFORM. There are fluctuations in the recording of death data caused by flood and landslides. The Government of Nepal focuses more on the response phase than on the preparedness phase of disasters. The existing disaster management act seems to be weak and outdated. There is a gap in current legal procedure, so the country is in dire need of a comprehensive legal framework. The new proposed act seems to take a much broader approach to disaster management. With a long-term vision of managing disaster risk in the country, the Government of Nepal has begun the Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium (NRRC in collaboration with development and humanitarian partners. In order to

  17. No Calm After the Storm: A Systematic Review of Human Health Following Flood and Storm Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Dell D; Brolin Ribacke, Kim; von Schreeb, Johan

    2017-10-01

    Introduction How the burden of disease varies during different phases after floods and after storms is essential in order to guide a medical response, but it has not been well-described. The objective of this review was to elucidate the health problems following flood and storm disasters. A literature search of the databases Medline (US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA); Cinahl (EBSCO Information Services; Ipswich, Massachusetts USA); Global Health (EBSCO Information Services; Ipswich, Massachusetts USA); Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters; New York, New York USA); Embase (Elsevier; Amsterdam, Netherlands); and PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA) was conducted in June 2015 for English-language research articles on morbidity or mortality and flood or storm disasters. Articles on mental health, interventions, and rescue or health care workers were excluded. Data were extracted from articles that met the eligibility criteria and analyzed by narrative synthesis. The review included 113 studies. Poisonings, wounds, gastrointestinal infections, and skin or soft tissue infections all increased after storms. Gastrointestinal infections were more frequent after floods. Leptospirosis and diabetes-related complications increased after both. The majority of changes occurred within four weeks of floods or storms. Health changes differently after floods and after storms. There is a lack of data on the health effects of floods alone, long-term changes in health, and the strength of the association between disasters and health problems. This review highlights areas of consideration for medical response and the need for high-quality, systematic research in this area. Saulnier DD , Brolin Ribacke K , von Schreeb J . No calm after the storm: a systematic review of human health following flood and storm disasters. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):568-579.

  18. Prevention of communicable diseases after disaster: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Najmeh; Shahsanai, Armindokht; Memarzadeh, Mehrdad; Loghmani, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Natural disasters are tragic incidents originating from atmospheric, geologic and hydrologic changes. In recent decades, millions of people have been killed by natural disasters, resulting in economic damages. Natural and complex disasters dramatically increase the mortality and morbidity due to communicable diseases. The major causes of communicable disease in disasters are categorized into four sections: Infections due to contaminated food and water, respiratory infections, vector and insect-borne diseases, and infections due to wounds and injuries. With appropriate intervention, high morbidity and mortality resulting from communicable diseases can be avoided to a great deal. This review article tries to provide the best recommendations for planning and preparing to prevent communicable disease after disaster in two phases: before disaster and after disaster. PMID:22279466

  19. Forecast-based Integrated Flood Detection System for Emergency Response and Disaster Risk Reduction (Flood-FINDER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcorace, Mauro; Silvestro, Francesco; Rudari, Roberto; Boni, Giorgio; Dell'Oro, Luca; Bjorgo, Einar

    2016-04-01

    Most flood prone areas in the globe are mainly located in developing countries where making communities more flood resilient is a priority. Despite different flood forecasting initiatives are now available from academia and research centers, what is often missing is the connection between the timely hazard detection and the community response to warnings. In order to bridge the gap between science and decision makers, UN agencies play a key role on the dissemination of information in the field and on capacity-building to local governments. In this context, having a reliable global early warning system in the UN would concretely improve existing in house capacities for Humanitarian Response and the Disaster Risk Reduction. For those reasons, UNITAR-UNOSAT has developed together with USGS and CIMA Foundation a Global Flood EWS called "Flood-FINDER". The Flood-FINDER system is a modelling chain which includes meteorological, hydrological and hydraulic models that are accurately linked to enable the production of warnings and forecast inundation scenarios up to three weeks in advance. The system is forced with global satellite derived precipitation products and Numerical Weather Prediction outputs. The modelling chain is based on the "Continuum" hydrological model and risk assessments produced for GAR2015. In combination with existing hydraulically reconditioned SRTM data and 1D hydraulic models, flood scenarios are derived at multiple scales and resolutions. Climate and flood data are shared through a Web GIS integrated platform. First validation of the modelling chain has been conducted through a flood hindcasting test case, over the Chao Phraya river basin in Thailand, using multi temporal satellite-based analysis derived for the exceptional flood event of 2011. In terms of humanitarian relief operations, the EO-based services of flood mapping in rush mode generally suffer from delays caused by the time required for their activation, programming, acquisitions and

  20. Laser Prevention of Earth Impact Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jonathan W.; Howell, Joe (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Today we are seeing the geological data base constantly expanding as new evidence from past impacts with the Earth are discovered and investigated. It is now commonly believed that a hypervelocity impact occurring approximately 65 million years ago in the Yucatan Peninsula area was the disaster responsible for the extinction of almost 70% of the species of life on Earth including of course the dinosaurs. What is sobering is that we believe now that this was just one of several such disasters and that some of the others caused extinctions to even a greater extent. Preventing collisions with the Earth by hypervelocity asteroids, meteoroids, and comets is the most important problem facing human civilization. While there are many global problems facing our planet including overpopulation, pollution, disease, and deforestation; none of these offer the potential of rapid, total extinction. Rapid is the operative word here in that many of the global problems we face may indeed, if not sufficiently addressed, pose a similar long-term threat. However, with the impact threat, a single, almost unpredictable event could lead to a chain reaction of disasters that would end everything mankind has worked to achieve over the centuries. Our chances of being hit are greater than our chance of winning the lottery. We now believe that while there are only about 2000-earth orbit crossing rocks great than 1 kilometer in diameter, there may be as many as 100,000 rocks in the 100 m size range. The 1 kilometer rocks are difficult to detect and even harder to track. The 100 m class ones are almost impossible to find with today's technology. Can anything be done about this fundamental existence question facing us? The answer is a resounding yes. By using an intelligent combination of Earth and space based sensors coupled with high-energy laser stations in orbit, we can deflect rocks from striking the Earth. This is accomplished by irradiating the surface of the rock with sufficiently intense

  1. Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards and success stories in disaster prevention and mitigation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    The Philippines, being a locus of typhoons, tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions, is a hotbed of disasters. Natural hazards inflict loss of lives and costly damage to property in the country. In 2011, after tropical storm Washi devastated cities in southern Philippines, the Department of Science and Technology put in place a responsive program to warn and give communities hours-in-advance lead-time to prepare for imminent hazards and use advanced science and technology to enhance geohazard maps for more effective disaster prevention and mitigation. Since its launch, there have been many success stories on the use of Project NOAH, which after Typhoon Haiyan was integrated into the Pre-Disaster Risk Assessment (PDRA) system of the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), the government agency tasked to prepare for, and respond to, natural calamities. Learning from past disasters, NDRRMC now issues warnings, through scientific advise from DOST-Project NOAH and PAGASA (Philippine Weather Bureau) that are hazards-specific, area-focused and time-bound. Severe weather events in 2015 generated dangerous hazard phenomena such as widespread floods and massive debris flows, which if not for timely, accessible and understandable warnings, could have turned into disasters. We call these events as "disasters that did not happen". The innovative warning system of the Philippine government has so far proven effective in addressing the impacts of hydrometeorological hazards and can be employed elsewhere in the world.

  2. Disaster Loss and Social Media: Can Online Information Increase Flood Resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, M.

    2016-12-01

    When confronted with natural disasters, individuals around the world increasingly use online resources to become informed of forecasted conditions and advisable actions. This study tests the effectiveness of online information and social media in enabling households to reduce disaster losses. The 2011 Bangkok flood is utilized as a case study since it was one of the first major disasters to affect a substantial population connected to social media. The role of online information is investigated with a mixed methods approach. Both quantitative (propensity score matching) and qualitative (in-depth interviews) techniques are employed. The study relies on two data sources - survey responses from 469 Bangkok households and in-depth interviews with twenty-three internet users who are a subset of the survey participants. Propensity score matching indicates that social media enabled households to reduce flood losses by an average of 37% (USD 3,708), using a nearest neighbor estimator. This reduction is massive when considering that total flood losses for the full sample averaged USD 4,903. Social media offered information not available from other sources, such as localized and nearly real-time updates of flood location and depth. With this knowledge, households could move belongings to higher ground before floodwaters arrived. These findings suggest that utilizing social media users as sensors could better inform populations during disasters. Overall, the study reveals that online information can enable effective disaster preparedness and reduce losses.

  3. Submerged area of typical torrential flood and debris-flow disasters in Mengzong Gully, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Di Huo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The torrential flooding and debris flow disasters associated with global climate change pose not only serious threat to individual lives and property, but also impact economic development. Accurately simulating flood scenarios can help to reduce the losses caused by torrential flooding and debris flow by making early warning, evacuation planning, and risk analysis possible. In this study, HEC-RAS software and HEC-GeoRAS module were employed in GIS (geographic information system to simulate the flood overtopping in the Mengzong Gully of Batang River in flood scenarios occurring once in 20, 50, and 100 years, respectively. The simulated floods provided valuable information including scope and depth of submersion via 2D visualization.

  4. Regional flood reconstruction in Kullu District (Himachal Pradesh, India): implication for Disaster Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan Antonio; Stoffel, Markus; Trappmann, Daniel; Shekhar, Mayank; Bhattacharyya, Amalava

    2016-04-01

    Floods are a common natural hazard in the Western Indian Himalayas. They usually occur when humid monsoon airs are lifted along the Himalayan relief, thereby creating intense orographic rainfall and runoff, a process which is often enhanced by simultaneous snowmelt. Monsoon floods are considered a major threat in the region and frequently affect inhabited valleys, disturbing the status quo of communities, stressing the future welfare and condition of their economic development. Given the assumption that ongoing and future climatic changes may impact on monsoon patterns and extreme precipitation, the implementation of adaptation policies in this region is critically needed in order to improve local resilience of Himalayan communities. However, its success implementation is highly dependent on system knowledge and hence reliable baseline data of past disasters. In this communication, we demonstrate how newly gained knowledge on past flood incidents may improve flood hazard and risk assessments. Based on growth-ring analysis of trees growing in the floodplains and other, more classical paleo-hydrology techniques, we reconstruct the regional flood activity for the last decades. This information is then included as non-systematic data into the regional flood frequency by using Bayesian Markov Monte Carlo Chain algorithms, so as to analyse the impact of the additional data on flood hazard assessments. Moreover, through a detailed analysis of three flood risk hotspots, we demonstrate how the newly gained knowledge on past flood disasters derived from indirect proxies can explain failures in the implementation of disaster risk management (DRM). Our methodology allowed identification of thirty-four unrecorded flood events at the study sites located in the upper reaches since the early 20th century, and thus completion of the existing flood history in the region based on flow measurements in the lower part of the catchment. We observe that 56% of the floods occurred

  5. A Cloud-Based Global Flood Disaster Community Cyber-Infrastructure: Development and Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhanming; Hong, Yang; Khan, Sadiq; Gourley, Jonathan; Flamig, Zachary; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tang, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Flood disasters have significant impacts on the development of communities globally. This study describes a public cloud-based flood cyber-infrastructure (CyberFlood) that collects, organizes, visualizes, and manages several global flood databases for authorities and the public in real-time, providing location-based eventful visualization as well as statistical analysis and graphing capabilities. In order to expand and update the existing flood inventory, a crowdsourcing data collection methodology is employed for the public with smartphones or Internet to report new flood events, which is also intended to engage citizen-scientists so that they may become motivated and educated about the latest developments in satellite remote sensing and hydrologic modeling technologies. Our shared vision is to better serve the global water community with comprehensive flood information, aided by the state-of-the- art cloud computing and crowdsourcing technology. The CyberFlood presents an opportunity to eventually modernize the existing paradigm used to collect, manage, analyze, and visualize water-related disasters.

  6. The role of health sectors in disaster preparedness. Floods in southeastern China, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, X

    1993-01-01

    Disasters, whether natural or man-made, usually are unpredictable. Efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality from a disaster should be put forth before it occurs. A brief survey is presented of the worst flood to occur in a hundred years that affected eight provinces in Southeast China. The disaster preparedness and response for Anhui Province, the hardest hit area, is summarized. The disaster preparedness was comprehensive, and cooperation was achieved among various specialties: military forces; firefighters; civil engineers; mechanics; police; provincial governors; the medical sectors; and so forth. Among these groups, the role of medical sectors was of great importance in reducing disease that would have resulted from such a disaster. The measures undertaken by the medical sectors included development of an organization to reduce the impact of disaster; training of medical personnel in techniques of rescue and in treatment of victims in disaster areas; development of a plan to assist the leadership in decision-making and establishing support for disaster preparedness; and maintaining sufficient capacity in general hospitals for the admission of victims from disaster areas.

  7. Flood AI: An Intelligent Systems for Discovery and Communication of Disaster Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Sermet, M. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Communities are not immune from extreme events or natural disasters that can lead to large-scale consequences for the nation and public. Improving resilience to better prepare, plan, recover, and adapt to disasters is critical to reduce the impacts of extreme events. The National Research Council (NRC) report discusses the topic of how to increase resilience to extreme events through a vision of resilient nation in the year 2030. The report highlights the importance of data, information, gaps and knowledge challenges that needs to be addressed, and suggests every individual to access the risk and vulnerability information to make their communities more resilient. This project presents an intelligent system, Flood AI, for flooding to improve societal preparedness by providing a knowledge engine using voice recognition, artificial intelligence, and natural language processing based on a generalized ontology for disasters with a primary focus on flooding. The knowledge engine utilizes the flood ontology and concepts to connect user input to relevant knowledge discovery channels on flooding by developing a data acquisition and processing framework utilizing environmental observations, forecast models, and knowledge bases. Communication channels of the framework includes web-based systems, agent-based chat bots, smartphone applications, automated web workflows, and smart home devices, opening the knowledge discovery for flooding to many unique use cases.

  8. The potential of crowdsourcing and mobile technology to support flood disaster risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Linda; McCallum, Ian; Liu, Wei; Mechler, Reinhard; Keating, Adriana; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mochizuki, Junko; Fritz, Steffen; Dugar, Sumit; Arestegui, Michael; Szoenyi, Michael; Laso-Bayas, Juan-Carlos; Burek, Peter; French, Adam; Moorthy, Inian

    2016-04-01

    The last decade has seen a rise in citizen science and crowdsourcing for carrying out a variety of tasks across a number of different fields, most notably the collection of data such as the identification of species (e.g. eBird and iNaturalist) and the classification of images (e.g. Galaxy Zoo and Geo-Wiki). Combining human computing with the proliferation of mobile technology has resulted in vast amounts of geo-located data that have considerable value across multiple domains including flood disaster risk reduction. Crowdsourcing technologies, in the form of online mapping, are now being utilized to great effect in post-disaster mapping and relief efforts, e.g. the activities of Humanitarian OpenStreetMap, complementing official channels of relief (e.g. Haiti, Nepal and New York). Disaster event monitoring efforts have been further complemented with the use of social media (e.g. twitter for earthquakes, flood monitoring, and fire detection). Much of the activity in this area has focused on ex-post emergency management while there is considerable potential for utilizing crowdsourcing and mobile technology for vulnerability assessment, early warning and to bolster resilience to flood events. This paper examines the use of crowdsourcing and mobile technology for measuring and monitoring flood hazards, exposure to floods, and vulnerability, drawing upon examples from the literature and ongoing projects on flooding and food security at IIASA.

  9. Questioning Psychosocial Resilience After Flooding and the Consequences for Disaster Risk Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabtree, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    , Bihar following the 2008 Kosi River flooding, it documents, 18 months post flood, that flood onset gave rise to symptoms related to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (primarily re-experiencing). The villagers’ primary concern was livelihood loss which, together with their lack of hope for the future, led...... to symptoms of depression. It argues that mental health issues should be fully integrated into Disaster Risk Reduction plans and policies, which are likely to be included in the Post-2015 Millennium Development Goals. In addition to supporting mental health interventions, the paper suggests that deep socio...

  10. Integrated flood disaster management and spatial information : Case studies of Netherlands and India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghawana, T. (T.); Kaur, A. (A.); Neuvel, J.M.M. (J.M.M.); Ziatanova, Z. (Z.)

    2014-01-01

    Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XL-8, 147-154, 2014www.int-arch-photogramm-remote-sens-spatial-inf-sci.net/XL-8/147/2014/doi:10.5194/isprsarchives-XL-8-147-2014Integrated flood disaster management and spatial information: Case studies ofNetherlands and IndiaS. Zlatanova1, T.

  11. Czech Republic - August 2002: another flood disaster of century after five years

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondráček, Stanislav; Klusáček, Petr; Munzar, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2002), s. 53-62 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3086903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : flood disaster * Czech Republic * August 2002 Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  12. The Application Modular Floating Pontoon to Support Floods Disaster Evacuation System in Heavy Populated Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzan Zakki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During floods disaster in the heavy populated residential area, the lack of existing life saving appliances system such as rubber boat and wooden boat were not able to evacuate the disaster victims spontaneously in mass. The condition might be explained since the rubber boat and wooden boat have limited occupant capacity. Based on the conditions, the main objectives of the research are focused on the evaluation of the application of modular floating pontoon as multipurpose floating equipment to support floods disaster evacuation process. The investigation of the modular floating pontoon performance such as hydrostatics characteristics, the equilibrium condition and the intact stability was studied using strip theory and Krylov’s method. Furthermore, the strength analysis of the modular floating pontoon structure was calculated using finite element method. The results show that the modular floating pontoon is reliable to support the evacuation process.

  13. Values of Flood Hazard Mapping for Disaster Risk Assessment and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, T.; Takara, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    Flood plains provide tremendous benefits for human settlements. Since olden days people have lived with floods and attempted to control them if necessary. Modern engineering works such as building embankment have enabled people to live even in flood prone areas, and over time population and economic assets have concentrated in these areas. In developing countries also, rapid land use change alters exposure and vulnerability to floods and consequently increases disaster risk. Flood hazard mapping is an essential step for any counter measures. It has various objectives including raising awareness of residents, finding effective evacuation routes and estimating potential damages through flood risk mapping. Depending on the objectives and data availability, there are also many possible approaches for hazard mapping including simulation basis, community basis and remote sensing basis. In addition to traditional paper-based hazard maps, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) promotes more interactive hazard mapping such as movable hazard map to demonstrate scenario simulations for risk communications and real-time hazard mapping for effective disaster responses and safe evacuations. This presentation first summarizes recent advancement of flood hazard mapping by focusing on Japanese experiences and other examples from Asian countries. Then it introduces a flood simulation tool suitable for hazard mapping at the river basin scale even in data limited regions. In the past few years, the tool has been practiced by local officers responsible for disaster management in Asian countries. Through the training activities of hazard mapping and risk assessment, we conduct comparative analysis to identify similarity and uniqueness of estimated economic damages depending on topographic and land use conditions.

  14. Patterns and predictors of primary mental health service use following bushfire and flood disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Reifels

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health care services play an important role following disasters (Reifels et al., 2013. The aim of this study is to examine patterns and predictors of primary mental health care service use, following two major Australian natural disaster events. Method: Utilizing referral and session data from a national minimum dataset, descriptive and regression analyses were conducted to identify levels and predictors of the use of the Access to Allied Psychological Services (ATAPS program over a 2-year period following two major Australian bushfire and flood/cyclone disasters. Predictor variables examined in negative binomial regression analysis included consumer (age, gender, household structure, previous mental health care history, and diagnosis and event characteristics (disaster type. Results: The bushfire disaster resulted in significantly greater service volume, with more than twice the number of referrals and nearly three times the number of sessions. Service delivery for both disasters peaked in the third quarter. Consumers affected by bushfires, diagnosed with depression, anxiety, or both of these disorders utilized sessions at significantly higher rates. Conclusions: The substantial demand for primary mental health services following disaster can vary with disaster type. Disaster type and need-based variables as key drivers of service use intensity indicate an equitable level of service use. Established usage patterns assist with estimating future service capacity requirements. Flexible referral pathways can enhance access to disaster mental health care. Future research should examine the impact of program- and agency-level factors on mental health service use and factors underpinning treatment non-adherence following disaster.

  15. The Chennai floods of 2015: urgent need for ethical disaster management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariaselvam, Suresh; Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad

    2016-01-01

    India has suffered several natural disasters in recent years. The super cyclone of Orissa in 1999 and the tsunami on the southeastern coast in 2004, both led to major developments in disaster management abilities in the country. Almost a decade after the last major disaster that hit south India, the recent floods in Chennai in 2015 brought to the fore a whole set of ethical considerations. There were issues of inequity in the relief and response activities, conflicts and lack of coordination between the government and non-government relief and response, more emphasis on short-term relief activities rather than rehabilitation and reconstruction, and lack of crisis standards of care in medical services. This paper highlights these ethical issues and the need for ethical guidelines and an ethical oversight mechanism for disaster management and response.

  16. Effectiveness and reliability analysis of emergency measures for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    During flood events emergency measures are used to prevent breaches in flood defences. However, there is still limited insight in their reliability and effectiveness. The objective of this paper is to develop a method to determine the reliability and effectiveness of emergency measures for flood

  17. Content, Accessibility, and Dissemination of Disaster Information via Social Media During the 2016 Louisiana Floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Katherine K; Errett, Nicole A

    2017-12-27

    Social media is becoming increasingly integrated into disaster response communication strategies of public health and emergency response agencies. We sought to assess the content, accessibility, and dissemination of social media communications made by government agencies during a disaster response. A cross-sectional analysis of social media posts made by federal, state, and local government, public health and emergency management agencies before, during, and after the 2016 Louisiana floods was conducted to determine their content, accessibility, and dissemination by level of government and time relative to disaster onset. Facebook and/or Twitter posts made by public agencies involved in the response to the 2016 Louisiana Flooding events (FEMA Disaster Declaration [DR-4277]) published between August 4 and September 16, 2016, publicly available online between February 21 and March 31, 2017, were included in the analysis. Content: The text of each post was assessed to determine whether it contained information on provision of situational awareness; addressing misconception, actionable requests; mental, behavioral, and emotional support; and/or recovery and rebuilding resources. Accessibility: A Flesh-Kincaid grade level of each post was calculated, and information on post language, originality, hyperlinks, visuals, videos, or hash tag was recorded. Dissemination: The average number of reacts/likes, shares/retweets, and comments per post was calculated. Most posts contained information related to situational awareness and recovery resources. There was an increase in messages during the first week of the disaster at all levels. Few posts were made in languages other than English. Compared with state and federal posts, local Facebook posts averaged fewer reacts, comments, and shares throughout the analysis period. Government agencies may maximize the use of social media platforms for disaster communications by establishing their social media network in advance of a

  18. The impact of flood disasters on child education in Muzarabani District, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipo Mudavanhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in flood intensity and frequency poses a threat to community infrastructure and affects the total well-being of children in regard to: access to food, health, school attendance, access to clean water and sanitation, physical and social security. Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article provided an overview of flood disasters and their potential effects on children’s access to quality education in Zimbabwe. The purpose of the study was to analyse school children’s specific vulnerabilities to flood disasters that need to be taken into account in policy development. Research indicated that floods cause loss of learning hours, loss of qualified personnel, outbreak of waterborne diseases, high absenteeism and low syllabus coverage leading to children’s poor academic performance. Children noted a range of experiences, from food insecurity to being withdrawn from school and sometimes forced into early marriages. These challenges compromise children’s rights and access to quality education. This article therefore recommended that a culture of safety be promoted through disaster education, development of good road networks and enforcement of building codes during construction of school infrastructure. Findings also supported the need for adaptation strategies to ensure that the risks specific to school children are addressed.

  19. Prevention of Tetanus Outbreak Following Natural Disaster in Indonesia: Lessons Learned from Previous Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascapurnama, Dyshelly Nurkartika; Murakami, Aya; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Hattori, Toshio; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Egawa, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    In Indonesia, the Aceh earthquake and tsunami in 2004 killed 127,000 people and caused half a million injuries, while the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006 caused 5,700 deaths and 37,000 injuries. Because disaster-affected areas are vulnerable to epidemic-prone diseases and tetanus is one such disease that is preventable, we systematically reviewed the literature related to tetanus outbreaks following previous two natural disasters in Indonesia. Based on our findings, recommendations for proper vaccination and education can be made for future countermeasures. Using specified keywords related to tetanus and disasters, relevant documents were screened from PubMed, the WHO website, and books. Reports offering limited data and those released before 2004 were excluded. In all, 16 publications were reviewed systematically. Results show that 106 cases of tetanus occurred in Aceh, with a case fatality ratio (CFR) of 18.9%; 71 cases occurred in Yogyakarta, with CFR of 36.6%. For both outbreaks, most patients had been wounded during scavenging or evacuation after the disaster occurred. Poor access to health care because of limited transportation or hospital facilities, and low vaccination coverage and lack of awareness of tetanus risk contributed to delayed treatment and case severity. Tetanus outbreaks after disasters are preventable by increasing vaccination coverage, improving wound care treatment, and establishing a regular surveillance system, in addition to good practices of disaster management and supportive care following national guidelines. Furthermore, health education for communities should be provided to raise awareness of tetanus risk reduction.

  20. The near real time Forensic Disaster Analysis of the central European flood in June 2013 - A graphical representation of the main results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Kai; Elmer, Florian; Trieselmann, Werner; Kreibich, Heidi; Kunz, Michael; Khazai, Bijan; Dransch, Doris; Wenzel, Friedemann; Zschau, Jochen; Merz, Bruno; Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Möhrle, Stella; Bessel, Tina; Fohringer, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The Central European flood of June 2013 is one of the most severe flood events that have occurred in Central Europe in the past decades. All major German river basins were affected (Rhine, Danube, and Elbe as well as the smaller Weser catchment).In terms of spatial extent and event magnitude, it was the most severe event at least since 1950. Within the current research focus on near real time forensic disaster analysis, the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) assessed and analysed the multiple facets of the flood event from the beginning. The aim is to describe the on-going event, analyse the event sources, link the physical characteristics to the impact and consequences of the event and to understand the root causes that turn the physical event into a disaster (or prevent it from becoming disastrous). For the near real time component of this research, tools for rapid assessment and concise presentation of analysis results are essential. This contribution provides a graphical summary of the results of the CEDIM-FDA analyses on the June 2013 flood. It demonstrates the potential of visual representations for improving the communication and hence usability of findings in a rapid, intelligible and expressive way as a valuable supplement to usual event reporting. It is based on analyses of the hydrometeorological sources, the flood pathways (from satellite imagery, data extraction from social media), the resilience of the affected regions, and causal loss analysis. The prototypical representation of the FDA-results for the June 2013 flood provides an important step in the development of graphical event templates for the visualisation of forensic disaster analyses. These are intended to become a standard component of future CEDIM-FDA event activities.

  1. The effect of a catastrophic flood disaster on livestock farming in Nakhon Sawan province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchaisri, Chaidate; Supikulpong, Pichet; Vannametee, Ekkamol; Luengyosluechakul, Supol; Khanda, Somkid; Tashnakajankorn, Tanuwong; Ajariyakhajorn, Kittisak; Sasipreeyajan, Jiroj; Techakumpu, Mongkol

    2013-04-01

    In 2011, a catastrophic flood disaster in Thailand affected not only humans but also took animal lives. Data on livestock losses, including death, loss, and decreased production, were collected in Nakhon Sawan province. The time-series map of the flooded area from August to December 2011 was available online from the Geo-informatics and Space Technology Development Agency. To evaluate the high-density areas of livestock loss, a spatial hot spot analysis was performed. The Getis-Ord Gi statistic with weighted zone of indifference and the Euclidean distance measurement were employed to identify spatial clusters of species that were affected by the flood. The results indicated that the majority of livestock losses were from poultry and swine farms. The density of poultry and swine loss was significantly different between sub-districts with clusters of high-density loss alongside the river, particularly in Chum Saeng and Kao Liew. Using spatial hot spot analysis as a tool to classify and rank the areas with high flood risks provides an informative outline for farmers to be aware of potential flood damage. To avoid unexpected loss from flooding, poultry and swine farms in risk areas should be properly managed, particularly during the flooding season between August and December.

  2. Disaster Management in Flash Floods in Leh (Ladakh): A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Preeti; Khanna, Anurag; Majumdar, S

    2012-01-01

    Background: On August 6, 2010, in the dark of the midnight, there were flash floods due to cloud burst in Leh in Ladakh region of North India. It rained 14 inches in 2 hours, causing loss of human life and destruction. The civil hospital of Leh was badly damaged and rendered dysfunctional. Search and rescue operations were launched by the Indian Army immediately after the disaster. The injured and the dead were shifted to Army Hospital, Leh, and mass casualty management was started by the army doctors while relief work was mounted by the army and civil administration. Objective: The present study was done to document disaster management strategies and approaches and to assesses the impact of flash floods on human lives, health hazards, and future implications of a natural disaster. Materials and Methods: The approach used was both quantitative as well as qualitative. It included data collection from the primary sources of the district collectorate, interviews with the district civil administration, health officials, and army officials who organized rescue operations, restoration of communication and transport, mass casualty management, and informal discussions with local residents. Results: 234 persons died and over 800 were reported missing. Almost half of the people who died were local residents (49.6%) and foreigners (10.2%). Age-wise analysis of the deaths shows that the majority of deaths were reported in the age group of 25–50 years, accounting for 44.4% of deaths, followed by the 11–25-year age group with 22.2% deaths. The gender analysis showed that 61.5% were males and 38.5% were females. A further analysis showed that more females died in the age groups Disaster preparedness is critical, particularly in natural disasters. The Army's immediate search, rescue, and relief operations and mass casualty management effectively and efficiently mitigated the impact of flash floods, and restored normal life. PMID:23112446

  3. Disaster management in flash floods in Leh (Ladakh: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: On August 6, 2010, in the dark of the midnight, there were flash floods due to cloud burst in Leh in Ladakh region of North India. It rained 14 inches in 2 hours, causing loss of human life and destruction. The civil hospital of Leh was badly damaged and rendered dysfunctional. Search and rescue operations were launched by the Indian Army immediately after the disaster. The injured and the dead were shifted to Army Hospital, Leh, and mass casualty management was started by the army doctors while relief work was mounted by the army and civil administration. Objective: The present study was done to document disaster management strategies and approaches and to assesses the impact of flash floods on human lives, health hazards, and future implications of a natural disaster. Materials and Methods: The approach used was both quantitative as well as qualitative. It included data collection from the primary sources of the district collectorate, interviews with the district civil administration, health officials, and army officials who organized rescue operations, restoration of communication and transport, mass casualty management, and informal discussions with local residents. Results: 234 persons died and over 800 were reported missing. Almost half of the people who died were local residents (49.6% and foreigners (10.2%. Age-wise analysis of the deaths shows that the majority of deaths were reported in the age group of 25-50 years, accounting for 44.4% of deaths, followed by the 11-25-year age group with 22.2% deaths. The gender analysis showed that 61.5% were males and 38.5% were females. A further analysis showed that more females died in the age groups <10 years and ≥50 years. Conclusions: Disaster preparedness is critical, particularly in natural disasters. The Army′s immediate search, rescue, and relief operations and mass casualty management effectively and efficiently mitigated the impact of flash floods, and restored normal

  4. Geophysical Hazards and Preventive Disaster Management of Extreme Natural Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Takeuchi, K.

    2007-12-01

    Geophysical hazard is potentially damaging natural event and/or phenomenon, which may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption, or environmental degradation. Extreme natural hazards are a key manifestation of the complex hierarchical nonlinear Earth system. An understanding, accurate modeling and forecasting of the extreme hazards are most important scientific challenges. Several recent extreme natural events (e.g., 2004 Great Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami and the 2005 violent Katrina hurricane) demonstrated strong coupling between solid Earth and ocean, and ocean and atmosphere. These events resulted in great humanitarian tragedies because of a weak preventive disaster management. The less often natural events occur (and the extreme events are rare by definition), the more often the disaster managers postpone the preparedness to the events. The tendency to reduce the funding for preventive disaster management of natural catastrophes is seldom follows the rules of responsible stewardship for future generations neither in developing countries nor in highly developed economies where it must be considered next to malfeasance. Protecting human life and property against earthquake disasters requires an uninterrupted chain of tasks: from (i) understanding of physics of the events, analysis and monitoring, through (ii) interpretation, modeling, hazard assessment, and prediction, to (iii) public awareness, preparedness, and preventive disaster management.

  5. GEOSPATIAL TOOLS FOR PREVENTION OF URBAN FLOODS CASE STUDY: RIVER OF EL MALEH (CITY OF MOHAMMEDIA – MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Chaabane

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, the prevention and the risk management occupy an important part of public policy activities and are considered as major components in the process of sustainable development of territories. Due to the expansion of IT processes, in particular the geomatics sciences, decision-makers are increasingly requesting for digital tools before, during and after the risks of natural disasters. Both, the geographic information system (GIS and the remote sensing are considered as geospatial and fundamental tools which help to understand the evolution of risks, to analyze their temporality and to make the right decisions. The historic events (on 1996, 2002 and 2010 which struck the city of Mohammedia and having caused the consequent damage to vital infrastructure and private property, require a thorough and rational analyze to benefit from it and well manage the floods phenomena. This article present i the contribution of the geospatial tools for the floods simulation of Oued of el Maleh city at various return periods. These tools allow the demarcation of flood-risk areas and so to make floods simulations in several scenarios (decadal flood, 20-year flood, 50-year flood, 100-year flood, 500-year flood & also millennial flood and besides (ii present a synthesis map combining the territorial stakes superposed on the flood scenarios at different periods of return.

  6. Geospatial Tools for Prevention of Urban Floods Case Study: River of EL Maleh (city of Mohammedia - Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabane, M. S.; Abouali, N.; Boumeaza, T.; Zahouily, M.

    2017-11-01

    Today, the prevention and the risk management occupy an important part of public policy activities and are considered as major components in the process of sustainable development of territories. Due to the expansion of IT processes, in particular the geomatics sciences, decision-makers are increasingly requesting for digital tools before, during and after the risks of natural disasters. Both, the geographic information system (GIS) and the remote sensing are considered as geospatial and fundamental tools which help to understand the evolution of risks, to analyze their temporality and to make the right decisions. The historic events (on 1996, 2002 and 2010) which struck the city of Mohammedia and having caused the consequent damage to vital infrastructure and private property, require a thorough and rational analyze to benefit from it and well manage the floods phenomena. This article present i) the contribution of the geospatial tools for the floods simulation of Oued of el Maleh city at various return periods. These tools allow the demarcation of flood-risk areas and so to make floods simulations in several scenarios (decadal flood, 20-year flood, 50-year flood, 100-year flood, 500-year flood & also millennial flood) and besides (ii) present a synthesis map combining the territorial stakes superposed on the flood scenarios at different periods of return.

  7. Unlocking the Full Potential of Earth Observation During the 2015 Texas Flood Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G. J-P.; Frye, S.; Wells, G.; Adler, R.; Brakenridge, R.; Bolten, J.; Murray, J.; Slayback, D.; Policelli, F.; Kirschbaum, D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Intense rainfall during late April and early May 2015 in Texas and Oklahoma led to widespread and sustained flooding in several river basins. Texas state agencies relevant to emergency response were activated when severe weather then ensued for 6 weeks from 8 May until 19 June following Tropical Storm Bill. An international team of scientists and flood response experts assembled and collaborated with decision-making authorities for user-driven high-resolution satellite acquisitions over the most critical areas; while experimental automated flood mapping techniques provided daily ongoing monitoring. This allowed mapping of flood inundation from an unprecedented number of spaceborne and airborne images. In fact, a total of 27,174 images have been ingested to the USGS Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS) Explorer, except for the SAR images used. Based on the Texas flood use case, we describe the success of this effort as well as the limitations in fulfilling the needs of the decision-makers, and reflect upon these. In order to unlock the full potential for Earth observation data in flood disaster response, we suggest in a call for action(i) stronger collaboration from the onset between agencies, product developers, and decision-makers;(ii) quantification of uncertainties when combining data from different sources in order to augment information content; (iii) include a default role for the end-user in satellite acquisition planning; and(iv) proactive assimilation of methodologies and tools into the mandated agencies.

  8. Coping Strategies for Landslide and Flood Disasters: A Qualitative Study of Mt. Elgon Region, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuret, Jimmy; Atuyambe, Lynn M; Mayega, Roy William; Ssentongo, Julius; Tumuhamye, Nathan; Mongo Bua, Grace; Tuhebwe, Doreen; Bazeyo, William

    2016-07-11

    The occurrence of landslides and floods in East Africa has increased over the past decades with enormous Public Health implications and massive alterations in the lives of those affected. In Uganda, the Elgon region is reported to have the highest occurrence of landslides and floods making this area vulnerable. This study aimed at understanding both coping strategies and the underlying causes of vulnerability to landslides and floods in the Mt. Elgon region. We conducted a qualitative study in three districts of Bududa, Manafwa and Butalejja in the Mt. Elgon region in eastern Uganda. Six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and eight Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted. We used trained research assistants (moderator and note taker) to collect data. All discussions were audio taped, and were transcribed verbatim before analysis. We explored both coping strategies and underlying causes of vulnerability. Data were analysed using latent content analysis; through identifying codes from which basis categories were generated and grouped into themes. The positive coping strategies used to deal with landslides and floods included adoption of good farming methods, support from government and other partners, livelihood diversification and using indigenous knowledge in weather forecasting and preparedness. Relocation was identified as unsustainable because people often returned back to high risk areas. The key underlying causes of vulnerability were; poverty, population pressure making people move to high risk areas, unsatisfactory knowledge on disaster preparedness and, cultural beliefs affecting people's ability to cope. This study revealed that deep rooted links to poverty, culture and unsatisfactory knowledge on disaster preparedness were responsible for failure to overcome the effects to landslides and floods in disaster prone communities of Uganda. However, good farming practices and support from the government and implementation partners were shown to be effective

  9. Science and Technology in Regional Flood Disaster Pilots: A GEOSS Capacity Building Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, S. W.; Cappelaere, P. G.; Mandl, D.

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes activities and results of melding basic scientific research in remote sensing with applied science and technology development and infusion to implement regional flood pilot programs in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean Region. These regional flood pilots support local and national agency involvement in emergency response and humanitarian assistance activities using orbital, sub-orbital, and in-situ sensors combined with predictive models and socio-economic data to form a cohesive, interoperable set of systems that cover the full cycle of disaster mitigation, warning, response, and recovery for societal benefit. Global satellite coverage is coordinated through the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) in conjunction with the United Nations Space Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER). Other international non-government organizations plus regional and local agencies all play individual roles in exploring the science results, applying the observations and model outputs to form geo-referenced maps that provide improved situational awareness and environmental intelligence for disaster management. The improvements to flood forecast and nowcast outputs include higher resolution drainage and hydrology mapping, improved retrievals for microwave data for soil moisture, plus improved validation from regional ground truth databases. Flow gauge and river depth archive data from local assets provide improved validation of flood model results. Incorporation of atmospheric correction using ground truth data from calibration and validation sites enables better detection and classification of plant species identification and plant stress. Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards for Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) are implemented to provide internet access to satellite tasking, data processing, and distribution/notification in addition to model outputs and other local and regional data sets

  10. Use of social media and e-Government in disasters: 2016 Louisiana floods case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Daniel

    The case study analyzes the use of social media as a component of disaster response during and after the Louisiana Floods of August 2016. The study analyzes the survey responses of thirty social media users on a series of questions regarding social networks they regularly used during the flooding events, the extent to which users contacted government agencies via those networks, other uses of social media connected with the disaster, and whether social media served as a primary means of communication during cell carrier service interruptions. The results of this study show that there was a correlation between service disruption and increased use of social media as a means of communication. Additionally, the survey showed that social media networks have been utilized for a wide range of purposes during disasters, including locating family and loved ones, requesting help, disseminating information, and psychosocial interaction. Finally, a majority of respondents did not use social media to contact government agencies, and a number of respondents rated federal government engagement through social media as either dissatisfactory or were neutral on the question.

  11. Flood Prevention and Public Policies: The Case of Ituporanga – Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Bosi Mendonça de Moura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Departing from an analysis of the Brazilian national policies for water resources management, dams safety, and protection and civil defense, this article studies the decision-making process and actions taken to expand the Flood Prevention South Dam (Barragem Sul de Contenção de Cheias, in Portuguese in the Itajai do Sul river, in Ituporanga-SC. The South Dam is one of the three largest flood prevention dams located in the hydrographic basin of the Itajai River. For the purposes of this article, a critical analysis of bibliographical, documentary and scientific sources was performed. Results show that the natural disasters occurred in 2008 and 2011 in the study region have forced a Governmental response. However, the official decision to expand the South Dam was taken without the necessary coordination among different national policies for water resources management, dams safety, and protection and civil defense”.

  12. Modeling multi-source flooding disaster and developing simulation framework in Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Cui, X.; Zhang, W.

    2016-12-01

    Most Delta regions of the world are densely populated and with advanced economies. However, due to impact of the multi-source flooding (upstream flood, rainstorm waterlogging, storm surge flood), the Delta regions is very vulnerable. The academic circles attach great importance to the multi-source flooding disaster in these areas. The Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration in south China is selected as the research area. Based on analysis of natural and environmental characteristics data of the Delta urban agglomeration(remote sensing data, land use data, topographic map, etc.), hydrological monitoring data, research of the uneven distribution and process of regional rainfall, the relationship between the underlying surface and the parameters of runoff, effect of flood storage pattern, we use an automatic or semi-automatic method for dividing spatial units to reflect the runoff characteristics in urban agglomeration, and develop an Multi-model Ensemble System in changing environment, including urban hydrologic model, parallel computational 1D&2D hydrodynamic model, storm surge forecast model and other professional models, the system will have the abilities like real-time setting a variety of boundary conditions, fast and real-time calculation, dynamic presentation of results, powerful statistical analysis function. The model could be optimized and improved by a variety of verification methods. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41471427); Special Basic Research Key Fund for Central Public Scientific Research Institutes.

  13. The impact of recurrent disasters on mental health: a study on seasonal floods in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Tim R; Joshi, Pooran C; Kleber, Rolf J; Komproe, Ivan H

    2013-06-01

    Very little is known on the impact of recurrent disasters on mental health. Aim The present study examines the immediate impact of a recurrent flood on mental health and functioning among an affected population in the rural district of Bahraich, Uttar Pradesh, India, compared with a population in the same region that is not affected by floods. The study compared 318 affected respondents with 308 individuals who were not affected by floods. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). Psychological and physical functioning was assessed by using the Short Form-12 (SF-12). The affected group showed large to very large differences with the comparison group on symptoms of anxiety (D = .92) and depression (D = 1.22). The affected group scored significantly lower on psychological and physical functioning than the comparison group (respectively D = .33 and D = .80). However, hierarchical linear regressions showed no significant relationship between mental health and the domains of functioning in the affected group, whereas mental health and the domains of functioning were significantly related in the comparison group. This study found a large negative impact of the recurrent floods on mental health outcomes and psychological and physical functioning. However, in a context with recurrent floods, disaster mental health status is not a relevant predictor of functioning. The findings suggest that the observed mental health status and impaired functioning in this context are also outcomes of another mechanism: Both outcomes are likely to be related to the erosion of the social and environmental and material context. As such, the findings refer to a need to implement psychosocial context-oriented interventions to address the erosion of the context rather than specific mental health interventions.

  14. Integration of social vulnerability into emergency management plans: designing of evacuation routes against flood disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca-Jimenez, Estefanía; Bodoque, Jose Maria; Garcia, Juan Antonio; Diez-Herrero, Andres

    2017-04-01

    Flash floods are highly spatio-temporal localized flood events characterized by reaching a high peak flow in a very short period of time, i.e., generally with times of concentration lower than six hours. Its short duration, which limits or even voids any warning time, means that flash floods are considered to be one of the most destructive natural hazards with the greatest capacity to generate risk, either in terms of the number of people affected globally or the proportion of individual fatalities. The above highlights the importance of a realistic and appropriate design of evacuation strategies in order to reduce flood-related losses, being evacuation planning considered of critical importance for disaster management. Traditionally, evacuation maps have been based on flood-prone areas, shelters or emergency residences location and evacuation routes information. However, evacuation plans rarely consider the spatial distribution of vulnerable population (i.e., people with special needs, mobility constraints or economic difficulties), which usually require assistance from emergency responders. The goal of this research is to elaborate an evacuation map against the occurrence of flash floods by combining geographic information (e.g. roads, health facilities location, sanitary helicopters) and social vulnerability patterns, which are previously obtained from socioeconomic variables (e.g. population, unemployment, dwelling characteristics). To do this, ArcGis Network Analyst tool is used, which allows to calculate the optimal evacuation routes. The methodology proposed here is implemented in the region of Castilla y León (94,230 km2). Urban areas prone to flash flooding are identified taking into account the following requirements: i) city centers are crossed by rivers or streams with a longitudinal slope higher than 0.01 m m-1; ii) city centers are potentially affected by flash floods; and iii) city centers are affected by an area with low or exceptional probability

  15. Prevention measures of flooding inside building at Hamaoka NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, Naoya; Wakunaga, Takao; Ishida, Takahisa; Yasuda, Mitsuhiro; Kawabata, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    As the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, we will implement installing the sea wall in order to block direct intrusion of tsunami on Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. In addition, assuming a tsunami higher than the sea wall, we will implement countermeasures to prevent flooding inside the building and the important equipment containment room. In this paper, we present countermeasures to prevent flooding for penetrations and openings of ventilation. (author)

  16. Education for Disaster Prevention in Elementary School in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, Masakuni

    2013-04-01

    Education for disaster prevention has become more and more important since the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami in 2011. More than 18 thousand people were killed or have not been found yet in the tragedy, however, in Kesn'numa, which is a city located in the seriously damaged area, there were few student victims of tsunami. This is because every school in Kesen'numa has excellent education systems for disaster prevention. They have several safety exercises and conducts emergency drills each year in unique ways which have been developed upon the tragic experiences of serious earthquakes and tsunami in the past. For disaster prevention education, we should learn two important points from the case in Kesen'numa; to learn from the ancient wisdom, and to ensure for students to have enough opportunities of safety exercises and emergency drills at school. In addition to these two points, another issue from the viewpoint of science education can be added, which is to learn about the mechanisms of earthquake. We have developed disaster prevention and reduction programs in educational context, taking these three points into consideration. First part of the program is to study local history, focusing on ancient wisdom. In Kesen'numa City, there were thirty-three monumental stones with cautionary lessons of the possible danger of tsunami before the great earthquake. The lessons were based on the disasters actually happened in the past and brought down to the current generation. Kesen'numa-Otani elementary school has conducted education for disaster prevention referring to this information with full of ancient wisdom. Second part of the program is to make sure that every student has enough and rich opportunities to simulate the worst situation of any disasters. For example, in the case of earthquake and tsunami, teachers take students to the safest place through the designated evacuation rout according to each school's original manual. Students can experience this

  17. Study of Landslide Disaster Prevention System in Malaysia as a Disaster Mitigation Prototype for South East Asia Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, Swee Peng; Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Tien Tay, Lea; Murakami, Satoshi; Koyama, Tomofumi; Chan, Huah Yong; Sakai, Naoki; Hazarika, Hemanta; Jamaludin, Suhaimi; Lateh, Habibah

    2016-04-01

    Every year, hundreds of landslides occur in Malaysia and other tropical monsoon South East Asia countries. Therefore, prevention casualties and economical losses, by rain induced slope failure, are those countries government most important agenda. In Malaysia, millions of Malaysian Ringgit are allocated for slope monitoring and mitigation in every year budget. Besides monitoring the slopes, here, we propose the IT system which provides hazard map information, landslide historical information, slope failure prediction, knowledge on natural hazard, and information on evacuation centres via internet for user to understand the risk of landslides as well as flood. Moreover, the user can obtain information on rainfall intensity in the monitoring sites to predict the occurrence of the slope failure. Furthermore, we are working with PWD, Malaysia to set the threshold value for the landslide prediction system which will alert the officer if there is a risk of the slope failure in the monitoring sites by calculating rainfall intensity. Although the IT plays a significant role in information dissemination, education is also important in disaster prevention by educating school students to be more alert in natural hazard, and there will be bottom up approach to alert parents on what is natural hazard, by conversion among family members, as most of the parents are busy and may not have time to attend natural hazard workshop. There are many races living in Malaysia as well in most of South East Asia countries. It is not easy to educate them in single education method as the level of living and education are different. We started landslides education workshops in primary schools in rural and urban area, in Malaysia. We found out that we have to use their mother tongue language while conducting natural hazard education for better understanding. We took questionnaires from the students before and after the education workshop. Learning from the questionnaire result, the students are

  18. Disaster risk and poverty: assessing the global exposure of the poor to floods and droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsemius, Hessel; Jongman, Brenden; Veldkamp, Ted; Hallegatte, Stéphane; Bangalore, Mook; Ward, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Poor people generally have a lower capacity to deal with the impacts of natural hazards. Yet, in several countries, low-income households have been shown to be disproportionately overrepresented in hazard-prone areas compared to households with higher income. Furthermore, the hazardous conditions under which poor households are exposed to now may become worse due to climate change with resulting increases in intensity and frequency of floods and droughts. To date, the relationship between poverty and natural hazard related disasters has only been explored on a case by case basis in a limited amount of countries. With the recent advances in the global spatial modeling of flood and drought hazard, it becomes feasible to study the relationship between poverty and natural hazards globally. In this presentation we present the most comprehensive analysis so far on the exposure of the global poor to floods and droughts under the current climatic conditions as well as under a range of future climate scenarios. We combine state-of-the-art global river flood and drought hazard models with detailed household asset and income datasets for over 50 countries world-wide, to analyse poverty-specific household exposure to current and future hazard levels.

  19. Dealing with flood damages: will prevention, mitigation, and ex post compensation provide for a resilient triangle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Suykens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a wealth of literature on the design of ex post compensation mechanisms for natural disasters. However, more research needs to be done on the manner in which these mechanisms could steer citizens toward adopting individual-level preventive and protection measures in the face of flood risks. We have provided a comparative legal analysis of the financial compensation mechanisms following floods, be it through insurance, public funds, or a combination of both, with an empirical focus on Belgium, the Netherlands, England, and France. Similarities and differences between the methods in which these compensation mechanisms for flood damages enhance resilience were analyzed. The comparative analysis especially focused on the link between the recovery strategy on the one hand and prevention and mitigation strategies on the other. There is great potential within the recovery strategy for promoting preventive action, for example in terms of discouraging citizens from living in high-risk areas, or encouraging the uptake of mitigation measures, such as adaptive building. However, this large potential has yet to be realized, in part because of insufficient consideration and promotion of these connections within existing legal frameworks. We have made recommendations about how the linkages between strategies can be further improved. These recommendations relate to, among others, the promotion of resilient reinstatement through recovery mechanisms and the removal of legal barriers preventing the establishment of link-inducing measures.

  20. Near real time Forensic Disaster Analysis of the central European flood in June 2013 in Germany: Impact and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazai, Bijan; Bessel, Tina; Möhrle, Stella; Dittrich, André; Schröter, Kai; Mühr, Bernhard; Elmer, Florian; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Trieselmann, Werner; Kunz, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Within its current research activity on near real time Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA), researchers from the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) aim to identify major risk drivers and to understand the root causes of disaster and infer the implications for disaster mitigation. A key component of this activity is the development of rapid assessment tools which allow for a science based estimate of disaster impacts. The central European flood in June 2013 caused in Germany severe damage to buildings, infrastructure and agricultural lands and has had a great impact on people, transportation and the economy. In many areas thousands of people were evacuated. Electrical grid and local water supply utilities failed during the floods. Furthermore, traffic was disrupted in the interregional transportation network including federal highways and long distance railways. CEDIM analysed the impact and management of the flood event within an FDA activity. An analysis on the amount and spatial distribution of flood-related Twitter messages in Germany revealed a high interest in the flood in the social media. Furthermore, an analysis of the resilience of selected affected areas in Germany has been carried out to assess the impact of the flood on the district level. The resilience indicator is based on social, economic and institutional indicators which are supplemented with information on the number of people evacuated and transportation disruptions. Combined with the magnitude of the event, an index is calculated that allows for a rapid initial but preliminary estimate of the flood impact. Results show high resilience of the administrative districts along the Danube while heavy impacts are seen along the Mulde and Elbe.

  1. Infant feeding concerns in times of natural disaster: lessons learned from the 2014 flood in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Zaharah; Mohamad, Noraini; Ismail, Tengku Alina Tengku; Johari, Nazirah; Hussain, Nik Hazlina Nik

    2016-01-01

    The flood that hit Kelantan in December 2014 was the worst in Malaysian history. Women and their infants accounted for a large proportion of the people at risk who were badly affected, as almost half of the population in Kelantan was in the reproductive age group. This report serves to raise awareness that breastfeeding mothers and infants are a special population with unique needs during a disaster. Four of their concerns were identified during this massive flood: first, the negative impact of flood on infant nutritional status and their health; second, open space and lack of privacy for the mothers to breastfeed their babies comfortably at temporary shelters for flood victims; third, uncontrolled donations of infant formula, teats, and feeding bottles that are often received from many sources to promote formula feeding; and lastly, misconceptions related to breastfeeding production and quality that may be affected by the disaster. The susceptibility of women and their infant in a natural disaster enhances the benefits of promoting the breastfeeding rights of women. Women have the right to be supported which enables them to breastfeed. These can be achieved through monitoring the distribution of formula feeding, providing water, electricity and medical care for breastfeeding mothers and their infants. A multifaceted rescue mission team involving various agencies comprising of local government, including the health and nutrition departments, private or non-governmental organizations and individual volunteers have the potential to improve a satisfactory condition of women and infants affected by floods and other potential natural disasters.

  2. Modeling Flood Disasters: Issues Concerning Data for 2D Numerical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ahmad Fikri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood disasters are one of the worst natural disasters and they occur almost daily. Correspondingly, city managers are nowadays increasingly investing in data collection and modelling activities. Typically, flows in pipes and channels have been modelled using a one-dimensional (1D approach. Also, if the flood flows on the ground are confined to streets and curbs, the use of 1D/1D modelling approach (a.k.a. as dual drainage concept may be a feasible way forward. However, if the flows are two-dimensional with complex interactions taking place through surface/sub-surface links, then the required approach would be the so-called 1D/2D modelling approach. The ever-increasing power of computers is now allowing a 3D fluid dynamics analysis of overflow and manhole structures, and in time these may be coupled with 1D models that may be used in situations where flow characteristics require with higher dimensionality. With the use of 2D models, the importance of terrain data has become a growing issue. The current paper discusses some of the key modelling approaches and makes particular reference to the terrain data processing and collection which can either improve or deteriorate their predictive capability

  3. [The analysis of the course of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum among women touched by flood disaster in Kotlin Kłodzki in July 1997].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberg, M; Pawłosek, W; Lopuszański, M; Neuberg, J

    1998-12-01

    A natural disaster has been defined as a disruption of human ecology that exceeds the capacity of the community to function normally. Little is known about the influence of flood disaster on reproductive outcomes. This study reviews perinatal medical problems in pregnant women during the flood disaster from Kłodzko Region in July 1997. 47 pregnant women were investigated which injured from the flood disaster. We observed a psychosocial stress in this women. A control random group consists of 100 pregnant women in 1996. Reproductive outcomes include pregnancy loss in 55.3% and other severe disorders: premature delivery, missed abortion, birth asphyxia, premature rupture of membranes, intrauterine growth retardation. Psychosocial stress observed during the flood disaster cause many perinatal complications and pregnancy loss. Intensive perinatal medical care must usually be provided from outside the disaster area.

  4. Deep Tunnel for Regulating Combined Sewer Overflow Pollution and Flood Disaster: A Case Study in Guangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichun Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The DongHaoChong (DHC basin is located in the central city zone of Guangzhou City, China. Owing to the high density of buildings and low quality of the drainage pipe network in the city, diversion of rain and sewage is difficult. Waterlogging occurs frequently and combined sewer overflow (CSO pollution is a serious problem during the rainy season. Therefore, a deep tunnel for the DongHaoChong basin has been planned and its construction is currently underway. An urban rainstorm model for the DongHaoChong basin was developed on the basis of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM, and both the interception effect of CSO pollution and the degree of mitigation of flood were analyzed. Reasonable scenarios for the deep tunnel in terms of rainstorms with different design recurrence periods were evaluated. From the viewpoints of preventing rainstorm waterlogging disasters and protecting water quality in the region downstream of DongHaoChong River, the river flood control and drainage capacities of the region were improved to a 2-year rainstorm design recurrence period by the construction of the deep tunnel. Furthermore, the main pollutant load of the CSO is expected to be reduced by about 30%–40%.

  5. Evolvement rules of basin flood risk under low-carbon mode. Part II: risk assessment of flood disaster under different land use patterns in the Haihe basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fawen; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yong

    2017-08-01

    Land use pattern contains a large amount of information about the flood hazard-formative environments, which is the most sensitive factor in hazard-formative environments. In this paper, based on the land use pattern in 2008 (the base year) and in 2020 (the planning year), the comparative analysis of flood disaster risk changes in Haihe basin were studied by the spatial analysis function of ARCGIS and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results showed the flood disaster risk in Haihe basin had an obvious zonality in the space, among which low risk was located in the northwest regions, and high risk was located in the southeast regions. Flood disaster risk in planning year was lower than in the base year. The risk value of 2020 in the mountain decreases from 0.445 to 0.430, while the risk value of the plain increases from 0.562 to 0.564. For the plain, high-risk area in 2020 is increased by 13.2%, which is the biggest change in risk grades. For the mountain, low-risk area and low risk area in 2020 are increased, and the low-risk area is the biggest increase, up to 37.7%. Meanwhile, high-risk area, high risk area, and medium risk area all tend to decrease, and the high-risk area is the biggest decrease, up to 32.6%. Overall, land use planning pattern under low-carbon mode is conducive to the Haihe basin flood control. The research can provide scientific foundations for basin land use planning and flood disaster risk management.

  6. Consideration of the effect for enhancing the disaster prevention awareness by visualization of the tsunami lore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiharu, M.

    2017-12-01

    One effective measure for enhancing the residents' disaster prevention awareness is to know the natural hazard which has occurred in the past at residence. Mie Disaster Mitigation Center had released the digital archive for promoting an understanding of disaster prevention on April 28, 2015. This archive is recording the past disaster information as digital catalog. An effective contribution to enhancement of the inhabitants' disaster prevention awareness is expected. It includes the following contents (1) The interview with disaster victim (the 1944 Tonankai Earthquake, The Ise Bay Typhoon and so on) (2) The information on "monument of Tsunami" (3) The description of disaster on the local history material (the school history books, municipal history books, and so on). These contents are being dropped on a map and it is being shown clearly geographically. For all age groups, this way makes it easy to understand that the past disaster information relates to their residence address.

  7. Structuring Disaster Recovery Infrastructure Decisions: Lessons from Boulder County's 2013 Flood Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavin, C.; Petropoulos, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Recovery phase decision making processes, as compared to mitigation and response phase decision making processes, require communities make significant financial and capital decisions in the months after a disaster. Collectively, these investments may significantly contribute to the resilience of a community to future hazards. Pre-disaster administrative decisions are well-established within existing planning processes. Post-event recovery requires community decision makers to quickly evaluate technical proposals and manage significant recovery financial resources to ensure their community rebuilds in a manner that will be more resilient to future events. These technical and administrative hurdles in the aftermath of a disaster create a challenging atmosphere to make sound, scientifically-informed decisions leading to resilient recovery. In September 2013, a 1,000-year rain event that resulted in flooding throughout the Front Range of Colorado, significantly impacting Boulder County. While the event is long past, disaster recovery efforts still continue in parts of Boulder County. Boulder County officials formed a county collaborative that adapted the NIST Community Resilience Planning Guide for Buildings and Infrastructure Systems to facilitate a goals-based multi-criteria decision making process. Rather than use hazard-based information to guide infrastructure design, the county's decision process established time-to-recovery goals for infrastructure systems that were used as criteria for project design. This presentation explores the decision-making process employed by Boulder County to specify design standards for resilient rebuilding of infrastructure systems and examine how this infrastructure planning model could be extrapolated to other situations where there is uncertainty regarding future infrastructure design standards.

  8. Prenatal Stress due to a Natural Disaster Predicts Adiposity in Childhood: The Iowa Flood Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey N. Dancause

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress can affect lifelong physical growth, including increased obesity risk. However, human studies remain limited. Natural disasters provide models of independent stressors unrelated to confounding maternal characteristics. We assessed degree of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during severe flooding. At ages 2.5 and 4 years we assessed body mass index (BMI, subscapular plus triceps skinfolds (SS + TR, an index of total adiposity, and SS : TR ratio (an index of central adiposity in their children (n=106. Hierarchical regressions controlled first for several potential confounds. Controlling for these, flood exposure during early gestation predicted greater BMI increase from age 2.5 to 4, as well as total adiposity at 2.5. Greater maternal hardship and distress due to the floods, as well as other nonflood life events during pregnancy, independently predicted greater increase in total adiposity between 2.5 and 4 years. These results support the hypothesis that prenatal stress increases adiposity beginning in childhood and suggest that early gestation is a sensitive period. Results further highlight the additive effects of maternal objective and subjective stress, life events, and depression, emphasizing the importance of continued studies on multiple, detailed measures of maternal mental health and experience in pregnancy and child growth.

  9. Plan of disaster prevention in district of Shizuoka Prefecture countermeasures to nuclear power. 1984 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Based on the basic act for disaster countermeasures, this plan aimes at establishing the necessary system concerning the countermeasures for preventing the disaster due to the release of a large quantity of radioactive substances from the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., determining the measures to be taken for disaster prevention, and striving for the safety of inhabitants by executing the deskworks and services of the disaster prevention related to nuclear power synthetically and purposefully. The general matters concerning the disaster prevention in the district of Shizuoka Prefecture are determined in the ''Plan of disaster prevention in the district of Shizuoka Prefecture (General countermeasures)'', but in view of the peculiarity of nuclear power disaster, the peculiar matters are to be determined in this plan. The general rules on the works of respective disaster prevention organizations, the countermeasures for preventing nuclear power disaster, the emergency countermeasures to nuclear power disaster, the countermeasures to Tokai earthquakes and the countermeasures for restoration after nuclear power disaster are stipulated. (Kako, I.)

  10. Filling the gap between disaster preparedness and response networks of urban emergency management: Following the 2013 Seoul Floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minsun; Jung, Kyujin

    2015-01-01

    To examine the gap between disaster preparedness and response networks following the 2013 Seoul Floods in which the rapid transmission of disaster information and resources was impeded by severe changes of interorganizational collaboration networks. This research uses the 2013 Seoul Emergency Management Survey data that were collected before and after the floods, and total 94 organizations involving in coping with the floods were analyzed in bootstrap independent-sample t-test and social network analysis through UCINET 6 and STATA 12. The findings show that despite the primary network form that is more hierarchical, horizontal collaboration has been relatively invigorated in actual response. Also, interorganizational collaboration networks for response operations seem to be more flexible grounded on improvisation to coping with unexpected victims and damages. Local organizations under urban emergency management are recommended to tightly build a strong commitment for joint response operations through full-size exercises at the metropolitan level before a catastrophic event. Also, interorganizational emergency management networks need to be restructured by reflecting the actual response networks to reduce collaboration risk during a disaster. This research presents a critical insight into inverse thinking of the view designing urban emergency management networks and provides original evidences for filling the gap between previously coordinated networks for disaster preparedness and practical response operations after a disaster.

  11. Natural disasters and the media in Colombia: Information for prevention?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The relation between society and the treatment given by media to natural disasters have scarcely been studied in Colombia. This topic concerns the field of research called science communication. Interdisciplinary focus is needed in order to understand the conditions in which information is produced and the media construction of situation and more precisely public perception and appropriation. Some studies have shown that a tendency exists in media to dwell on the detailed description of success and to pass over explanations on causes and consequences given by scientists and experts. These explanations, when they exist, are limited and are even mixed with those of supernatural character. A closer comprehension of the way information is received is necessary, in order to understand that treatments of this type of information area not simple manipulations carried on by the media. It has been demonstrated that people are able to choose, as far as their imaginations are close to those proposed by media on the topic of natural disasters. Taking into account government and civil society responsibilities on this respect, the present paper, instead of avoiding it, invites to discuss the Colombian media responsibility on the topic of natural disaster prevention

  12. Neighbourhood Socio Economic Disadvantage Index’s Analysis of the Flood Disasters Area at East Jakarta in 1996 and 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranti Ristiani, Christina; Rokhmatuloh; Hernina, Revi

    2017-12-01

    Flood is one of natural disasters that have often happened in East Jakarta. Flood can give several negative impacts and it can affect all aspects of society lives such as economics, political, cultural, socials and others. East Jakarta is an urban area which continuously grows and establishes to become a rapid area. It can be seen from the highest population density in East Jakarta (BPS, 2016) and categorized into a region prone to flooding based on data Prone Flood Map in 1996 and 2016. The higher population exists in East Jakarta, the bigger possibility of the negative effects of disaster it gets. The negative impacts of flood disaster can affect societies especially with socio-economic disadvantage. One of the index to measure socio-economic disadvantage is NSDI (Neighbourhood socio-economic disadvantage index). However, to adjust indicators used in NSDI with Indonesia statistical data compatibility, it needs further assessment and evaluation. Therefore, this paper evaluates previous main indicators used in previous NSDI studies and improves with indicators which more suitable with statistical records in Indonesia. As a result, there will be improved 19 indicators to be used in NSDI, but the groups of indicators remain the same as previous namely; income, education, occupation, housing, and population.

  13. Economic impact due to Cimanuk river flood disaster in Garut district using Cobb-Douglas analysis with least square method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestari, T. A. S.; Supian, S.; Purwani, S.

    2018-03-01

    Cimanuk River, Garut District, West Java which have upper course in Papandayan Mountain have an important purpose in dialy living of Garut people as a water source. But in 2016 flash flood in this river was hitted and there was 26 peple dead and 23 peole gone. Flash flood which hitted last year make the settlement almost align with the ground, soaking school and hospital. BPLHD Jawa Barat saw this condition as a disaster which coused by distroyed upper course of Cimanuk River. Flash Flood which happened on the 2016 had ever made economic sector paralized. Least square method selected to analyze economic condition in residents affected post disaster, after the mathematical equations was determined by Cobb Douglas Method. By searching proportion value of the damage, and the result expected became a view to the stakeholder to know which sector that become a worse and be able to make a priority in development

  14. A Capacitated Location-Allocation Model for Flood Disaster Service Operations with Border Crossing Passages and Probabilistic Demand Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzapour, S. A.; Wong, K. Y.; Govindan, K.

    2013-01-01

    , a p-center location problem is considered in order to determine the locations of some relief rooms in a city and their corresponding allocation clusters. This study presents a mixed integer nonlinear programming model of a capacitated facility location-allocation problem which simultaneously considers......Potential consequences of flood disasters, including severe loss of life and property, induce emergency managers to find the appropriate locations of relief rooms to evacuate people from the origin points to a safe place in order to lessen the possible impact of flood disasters. In this research...... the probabilistic distribution of demand locations and a fixed line barrier in a region. The proposed model aims at minimizing the maximum expected weighted distance from the relief rooms to all the demand regions in order to decrease the evacuation time of people from the affected areas before flood occurrence...

  15. The economic costs of natural disasters globally from 1900-2015: historical and normalised floods, storms, earthquakes, volcanoes, bushfires, drought and other disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann; Schaefer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    For the first time, a breakdown of natural disaster losses from 1900-2015 based on over 30,000 event economic losses globally is given based on increased analysis within the CATDAT Damaging Natural Disaster databases. Using country-CPI and GDP deflator adjustments, over 7 trillion (2015-adjusted) in losses have occurred; over 40% due to flood/rainfall, 26% due to earthquake, 19% due to storm effects, 12% due to drought, 2% due to wildfire and under 1% due to volcano. Using construction cost indices, higher percentages of flood losses are seen. Depending on how the adjustment of dollars are made to 2015 terms (CPI vs. construction cost indices), between 6.5 and 14.0 trillion USD (2015-adjusted) of natural disaster losses have been seen from 1900-2015 globally. Significant reductions in economic losses have been seen in China and Japan from 1950 onwards. An AAL of around 200 billion in the last 16 years has been seen equating to around 0.25% of Global GDP or around 0.1% of Net Capital Stock per year. Normalised losses have also been calculated to examine the trends in vulnerability through time for economic losses. The normalisation methodology globally using the exposure databases within CATDAT that were undertaken previously in papers for the earthquake and volcano databases, are used for this study. The original event year losses are adjusted directly by capital stock change, very high losses are observed with respect to floods over time (however with improved flood control structures). This shows clear trends in the improvement of building stock towards natural disasters and a decreasing trend in most perils for most countries.

  16. How do Japanese escape from TSUNAMI? - Disaster Prevention Education through using Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Hiroaki

    2013-04-01

    After the disaster of the earthquake and tsunami in Tohoku, Japan in 2011, it is necessary to teach more "Disaster Prevention" in school. The government guideline for education of high school geography students emphasizes improving students' awareness of disaster prevention through acquiring geographical skills, for example reading hazard and thematic maps. The working group of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) says that the purpose of Disaster Prevention Education is to develop the following competencies: 1. To acquire knowledge about disasters in the local area and the science of disaster prevention. 2. To teach individuals to protect themselves from natural hazards. 3. To safely support other people in the local area. 4. To build a safe society during rebuilding from the disasters. "Disaster Prevention Education" is part of the "Education for Sustainable Development" (ESD) curriculum. That is, teaching disaster prevention can contribute to developing abilities for sustainable development and building a sustainable society. I have tried to develop a high school geography class about "tsunami". The aim of this class is to develop the students' competencies to acquire the knowledge about tsunami and protect themselves from it through reading a hazard map. I especially think that in geography class, students can protect themselves from disasters through learning the risks of disasters and how to escape when disasters occur. In the first part of class, I have taught the mechanism of tsunami formation and where tsunamis occur in Japan. In the second part of class, I have shown students pictures that I had taken in Tohoku, for instance Ishinomaki-City, Minamisanriku-Town, Kesen'numa-City, and taught how to read hazard maps that show where safe and dangerous places are when natural hazards occur. I think that students can understand the features of the local area and how to escape from disasters that may occur in local area by

  17. Scenario-based assessment of stored water structure function for flood prevention and irrigation in Nile River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, P.; Takara, K. T.; Watanabe, T.; He, B.; Apip, A.; Duan, W.; Nakagami, K.

    2013-12-01

    Inundation simulation is very import for flood risk management to reduce the damage and economic loss and provide escape information of flood disaster. Paleo-inundation study which is a part of paleo-flood hydrology study is to calculate the inundation conditions under the historical events by using the historical information and modern methods. Paleo-inundation analysis play an important role on reconstructing the flooding and damage conditions, evaluating the historical flood control policy, providing the experiences of historical flood risk management and escape technology. The stored water structure which also called basin scale method is to build some square paddy field to store the water which may over flow from Nile River. The basin scale method has been used for the flood prevention and irrigation in Nile River from 1800s. In this study, the main objectives are to producing the basic process for the paleo-inundation reconstruction and paleo-hydrology analysis in the river basin area which is lack of observed data, to provide a case study for the paleo-inundation reconstruction assessment, and give a discussion on the basic process of paleo-hydrology and paleo-inundation assessment.

  18. Geomorphology, natural hazards, vulnerability and prevention of natural disasters in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2002-10-01

    The significance of the prevention of natural disasters is made evident by the commemoration of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). This paper focuses on the role of geomorphology in the prevention of natural disasters in developing countries, where their impact has devastating consequences. Concepts such as natural hazards, natural disasters and vulnerability have a broad range of definitions; however, the most significant elements are associated with the vulnerability concept. The latter is further explored and considered as a key factor in understanding the occurrence of natural disasters, and consequently, in developing and applying adequate strategies for prevention. Terms such as natural and human vulnerabilities are introduce and explained as target aspects to be taken into account in the reduction of vulnerability and for prevention and mitigation of natural disasters. The importance of the incorporation not only of geomorphological research, but also of geomorphologists in risk assessment and management programs in the poorest countries is emphasized.

  19. Effects of rumination on child and adolescent depressive reactions to a natural disaster: the 2010 Nashville flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Julia W; Cole, David A; Martin, Nina C

    2013-02-01

    The current longitudinal study tested hypotheses about Nolen-Hoeksema's (1987, 1991) response styles theory (RST) of depression in a sample of child and adolescent public school students. Wave 1 measures of rumination, distraction, and depression were obtained 6 months prior to the 2010 Nashville flood. Similar measures plus a measure of flood-related stressors were administered at Wave 2, approximately ten days after students returned to school after the flood. Results revealed an indirect effect of preflood rumination on postflood depressive symptoms via the intervening variable of postflood rumination, and partial mediation of the effect of preflood depression on postflood depression. Further, the interaction of rumination with flood-related stressors was moderated by age, suggesting that rumination may not become a strong cognitive diathesis for depression until adolescence. Developmental implications emerged for the treatment of child and adolescent victims of natural disasters and for the application of RST to children and adolescents. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Strategies to enhance resilience post-natural disaster: a qualitative study of experiences with Australian floods and fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Gisela; Gibbs, Lisa; MacDougall, Colin

    2015-06-01

    Disasters have a significant impact on mental health that may be mitigated by promoting resilience. This study explores the lay perspective on public health interventions that have the potential to facilitate resilience of adults who experience a natural disaster. Semi-structured interviews were conducted 6 months post-disaster between June 2011 and January 2012 with 19 people who experienced the 2010/11 Victorian floods. Twenty lay witness statements from people who presented to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission were also selected for analysis. Transcripts were analysed using an interpretive and comparative content analysis to develop an understanding of disaster resilience interventions in an ecological framework. The participants identified resilience focused interventions such as information that help individuals manage emotions and make effective decisions and plans, or enable access to resources; face-to-face communication strategies such as public events that restore or create new social connections; rebuilding of community capacity through coordination of volunteers and donations and policies that manage disaster risk. Disaster recovery interventions designed within an ecological model can promote a comprehensive integrated systems approach to support resilience in affected populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The role of hazard vulnerability assessments in disaster preparedness and prevention in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan; Ding, Yibo; Li, Zixiong; Cao, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    China is prone to disasters and escalating disaster losses. Effective disaster mitigation is the foundation for efficient disaster response and rescue and for reducing the degree of hazardous impacts on the population. Vulnerability refers to the population's capacity to anticipate, cope with, and recover from the impact of a hazardous event. A hazard vulnerability assessment (HVA) systematically evaluates the damage that could be caused by a potential disaster, the severity of the impact, and the available medical resources during a disaster to reduce population vulnerability and increase the capacity to cope with disasters. In this article, we summarized HVA team membership, content (disaster identification, probability and consequences), and methods and procedures for an HVA that can be tailored to China's needs. We further discussed the role of epidemiology in an HVA. Disaster epidemiology studies the underlying causes of disasters to achieve effective disaster prevention and reduction. In addition, we made several recommendations that are already in practice in developed countries, such as the U.S., for future implementation in China and other developing countries. An effective HVA plan is crucial for successful disaster preparedness, response, and recovery.

  2. Disaster Prevention Coastal Map Production by MMS & C3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatake, Shuhei; Kohori, Yuki; Watanabe, Yasushi

    2016-06-01

    In March 2011, Eastern Japan suffered serious damage of Tsunami caused by a massive earthquake. In 2012, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport published "Guideline of setting assumed areas of inundation by Tsunami" to establish the conditions of topography data used for simulation of Tsunami. In this guideline, the elevation data prepared by Geographical Survey Institute of Japan and 2m/5m/10m mesh data of NSDI are adopted for land area, while 500m mesh data of Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of Japan Coast Guard and sea charts are adopted for water area. These data, however, do not have continuity between land area and water area. Therefore, in order to study the possibility of providing information for coastal disaster prevention, we have developed an efficient method to acquire continuous topography over land and water including tidal zone. Land area data are collected by Mobile Mapping System (MMS) and water area depth data are collected by interferometry echo sounder (C3D), and both data are simultaneously acquired on a same boat. Elaborate point cloud data of 1m or smaller are expected to be used for realistic simulation of Tsunami waves going upstream around shoreline. Tests were made in Tokyo Bay (in 2014) and Osaka Bay (in 2015). The purpose the test in Osaka Bay is to make coastal map for disaster prevention as a countermeasure for predicted Nankai massive earthquake. In addition to Tsunami simulation, the continuous data covering land and marine areas are expected to be used effectively for maintenance and repair of aged port and river facilities, maintenance and investigation of dykes, and ecosystem preservation.

  3. Rainwater harvesting for drought disaster alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widodo, B.; Prinzand, D.; Malik, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Too little water and too much water can be as devastating as well. Drought usually does not show up instantly like flood, but it creeps slowly. Drought that is less popular than flood has impact more serious than flood. It is difficult to be identified when it comes and when it goes away. However, it is suddenly understood when water becomes scare, or no more water is available in wells, rivers and reservoirs. Managing flood and drought has to be at an integrated basis. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) combined with water conservation methods can be developed to alleviate drought disaster as well as flood disaster in the same time. RWH and water conservation must be an integral part of integrated water resources management. Preventing drought could be automatically reducing the extent of flood that means preventing people and the environment from the disasters. (author)

  4. Miniaturized Water Flow and Level Monitoring System for Flood Disaster Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifedapo Abdullahi, Salami; Hadi Habaebi, Mohamed; Surya Gunawan, Teddy; Rafiqul Islam, MD

    2017-11-01

    This study presents the performance of a prototype miniaturised water flow and water level monitoring sensor designed towards supporting flood disaster early warning systems. The design involved selection of sensors, coding to control the system mechanism, and automatic data logging and storage. During the design phase, the apparatus was constructed where all the components were assembled using locally sourced items. Subsequently, under controlled laboratory environment, the system was tested by running water through the inlet during which the flow rate and rising water levels are automatically recorded and stored in a database via Microsoft Excel using Coolterm software. The system is simulated such that the water level readings measured in centimeters is output in meters using a multiplicative of 10. A total number of 80 readings were analyzed to evaluate the performance of the system. The result shows that the system is sensitive to water level rise and yielded accurate measurement of water level. But, the flow rate fluctuates due to the manual water supply that produced inconsistent flow. It was also observed that the flow sensor has a duty cycle of 50% of operating time under normal condition which implies that the performance of the flow sensor is optimal.

  5. Mitigating flood exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; McLean, Andrew; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Rosen, Alexa; Kelly, Fiona; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Youngs Jr, Georgia A; Jensen, Jessica; Bernal, Oscar; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In 2011, following heavy winter snowfall, two cities bordering two rivers in North Dakota, USA faced major flood threats. Flooding was foreseeable and predictable although the extent of risk was uncertain. One community, Fargo, situated in a shallow river basin, successfully mitigated and prevented flooding. For the other community, Minot, located in a deep river valley, prevention was not possible and downtown businesses and one-quarter of the homes were inundated, in the city’s worst flood on record. We aimed at contrasting the respective hazards, vulnerabilities, stressors, psychological risk factors, psychosocial consequences, and disaster risk reduction strategies under conditions where flood prevention was, and was not, possible. Methods. We applied the “trauma signature analysis” (TSIG) approach to compare the hazard profiles, identify salient disaster stressors, document the key components of disaster risk reduction response, and examine indicators of community resilience. Results. Two demographically-comparable communities, Fargo and Minot, faced challenging river flood threats and exhibited effective coordination across community sectors. We examined the implementation of disaster risk reduction strategies in situations where coordinated citizen action was able to prevent disaster impact (hazard avoidance) compared to the more common scenario when unpreventable disaster strikes, causing destruction, harm, and distress. Across a range of indicators, it is clear that successful mitigation diminishes both physical and psychological impact, thereby reducing the trauma signature of the event. Conclusion. In contrast to experience of historic flooding in Minot, the city of Fargo succeeded in reducing the trauma signature by way of reducing risk through mitigation. PMID:28228985

  6. Peritraumatic Distress Mediates the Effect of Severity of Disaster Exposure on Perinatal Depression: The Iowa Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rebecca L; O'Hara, Michael W; Hart, Kimberly J; McCabe-Beane, Jennifer E; Williamson, J Austin; Brunet, Alain; Laplante, David P; Yu, Chunbo; King, Suzanne

    2015-12-01

    Disaster exposure during pregnancy has received limited attention. This study examined the impact of the 2008 Iowa Floods on perinatal maternal depression and well-being, and the role of peritraumatic distress as a possible mechanism explaining this link. Perinatal women (N = 171) completed measures of depressive symptoms and general well-being at 5 timepoints from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. Objectively assessed prenatal flood exposure was associated with greater depression (r = .15). Further, flood-related peritraumatic distress was uniquely associated with greater depression (r = .23), and was a key mechanism through which flood exposure led to depression. Prenatal flood exposure was also associated with general well-being (r = .18); however, a mechanism other than peritraumatic distress appears to have been responsible for the effect of flood exposure on well-being. We discuss the implications of these findings for informing etiological models and enhancing the efficacy of interventions for maternal psychopathology. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  7. Implementing the Web-based 3D Coast Flood Disaster Simulation System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jo, Myung-Hee; Jo, Yun-Won; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Hyoung-Sub; Kim, Jin-Sub

    2004-01-01

    ...) by using 3D web GIS technology. In this study, the coast disaster area management system was designed and developed by using 3D web GIS technique so that the coast disaster area could be monitored and managed in real time and in visual. Finally, the future disaster in coast area could be predicted scientifically.

  8. Midwives’ Professional Competency for Preventing Neonatal Mortality in Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Taghizadeh

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: The average scores of professional competency of midwives to deliver reproductive health service to infants in disasters shows the necessity of related and integrated education. It is recommended that by holding training exercises and simulations, midwives be educated with regard to disasters and how to respond in these situations.

  9. Tweeting in Disaster Area: An Analysis of Tweets during 2016 Mayor Floods in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anang Dwi Santoso

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Social media allows people in the disaster area to communicate disaster information, to the people outside the disaster area, more quickly and accurately. Unfortunately, there are limited researches that examine the use of Twitter by people in the disaster sites. This study aims to explore the use of Twitter by users in the disaster-affected areas. We use the feature of twitter geolocation, to separate information from inside and outside the disaster site. This research gives depiction about communication behavior of people in the affected disaster area, through social media. The result showed that people in disaster location use twitter to give first-hand report, coordinate rescue effort, provide help and express grief. In addition, by focusing on the affected area, Twitter used by lay people is usually found rather than other users. From the segment of time, the researcher finds a number of tweets that will increase each day. Users will share more information the days after rather, than the day of disaster. In practical term, this research explores the used of social media by the victims of disaster, which can encourage effective communication to people or group outside the location; theoretically, this research gives more detail understanding about shared information from the people in the disaster place.

  10. Prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury due to rapid-onset natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Regens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur.

  11. A Capacitated Location-Allocation Model for Flood Disaster Service Operations with Border Crossing Passages and Probabilistic Demand Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Mirzapour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential consequences of flood disasters, including severe loss of life and property, induce emergency managers to find the appropriate locations of relief rooms to evacuate people from the origin points to a safe place in order to lessen the possible impact of flood disasters. In this research, a p-center location problem is considered in order to determine the locations of some relief rooms in a city and their corresponding allocation clusters. This study presents a mixed integer nonlinear programming model of a capacitated facility location-allocation problem which simultaneously considers the probabilistic distribution of demand locations and a fixed line barrier in a region. The proposed model aims at minimizing the maximum expected weighted distance from the relief rooms to all the demand regions in order to decrease the evacuation time of people from the affected areas before flood occurrence. A real-world case study has been carried out to examine the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed model.

  12. A report on disaster prevention trainings of nuclear energy, in fiscal year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Tamotsu; Katagiri, Hiromi; Akiyama, Takashi; Kikuchi, Masayuki

    2001-05-01

    Trainings on nuclear disaster prevention are often planned and practiced since early times at the nuclear energy relating organizations on many courses. A training carried out in fiscal year 2000 by the Emergent Assistance and Training Center in the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute is decided to a portion on disaster prevention measure at a viewpoint of 'Crisis Management' which is essential element in present disaster prevention measure to fall short at present. In concrete, a crisis management training for nuclear disaster prevention (senior and business courses), an emergent publicity response training, and a disaster prevention training planning training were designed and decided. These trainings were established according to experiences accumulated by inter-company crisis management learning, and were constructed by containing items relating to respective special knowledge, conditions on chemical plants and disaster prevention measure system in U.S.A. and Europe, and so on. Here was described on design and practice of training plan, and practice of the trainings. (G.K)

  13. Development and application of a modified wireless tracer for disaster prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung Yang, Han; Su, Chih Chiang

    2016-04-01

    Typhoon-induced flooding causes water overflow in a river channel, which results in general and bridge scour and soil erosion, thus leading to bridge failure, debris flow and landslide collapse. Therefore, dynamic measurement technology should be developed to assess scour in channels and landslide as a disaster-prevention measure against bridge failure and debris flow. This paper presents a wireless tracer that enables monitoring general scour in river channels and soil erosion in hillsides. The wireless tracer comprises a wireless high-power radio modem, various electronic components, and a self-designed printed circuit board that are all combined with a 9-V battery pack and an auto switch. The entire device is sealed in a jar by silicon. After it was modified, the wireless tracer underwent the following tests for practical applications: power continuation and durability, water penetration, and signal transmission during floating. A regression correlation between the wireless tracer's transmission signal and distance was also established. This device can be embedded at any location where scouring is monitored, and, in contrast to its counterparts that detect scour depth by identifying and analyzing received signals, it enables real-time observation of the scouring process. In summary, the wireless tracer developed in this study provides a dynamic technology for real-time monitoring of scouring (or erosion) and forecasting of landslide hazards. Keywords: wireless tracer; scour; real-time monitoring; landslide hazard.

  14. Preventing disasters: public health vulnerability reduction as a sustainable adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Mark E

    2011-06-01

    Global warming could increase the number and severity of extreme weather events. These events are often known to result in public health disasters, but we can lessen the effects of these disasters. By addressing the factors that cause changes in climate, we can mitigate the effects of climate change. By addressing the factors that make society vulnerable to the effects of climate, we can adapt to climate change. To adapt to climate change, a comprehensive approach to disaster risk reduction has been proposed. By reducing human vulnerability to disasters, we can lessen--and at times even prevent--their impact. Human vulnerability is a complex phenomenon that comprises social, economic, health, and cultural factors. Because public health is uniquely placed at the community level, it has the opportunity to lessen human vulnerability to climate-related disasters. At the national and international level, a supportive policy environment can enable local adaptation to disaster events. The purpose of this article is to introduce the basic concept of disaster risk reduction so that it can be applied to preventing and mitigating the negative effects of climate change and to examine the role of community-focused public health as a means for lessening human vulnerability and, as a result, the overall risk of climate-related disasters.

  15. Flooding and Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason; Easter, K.W.; Perry, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  16. Fusion of Remote Sensing and Non-Authoritative Data for Flood Disaster and Transportation Infrastructure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnebele, Emily K.

    2013-01-01

    Flooding is the most frequently occurring natural hazard on Earth; with catastrophic, large scale floods causing immense damage to people, property, and the environment. Over the past 20 years, remote sensing has become the standard technique for flood identification because of its ability to offer synoptic coverage. Unfortunately, remote sensing…

  17. Current Situation of the Educational Project on Disaster Prevention in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.-P.; Chen, Y.-A.; Hsu, T.-H.

    2011-09-01

    The Taiwan government has invested much effort in developing and promoting disaster relief and prevention by following out many research projects after the 1999 Chichi earthquake. "Experiment and Development Project on Implementation and Introspection of Disaster Prevention Education" is one of the most important among these projects. This project includes five major areas such as, 1) "operation and supporting mechanism build-up"; 2) "curriculum development and popularization experiment"; 3) "teachers' training programs on disaster prevention education"; 4) "promotion and popularization of experiment and e-learning"; and 5) "establishment of evaluation system". Furthermore, The Ministry of Education has promoted actively for the participation of local government since 2007. Depending upon the requirements and characteristics of different areas, different projects are set up and some involved the teachers and students senior high schools and event under to participate. Through this project, most primary and secondary schools in Taiwan have participated the evacuation training during the large earthquake in the campus and have developed the disaster prevention project for their selves. These implementations are still of the early stage, most of the schools still lack experience and need to be more relevant for disaster prevention and relief exercises. In the future more executive powers and supports from the Ministry of Education and from the local government works will largely help the schools and general public at all levels to reduce the occurrence of disaster events on campus.

  18. Development of a Prototype Web GIS-Based Disaster Management System for Safe Operation of the Next Generation Bimodal Tram, South Korea—Focused Flooding and Snowfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Seok Jang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Korea Railroad Research Institute (KRRI has developed a bimodal tram and advanced bus rapid transit (BRT system which is an optimized public transit system created by mixing the railway’s punctual operation and the bus’ easy and convenient access. The bimodal tram system provides mass-transportation service with an eco-friendly and human-centered approach. Natural disasters have been increasing worldwide in recent years, including floods, snow, and typhoons disasters. Flooding is the most frequent natural disaster in many countries and is increasingly a concern with climate change; it seriously affects people’s lives and productivity, causing considerable economic loss and significant damage. Enhanced conventional disaster management systems are needed to support comprehensive actions to secure safety and convenience. The objective of this study is to develop a prototype version of a Web GIS-based bimodal tram disaster management system (BTDMS using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM 5.0 to enhance on-time operation and safety of the bimodal tram system. The BTDMS was tested at the bimodal tram test railroad by simulating probable maximum flood (PMF and snow melting for forecasting flooding and snow covered roads. This result could provide the basis for plans to protect against flooding disasters and snow covered roads in operating the bimodal tram system. The BTDMS will be used to assess and predict weather impacts on roadway conditions and operations and thus has the potential to influence economic growth. The methodology presented in this paper makes it possible to manage impacts of flooding and snowfall on urban transportation and enhance operation of the bimodal tram system. Such a methodology based on modeling could be created for most metropolitan areas in Korea and in many other countries.

  19. Midwives’ Professional Competency for Preventing Neonatal Mortality in Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Taghizadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infants are the most vulnerable people with special needs in natural disasters. Since midwives are responsible for providing reproductive health services to infants in disastrous situations, assessing their professional competence is of great importance. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran, Iran. A total of 361 midwives were selected by cluster sampling method. After giving their informed consents, they participated in the study and completed the researcher-made questionnaire about providing health services to infants in natural disasters. Midwives’ professional competence was investigated through self-assessment in terms of their perceived importance, knowledge, and skill. Then, the data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: Mean(SD total score of professional competency of midwives in providing services to infants in disasters was 91.95(20.2 obtained from 3 subcategories: perceived importance, 39.83(9.55; knowledge, 22.5(5.06; and skill 30.16(6.86. There were significant relationships between the scores of professional competency of midwives with age (P=0.053, degree of education (P=0.028, the workplace (P=0.053, and experience in disaster (P=0.047. About 49.86% of midwives demonstrated middle level of professional competency. The lowest knowledge and skill score were reported in managing common neonatal problems such as asphyxia, sepsis, physical trauma, which requires referral and stability. Conclusion: The average scores of professional competency of midwives to deliver reproductive health service to infants in disasters shows the necessity of related and integrated education. It is recommended that by holding training exercises and simulations, midwives be educated with regard to disasters and how to respond in these situations.

  20. Planning for post disaster recovery: Lesson learnt from flood events in Kelantan Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Wan Nurul Mardiah Wan Mohd; Nifa, Faizatul Akmar Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Noorizhar; Khalid, Khairin Norhashidah

    2017-10-01

    As the frequency of disaster occurrence increases, the world cities today are getting more difficult in terms of the management of the event. One of the most discussed issues today is the management of the post-disaster recovery that involves several stages such as the planning, management of multiple stakeholders, restoration, reconstruction and delivery. It is important to note that input from related stakeholders is necessary to make the right decision during this most critical period. In the process of building back after a disaster, it is important to ensure the newly constructed infrastructures are built to be more resilient and able to withstand a certain level of disaster recurrence. Elements of disaster risk reduction should be incorporated in the planning, redesign, construction and the operation of the built environment. In Malaysia, the disaster management has been the responsibility of the Disaster Management and Relief Committee that consists of agencies at the central, state and local levels. This is to ensure that all aspects are being considered and to be more effective in managing the situation.

  1. Using Seasonal Climate Forecasts to Guide Disaster Management: The Red Cross Experience during the 2008 West Africa Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arame Tall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the seasonal forecast issued at the Seasonal Climate Outlook Forum for West Africa (PRESAO announced a high risk of above-normal rainfall for the July–September rainy season. With probabilities for above-normal rainfall of 0.45, this forecast indicated noteworthy increases in the risk of heavy rainfall. When this information reached the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC West and Central Africa Office, it led to significant changes in the organization’s flood response operations. The IFRC regional office requested funds in advance of anticipated floods, prepositioned disaster relief items in strategic locations across West Africa to benefit up to 9,500 families, updated its flood contingency plans, and alerted vulnerable communities and decision-makers across the region. This forecast-based preparedness resulted in a decrease in the number of lives, property, and livelihoods lost to floods, compared to just one year prior in 2007 when similar floods claimed above 300 lives in the region. This article demonstrates how a science-based early warning informed decisions and saved lives by triggering action in anticipation of forecast events. It analyses what it took to move decision-makers to action, based on seasonal climate information, and to overcome traditional barriers to the uptake of seasonal climate information in the region, providing evidence that these barriers can be overcome. While some institutional, communication and technical barriers were addressed in 2008, many challenges remain. Scientists and humanitarians need to build more common ground.

  2. Building infrastructure to prevent disasters like Hurricane Maria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaragoda, C.; Phuong, J.; Mooney, S.; Stephens, K.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Pieper, K.; Rhoads, W.; Edwards, M.; Pruden, A.; Bales, J.; Clark, E.; Brazil, L.; Leon, M.; McDowell, W. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Tarboton, D. G.; Jones, A. S.; Hutton, E.; Tucker, G. E.; McCready, L.; Peckham, S. D.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Idaszak, R.

    2017-12-01

    2000 words Recovery efforts from natural disasters can be more efficient with data-driven information on current needs and future risks. We aim to advance open-source software infrastructure to support scientific investigation and data-driven decision making with a prototype system using a water quality assessment developed to investigate post-Hurricane Maria drinking water contamination in Puerto Rico. The widespread disruption of water treatment processes and uncertain drinking water quality within distribution systems in Puerto Rico poses risk to human health. However, there is no existing digital infrastructure to scientifically determine the impacts of the hurricane. After every natural disaster, it is difficult to answer elementary questions on how to provide high quality water supplies and health services. This project will archive and make accessible data on environmental variables unique to Puerto Rico, damage caused by Hurricane Maria, and will begin to address time sensitive needs of citizens. The initial focus is to work directly with public utilities to collect and archive samples of biological and inorganic drinking water quality. Our goal is to advance understanding of how the severity of a hazard to human health (e.g., no access to safe culinary water) is related to the sophistication, connectivity, and operations of the physical and related digital infrastructure systems. By rapidly collecting data in the early stages of recovery, we will test the design of an integrated cyberinfrastructure system to for usability of environmental and health data to understand the impacts from natural disasters. We will test and stress the CUAHSI HydroShare data publication mechanisms and capabilities to (1) assess the spatial and temporal presence of waterborne pathogens in public water systems impacted by a natural disaster, (2) demonstrate usability of HydroShare as a clearinghouse to centralize selected datasets related to Hurricane Maria, and (3) develop a

  3. Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, hurricanes, or tsunamis can ... is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous ...

  4. An Observation Task Chain Representation Model for Disaster Process-Oriented Remote Sensing Satellite Sensor Planning: A Flood Water Monitoring Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An accurate and comprehensive representation of an observation task is a prerequisite in disaster monitoring to achieve reliable sensor observation planning. However, the extant disaster event or task information models do not fully satisfy the observation requirements for the accurate and efficient planning of remote-sensing satellite sensors. By considering the modeling requirements for a disaster observation task, we propose an observation task chain (OTChain representation model that includes four basic OTChain segments and eight-tuple observation task metadata description structures. A prototype system, namely OTChainManager, is implemented to provide functions for modeling, managing, querying, and visualizing observation tasks. In the case of flood water monitoring, we use a flood remote-sensing satellite sensor observation task for the experiment. The results show that the proposed OTChain representation model can be used in modeling process-owned flood disaster observation tasks. By querying and visualizing the flood observation task instances in the Jinsha River Basin, the proposed model can effectively express observation task processes, represent personalized observation constraints, and plan global remote-sensing satellite sensor observations. Compared with typical observation task information models or engines, the proposed OTChain representation model satisfies the information demands of the OTChain and its processes as well as impels the development of a long time-series sensor observation scheme.

  5. Urban Flooding of Greater Dhaka in a Changing Climate : Building Local Resilience to Disaster Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Subhendu; Nishat, Ainun; Huq, Mainul; Dasgupta, Susmita; Zaman, Asif; Jahan, Sarwar

    2015-01-01

    Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh and one of the world’s rapidly growing megacities, is an urban hotspot for climate risks. Located in central Bangladesh on the lower reaches of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, the city faces the recurring phenomena of urban flooding and waterlogging following intense rainfall nearly every year. As a low-elevation city with a tropical monsoon climate, Dhaka has a long history of river flooding as a natural hazard. Recent major floods have been worse in terms of ...

  6. SeCom - Serious Community 2.0 prevent flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komma, Juergen; Breuer, Roman; Sewilam, Hani; Concia, Francesca; Aliprandi, Bruno; Siegmund, Sabine; Goossens, Jannis

    2013-04-01

    There is a significant need for raising the awareness and building the capacity of water professionals in different water sectors cross Europe. There is also a need for qualified graduates to implement the EU Flood Risk Directive (FRD). The main aim of this work is to prepare and build the capacity of both groups in flood risk management through identifying synergies, sharing knowledge, and strengthen partnerships between universities and different stakeholders(mainly water professionals). The specific objectives are to develop; a) Development of a dynamic and active tool that allows all target-groups/users to assess their knowledge about flood risk management. b) Development of an innovative, active and problem-based learning methodology for flood risk education and training. c)Development of flood related Vocational Education & Training (VET) modules for water professionals (involving the students to gain practical experience). This will include some modules for undergraduate students on flood risk management and protection.

  7. Integrated flood disaster management and spatial information : Case studies of Netherlands and India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanova, S.; Ghawana, T.; Kaur, A.; Neuvel, J.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial Information is an integral part of flood management practices which include risk management & emergency response processes. Although risk & emergency management activities have their own characteristics, for example, related to the time scales, time pressure, activities & actors involved, it

  8. Preventive behaviours against radiation and related factors among general workers after Fukushima's nuclear disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Hideyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Koyama, Kikuo

    2013-04-01

    The nuclear power plant accidents in Fukushima resulted in a widespread release of radioactive substances in the Fukushima prefecture. To clarify what factors led to precautions among general workers who displayed preventive behaviours against radiation following the nuclear disasters in Fukushima. Descriptive study of preventive behaviours among general workers 3-5 months following the nuclear disasters. The subjects were 1394 regular workers who took part in radiation seminars conducted by the Fukushima Occupational Health Promotion Center between July and August 2011. Of 1217 responses, 1110 eligible responses were included in this study. This anonymous questionnaire survey was asking for characteristics and questions on preventive behaviours following the nuclear disasters. The authors assessed the contribution of each variable by a logistic regression analysis. Keeping track of environmental radiation levels and washing hands and gargling were significantly more frequent among female subjects, older age and workers residing up to approximately 80 km away from the power plants. Washing hands and gargling were also related with living with children. Wearing a mask when leaving home and buying bottled water were significantly more often observed with female subjects and workers residing up to 80 km. Refraining from going outdoors was positively associated with workers residing up to 80 km and workers living with children. These results provide information that may help with the targeting of health information after a nuclear disaster. This may contribute to determining an order of priority when distributing information after a nuclear disaster.

  9. Application of Indigenous Knowledge to Flood Prevention and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last three decades, flooding has become a nightmare associated with rainfall in all the continents of the world, as it records heavy casualties everywhere and each time it occurred. Flooding is now a big and seemingly unstoppable environmental threat to rural and urban settlements, in both developed and developing ...

  10. Enhanced Effects of Flood Disasters Due to Hillside Development in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsien Teng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Taiwan government has established a number of flood control facilities such as dikes, pumping stations and drainage systems to effectively reduce downstream flooding. However, with continued development and urbanization of catchment areas, the original designs of most flood control facilities have become outdated. Hillside lands in the upper and middle reaches of river basins have undergone urban development through unsound engineering practices, paving the way for heavy downstream flooding. Therefore, proper river basin management should include both upstream and downstream sides. The main purpose of the paper is to simulate non-urban inundation areas with various degrees of development (0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 60%, over two different return periods of 25 years and 200 years, for intensive rainfall events in the Shi-Chi District, Taiwan. Through hydrological analysis and numerical simulations of inundation, quantitative data on inundation potential have been established based on the land development conditions along the hillsides on the upper and middle reaches of the Keelung River Basin. The simulated results show that the increase in the extent of land development in the upper reaches causes an increase in the area and depth of inundation, resulting in an increased risk of flooding in downstream areas. If the land-use policy makers in the upper reaches of the river basin’s hillsides do not properly manage the land development, the risk of flooding in downstream areas will increase. In such an event, the policy makers should first review the situation to understand the problem with the consideration of this study. Thus, proper development and flood mitigation in hillsides can be established.

  11. Interdisciplinary approach to hydrological hazard mitigation and disaster response and effects of climate change on the occurrence of flood severity in central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.; Bhatt, U. S.; Lindsey, S. D.; Plumb, E. W.; Thoman, R. L.

    2015-06-01

    In May 2013, a massive ice jam on the Yukon River caused flooding that destroyed much of the infrastructure in the Interior Alaska village of Galena and forced the long-term evacuation of nearly 70% of its residents. This case study compares the communication efforts of the out-of-state emergency response agents with those of the Alaska River Watch program, a state-operated flood preparedness and community outreach initiative. For over 50 years, the River Watch program has been fostering long-lasting, open, and reciprocal communication with flood prone communities, as well as local emergency management and tribal officials. By taking into account cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic features of rural Alaskan communities, the River Watch program was able to establish and maintain a sense of partnership and reliable communication patterns with communities at risk. As a result, officials and residents in these communities are open to information and guidance from the River Watch during the time of a flood, and thus are poised to take prompt actions. By informing communities of existing ice conditions and flood threats on a regular basis, the River Watch provides effective mitigation efforts in terms of ice jam flood effects reduction. Although other ice jam mitigation attempts had been made throughout US and Alaskan history, the majority proved to be futile and/or cost-ineffective. Galena, along with other rural riverine Alaskan communities, has to rely primarily on disaster response and recovery strategies to withstand the shock of disasters. Significant government funds are spent on these challenging efforts and these expenses might be reduced through an improved understanding of both the physical and climatological principals behind river ice breakup and risk mitigation. This study finds that long term dialogue is critical for effective disaster response and recovery during extreme hydrological events connected to changing climate, timing of river ice breakup, and

  12. Interdisciplinary approach to hydrological hazard mitigation and disaster response and effects of climate change on the occurrence of flood severity in central Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Kontar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In May 2013, a massive ice jam on the Yukon River caused flooding that destroyed much of the infrastructure in the Interior Alaska village of Galena and forced the long-term evacuation of nearly 70% of its residents. This case study compares the communication efforts of the out-of-state emergency response agents with those of the Alaska River Watch program, a state-operated flood preparedness and community outreach initiative. For over 50 years, the River Watch program has been fostering long-lasting, open, and reciprocal communication with flood prone communities, as well as local emergency management and tribal officials. By taking into account cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic features of rural Alaskan communities, the River Watch program was able to establish and maintain a sense of partnership and reliable communication patterns with communities at risk. As a result, officials and residents in these communities are open to information and guidance from the River Watch during the time of a flood, and thus are poised to take prompt actions. By informing communities of existing ice conditions and flood threats on a regular basis, the River Watch provides effective mitigation efforts in terms of ice jam flood effects reduction. Although other ice jam mitigation attempts had been made throughout US and Alaskan history, the majority proved to be futile and/or cost-ineffective. Galena, along with other rural riverine Alaskan communities, has to rely primarily on disaster response and recovery strategies to withstand the shock of disasters. Significant government funds are spent on these challenging efforts and these expenses might be reduced through an improved understanding of both the physical and climatological principals behind river ice breakup and risk mitigation. This study finds that long term dialogue is critical for effective disaster response and recovery during extreme hydrological events connected to changing climate, timing of

  13. The failed-levee effect: Do societies learn from flood disasters?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collenteur, R.A.; de Moel, H.; Jongman, B.; Di Baldassarre, G.

    2015-01-01

    Human societies have learnt to cope with flood risks in several ways, the most prominent ways being engineering solutions and adaptive measures. However, from a more sustainable point of view, it can be argued that societies should avoid or at least minimize urban developments in floodplain areas.

  14. The catastrophic flood in February/March 1784 - a natural disaster of European scope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Munzar, Jan; Elleder, L.; Deutsch, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2005), s. 8-25 ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : winter flood 1784 * Central and West Europe * documentation and impacts Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  15. Disaster management in practice- concerning 5th ICC&GIS flood and evacuation of 92 participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandrova, Temenujka; Konecny, Milan; Zlatanova, S.; Bandrova, T.; Konecny, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes lessons learned during the floods in 2014 in Bulgaria where a large group of professionals and researchers working in early warning and crises management (EWCM) got involved. The paper describes the site and the chronological order of the events, which disturbed the Seminar on

  16. Field Learning as a powerful tool of Education for geoscience, environment and disaster prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, I.; LI, W.

    2015-12-01

    Field learning in through elementary school to University is very important for cultivation of science, environment and disaster prevention literacy. In Japan, we have various natural disasters such as earthquakes and volcanoes based on its geological settings ( Island-arc with subduction zone settings). And, it is a challenge environmental problem such as global warming prevention and energy problem to be solved by a human. For the above problem solving, it said that science education plays very important role. Especially learning with direct experience in the field is not only to get the only knowledge, we believe that greater development of science literacy, environmental literacy and disaster prevention literacy. In this presentation, we propose the new teaching method of field learning not only provided by school but also provided by outside school. We show following four studies that are (1) function of running water and origin of the land (science education and disaster prevention), (2) environmental consciousness of student (environmental education), (3) radiation education (scientific technology and its utilization) and (4) astronomical observation (acquisition of time and space concept). We were led to the preliminary conclusion of above four categories in practice research in and out of school. That is, the teacher is teaching the essence and phenomena of science to focus on science learning of school, in addition to environmental awareness, disaster prevention awareness, use of scientific technology are also important to teach at the same time. To do this, it is to make effective use of field learning. It can be said that the field study is a perfect and power place to perform learning such simultaneity. Because, natural field is originally the place can learn along with the feeling through the five senses of human. It is important especially for the growth stage of the student.

  17. The Influence of Drought and Flood Disasters on Rice NDVI in Summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, Meihua; Hongyan, Zhang; Zhao, Jianjun; Guo, Xiaoyi

    2014-01-01

    During the period from 1995 to 2010, flooding and drought occurred frequently in North Korea. This greatly affected agriculture. The precipitation data was the main factor evaluated in flood and drought monitoring. In this study, the Z index method was used to estimate the change in precipitation, calculated from TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) data. The Z index and the NDVI were combined with the map of distribution of rice to analyze the relationship between the Z index and NDVI during the growing months of rice in recent 12 years. The results revealed that the Z index is a good indicator to study the relative changes of precipitation in North Korea, and that the relationship between the Z index and NDVI in a quadratic function

  18. Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have high levels of raw sewage or other hazardous substances. Early symptoms from exposure to contaminated flood water ... for commercial building and school maintenance. Basic mold hazards . ... and the waste management options available. Burying or burning is no longer ...

  19. The problems of the late implementation of the legal prevention measures for flood risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanseverino-Godfrin Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three main laws, 13th July 1982, 2nd February 1995 and 30th July 2003, have reformed the French legal framework and introduced special measures to prevent flood risks. Besides, completing these measures, the urban planning law have imposed since the 1987 Law that the urban planning documents have had to take into account the natural hazards to define the buildable areas. But, the late implementation of the prevention provisions and the lack of the urban planning documents concerning the natural hazards have led to a development of the urbanism in the flood prone areas. As consequences, most of the constructions are not flood proof, and many large damages are caused each time a flood occurs. We present this problematic through 8 municipalities in three departments (Aude, Gard, and Var.

  20. Improving flood risk communication by focusing on prevention-focused motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Terpstra, T.

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes an approach to flood risk communication that gives particular emphasis to the distinction between prevention and promotion motivation. According to E. Tory Higgins, the promotion system and the prevention system are assumed to coexist in every person, but one or the other may

  1. Keep Children Safe From Drowning in Flooded Areas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    As the cleanup process begins after a natural disaster, there may be areas of flooding. Watch your children to prevent them from playing in or around flood water.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 10/22/2007.

  2. Climate and natural disasters in Latin America. El Nino and prevention police

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, V.; Margottini, C.

    1999-01-01

    El Nino is the best known but hardly the only natural disaster affecting Latin America and many developing countries in other regions. In the context of sustainable world development, preventing and mitigating the damage caused by these calamities is a duty that entails national and international obligations of a political, socio-economic, technical, scientific and cultural nature. Last May the problem was addressed at an important international conference in Rome discussed in the present paper [it

  3. In-line Typed High-Precision Polarization Lidar for Disaster Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Shiina, Tatsuo

    2010-01-01

    Lidars for local weather prediction for prevention of disasters such as heavy rain and lightning strike were developed. As in-line optics were adopted to the in-line MPL and the high precision polarization lidar, the near range measurement could be accomplished with the narrow FOV. Optical circulators were also developed originally not to only separate echoes from the transmitting beam, but also to detect the orthogonal polarization echoes. The polarization extinction ratio between p- and s-p...

  4. Floods and tsunamis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Mark

    2006-06-01

    Floods and tsunamis cause few severe injuries, but those injuries can overwhelm local areas, depending on the magnitude of the disaster. Most injuries are extremity fractures, lacerations, and sprains. Because of the mechanism of soft tissue and bone injuries, infection is a significant risk. Aspiration pneumonias are also associated with tsunamis. Appropriate precautionary interventions prevent communicable dis-ease outbreaks. Psychosocial health issues must be considered.

  5. [Perspectives on researches in disaster psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    After experiencing the catastrophic Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster in 2011, Tohoku University founded the International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) in April, 2012. IRIDeS, comprising 7 divisions and 36 laboratories with broad areas of specialization, from the humanities to natural sciences, aims to become a global center for the study of disasters and disaster mitigation, learning from and building upon past lessons in disaster management from Japan and around the world. In IRIDeS, the Department of Disaster Psychiatry is in charge of dealing with issues related to disaster psychiatry, including the psychosocial impact of disasters. Now, at more than 2 and a half years after the catastrophic disaster, the psychological impact actually seems to be getting stronger and wider, whereas the memory of the disaster seems to be waning in other areas of the country. In such a situation, where a number of problems need to be resolved, what can/should we do as psychiatrists? On the other hand, other natural disasters, such as storms and floods, have kept hitting Japan, and catastrophes seem to strike somewhere in the world every year. In addition, we need to prepare for the possibility of a Nankai Trough Quake and an earthquake directly hitting the Tokyo area, which may occur sometime in the future. Considering the situation, we need to establish an education system for disaster psychiatry, and proceed with research to collect useful information to prepare for coming disasters. The aim of our department is to integrate multi-faceted basic and clinical research approaches to investigate the following topics: 1) to identify social, psychological, and biological factors involved in the pathophysiology of and recovery from disaster-related mental health problems; 2) to develop systems for disaster prevention, disaster response, and recovery, considering disaster-related psychiatric and psychological issues; 3) to develop useful tools for the

  6. A potential psychological mechanism linking disaster-related prenatal maternal stress with child cognitive and motor development at 16 months: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Katrina M; Simcock, Gabrielle; Cobham, Vanessa; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Fetal exposure to prenatal maternal stress can have lifelong consequences, with different types of maternal stress associated with different areas of child development. Fewer studies have focused on motor skills, even though they are strongly predictive of later development across a range of domains. Research on mechanisms of transmission has identified biological cascades of stress reactions, yet links between psychological stress reactions are rarely studied. This study investigates the relationship between different aspects of disaster-related prenatal maternal stress and child cognitive and motor development, and proposes a cascade of stress reactions as a potential mechanism of transmission. Mothers in the Queensland Flood Study (QF2011) exposed to a major flood during pregnancy completed questionnaires assessing flood exposure, symptoms of peritraumatic distress, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress (PTSD), and cognitive appraisal of the overall flood consequences. At 16 months post-partum, children's (N = 145) cognitive and motor development was assessed using the Bayley-III. Flood exposure predicted child cognitive development and maternal PTSD symptoms and negative cognitive appraisal were significantly negatively related to child motor development, with all relationships moderated by timing of exposure. Together, a cascade of stress reactions linked maternal flood exposure to poorer fine motor development. These findings suggest that the way stress reactions operate together is as important as the way they operate in isolation, and identifies a potential psychological mechanism of transmission for the effects of prenatal stress. Results have implications for conceptualizing prenatal stress research and optimizing child development in the wake of natural disasters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Flood Wave Propagation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I available for forecasting the propagation of the flood wave. Introduction. Among all natural disasters, floods are the most frequently occurring phenomena that affect a large section of population all over the world, every year. Throughout the last century, flood- ing has been one of the most devastating disasters both in terms.

  8. Prevent recurrence of nuclear disaster (2). Reconstruction of safety logic diagram of nuclear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi; Sekimura, Naoto; Nakamura, Takao; Narumiya, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, severe accident occurred at multi units of nuclear power caused by natural disaster, which was the first of nuclear power in the world, and lead to nuclear disaster which contaminated a wide range of land and caused surrounding residents to evacuate for a long-term. Since Cyuetsu-oki earthquake and before this accident, Atomic Energy Society of Japan had activities to investigate 'safety of nuclear system' against earthquake beyond any expectation, identify research items and work out roadmap on future research activities. Correspondence against tsunami such as this accident was discussed but not included as proposal because of low tsunami hazards awareness. Based on this reflection and to prevent recurrence of nuclear disaster, reconsideration of nuclear safety from the standpoint of defense-in-depth against hazards beyond any expectation had been performed and proposed to establish roadmap for its realization. Basic principle of nuclear safety consisted of eleven principles so as to protect personnel and environment from harmful effects of radiation derived from nuclear facilities and their activities, which were categorized into three groups (responsibility and management system, personnel and environmental protection and prevention of accident initiation and effect mitigation). (T. Tanaka)

  9. Health impacts of floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Weiwei; FitzGerald, Gerard Joseph; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Floods are the most common hazard to cause disasters and have led to extensive morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The impact of floods on the human community is related directly to the location and topography of the area, as well as human demographics and characteristics of the built environment. The aim of this study is to identify the health impacts of disasters and the underlying causes of health impacts associated with floods. A conceptual framework is developed that may assist with the development of a rational and comprehensive approach to prevention, mitigation, and management. This study involved an extensive literature review that located >500 references, which were analyzed to identify common themes, findings, and expert views. The findings then were distilled into common themes. The health impacts of floods are wide ranging, and depend on a number of factors. However, the health impacts of a particular flood are specific to the particular context. The immediate health impacts of floods include drowning, injuries, hypothermia, and animal bites. Health risks also are associated with the evacuation of patients, loss of health workers, and loss of health infrastructure including essential drugs and supplies. In the medium-term, infected wounds, complications of injury, poisoning, poor mental health, communicable diseases, and starvation are indirect effects of flooding. In the long-term, chronic disease, disability, poor mental health, and poverty-related diseases including malnutrition are the potential legacy. This article proposes a structured approach to the classification of the health impacts of floods and a conceptual framework that demonstrates the relationships between floods and the direct and indirect health consequences.

  10. Land Use Changes Analysis for Kelantan Basin Using Spatial Matrix Technique “Patch Analyst” in Relation to Flood Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Pah Rokiah Syed Hussain

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decade, there are many government efforts to develop rural area as a step to curb vast economic discrepancy status within community in the nation. This effort is in line with National Development Policy promoted by government shifting from New Economic Policy. Therefore, this study area also has impact done by development activities. The enormous economic developments have encourage growth in urbanization, tourism and recreation, public facilities, housing and so on. Furthermore, the area of cultivation land uses and foliages are becoming shrinking due to development growth, which is development needs to shift land use pattern hence denotes that human beings infuriate the environment to meet the life needs. In response to that, this research delves into the level of land use changes using the Geographic Information System (GIS and Spatial Analyst to determine the actual area or vicinity and what is the type of rigorous changes in land use. This issue can be seen all the way through the study outcome via spatial analysis technique adapted from Patch Density & Size Metrics (Mean Patch Size, Edge Metrics (Total Edge (TE, Edge Density (ED, Mean Perimeter-Area Ratio (Mpar and Shannons Diversity Index (SHDI. Results of the study show that, land use changes have occurred significantly in the study area for the period of 20 years, wher, all types of analysis verify that there is an increase in patch for every statistical test. The increase in patch is a picture of current land use changes, land use edge density and land use area in study area. Moreover, this study investigates the relationship between land use with rising flood disaster frequency and intensity variable which has always happened lately in Kelantan River Basin.

  11. How to Improve Fault Tolerance in Disaster Predictions: A Case Study about Flash Floods Using IoT, ML and Real Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Furquim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The rise in the number and intensity of natural disasters is a serious problem that affects the whole world. The consequences of these disasters are significantly worse when they occur in urban districts because of the casualties and extent of the damage to goods and property that is caused. Until now feasible methods of dealing with this have included the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs for data collection and machine-learning (ML techniques for forecasting natural disasters. However, there have recently been some promising new innovations in technology which have supplemented the task of monitoring the environment and carrying out the forecasting. One of these schemes involves adopting IP-based (Internet Protocol sensor networks, by using emerging patterns for IoT. In light of this, in this study, an attempt has been made to set out and describe the results achieved by SENDI (System for dEtecting and forecasting Natural Disasters based on IoT. SENDI is a fault-tolerant system based on IoT, ML and WSN for the detection and forecasting of natural disasters and the issuing of alerts. The system was modeled by means of ns-3 and data collected by a real-world WSN installed in the town of São Carlos - Brazil, which carries out the data collection from rivers in the region. The fault-tolerance is embedded in the system by anticipating the risk of communication breakdowns and the destruction of the nodes during disasters. It operates by adding intelligence to the nodes to carry out the data distribution and forecasting, even in extreme situations. A case study is also included for flash flood forecasting and this makes use of the ns-3 SENDI model and data collected by WSN.

  12. How to Improve Fault Tolerance in Disaster Predictions: A Case Study about Flash Floods Using IoT, ML and Real Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furquim, Gustavo; Filho, Geraldo P R; Jalali, Roozbeh; Pessin, Gustavo; Pazzi, Richard W; Ueyama, Jó

    2018-03-19

    The rise in the number and intensity of natural disasters is a serious problem that affects the whole world. The consequences of these disasters are significantly worse when they occur in urban districts because of the casualties and extent of the damage to goods and property that is caused. Until now feasible methods of dealing with this have included the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for data collection and machine-learning (ML) techniques for forecasting natural disasters. However, there have recently been some promising new innovations in technology which have supplemented the task of monitoring the environment and carrying out the forecasting. One of these schemes involves adopting IP-based (Internet Protocol) sensor networks, by using emerging patterns for IoT. In light of this, in this study, an attempt has been made to set out and describe the results achieved by SENDI (System for dEtecting and forecasting Natural Disasters based on IoT). SENDI is a fault-tolerant system based on IoT, ML and WSN for the detection and forecasting of natural disasters and the issuing of alerts. The system was modeled by means of ns-3 and data collected by a real-world WSN installed in the town of São Carlos - Brazil, which carries out the data collection from rivers in the region. The fault-tolerance is embedded in the system by anticipating the risk of communication breakdowns and the destruction of the nodes during disasters. It operates by adding intelligence to the nodes to carry out the data distribution and forecasting, even in extreme situations. A case study is also included for flash flood forecasting and this makes use of the ns-3 SENDI model and data collected by WSN.

  13. Determinants of Flash Flood Evacuation Choices and Assessment of Preferences for Flash Flood Warning Channels: The Case of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kannika Thampanishvong

    2013-01-01

    The Southern part of Thailand, a region with tropical climate and monsoon, has often been affected by torrential rains caused by tropical storms, depressions, and typhoons. Such heavy rain is often accompanied by flash floods – sometimes occuring so suddenly and with an enormous amount of water – that make them particularly dangerous. Hence, flash flood warnings are important to prevent flash flood hazards from becoming disasters.These warnings can give individuals the much needed information...

  14. Forming mechanism and prevention of water-coal-burst disaster on extremely inclined faces under Ordovician aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Qian, Z.; Dong, D.; Song, E.; Hong, Y. [China University Of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Campus

    2000-08-01

    The formation of a saturated body of coal-water mixture is due to the actions of multiple controlling factors of water source, coal characteristics, potential energy and time. Coal-water burst disaster is characterized by paroxysm, huge energy, short duration, strong explosive force and causing severe damages. Very often it takes place only under special background conditions. In extremely inclined coal seam districts, because the working faces are generally arranged under water-prevention coal pillars, the mining inbreak heights are too near the location of the body of coal-water mixture. Hence the mining activity may induce the occurrence of coal-water burst disaster. Based on the analysis of the disaster mechanism, some effective preventive measures for coal-water burst disaster in coal mines are put forward. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Frequency Analysis Using Bootstrap Method and SIR Algorithm for Prevention of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Kim, Y. S.

    2017-12-01

    The frequency analysis of hydrometeorological data is one of the most important factors in response to natural disaster damage, and design standards for a disaster prevention facilities. In case of frequency analysis of hydrometeorological data, it assumes that observation data have statistical stationarity, and a parametric method considering the parameter of probability distribution is applied. For a parametric method, it is necessary to sufficiently collect reliable data; however, snowfall observations are needed to compensate for insufficient data in Korea, because of reducing the number of days for snowfall observations and mean maximum daily snowfall depth due to climate change. In this study, we conducted the frequency analysis for snowfall using the Bootstrap method and SIR algorithm which are the resampling methods that can overcome the problems of insufficient data. For the 58 meteorological stations distributed evenly in Korea, the probability of snowfall depth was estimated by non-parametric frequency analysis using the maximum daily snowfall depth data. The results show that probabilistic daily snowfall depth by frequency analysis is decreased at most stations, and most stations representing the rate of change were found to be consistent in both parametric and non-parametric frequency analysis. This study shows that the resampling methods can do the frequency analysis of the snowfall depth that has insufficient observed samples, which can be applied to interpretation of other natural disasters such as summer typhoons with seasonal characteristics. Acknowledgment.This research was supported by a grant(MPSS-NH-2015-79) from Disaster Prediction and Mitigation Technology Development Program funded by Korean Ministry of Public Safety and Security(MPSS).

  16. Universal preventive interventions for children in the context of disasters and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Varma, Vandana; Nitiéma, Pascal; Newman, Elana

    2014-04-01

    This review addresses universal disaster and terrorism services and preventive interventions delivered to children before and after an event. The article describes the organization and structure of services used to meet the needs of children in the general population (practice applications), examines screening and intervention approaches (tools for practice), and suggests future directions for the field. A literature search identified 17 empirical studies that were analyzed to examine the timing and setting of intervention delivery, providers, conditions addressed and outcomes, and intervention approaches and components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation for integration of the German Public Health Service in catastrophe and disaster prevention programs in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfenninger, E.; Koenig, S.; Himmelseher, S.

    2004-01-01

    This research project aimed at investigating the integration of the GPHS into the plans for civil defence and protection as well as catastrophe prevention of the Federal Republic of Germany. Following a comprehensive analysis of the current situation, potential proposals for an improved integrative approach will be presented. In view of the lack of topics relevant for medical care in disaster medicine in educational curricula and training programs for medical students and postgraduate board programs for public health physicians, a working group of the Civil Protection Board of the German Federal Ministry of the Interior already complained in their 'Report on execution of legal rules for protection and rescue of human life as well as restitution of public health after disaster' in 1999, that the integration of the GPHS into catastrophe and disaster prevention programs has insufficiently been solved. On a point-by-point approach, our project analysed the following issues: - Legislative acts for integration of the German Public Health Service into medical care in catastrophes and disasters to protect the civilian population of Germany and their implementation and execution. - Administrative rules and directives on state and district levels that show relationship to integration of the German Public Health Service into preparedness programs for catastrophe prevention and management and their implementation and execution. - Education and postgraduate training options for physicians and non-physician employees of the German Public health Service to prepare for medical care in catastrophes and disasters. - State of knowledge and experience of the German Public Health Service personnel in emergency and disaster medicine. - Evaluation of the German administrative catastrophe prevention authorities with regard to their integration of the German Public Health Service into preparedness programs for catastrophe prevention and management. - Development of a concept to remedy the

  18. Life cycle assessment and life cycle costs for pre-disaster waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Yohei; Peii, Tsai; Tabata, Tomohiro; Saeki, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    This study develops a method of environmental and economic evaluation of an integrated disaster waste management system that considers the spatial scale of removal, transport, and treatment of disaster waste. A case study was conducted on combustibles, which is a type of disaster waste derived from dwellings, in Mie Prefecture, Japan. First, we calculated the quantity and the spatial distribution of disaster waste derived from dwellings and tsunami debris produced as a result of a large-scale earthquake. The quantity of disaster waste was estimated as 7,178,000t with functioning flood-preventing facilities and 11,956,000t without functioning flood prevention facilities. Ensuring resilience in the face of earthquakes and tsunamis by renovating flood-preventing facilities is extremely important in decreasing the production of wastes, especially in coastal regions. Next, the transportation network for transporting combustibles in disaster waste to temporary storage sites, incineration plants, and landfill was constructed using an optimization model. The results showed that if flood-preventing facilities do not function properly, the installation of temporary incineration facilities becomes essential. Life-cycle emissions of CO 2 , SO x , NO x , and PM and the costs of removal, storage, and treatment of combustibles were calculated as 258,000t, 618t, 1705t, 7.9t, and 246millionUSD, respectively, in the case of functioning flood-preventing facilities. If flood-preventing facilities do not function, the quantity of environmentally unfriendly emissions and the costs increase. This result suggested the significance of renovation in order to maintain the conditions of flood-preventing facilities to decrease the environmental burden and costs as well as keep the production of disaster waste at a minimum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Beyond 'flood hotspots': co-production of knowledge between academia and stakeholders for improved resilience of emergency response to flood disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, D.; Green, D. L.; Wilby, R.; Pattison, I.; Yang, L.; Bosher, L.; Ryley, T.

    2015-12-01

    Emergency responders such as the Fire & Rescue and Ambulance Services often face the challenging task of having to respond to or operate in dynamic weather conditions, including floods. In the UK, in order to meet government legislation and improve resilience of their operation, emergency responders, coordinated by Local Resilience Forums actively seek to identify areas which are most vulnerable to flooding, as well as the potential impacts of flood events on the critical infrastructure nodes and networks upon which their operations rely. This has been facilitated by the recent advances in flood modelling which provides country-wide publicly accessible flood risk mapping. Whilst in the possession of a wealth of data and abundant local knowledge, emergency responders often find it challenging to apply existing flood 'hotspot' data to assist strategic planning and operational response. This abstract describes a recently completed project funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council, which combined an interdisciplinary team of researchers based at Loughborough University with a group of project partners working in the field of flood resilience within the City of Leicester, UK, to evaluate the resilience of emergency response during extreme flood events. One key piece of work which stakeholders found useful and effective was the accessibility of the city to emergency responders during extreme flooding. The figure below maps the areas of the City accessible within 8 minutes, the response time required for serious, high-priority incidents by legislation, for the Fire & Rescue Service stations under a 1 in 20 year pluvial flood event. This goes beyond what the stakeholders are already aware of in terms of direct impacts of flooding, i.e. the 'hotspot' areas which would directly become inundated, and highlights the indirect, cascading impacts of flood events of different magnitudes on emergency response times at the city-scale. This also provides stakeholders with

  20. Applications to marine disaster prevention spilled oil and gas tracking buoy system

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent results of the research project funded by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (No. 23226017) from FY 2011 to FY 2015 on an autonomous spilled oil and gas tracking buoy system and its applications to marine disaster prevention systems from a scientific point of view. This book spotlights research on marine disaster prevention systems related to incidents involving oil tankers and offshore platforms, approaching these problems from new scientific and technological perspectives. The most essential aspect of this book is the development of a deep-sea underwater robot for real-time monitoring of blowout behavior of oil and gas from the seabed and of a new type of autonomous surface vehicle for real-time tracking and monitoring of oil spill spread and drift on the sea surface using an oil sensor. The mission of these robots is to provide the simulation models for gas and oil blowouts or spilled oil drifting on the sea surface w...

  1. Flooding and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

  2. Disaster Management through Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijumol, K. C.; Thangarajathi, S.; Ananthasayanam, R.

    2010-01-01

    Disasters can strike at any time, at any place. The world is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters. From earthquakes to floods and famines, mankind is even more threatened by the forces of nature. The Theme of the 2006 to 2007 International Day for Disaster Reduction was "Disaster Risk Reduction begins at schools" and…

  3. On the historical account of disastrous landslides in Mexico: the challenge of risk management and disaster prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alcántara-Ayala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides disasters in Mexico caused more than 3500 deaths between 1935 and 2006. Such disasters have been mainly associated to intense precipitation events derived from hurricanes, tropical storms and their interactions with cold fronts, although earthquake triggered landslides have also occurred to a lesser extent. The impact of landsliding in Mexico is basically determined by the geomorphic features of mountain ranges and dissected plateaus inhabited by vulnerable communities. The present contribution provides a comprehensive temporal assessment of historical landslide disasters in Mexico. Moreover, it aims at exploring the future directions of risk management and disaster prevention, in order to reduce the impact of landslides on populations as a result of climatic change, urban sprawl, land use change and social vulnerability.

  4. On the historical account of disastrous landslides in Mexico: the challenge of risk management and disaster prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-Ayala, I.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides disasters in Mexico caused more than 3500 deaths between 1935 and 2006. Such disasters have been mainly associated to intense precipitation events derived from hurricanes, tropical storms and their interactions with cold fronts, although earthquake triggered landslides have also occurred to a lesser extent. The impact of landsliding in Mexico is basically determined by the geomorphic features of mountain ranges and dissected plateaus inhabited by vulnerable communities. The present contribution provides a comprehensive temporal assessment of historical landslide disasters in Mexico. Moreover, it aims at exploring the future directions of risk management and disaster prevention, in order to reduce the impact of landslides on populations as a result of climatic change, urban sprawl, land use change and social vulnerability.

  5. Conflicts and natural disaster management: a comparative study of flood control in the Republic of Korea and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jibum

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyse the conflicts that arise among major stakeholders during the process of disaster management and to suggest policy recommendations for improving disaster management systems. It describes several important conflict cases that have occurred among major stakeholders, such as governments, private-sector entities, and non-governmental organisations, during natural disaster management. In addition, it probes the similarities and the differences between such conflicts in the Republic of Korea and the United States. The differences between them may originate from a range of factors, such as the disaster itself, cultural features, management practices, and government organisation. However, the conflicts also are very similar in some ways, as the motivations and the behaviour of stakeholders during a disaster are alike in both countries. Based on this comparison, the study presents some common and important implications for successful disaster management practices in Korea and the US, as well as in many other nations around the world. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  6. [Climate changes, floods, and health consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelozzi, Paola; de' Donato, Francesca

    2014-02-01

    In the European Region, floods are the most common natural disaster, causing extensive damage and disruption. In Italy, it has been estimated that over 68% of municipalities are at high hydrogeological risk and with the recent intense rainfall events local populations have been facing severe disruptions. The health consequences of floods are wide ranging and are dependent upon the vulnerability of the environment and the local population. Health effects can be a direct or indirect consequence of flooding. The immediate health impacts of floods include drowning, heart attacks, injuries and hypothermia. The indirect effects include, injuries and infections, water-borne infectious disease, mental health problems, respiratory disease and allergies in both the medium and long term after a flood. Future efforts should be addressed to integrate health preparedness and prevention measures into emergency flood plans and hydrological warning systems.

  7. Landscape metrics as a tool for evaluating scenarios for flood prevention and nature conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bianchin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the project „Flood Prevention and Nature Conservation in the Weisseritz area“ („HochNatur“, a method including landscape metrics was developed and applied to assess and to compare different land use scenarios with regard to flood prevention and nature conservation. For the analysis, two sub-catchments strongly differing in land use within the Weisseritz catchment (Eastern Erzgebirge, Saxony, Germany were selected. The first step of the evaluation procedure was a biotope assessment using three assessment criteria (naturalness, substitutability, rareness / endangerment. However, the biotope assessment did not yield any information about spatial distribution or the structural composition of the landscape. Therefore, landscape metrics were applied to analyse the structural and biotope type diversity at the landscape scale. Different landscape metrics (Shannon/Weaver diversity index, mean patch size index, Interdispersion/Juxtaposition index and a weighting system were used to compare the different land use scenarios and the current state. The analysed catchment areas differ substantially in terms of their current state and potential measures regarding flood prevention and nature conservation depending on the location and distribution of biotope types. It was demonstrated that this method can be used for small catchment areas regardless of their land use for assessing, analysing and comparing different land use scenarios for a specific area.

  8. IMPROVEMENT SUPPORT RESEARCH OF LOCAL DISASTER PREVENTION POWER USING THE FIRE SPREADING SIMULATION SYSTEM IN CASE OF A BIG EARTHQUAKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagami, Toru; Omoto, Shohei; Hamamoto, Kenichirou

    This research describes the risk communication towards improvement in the local disaster prevention power for Gobusho town in Marugame city which is only a high density city area in Kagawa Pref. Specifically, the key persons and authors of the area report the practice research towards improvement in the local disaster prevention power by the PDCA cycle of the area, such as formation of local voluntary disaster management organizations and implementation of an emergency drill, applying the fire spreading simulation system in case of a big earthquake. The fire spreading simulation system in case of the big earthquake which authors are developing describes the role and subject which have been achieved to BCP of the local community as a support system.

  9. Support of disaster prevention of earthquake for nuclear installation and local area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamae, Katsuhiro; Kawabe, Hidenori

    2005-01-01

    There have been many strong earthquakes in Japan since 10 years ago, especially in Tokai, Higashitokai and Nankai area. The characteristics of earthquake in the Osaka plains, the differences of ground motions between it and the local earthquake and the support plans of disaster prevention in the local area using the real time earthquake information and the prediction results of ground motion of earthquake are described. Strong ground acceleration of earthquake is predicted by using the empirical green's function. The earthquake source model is illustrated. The ground motion (0.1-10Hz) and simulated speed response spectrum at KURRI (Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute) in Kumatori are shown. The observation results of the ground motion of earthquake in the coast of south east of the Kii peninsula in 2004 are explained. (S.Y.)

  10. Perceptions of Risk and Vulnerability Following Exposure to a Major Natural Disaster: The Calgary Flood of 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Alexa; Árvai, Joseph

    2018-03-01

    Many studies have examined the general public's flood risk perceptions in the aftermath of local and regional flooding. However, relatively few studies have focused on large-scale events that affect tens of thousands of people within an urban center. Similarly, in spite of previous research on flood risks, unresolved questions persist regarding the variables that might influence perceptions of risk and vulnerability, along with management preferences. In light of the opportunities presented by these knowledge gaps, the research reported here examined public perceptions of flood risk and vulnerability, and management preferences, within the city of Calgary in the aftermath of extensive flooding in 2013. Our findings, which come from an online survey of residents, reveal that direct experience with flooding is not a differentiating factor for risk perceptions when comparing evacuees with nonevacuees who might all experience future risks. However, we do find that judgments about vulnerability-as a function of how people perceive physical distance-do differ according to one's evacuation experience. Our results also indicate that concern about climate change is an important predictor of flood risk perceptions, as is trust in government risk managers. In terms of mitigation preferences, our results reveal differences in support for large infrastructure projects based on whether respondents feel they might actually benefit from them. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. The capacity building of disaster management in Bojonegoro regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbandono, P.; Prastyawan, A.; Gamaputra, G.

    2018-01-01

    East Java is a disaster-prone area. Head of the National Disaster Management Agency, Syamsul Maarif (2012) states that “East Java is a disaster supermarket area. Referring to Act Number 24 Year 2007 Concerning Disaster Management, disaster prevention activities are a series of activities undertaken as an effort to eliminate and/or reduce the threat of disaster (Article 1, paragraph 6).The disaster mitigation is a series of efforts to reduce disaster risk, through physical development and awareness and capacity building in the face of disaster (Article 1, paragraph 9). In 2009, the Provincial Government of East Java has been established Regional Disaster Management Agency and complete it through Local Regulation of East Java Province Number 3 Year 2010. This research was conducted in Bojonegoro. This study described the capacity building disaster handling and used descriptive research with qualitative approach. It focused on the capacity building for community preparedness in the face of. This study showed the vulnerability of regions and populations to threats flood and drought in could be physical, social and/or economical. The aims of the capacity building for the individuals and organizations are to be used effectively and efficiently in order to achieve the goals of the individuals and organizations.

  12. The real governance of disaster risk management in peri-urban Senegal: Delivering flood response services through co-production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaer, Caroline; Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    2017-01-01

    Disastrous and recurring floods have impacted West African urban centres over the last decade, accentuating already existing vulnerabilities in poor neighbourhoods. Climate change-induced changing weather patterns and more extreme weather events are only part of the explanation for this situation......, as large segments of the urban population in West Africa are not offered the public services, infrastructure and protective regulations needed in order to respond to floods. Through an empirically grounded approach, the article shows that the ability to respond to floods is formed largely outside the realm...... of the state in a poor peri-urban municipality of Pikine, Dakar. The authors show how the organization of collective services pertaining to flood response and climate change adaptation is maintained through co-production among service users and providers entailing a mixture of diverse governance modes...

  13. The Pepcon Disaster-Causative Factors and potential Preventive and Mitigative Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, H E; Alvares, N J

    2003-07-25

    On May 4, 1988, the PEPCON plant experienced three major and several smaller explosions that caused over $70 million in property damage and caused two deaths. The PEPCON plant produced Ammonium Perchlorate (AP), a major ingredient for rocket fuel. The PEPCON plant and the nearby Kidd Marshmallow plant were totally destroyed by the detonations. The initiating event for the explosions was a fire that originated in the Batch Dryer Building and spread to adjacent storage. Several factors combined to cause the AP in the major storage fields to detonate, the most important being lack of adequate separation between storage units. Welding and flame cutting procedure with poor fire watch protocol was the prime candidate for fire ignition. There were no automatic fire suppression systems at the plant. Buildings including the Batch Dryer Building were made of combustible building material (fiberglass). There was poor housekeeping and no control of AP dust generation. AP was stored in combustible polyethylene drums, aluminum tote bins, 30-gallon steel storage drums and fiber reinforced tote bags. There were high-density storage practices. In addition, a contributing factor to the rapid fire-spread was that the wind that day was blowing directly from the batch dryer building to the storage areas. This paper claims that if codes, standards, and well-known hazard identification safety techniques were implemented at PEPCON, then the disaster would have been averted. A limited scope probabilistic risk assessment was conducted to establish the effectiveness of various preventive and mitigative features that could have been deployed to avert the disaster. The major hazard at the PEPCON site was fire and explosion involving the processing, production and storage of AP, which was then and is currently stored as a class 4 oxidizer. Since minute quantities of contamination can cause AP to be detonable by shock, there has been an ongoing debate concerning its reclassification to a class

  14. Flood resilience urban territories. Flood resilience urban territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraud, Hélène; Barroca, Bruno; Hubert, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    The flood's impact during the last twenty years on French territory reveals our lack of preparation towards large-extended floods which might cause the stopping of companies' activity, services, or lead to housing unavailability during several months. New Orleans' case has to exemplify us: four years after the disaster, the city still couldn't get back its dynamism. In France, more than 300 towns are flood-exposed. While these towns are the mainspring of territory's development, it is likely that the majority of them couldn't get up quickly after a large-extended flood. Therefore, to understand and improve the urban territory's resilience facing floods is a real stake for territory's development. Urban technical networks supply, unify and irrigate all urban territories' constituents. Characterizing their flood resilience can be interesting to understand better urban resilience. In this context, waste management during and after floods is completely crucial. During a flood, the waste management network can become dysfunctional (roads cut, waste storage installations or waste treatment flooded). How can the mayor respect his obligation to guarantee salubrity and security in his city? In post flood the question is even more problematic. The waste management network presents a real stake for territory's restart. After a flood, building materials, lopped-of branches, furniture, business stocks, farm stocks, mud, rubbles, animal cadavers are wet, mixed, even polluted by hydrocarbons or toxic substances. The waste's volume can be significant. Sanitary and environmental risks can be crucial. In view of this situation, waste's management in post crisis period raises a real problem. What to make of this waste? How to collect it? Where to stock it? How to process it? Who is responsible? Answering these questions is all the more strategic since this waste is the mark of disaster. Thus, cleaning will be the first population's and local actor's reflex in order to forget the

  15. The role local initiatives in community based disaster risk management in Kemijen, Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzie, W. Z.; Sariffudin, S.

    2017-06-01

    Community-based disaster risk reduction is one of the homegrown initiatives efforts and community empowerment oriented in disaster management. This approach is very important because no one can understand the conditions in a region better than the local communities. Therefore, the implementation of CBDRM always emphasize local initiatives in decision making. The existence of local initiative is necessary specially to anticipate the impact of climate change which is increasingly affecting towns in coastal areas, including settlements in Semarang. Kemijen Urban Village is one of the informal settlements in Semarang, which has the highest intensity of flood that is 12 times during 5 years (2011-2015). The research question is how the level of local initiatives in flood disaster management in Kemijen, Semarang? This study aims to assess the level of local initiatives in Kemijen as the community adaptive capacity of flood prevention in pre-disaster, emergency response, and post-disaster. Local initiatives assessed on water supply, sanitation, food, shelter, health, drainage maintenance and waste management. This study shows the level of local initiatives in pre-disaster and post-disaster is almost same and bigger than the response phase. Scoring results showed that pre-disaster is 35.002, 27.9577 for emergency response, and post-disaster is 34.9862 with each category that is independent, empowered, and independent. This study also shows that local initiatives in Kemijen largely formed by individual initiative and only a few were formed by a collective initiative.

  16. Environmental Planning, Prevention and Disaster Response in The Arabian Gulf USCENTICOM's Regional Environmental Security Conference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griffard, B

    2002-01-01

    .... Such environmental security related disasters hinder economic progress displace populations and facilitate the growth of undesirable elements and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction...

  17. Flooded homes, broken bonds, the meaning of home, psychological processes and their impact on psychological health in a disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Bob; Morbey, Hazel; Balogh, Ruth; Araoz, Gonzalo

    2009-06-01

    In 2005, Carlisle suffered severe flooding and 1600 houses were affected. A qualitative research project to study the social and health impacts was undertaken. People whose homes had been flooded and workers who had supported them were interviewed. The findings showed that there was severe disruption to people's lives and severe damage to their homes, and many suffered from psychological health issues. Phenomenological and transactional perspectives are utilised to analyse the psychological processes (identity, attachment, alienation and dialectics) underlying the meaning of home and their impact on psychological health. Proposals for policy and practice are made.

  18. Analysis of flood vulnerability in urban area; a case study in deli watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawan, I.; Siregar, R. I.

    2018-03-01

    Based on the National Disaster Management Agency of Indonesia, the distribution of disasters and victims died until the year 2016 is the largest flood disaster. Deli River is a river that has the greatest flood potential through Medan City. In Deli Watershed, flow discharge affected by the discharge from its tributaries, the high rainfall intensity and human activity. We should anticipate reducing and preventing the occurrence of losses due to flood damage. One of the ways to anticipate flood disaster is to predict which part of urban area is would flood. The objective of this study is to analyze the flood inundation areas due to overflow of Deli River through Medan city. Two-dimensional modeling by HEC-RAS 5.0.3 is a widely used hydraulic software tool developed by the U.S Army Corps of Engineers, which combined with the HEC-HMS for hydrological modeling. The result shows flood vulnerability in Medan by a map to present the spot that vulnerable about flood. The flooded area due to the overflowing of Deli River consists of seven sub districts, namely Medan Johor, Medan Selayang, Medan Kota, Medan Petisah, Medan Maimun, Medan Perjuangan and Medan Barat.

  19. Disasters as Usual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albris, Kristoffer

    water levels in the Elbe still reached threatening heights on an annual basis, the next sixty years did not produce any flood event that overran the city's flood defences. In hindsight, Dresden experienced what historians of disaster call a disaster memory gap, whereby the collective memory of what....... The recent spate of floods in Dresden prompts us to investigate the nature of the relationship between the ordinary and the exceptional, since events that were once thought to be rare and extraordinary suddenly seem to be more and more frequent. In the thesis, I explore how the citizens of Dresden...... are adjusting to a new understanding of the future in which recurring floods may prove to be the rule rather than the exception. In other words, floods have become what I term usual disasters. The ethnographic research that I conducted in 2014-2015 explores how locals, at this specific moment in time, perceive...

  20. Natural hazards on alluvial fans: the debris flow and flash flood disaster of December 1999, Vargas state, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Eaton, L.S.; Torres-Sierra, Heriberto; Sylva, Walter F.

    2001-01-01

    Large populations live on or near alluvial fans in locations such as Los Angeles, California, Salt Lake City, Utah, Denver, Colorado, and lesser known areas such as Sarno, Italy, and Vargas, Venezuela. Debris flows and flash floods occur episodically in these alluvial fan environments, and place many communities at high risk during intense and prolonged rainfall. In December 1999, rainstorms induced thousands of landslides along the Cordillera de la Costa, Vargas, Venezuela. Rainfall accumulation of 293 mm during the first 2 weeks of December was followed by an additional 911 mm of rainfall on December 14 through 16. Debris flows and floods inundated coastal communities resulting in a catastrophic death toll of as many as 30,000 people. Flash floods and debris flows caused severe property destruction on alluvial fans at the mouths of the coastal mountain drainage network. In time scales spanning thousands of years, the alluvial fans along this Caribbean coastline are dynamic zones of high geomorphic activity. Because most of the coastal zone in Vargas consists of steep mountain fronts that rise abruptly from the Caribbean Sea, the alluvial fans provide practically the only flat areas upon which to build. Rebuilding and reoccupation of these areas requires careful determination of hazard zones to avoid future loss of life and property. KEY TERMS: Debris flows, flash floods, alluvial fans, natural hazards, landslides, Venezuela

  1. Visual Sensing for Urban Flood Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing climatic extremes, the frequency and severity of urban flood events have intensified worldwide. In this study, image-based automated monitoring of flood formation and analyses of water level fluctuation were proposed as value-added intelligent sensing applications to turn a passive monitoring camera into a visual sensor. Combined with the proposed visual sensing method, traditional hydrological monitoring cameras have the ability to sense and analyze the local situation of flood events. This can solve the current problem that image-based flood monitoring heavily relies on continuous manned monitoring. Conventional sensing networks can only offer one-dimensional physical parameters measured by gauge sensors, whereas visual sensors can acquire dynamic image information of monitored sites and provide disaster prevention agencies with actual field information for decision-making to relieve flood hazards. The visual sensing method established in this study provides spatiotemporal information that can be used for automated remote analysis for monitoring urban floods. This paper focuses on the determination of flood formation based on image-processing techniques. The experimental results suggest that the visual sensing approach may be a reliable way for determining the water fluctuation and measuring its elevation and flood intrusion with respect to real-world coordinates. The performance of the proposed method has been confirmed; it has the capability to monitor and analyze the flood status, and therefore, it can serve as an active flood warning system. PMID:26287201

  2. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Proceedings of the international conference on disaster management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, D.S. Ramachandra; Partheeban, P.; Asha, P.; Raju, H. Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Disasters disrupt progress and destroy the hard-earned fruits of painstaking developmental efforts, often pushing nations, in quest for progress, back by several decades. Efficient management of disasters, rather than mere response to their occurrence has, in recent times, received increased attention both within India and abroad. This is as much a result of the recognition of the increasing frequency and intensity of disasters as it is an acknowledgement that good governance, in a caring and civilized society, needs to deal effectively with the devastating impact of disasters. India is vulnerable, in varying degrees, to a large number of natural as well as man-made disasters. 58.6 per cent of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of moderate to very high intensity; over 40 million hectares (12 per cent of lend) is prone to floods and river erosion; of the 7,516 km long coastline, close to 5,700 km is prone to cyclones and tsunamis; 68 per cent of the cultivable area is vulnerable to drought and hilly areas are at risk from landslides and avalanches. 'Vulnerability to disasters/ emergencies of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) origin also exists. Heightened vulnerabilities to disaster risks can be related to expanding population, urbanization and industrialization, development within high-risk zones, environmental degradation and climate change. The National Policy on disaster management enacted as Disaster Management Act in 2005, envisages capacity building on various aspects of disaster management at various levels. Disaster management includes measures for disaster prevention, disaster mitigation, disaster preparation, response and reconstruction. The present status and gaps in knowledge on the above topics are discussed during the conference. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  4. Prevent recurrence of nuclear disaster (3). Agenda on nuclear safety from earthquake engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameda, Hiroyuki; Takada, Tsuyoshi; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Nakamura, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Based on results of activities of committee on seismic safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) of Japan Association for Earthquake Engineering, which started activities after Chuetsu-oki earthquake and then experienced Great East Japan Earthquake, (under close collaboration with the committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan started activities simultaneously), and taking account of further development of concept, agenda on nuclear safety were proposed from earthquake engineering. In order to prevent recurrence of nuclear disaster, individual technical issues of earthquake engineering and comprehensive issues of integration technology, multidisciplinary collaboration and establishment of technology governance based on them were of prime importance. This article described important problems to be solved; (1) technical issues and mission of seismic safety of NPPs, (2) decision making based on risk assessment - basis of technical governance, (3) framework of risk, design and regulation - framework of required technology governance, (4) technical issues of earthquake engineering for nuclear safety, (5) role of earthquake engineering in nuclear power risk communication and (6) importance of multidisciplinary collaboration. Responsibility of engineering would be attributed to establishment of technology governance, cultivation of individual technology and integration technology, and social communications. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Application of the parallel processing computer to a nuclear disaster prevention support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigehiro, Nukatsuka; Osami, Watanabe

    2003-01-01

    At the time of nuclear emergency, it is important to identify the type and the cause of the accident. Besides with these, it is also important to provide adequate information for the emergency response organization to support decision making by predicting and evaluating the development of the event and the influence of the release of radioactivity for the environment. Recently, a new type of nuclear disaster prevention support system called MEASURES (Multiple Radiological Emergency Assistance System for Urgent Response) was developed which provides not only the current state of the nuclear power plant and the influence of the radioactivity for the environment, but also the future prediction of the accident development. In order to provide the accurate results of these analyses quickly, MEASURES utilizes various techniques, such as multiple nesting method which narrows down the calculation area gradually, and parallel processing computer for three dimensional analyses, such as air current distribution analysis. In this paper, the outline and the feature of MEASURES are presented, especially focused on the usage of parallel processing computer for the three dimensional air current distribution analysis. (authors)

  6. Disaster Preparedness in YOUR School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Adult and Continuing Education.

    A look at what to do in time of natural and man-made disasters is presented. Disasters covered include tornados, hurricanes, floods, fires, blizzards, and nuclear disaster. The responsibilities of the Board of Education, school superintendent, school principal, teachers, school nurse, custodian, students, bus drivers, and cafeteria workers are…

  7. Disaster Education in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Helen J.; Pagliano, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Australia regularly suffers floods, droughts, bushfires and cyclones, which are predicted to increase and/or intensify in the future due to climate change. While school-aged children are among the most vulnerable to natural disasters, they can be empowered through education to prepare for and respond to disasters. School disaster education is…

  8. Flood Hazard and Risk Analysis in Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Jia; Hsu, Ming-hsi; Teng, Wei-Hsien; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2017-04-01

    Typhoons always induce heavy rainfall during summer and autumn seasons in Taiwan. Extreme weather in recent years often causes severe flooding which result in serious losses of life and property. With the rapid industrial and commercial development, people care about not only the quality of life, but also the safety of life and property. So the impact of life and property due to disaster is the most serious problem concerned by the residents. For the mitigation of the disaster impact, the flood hazard and risk analysis play an important role for the disaster prevention and mitigation. In this study, the vulnerability of Kaohsiung city was evaluated by statistics of social development factor. The hazard factors of Kaohsiung city was calculated by simulated flood depth of six different return periods and four typhoon events which result in serious flooding in Kaohsiung city. The flood risk can be obtained by means of the flood hazard and social vulnerability. The analysis results provide authority to strengthen disaster preparedness and to set up more resources in high risk areas.

  9. Ready or not: does household preparedness prevent absenteeism among emergency department staff during a disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Mary P; Ancock, Benedict; Levis, Joel T; Reyes, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    During major disasters, hospitals experience varied levels of absenteeism among healthcare workers (HCWs) in the immediate response period. Loss of critical hospital personnel, including Emergency Department (ED) staff, during this time can negatively impact a facility's ability to effectively treat large numbers of ill and injured patients. Prior studies have examined factors contributing to HCW ability and willingness to report for duty during a disaster. The purpose of this study was to determine if the degree of readiness of ED personnel, as measured by household preparedness, is associated with predicted likelihood of reporting for duty. Additionally, the authors sought to elucidate other factors associated with absenteeism among ED staff during a disaster. ED staff of five hospitals participated in this survey-based study, answering questions regarding demographic information, past disaster experience, household disaster preparedness (using a novel,15-point scale), and likelihood of reporting to work during various categories of disaster. The primary outcome was personal predicted likelihood of reporting for duty following a disaster. A total of 399 subjects participated in the study. ED staffs were most likely to report for duty in the setting of an earthquake (95 percent) or other natural disaster, followed by an epidemic (90 percent) and were less likely to report for work during a biological, chemical, or a nuclear event (63 percent). Degree of household preparedness was determined to have no association with an ED HCW's predicted likelihood of reporting for duty. Factors associated with predicted absenteeism varied based on type of disaster and included having dependents in the home, female gender, past disaster relief experience, having a spouse or domestic partner, and not owning pets. Having dependents in the home was associated with predicted absenteeism for all disaster types (OR 0.30-0.66). However, when stratified by gender, the presence of

  10. Response and recovery measures for two floods in north China during the nineteenth century: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yu; Fang, Xiuqi; Li, Fan

    2016-01-01

    The process of human response to natural disasters and its mechanisms as revealed by historical events still has a broad significance for modern society. This study analyzed the disaster relief process and the social response for two floods in China: the Yongding River flood in 1801 and the Yellow River flood in 1841. These two floods reflect the different response processes between the national and provincial capitals during a stage of climate cooling and social transition in the Qing dynasty. Applying methods of historical documents analysis and qualitatively comparative analysis to the materials such as Relief Chronicles Authorized by the Emperor in XinYou and Flood Description in Bian Liang , it shows that: (1) In 1801, the central government took on a lead position, from flood surveying to relief processes. However, local government and gentries played an important role in 1841. (2) In 1801, the government successfully undertook a series of relief measures addressing production, housing, food prices, taxes, and water conservancy and administration. In 1841, the response measures were relatively simple, focusing mainly on providing shelter and food for victims. (3) The government carried out long-term disaster prevention measures such as dredging channels after the flood in 1801. In 1841, however, the efforts were focused mainly on emergency rescue. (4) Refugees in the 1801 flood were effectively managed by a centralized authority. In 1841, regulation of the flooding was delayed by corruption and conflicts between officers, leading to an expansion of the disaster's impact. Above results have led to the conclusion that disaster relief systems and response measures had a significant effect on the consequences of those floods. Various flood relief measures and natural disasters management regimes have implications for contemporary flood hazard mitigation.

  11. Stealth and Natural Disasters: Science, Policy and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysicists, earth scientists, and other natural scientists play a key role in studying disasters, and are challenged to convey the science to the public and policy makers (including government and business). I have found it useful to introduce the concept of two general types of disasters to these audiences: natural and stealth. Natural disasters are geological phenomena over which we humans have some, but relatively little, control. Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions are the most familiar examples, but exogenous events such as meteorite impacts, solar flares, and supernovae are also possibly disruptive. Natural disasters typically have an abrupt onset, cause immediate major change, are familiar from the historic record, and get much media and public attention. They cannot be prevented, but preplanning can ameliorate their effects. Natural disasters are increasingly amplified by us (humans), and we are increasingly affected by them due to our expanding presence on the planet. Less familiar disasters are unfolding in the near-term, but they are not happening in the minds of most people. They are approaching us stealthily, and for this reason I propose that we call them stealth disasters. They differ from natural disasters in several important ways: stealth disasters are primarily caused by, or driven by, the interaction of humans with complex cycles of processes on the planet. Examples are: fresh water shortages and contamination, soil degradation and loss, climate changes, ocean degradation. The onset of stealth disasters is incremental rather than abrupt. They may not unfold significantly during the course of one term of political office, but they are unfolding in our lifetime. We as individuals may or may not escape their consequences, but they will affect our children and grandchildren. If humans are familiar with stealth disasters at all, it is from a relatively local experience, e.g., flooding of the Mississippi or the Dust Bowl in the U

  12. FLOOD CHARACTERISTICS AND MANAGEMENT ADAPTATIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... This paper examined the physical characteristics of floods and management adaptations to flood hazards in the Imo River basin. From the study, it was determined that the pre and post flood disaster management is a yearly event. The extent and time of commencement usually differs in each flood season ...

  13. Disasters in ‘development’ contexts: Contradictions and options for a preventive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Hewitt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The relations of development and disaster offer a starting point for an overview of disaster risk reduction (DRR in African contexts. A social vulnerability approach is adopted with its goal of improving conditions for persons and places most at risk. However, this approach faces serious contradictions in both the disasters and development scenes. Disaster events and losses have grown exponentially in recent decades. So have advances in disaster-related knowledge and the institutions and material resources devoted to disaster management. Evidently, the latter have not reduced disaster incidence or over all losses. Similar contradictions appear in development. By some measures, in most developing countries the economy has grown much faster than population. Yet, indebtedness, unemployment and insecurity seem worse in many countries. Poverty, the avowed target, remains huge in urban, peri-urban and rural areas singled out by disaster losses. Problems also arise from separate treatment of development and disaster. Climate change and the global financial crises challenge some of the most basic assumptions. The promise of ‘developed nations’, built around massive use of fossil fuels, puts global and African economic growth on a collision course with environmental calamity. The 2008 financial crisis has undermined the safety of global majorities, as well as reliance on development assistance. The case for alternatives in development and DRR is reinforced, including the vulnerability-reducing responses highlighted in the Hyogo framework for action. However, this is being undermined by a return to a civil defence-type approach, an increasingly militarised, and for-profit, focus on emergency management.

  14. Disasters in ‘development’ contexts: Contradictions and options for a preventive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Hewitt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relations of development and disaster offer a starting point for an overview of disaster risk reduction (DRR in African contexts. A social vulnerability approach is adopted with its goal of improving conditions for persons and places most at risk. However, this approach faces serious contradictions in both the disasters and development scenes. Disaster events and losses have grown exponentially in recent decades. So have advances in disaster-related knowledge and the institutions and material resources devoted to disaster management. Evidently, the latter have not reduced disaster incidence or over all losses. Similar contradictions appear in development. By some measures, in most developing countries the economy has grown much faster than population. Yet, indebtedness, unemployment and insecurity seem worse in many countries. Poverty, the avowed target, remains huge in urban, peri-urban and rural areas singled out by disaster losses. Problems also arise from separate treatment of development and disaster. Climate change and the global financial crises challenge some of the most basic assumptions. The promise of ‘developed nations’, built around massive use of fossil fuels, puts global and African economic growth on a collision course with environmental calamity. The 2008 financial crisis has undermined the safety of global majorities, as well as reliance on development assistance. The case for alternatives in development and DRR is reinforced, including the vulnerability-reducing responses highlighted in the Hyogo framework for action. However, this is being undermined by a return to a civil defence-type approach, an increasingly militarised, and for-profit, focus on emergency management.

  15. Fatal work injuries involving natural disasters, 1992-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayard, Gregory M

    2009-12-01

    Although a goal of disaster preparedness is to protect vulnerable populations from hazards, little research has explored the types of risks that workers face in their encounters with natural disasters. This study examines how workers are fatally injured in severe natural events. A classification structure was created that identified the physical component of the disaster that led to the death and the pursuit of the worker as it relates to the disaster. Data on natural disasters from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries for the years 1992 through 2006 were analyzed. A total of 307 natural disaster deaths to workers were identified in 1992-2006. Most fatal occupational injuries were related to wildfires (80 fatalities), hurricanes (72 fatalities), and floods (62 fatalities). Compared with fatal occupational injuries in general, natural disaster fatalities involved more workers who were white and more workers who were working for the government. Most wildfire fatalities stemmed directly from exposure to fire and gases and occurred to those engaged in firefighting, whereas hurricane fatalities tended to occur more independently of disaster-produced hazards and to workers engaged in cleanup and reconstruction. Those deaths related to the 2005 hurricanes occurred a median of 36.5 days after landfall of the associated storm. Nearly half of the flood deaths occurred to passengers in motor vehicles. Other disasters included tornadoes (33 fatalities), landslides (17), avalanches (16), ice storms (14), and blizzards (9). Despite an increasing social emphasis on disaster preparation and response, there has been little increase in expert knowledge about how people actually perish in these large-scale events. Using a 2-way classification structure, this study identifies areas of emphasis in preventing occupational deaths from various natural disasters.

  16. Recording and Evaluating the Role of Volunteers Regarding Natural Hazards Prevention and Disaster Management in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios

    2013-04-01

    The role of volunteers in disaster management is of decisive importance, particularly for major catastrophes. In Northern Europe, volunteers are the main group that responds even in regular low impact incidents. On the other hand, in Southern Europe, state professionals hold the primary role. This is partly cultural, but it is also defined by the different types of hazards involved. For example, Southern Europe suffers from earthquakes and wildfires that can cause severe and widespread damage. This implies that there is a need for highly trained and skilled personnel, not only for efficiency purposes, but also in order to avoid casualties among the operating staff. However, the need of volunteers' involvement is well recognised both for prevention measures (mainly regarding forest fires) and for disaster management purposes particularly during major catastrophes whereas the professional personnel are outsourced. Moreover, the economic crisis stretches the public sector, decreasing the capability and resources of the state mechanism. The latter increases the need for the volunteers' active participation, which is also regarded as cost effective. Greece has a short tradition regarding volunteers and their official involvement with natural hazards. This is also due to the fact that civil protection has a short history in Greece, since it was established in 1995, whereas its legal framework was only shaped in 2002. The act 3013/2002 introduces officially the role of volunteers within the legal framework. In particular, the act N3013/2002 offers a detailed description of the role of voluntary organizations within the civil protection system, the interagency cooperation, and the financial instruments through which the various bodies secure their funding along with the establishment of an inventory from the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. However, several provisions described in the 2002 Act have not been applied yet. For instance voluntary organizations are not

  17. Flood Hazard Mapping Assessment for Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Chadi; Darwich, Talal; Hamze, Mouin; Zaarour, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    Of all natural disasters, floods affect the greatest number of people worldwide and have the greatest potential to cause damage. In fact, floods are responsible for over one third of people affected by natural disasters; almost 190 million people in more than 90 countries are exposed to catastrophic floods every year. Nowadays, with the emerging global warming phenomenon, this number is expected to increase, therefore, flood prediction and prevention has become a necessity in many places around the globe to decrease damages caused by flooding. Available evidence hints at an increasing frequency of flooding disasters being witnessed in the last 25 years in Lebanon. The consequences of such events are tragic including annual financial losses of around 15 million dollars. In this work, a hydrologic-hydraulic modeling framework for flood hazard mapping over Lebanon covering 19 watershed was introduced. Several empirical, statistical and stochastic methods to calculate the flood magnitude and its related return periods, where rainfall and river gauge data are neither continuous nor available on a long term basis with an absence of proper river sections that under estimate flows during flood events. TRMM weather satellite information, automated drainage networks, curve numbers and other geometrical characteristics for each basin was prepared using WMS-software and then exported into HMS files to implement the hydrologic modeling (rainfall-runoff) for single designed storm of uniformly distributed depth along each basin. The obtained flow hydrographs were implemented in the hydraulic model (HEC-RAS) where relative water surface profiles are calculated and flood plains are delineated. The model was calibrated using the last flood event of January 2013, field investigation, and high resolution satellite images. Flow results proved to have an accuracy ranging between 83-87% when compared to the computed statistical and stochastic methods. Results included the generation of

  18. Smart disaster mitigation in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimmanee, S.; Ekkawatpanit, C.; Asanuma, H.

    2016-04-01

    Thailand is notoriously exposed to several natural disasters, from heavy thunder storms to earthquakes and tsunamis, since it is located in the tropical area and has tectonic cracks underneath the ground. Besides these hazards flooding, despite being less severe, occurs frequently, stays longer than the other disasters, and affects a large part of the national territory. Recently in 2011 have also been recorded the devastating effects of major flooding causing the economic damages and losses around 50 billion dollars. Since Thailand is particularly exposed to such hazards, research institutions are involved in campaigns about monitoring, prevention and mitigation of the effects of such phenomena, with the aim to secure and protect human lives, and secondly, the remarkable cultural heritage. The present paper will first make a brief excursus on the main Thailand projects aimed at the mitigation of natural disasters, referring to projects of national and international relevance, being implemented, such as the ESCAP1999 (flow regime regulation and water conservation). Adaptable devices such as foldable flood barriers and hydrodynamically supported temporary banks have been utilized when flooding. In the second part of the paper, will be described some new ideas concerning the use of smart and biomimicking column structures capable of high-velocity water interception and velocity detection in the case of tsunami. The pole configuration is composite cylindrical shell structure embedded with piezoceramic sensor. The vortex shedding of the flow around the pole induces the vibration and periodically strains the piezoelectric element, which in turn generates the electrical sensorial signal. The internal space of the shell is filled with elastic foam to enhance the load carrying capability due to hydrodynamic application. This more rigid outer shell inserted with soft core material resemble lotus stem in nature in order to prolong local buckling and ovalization of column

  19. Prevention of destructive tropical and extratropical storms, hurricanes, tornadoes, dangerous thunderstorms, and catastrophic floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, E. Yu.

    Tropical cyclones and storms, hurricanes, powerful thunderclouds, which generate tornadoes, destructive extratropical cyclones, which result in catastrophic floods, are the powerful cloud systems that contain huge amount of water. According to the hypothesis argued in this paper, an electric field coupled with powerful clouds and electric forces play a cardinal role in supporting this huge mass of water at a high altitude in the troposphere and in the instability of powerful clouds sometimes during rather a long time duration. Based on this hypothesis, a highly effective method of volume electric charge neutralization of powerful clouds is proposed. It results in the decrease in an electric field, a sudden increase in precipitation, and subsequent degradation of powerful clouds. This method, based on the natural phenomenon, ensures the prevention of the intensification of tropical and extratropical cyclones and their transition to the storm and hurricane (typhoon) stages, which makes it possible to avoid catastrophic floods. It also ensures the suppression of severe thunderclouds, which, in turn, eliminates the development of dangerous thunderstorms and the possibility of the emergence and intensification of tornadoes.

  20. Prevention of destructive tropical and extratropical storms, hurricanes, tornadoes, dangerous thunderstorms, and catastrophic floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Krasilnikov

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical cyclones and storms, hurricanes, powerful thunderclouds, which generate tornadoes, destructive extratropical cyclones, which result in catastrophic floods, are the powerful cloud systems that contain huge amount of water. According to the hypothesis argued in this paper, an electric field coupled with powerful clouds and electric forces play a cardinal role in supporting this huge mass of water at a high altitude in the troposphere and in the instability of powerful clouds sometimes during rather a long time duration. Based on this hypothesis, a highly effective method of volume electric charge neutralization of powerful clouds is proposed. It results in the decrease in an electric field, a sudden increase in precipitation, and subsequent degradation of powerful clouds. This method, based on the natural phenomenon, ensures the prevention of the intensification of tropical and extratropical cyclones and their transition to the storm and hurricane (typhoon stages, which makes it possible to avoid catastrophic floods. It also ensures the suppression of severe thunderclouds, which, in turn, eliminates the development of dangerous thunderstorms and the possibility of the emergence and intensification of tornadoes.

  1. Irrelevant water-management scales for flood prevention, water harvesting and eutrophication control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Jafet; Arheimer, Berit

    2017-04-01

    This poster will give three examples of popular water-management methods, which we discovered had very little effect in practice because they were applied on irrelevant scales. They all use small scale solutions to large scale problems, and did not provide expected results due to neglecting the magnitude of components in the large-scale water budget. 1) Flood prevention: ponds are considered to be able to buffer water discharge in catchments and was suggested as a measure to reduce the 20-years return floods in an exposed areas in Sweden. However, when experimenting with several ponds allocation and size in a computational model, we found out that ponds had to cover 5-10% of the catchment to convert the 20-yr flood into an average flood. Most effective was to allocate one single water body at the catchment outlet, but this would correspond to 95 km2 which is by far too big to be called a pond. 2) Water Harvesting: At small-scale it is designed to increase water availability and agricultural productivity in smallholder agriculture. On field scale, we show that water harvesting decreases runoff by 55% on average in 62 investigated field-scale trials of drainage area ≤ 1ha in sub-Saharan Africa (Andersson et al., 2011). When upscaling, to river basin scale in South Africa (8-1.8×106 km2), using a scenario approach and the SWAT hydrological model we found that all smallholder fields would not significantly alter downstream river discharge (10.1021/es304585p Andersson JCM, Zehnder AJB, Rockström J, Yang H (2011). Potential impacts of water harvesting…. Agricultural Water Management, 98(7), pp. 1113-1124, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2011.02.004 Arheimer, B., Nilsson, J. and Lindström, G. 2015. Experimenting with Coupled Hydro-Ecological Models ….. Water 7(7):3906-3924. doi:10.3390/w7073906 Arheimer, B. and Pers B.C. 2016. Lessons learned? …. Ecological Engineering (in press). doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.01.088

  2. Terse messaging and public health in the midst of natural disasters: the case of the Boulder floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jeannette; League, Cedar; Sellnow, Timothy L; Sellnow, Deanna D

    2015-01-01

    Social media are quickly becoming the channel of choice for disseminating emergency warning messages. However, relatively little data-driven research exists to inform effective message design when using these media. The present study addresses that void by examining terse health-related warning messages sent by public safety agencies over Twitter during the 2013 Boulder, CO, floods. An examination of 5,100 tweets from 52 Twitter accounts over the course of the 5-day flood period yielded several key conclusions and implications. First, public health messages posted by local emergency management leaders are most frequently retweeted by organizations in our study. Second, emergency public health messages focus primarily on drinking water in this event. Third, terse messages can be designed in ways that include imperative/instructional and declarative/explanatory styles of content, both of which are essential for promoting public health during crises. These findings demonstrate that even terse messages delivered via Twitter ought to provide information about the hazard event, its impact, and actionable instructions for self-protection.

  3. General characteristics of causes of urban flood damage and flood forecasting/warning system in Seoul, Korea Young-Il Moon1, 2, Jong-Suk Kim1, 2 1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, South Korea 2 Urban Flood Research Inst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Il; Kim, Jong-Suk

    2015-04-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and climate change, the frequency of concentrated heavy rainfall has increased, causing urban floods that result in casualties and property damage. As a consequence of natural disasters that occur annually, the cost of damage in Korea is estimated to be over two billion US dollars per year. As interest in natural disasters increase, demands for a safe national territory and efficient emergency plans are on the rise. In addition to this, as a part of the measures to cope with the increase of inland flood damage, it is necessary to build a systematic city flood prevention system that uses technology to quantify flood risk as well as flood forecast based on both rivers and inland water bodies. Despite the investment and efforts to prevent landside flood damage, research and studies of landside-river combined hydro-system is at its initial stage in Korea. Therefore, the purpose of this research introduces the causes of flood damage in Seoul and shows a flood forecasting and warning system in urban streams of Seoul. This urban flood forecasting and warning system conducts prediction on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information and performs prompt and accurate prediction on the inland flooded area and also supports synthetic decision-making for prevention through real-time monitoring. Although we cannot prevent damage from typhoons or localized heavy rain, we can minimize that damage with accurate and timely forecast and a prevention system. To this end, we developed a flood forecasting and warning system, so in case of an emergency there is enough time for evacuation and disaster control. Keywords: urban flooding, flood risk, inland-river system, Korea Acknowledgments This research was supported by a grant (13AWMP-B066744-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program (AWMP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  4. Prevention is better than cure’: Assessing Ghana’s preparedness (capacity for disaster management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oteng-Ababio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines and contributes to the debate on Ghana’s capacity and preparedness to respond to disasters and build safer communities. Having witnessed a series of catastrophic events in recent times, many have questioned the capacity of the National Disaster Management Organisation, an institution mandated to manage disasters in Ghana and whose operations have historically been shaped by external pressures, particularly the populist tendencies of the Provisional National Defense Council government in the 1980s. Analysing the results from the fieldwork and placing them in the context of contemporary disaster management strategies, this article gives an overview of Ghana’s preparedness for emergencies in the face of increasing urbanisation. It finds that the organisation is fixated on a top-down approach with low cooperation, collaboration and coordination with stakeholders, leading to situations where devastation and destruction occur before action is taken. Today, the consensus is that practitioners wean themselves from managing disasters and take to managing risk. Such a redirection of attention calls for the adoption of an appropriate institutional framework: an approach that unites the putative nation beyond competing loyalties to ethnicity, tribe and political entity.

  5. Prevention is better than cure’: Assessing Ghana’s preparedness (capacity for disaster management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oteng-Ababio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines and contributes to the debate on Ghana’s capacity and preparedness to respond to disasters and build safer communities. Having witnessed a series of catastrophic events in recent times, many have questioned the capacity of the National Disaster Management Organisation, an institution mandated to manage disasters in Ghana and whose operations have historically been shaped by external pressures, particularly the populist tendencies of the Provisional National Defense Council government in the 1980s. Analysing the results from the fieldwork and placing them in the context of contemporary disaster management strategies, this article gives an overview of Ghana’s preparedness for emergencies in the face of increasing urbanisation. It finds that the organisation is fixated on a top-down approach with low cooperation, collaboration and coordination with stakeholders, leading to situations where devastation and destruction occur before action is taken. Today, the consensus is that practitioners wean themselves from managing disasters and take to managing risk. Such a redirection of attention calls for the adoption of an appropriate institutional framework: an approach that unites the putative nation beyond competing loyalties to ethnicity, tribe and political entity.

  6. Efficiency of preventive actions for landslides and flooding - evaluation of Scandinavian practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R.; Andersson-sköld, Y. B.; Nyberg, L.; Johansson, M.; Persson, E.

    2011-12-01

    Author: Ramona Bergman, Yvonne Andersson-Sköld, Lars Nyberg, Magnus Johansson, Erik Persson Preventive actions can be, and are frequently, taken to reduce accidents and their consequences in different ways. The MSB funded research programme "Effects of Society's Security actions" (ESS, 2009-2013) aims to study the relationship between such actions and their effects. The program is divided into three subgroups: Frequent accidents Natural hazards (such as flooding, erosion and landslide) Chemical and landfill accidents The results presented here covers natural hazards with focus on land slides and flooding. The results are based on Swedish/Scandinavian contexts. Natural events such as erosion, flooding and land slides are common, but the number of accidents (events causing severe negative impact) is rare. Therefore, in such analysis there is limited data and other information available which can be used for example in statistical analysis of actions and their effects. Instead, the analysis must be based on other information. Therefore, the analysis may have to include aspects that only can be assessed by scenario and "what-if" analyses. In this project the main method has been interviews with officials in Swedish municipalities and national agencies in Sweden and Norway. The two levels are chosen since policies are taken on national (or international) level, while the key actions and actors are on the municipal level. The interviews cover experiences and potential scenarios. In all municipalities, one politician and officials working with planning and rescue service have been interviewed. The study covers hazard and risk mapping, follow up of such maps, physical planning and lessons learned from previous events and activities. The final outcome of the research will be a review of what is found to be well functioning, identification of weak points and recommendations for the management of landslides, erosion and flooding. The present results indicate that hazard

  7. Landslide Catastrophes and Disaster Risk Reduction: A GIS Framework for Landslide Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As catastrophic phenomena, landslides often cause large-scale socio-economic destruction including loss of life, economic collapse, and human injury. In addition, landslides can impair the functioning of critical infrastructure and destroy cultural heritage and ecological systems. In order to build a more landslide resistant and resilient society, an original GIS-based decision support system is put forth in order to help emergency managers better prepare for and respond to landslide disasters. The GIS-based landslide monitoring and management system includes a Central Repository System (CRS, Disaster Data Processing Modules (DDPM, a Command and Control System (CCS and a Portal Management System (PMS. This architecture provides valuable insights into landslide early warning, landslide risk and vulnerability analyses, and critical infrastructure damage assessments. Finally, internet-based communications are used to support landslide disaster modelling, monitoring and management.

  8. Suicide Prevention for Local Public and Volunteer Relief Workers in Disaster-Affected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Lu; Yip, Paul S F; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2016-01-01

    Local workforces play a critical role in disaster relief and reconstruction. However, the mental health of local relief workers might be affected by disasters, threatening the sustainability of local workforces. In this study, we tried to address this concern by investigating the well-being of local relief workers and its association with suicidal ideation. A retrospective study was conducted. Surveys were designed to collect data from a purposive sample of local disaster relief workers who survived a disaster. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to test hypotheses. The study sample was from a population of local relief workers in the worst quake-hit regions in China in 2008. The respondents were local relief workers from a town in these regions. All of the 83 local relief workers were invited 11 months after the earthquake, and 70 joined the study, resulting in a response rate of 84.3%. The dependent variable was postdisaster suicidal ideation. The independent variables were bereavement, depression and posttraumatic stress, daily work hours, job burnout, work-family conflict, and work engagement. Approximately 21.4% of participants reported suicidal ideation after the earthquake in comparison with 7.1% before the earthquake. One potential risk factor was an interaction effect of job burnout and work-family conflict (odds ratio [OR] = 3.738; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.086-12.868). Potential protective factors included daily work hours (OR = 0.317; 95% CI, 0.106-0.952) and work engagement (OR = 0.297; 95% CI, 0.091-0.969). Findings suggest that for local relief workers who are also disaster survivors, meaningful engagement such as participation in disaster relief could be salutary to their mental health, but overwork and interference with personal life could be harmful and increase the risk of suicidal ideation. Discretion is needed in managing local workforces, particularly with long work hours and work-family balance.

  9. Flood risk and vulnerability mapping of settlements within upper and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The frequency and intensity of flood disasters have become serious issues in the national development process of Nigeria as flood disasters have caused serious environmental damages, loss of human lives and other heavy economic losses. The starting point of concrete flood disaster mitigation efforts is to identify the ...

  10. Prepared for the future? Evaluating the costs and benefits of voluntary work for natural disaster management under a changing climate - data on recent flood events, stakeholder needs and policy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, Clemens; Brucker, Anja; Seebauer, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Voluntary emergency and relief services, such as fire brigades or rescue organisations, form the backbone of disaster management in most of European countries. In Austria, disaster management relies on the cooperation between governmental and non-governmental institutions: When a disaster occurs, the volunteer organizations act as auxiliaries to the responsible disaster management authority. The assessment of costs and benefits of these emergency services is a crucial component of risk and disaster management strategies, since public means are getting scarcer and these costs can reach critical levels for low-income municipalities. As extreme events and emergency operations are likely to increase due to climate change, the efficient allocation of public budgets for risk and disaster management becomes more important. Hence, both, the costs and the benefits must be known, but voluntary and professional work is hardly documented and assessed comprehensively. Whereas the costs of emergency services can be calculated using market values and an analysis of public and institutional budgets, the benefits of voluntary efforts cannot be assessed easily. We present empirical data on costs of voluntary and professional emergency services during the floods of 2002, 2005 and 2013 in Austria and Germany on different scales, obtained from public authorities, fire brigades and by means of public surveys. From these results, we derive a calculation framework and data requirements for assessing costs of emergency services. To consider the different stakeholders needs of administration, emergency institutions and voluntary members, we carried out workshops, first to identify future challenges in voluntary work for disaster management instigated by climate change and second, to develop approaches how the voluntary system can be uphold when facing increasing adverse impacts of natural hazards. The empirical results as well as the workshop outcome shall be translated into policy

  11. Addressing the Needs of Preschool Children in the Context of Disasters and Terrorism: Assessment, Prevention, and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmer, Leo; Hamiel, Daniel; Pardo-Aviv, Lee; Laor, Nathaniel

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to review the research literature regarding the needs of preschoolers in the context of disasters and terrorism with the aim of understanding the existing methods for assessment, prevention, and intervention to provide recommendations and point out required research and development. We differentiate between screening tools that provide initial evaluation and assessment tools for diagnosing preschooler children's pathology and review possible interventions that address the preschool child's needs before, during, and after the incident itself. We also emphasize the lack of dissemination and research of prevention programs and mass interventions for preschoolers. Programs for community mass prevention and intervention for preschoolers should be developed and evaluated and interventions should be adapted for individual and group delivery. Moreover, the increase in the number of children refugees requires cultural adaptations of assessment measures and interventions.

  12. GEOSPATIAL TOOLS FOR PREVENTION OF URBAN FLOODS CASE STUDY: RIVER OF EL MALEH (CITY OF MOHAMMEDIA – MOROCCO)

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Chaabane; N. Abouali; T. Boumeaza; M. Zahouily

    2017-01-01

    Today, the prevention and the risk management occupy an important part of public policy activities and are considered as major components in the process of sustainable development of territories. Due to the expansion of IT processes, in particular the geomatics sciences, decision-makers are increasingly requesting for digital tools before, during and after the risks of natural disasters. Both, the geographic information system (GIS) and the remote sensing are considered as geospatial and fund...

  13. August, 2002 - floods events, affected areas revitalisation and prevention for the future in the central Bohemian region, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, L.; Vacha, F.; Vodova, J.

    2003-04-01

    Central Bohemian Region is located in a shape of a ring surrounding the capitol of Prague. Its total territorial area is 11.014 sq.km and population of 1 130.000 inhabitants. According to EU nomenclature of regional statistical units, the Central Bohemian Region is classified as an independent NUTS II. Bohemia's biggest rivers, Vltava and Labe form the region's backbone dividing it along a north-south line, besides that there are Sazava and Berounka, the two big headwaters of Vltava, which flow through the region and there also are some cascade man made lakes and 2 important big dams - Orlik and Slapy on the Vltava River in the area of the region. Overflowing of these rivers and their feeders including cracking of high-water dams during the floods in August 2002 caused total or partial destruction or damage of more than 200 towns and villages and total losses to the extend of 450 mil. EUR. The worst impact was on damaged or destroyed human dwellings, social infrastructure (schools, kindergartens, humanitarian facilities) and technical infrastructure (roads, waterworks, power distribution). Also businesses were considerably damaged including transport terminals in the area of river ports. Flowage of Spolana Neratovice chemical works caused critical environmental havoc. Regional crisis staff with regional Governor in the lead worked continuously during the floods and a regional integrated rescue system was subordinated to it. Due to the huge extent of the floods the crisis staff coordinated its work with central bodies of state including the Government and single "power" resorts (army, interior, transport). Immediately after floods a regional - controlled management was set up including an executive body for regional revitalisation which is connected to state coordinating resort - Ministry for Local Development, EU sources and humanitarian aid. In addition to a program of regional revitalisation additional preventive flood control programs are being developed

  14. Earthquake warning system for Japan Railways’ bullet train; implications for disaster prevention in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y.; Tucker, B. E.

    1988-01-01

    In Japan, the level of public awareness of the dangers of earthquakes is high. The 1923 Kanto earthquake killed about 120,000 people out of a total Japanese population of about 50 million; an equivalent disaster in the U.S would involve 600,000 deaths.

  15. Risk factors for injuries in landslide- and flood-affected populations in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shreya; Gopalakrishnan, Tisha; Gorokhovich, Yuri; Doocy, Shannon

    2013-08-01

    The frequency of occurrence of natural disasters has increased over the past several decades, which necessitates a better understanding of human vulnerability, particularly in low-resource settings. This paper assesses risk factors for injury in the March 2010 floods and landslides in Eastern Uganda, and compares the effects of location, injury type, and severity. A stratified cluster survey of the disaster-affected populations was conducted five months after onset of the disasters. Probability proportional to size sampling was used to sample 800 households, including 400 affected by floods in Butaleja District and 400 affected by landslides in Bududa District. Flood- and landslide-affected populations were surveyed in July 2010 using a stratified cluster design. The odds of injury were 65% higher in the flood-affected groups than the landslide-affected groups in a logistic regression (OR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.24-0.52; P landslide-affected population, and injuries were more severe. This study illustrates differences between populations injured by flood and landslide disasters that occurred simultaneously in Eastern Uganda in 2010. In areas where landslides are prone to occur due to massive rainfalls or floods, preventative measures, such as early warning systems and evacuation, are more likely to increase the likelihood of people surviving, while for areas with massive floods, immediate and effective medical attention can save lives and improve injury outcomes.

  16. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  17. Long-term socioeconomic impacts of flooding in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jina, A.

    2013-05-01

    Natural disasters lead to myriad negative impacts upon society, causing loss of life, property, and income. Among disasters, floods annually affect the most people, and lead to widespread negative outcomes, particularly in developing countries. While immediate effects of disasters are readily observed, long-term socioeconomic effects have received little attention. Recent work in development economics finds that environmental exposure in early life can have negative impacts upon later outcomes in health, education, and labor markets. Such research is problematic for disasters, however, as objective measurements of hazard exposure are difficult to obtain. This study develops a remote sensing method to detect flooding in Bangladesh, one of the most flood-prone countries, using MODIS 8-day composite data. This approach addresses one of the main problems in the literature on the social impacts of disasters by deriving an objective measure rather than using self-reported damages. Flood data from 2000-2012 is matched to geolocated social surveys conducted by the Bangladesh government to identify impacts of exposure to floods at critical periods of life. While flooding is noted to be a natural and important part of ecosystem functioning in Bangladesh, we aim to understand the impacts of a flood of greater than normal magnitude or abnormal timing to identify the effects on human capital formation. We find that an increase in flooding of one standard deviation (SD) above the mean in the birth month leads to a 3% increase in stunting (2 SD below cohort height). This has implications for physical and cognitive development, shown elsewhere to persist to adulthood. We find that children from households that are exposed to floods while in elementary school are more likely to drop out. Other impacts will be identified in the course of this research. The stated impacts suggest that the long-term health and economic fortunes of the rural poor in Bangladesh are significantly

  18. Solid transport in mountain rivers: monitoring techniques and long term assessment as flood prevention tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Laura; Brambilla, Davide; Ivanov, Vladislav; Messa, Giacomo; Veronelli, Andrea; Radice, Alessio; Papini, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Floods are calamitous phenomena with an ever-increasing frequency around the globe, that often result in socio-economic damage and casualties. The role of the solid fraction in the river dynamic has been widely debated in the last decade and its importance is recognized as critical and not negligible in flood simulations as it has been evidenced that the severity of an event is often the result of the coupling of a flood wave with elevated solid transport rates. Nevertheless, assessing the quantity of sediment mobilized in a particular event is not feasible without a long term analysis of the river's dynamics and its morphological evolution since it is defined by past events. This work is focused on the techniques to improve knowledge about sediment production and transport through hydrological networks as a necessary component of a wise flood prevention planning. In particular, a multidisciplinary approach that combines hydraulic and geological knowledge is required in order to understand the evolution of the river sediment and how it will influence the following critical event. The methods are presented through a case study in Italy where a series of different approaches have been integrated to gain a comprehensive understanding of the problem: the sediment movement has been studied by a Eulerian as well as a Lagrangian approaches while hydraulic properties of the stream have been measured. The research started with an attempt to monitor sediment movements: in June 2016 300 sample pebbles, equipped with RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) transponders, have been deployed in the river and tracked after every major rainfall event. The obtained data-set has been combined with a morphological analysis and a river flow discharge computed through PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method in order to identify the relation between a given rainfall event and sediment transport. Moreover, critical sediment size has been estimated from field data using three approaches: two

  19. Characterization of rainfall events and correlation with reported disasters: A case in Cali, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canon, C. C.; Tischbein, B.; Bogardi, J.

    2017-12-01

    Flood maps generally display the area that a river might overflow after a rainfall event takes place, under different scenarios of climate, land use/land cover, and/or failure of dams and dikes. However, rainfall is not limited to feed runoff and enlarge the river: it also causes minor disasters outside the map's highlighted area. The city of Cali in Colombia illustrates very well this situation: its flat topography and its major critical infrastructure near the river make it flood-risk prone; a heavy rainfall event would potentially deplete drinking water, electrical power and drainage capacity, and trigger outbreaks of water-borne diseases in the whole city, not only in the flooded area. Unfortunately, the government's disaster prevention strategies focus on the floodplain and usually overlook the aftermath of these minor disasters for being milder and scattered. Predicted losses in flood maps are potentially big, while those from minor disasters over the city are small but real, and citizens, utility companies and urban maintenance funds must constantly take them over. Mitigation and prevention of such minor disasters can save money for the development of the city in other aspects. This paper characterizes hundreds of rainfall events selected from 10-min step time series from 2006 to 2017, and finds their correlation with reported rainfall-related disasters throughout Cali, identified by date and neighborhood. Results show which rainfall parameters are most likely to indicate the occurrence of such disasters and their approximate location in the urban area of Cali. These results, when coupled with real-time observations of rainfall data and simulations of drainage network response, may help citizens and emergency bodies prioritize zones to assist during heavy storms. In the long term, stakeholders may also implement low impact development solutions in these zones to reduce flood risks.

  20. Estimation of the Relative Severity of Floods in Small Ungauged Catchments for Preliminary Observations on Flash Flood Preparedness: A Case Study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eung Seok; Choi, Hyun Il

    2012-01-01

    An increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration has caused significant danger and loss of life and property in Korea as well as many other parts of the World. Since such floods usually accompanied by rapid runoff and debris flow rise quite quickly with little or no advance warning to prevent flood damage, this study presents a new flash flood indexing methodology to promptly provide preliminary observations regarding emergency preparedness and response to flash flood disasters in small ungauged catchments. Flood runoff hydrographs are generated from a rainfall-runoff model for the annual maximum rainfall series of long-term observed data in the two selected small ungauged catchments. The relative flood severity factors quantifying characteristics of flood runoff hydrographs are standardized by the highest recorded maximum value, and then averaged to obtain the flash flood index only for flash flood events in each study catchment. It is expected that the regression equations between the proposed flash flood index and rainfall characteristics can provide the basis database of the preliminary information for forecasting the local flood severity in order to facilitate flash flood preparedness in small ungauged catchments. PMID:22690208

  1. From flood management systems to flood resilient systems: integration of flood resilient technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salagnac, J.-L.; Diez, J.; Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flooding has always been a major risk world-wide. Humans chose to live and develop settlements close to water (rivers, seas) due to the resources water brings, i.e. food, energy, capacity to economically transport persons and goods, and recreation. However, the risk from flooding, including pluvial flooding, often offsets these huge advantages. Floods sometimes have terrible consequences from both a human and economic point of view. The permanence and growth of urban areas in flood-prone zones despite these risks is a clear indication of the choices of concerned human groups. The observed growing concentration of population along the sea shore, the increase of urban population worldwide, the exponential growth of the world population and possibly climate change are factors that confirm flood will remain a major issue for the next decades. Flood management systems are designed and implemented to cope with such situations. In spite of frequent events, lessons look to be difficult to draw out and progresses are rather slow. The list of potential triggers to improve flood management systems is nevertheless well established: information, education, awareness raising, alert, prevention, protection, feedback from events, ... Many disciplines are concerned which cover a wide range of soft and hard sciences. A huge amount of both printed and electronic literature is available. Regulations are abundant. In spite of all these potentially favourable elements, similar questions spring up after each new significant event: • Was the event forecast precise enough? • Was the alert system efficient? • Why were buildings built in identified flood prone areas? • Why did the concerned population not follow instructions? • Why did the dike break? • What should we do to avoid it happens again? • What about damages evaluation, wastes and debris evacuation, infrastructures and buildings repair, activity recovery, temporary relocation of inhabitants, health concerns, insurance

  2. Landslide Catastrophes and Disaster Risk Reduction: A GIS Framework for Landslide Prevention and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Assilzadeh, Hamid; Levy, Jason K.; Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    As catastrophic phenomena, landslides often cause large-scale socio-economic destruction including loss of life, economic collapse, and human injury. In addition, landslides can impair the functioning of critical infrastructure and destroy cultural heritage and ecological systems. In order to build a more landslide resistant and resilient society, an original GIS-based decision support system is put forth in order to help emergency managers better prepare for and respond to landslide disaster...

  3. Impact of Flooding on Traffic Route Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic route choice using road network modelling can play a key role in preventing and minimizing traffic problems during disasters. Using road network modelling, real road conditions during flooding are simulated in order to produce a response plan for road users to evacuate based on the roads' real risks and situation. Using a Geographical Information System (GIS we can forecast and provide road users with available alternatives when certain access roads or links need to be closed due to catastrophic hazards such as floods. This study focuses on floods as it is the most common form of natural disaster occurring in Malaysia, and due to the fact that the chance and risk of a flood occurring cannot be accurately predicted nor measured. Therefore, as a response to this problem, the outcome of this study is highly useful for the retrieval of information on flooded roads and the impacts on road users. Using GIS's capability to display both spatial and attributive information, we have provided an attractive alternative to conventional methods in order to show available traffic route choices and a transportation network plan.

  4. Impacts of flood on health: epidemiologic evidence from Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarati Guha-Sapir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world. The country suffers from many kinds of natural disasters, of which the most common and serious one is flooding. Long and heavy rainfall during the last days of October and the first week of November 2008 resulted in a devastating flood unseen for over three decades in the capital city of Hanoi. It caused a substantial health impact on residents in and around the city and compromised the capacity of local health services. The aim of this study is to ascertain the vulnerability and health impacts of the devastating flood in Hanoi by identifying the differences in mortality, injuries, and morbidity patterns (dengue, pink eye, dermatitis, psychological problems, and hypertension between flood affected and non-affected households. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 871 households in four selected communes (two heavily flood affected and two comparatively less affected from two severely flooded districts of Hanoi. Participants were interviewed and information collected on the social, economic, and health impacts of the devastation within 1 month after the flood. The self-reported number of deaths and injuries reported in this study within 1 month after the heavy rainfall were a bit higher in severely affected communes as compared to that of the less affected communes of our study. The findings showed higher incidences of dengue fever, pink eye, dermatitis, and psychological problems in communes severely affected by flood as compared to that of the controlled communes. For people in flood prone areas (at risk for flooding, flood prevention and mitigation strategies need to be seriously thought through and acted upon, as these people are exposed to greater health problems such as psychological issues and communicable diseases such as pink eye or dermatitis.

  5. Methodology identification in mass disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Ampudia García, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Major disasters in Perul ack from a treatment plan and adapt to the current reality. Were rare and limited to natural disasters such as major earthquakes, floods, torrential rains, erupting volcanoes, and so on.At first these disasters were limited to certain geographic areas ingeneral,but with the advancement of science and technology these events have soared alarming lyas rail crashes, plane crashes, car crashes going at high speed,and if we add the attacks by fundamentalist groups with car...

  6. 76 FR 66768 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00033

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12895 and 12896] Iowa Disaster IA-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1998-DR), dated 10/18/2011. Incident: Flooding...

  7. 76 FR 52042 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12734 and 12735] Iowa Disaster IA-00035 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Iowa Dated. Incident: Severe Storms and Flash Flooding. Incident...

  8. Performance of District Disaster Management Teams after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Uganda is vulnerable to several natural, man-made and a hybrid of disasters including drought, famine, floods, warfare, and disease outbreaks. We assessed the district disaster team's performance, roles and experiences following the training. Findings: The disasters most commonly experienced by the district ...

  9. Floods and Flash Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  10. Flood insurance in Canada: implications for flood management and residential vulnerability to flood hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  11. Post-disaster health impact of natural hazards in the Philippines in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Antonio Salazar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2011, the Health Emergency Management Bureau (HEMB created the Surveillance for Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED, a real-time syndromic surveillance system that allows the early detection and monitoring of post-disaster disease trends. SPEED can assist health leaders in making informed decisions on health systems affected by disasters. There is a need for further validation of current concepts in post-disaster disease patterns in respect to actual field data. This study aims to evaluate the temporal post-disaster patterns of selected diseases after a flood, an earthquake, and a typhoon in the Philippines in 2013. Methodology: We analyzed the 21 syndromes provided by SPEED both separately and grouped into injuries, communicable diseases, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs by calculating daily post-disaster consultation rates for up to 150 days post-disaster. These were compared over time and juxtaposed according to the type of disaster. Results: Communicable diseases were found to be the predominant syndrome group in all three disaster types. The top six syndromes found were: acute respiratory infections, open wounds, bruises and burns, high blood pressure, skin disease, fever, and acute watery diarrhea. Discussion: Overall, the results aligned with the country's morbidity profile. Within 2 months, the clear gradation of increasing syndrome rates reflected the severity (flooddisasters. After 2 months, rates dropped, suggesting the beginning of the recovery phase. The most common syndromes can be addressed by measures such as providing for shelter, water, sanitation, hygiene, nutrition, and common health services. Conclusions: Most post-disaster syndromes may be addressed by prevention, early diagnosis, and early treatment. Health needs differ in response and recovery phases.

  12. How risk management can prevent future wildfire disasters in the wildland-urban interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkin, David E; Cohen, Jack D; Finney, Mark A; Thompson, Matthew P

    2014-01-14

    Recent fire seasons in the western United States are some of the most damaging and costly on record. Wildfires in the wildland-urban interface on the Colorado Front Range, resulting in thousands of homes burned and civilian fatalities, although devastating, are not without historical reference. These fires are consistent with the characteristics of large, damaging, interface fires that threaten communities across much of the western United States. Wildfires are inevitable, but the destruction of homes, ecosystems, and lives is not. We propose the principles of risk analysis to provide land management agencies, first responders, and affected communities who face the inevitability of wildfires the ability to reduce the potential for loss. Overcoming perceptions of wildland-urban interface fire disasters as a wildfire control problem rather than a home ignition problem, determined by home ignition conditions, will reduce home loss.

  13. Barriers and Facilitators to Engaging Communities in Gender-Based Violence Prevention following a Natural Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloand, Elizabeth; Killion, Cheryl; Gary, Faye A; Dennis, Betty; Glass, Nancy; Hassan, Mona; Campbell, Doris W; Callwood, Gloria B

    2015-11-01

    Humanitarian workers in disaster settings report a dramatic increase in gender-based violence (GBV). This was true after the 2010 Haiti earthquake when women and girls lost the relative security of their homes and families. Researchers from the United States Virgin Islands and the United States mainland responded by collaborating with Haitian colleagues to develop GBV-focused strategies. To start, the research team performed a situational analysis to insure that the project was culturally, ethically, and logistically appropriate. The aim of this paper is to describe how the situational analysis framework helped the researchers effectively approach this community. Using post-earthquake Haiti as an exemplar, we identify key steps, barriers, and facilitators to undertaking a situational analysis. Barriers included logistics, infrastructure, language and community factors. Facilitators included established experts, organizations and agencies. Researchers in such circumstances need to be respectful of community members as experts and patient with local environmental and cultural conditions.

  14. Development of flood risk mapping in Kota Tinggi, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, T. H.

    2014-02-01

    Flood risk maps provide valuable information for development of flood risk management. Geospatial technology and modeling enable us to monitor natural disasters around the world. Flooding is the most severe natural disaster that causing huge economic losses every year. Flood risk maps are an essential tool for assessing the consequences of flooding. The main aim of this study is to initiate a framework to develop a local-based flood risk map. Flood risk maps can be produced by using integration of geospatial technology and hydrodynamic modeling. Results show that a flood risk map for Kota Tinggi is produced with unsatisfactory information in term of flood damage.

  15. Development of flood risk mapping in Kota Tinggi, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, T H

    2014-01-01

    Flood risk maps provide valuable information for development of flood risk management. Geospatial technology and modeling enable us to monitor natural disasters around the world. Flooding is the most severe natural disaster that causing huge economic losses every year. Flood risk maps are an essential tool for assessing the consequences of flooding. The main aim of this study is to initiate a framework to develop a local-based flood risk map. Flood risk maps can be produced by using integration of geospatial technology and hydrodynamic modeling. Results show that a flood risk map for Kota Tinggi is produced with unsatisfactory information in term of flood damage

  16. A method of constructing geo-object ontology in disaster system for prevention and decrease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Liu, Jiping; Shi, Lihong; Wang, Zhenfeng

    2009-10-01

    A kind of formal system, which can express clearly a certain entity or information, is needed to express geographical concept. Besides, some rules explaining the interrelationship and action between different components are also required. Therefore, the conception of geo-object ontology is introduced. It is a shared formalization and display specification of conceptual knowledge system in the field of concrete application of spatial information science. It can constitute hierarchy structure, which derives from the concept classification system in the geographical area. Its concepts can be described by the property. Property sets can form a vector space with multi-dimensional characteristics. Geographic space is composed of different types of geographic entities. And its concept is formed by a series of geographic entities with the same properties and actions. Moreover, each of the geographic entities can be mapped to an object, and each object has its spatial property, time information and topology, semantic relationships associated with other objects. The biggest difference between ecumenical information ontology and geo-ontology is that the latter has the spatial characteristics. During the construction process of geo-object ontology, some important components, such as geographic type, spatial relation, spatial entity type and coordinates, time, should be included to make further research. Here, taking disaster as an example, by using Protégé and OWL, combined methods used by constructing the geo-object ontology in the form of being manual made by domanial experts and semi-automatic are investigated oriented to disaster to serve ultimately geographic information retrieval service driven by ontology.

  17. Comparison and correction of three satellite precipitation estimates products to improve flood prevention in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufort, Aurélien; Gibier, Florian; Palany, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    biases: 6.2 mm; RMSE: 13.2 mm). Two corrections methods have significantly improved satellite precipitation estimates products: the additive correction of residuals by inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation and the correction by power transformation (PT). These two corrections led to obtain absolute biases lower than 10 mm for each rainfall satellite products. RMSEs calculated after correction by IDW of biases and by PT were less than 15 mm. Rainfall estimates by satellite images were better at stations located along the coast at the north of French Guiana with absolute biases lower than 7 mm. Daily rainfall estimates with GPM obtained the better performance after correction with a mean RMSE of 10 mm and a clearly better estimation of heavy rain in comparison with TRMM and H-E. To conclude, the correction method of satellite precipitation estimates could be easily implemented in an operational case with the aim to prevent flood and protect population. A first test was conducted and the corrected daily rainfall has been introduced in the lumped rainfall-runoff model GR4J in order to simulate the discharge of 8 rivers in French Guiana. The model has shown a good capacity to simulate the daily discharge with a Nash-Sutcliffe criterion higher than 75% for the three satellite products (period 2015-2016).

  18. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 24 -- Battery -- flooded lead-acid (lead-calcium, lead antimony, plante). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-12-01

    US nuclear power plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance (PM) tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, system engineers, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  19. Flash Flood Type Identification within Catchments in Beijing Mountainous Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Flash flood is a common type of disaster in mountainous area, Flash flood with the feature of large flow rate, strong flushing force, destructive power, has periodically caused loss to life and destruction to infrastructure in mountainous area. Beijing as China's political, economic and cultural center, the disaster prevention and control work in Beijing mountainous area has always been concerned widely. According to the transport mechanism, sediment concentration and density, the flash flood type identification within catchment can provide basis for making the hazards prevention and mitigation policy. Taking Beijing as the study area, this paper extracted parameters related to catchment morphological and topography features respectively. By using Bayes discriminant, Logistic regression and Random forest, the catchments in Beijing mountainous area were divided into water floods process, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flows process. The results found that Logistic regression analysis showed the highest accuracy, with the overall accuracy of 88.2%. Bayes discriminant and Random forest had poor prediction effects. This study confirmed the ability of morphological and topography features to identify flash flood process. The circularity ratio, elongation ratio and roughness index can be used to explain the flash flood types effectively, and the Melton ratio and elevation relief ratio also did a good job during the identification, whereas the drainage density seemed not to be an issue at this level of detail. Based on the analysis of spatial patterns of flash flood types, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flow process were the dominant hazards, while the pure water flood process was much less. The catchments dominated by fluvial sediment transport process were mainly distributed in the Yan Mountain region, where the fault belts were relatively dense. The debris flow process prone to occur in the Taihang Mountain region thanks to the abundant

  20. The flash flood event in the catchment of the river Weisseritz (eastern Erzgebirge, Saxony) from 12.-14. August 2002 - meteorological and hydrological reasons, damage assesment and disaster managment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, V.; Bernhofer, Ch.

    2003-04-01

    Between 12. and 14. August 2002 the region of eastern Erzgebirge (Saxony/Eastern Germany) was affected by the heaviest rainfall event recorded since beginning of the measuring period in 1883. The synoptic reason of this event was the advective precipitation due to the strong and very slowly shifting Vb-low "Ilse" combined with a noticeable topographic intensification by north-westerly winds. All stations in the catchment area of the river Weisseritz recorded new all-time records. E.g., at the meteorological station Zinnwald-Georgenfeld situated at the crest of eastern Erzgebirge a daily sum of 312 mm was measured for the 13. August. This value is close to the maximum physically possible rainfall. The intensive rainfall in the catchments of Rote Weisseritz and Wilde Weisseritz led to unexperienced heavy flash floods with large material transport and flow damages. The buffer effect of the existing dam systems was comparatively small because the reserved retaining capacity for flood protection was only about 20 percent of the total capacity. The reservoirs filled quickly due to the very high maximum inflow. So a long-time overflow of the dam system occurred with a maximum of about 300 cubic meters per second at the combined river Weisseritz through the cities of Freital and Dresden (This situation led, e.g., to the flooding of Central Railway Station in Dresden). This water flow is comparable with a medium flow rate of the river Elbe in Dresden, and it is about 300 times higher than the normal drain of the river Weisseritz in Freital! The material damages in the Weisseritz region account for several hundred millions EURO, and several causalties occurred. The damages of the University buildings in Tharandt (including one building of the Department of Meteorology) account for 15 millions EURO alone. The disaster management during the flood was not optimal. For many people, e.g. in Tharandt, there was neither an officially warning nor an organised rescue of movable goods

  1. Protect Yourself and Others from Electrical Hazards after a Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pets Protect Yourself and Others from Electrical Hazards After a Disaster Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Stay safe after a hurricane, flood or other natural disaster NEVER ...

  2. 25 CFR 256.24 - Will I need flood insurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will I need flood insurance? 256.24 Section 256.24... Will I need flood insurance? You will need flood insurance if your dwelling is located in an area identified as having special flood hazards under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93-234...

  3. Flood Label for buildings : a tool for more flood-resilient cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Scheibel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    River floods are among the most expensive natural disasters in Europe. Traditional flood protection methods are not sufficient anymore. It is widely acknowledged in the scholarly debate and in practice of flood risk management that traditional flood protection measures such as dikes need to be

  4. The Efficacy of Blue-Green Infrastructure for Pluvial Flood Prevention under Conditions of Deep Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babovic, Filip; Mijic, Ana; Madani, Kaveh

    2017-04-01

    Urban areas around the world are growing in size and importance; however, cities experience elevated risks of pluvial flooding due to the prevalence of impermeable land surfaces within them. Urban planners and engineers encounter a great deal of uncertainty when planning adaptations to these flood risks, due to the interaction of multiple factors such as climate change and land use change. This leads to conditions of deep uncertainty. Blue-Green (BG) solutions utilise natural vegetation and processes to absorb and retain runoff while providing a host of other social, economic and environmental services. When utilised in conjunction with Decision Making under Deep Uncertainty (DMDU) methodologies, BG infrastructure provides a flexible and adaptable method of "no-regret" adaptation; resulting in a practical, economically efficient, and socially acceptable solution for flood risk mitigation. This work presents the methodology for analysing the impact of BG infrastructure in the context of the Adaptation Tipping Points approach to protect against pluvial flood risk in an iterative manner. An economic analysis of the adaptation pathways is also conducted in order to better inform decision-makers on the benefits and costs of the adaptation options presented. The methodology was applied to a case study in the Cranbrook Catchment in the North East of London. Our results show that BG infrastructure performs better under conditions of uncertainty than traditional grey infrastructure.

  5. Economic impacts of urban flooding in South Florida: Potential consequences of managing groundwater to prevent salt water intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Engel, Vic; Martinez, Chris; Mirchi, Ali; Watkins, David; Sukop, Michael C; Hughes, Joseph D

    2018-04-15

    High-value urban zones in coastal South Florida are considered particularly vulnerable to salt water intrusion into the groundwater-based, public water supplies caused by sea level rise (SLR) in combination with the low topography, existing high water table, and permeable karst substrate. Managers in the region closely regulate water depths in the extensive South Florida canal network to control closely coupled groundwater levels and thereby reduce the risk of saltwater intrusion into the karst aquifer. Potential SLR adaptation strategies developed by local managers suggest canal and groundwater levels may have to be increased over time to prevent the increased salt water intrusion risk to groundwater resources. However, higher canal and groundwater levels cause the loss of unsaturated zone storage and lead to an increased risk of inland flooding when the recharge from rainfall exceeds the capacity of the unsaturated zone to absorb it and the water table reaches the surface. Consequently, higher canal and groundwater levels are also associated with increased risk of economic losses, especially during the annual wet seasons. To help water managers and urban planners in this region better understand this trade-off, this study models the relationships between flood insurance claims and groundwater levels in Miami-Dade County. Via regression analyses, we relate the incurred number of monthly flood claims in 16 Miami-Dade County watersheds to monthly groundwater levels over the period from 1996 to 2010. We utilize these estimated statistical relationships to further illustrate various monthly flood loss scenarios that could plausibly result, thereby providing an economic quantification of a "too much water" trade-off. Importantly, this understanding is the first of its kind in South Florida and is exceedingly useful for regional-scale hydro-economic optimization models analyzing trade-offs associated with high water levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. Preparedness plan for flood: a bottom up approach | Shariff | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Floods have caused major disasters around the world and these include Malaysia which is inevitable. However, we can be prepared by taking the lessons from the previous flood disasters. This paper attempts to highlight preparedness plan executed by the community i.e. six months before the expected flood in December ...

  7. Action-based flood forecasting for triggering humanitarian action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van den Hurk, Bart; van Aalst, Maarten K.; Amuron, Irene; Bamanya, Deus; Hauser, Tristan; Jongma, Brenden; Lopez, Ana; Mason, Simon; Mendler de Suarez, Janot; Pappenberger, Florian; Rueth, Alexandra; Stephens, Elisabeth; Suarez, Pablo; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-09-01

    Too often, credible scientific early warning information of increased disaster risk does not result in humanitarian action. With financial resources tilted heavily towards response after a disaster, disaster managers have limited incentive and ability to process complex scientific data, including uncertainties. These incentives are beginning to change, with the advent of several new forecast-based financing systems that provide funding based on a forecast of an extreme event. Given the changing landscape, here we demonstrate a method to select and use appropriate forecasts for specific humanitarian disaster prevention actions, even in a data-scarce location. This action-based forecasting methodology takes into account the parameters of each action, such as action lifetime, when verifying a forecast. Forecasts are linked with action based on an understanding of (1) the magnitude of previous flooding events and (2) the willingness to act "in vain" for specific actions. This is applied in the context of the Uganda Red Cross Society forecast-based financing pilot project, with forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Using this method, we define the "danger level" of flooding, and we select the probabilistic forecast triggers that are appropriate for specific actions. Results from this methodology can be applied globally across hazards and fed into a financing system that ensures that automatic, pre-funded early action will be triggered by forecasts.

  8. ICSU ROA Science Plan for Hazards and Disasters in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enow, A. A.; Chantson, J.; Muhongo, S.

    2007-12-01

    African communities are very vulnerable to various types of hazards and disasters, the most devastating of which are floods, droughts, earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions. Major challenges faced by the continent in the face of these events include poor knowledge and understanding of how and why hazards develop to disasters; lack of monitoring targeted towards hazard prediction, early warning and disaster prevention; limited availability of scientific data for efficient risk analysis and management; limited number of trained personnel to interpret available data; and poor application of available knowledge in decision-making. To address these challenges, the International Council for Science - Regional Office for Africa (ICSU ROA) has prepared a science plan which aims at enhancing human and institutional capacity for disaster monitoring, prediction and early warning; raising awareness among vulnerable communities; investigating and validating indigenous knowledge systems for improved resilience; and facilitating evidence-based disaster management policies. The paper highlights the major hazards and disasters plaguing Africa (with emphasis on geo-hazards), describes the research priorities identified, and explains the strategy for implementation of the science plan. The implementation strategy includes, among others, the formation of multi- and trans-disciplinary international research teams and networks.

  9. Preventing Children's Posttraumatic Stress after Disaster with Teacher-Based Intervention: A Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmer, Leo; Hamiel, Daniel; Laor, Nathaniel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The psychological outcomes that the exposure to mass trauma has on children have been amply documented in the past decades. The objective of this study is to describe the effects of a universal, teacher-based preventive intervention implemented with Israeli students before the rocket attacks that occurred during Operation Cast Lead,…

  10. A prediction and damage assessment model for snowmelt flood events in middle and high latitudes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, C.; Huang, Q.; Chen, T.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    In the context of global warming, the snowmelt flood events in the mountainous area of the middle and high latitudes are increasingly frequent and create severe casualties and property damages. Carrying out the prediction and risk assessment of the snowmelt flood is of great importance in the water resources management, the flood warning and prevention. Based on the remote sensing and GIS techniques, the relationships of the variables influencing the snowmelt flood such as the snow area, the snow depth, the air temperature, the precipitation, the land topography and land covers are analyzed and a prediction and damage assessment model for snowmelt floods is developed. This model analyzes and predicts the flood submerging area, flood depth, flood grade, and the damages of different underlying surfaces in the study area in a given time period based on the estimation of snowmelt amount, the snowmelt runoff, the direction and velocity of the flood. Then it was used to predict a snowmelt flood event in the Ertis River Basin in northern Xinjiang, China, during March and June, 2005 and to assess its damages including the damages of roads, transmission lines, settlements caused by the floods and the possible landslides using the hydrological and meteorological data, snow parameter data, DEM data and land use data. A comparison was made between the prediction results from this model and observation data including the flood measurement and its disaster loss data, which suggests that this model performs well in predicting the strength and impact area of snowmelt flood and its damage assessment. This model will be helpful for the prediction and damage assessment of snowmelt flood events in the mountainous area in the middle and high latitudes in spring, which has great social and economic significance because it provides a relatively reliable method for snowmelt flood prediction and reduces the possible damages caused by snowmelt floods.

  11. Evaluation of a cavity flooding strategy for the prevention of reactor vessel failure in a severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Rae Joon; Je, Moo Sung; Park, Chang Kyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, TaeJon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-01

    As a part of the evaluation of accident management strategies for severe accident prevention or mitigation in a station blackout scenario for YGN 3 and 4, an external vessel cooling strategy for the prevention of reactor vessel failure has been estimated using the MAAP4 computer code. The sensitivity studies have been performed such as actuating timings and the number of spray pumps used. To explore external vessel cooling strategies, containment spray pumps were actuated by varying time spanning core uncovery, core melting and relocation of molten core material. It was shown that flooding of the reactor cavity using the containment spray system may prevent reactor vessel failure but may not prevent the failure of the relocation of molten core material during the station blackout sequence of YGN 3 and 4. Reactor vessel failure can be prevented by external vessel cooling using condensed water from the operation of two containment spray pumps at the time of core melting and using water from the operation of one containment spray pumps at the time of core melting and using water from the operation of one containment spray pump at the time of core uncovery. (Author) 46 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Reducing Disaster Exacerbated Non-Communicable Diseases Through Public Health Infrastructure Resilience: Perspectives of Australian Disaster Service Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Benjamin J; Franklin, Richard C; Burkle, Frederick M; Aitken, Peter; Smith, Erin; Watt, Kerrianne; Leggat, Peter

    2016-12-21

    The exposure of people and infrastructure to flood and storm related disasters across the world is increasing faster than vulnerability is decreasing. For people with non-communicable diseases this presents a significant risk as traditionally the focus of disaster management systems has been on immediate trauma and communicable diseases. This focus must now be expanded to include the management of non-communicable diseases because these conditions are generating the bulk of ill health, disability and premature death around the globe. When public health service infrastructure is destroyed or damaged access to treatment and care is severely jeopardised, resulting in an increased risk of non-communicable disease exacerbation or even death. This research proposes disaster responders, coordinators and government officials are vital assets to mitigate and eventually prevent these problems from being exacerbated during a disaster. This is due to their role in supporting the public health service infrastructure required to maximise treatment and care for people with non-communicable diseases. By focusing on the disaster cycle as a template, and on mitigation and prevention phases in particular, these actions and activities performed by disaster service responders will lead to overall improved preparedness, response, recovery and rehabilitation phases. Data were collected via 32 interviews and one focus group (eight participants) between March 2014 and August 2015 (total of 40 participants). The research was conducted in the State of Queensland, Australia, with disaster service providers. The analysis included the phases of: organizing data; data description; data classification; and interpretation. The research found a relationship between the impact of a disaster on public health service infrastructure, and increased health risks for people with non-communicable diseases. Mitigation strategies were described for all phases of the disaster cycle impacting public health

  13. A cross-sectional survey on the health status and the health-related quality of life of the elderly after flood disaster in Bazhong city, Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Xiao, Jian; Li, Tong; Li, Xiaoshan; Sun, Huamin; Chow, Eric P F; Lu, Yihua; Tian, Tian; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Qi; Zhuang, Xun; Zhang, Lei

    2015-02-19

    Flood is common in China and causes extensive loss of property and human lives. Elderly is a vulnerable population prone to the detrimental impacts of floods. This survey aims to investigate the health status and the HRQoL of the elderly in Bazhong city after a major flood in 2011. A total of 1183 elderly (aged > 60) were surveyed through random sampling from eight villages in Bazhong city. Two-week healthcare-seeking rate and chronic diseases prevalence were recorded anonymously. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36). Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to determine the associated factors of poor HRQoL. The two-week healthcare-seeking rate among post-flood Bazhong elderly was significantly higher than the references rate among rural elderly in Sichuan province (59.3% versus 55.7%, χ2 = 5.134, p = 0.013), but Bazhong elderly demonstrated a significantly lower prevalence of chronic disease (33.2% versus 44.4%, χ2 = 48.847, p singlehood, poor sleep patterns, and chronic diseases and so on. A marked decline in health status among elderly in Bazhong after the 2011 flood. Post-flood management targeting elderly need to be sensitive to their age, gender, married status and status of chronic diseases.

  14. Preventing children's posttraumatic stress after disaster with teacher-based intervention: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmer, Leo; Hamiel, Daniel; Laor, Nathaniel

    2011-04-01

    The psychological outcomes that the exposure to mass trauma has on children have been amply documented in the past decades. The objective of this study is to describe the effects of a universal, teacher-based preventive intervention implemented with Israeli students before the rocket attacks that occurred during Operation Cast Lead, compared with a nonintervention but exposed control group. The study sample consisted of 1,488 students studying in fourth and fifth grades in a city in southern Israel who were exposed to continuous rocket attacks during Operation Cast Lead. The intervention group included about half (53.5%) of the children who studied in six schools where the teacher-led intervention was implemented 3 months before the traumatic exposure. The control group (46.5% of the sample) included six schools matched by exposure in which the preventive intervention was not implemented. Children filled out the UCLA-PTSD Reaction Index and the Stress/Mood Scale 3 months after the end of the rocket attacks. The intervention group displayed significantly lower symptoms of posttrauma and stress/mood than the control group (p stress disorder (PTSD) than participant children. This difference was significantly more pronounced among boys (10.2% versus 4.4%) and less among girls (12.5% versus 10.1%). The teacher-based, resilience-focused intervention is a universal, cost-effective approach to enhance the preparedness of communities of children to mass trauma and to prevent the development of PTSD after exposure. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Capacity Building in the Natural Disaster Management of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Eakarat Boonreang

    2015-01-01

    The past two decades, Thailand faced the natural disasters, for instance, Gay typhoon in 1989, tsunami in 2004, and huge flood in 2011. The disaster management in Thailand was improved both structure and mechanism for cope with the natural disaster since 2007. However, the natural disaster management in Thailand has various problems, for examples, cooperation between related an organizations have not unity, inadequate resources, the natural disaster management of public s...

  16. Loss of life in flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špitalar, Maruša

    2013-04-01

    Natural disasters per se give a negative connotation. They are destructive to material elements in a space, nature itself and represent a threat to peoples' lives and health. Floods, especially flash floods due to its power and happening suddenly cause extensive damage. Hence, they are hard to predict and are characterized with violent movement, lots of lives are lost. Floods are among natural hazards the one causing the highest number of fatalities. Having said that very important aspects are humans' vulnerability, risk perception, their behavior when confronted with hazardous situations and on the other hand issues related to adequate warning signs and canals of communication. It is very important to take into consideration this segments also and not mainly just structural measures. However the aim of this paper is to emphasis mainly the social aspects of floods. It consists of two main parts. First one refers to mans' vulnerability, risk perception when it comes to danger caused by rising waters and how does culture influences peoples' response and reaction to flood causalities. The second part consists of data about detailed information on circumstances of death that have been collected from several different sources from several EU countries. There has been also available information on the age and gender of people who lost lives in flood events. With gender males dominated among death people since tend to risk more in risky situations. There has been also defined a vulnerable age group among flood fatalities. Analysis of circumstance of death enabled us to define risky groups that are very important for flood managers. Further on this is very beneficial also for risk prevention, early warning systems and creating the best canals in order to information about upcoming danger would successfully reach people at hazardous areas and also for the others to avoid them.

  17. Floods in Southeast Asia: A health priority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Torti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of all the natural disasters, floods are the most common in both developed and developing countries, accounting for approximately 40% of all natural disasters. Flooding has severe implications on human health before, during, and after the onset of a flood. Southeast Asia is a region that is especially prone to frequent and severe natural disasters. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is comprised of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore and Myanmar. In this manuscript, I discuss why flooding is a problem is Southeast Asia and why I feel flooding warrants attention compared to other problems in the area due to the serious health impactions that arise as a result of flooding. I also explore why flooding warrants attention compared to other health concerns in the region.

  18. Suppression of Powerful Clouds and Prevention of D Estructive Tropical and Extratropical Cyclones, S Evere Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, and Catastrophic Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, E.

    Destructive tropical storms, hurricanes (typhoons), tornadoes, severe thunderstorms, and extratropical cyclones and storms resulted in catastrophic floods annually inflict multitudinous death and injury and bring huge material damage in many countries. This problem is highly important and to date has not been solved. At the same time, practically all researches made concerning these phenomena fail to take into account that the origin and intensification of tropical cyclones, hurricanes, and tornadoes take place under conditions of an abnormally strong electric field which together with electromagnetohydrodynamic interaction occupies a key position in the ntensification process. The detailed description of the electromagnetohydrodynamic model explaining the processes of energy conversion in tropical cyclones, hurricanes, and tornadoes is presented. Herewith, tropical cyclones and storms, hurricanes, powerful thunderclouds generating tornadoes, destructive extratropical cyclones resulting in catastrophic floods are the powerful cloud systems containing huge mass of water. According to a hypothesis proposed in the paper an electric field coupled with powerful clouds and electric forces play a cardinal role in supporting of this huge mass of water at a high altitude in the troposphere and in stability of powerful clouds sometimes during rather long-duration time. On the basis of the hypothesis a highly effective method of volume electric charge neutralization of powerful clouds is proposed. It results in the decrease of an electric field, a sudden increase of precipitation, and subsequent degradation of powerful clouds. This method based on the natural phenomenon ensures prevention of intensification of tropical and extratropical cyclones and their transition to the storm and hurricane (typhoon) stages, which makes it possible to avoid catastrophic floods. It ensures as well suppression of severe thunderclouds, which, in turn, eliminates development of dangerous

  19. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec. 205(b) of Pub. L. 93-234; 87 Stat. 983 (42 U.S.C...

  20. Continental and global scale flood forecasting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emerton, Rebecca E.; Stephens, Elisabeth M.; Pappenberger, Florian; Pagano, Thomas P.; Weerts, A.H.; Wood, A.; Salamon, Peter; Brown, James D.; Hjerdt, Niclas; Donnelly, Chantal; Baugh, Calum A.; Cloke, Hannah L.

    2016-01-01

    Floods are the most frequent of natural disasters, affecting millions of people across the globe every year. The anticipation and forecasting of floods at the global scale is crucial to preparing for severe events and providing early awareness where local flood models and warning services may not

  1. Economic optimisation of flood risk management projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has developed a flood risk management policy based on an economic rationale. After the flood disaster of 1953, when a large area of the south-western part of the country was flooded and more than 1800 people lost their lives, the so-called Delta Committee was installed, whose main

  2. Disaster Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given the tendency of books on disasters to predominantly focus on strong geophysical or descriptive perspectives and in-depth accounts of particular catastrophes, Disaster Research provides a much-needed multidisciplinary perspective of the area. This book is is structured thematically around key...... approaches to disaster research from a range of different, but often complementary academic disciplines. Each chapter presents distinct approaches to disaster research that is anchored in a particular discipline; ranging from the law of disasters and disaster historiography to disaster politics...... and anthropology of disaster. The methodological and theoretical contributions underlining a specific approach to disasters are discussed and illustrative empirical cases are examined that support and further inform the proposed approach to disaster research. The book thus provides unique insights into fourteen...

  3. Multiple flood vulnerability assessment approach based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method and coordinated development degree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weichao; Xu, Kui; Lian, Jijian; Bin, Lingling; Ma, Chao

    2018-05-01

    Flood is a serious challenge that increasingly affects the residents as well as policymakers. Flood vulnerability assessment is becoming gradually relevant in the world. The purpose of this study is to develop an approach to reveal the relationship between exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity for better flood vulnerability assessment, based on the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method (FCEM) and coordinated development degree model (CDDM). The approach is organized into three parts: establishment of index system, assessment of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity, and multiple flood vulnerability assessment. Hydrodynamic model and statistical data are employed for the establishment of index system; FCEM is used to evaluate exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity; and CDDM is applied to express the relationship of the three components of vulnerability. Six multiple flood vulnerability types and four levels are proposed to assess flood vulnerability from multiple perspectives. Then the approach is applied to assess the spatiality of flood vulnerability in Hainan's eastern area, China. Based on the results of multiple flood vulnerability, a decision-making process for rational allocation of limited resources is proposed and applied to the study area. The study shows that multiple flood vulnerability assessment can evaluate vulnerability more completely, and help decision makers learn more information about making decisions in a more comprehensive way. In summary, this study provides a new way for flood vulnerability assessment and disaster prevention decision. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Country logistics performance and disaster impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Alain; Haavisto, Ira

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to deepen the understanding of the relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact. The relationship is analysed through correlation analysis and regression models for 117 countries for the years 2007 to 2012 with disaster impact variables from the International Disaster Database (EM-DAT) and logistics performance indicators from the World Bank. The results show a significant relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact overall and for five out of six specific logistic performance indicators. These specific indicators were further used to explore the relationship between country logistic performance and disaster impact for three specific disaster types (epidemic, flood and storm). The findings enhance the understanding of the role of logistics in a humanitarian context with empirical evidence of the importance of country logistics performance in disaster response operations. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  5. On civil engineering disasters and their mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lili; Qu, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    Civil engineering works such as buildings and infrastructure are the carriers of human civilization. They are, however, also the origins of various types of disasters, which are referred to in this paper as civil engineering disasters. This paper presents the concept of civil engineering disasters, their characteristics, classification, causes, and mitigation technologies. Civil engineering disasters are caused primarily by civil engineering defects, which are usually attributed to improper selection of construction site, hazard assessment, design and construction, occupancy, and maintenance. From this viewpoint, many so-called natural disasters such as earthquakes, strong winds, floods, landslides, and debris flows are substantially due to civil engineering defects rather than the actual natural hazards. Civil engineering disasters occur frequently and globally and are the most closely related to human beings among all disasters. This paper emphasizes that such disasters can be mitigated mainly through civil engineering measures, and outlines the related objectives and scientific and technological challenges.

  6. From disaster to sustainability : Floods, changing property relations and water management in the south-western Netherlands, c. 1500-1800

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cruijningen, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient maintenance was the main cause of flooding of a large part of the South-Western Netherlands in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Re-embankment resulted in changes in soil conditions and property relations. Church and peasants lost land and urban bourgeois became the most important

  7. From disaster to sustainability: floods, changing property relations and water management in the south-western Netherlands, c. 1500-1800

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijningen, van P.J.

    2014-01-01

    When large parts of the south-western Netherlands flooded in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the main cause was insufficient maintenance of the sea defences. The subsequent re-embankment of the polders resulted in changes to both soil conditions and property relations in the region. The Church

  8. Community strengthening and mental health system linking after flooding in two informal human settlements in Peru: a model for small-scale disaster response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, C; Aguilar, M; Eappen, B; Guzmán, C; Carrasco, P; Millones, A K; Galea, J T

    2018-01-01

    Mental health is an important factor in responding to natural disasters. Observations of unmet mental health needs motivated the subsequent development of a community-based mental health intervention following one such disaster affecting Peru in 2017. Two informal human settlements on the outskirts of Lima were selected for a mental health intervention that included: (1) screening for depression and domestic violence, (2) children's activities to strengthen social and emotional skills and diminish stress, (3) participatory theater activities to support conflict resolution and community resilience, and (4) community health worker (CHW) accompaniment to government health services. A total of 129 people were screened across both conditions, of whom 12/116 (10%) presented with depression and 21/58 (36%) reported domestic violence. 27 unique individuals were identified with at least one problem. Thirteen people (48%) initially accepted CHW accompaniment to government-provided services. This intervention provides a model for a small-scale response to disasters that can effectively and acceptably identify individuals in need of mental health services and link them to a health system that may otherwise remain inaccessible.

  9. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabutola, W.; Scheer, S.

    2009-04-01

    Keywords: natural disasters; man-made disasters; terrorist attacks; land slides; disaster policies and legislations; fire; earthquakes; hurricanes; soil erosion; disaster research policy; Preamble: "Risk does not begin and end on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange. The vastness of the subject matter is daunting. Risk touches on the most profound aspects of psychology, mathematics, statistics and history. The literature is monumental; each day's headlines bring many new items of interest. But I know we are not unique, everywhere in the world risks abound." "AGAINST THE GODS the remarkable story of risk" by Peter L. Bernstein, 1998 The real challenge is what can we, as a nation do to avert, prevent them, or in the unfortunate event that they occur, how can we mitigate their impact on the economy? Introductory remarks: Disaster in Kenya, as indeed anywhere else, is not one of those happenings we can wish away. It can strike anywhere any time. Some of it is man-made but most of it is natural. The natural are sometimes induced by man in one way or another. For example, when we harvest trees without replacing them, this diminishes the forest cover and can lead to soil erosion, whose advanced form is land slides. Either way disasters in their different forms and sizes present challenges to the way we live our lives or not, perhaps, even how we die. Disasters in our country have reached crisis stage. ‘In Chinese language, crisis means danger, but it also means opportunity' Les Brown, motivational speaker in "the power of a larger vision" Why I am interested Whereas Kenya experiences man made and natural disasters, there are more sinister challenges of the man-made variety. These loom on the horizon and, from time to time raise their ugly heads, taking many Kenyan lives in their wake, and property destroyed. These are post election violence and terrorist attacks, both related to politics, internal and external. In January 2008, soon after presidential and national

  10. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabutola, W.

    2009-04-01

    Keywords: natural disasters; man-made disasters; terrorist attacks; land slides; disaster policies and legislations; fire; earthquakes; hurricanes; soil erosion; disaster research policy; Preamble: "Risk does not begin and end on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange. The vastness of the subject matter is daunting. Risk touches on the most profound aspects of psychology, mathematics, statistics and history. The literature is monumental; each day's headlines bring many new items of interest. But I know we are not unique, everywhere in the world risks abound." "AGAINST THE GODS the remarkable story of risk" by Peter L. Bernstein, 1998 The real challenge is what can we, as a nation do to avert, prevent them, or in the unfortunate event that they occur, how can we mitigate their impact on the economy? Introductory remarks: Disaster in Kenya, as indeed anywhere else, is not one of those happenings we can wish away. It can strike anywhere any time. Some of it is man-made but most of it is natural. The natural are sometimes induced by man in one way or another. For example, when we harvest trees without replacing them, this diminishes the forest cover and can lead to soil erosion, whose advanced form is land slides. Either way disasters in their different forms and sizes present challenges to the way we live our lives or not, perhaps, even how we die. Disasters in our country have reached crisis stage. ‘In Chinese language, crisis means danger, but it also means opportunity' Les Brown, motivational speaker in "the power of a larger vision" Why I am interested Whereas Kenya experiences man made and natural disasters, there are more sinister challenges of the man-made variety. These loom on the horizon and, from time to time raise their ugly heads, taking many Kenyan lives in their wake, and property destroyed. These are post election violence and terrorist attacks, both related to politics, internal and external. In January 2008, soon after presidential and national

  11. Responses to natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Since 1964, natural disasters caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or extreme weather in the form of floods, droughts, or hurricanes, have been responsible for more than 2,756,000 deaths worldwide in nations other than the United States, the Soviet Union, and the Eastern European Bloc, according to figures tabulated by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) of the Agency for International Development (AID). Over 95% of these fatalities occurred in developing or third world countries. Damage resulting from these calamities has been severe but extremely difficult to estimate in monetary terms. In 1986, U.S. government and voluntary agencies spent $303 million on natural disaster assistance around the world, 79% of total world assistance. In 1985 the U.S. total was nearly $900 million, 48% of the $1.84 billion world total.

  12. Health effects of natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Arsić Danijela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural hazards have a number of adverse effects - they affect the life and health of humans and the survival of other living beings, destroy material goods and deteriorate socio-economic conditions of life. Without neglecting the impact of natural hazards lower intensity, in this paper emphasis is placed on natural hazards with the strongest effects for human health, that is to natural disasters. It covered the impact of various natural disasters on mortality and morbidity during and immediately after natural disasters, including earthquakes, floods and drought, which is to characterize on the Republic of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  13. [Disaster and disaster nursing: from an education and research perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Chin; Fan, Jun-Yu

    2010-06-01

    Due to its geographic position and the effect of changes in both global and island-specific environments, Taiwan is an area highly prone to natural disasters. While responsibility for national disaster prevention and rescue are distributed amongst various authorities, healthcare agencies hold sole responsibility for the treatment of injuries sustained during disaster events. Disaster casualties require differing levels of medical assistance. In order to respond systematically to disaster events, the government should require that all healthcare facilities operate a hospital emergency incident command system (HEICS). Past experience shows the important role that nurses play in the disaster relief process. The 911 disaster in the United States both helped reorient the direction of nursing education and emphasized teaching practical strategies, standard operating procedures, and frequently asked questions for nurses. Recognizing the limited research done worldwide on disaster nursing, the World Society of Disaster Nursing (WSDN) was established in 2008 in Kobe, Japan. The main purposes of the WSDN is to promote international academic exchange, establish an Internet information exchange platform, and organize international disaster nursing related activities. The WSDN has suggested that future research may focus in on critical issues that include post-disaster health status follow-up, exploration of the healthcare needs and other issues of disaster survivors, care skills development, and the potential for development of cooperative support networks between medical institutions.

  14. Social attitudes towards floods in Poland - spatial differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, W.; Działek, J.; Bokwa, A.

    2012-04-01

    Our paper discusses results of research conducted in Southern Poland focusing on social attitudes towards floods - natural hazards frequently observed in Poland. Lately (e.g. 1997, 2001, 2010) several hundred thousand of people suffered from floods occurring in all examined communities. Presented analyses are based on questionnaire survey in which several criteria were used to select places for studies: objective degree of risk, prior experience of extreme events, size of community, strength of social bonds, social capital and quality of life. Nearly 2000 responses (from 9 communities) were gathered from the survey. Our main research questions were following: - are there differences between attitudes in those communities depending on how frequently they have experienced floods? - does settlement size have an impact on social attitudes towards floods, especially on mitigation behaviour? - are urban inhabitants less adapted to floods be upheld and do rural communities show more activity in the face of natural disasters? - what do information and education policies concerning floods look like? Three dimensions of social attitudes towards natural hazards were analyzed: cognitive (knowledge and awareness of local hazards), emotional (feelings towards hazards, like concern and anxiety); and instrumental (actions taken in response to a potential natural disaster). A combination of these three dimensions produces various types of perception and behaviour towards the perceived hazard (Raaijmakers et al., 2008): ignorance when the local population is unaware of a threat and therefore develops no concern and takes no preventive actions; safety when the local population is aware of a threat, but regards its level as either low or acceptable and is therefore not concerned with the threat and makes no preparations for a disaster; risk reduction when a high level of awareness and concern produces the mechanism of reducing the cognitive dissonance and denial of a disaster threat

  15. Public-private partnerships in local disaster management: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is anticipated that the occurrence and intensity of disasters will increase globally and in South Africa where typical disasters include droughts, floods, extreme hailstorms, gales, fires and earthquakes, as well as sinkholes arising from mining activity in dolomitic areas. Disasters such as these result in human suffering and ...

  16. Computer Cache. Natural Disasters: Earth, Wind, and Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.; Byerly, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Natural disasters come in all shapes and sizes and affect all areas of the earth, and studying natural disasters may make children more aware of their physical environment and their place in it. This column provides a list of websites on different types of natural disasters, including earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanoes, floods,…

  17. Disaster Metrics: A Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Diana F; Spencer, Caroline; Boyd, Lee; Burkle, Frederick M; Archer, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Introduction The frequency of disasters is increasing around the world with more people being at risk. There is a moral imperative to improve the way in which disaster evaluations are undertaken and reported with the aim of reducing preventable mortality and morbidity in future events. Disasters are complex events and undertaking disaster evaluations is a specialized area of study at an international level. Hypothesis/Problem While some frameworks have been developed to support consistent disaster research and evaluation, they lack validation, consistent terminology, and standards for reporting across the different phases of a disaster. There is yet to be an agreed, comprehensive framework to structure disaster evaluation typologies. The aim of this paper is to outline an evolving comprehensive framework for disaster evaluation typologies. It is anticipated that this new framework will facilitate an agreement on identifying, structuring, and relating the various evaluations found in the disaster setting with a view to better understand the process, outcomes, and impacts of the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions. Research was undertaken in two phases: (1) a scoping literature review (peer-reviewed and "grey literature") was undertaken to identify current evaluation frameworks and typologies used in the disaster setting; and (2) a structure was developed that included the range of typologies identified in Phase One and suggests possible relationships in the disaster setting. No core, unifying framework to structure disaster evaluation and research was identified in the literature. The authors propose a "Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies" that identifies, structures, and suggests relationships for the various typologies detected. The proposed Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies outlines the different typologies of disaster evaluations that were identified in this study and brings them together into a single

  18. Emergency and Disaster Information Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boszormenyi, Zsolt

    2010-05-01

    The Hungarian National Association of Radio Distress-Signalling and Infocommunications (RSOE) operates Emergency and Disaster Information Service (EDIS) within the frame of its own website which has the objective to monitor and document all the events on the Earth which may cause disaster or emergency. Our service is using the speed and the data spectrum of the internet to gather information. We are monitoring and processing several foreign organisation's data to get quick and certified information. The EDIS website operated together by the General-Directorate of National Disaster Management (OKF) and RSOE, in co-operation with the Crisis Management Centre of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, provides useful information regarding emergency situations and their prevention. Extraordinary events happening in Hungary, Europe and other areas of the World are being monitored in 24 hours per day. All events processed by RSOE EDIS are displayed real time - for the sake of international compatibility - according to the CAP protocol on a secure website. To ensure clear transparency all events are categorized separately in the RSS directory (e.g. earthquake, fire, flood, landslide, nuclear event, tornado, vulcano). RSOE EDIS also contributes in dissemination of the CAP protocol in Hungary. Beside the official information, with the help of special programs nearly 900-1000 internet press publication will be monitored and the publication containing predefined keywords will be processed. However, these "news" cannot be considered as official and reliable information, but many times we have learnt critical information from the internet press. We are screening the incoming information and storing in a central database sorted by category. After processing the information we are sending it immediately via E-Mail (or other format) for the organisations and persons who have requested it (e.g. National Disaster Management, United Nations etc.). We are aspiring that the processed data

  19. DISASTER RISK AND CAPACITIES ASSESSMENT IN THE NORTH-WEST PARTS OF RWANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.ean Baptiste Nsengiyumva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Rwanda is located in the Great lakes region of the central Africa. This landlocked country has historically suffered from periodic natural and manmade disasters, mainly in the form of droughts, floods and landslides impacting the agrarian economy and the country’s efforts towards sustainable development and poverty reduction. Vulnerability to Periodic natural disasters is a long term concern. The study therefore aims at conducting an assessment of disaster risks, vulnerabilities and coping capacities in Burera, Nyabihu and Musanze Districts affected floods and landslides in order to put in place mitigation strategies for disaster risks. Different methods and techniques were used to conduct this study including interviews, questionnaires, focus group discussions, field visits and observations, GIS and remote sensing among others. The analysis comprised the disaggregation of the hazards’ characteristics including description of the hazard, Triggering factors, Frequency, seasonality, Duration, sectors affected, impacts, time of recovery, intensity of the hazard and others. In terms of vulnerability. The analysis comprised physical, environmental, social, institutional, economic, profile of the most vulnerable populations, differentiation of impacts, and level of vulnerabilities. The study results showed that the Disaster Risk reduction is very possible through a comprehensive risk management. There is also a big need to expand capacity building in terms of disaster management, risk mapping to reach cell and village levels, put in place and operationalize early warning systems or hydro-meteorological hazards and many others in order to minimize the disaster risks and where possible to transform them into opportunities. All disasters are not preventable but mitigation is always possible.

  20. Characterize the hydraulic behaviour of grate inlet in urban drainage to prevent the urban's flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez Alvarez, Jackson David; Gomez, Manuel; Russo, Beniamino; Redondo, Jose M.

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important problems that have some cities is the urban floods because of poor drainage design. Therefore the systems the drainage do not have the capacity of capture the flow of discharge generated in a rain event and insert it into the drainage network. Even though the two problems that have caught the main attention are the evaluation of the volumes falling in the river basin because extreme rainfall events often lead to urban pluvial flooding being a hydrologic problem and the hydraulic design of the sewer network being a hydraulic problem to limiting capacity of the drainage system, there is an intermediate step between these two processes that is necessary to solve that is the hydraulic behavior of the grate inlet. We need to collect the runoff produced on the city surface and to introduce it in the sewer network. Normally foundry companies provide complete information about drainage grate structural capacity but provide nothing about their hydraulic capacity. This fact can be seen because at the moment does not exist any official regulation at national or international level in this field. It's obvious that, nowadays, there is a great gap in this field at the legislative level owing to the complexity of this field and the modernity of the urban hydrology as science [1]. In essence, we shows the relevance to know the inlet hydraulic interception capacity because surface drainage requires a satisfactory knowledge on storm frequency, gutter flow and above all inlet capacity. In addition, we development an important achievement is the invention and development of techniques for measurement of field velocities in hydraulics engineering applications. Hence knowledge the technological advances in digital cameras with high resolution and high speed found in the environmental, and the advances in image processing techniques, therefore now is a tremendous potential to obtain of behavior of the water surface flow [2]. A novel technique using particle

  1. Using Climate Information for Disaster Risk Identification in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, L.

    2004-12-01

    We have engaged in a concerted attempt to undertake research and apply earth science information for development in Sri Lanka, with a focus on climate sciences. Here, we provide details of an ongoing attempt to harness science for disaster identification as a prelude to informed disaster management. Natural disasters not only result in death and destruction but also undermine decades of development gains as highlighted by recent examples from Sri Lanka. First, in May 2003, flooding and landslides in the South-West led to 260 deaths, damage to 120,000 homes and destruction of schools, infrastructure and agricultural land. Second, on December 26, 2000, a cyclone in the North-Central region left 8 dead, 55,000 displaced, with severe damage to fishing, agriculture, infrastructure and cultural sites. Third, an extended island-wide drought in 2001 and 2002 resulted in a 2% drop in GDP. In the aftermath of these disasters, improved disaster management has been deemed to be urgent by the Government of Sri Lanka. In the past the primary policy response to disasters was to provide emergency relief. It is increasingly recognized that appropriate disaster risk management, including risk assessment, preventive measures to reduce losses and improved preparedness, can help reduce death, destruction and socio-economic disruption. The overwhelming majority of hazards in Sri Lanka - droughts, floods, cyclones and landslides -have hydro-meteorological antecedents. Little systematic advantage has, however, been taken of hydro-meteorological information and advances in climate prediction for disaster management. Disaster risks are created by the interaction between hazard events and vulnerabilities of communities, infrastructure and economically important activities. A comprehensive disaster risk management system encompasses risk identification, risk reduction and risk transfer. We undertook an identification of risks for Sri Lanka at fine scale with the support of the Global Disaster

  2. Toward more flood resilience: Is a diversification of flood risk management strategies the way forward?

    OpenAIRE

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Wiering, Mark; van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Matczak, Piotr; Crabbé, Ann; Raadgever, G.T.; Bakker, M.H.N.; Priest, Sally; Larrue, Corinne; Ek, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    European countries face increasing flood risks due to urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of strategies for flood risk management (FRM) - including flood risk prevention (through pro-active spatial planning), flood defense, flood risk mitigation, flood preparation and flood recovery - makes countries more flood resilient. While this thesis is plausible, it should still be...

  3. Application of fuzzy weight of evidence and data mining techniques in construction of flood susceptibility map of Poyang County, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haoyuan; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Ilia, Ioanna; Liu, Junzhi; Zhu, A-Xing; Chen, Wei

    2018-06-01

    In China, floods are considered as the most frequent natural disaster responsible for severe economic losses and serious damages recorded in agriculture and urban infrastructure. Based on the international experience prevention of flood events may not be completely possible, however identifying susceptible and vulnerable areas through prediction models is considered as a more visible task with flood susceptibility mapping being an essential tool for flood mitigation strategies and disaster preparedness. In this context, the present study proposes a novel approach to construct a flood susceptibility map in the Poyang County, JiangXi Province, China by implementing fuzzy weight of evidence (fuzzy-WofE) and data mining methods. The novelty of the presented approach is the usage of fuzzy-WofE that had a twofold purpose. Firstly, to create an initial flood susceptibility map in order to identify non-flood areas and secondly to weight the importance of flood related variables which influence flooding. Logistic Regression (LR), Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) were implemented considering eleven flood related variables, namely: lithology, soil cover, elevation, slope angle, aspect, topographic wetness index, stream power index, sediment transport index, plan curvature, profile curvature and distance from river network. The efficiency of this new approach was evaluated using area under curve (AUC) which measured the prediction and success rates. According to the outcomes of the performed analysis, the fuzzy WofE-SVM model was the model with the highest predictive performance (AUC value, 0.9865) which also appeared to be statistical significant different from the other predictive models, fuzzy WofE-RF (AUC value, 0.9756) and fuzzy WofE-LR (AUC value, 0.9652). The proposed methodology and the produced flood susceptibility map could assist researchers and local governments in flood mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Modelling the flood-risk extent using LISFLOOD-FP in a complex watershed: case study of Mundeni Aru River Basin, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarnath, G.; Umer, Y. M.; Alahacoon, N.; Inada, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Flood management is adopting a more risk-based approach, whereby flood risk is the product of the probability and consequences of flooding. Two-dimensional flood inundation modeling is a widely used tool to aid flood-risk management. The aim of this study is to develop a flood inundation model that uses historical flow data to produce flood-risk maps, which will help to identify flood protection measures in the rural areas of Sri Lanka. The LISFLOOD-FP model was developed at the basin scale using available historical data, and also through coupling with a hydrological modelling system, to map the inundation extent and depth. Results from the flood inundation model were evaluated using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images to assess product accuracy. The impacts of flooding on agriculture and livelihoods were analyzed to assess the flood risks. It was identified that most of the areas under paddy cultivation that were located near the middle and downstream part of the river basin are more susceptible to flood risks. This paper also proposes potential countermeasures for future natural disasters to prevent and mitigate possible damages.

  5. Can We Protect Our Communities from Natural Disasters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There are two ways one might protect communities from natural disasters. One is to minimize the damage from disasters, and the other is to prevent the disasters in the first place. However, preventing disasters is another matter, and in trying to do so, we have to be aware of unintended consequences of our efforts. To address the issues associated…

  6. A Research on Development of The Multi-mode Flood Forecasting System Version Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J.-C.; Chang, C. H.; Lien, H. C.; Wu, S. J.; Horng, M. J.

    2009-04-01

    With the global economy and technological development, the degree of urbanization and population density relative to raise. At the same time, a natural buffer space and resources year after year, the situation has been weakened, not only lead to potential environmental disasters, more and more serious, disaster caused by the economy, loss of natural environment at all levels has been expanded. In view of this, the active participation of all countries in the world cross-sectoral integration of disaster prevention technology research and development, in addition, the specialized field of disaster prevention technology, science and technology development, network integration technology, high-speed data transmission and information to support the establishment of mechanisms for disaster management The decision-making and cross-border global disaster information network building and other related technologies, has become the international anti-disaster science and technology development trends, this trend. Naturally a few years in Taiwan, people's lives and property losses caused by many problems related to natural disaster prevention and disaster prevention and the establishment of applications has become a very important. For FEWS_Taiwan, flood warning system developed by the Delft Hydraulics and introduced the Water Resources Agency (WRA), it provides those functionalities for users to modify contents to add the basins, regions, data sources, models and etc. Despite this advantage, version differences due to different users or different teams yet bring about the difficulties on synchronization and integration.At the same time in different research teams will also add different modes of meteorological and hydrological data. From the government perspective of WRA, the need to plan standard operation procedures for system integration demands that the effort for version control due to version differences must be cost down or yet canceled out. As for FEWS_Taiwan, this

  7. Floods and migration in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojanov, R.; Kelman, I.; Duží, Barbora

    -, 49 May 2015 (2015), s. 49-50 ISSN 1460-9819 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : migration * flood * household Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality http://www.fmreview.org/climatechange-disasters/stojanov-kelman-duzi

  8. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073

  9. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.

  10. Dynamic Critical Rainfall-Based Flash Flood Early Warning and Forecasting for Medium-Small Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Yang, D.; Hu, J.

    2012-04-01

    China is extremely frequent food disasters hit countries, annual flood season flash floods triggered by rainfall, mudslides, landslides have caused heavy casualties and property losses, not only serious threaten the lives of the masses, but the majority of seriously restricting the mountain hill areas of economic and social development and the people become rich, of building a moderately prosperous society goals. In the next few years, China will focus on prevention and control area in the flash flood disasters initially built "for the surveillance, communications, forecasting, early warning and other non-engineering measure based, non-engineering measures and the combinations of engineering measures," the mitigation system. The latest progresses on global torrential flood early warning and forecasting techniques are reviewed in this paper, and then an early warning and forecasting approach is proposed on the basis of a distributed hydrological model according to dynamic critical rainfall index. This approach has been applied in Suichuanjiang River basin in Jiangxi province, which is expected to provide valuable reference for building a national flash flood early warning and forecasting system as well as control of such flooding.

  11. Stormwater Volume Control to Prevent Increases in Lake Flooding and Dam Failure Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    Urban expansion is not often considered a major factor contributing to dam failure. But if urbanization occurs without mitigation of the hydrologic impacts, the risk of dam failure will increase. Of particular concern are increases in the volume of storm runoff resulting from increases in the extent of impervious surfaces. Storm runoff volumes are not regulated for much the U.S, and where they are, the required control is commonly less than 100%. Unmitigated increases in runoff volume due to urbanization can pose a risk to dams. A recent technical advisory committee of Dane County has recommended that the county require 100% control of stormwater volumes for new developments. The primary motivation was to prevent increases in the water levels in the Yahara Lakes, slowly draining lakes that are highly sensitive to runoff volume. The recommendations included the use of "volume trading" to achieve efficient compliance. Such recommendations should be considered for other slowly draining lakes, including those created by artificial structures.

  12. Recurrent floods in the district of Bocas de Tulua (Valle del Cauca - Colombia and its impact on a native community of 657 people, from 2011 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Hurtado Bolaños

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify the causes and consequences of the floods of 2011 and 2012 in the village of Bocas de Tulua, Valle del Cauca in order to determine if local governments have disaster prevention plans in place, if these plans have the necessary resources to evade floods, and to determine the effects of the recurring floods on the community. The study population is rural and comprised of 657 people. The investigation begins with a characterization of the study population, explains the methodology used, and presents data from a sample of 111 persons who were given a structured interview. The study raises discussion points and proposes conclusions.

  13. Moderating effects of maternal emotional availability on language and cognitive development in toddlers of mothers exposed to a natural disaster in pregnancy: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Marie-Paule; Christl, Bettina; McMahon, Cathy; Kildea, Sue; Reilly, Nicole; Yin, Carolyn; Simcock, Gabrielle; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2017-11-01

    Prenatal maternal stress exposure has been linked to sub-optimal developmental outcomes in toddlers, while maternal emotional availability is associated with better cognitive and language abilities. It is less clear whether early care-giving relationships can moderate the impact of prenatal stress on child development. The current study investigates the impact of stress during pregnancy resulting from the Queensland Floods in 2011 on toddlers' cognitive and language development, and examines how maternal emotional availability is associated with these outcomes. Data were available from 131 families. Measures of prenatal stress (objective hardship, cognitive appraisal, and three measures of maternal subjective stress) were collected within one year of the 2011 Queensland floods. Maternal emotional availability was rated from video-taped mother-child play sessions at 16 months: sensitivity (e.g., affective connection, responsiveness to signals) and structuring (e.g., scaffolding, guidance, limit-setting). The toddlers' cognitive and language development was assessed at 30 months. Interactions were tested to determine whether maternal emotional availability moderated the relationship between prenatal maternal stress and toddler cognitive and language functioning. Prenatal stress was not correlated with toddlers' cognitive and language development at 30 months. Overall, the higher the maternal structuring and sensitivity, the better the toddlers' cognitive outcomes. However, significant interactions showed that the effects of maternal structuring on toddler language abilities depended on the degree of prenatal maternal subjective stress: when maternal subjective stress was above fairly low levels, the greater the maternal structuring, the higher the child vocabulary level. The current study highlights the importance of maternal emotional availability, especially structuring, for cognitive and language development in young children. Findings suggest that toddlers

  14. Establishment and Practical Application of Flood Warning Stage in Taiwan's River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Hsueh; Chia Yeh, Keh-

    2017-04-01

    In the face of extreme flood events or the possible impact of climate change, non-engineering disaster prevention and early warning work is particularly important. Taiwan is an island topography with more than 3,900 meters of high mountains. The length of the river is less than 100 kilometers. Most of the watershed catchment time is less than 24 hours, which belongs to the river with steep slope and rapid flood. Every year in summer and autumn, several typhoon events invade Taiwan. Typhoons often result in rainfall events in excess of 100 mm/hr or 250 mm/3hr. In the face of Taiwan's terrain and extreme rainfall events, flooding is difficult to avoid. Therefore, most of the river has embankment protection, so that people do not have to face every year flooding caused by economic and life and property losses. However, the river embankment protection is limited. With the increase of the hydrological data, the design criteria for the embankment protection standards in the past was 100 year of flood return period and is now gradually reduced to 25 or 50 year of flood return period. The river authorities are not easy to rise the existing embankment height. The safety of the river embankment in Taiwan is determined by the establishment of the flood warning stage to cope with the possible increase in annual floods and the impact of extreme hydrological events. The flood warning stage is equal to the flood control elevation minus the flood rise rate multiply by the flood early warning time. The control elevation can be the top of the embankment, the design flood level of the river, the embankment gap of the river section, the height of the bridge beam bottom, etc. The flood rise rate is consider the factors such as hydrological stochastic and uncertain rainfall and the effect of flood discharge operation on the flood in the watershed catchment area. The maximum value of the water level difference between the two hours or five hours before the peak value of the analysis

  15. Flood Hazards: Communicating Hydrology and Complexity to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R. R.; Blanchard, S. F.; Mason, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    Floods have a major impact on society and the environment. Since 1952, approximately 1,233 of 1,931 (64%) Federal disaster declarations were due directly to flooding, with an additional 297 due to hurricanes which had associated flooding. Although the overall average annual number of deaths due to flooding has decreased in the United States, the average annual flood damage is rising. According to the Munich Reinsurance Company in their publication “Schadenspiegel 3/2005”, during 1990s the world experienced as much as $500 billion in economic losses due to floods, highlighting the serious need for continued emphasis on flood-loss prevention measures. Flood-loss prevention has two major elements: mitigation (including structural flood-control measures and land-use planning and regulation) and risk awareness. Of the two, increasing risk awareness likely offers the most potential for protecting lives over the near-term and long-term sustainability in the coming years. Flood-risk awareness and risk-aware behavior is dependent on communication, involving both prescriptive and educational measures. Prescriptive measures (for example, flood warnings and stormwater ordinances) are and have been effective, but there is room for improvement. New communications technologies, particularly social media utilizing mobile, smart phones and text devices, for example, could play a significant role in increasing public awareness of long-term risk and near-term flood conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), for example, the Federal agency that monitors the Nation’s rivers, recently released a new service that can better connect the to the public to information about flood hazards. The new service, WaterAlert (URL: http://water.usgs.gov/wateralert/), allows users to set flood notification thresholds of their own choosing for any USGS real-time streamgage. The system then sends emails or text messages to subscribers whenever the threshold conditions are met, as often as the

  16. Local Communities and Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Mitigation: Lessons from Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Discourse in recent years among scientists and non-scientists increasingly promotes the involvement of local people in hazard mitigation, including inhabitants of floodplains in valleys below moraine-dammed glacial lakes. Despite advances in understanding human vulnerability to glacial lake outburst floods, there has been much less research on how these vulnerable populations are involved (or ignored) in the actual outburst flood mitigation process. Which groups should be involved? Are they in fact participating? Is that involvement successful? Peru's Cordillera Blanca mountain range provides an ideal site to help answer these questions because its moraine-dammed glacial lakes have produced more than a dozen outburst floods since ~1860. After floods in 1941, 1945, and 1950 killed approximately 6,000, the national government created a state agency, which still exists today, to monitor glacial lakes and prevent future outburst floods. Using this region as a case study to answer the above questions, this paper has three components. First, it provides historical examples of local people's participation in disaster mitigation, but shows that the outcome of such local involvement frequently turned out differently than scientists, engineers, and planners anticipated. Second, it shows the challenges and difficulties of involving local groups. Recent efforts in workshops, aid projects, and government programs show only limited success in community participation in disaster mitigation agendas. Third, the paper suggests that in many cases local indigenous people, as icons of the Andean region but often not the most vulnerable group, are disproportionately victimized and tacitly invited into disaster mitigation discussions. Poor urban residents inhabiting floodplains are often neglected, even though they are the most vulnerable to outburst floods. As other world regions such as the Himalayas increasingly contend with potential glacial lake outburst floods, these lessons from

  17. Risk of flooding: Activities, parameters and regional peculiarities, Case study: Varbitsa watershed basin, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubenov Todor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the activities overtaken during risk of flooding situations, in one of the more often flooding region - the watershed of Varbitsa river (Southeastern part of Bulgaria - has been performed. The main cognitive parameters for risk perception and risk definition, depending on regional, social and historical factors have been examined. The existing information and instructions for mass media communication in relation to the process of interaction in a disaster situation have been discussed. In connection to determination of the risky segments in the basin and plans for announcement, the prevention communication measures have been outlined. On the basis of the Bulgarian normative legislation, the activities concerning organization of communications in a risk-of-disaster situation and mutual aid between authorities, which are part of the Integrated Help System have been indicated. It has been accented on the necessity of a more effective realization of the action plans during natural disasters and especially flooding, in order to improve the partnership between authorities and participants in the communication process during risk-of-flooding situations.

  18. Environmental implications for disaster preparedness: lessons learnt from the Indian Ocean Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Hari; Nakagawa, Yuko

    2008-10-01

    The impact of disasters, whether natural or man-made, not only has human dimensions, but environmental ones as well. Environmental conditions may exacerbate the impact of a disaster, and vice versa, disasters tend to have an impact on the environment. Deforestation, forest management practices, or agriculture systems can worsen the negative environmental impacts of a storm or typhoon, leading to landslides, flooding, silting, and ground/surface water contamination. We have only now come to understand these cyclical causes and impacts and realize that taking care of our natural resources and managing them wisely not only assures that future generations will be able to live in sustainable ways, but also reduces the risks that natural and man-made hazards pose to people living today. Emphasizing and reinforcing the centrality of environmental concerns in disaster management has become a critical priority, requiring the sound management of natural resources as a tool to prevent disasters and lessen their impacts on people, their homes, and livelihoods. As the horrors of the Asian tsunami of December 2004 continue to be evaluated, and people in the region slowly attempt to build a semblance of normalcy, we have to look to the lessons learnt from the tsunami disaster as an opportunity to prepare ourselves better for future disasters. This article focuses on findings and lessons learnt on the environmental aspects of the tsunami, and its implications on disaster preparedness plans. This article essentially emphasizes the cyclical interrelations between environments and disasters, by studying the findings and assessments of the recent Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that struck on 26 December 2004. It specifically looks at four key affected countries--Maldives, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and Thailand.

  19. Flash Flood Hazard Mapping Using Satellite Images and GIS Tools: A case study of Najran City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Elkhrachy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flash flood in the cities led to high levels of water in the streets and roads, causing many problems such as bridge collapse, building damage and traffic problems. It is impossible to avoid risks of floods or prevent their occurrence, however it is plausible to work on the reduction of their effects and to reduce the losses which they may cause. Flash flood mapping to identify sites in high risk flood zones is one of the powerful tools for this purpose. Mapping flash flood will be beneficial to urban and infrastructure planners, risk managers and disaster response or emergency services during extreme and intense rainfall events. The objective of this paper is to generate flash flood map for Najran city, Saudi Arabia, using satellite images and GIS tools. To do so, we use SPOT and SRTM DEMs data for which accuracy assessment is achieved by using check points, obtained by GPS observations. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP is used to determine relative impact weight of flood causative factors to get a composite flood hazard index (FHI. The causative factors in this study are runoff, soil type, surface slope, surface roughness, drainage density, distance to main channel and land use. All used data are finally integrated in an ArcMap to prepare a final flood hazard map for study area. The areas in high risk flood zones are obtained by overlaying the flood hazard index map with the zone boundaries layer. The affected population number and land area are determined and compared.

  20. Stealth Disasters and Geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Susan W.

    2013-04-01

    Natural processes of the earth unleash energy in ways that are sometimes harmful or, at best, inconvenient, for humans: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, landslides, floods. Ignoring the biological component of the geosphere, we have historically called such events "natural disasters." They are typically characterized by a sudden onset and relatively immediate consequences. There are many historical examples and our human societies have evolved various ways of coping with them logistically, economically, and psychologically. Preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation are possible, at least to some extent, even in the largest of events. Geoethical questions exist in each stage, but the limited local extent of these disasters allows the possibility of discussion and resolution. There are other disasters that involve the natural systems that support us. Rather than being driven primarily by natural non-biological processes, these are driven by human behavior. Examples are climate change, desertification, acidification of the oceans, and compaction and erosion of fertile soils. They typically have more gradual onsets than natural disasters and, because of this, I refer to these as "stealth disasters." Although they are unfolding unnoticed or ignored by many, they are having near-term consequences. At a global scale they are new to human experience. Our efforts at preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation lag far behind those that we have in place for natural disasters. Furthermore, these four stages in stealth disaster situations involve many ethical questions that typically must be solved in the context of much larger cultural and social differences than encountered in natural disaster settings. Four core ethical principles may provide guidelines—autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice (e.g., Jamais Cascio). Geoscientists can contribute to the solutions in many ways. We can work to ensure that as people take responsibility

  1. The impact of flooding on people living with HIV: a case study from the Ohangwena Region, Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthonj, Carmen; Nkongolo, Odon T; Schmitz, Peter; Hango, Johannes N; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Floods are a disaster situation for all affected populations and especially for vulnerable groups within communities such as children, orphans, women, and people with chronic diseases such as HIV and AIDS. They need functioning health care, sanitation and hygiene, safe water, and healthy food supply, and are critically dependent on their social care and support networks. A study carried out in the Ohangwena region, Namibia, where HIV prevalence is high and extensive flooding frequently occurs, aims to provide a deeper understanding of the impact that flooding has on people living with HIV (PLWHIV) as well as on HIV service providers in the region. The qualitative research applying grounded theory included semi-structured interviews with PLWHIV, focus group discussions with HIV service providers, and a national feedback meeting. The findings were interpreted using the sustainable livelihoods framework, the natural hazard research approach, and health behaviour theories. The study reveals that flooding poses major problems to PLWHIV in terms of their everyday lives, affecting livelihoods, work, income, and living conditions. The factors threatening them under normal conditions - poverty, malnutrition, unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene, limited access to health facilities, a weak health status, and stigma - are intensified by flood-related breakdown of infrastructure, insecurity, malnutrition, and diseases evolving over the course of a flood. A potential dual risk exists for their health: the increased risk both of infection and disease due to the inaccessibility of health services and antiretroviral treatment. A HIV and Flooding Framework was developed to display the results. This study demonstrates that vulnerabilities and health risks of PLWHIV will increase in a disaster situation like flooding if access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support are not addressed and ensured. The findings and the HIV and Flooding Framework are not specific to Ohangwena and

  2. The impact of flooding on people living with HIV: a case study from the Ohangwena Region, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Anthonj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Floods are a disaster situation for all affected populations and especially for vulnerable groups within communities such as children, orphans, women, and people with chronic diseases such as HIV and AIDS. They need functioning health care, sanitation and hygiene, safe water, and healthy food supply, and are critically dependent on their social care and support networks. A study carried out in the Ohangwena region, Namibia, where HIV prevalence is high and extensive flooding frequently occurs, aims to provide a deeper understanding of the impact that flooding has on people living with HIV (PLWHIV as well as on HIV service providers in the region. Design: The qualitative research applying grounded theory included semi-structured interviews with PLWHIV, focus group discussions with HIV service providers, and a national feedback meeting. The findings were interpreted using the sustainable livelihoods framework, the natural hazard research approach, and health behaviour theories. Results: The study reveals that flooding poses major problems to PLWHIV in terms of their everyday lives, affecting livelihoods, work, income, and living conditions. The factors threatening them under normal conditions – poverty, malnutrition, unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene, limited access to health facilities, a weak health status, and stigma – are intensified by flood-related breakdown of infrastructure, insecurity, malnutrition, and diseases evolving over the course of a flood. A potential dual risk exists for their health: the increased risk both of infection and disease due to the inaccessibility of health services and antiretroviral treatment. A HIV and Flooding Framework was developed to display the results. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that vulnerabilities and health risks of PLWHIV will increase in a disaster situation like flooding if access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support are not addressed and ensured. The findings and

  3. Challenges of the decade: Natural disasters and global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, James P.

    1992-06-01

    The 1990s can be seen, in many ways, as a transitional decade. THe concept of environmentally sustainable development is becoming accepted as a paradigm for the 21st century, gradually overtaking the concepts of environmental protection and resource management. It will be increasingly unacceptable to view environmental protection as an add-on or afterthought to economic development activities. The U.N. Conference on Environment and Development, the ``Earth Summit'' of June 1992, sough to strengthen economic development in ways that reinforce environmental values. Two of the major, inter-related, issues driving these changes in approach to both environment and development, are climate change as influenced by human-generated greenhouse gases, and the reduction of losses, human and economic, due to natural environmental hazards. The Second World Climate Conference in late 1990, lead to opening of international negotiation of a global convention on climate change. This convention, signed at the Earth Summit, ensures that energy, forest management and agricultural policies, in all countries, are being closely re-examined for their environmental effects. The climate negotiations also addressed adaptation to changes in risks of natural hazards, due to changing climate. The International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction should be viewed in a similar developmental context. It is clear that losses during natural disasters can seriously set back economic development, estecially in poorer countries and regions. In many vulnerable countries, periodic declines in national economic output are highly correlated with occurrences of major disasters due to tropical cyclones, floods, earthquakes or volcanos. It is also evident that by adequate measures for prevention, warning and preparedness, these disaster losses can be substantially reduced. It is, thus, essential that all national development plans incorporate disaster preparedness activities, and that these activities be

  4. Disaster: would your community bounce back?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, Benjamin H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-12

    What makes some communities or organizations able to quickly bounce back from a disaster, while others take a long time to recover? This question has become very important for emergency planners in federal, state, and local government - particularly since the 9/11 attacks and Hurricane Katrina, which nearly destroyed New Orleans five years ago. These events have made people aware that we can't always prevent disasters, but might be able to improve the ability of communities and regions to respond to and bounce back from major disruptions. Social scientists have found that most communities are, in fact, quite resilient to most disasters. People tend to work together, overcome divisions, identify problems, and develop improvised solutions. This often leads to a greater sense of community and a sense of personal accomplishment. Long-term recovery can be harder, but rebuilding can create jobs and stimulate economies. Communities may even end up better than they were before. But there are some disturbing exceptions to this trend, including Hurricane Katrina. The hurricane killed many people, the federal and local emergency response was not effective, people who could not evacuate were housed in the Superdome and Convention Center in terrible conditions, crime was prevalent, and local government did not appear to have control over the situation. A significant portion of the population was eventually evacuated to other cities. Even five years later, many people have not returned, and large parts of the city have not been rebuilt. Clearly, New Orleans lacked sufficient resilience to overcome a disaster of the magnitude of Katrina. There are four factors that social scientists are beginning to agree are important for community resilience: (1) A strong, diverse economy - Stable jobs, good incomes, diversity of industries, personal savings; (2) Robust social networks - Community members know each other, help each other, and have connections outside the community; (3

  5. Geography Education Challenges Regarding Disaster Mitigation in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Koji; Mitsuhashi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    After the March 2011 great East Japan earthquake, school teachers became much more interested in education for disaster prevention. The purpose of this paper is to indicate the extent education for disaster prevention is present in the Japanese National Curriculum. Before March 2011, some elements of disaster prevention education were added to the…

  6. The NASA Applied Science Program Disasters Area: Disaster Applications Research and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. J.; Lindsay, F. E.; Stough, T.; Jones, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the Natural Disaster Application Area is to use NASA's capabilities in spaceborne, airborne, surface observations, higher-level derived data products, and modeling and data analysis to improve natural disaster forecasting, mitigation, and response. The Natural Disaster Application Area applies its remote sensing observations, modeling and analysis capabilities to provide hazard and disaster information where and when it is needed. Our application research activities specifically contribute to 1) Understanding the natural processes that produce hazards, 2)Developing hazard mitigation technologies, and 3)Recognizing vulnerability of interdependent critical infrastructure. The Natural Disasters Application area selects research projects through a rigorous, impartial peer-review process that address a broad spectrum of disasters which afflict populations within the United States, regionally and globally. Currently there are 19 active projects in the research portfolio which address the detection, characterization, forecasting and response to a broad range of natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and ash dispersion, wildfires, hurricanes, floods, tornado damage assessment, oil spills and disaster data mining. The Disasters team works with federal agencies to aid the government in meeting the challenges associated with natural disaster response and to transfer technologies to agencies as they become operational. Internationally, the Disasters Area also supports the Committee on Earth Observations Working Group on Disasters, and the International Charter on Space and Disasters to increase, strengthen, and coordinate contributions of NASA Earth-observing satellites and applications products to disaster risk management. The CEOS group will lead pilot efforts focused on identifying key systems to support flooding, earthquake, and volcanic events.

  7. Flood and cassave productivity in Kogi State, Nigeria: A quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the effect of the 2012 flood disaster on cassava productivity in Kogi State and identified the adaptation measures and resilience capacity of the cassava farmers affected by the flood. To achieve the objectives of the study, the “with and without” approach involving the flood affected farmers and control ...

  8. Should seasonal rainfall forecasts be used for flood preparedness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coughlan, E.R.; Stephens, E.; Bischiniotis, K.; van Aalst, M.; van den Hurk, B.J.J.M.; Mason, S.; Nissan, H.; Pappenberger, F.

    2017-01-01

    In light of strong encouragement for disaster managers to use climate services for flood preparation, we question whether seasonal rainfall forecasts should indeed be used as indicators of the likelihood of flooding. Here, we investigate the primary indicators of flooding at the seasonal timescale

  9. Rainfall characteristics and occurrence of floods in Gombe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gombe metropolis has been experiencing urban flooding particular in the last two decades. The flood disasters of 2004, 2012 and 2014 in the metropolis were alarming. This paper is aimed at analyzing the rainfall characteristics of Gombe metropolis in order to examine the implications on the occurrence of flooding in the ...

  10. FLOPROS: an evolving global database of flood protection standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scussolini, P.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Jongman, B.; Bouwer, L.M.; Winsemius, H.C.; De Moel, H; Ward, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    With projected changes in climate, population and socioeconomic activity located in flood-prone areas, the global assessment of flood risk is essential to inform climate change policy and disaster risk management. Whilst global flood risk models exist for this purpose, the accuracy of their results

  11. Comprehensive Child-Oriented Preventive Resilience Program in Israel Based on Lessons Learned from Communities Exposed to War, Terrorism and Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamiel, Daniel; Wolmer, Leo; Spirman, Smadar; Laor, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coping with mass emergencies and disasters has become a growing challenge for children, adults and entire communities. Among the population groups affected by disaster, children are particularly vulnerable. Responsible disaster intervention requires both top-down and bottom-up preparation that endorses an ecological perspective, taking…

  12. Flood Stress as a Technique to Assess Preventive Insecticide and Fungicide Treatments for Protecting Trees against Ambrosia Beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Ranger

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambrosia beetles tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress for making Cercis canadensis L. and Cornus florida L. trees attractive to attack as part of insecticide and fungicide efficacy trials conducted in Ohio and Virginia. Since female ambrosia beetles will not begin ovipositing until their symbiotic fungus is established within the host, we also assessed pre-treatment of trees with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite on fungal establishment and beetle colonization success. Permethrin reduced attacks on flooded trees, yet no attacks occurred on any of the non-flooded trees. Fewer galleries created within flooded trees pre-treated with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite contained the purported symbiotic fungus; foundress’ eggs were only detected in flooded but untreated trees. While pre-treatment with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite can disrupt colonization success, maintaining tree health continues to be the most effective and sustainable management strategy.

  13. Human Costs of Flooding the 1979 ’Easter’ Flood at Jackson, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    in psschiatr-: the psichological aftermath of disaster. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHIATRY, 4(7):238-244, 1980. Previous research on phisical and...mone for psichological damages i, a court action suit, it was r,ecessar5 to learn what the flood Meant to survivors and how it affected the course of...Laurence C. F’s-chological aspects of disaster. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, 54(4):638-643, 1964. The psichological aspects of disaster are presented

  14. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Apel, H.

    2016-01-01

    -level mitigation measures, 3) more effective early warning and improved coordination of disaster response and 4) a more targeted maintenance of flood defence systems and their deliberate relocation. Thus, despite higher hydrological severity damage due to the 2013 flood was significantly lower than in 2002. In our......Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing...... trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods...

  15. Flood trends and population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, G.

    2012-04-01

    Since the earliest recorded civilizations, such as those in Mesopotamia and Egypt that developed in the fertile floodplains of the Tigris and Euphrates and Nile rivers, humans tend to settle in flood prone areas as they offer favorable conditions for economic development. However, floodplains are also exposed to flood disasters that might cause severe socio-economic and environmental damages not to mention losses of human lives. A flood event turns to be a disaster when it coincides with a vulnerable environment exceeding society's capacity to manage the adverse consequences. This presentation discusses the link between hydrological risk and population change by referring to the outcomes of scientific works recently carried out in Africa and Europe. More specifically, it is shown that the severity of flood disasters, currently affecting more than 100 million people a year, might be seriously exacerbated because of population change. In fact, flood exposure and/or vulnerability might increase because of rapid population growth (and its spatial and temporal dynamics, e.g. urbanization) in the African continent and because of population ageing in many European countries. Lastly, timely and economically sustainable actions to mitigate this increasing hydrological risk are critically evaluated.

  16. Knowledge, Experiences and Training Needs of Health Professionals about Disaster Preparedness and Response in Southwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanu, Negalign; Abrha, Hailay; Ejigu, Yohannes; Woldemichael, Kifle

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decade, the magnitude and intensity of disasters have been vividly rising globally due to the forces of nature or man. This study aimed at assessing the perceived knowledge, experiences and training needs of health professionals regarding disasters, their prevention and management in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 377 health professionals taken from 9 randomly selected districts out of 18. All health professionals working at health offices, hospitals and health centers were included. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire which was developed by the investigators after reviewing the relevant literature in the field. Data were coded and entered into SPSS 20 software for cleaning and analysis. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were done. The majority (85.1%) of the participants were able to define the concept of disaster from various perspectives; 9.7% did not know about it at all and 5.2% could describe the concept partially or misconceived it. The majority (84.3%) agreed that disaster has direct public health consequences on humans. The main public health consequence of disaster the participants mentioned was environmental pollution (65.8%). Malaria, measles and diarrhoeal diseases accounted for 35.5%, 33.1% and 10.5% of the epidemics, respectively. Only 20.6% of the respondents were trained on disaster related topics in the last two years. The majority felt that they had poor knowledge on early warning indicators of drought (48.0%) and flood (48.0%). Simialry, 50.8%, 47.7%, 51.1% and 42.6% of the participants had poor knowledge on preparedness to drought, preparedness to flood, response to drought, response to flood. On composite scale, they generally perceived to have adequate (29.4%), moderate (32.4%) and poor (38.2%) knowledge about early warning information bout, preparedness for and response to common disasters. A vast majority (92.8%) reported that they need

  17. Towards a Flood Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, A.; Chong, A.; Prades, L.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Muir, S.; Amparore, A.; Slayback, D. A.; Poungprom, R.

    2017-12-01

    Flooding is the most common natural hazard worldwide, affecting 21 million people every year. In the immediate moments following a flood event, humanitarian actors like the World Food Program need to make rapid decisions ( 72 hrs) on how to prioritize affected areas impacted by such an event. For other natural disasters like hurricanes/cyclones and earthquakes, there are industry-recognized standards on how the impacted areas are to be classified. Shake maps, quantifying peak ground motion, from for example the US Geological Survey are widely used for assessing earthquakes. Similarly, cyclones are tracked by Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS) who release storm nodes and tracks (forecasted and actual), with wind buffers and classify the event according to the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. For floods, the community is usually able to acquire unclassified data of the flood extent as identified from satellite imagery. Most often no water discharge hydrograph is available to classify the event into recurrence intervals simply because there is no gauging station, or the gauging station was unable to record the maximum discharge due to overtopping or flood damage. So, the question remains: How do we methodically turn a flooded area into classified areas of different gradations of impact? Here, we present a first approach towards developing a global applicable flood severity index. The flood severity index is set up such that it considers relatively easily obtainable physical parameters in a short period of time like: flood frequency (relating the current flood to historical events) and magnitude, as well as land cover, slope, and where available pre-event simulated flood depth. The scale includes categories ranging from very minor flooding to catastrophic flooding. We test and evaluate the postulated classification scheme against a set of past flood events. Once a severity category is determined, socio

  18. Genesis of catastrophic contingencies: etiopathogenesis of disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Soto, Nelson; Academia Nacional de Medicina. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Sociedad Peruana de Medicina de Emergencias y Desastres. Lima, Perú. Médico emergenciólogo; Alfaro-Basso, Daniel; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Sociedad Peruana de Medicina de Emergencias y Desastres. Lima, Perú. Hospital Regional Sur, Fuerza área del Perú. Arequipa, Perú. Médico emergenciólogo

    2008-01-01

    Peru has repeatedly been hit by various disasters that have generated losses of life and extensive material that interfere with the development process, where the poor are the most vulnerable to these events. Nature can be the cause of many disasters as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, landslides, avalanches, El Niño phenomenon, flooding rivers, droughts, etc. They can also be caused by man into accidentally (fires, chemical accidents, nuclear or mass transportation) or intentional ...

  19. The August 2002 flood in Salzburg / Austria experience gained and lessons learned from the ``Flood of the century''?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesenegger, H.

    2003-04-01

    On the {12th} of August 2002 a low pressure system moved slowly from northern Italy towards Slovakia. It continuously carried moist air from the Mediterranean towards the northern rim of the Alps with the effect of wide-spread heavy rainfall in Salzburg and other parts of Austria. Daily precipitation amounts of 100 - 160 mm, in some parts even more, as well as rainfall intensities of 5 - 10 mm/h , combined with well saturated soils lead to a rare flood with a return period of 100 years and more. This rare hydrological event not only caused a national catastrophe with damages of several Billion Euro, but also endangered more than 200,000 people, and even killed some. As floods are dangerous, life-threatening, destructive, and certainly amongst the most frequent and costly natural disasters in terms of human hardship as well as economic loss, a great effort, therefore, has to be made to protect people against negative impacts of floods. In order to achieve this objective, various regulations in land use planning (flood maps), constructive measurements (river regulations and technical constructions) as well as flood warning systems, which are not suitable to prevent big floods, but offer in-time-warnings to minimize the loss of human lives, are used in Austria. HYDRIS (Hydrological Information System for flood forecasting in Salzburg), a modular river basin model, developed at Technical University Vienna and operated by the Hydrological Service of Salzburg, was used during the August 2002 flood providing accurate 3 to 4 hour forecasts within 3 % of the real peak discharge of the fast flowing River Salzach. The August {12^th}} flood was in many ways an exceptional, very fast happening event which took many people by surprise. At the gauging station Salzburg / Salzach (catchment area 4425 {km^2}) it took only eighteen hours from mean annual discharge (178 {m3/s}) to the hundred years flood (2300 {m3/s}). The August flood made clear, that there is a strong need for

  20. Impacts of flood on children and adults’ health and ways to sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, S.; Ebenehi, I. Y.; Adaji, A.; Seow, T. W.; Chan, N. W.; Goh, K. C.; Rahim, M. H. I. Abd

    2017-11-01

    One of the events that will remain fresh in the minds of Kelantanese is the 2014 massive flood that occurred at the end of that year. Heavy rains fell initiating vast flooding in most areas of Kelantan leading to great destruction of livelihood of local communities. Natural hazard such as floods are not only caused by natural processes but also by human activities. The flood recorded severe fatalities, injuries and exposed many vulnerable to diseases. This paper through critical review of literature considered the long-term impact of floods on human’s health as the effects could meaningfully contribute to the worldwide burden of disease. Also, its outcomes are relentless hence need to be adequately comprehended and addressed through sustainability. This study revealed vulnerability to flood inclined ailments as psychological distress in the survivors is liable for a quota of all physical ailments. Hence, sustainable approach to flood preparedness and prevention is instantly needed. Accolades should be given to the Malaysian government for taken bold steps in that direction in recent time but success will be achieved if implementation is in compliance with sustainability agenda spelt in the New Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030.

  1. Springtime Flood Risk Reduction in Rural Arctic: A Comparative Study of Interior Alaska, United States and Central Yakutia, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekaterina Y. Kontar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Every spring, riverine communities throughout the Arctic face flood risk. As the river ice begins to thaw and break up, ice jams—accumulation of chunks and sheets of ice in the river channel, force melt water and ice floes to back up for dozens of kilometers and flood vulnerable communities upstream. Via a comparative analysis between two flood-prone communities in Alaska and Yakutia (Siberia, this study examines key components of flood risk—hazards, exposure, and vulnerability, and existing practices in flood risk reduction in rural Arctic. The research sites are two rural communities—Galena (Yukon River and Edeytsy (Lena River, which sustained major ice-jam floods in May 2013. The data was acquired through a combination of direct observations on site, review of documents and archives, focus group discussions, and surveys. Five focus groups with US and Russian representatives from disaster management agencies revealed a few similar patterns as well as significant differences in flood risk reduction strategies. The main differences included higher reliance on mechanical and short-term ice jam and flood mitigation efforts (e.g., ice-jam demolition in the Russian Arctic, and lack of a centralized flood management model in the US. Surveys conducted among population at risk during the site visits to Edeytsy (November 2015 and Galena (March 2016 revealed higher satisfaction levels with the existing flood risk reduction efforts among Edeytsy residents. Survey respondents in Galena indicated the lack of ice jam removal and other flood prevention measures as the key drawback in the existing flood management. Historical analysis, conducted via the disaster Pressure and Release (PAR model, revealed that springtime flood risk in both regions results from complex interactions among a series of natural processes that generate conditions of hazard, and human actions that generate conditions of communities’ exposure and vulnerability. The analysis

  2. Appropriate Natural Disaster Handling Policy To Guarantee Effectiveness Of Post-Disaster Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyawati Boediningsih

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a very rich country fascinating the beauty of the panoramic so attract much foreign tourists to come and see its beauty. Furthermore Indonesia is a country that often experience natural disasters ranging from floods mount erupted until to Tsunami Indonesia Located in a geographical location that is prone to disaster. Disasters can be caused by both natural and behavioral factors that are not responsible for utilizing and managing natural resources and the environment. In some areas of Indonesia disasters examples that hit the country. So far there are available disaster management regulation tools namely Law Number 24 Year 2007 which provides disaster management framework Pre-disaster comprehend emergency response and post-disaster. Although the law has outlined comprehensive disaster management provisions so far is still focused on the emergency response period. Further actions such as mitigation rehabilitation and reconstruction appear not to be a top priority of disaster management activities. Other issues that are still scattered are coordination rescue aid appropriateness of assistance and distribution spread evenly. Institutional On the mandate of Law 242007 also institutional had been formed National Disaster Management Agency BNPB at the local level throughout and Indonesia.BNPB also set up a technically existing technical unit UPTD of 12 units. A BNPB Institution supported by trained human resources HR trained to be deployed to even the most difficult terrain.

  3. Evaluation methodology for flood damage reduction by preliminary water release from hydroelectric dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, T.; Kawasaki, A.; Koike, T.

    2017-12-01

    IPCC AR5 (2014) reported that rainfall in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere has been increasing since 1901, and it is claimed that warmer climate will increase the risk of floods. In contrast, world water demand is forecasted to exceed a sustainable supply by 40 percent by 2030. In order to avoid this expectable water shortage, securing new water resources has become an utmost challenge. However, flood risk prevention and the secure of water resources are contradictory. To solve this problem, we can use existing hydroelectric dams not only as energy resources but also for flood control. However, in case of Japan, hydroelectric dams take no responsibility for it, and benefits have not been discussed accrued by controlling flood by hydroelectric dams, namely by using preliminary water release from them. Therefore, our paper proposes methodology for assessing those benefits. This methodology has three stages as shown in Fig. 1. First, RRI model is used to model flood events, taking account of the probability of rainfall. Second, flood damage is calculated using assets in inundation areas multiplied by the inundation depths generated by that RRI model. Third, the losses stemming from preliminary water release are calculated, and adding them to flood damage, overall losses are calculated. We can evaluate the benefits by changing the volume of preliminary release. As a result, shown in Fig. 2, the use of hydroelectric dams to control flooding creates 20 billion Yen benefits, in the probability of three-day-ahead rainfall prediction of the assumed maximum rainfall in Oi River, in the Shizuoka Pref. of Japan. As the third priority in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, `investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience - public and private investment in disaster risk prevention and reduction through structural and non-structural measures' was adopted. The accuracy of rainfall prediction is the key factor in maximizing the benefits

  4. Flood stress as a technicque to assess preventive insecticide and fungicide treatments for protecting trees against ambrosia beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exotic ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus germanus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and Xylosandrus compactus tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress as a tactic for making trees attractive and vulnerable to att...

  5. FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary is a summarized dataset describing all federally declared disasters, starting with the first disaster declaration in 1953,...

  6. A geo-environmental assessment of flood dynamics in lower ajoy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flood as a widespread destructive natural disaster is recurring in the river basins of Eastern India. Though large number of flood controlling measures have been taken in the river valleys from the early ages but it is to be noted that spatial dimension of the flood affected area and the magnitude of flood are being increased ...

  7. Impact of climate change on dermatological conditions related to flooding: update from the International Society of Dermatology Climate Change Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayrit, Johannes F; Bintanjoyo, Lunardi; Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark Dennis P

    2018-01-29

    Climate change contributes to the increase in severity and frequency of flooding, which is the most frequent and deadly disaster worldwide. Flood-related damage can be very severe and include health effects. Among those health impacts, dermatological diseases are one of the most frequently encountered. Both infectious and noninfectious dermatological conditions are increasing after flooding. We searched PubMed using the search term climate change OR global warming OR rainfall OR flooding OR skin. Articles published in the English-language literature were included. We also searched the International Society of Dermatology website library on climate change for additional articles. There is an increased risk of trauma during the course of a natural disaster. The majority of post-tsunami wound infections were polymicrobial, but gram-negative bacteria were the leading causes. Infectious diseases with dermatological manifestations, such as impetigo, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, tinea corporis, malaria, and leishmaniasis, are important causes of morbidity among flood-afflicted individuals. Insect bites and stings, and parasite infestations such as scabies and cutaneous larva migrans are also frequently observed. Inflammatory conditions including irritant contact dermatitis are among the leading dermatological conditions. Dermatological conditions such as alopecia areata, vitiligo, psoriasis, and urticaria can be induced or exacerbated by psychological conditions post disaster. Prevention is essential in the management of skin diseases because of flooding. Avoiding exposure to contaminated environments, wearing protective devices, rapid provision of clean water and sanitation facilities, prompt vector controls, and education about disease risk and prevention are important. © 2018 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. The influence of antecedent conditions on flood risk in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischiniotis, Konstantinos; van den Hurk, Bart; Coughlan de Perez, Erin; Jongman, Brenden; Veldkamp, Ted; Aerts, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally, flood risk management has focused on long-term flood protection measures. However, many countries are often not able to afford hard infrastructure that provides sufficient safety levels due to the high investment costs. As a consequence, they rely more on post disaster response and timely warning systems. Most early warning systems have predominantly focused on precipitation as the main predictive factor, having usually lead times of hours or days. However, other variables could also play a role. For instance, anomalous positive water storage, soil saturation and evapotranspiration are physical factors that may influence the length of the flood build-up period. This period can vary from some days to several months before the event and it is particularly important in flood risk management since longer flood warning lead times during this period could result in better flood preparation actions. This study addresses how the antecedent conditions of historical reported flood events over the period 1980 to 2010 in sub-Saharan Africa relate to flood generation. The seasonal-scale conditions are reflected in the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which is calculated using monthly precipitation and temperature data and accounts for the wetness/dryness of an area. Antecedent conditions are separated into a) a short term 'weather-scale' period (0-7 days) and b) a 'seasonal-scale' period (up to 6 months) before the flood event in such a way that they do not overlap. Total 7-day precipitation, which is based on daily meteorological data, was used to evaluate the short-term weather-scale conditions. Using a pair of coordinates, derived from the NatCatSERVICE database on global flood losses, each flood event is positioned on a 0.5°x 0.5° grid cell. The antecedent SPEI conditions of the two periods and their joint influence in flood generation are compared to the same period conditions of the other years of the dataset. First results

  9. [Prevention of epidemiological consequences during an extreme situation caused by the natural disaster in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butaev, T M; Gadzieva, G K; Tsgoeva, S K; Gusalova, L P; Kesaev, I V; Kabolova, Z Z

    2003-01-01

    Information on the organization of interaction between different services responsible for restoration works, sanitary cleaning, disinfection under the conditions of the emergency situation is presented. The activity of the sanitary and epidemiological services in the areas in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, affected by high flood, is described. Measures aimed at the epidemiological surveillance of acute enteric infections, the control of the quality of drinking water and foodstuffs, the bacteriological study of material samples taken from humans, vaccinal and phage prophylaxis have taken an important place in the work of the institutions of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance. As the result of all these measures the sanitary and epidemiological service has managed to prevent the aggravation of the sanitary and epidemiological situation in the republic.

  10. Disaster recovery: mitigating loss through documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Flood, fire, tornado, hurricane. Whatever the cause, natural or man-made, the result on an organization can be devastating. Planning and preparation for disaster must include significant attention to disaster recovery. The ability to produce documentation of what existed, what was damaged, recovery costs and income losses will be essential to the claims adjustment process. This article discusses strategies for creating a historical record, leveraging contemporaneous incident command documentation and working with contractors to identify and record disaster-related expenses. © 2011 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  11. Interdisciplinary Environmental-health Science Throughout Disaster Lifecycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; Hoefen, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Potential human health effects from exposures to hazardous disaster materials and environmental contamination are common concerns following disasters. Using several examples from US Geological Survey environmental disaster responses (e.g., 2001 World Trade Center, mine tailings spills, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, 2007-2013 wildfires, 2011 Gulf oil spill, 2012 Hurricane Sandy, 2013 Colorado floods) and disaster scenarios (2011 ARkStorm, 2013 SAFRR tsunami) this presentation will illustrate the role for collaborative earth, environmental, and health science throughout disaster lifecycles. Pre-disaster environmental baseline measurements are needed to help understand environmental influences on pre-disaster health baselines, and to constrain the magnitude of a disaster's impacts. During and following disasters, there is a need for interdisciplinary rapid-response and longer-term assessments that: sample and characterize the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of complex materials generated by the disasters; fingerprint material sources; monitor, map, and model dispersal and evolution of disaster materials in the environment; help understand how the materials are modified by environmental processes; and, identify key characteristics and processes that influence the exposures and toxicity of disaster materials to humans and the living environment. This information helps emergency responders, public health experts, and cleanup managers: 1) identify short- and long-term exposures to disaster materials that may affect health; 2) prioritize areas for cleanup; and 3) develop appropriate disposal solutions or restoration uses for disaster materials. By integrating lessons learned from past disasters with geospatial information on vulnerable sources of natural or anthropogenic contaminants, the environmental health implications of looming disasters or disaster scenarios can be better anticipated, which helps enhance preparedness and resilience. Understanding economic costs of

  12. Application of Flood Nomograph for Flood Forecasting in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Hoon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Imperviousness has increased due to urbanization, as has the frequency of extreme rainfall events by climate change. Various countermeasures, such as structural and nonstructural measures, are required to prepare for these effects. Flood forecasting is a representative nonstructural measure. Flood forecasting techniques have been developed for the prevention of repetitive flood damage in urban areas. It is difficult to apply some flood forecasting techniques using training processes because training needs to be applied at every usage. The other flood forecasting techniques that use rainfall data predicted by radar are not appropriate for small areas, such as single drainage basins. In this study, a new flood forecasting technique is suggested to reduce flood damage in urban areas. The flood nomograph consists of the first flooding nodes in rainfall runoff simulations with synthetic rainfall data at each duration. When selecting the first flooding node, the initial amount of synthetic rainfall is 1 mm, which increases in 1 mm increments until flooding occurs. The advantage of this flood forecasting technique is its simple application using real-time rainfall data. This technique can be used to prepare a preemptive response in the process of urban flood management.

  13. 77 FR 54601 - New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    .... FEMA-4079-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2012-0002] New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New Mexico (FEMA-4079-DR), dated August 24, 2012, and related... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of New Mexico resulting from flooding...

  14. Children and Natural Disasters: A Primer for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Linda; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide children are impacted by natural disasters, including hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, earthquakes, wildfires, landslides and sandstorms, winter and severe storms, heat waves, volcanoes and tsunamis. School psychologists should understand natural disaster effects, such as economic loss, relocation and health concerns and mental health…

  15. 75 FR 62135 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    .... FEMA-1938-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1938-DR), dated September 23... South Dakota resulting from severe storms and flooding during the period of July 21-30, 2010, is of...

  16. 75 FR 30420 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    .... FEMA-1915-DR;Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1915-DR), dated May 13, 2010, and related... in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from flooding beginning on March 10, 2010...

  17. 78 FR 36557 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    .... FEMA-4118-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-4118-DR), dated May 29, 2013, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from flooding during the...

  18. 76 FR 36140 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    .... FEMA-1984-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1984-DR), dated May 13, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from flooding beginning on...

  19. 78 FR 5476 - Ohio; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... flooding due to the remnants of Hurricane Sandy during the period October 29-30, 2012, is of sufficient... following areas of the State of Ohio have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  20. Swiss Re Global Flood Hazard Zones: Know your flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinukollu, R. K.; Castaldi, A.; Mehlhorn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Floods, among all natural disasters, have a great damage potential. On a global basis, there is strong evidence of increase in the number of people affected and economic losses due to floods. For example, global insured flood losses have increased by 12% every year since 1970 and this is expected to further increase with growing exposure in the high risk areas close to rivers and coastlines. Recently, the insurance industry has been surprised by the large extent of losses, because most countries lack reliable hazard information. One example has been the 2011 Thailand floods where millions of people were affected and the total economic losses were 30 billion USD. In order to assess the flood risk across different regions and countries, the flood team at Swiss Re based on a Geomorphologic Regression approach, developed in house and patented, produced global maps of flood zones. Input data for the study was obtained from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and HydroSHEDS. The underlying assumptions of the approach are that naturally flowing rivers shape their channel and flood plain according to basin inherent forces and characteristics and that the flood water extent strongly depends on the shape of the flood plain. On the basis of the catchment characteristics, the model finally calculates the probability of a location to be flooded or not for a defined return period, which in the current study was set to 100 years. The data is produced at a 90-m resolution for latitudes 60S to 60N. This global product is now used in the insurance industry to inspect, inform and/or insure the flood risk across the world.

  1. Stop Blaming Disasters on Forces Beyond Our Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matalucci, R.V.

    1999-04-09

    As we enter the new millennium, let us recognize that the losses resulting from natural or malevolent events that cause major property damage, severe injuries, and unnecessary death are not always due to forces beyond our control. We can prevent these losses by changing the way we think and act about design and construction projects. New tools, technologies, and techniques can improve structural safety, security, and reliability and protect owners, occupants, and users against loss and casualties. Hurricane Mitch, the African embassy bombings, the ice storms in Canada and the northeastern US last winter, the Oklahoma City bombing, flooding and earthquakes in California, tornadoes and flooding in Florida, and wildfires in the Southwest are threats to the safety and security of the public and the reliability of our constructed environment. Today's engineering design community must recognize these threats and address them in our standards, building codes, and designs. We know that disasters will continue to strike and we must reduce their impact on the public. We must demand and create innovative solutions that assure a higher level of structural performance when disasters strike.

  2. Exploring the Role of Social Memory of Floods for Designing Flood Early Warning Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girons Lopez, Marc; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Grabs, Thomas; Halldin, Sven; Seibert, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Early warning systems are an important tool for natural disaster mitigation practices, especially for flooding events. Warnings rely on near-future forecasts to provide time to take preventive actions before a flood occurs, thus reducing potential losses. However, on top of the technical capacities, successful warnings require an efficient coordination and communication among a range of different actors and stakeholders. The complexity of integrating the technical and social spheres of warning systems has, however, resulted in system designs neglecting a number of important aspects such as social awareness of floods thus leading to suboptimal results. A better understanding of the interactions and feedbacks among the different elements of early warning systems is therefore needed to improve their efficiency and therefore social resilience. When designing an early warning system two important decisions need to be made regarding (i) the hazard magnitude at and from which a warning should be issued and (ii) the degree of confidence required for issuing a warning. The first decision is usually taken based on the social vulnerability and climatic variability while the second one is related to the performance (i.e. accuracy) of the forecasting tools. Consequently, by estimating the vulnerability and the accuracy of the forecasts, these two variables can be optimized to minimize the costs and losses. Important parameters with a strong influence on the efficiency of warning systems such as social awareness are however not considered in their design. In this study we present a theoretical exploration of the impact of social awareness on the design of early warning systems. For this purpose we use a definition of social memory of flood events as a proxy for flood risk awareness and test its effect on the optimization of the warning system design variables. Understanding the impact of social awareness on warning system design is important to make more robust warnings that can

  3. Putting Science First: Using the Precautionary Principle in the Central Arctic Ocean to Prevent a Fishing Disaster Before it Occurs (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, C.

    2017-12-01

    As ice conditions change and ocean temperatures continue to rise, the potential for living marine resources to migrate farther north and for vessels to journey north with them is expanding. To date, the central Arctic Ocean (CAO) has remained relatively unexposed to human activities, including commercial fishing. However, as conditions continue to change, the potential for expansion of fishing fleets exists. In July 2015, the five Arctic coastal states signed a declaration concerning the prevention of unregulated high seas fishing in the CAO. Recognizing the need to involve additional nations with interests in the Arctic region, in December 2015, the five Arctic coastal states, along with China, the European Union, Japan, Iceland, and Korea, began a process to negotiate a binding agreement to prevent unregulated fishing in the high seas of the CAO. A key underlying goal of the negotiations is to reach agreement that nations would establish a joint program of scientific research and monitoring to better understand the CAO ecosystem and whether fish stocks might exist there that could be harvested on a sustainable basis and the possible impacts of such fisheries on the ecosystems. The data collected through the international joint science program will compose a key piece of the decision-making at the policy level regarding establishing appropriate measures or organizations to manage fishing in the CAO should the science indicate potentials for commercial fishing in the CAO. Since the beginning of these high-level negotiations, the policy makers have consistently agreed that conducting collaborative science is the primary way to determine whether sustainable commercial fishing could one day occur in the region. I will highlight the policy negotiation process and parallel science meetings to date to demonstrate how science can influence policy to prevent a fishing disaster.

  4. Global climate changes, natural disasters, and travel health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2006-01-01

    Whether the result of cyclical atmospheric changes, anthropogenic activities, or combinations of both, authorities now agree that the earth is warming from a variety of climatic effects, including the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions to support human activities. To date, most reports of the public health outcomes of global warming have been anecdotal and retrospective in design and have focused on heat stroke deaths following heat waves, drowning deaths in floods and tsunamis, and mosquito-borne infectious disease outbreaks following tropical storms and cyclones. Accurate predictions of the true public health outcomes of global climate change are confounded by several effect modifiers including human acclimatization and adaptation, the contributions of natural climatic changes, and many conflicting atmospheric models of climate change. Nevertheless, temporal relationships between environmental factors and human health outcomes have been identified and may be used as criteria to judge the causality of associations between the human health outcomes of climate changes and climate-driven natural disasters. Travel medicine physicians are obligated to educate their patients about the known public health outcomes of climate changes, about the disease and injury risk factors their patients may face from climate-spawned natural disasters, and about the best preventive measures to reduce infectious diseases and injuries following natural disasters throughout the world.

  5. Disaster Management with a Next Generation Disaster Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    As populations become increasingly concentrated in large cities, the world is experiencing an inevitably growing trend towards the urbanisation of disasters. Scientists have contributed significant advances in understanding the geophysical causes of natural hazards and have developed sophisticated tools to predict their effects; while, much less attention has been devoted to tools that increase situational awareness, facilitate leadership, provide effective communication channels and data flow and enhance the cognitive abilities of decision makers and first responders. In this paper, we envisioned the capabilities of a next generation disaster decision support system and hence proposed a state-of-the-art system architecture design to facilitate the decision making process in natural catastrophes such as flood and bushfire by utilising a combination of technologies for multi-channel data aggregation, disaster modelling, visualisation and optimisation. Moreover, we put our thoughts into action by implementing an Intelligent Disaster Decision Support System (IDDSS). The developed system can easily plug in to external disaster models and aggregate large amount of heterogeneous data from government agencies, sensor networks, and crowd sourcing platforms in real-time to enhance the situational awareness of decision makers and offer them a comprehensive understanding of disaster impacts from diverse perspectives such as environment, infrastructure and economy, etc. Sponsored by the Australian Government and the Victorian Department of Justice (Australia), the system was built upon a series of open-source frameworks (see attached figure) with four key components: data management layer, model application layer, processing service layer and presentation layer. It has the potential to be adopted by a range of agencies across Australian jurisdictions to assist stakeholders in accessing, sharing and utilising available information in their management of disaster events.

  6. Towards resilient organisation of recovery and care after disaster.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dückers, M.; Rooze, M.; Alexander, D.

    2014-01-01

    It is sometimes said that ‘water comes in three kinds: too little (drought), too much (floods) or too dirty (polluted)’. Floods are the most widespread disaster on land and can be generated by excessive precipitation coupled with saturation of the ground, very rapid rainfall which generates flash

  7. Applying photovoltaics to disaster relief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W. Jr. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, earthquakes and other disasters can happen at any time, often with little or no advance warning. They can be as destructive as Hurricane Andrew leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless or as minor as an afternoon thunderstorm knocking down local power lines to your home. Major disasters leave many people without adequate medical services, potable water, electrical service and communications. In response to a natural disaster, photovoltaic (solar electric) modules offer a source of quiet, safe, pollution-free electrical power. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are capable of providing the electrical needs for vaccine refrigerators, microscopes, medical equipment, lighting, radios, fans, communications, traffic devices and other general electrical needs. Stand alone PV systems do not require refueling and operate for long period of time from the endless energy supplied by the sun, making them beneficial during recovery efforts. This report discusses the need for electrical power during a disaster, and the capability of PV to fill that need. Applications of PV power used during previous disaster relief efforts are also presented.

  8. Disasters and development: Part 2: understanding and exploiting disaster-development linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob S; DuFrane, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Disasters can impede the effectiveness of development resource allocation. The damage sustained from an event can be classified into four categories: (1) Loss of resources; (2) Interruption of programs and switching of crucial resources to other, shorter-term needs; (3) Negative impacts upon investment climates; and/or (4) Disruption of the non-formal sector (local businesses). Disasters have a particularly destructive economic impact in areas in which there are few alternatives for assets that are destroyed or in areas in which the resources already are at critical levels. Development processes can both increase and/or decrease the vulnerability of a society to hazards. There are dearly established linkages between poverty, marginalization, over-population, and vulnerability. To a large extent, vulnerability derives from poverty. The poor are more likely to live in vulnerable areas (slopes prone to landslides, flood plains, marginal agricultural land), have difficulty accessing education and information, have fewer assets to invest in resources to reduce vulnerability, and are more prone to become malnourished and have chronic illnesses that predispose them to injury and death. Development may be associated with the production of new hazards accepted by a society because the perceived benefits of the development project far exceed the relative risk associated with the project. Therefore, risk assessments must be part of any program planning and evaluation. Training and education are of critical importance in preventing increased vulnerability as a result of development strategies. Development also can progress in a manner that will result in mitigation of the impacts of an event on a given society (increase absorbing capacity and/or buffering capacity, elimination of hazards or the risk of them producing a disaster). Such mitigation measures can be either structural or nonstructural. There exists a wide range of options for incorporating mitigation measures in

  9. Geographical patterns and disasters management : case study of Alexandra Township / O.M. Mere

    OpenAIRE

    Mere, Oniccah Monimang

    2011-01-01

    The focus of the study is to explore Geographic patterns and Disasters Management in the context of Alexandra Township situated in the Johannesburg Metro. The research evaluates if the Disaster Management Unit in Johannesburg municipality is prepared in terms of policies, community campaigns on flood disasters as well as forming organizations that will assist in times of disaster. It also refers to other South African townships with regard to where most affected townships are l...

  10. Integral assessment of floodplains as a basis for spatially-explicit flood loss forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zischg, Andreas Paul; Mosimann, Markus; Weingartner, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    A key aspect of disaster prevention is flood discharge forecasting which is used for early warning and therefore as a decision support for intervention forces. Hereby, the phase between the issued forecast and the time when the expected flood occurs is crucial for an optimal planning of the intervention. Typically, river discharge forecasts cover the regional level only, i.e. larger catchments. However, it is important to note that these forecasts are not useable directly for specific target groups on local level because these forecasts say nothing about the consequences of the predicted flood in terms of affected areas, number of exposed residents and houses. For this, on one hand simulations of the flooding processes and on the other hand data of vulnerable objects are needed. Furthermore, flood modelling in a high spatial and temporal resolution is required for robust flood loss estimation. This is a resource-intensive task from a computing time point of view. Therefore, in real-time applications flood modelling in 2D is not suited. Thus, forecasting flood losses in the short-term (6h-24h in advance) requires a different approach. Here, we propose a method to downscale the river discharge forecast to a spatially-explicit flood loss forecast. The principal procedure is to generate as many flood scenarios as needed in advance to represent the flooded areas for all possible flood hydrographs, e.g. very high peak discharges of short duration vs. high peak discharges with high volumes. For this, synthetic flood hydrographs were derived from the hydrologic time series. Then, the flooded areas of each scenario were modelled with a 2D flood simulation model. All scenarios were intersected with the dataset of vulnerable objects, in our case residential, agricultural and industrial buildings with information about the number of residents, the object-specific vulnerability, and the monetary value of the objects. This dataset was prepared by a data-mining approach. For each

  11. Cultural Heritage and Floods Risk Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedvědová, K.; Pergl, R.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present some of the results of an ongoing project focused on protection of cultural heritage from flood danger. We present an original methodology of risk analysis of movable and immovable cultural heritage and two supporting web applications: one for experts and one for ordinary users. Cultural heritage forms a special category that requires different approach towards risk mitigation than other ordinary objects. First of all their assets cannot be reproduced so we have to pay much more attention for the correct preventive measures as well as remedial works after the potential disaster. Second, historical materials are usually more predispose to damage as they are already eroded by age. This brings a need of profound knowledge of the mechanical, chemical and biological reaction to the flood stress. This knowledge is usually not possessed by the stewards and owners in the sufficient rate. This is probably not even possible, because it encompasses knowledge of various building branches from the view of hydrology, physics, biology, chemistry, geology and others. To be able to perform an effective risk analysis and to choose right effective measures means to know the building and its condition as well as its setting very well. Therefore we want to give users and administrators of the buildings clear guidelines how to examine the objects and what else they might need to be aware of, in order to be ready and prepared.

  12. CULTURAL HERITAGE AND FLOODS RISK PREPAREDNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nedvědová

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present some of the results of an ongoing project focused on protection of cultural heritage from flood danger. We present an original methodology of risk analysis of movable and immovable cultural heritage and two supporting web applications: one for experts and one for ordinary users. Cultural heritage forms a special category that requires different approach towards risk mitigation than other ordinary objects. First of all their assets cannot be reproduced so we have to pay much more attention for the correct preventive measures as well as remedial works after the potential disaster. Second, historical materials are usually more predispose to damage as they are already eroded by age. This brings a need of profound knowledge of the mechanical, chemical and biological reaction to the flood stress. This knowledge is usually not possessed by the stewards and owners in the sufficient rate. This is probably not even possible, because it encompasses knowledge of various building branches from the view of hydrology, physics, biology, chemistry, geology and others. To be able to perform an effective risk analysis and to choose right effective measures means to know the building and its condition as well as its setting very well. Therefore we want to give users and administrators of the buildings clear guidelines how to examine the objects and what else they might need to be aware of, in order to be ready and prepared.

  13. Disaster psychology, stress, crisis, trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Miroslav Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophe or disaster entails material destruction - ecological and psychosocial - that transcends the coping capacities of the affected community. Undesirable consequences of disasters, which can be due to both human and natural causes, are reflected in the loss of life of millions in the last decades of the twentieth century, as well as in detrimental influence on the lives of several hundred million people and multi-billion dollar material and financial losses. For these reasons, the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed the 1990s as the decade of prevention and reduction of the incidence of disasters under resolution 42/169. In order to succeed in preventing and reducing the incidence of disasters, as well as help those affected by them, we have to enrich our theoretical knowledge (i.e., get to know the nature of disaster psychology, understand stress, crisis and trauma, as International Classification of Diseases ISC-10 determines and describes psychosocial psychological reactions and psychological disorders… and practical, experiential and research results. The research we have conducted shows that as far as the spectrum of psychosocial reactions and psychological disorders is concerned, individuals who experience disasters most often exhibit anxiety-, depression-, and anxiety-depression-related disorders, Among the anxiety-related reactions, the most common ones are elevated tension and uneasiness. In some individuals, we can also expect the appearance of fears that were formerly not present, such as fears of being hurt, of mutilation and death. Our experience from working with the refugee population warns us that psychosocial reactions and reactive psychological disorders can emerge even years after disasters such as war and refuge, as well as that individuals affected by such disasters always deserve special attention and psychotherapeutic treatment.

  14. Natural disaster reduction applications of the Chinese small satellite constellation for environment and disaster monitoring and forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanchao; Fan, Yida; Gao, Maofang

    2013-10-01

    The Small Satellite Constellation for Environment and Disaster Monitoring and Forecasting (SSCEDMF) is an important component of Chinese satellites earth observation system. The first stage of SSCEDMF is composed by "2+1" satellites. The 2 optical satellites (HJ-1-A and HJ-1-B) and 1 S band microwave satellite (HJ-1-C) were successful launched on September 6, 2008 and November 19, 2012 respectively. This article introduced SSCEDMF characteristic and the disaster reduction application system and satellites on-orbit test works, and also analyzed the application capacity in natural disasters included flood, ice flooding, wild fire, severely drought, snow disasters, large area landslide and debris flow, sea ice, earthquake recovering, desertification and plant diseases and insect pests. Furthermore, we show some cases of China's and other countries' new natural disasters forecasting, monitoring, assessment and recovery construction.

  15. Literature review of disaster health research in Japan: focusing on disaster nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kako, Mayumi; Mitani, Satoko; Arbon, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Japan has a long history of disaster due to its location on the "Pacific Ring of Fire." The frequency of earthquakes experienced in recent years has had significant influence on disaster health research in Japan. This paper describes disaster health research trends in Japan, with an emphasis on disaster nursing research. A systematic literature review of disaster health research in Japan from 2001 through 2007 was conducted for this study. The most commonly used database in Japan, Ichushi (version 4.0), was used for this literature review. The keywords and sub-keywords used were: disaster, disaster nursing, practice, education, ability, response, emergency, licensure, capability, function, prevention, planning and research. These keywords were sometimes used in combination to identify relevant literature. A total of 222 articles were reviewed. The number of research papers available increased gradually from 2001 through 2007. The most common articles used were found using the search category of "disaster nursing and research." Among the search categories, "disaster nursing and education" also had a high number of publications. This category also peaked in 2007. The recent experiences of natural disaster in Japan accelerated the impetus to explore and implement a disaster nursing concept into practice and nursing curricula. Further evidence-based studies to develop methodology and other areas of studies in disaster nursing, including other language databases are to be expected in the future.

  16. Vulnerability of human settlements to flood risk in the core area of Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiu O. Salami

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood disasters continue to wreak havoc on the lives of millions of people worldwide, causing death and massive economic losses. In most African cities, residents and their assets are among the most vulnerable to flood risks in the world. The nature and scale of this urban risk are changing because of the dynamic patterns of land use, unplanned growth and impacts of climate change. Flood risk is the product of the flood hazards, the vulnerability and exposure of the people and their physical environment. In order to minimise flood disaster, there is an urgent need to understand, invest in flood disaster risk reduction for resilience and to enhance disaster preparedness for an effective response as articulated in the recent Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. This research utilises a new proposed flood vulnerability assessment framework for flood risk in a traditional community in the heart of Ibadan metropolis, in the context of their households’ exposure, susceptibility and coping capacity through a well-designed questionnaire survey. The study uses descriptive and inferential statistics techniques to provide a detailed understanding of the vulnerability profiles of the community and the levels of residents’ preparedness to mitigate the flood risk. The results of the statistical analysis show that there is a significant relationship between residents’ flood awareness and having previous flood experience, but there is no significant association between their awareness of risk and the level of preparedness for flooding. To minimise exposure and vulnerability to flood risk, we advocate effective adaptation policies to achieve disaster risk reduction and resilience on flood risk rather than focusing merely on reactive measures after disaster strikes.

  17. State aid following natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Řezáč

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with state and regional actions taken to eliminate the effects of natural disasters. It focuses on clarifying the causes, extent and impact of flood damage in the years 1997–2010, not only in the Czech Republic but also in neighboring countries within each river basin crossing the border. The legislative framework is given by the European Union´s Directive on the assessment and management of flood risks. The directive is followed by the strategy of flood protection in the Czech Republic according to the specifications of the assets of the state, municipalities, citizens and businesses. Action plans for flood protection are then processed in accordance with individual river basins, the ones discussed in this article being the Elbe, Danube and Odra. A chronological summary of floods during the 1997–2010 period presents relevant data on these events, including comparisons with previous periods. In conclusion, the authors present data on the number of claims, the extent of the damage, and the total sum of insurance claims paid out by member associations of the Czech Insurance Association. It also deals with problems concerning the underestimation of insurance coverage, especially among small and medium-sized businesses.

  18. A Solutions Network for Disaster Preparedness and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, B.; Tuttle, M.; Fernandez, S.

    2008-05-01

    Careful planning and management strategies are essential for disaster preparedness and prevention and to the implementation of responses strategies when emergencies do occur. Disasters related to climate and weather extremes, such as hurricanes, floods, wildfires, blizzards, droughts, and tornadoes may have a period for watching and warning within which emergency preparedness measures can be taken to reduce risk to population and critical infrastructures. The ability to effectively address emergency preparedness and response operations is dependent upon a strong global spatial data infrastructure, and geospatial modeling and simulation capabilities that can complement the decision making process at various stages of disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. It is well understood that a strong linkage between data and analytical capabilities are nucleus to effective decision making ability and that disaster consequence management organizations should have access to the best available geospatial technical expertise, global and regional data sets, and modeling and analytical tools. However, such optimal combination of data assets and modeling expertise are often beyond the resources available internally within a single organization but can be accessed through external collaboration with other "Earth science community-of-practice" organizations. This provides an opportunity to develop a solutions network for disaster preparedness and response. However, our current capability and state of general practice in disaster consequence management is, for the most part, built around such networks that are not very well defined, often formed on an ad-hoc basis soon after a disaster, loosely coupled, and functions at less than desirable pace. We will illustrate this concept of a solutions network through the current functions of the Visualization and Modeling Working Group (VMWG) of the Department of Energy, to which multiple national laboratories and other federal agencies

  19. Floods in the Saguenay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, R.; Michaud, E.; Tousignant, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Footage of a natural disaster that occurred between July 20 and 25 1996, in the Saguenay region of Quebec was documented. A heavy downpour of rain raised the water level of the Kenogami Lake reservoir beyond its capacity. This created huge pressure on its dam that upset the fragile balance between nature and rock. The dam raptured, resulting in a flood of previously unseen proportions. The Riviere au Sable in Jonquiere became an overwhelming body of water. The video showed how the shores of the river were eroded and how apartment buildings were engulfed by the torrent of water. A newly constructed electricity power plant had to be decommissioned, roads were washed away and entire neighborhoods were devastated. The devastation suffered by the cities of Chicoutimi, Jonquiere, Ville de la Baie, Ferland-Boileau, and L'Anse St-Jean was recorded. Thousands of victims of the disaster were evacuated with the help of the Canadian Armed Forces. Some of the work of reconstruction, begun even before the total retreat of the flood, involved restoration of roads, bridges and communication networks, was also shown

  20. Wars, disasters and kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameire, N

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Over the last 15 years, this Task Force has successfully intervened both in the prevention and management of crush syndrome in numerous disaster situations like major earthquakes.

  1. Flood loss assessment in the Kota Tinggi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, T. H.; Ibrahim, A. L.; Rahman, M. Z. A.; Mazura, Z.

    2014-02-01

    Malaysia is free from several destructive and widespread natural disasters but frequently affected by floods, which caused massive flood damage. In 2006 and 2007, an extreme rainfall occured in many parts of Peninsular Malaysia, which caused severe flooding in several major cities. Kota Tinggi was chosen as study area as it is one the seriously affected area in Johor state. The aim of this study is to estimate potential flood damage to physical elements in Kota Tinggi. The flood damage map contains both qualitative and quantitative information which corresponds to the consequences of flooding. This study only focuses on physical elements. Three different damage functions were adopted to calculate the potential flood damage and flood depth is considered as the main parameter. The adopted functions are United States, the Netherlands and Malaysia. The estimated flood damage for housing using United States, the Netherlands and Malaysia was RM 350/m2 RM 200/m2 and RM 100/m2 respectively. These results successfully showed the average flood damage of physical element. Such important information needed by local authority and government for urban spatial planning and aiming to reduce flood risk.

  2. Flood loss assessment in the Kota Tinggi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, T H; Ibrahim, A L; Rahman, M Z A; Mazura, Z

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia is free from several destructive and widespread natural disasters but frequently affected by floods, which caused massive flood damage. In 2006 and 2007, an extreme rainfall occured in many parts of Peninsular Malaysia, which caused severe flooding in several major cities. Kota Tinggi was chosen as study area as it is one the seriously affected area in Johor state. The aim of this study is to estimate potential flood damage to physical elements in Kota Tinggi. The flood damage map contains both qualitative and quantitative information which corresponds to the consequences of flooding. This study only focuses on physical elements. Three different damage functions were adopted to calculate the potential flood damage and flood depth is considered as the main parameter. The adopted functions are United States, the Netherlands and Malaysia. The estimated flood damage for housing using United States, the Netherlands and Malaysia was RM 350/m 2 RM 200/m 2 and RM 100/m 2 respectively. These results successfully showed the average flood damage of physical element. Such important information needed by local authority and government for urban spatial planning and aiming to reduce flood risk

  3. Translating Battlefield Practices to Disaster Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss-Riggs, Kandra; Yeskey, Kevin; Miller, Aubrey; Arnesen, Stacey; Goolsby, Craig

    2017-08-01

    We review aspects of the recently released National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine report A National Trauma Care System: Integrating Military and Civilian Trauma Systems to Achieve Zero Preventable Deaths After Injury most relevant to disaster health, particularly the concepts of focused empiricism and building a learning health system. The article references battlefield success utilizing these concepts and the emerging Disaster Research Response Program. We call upon disaster health researchers to apply the report's recommendations to their work. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:510-511).

  4. Flood Impact Analysis using GIS : A case study for Lake Roxen and Lake Glan - Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Vaghani, Vimalkumar

    2005-01-01

    Floods are common natural disaster occurring in most parts of the world. This results in damage to human life and deterioration of environment. There have been immense uses of technology to mitigate measures of flood disaster i.e. structurally and non-structurally. Undoubtedly, structural measures are very expensive and time consuming which involves physical work like construction of dams, reservoirs, bridges, channel improvement, river diversion and other embankments to keep floods away from...

  5. Impact of Flood on the Biodiversity of Agodi Gardens, Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of flood effect on the species diversity in Agodi Biological Gardens was carried out to determine the rate of devastation that the catastrophes of 30 August 2011 flood disaster caused on the ex-situ environment. Both physicochemical parameters and structured questionnaire were used to assess the rate of ...

  6. Flood risk managment strategies across boundaries : a research approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.H.N.; Hegger, D.L.T.; Dieperink, C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Raadgever, G.T.; Wiering, M.

    2013-01-01

    Floods are the most frequent and damaging of all types of natural disasters and annually affect the lives of millions all over the globe. Against this background, enhanced climate variability and climate change are expected to increase the frequency and intensity of floods. The situation is further

  7. Flood Characteristics and Management Adaptations in Parts of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... Engineering control of the major tributaries of the Imo River system is required to reduce impact of flooding on the settlements, while land use zoning will serve as an effective adaptation and disaster management option in the study area. Keywords: Flood ...

  8. Flood simulation model using XP-SWMM along Terengganu River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaysia is one of the tropical countries in the world with heavy rainfall throughout the year and floods are the most common disaster in Malaysia. Flood simulation model was carried out along Terengganu River for dry and rainy seasons. The result of the simulation shows the water level reached its maximum level at the 1st ...

  9. EMERGO : The Dutch flood risk system since 1986

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijcken, T.

    2017-01-01

    PART I | A RESEARCH AND DESIGN PROJECT ABOUT FLOOD RISK POLICY SINCE 1986 The period between the Dutch flood disaster of 1953 and the year 2016 can be divided into two eras, separated by the year 1986, when the famous Eastern Scheldt barrier was completed. The perspective of water professionals on

  10. When is exposure to a natural disaster traumatic? Comparison of a trauma questionnaire and disaster exposure inventory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily W Harville

    Full Text Available Few studies have compared the sensitivity of trauma questionnaires to disaster inventories for assessing the prevalence of exposure to natural disaster or associated risk for post-disaster psychopathology. The objective of this analysis was to compare reporting of disaster exposure on a trauma questionnaire (Brief Trauma Questionnaire [BTQ] to an inventory of disaster experience. Between 2011 and 2014, a sample of 841 reproductive-aged southern Louisiana women were interviewed using the BTQ and completed a detailed inventory about exposure to hurricanes and flooding. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptomology was measured with the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist, and depression with the Edinburgh Depression Scale. The single question addressing disaster exposure on the BTQ had a sensitivity of between 65% and 70% relative to the more detailed questions. Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was more likely for those who reported illness/injury due to a hurricane or flood (74%-77% or danger (77-79%, compared to those who reported damage (69-71% or evacuation (64-68%. Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-3.68. A single question is unlikely to be useful for assessing the degree of exposure to disaster across a broad population, and varies in utility depending on the mental health outcome of interest: the single trauma question is useful for assessing depression risk.

  11. When is exposure to a natural disaster traumatic? Comparison of a trauma questionnaire and disaster exposure inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W; Jacobs, Marni; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the sensitivity of trauma questionnaires to disaster inventories for assessing the prevalence of exposure to natural disaster or associated risk for post-disaster psychopathology. The objective of this analysis was to compare reporting of disaster exposure on a trauma questionnaire (Brief Trauma Questionnaire [BTQ]) to an inventory of disaster experience. Between 2011 and 2014, a sample of 841 reproductive-aged southern Louisiana women were interviewed using the BTQ and completed a detailed inventory about exposure to hurricanes and flooding. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology was measured with the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist, and depression with the Edinburgh Depression Scale. The single question addressing disaster exposure on the BTQ had a sensitivity of between 65% and 70% relative to the more detailed questions. Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was more likely for those who reported illness/injury due to a hurricane or flood (74%-77%) or danger (77-79%), compared to those who reported damage (69-71%) or evacuation (64-68%). Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-3.68). A single question is unlikely to be useful for assessing the degree of exposure to disaster across a broad population, and varies in utility depending on the mental health outcome of interest: the single trauma question is useful for assessing depression risk.

  12. On the Use of Global Flood Forecasts and Satellite-Derived Inundation Maps for Flood Monitoring in Data-Sparse Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Revilla-Romero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Early flood warning and real-time monitoring systems play a key role in flood risk reduction and disaster response decisions. Global-scale flood forecasting and satellite-based flood detection systems are currently operating, however their reliability for decision-making applications needs to be assessed. In this study, we performed comparative evaluations of several operational global flood forecasting and flood detection systems, using 10 major flood events recorded over 2012–2014. Specifically, we evaluated the spatial extent and temporal characteristics of flood detections from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS and the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS. Furthermore, we compared the GFDS flood maps with those from NASA’s two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensors. Results reveal that: (1 general agreement was found between the GFDS and MODIS flood detection systems, (2 large differences exist in the spatio-temporal characteristics of the GFDS detections and GloFAS forecasts, and (3 the quantitative validation of global flood disasters in data-sparse regions is highly challenging. Overall, satellite remote sensing provides useful near real-time flood information that can be useful for risk management. We highlight the known limitations of global flood detection and forecasting systems, and propose ways forward to improve the reliability of large-scale flood monitoring tools.

  13. Managing the natural disasters from space technology inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, V.; Chandrasekhar, M. G.; Rao, U. R.

    1997-01-01

    Natural disasters, whether of meteorological origin such as Cyclones, Floods, Tornadoes and Droughts or of having geological nature such as earthquakes and volcanoes, are well known for their devastating impacts on human life, economy and environment. With tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with high population density, poverty, illiteracy and lack of infrastructure development, developing countries are more vulnerable to suffer from the damaging potential of such disasters. Though it is almost impossible to completely neutralise the damage due to these disasters, it is, however possible to (i) minimise the potential risks by developing disaster early warning strategies (ii) prepare developmental plans to provide resilience to such disasters, (iii) mobilize resources including communication and telemedicinal services and (iv) to help in rehabilitation and post-disaster reconstruction. Space borne platforms have demonstrated their capability in efficient disaster management. While communication satellites help in disaster warning, relief mobilisation and telemedicinal support, Earth observation satellites provide the basic support in pre-disaster preparedness programmes, in-disaster response and monitoring activities, and post-disaster reconstruction. The paper examines the information requirements for disaster risk management, assess developing country capabilities for building the necessary decision support systems, and evaluate the role of satellite remote sensing. It describes several examples of initiatives from developing countries in their attempt to evolve a suitable strategy for disaster preparedness and operational framework for the disaster management Using remote sensing data in conjunction with other collateral information. It concludes with suggestions and recommendations to establish a worldwide network of necessary space and ground segments towards strengthening the technological capabilities for disaster management and mitigation.

  14. Can Community Social Cohesion Prevent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Aftermath of a Disaster? A Natural Experiment From the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Aida, Jun; Tsuboya, Toru; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-05-15

    In the aftermath of a disaster, the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high. We sought to examine whether the predisaster level of community social cohesion was associated with a lower risk of PTSD after the earthquake and tsunami in Tohoku, Japan, on March 11, 2011. The baseline for our natural experiment was established in a survey of older community-dwelling adults who lived 80 kilometers west of the epicenter 7 months before the earthquake and tsunami. A follow-up survey was conducted approximately 2.5 years after the disaster. We used a spatial Durbin model to examine the association of community-level social cohesion with the individual risk of PTSD. Among our analytic sample (n = 3,567), 11.4% of respondents reported severe PTSD symptoms. In the spatial Durbin model, individual- and community-level social cohesion before the disaster were significantly associated with lower risks of PTSD symptoms (odds ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.77, 0.98 and odds ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.63, 0.90, respectively), even after adjustment for depression symptoms at baseline and experiences during the disaster (including loss of loved ones, housing damage, and interruption of access to health care). Community-level social cohesion strengthens the resilience of community residents in the aftermath of a disaster. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  15. Adoption of flood preparedness actions : A household level study in rural communities in Tabasco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atreya, Ajita; Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Botzen, Wouter; Bustamante, Gabriela; Campbell, Karen; Collier, Ben; Ianni, Francisco; Kunreuther, Howard; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann; Montgomery, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    Of all the natural disasters, floods are the most common. While they affect most countries around the world, poor communities are particularly vulnerable to flood risk. The use of early preparedness measures is key for minimizing related flood impacts; however, little is known about what drives

  16. A Geo-Environmental Assessment of Flood Dynamics in Lower Ajoy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    A Geo-Environmental Assessment of Flood Dynamics in Lower Ajoy River Inducing Sand. Splay Problem in Eastern India. Sutapa Mukhopadhyay. Abstract: Flood as a widespread destructive natural disaster is recurring in the river basins of Eastern India. Though large number of flood controlling measures have been taken ...

  17. Framework for Dynamic Modelling of Urban Floods at Different Topographical Resolutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyoum, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    Floods are among the most frequent and costly natural disasters in terms of human hardship and economic loss. The impacts of flooding are especially devastating in urban areas as these areas are densely populated and contain vital infrastructures. Urban flood risks and their impacts are expected to

  18. Flood susceptibility mapping using novel ensembles of adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system and metaheuristic algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Razavi Termeh, Seyed Vahid; Kornejady, Aiding; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Keesstra, Saskia

    2018-01-01

    Flood is one of the most destructive natural disasters which cause great financial and life losses per year. Therefore, producing susceptibility maps for flood management are necessary in order to reduce its harmful effects. The aim of the present study is to map flood hazard over the Jahrom

  19. Predicting landscape sensitivity to present and future floods in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Safeeq; Gordon E. Grant; Sarah L. Lewis; Brian Staab

    2015-01-01

    Floods are the most frequent natural disaster, causing more loss of life and property than any other in the USA. Floods also strongly influence the structure and function of watersheds, stream channels, and aquatic ecosystems. The Pacific Northwest is particularly vulnerable to climatically driven changes in flood frequency and magnitude, because snowpacks that...

  20. Disaster risk reduction and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshedi, N.

    2005-01-01

    During the past four decades, natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and slides, tsunami tropical cyclones and other severe storms, tornadoes and high winds, river floods and coastal flooding, wildfire and associated haze drought, sand/dust storms, and insect infestations have caused major loss of human lives and livelihoods, the destruction of economic and social infrastructure, as well as environmental damages. Economic losses have increased almost ten times during this period. As it happen in recent Asia Tsunami, in which over 2, 00,000 people reportedly killed, estimated five million homeless, and resulted in massive displacement of population and extensive damage to infrastructure. The escalation of severe disaster events triggered by natural hazards and related technological and environment disasters is increasingly threatening both sustainable development and poverty-reduction initiatives. The loss of human lives and the rise in the cost of reconstruction efforts and loss of development assets has forced the issue of disaster reduction and risk management higher on the policy agenda of affected governments as well a multilateral and bilateral agencies and NGOs. For this Disaster risk reduction-.strategies are aimed at enabling societies at risk to become engaged in the conscious management of risk and the reduction of vulnerability. The adoption of appropriate development policies can reduce disaster risk. These policies should be gender sensitive and need the necessary political commitment. They involve the adoption of suitable regulatory and other legal measures, institutional reform, improved analytical and methodological capabilities, financial planning, education and awareness. (author)

  1. Assessment of "TIMELINE" for river floods in Japan based on geographical and societal backgrounds: Case studies in Japan and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, S.; Kanae, S.

    2016-12-01

    "TIMELINE" is a tool that supports people in disaster cases. After "TIMELINE" was used effectively in the United States at Hurricane Sandy, it was introduced in Japan to apply for river flood cases. In terms of Japan, "TIMELINE" is a developing method. Therefore, the objective of our research is to contribute for the effective application of "TIMELINE" in Japan. To achieve our objective, we tried two steps. First, to understand the reason of "TIMELINE" making, we found the primal concept of "TIMELINE" by case study in the United States. In this part, by using bibliographic survey, we researched the history of disaster prevention acts in the United States and tried to find the root of "TIMELINE". Second, we extracted the difference of attitudes toward river floods between Japan and the United States with studying actual river flood cases. To catch issues with several aspects, we focused on geographical and societal backgrounds in both countries. About time scale of our research, we picked up from early 20th century to now. In this era, both Japan and the United States started to operate the modern approaches to river floods. As a result, we found that it might be important to recognize the difference of geographical and societal aspects between Japan and the United States for effective application of "TIMELINE". Our research would also contribute for effective application of "TIMELINE" on flash floods.

  2. These lives will not be lost in vain: organizational learning from disaster in US coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, P.M. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Marriott School Management

    2009-09-15

    The stated purpose of the investigations that invariably follow industrial, transportation, and mining disasters is to learn from those tragedies to prevent future tragedies. But does prior experience with disaster make organizations more capable of preventing future disasters? Do organizations learn from disasters experienced by other organizations? Do organizations learn differently from rare disasters than they do from common minor accidents? In its present state, the organizational safety literature is poorly equipped to answer these questions. The present work begins to address this gap by empirically examining how prior organizational experience with disaster affects the likelihood that organizations will experience future disasters. It approaches the issue in the context of fatal U.S. coal mining accidents from 1983 to 2006. The analysis demonstrates that organizations do learn to prevent future disasters through both direct and vicarious experience with disaster. It also indicates that the mechanisms through which organizations learn from disasters differ from those through which they learn from minor accidents.

  3. Espacio urbano y riesgo de desastres: la expansión de las urbanizaciones cerradas sobre áreas inundables de Tigre (Argentina Urban space and risk of disasters: the expansions of gated communities on Tigre's flood-prone areas (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ríos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento espacial de las ciudades y de los llamados desastres "naturales" son dos temas que adquieren cada vez mayor notoriedad a nivel mundial. El trabajo parte de considerar a ambos fenómenos como productos sociales, por lo que intenta avanzar en el conocimiento sobre la articulación entre producción social del espacio urbano y de riesgo de desastres, a partir de un estudio de caso: la expansión de las urbanizaciones cerradas ocurrida desde fines del siglo XX sobre áreas inundables de Tigre (Argentina.Urban growth and the increase of so-called "natural" disasters are two topics which are getting more and more notorious worldwide. This work considers both phenomena as social outcomes, advancing the knowledge about the articulation between the social production of urban space and the risk of disasters from a case study: the expansions of gated communities since the end of the XX century on the flood prone areas of the River Tigre in Argentina.

  4. A systematic review of the amount of water per person per day needed to prevent morbidity and mortality in (post-disaster settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmy De Buck

    Full Text Available In order to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of humanitarian efforts, minimum standards for humanitarian assistance and key indicators, showing whether a standard has been attained, have been developed. However, many of these standards and indicators are based on a consensus on best practices and experiences in humanitarian response, because relevant evidence on the impact of humanitarian interventions is often lacking.One important example of a standard in humanitarian aid in a disaster setting is "water quantity." The accompanying indicator states how many litres of water are needed per person per day in a disaster setting. It was our objective to determine the evidence base behind this indicator, in order to improve health outcomes such as morbidity (e.g., diarrhoea and mortality.A systematic review was performed searching The Cochrane Library, Medline and Embase. We included studies performed during disasters and in refugee camps that reported a specific water amount and health-related outcomes related to water shortages, including diarrhoea, cholera, and mortality. We used GRADE to determine the quality of evidence.Out of 3,630 articles, 111 references relevant to our question were selected. Based on our selection criteria, we finally retained 6 observational studies, including 1 study that was performed during the disaster and 5 studies in a post-disaster phase. From two studies there is conclusive evidence on the relationship between the amount of water received and diarrhoea or mortality rates in refugee camps. However, overall, these studies do not contain enough data with relevance to a specific amount of water, and the level of evidence is very low.More primary research on water amounts in a disaster setting is necessary, so that the humanitarian sector can further professionalise its water-related standards, indicators and interventions.

  5. Flood of April 1975 at Williamston, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutilla, R.L.; Swallow, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    On April 18 between 5 p.m. and 12 p.m. the city of Williamston experienced an intense rain storm that caused the Red Cedar River and the many small streams in the area to overflow their banks and resulted in the most devastating flood since at least 1904. Local officials estimated a loss of \\$775,000 in property damage. Damage from flooding by the Red Cedar River was caused primarily by inundation, rather than by water moving at high velocity, as is common when many streams are flooded. During the flood of April 1975 many basements were flooded as well as the lower floors of some homes in the flood plain. Additional damage occurred in places when sewers backed up and flooded basements, and when ground water seeped through basement walls and floors—situations that affected many homes including those that were well outside of the flood plain.During the time of flooding the U.S. Geological Survey obtained aerial photography and data on a streamflow to document the disaster. This report shows on a photomosaic base map the extent of flooding along the Red Cedar River at Williamston, during the flood. It also presents data obtained at stream-gaging stations near Williamston, as well as the results of peak-flow discharge measurements made on the Red Cedar River at Michigan State Highway M-52 east of the city. Information on the magnitude of the flood can guide in making decisions pertaining to the use of flood-plains in the area. It is one of a series of reports on the April 1975 flood in the Lansing metropolitan area.

  6. Flood early warning system in I.R. of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadi, Slina; Jamali, Javad B.; Javanmard, Soheila

    2004-01-01

    At the close of the twentieth century, natural hazards and disasters are one of the most common forms of disasters around the world. Natural disasters cause in significant loss of life and serious economic, environmental and social impacts that greatly retard the development process. Careful hazard assessment and planning, and a range of social, economic and political measures, can significantly contain these threats. Risk is defined as the potential for loss or damage as the result of a particular action or decision and Risk Management is a process consisting of well-defined steps which, when taken in sequence, support better decision making by contributing to a greater insight into risks and their impacts. Most commonly, there are three components in a natural disaster plan: monitoring and early warning; risk assessment; and mitigation and response. Given the improved tools and technologies available today, it is possible to provide disaster information and minimize the potential damage of disasters. In the following parts of the report, the national early warning systems for flood would be discussed, as one of the important component of natural disaster risk management. In 1. R. of Iran, also, different types of natural disasters occur, such as drought, flood, earthquake, sea-level rise, dust storm, hail, freezing and etc, but Flood hazard and disaster is one of the most frequent and damaging types of natural disasters. They have been the most common type of geophysical disaster in the latter half of the twentieth century in Iran, generating an estimated more than 20 percent of all disasters from 1950 to 2003. One of the hazardous floods of Iran occurred in Golestan and north of Khorasan provinces, located in north-east of the country, on August 2001 and 2002. In this regard, according to the responsibility of I. R. of Iran Meteorological Organization (IRIMO) on the flood forecasting, the early warning issue of the mentioned flood, issued within 48 hour's in

  7. Primary healthcare system capacities for responding to storm and flood-related health problems: a case study from a rural district in central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a tropical depression in the East Sea, Vietnam is greatly affected by climate change and natural disasters. Knowledge of the current capacity of the primary healthcare system in Vietnam to respond to health issues associated with storms and floods is very important for policy making in the country. However, there has been little scientific research in this area. Objective: This research was to assess primary healthcare system capacities in a rural district in central Vietnam to respond to such health issues. Design: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods used self-administered questionnaires. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions were used to broaden understanding of the quantitative material and to get additional information on actions taken. Results: 1 Service delivery: Medical emergency services, especially surgical operations and referral systems, were not always available during the storm and flood seasons. 2 Governance: District emergency plans focus largely on disaster response rather than prevention. The plans did not clearly define the role of primary healthcare and had no clear information on the coordination mechanism among different sectors and organizations. 3 Financing: The budget for prevention and control of flood and storm activities was limited and had no specific items for healthcare activities. Only a little additional funding was available, but the procedures to get this funding were usually time-consuming. 4 Human resources: Medical rescue teams were established, but there were no epidemiologists or environmental health specialists to take care of epidemiological issues. Training on prevention and control of climate change and disaster-related health issues did not meet actual needs. 5 Information and research: Data that can be used for planning and management (including population and epidemiological

  8. Primary healthcare system capacities for responding to storm and flood-related health problems: a case study from a rural district in central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; Tuan Anh, Tran; Rocklöv, Joacim; Bao Giang, Kim; Trang, Le Quynh; Sahlen, Klas-Göran; Nilsson, Maria; Weinehall, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background As a tropical depression in the East Sea, Vietnam is greatly affected by climate change and natural disasters. Knowledge of the current capacity of the primary healthcare system in Vietnam to respond to health issues associated with storms and floods is very important for policy making in the country. However, there has been little scientific research in this area. Objective This research was to assess primary healthcare system capacities in a rural district in central Vietnam to respond to such health issues. Design This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods used self-administered questionnaires. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions) were used to broaden understanding of the quantitative material and to get additional information on actions taken. Results 1) Service delivery: Medical emergency services, especially surgical operations and referral systems, were not always available during the storm and flood seasons. 2) Governance: District emergency plans focus largely on disaster response rather than prevention. The plans did not clearly define the role of primary healthcare and had no clear information on the coordination mechanism among different sectors and organizations. 3) Financing: The budget for prevention and control of flood and storm activities was limited and had no specific items for healthcare activities. Only a little additional funding was available, but the procedures to get this funding were usually time-consuming. 4) Human resources: Medical rescue teams were established, but there were no epidemiologists or environmental health specialists to take care of epidemiological issues. Training on prevention and control of climate change and disaster-related health issues did not meet actual needs. 5) Information and research: Data that can be used for planning and management (including population and epidemiological data) were largely

  9. Primary healthcare system capacities for responding to storm and flood-related health problems: a case study from a rural district in central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; Tuan Anh, Tran; Rocklöv, Joacim; Bao Giang, Kim; Trang, Le Quynh; Sahlen, Klas-Göran; Nilsson, Maria; Weinehall, Lars

    2014-01-01

    As a tropical depression in the East Sea, Vietnam is greatly affected by climate change and natural disasters. Knowledge of the current capacity of the primary healthcare system in Vietnam to respond to health issues associated with storms and floods is very important for policy making in the country. However, there has been little scientific research in this area. This research was to assess primary healthcare system capacities in a rural district in central Vietnam to respond to such health issues. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods used self-administered questionnaires. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions) were used to broaden understanding of the quantitative material and to get additional information on actions taken. 1) Service delivery: Medical emergency services, especially surgical operations and referral systems, were not always available during the storm and flood seasons. 2) Governance: District emergency plans focus largely on disaster response rather than prevention. The plans did not clearly define the role of primary healthcare and had no clear information on the coordination mechanism among different sectors and organizations. 3) Financing: The budget for prevention and control of flood and storm activities was limited and had no specific items for healthcare activities. Only a little additional funding was available, but the procedures to get this funding were usually time-consuming. 4) Human resources: Medical rescue teams were established, but there were no epidemiologists or environmental health specialists to take care of epidemiological issues. Training on prevention and control of climate change and disaster-related health issues did not meet actual needs. 5) Information and research: Data that can be used for planning and management (including population and epidemiological data) were largely lacking. The district lacked a disease

  10. Assessment of Three Flood Hazard Mapping Methods: A Case Study of Perlis

    OpenAIRE

    Azizat Nazirah; Wan Omar Wan Mohd Sabki

    2018-01-01

    Flood is a common natural disaster and also affect the all state in Malaysia. Regarding to Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID) in 2007, about 29, 270 km2 or 9 percent of region of the country is prone to flooding. Flood can be such devastating catastrophic which can effected to people, economy and environment. Flood hazard mapping can be used is an important part in flood assessment to define those high risk area prone to flooding. The purposes of this study are to prepare a flood hazard...

  11. Practitioner Perspectives on a Disaster Management Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, K.; Evans, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) is constructing a high-level reference model for the use of satellites, sensors, models, and associated data products from many different global data and service providers in disaster response and risk assessment. To help streamline broad, effective access to satellite information, the reference model provides structured, shared, holistic views of distributed systems and services - in effect, a common vocabulary describing the system-of-systems building blocks and how they are composed for disaster management. These views are being inferred from real-world experience, by documenting and analyzing how practitioners have gone about using or providing satellite data to manage real disaster events or to assess or mitigate hazard risks. Crucial findings and insights come from case studies of three kinds of experience: - Disaster response and recovery (such as the 2008 Sichuan/Wenchuan earthquake in China; and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan); - Technology pilot projects (such as NASA's Flood Sensor Web pilot in Namibia, or the interagency Virtual Mission Operation Center); - Information brokers (such as the International Charter: Space and Major Disasters, or the U.K.-based Disaster Management Constellation). Each of these experiences sheds light on the scope and stakeholders of disaster management; the information requirements for various disaster types and phases; and the services needed for effective access to information by a variety of users. They also highlight needs and gaps in the supply of satellite information for disaster management. One need stands out: rapid and effective access to complex data from multiple sources, across inter-organizational boundaries. This is the near-real-time challenge writ large: gaining access to satellite data resources from multiple organizationally distant and geographically disperse sources, to meet an

  12. Multi-dimensional flood vulnerability assessment using data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Zalina; Saharizan, Nurul Syuhada; Hamzah, Paezah; Hussin, Siti Aida Sheikh; Khairi, Siti Shaliza Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Malaysia has been greatly impacted by flood during monsoon seasons. Even though flood prone areas are well identified, assessment on the vulnerability of the disaster is lacking. Assessment of flood vulnerability, defined as the potential for loss when a disaster occurs, is addressed in this paper. The focus is on the development of flood vulnerability measurement in 11 states in Peninsular Malaysia using a non-parametric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis. Scores for three dimensions of flood vulnerability (Population Vulnerability, Social Vulnerability and Biophysical) were calculated using secondary data of selected input and output variables across an 11-year period from 2004 to 2014. The results showed that Johor and Pahang were the most vulnerable to flood in terms of Population Vulnerability, followed by Kelantan, the most vulnerable to flood in terms of Social Vulnerability and Kedah, Pahang and Terengganu were the most vulnerable to flood in terms of Biophysical Vulnerability among the eleven states. The results also showed that the state of Johor, Pahang and Kelantan to be most vulnerable across the three dimensions. Flood vulnerability assessment is important as it provides invaluable information that will allow the authority to identify and develop plans for flood mitigation and to reduce the vulnerability of flood at the affected regions.

  13. Recent advances in flood forecasting and flood risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arduino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent large floods in Europe have led to increased interest in research and development of flood forecasting systems. Some of these events have been provoked by some of the wettest rainfall periods on record which has led to speculation that such extremes are attributable in some measure to anthropogenic global warming and represent the beginning of a period of higher flood frequency. Whilst current trends in extreme event statistics will be difficult to discern, conclusively, there has been a substantial increase in the frequency of high floods in the 20th century for basins greater than 2x105 km2. There is also increasing that anthropogenic forcing of climate change may lead to an increased probability of extreme precipitation and, hence, of flooding. There is, therefore, major emphasis on the improvement of operational flood forecasting systems in Europe, with significant European Community spending on research and development on prototype forecasting systems and flood risk management projects. This Special Issue synthesises the most relevant scientific and technological results presented at the International Conference on Flood Forecasting in Europe held in Rotterdam from 3-5 March 2003. During that meeting 150 scientists, forecasters and stakeholders from four continents assembled to present their work and current operational best practice and to discuss future directions of scientific and technological efforts in flood prediction and prevention. The papers presented at the conference fall into seven themes, as follows.

  14. 2 Dimensional Hydrodynamic Flood Routing Analysis on Flood Forecasting Modelling for Kelantan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Wan Hazdy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood disaster occurs quite frequently in Malaysia and has been categorized as the most threatening natural disaster compared to landslides, hurricanes, tsunami, haze and others. A study by Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID show that 9% of land areas in Malaysia are prone to flood which may affect approximately 4.9 million of the population. 2 Dimensional floods routing modelling demonstrate is turning out to be broadly utilized for flood plain display and is an extremely viable device for evaluating flood. Flood propagations can be better understood by simulating the flow and water level by using hydrodynamic modelling. The hydrodynamic flood routing can be recognized by the spatial complexity of the schematization such as 1D model and 2D model. It was found that most of available hydrological models for flood forecasting are more focus on short duration as compared to long duration hydrological model using the Probabilistic Distribution Moisture Model (PDM. The aim of this paper is to discuss preliminary findings on development of flood forecasting model using Probabilistic Distribution Moisture Model (PDM for Kelantan river basin. Among the findings discuss in this paper includes preliminary calibrated PDM model, which performed reasonably for the Dec 2014, but underestimated the peak flows. Apart from that, this paper also discusses findings on Soil Moisture Deficit (SMD and flood plain analysis. Flood forecasting is the complex process that begins with an understanding of the geographical makeup of the catchment and knowledge of the preferential regions of heavy rainfall and flood behaviour for the area of responsibility. Therefore, to decreases the uncertainty in the model output, so it is important to increase the complexity of the model.

  15. Disaster Vulnerability in South Korea under a Gender Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Gunhui

    2017-04-01

    The most affected natural disaster has been flooding in South Korea, however, many unexpected natural disasters cause by snow or drought have become severe due to the climate change. Therefore it is very important to analyze disaster vulnerability under the unexpected climate condition. When the natural disaster happens, in many cases, female was more damaged than male because of the cultural and physical limitations. Disaster is never gender neutral. For example, four times as many female as male died in Indonesia tsunami. Therefore, it is very important to consider gender sensitivity in the disaster vulnerability to mitigate effects on the female. In this study, the current disaster management guideline in South Korea is investigated in the gender perspective and compared to the other countries. As a result, gender analysis in the disaster preparedness and response is not implemented in South Korea. Thus, the gender balanced disaster management guideline is newly proposed. Also, the disaster vulnerability considering gendered factors are evaluated and analyzed in the urban area. Acknowledgement This research was supported by Support Program for Women in Science, Engineering and Technology through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and future Planning(No. 2016H1C3A1903202)

  16. Performance of district disaster management teams after undergoing an operational level planners' training in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orach, Christopher Garimol; Mayega, Roy William; Woboya, Vincent; William, Bazeyo

    2013-06-01

    Uganda is vulnerable to several natural, man-made and a hybrid of disasters including drought, famine, floods, warfare, and disease outbreaks. We assessed the district disaster team's performance, roles and experiences following the training. The disasters most commonly experienced by the district teams were epidemics of diseases in humans (7 of 12), animals (epizoonotics) (3 of 12) and crops (3 of 12); hailstorms and floods (3 of 12). The capabilities viewed most useful for management of disasters were provision of health care services (9/12) and response management (8 of 12). The capability domains most often consulted during the disasters were general response management (31%), health services (29%) and water and sanitation (17%). The skills areas perceived to be vital following the training were response to epidemics 10/12, disaster management planning 8/12, hazards and vulnerability analysis 7/12 and principles of disaster planning 7/12 respectively. Main challenges mentioned by district teams were inadequacy of finance and logistics, lack of commitment by key partners towards disaster preparedness and response. The most common disaster experienced disasters related to outbreaks of diseases in man, animals and crops. The most frequently applied capabilities were response management and provision of emergency health services. The activities most frequently implemented following disaster management teams training were conducting planning meetings, refinement of plans and dissemination of skills gained. The main challenges were related to limited budget allocations and legal frameworks for disaster management that should be addressed by both central and local governments.

  17. Natural disasters and gender dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    . Men, on the other side, feel more often prepared to overcome the crises, but what emerges from the stress and the losses caused by disasters are different types of violence (self-harm and interpersonal violence). It is therefore necessary to recognize violence and mental health pathologies as part of the negative consequences that occur after natural disasters and that can be part of people's vulnerability if those events recur frequently. Living conditions, demographic, economic attributes, behaviours and beliefs reflect gender power relations in the disaster context. Failing to recognize it, may lead to inefficient community-based risk management plans. Gender dynamics in the disaster context should be the interest not only of non-governmental and/or international organizations. They should be a priority for researchers that have to contribute more in their studies to find a gendered differentiation, without limiting gender to an isolated attribute. This will help public authorities to develop sensitive management plans in order to let the disaster relief an easy process to achieve. This work will contribute to the scientific recognition of gender in the disaster management context, in order to raise further investigations on this topic. World Bank (2010) Natural Hazards, Unnatural Disasters: The Economics of Effective Prevention. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Reports.

  18. Detection of Flood Inundation Information of the Kinu River Flooding in 2015 by Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Sayama, T.; Takara, K. T.

    2016-12-01

    On September 10th, 2015, due to Kanto Tohoku heavy rainfall in Japan, an overtopping occurred from the Kinu River around 6:00. At the same day, levee breach occurred at the downstream area near Joso city in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. This flood disaster caused two people dead, several people injured, and enormous damages on houses and infrastructures in the city. In order to mitigate such flood disasters with large inundations, it is important to identify flood-affected areas on real-time basis. The real-time flood hazard map, which is our ultimate goal of the study, provides information on location of inundated areas during a flood. However, the technology has not been achieved yet mainly due to the difficulty in identifying the flood extent on real time. With the advantage of efficiency and wide coverage, social media, such as Twitter, appears as a good data source for collecting real-time flood information. However, there are some concerns on social media information, including the trustworthiness, and the amount of useful information in the case tweets from flood affected areas. This study collected tweet regarding the Kinu River flooding and investigated how many people in affected area posted tweets on the flooding and how the detected information is useful for the eventual goal on the real-time flood hazard mapping. The tweets were collected by three ways: advanced search on twitter web page; DISAster-information ANAlyzer system; and Twitter Application Programming Interfaces. As a result, 109 disaster relevant tweets were collected. Out of the 109 tweets, 32% of the total tweets are posted at real-time, 43% of total tweets are posted with photos and 46 tweets are related to the inundation information. 46% of the inundation related tweets were able to identify locations. In order to investigate the reliability of tweet post, the location identified tweets were marked on map to compare with the real inundation extent that measured by the Geospatial

  19. Bayesian flood forecasting methods: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shasha; Coulibaly, Paulin

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few decades, floods have been seen as one of the most common and largely distributed natural disasters in the world. If floods could be accurately forecasted in advance, then their negative impacts could be greatly minimized. It is widely recognized that quantification and reduction of uncertainty associated with the hydrologic forecast is of great importance for flood estimation and rational decision making. Bayesian forecasting system (BFS) offers an ideal theoretic framework for uncertainty quantification that can be developed for probabilistic flood forecasting via any deterministic hydrologic model. It provides suitable theoretical structure, empirically validated models and reasonable analytic-numerical computation method, and can be developed into various Bayesian forecasting approaches. This paper presents a comprehensive review on Bayesian forecasting approaches applied in flood forecasting from 1999 till now. The review starts with an overview of fundamentals of BFS and recent advances in BFS, followed with BFS application in river stage forecasting and real-time flood forecasting, then move to a critical analysis by evaluating advantages and limitations of Bayesian forecasting methods and other predictive uncertainty assessment approaches in flood forecasting, and finally discusses the future research direction in Bayesian flood forecasting. Results show that the Bayesian flood forecasting approach is an effective and advanced way for flood estimation, it considers all sources of uncertainties and produces a predictive distribution of the river stage, river discharge or runoff, thus gives more accurate and reliable flood forecasts. Some emerging Bayesian forecasting methods (e.g. ensemble Bayesian forecasting system, Bayesian multi-model combination) were shown to overcome limitations of single model or fixed model weight and effectively reduce predictive uncertainty. In recent years, various Bayesian flood forecasting approaches have been

  20. An Evaluation on Factors Influencing Decision making for Malaysia Disaster Management: The Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubir, S. N. A.; Thiruchelvam, S.; Mustapha, K. N. M.; Che Muda, Z.; Ghazali, A.; Hakimie, H.

    2017-12-01

    For the past few years, natural disaster has been the subject of debate in disaster management especially in flood disaster. Each year, natural disaster results in significant loss of life, destruction of homes and public infrastructure, and economic hardship. Hence, an effective and efficient flood disaster management would assure non-futile efforts for life saving. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between approach, decision maker, influence factor, result, and ethic to decision making for flood disaster management in Malaysia. The key elements of decision making in the disaster management were studied based on the literature. Questionnaire surveys were administered among lead agencies at East Coast of Malaysia in the state of Kelantan and Pahang. A total of 307 valid responses had been obtained for further analysis. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were carried out to analyse the measurement model involved in the study. The CFA for second-order reflective and first-order reflective measurement model indicates that approach, decision maker, influence factor, result, and ethic have a significant and direct effect on decision making during disaster. The results from this study showed that decision- making during disaster is an important element for disaster management to necessitate a successful collaborative decision making. The measurement model is accepted to proceed with further analysis known as Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and can be assessed for the future research.

  1. Flood Response System—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Kumar Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flood Response System (FRS is a network-enabled solution developed using open-source software. The system has query based flood damage assessment modules with outputs in the form of spatial maps and statistical databases. FRS effectively facilitates the management of post-disaster activities caused due to flood, like displaying spatial maps of area affected, inundated roads, etc., and maintains a steady flow of information at all levels with different access rights depending upon the criticality of the information. It is designed to facilitate users in managing information related to flooding during critical flood seasons and analyzing the extent of damage. The inputs to FRS are provided using two components: (1 a semi-automated application developed indigenously, to delineate inundated areas for Near-Real Time Flood Monitoring using Active Microwave Remote Sensing data and (2 a two-dimensional (2D hydrodynamic river model generated outputs for water depth and velocity in flooded areas for an embankment breach scenario. The 2D Hydrodynamic model, CCHE2D (Center for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering Two-Dimensional model, was used to simulate an area of 600 km2 in the flood-prone zone of the Brahmaputra basin. The resultant inundated area from the model was found to be 85% accurate when validated with post-flood optical satellite data.

  2. Understanding the effects of past flood events and perceived and estimated flood risks on individuals' voluntary flood insurance purchase behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wanyun; Xian, Siyuan; Lin, Ning; Kunreuther, Howard; Jackson, Nida; Goidel, Kirby

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the economic damage from flooding in the coastal areas has greatly increased due to rapid coastal development coupled with possible climate change impacts. One effective way to mitigate excessive economic losses from flooding is to purchase flood insurance. Only a minority of coastal residents however have taken this preventive measure. Using original survey data for all coastal counties of the United States Gulf Coast merged with contextual data, this study examines the effects of external influences and perceptions of flood-related risks on individuals' voluntary behaviors to purchase flood insurance. It is found that the estimated flood hazard conveyed through the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) flood maps, the intensities and consequences of past storms and flooding events, and perceived flood-related risks significantly affect individual's voluntary purchase of flood insurance. This behavior is also influenced by home ownership, trust in local government, education, and income. These findings have several important policy implications. First, FEMA's flood maps have been effective in conveying local flood risks to coastal residents, and correspondingly influencing their decisions to voluntarily seek flood insurance in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Flood maps therefore should be updated frequently to reflect timely and accurate information about flood hazards. Second, policy makers should design strategies to increase homeowners' trust in the local government, to better communicate flood risks with residents, to address the affordability issue for the low-income, and better inform less educated homeowners through various educational programs. Future studies should examine the voluntary flood insurance behavior across countries that are vulnerable to flooding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Field Observation on Seed Arrival into Surface Layers of Sand Bars after Several Floods in Kinugawa River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Oishi, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, Kazuaki; Ohmura, Sohei; Iimura, Hayata

    2017-04-01

    This presentation gives the results of field observation on seed arrival into surface layers of sand bars after several floods during 2016 in Kinugawa River, Japan. The seed arrival could be an onset of secondary succession on sand bars, leading to their well-vegetated states after several decades that cause river management issues both on flood disaster prevention and riverine ecosystem alteration. Kinugawa River had the largest record flood in September 9-10, 2015. It resulted in the levee failure and the corresponding flood disaster in Joso City located in the downstream part of Kinugawa River. It also had the large impact on the riverine vegetation environment, resulting in making many sand bars and gravel beds be bare surface states. In order to investigate the very initial state of the seed arrival into the created bare surfaces by small to medium flood events, 3 channel sections with 6 observation points in total were chosen and observed during the rainy season in 2016. A steel ling with a pile was used for measuring the depth of active surface layers on the sand bars during the flood events. The sediments in the active surface layers were sampled for making the grain size accumulation curve as well as for counting the number of seeds within the sample sediments. The results showed that the sample sediments with the smaller mean diameters, ranging around 0.1 - 6.4 mm, kept much more seeds than those with the larger mean diameters over 12 mm. The number of seeds decreases with the small percentile (around 10-20th) in particle diameter rather than the mean diameter. Furthermore, relationships were discussed in detail between the number of seeds, the depth of the active layers, and bed shear stresses calculated by a numerical simulation model.

  4. Disaster Management System as an Element of Risk Management for Natural Disaster Systems Using the PESTLE Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwar, D; Ramachandran, M; Hosseinian Far, A

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we have witnessed so many natural catastrophes such as earthquakes in Japan, severe floods in the UK, US and many other parts of the world. Consequently businesses have been losing tens of billions of dollars as a result of various natural and man-made disasters. Disaster Management System (DMS) have proven to be important means for reducing risks associated with such damages to businesses. A DMS can minimize and in some cases, eliminates the risks through technical, management or o...

  5. Extreme flood event analysis in Indonesia based on rainfall intensity and recharge capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narulita, Ida; Ningrum, Widya

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is very vulnerable to flood disaster because it has high rainfall events throughout the year. Flood is categorized as the most important hazard disaster because it is causing social, economic and human losses. The purpose of this study is to analyze extreme flood event based on satellite rainfall dataset to understand the rainfall characteristic (rainfall intensity, rainfall pattern, etc.) that happened before flood disaster in the area for monsoonal, equatorial and local rainfall types. Recharge capacity will be analyzed using land cover and soil distribution. The data used in this study are CHIRPS rainfall satellite data on 0.05 ° spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution, and GSMap satellite rainfall dataset operated by JAXA on 1-hour temporal resolution and 0.1 ° spatial resolution, land use and soil distribution map for recharge capacity analysis. The rainfall characteristic before flooding, and recharge capacity analysis are expected to become the important information for flood mitigation in Indonesia.

  6. HEDONIC PRICE APPROACH OF FLOOD EFFECT ON AGRICULTURAL LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Saptutyningsih

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The natural disasters that took place in many parts of Indonesia in the last 10 years have caused an enormous losses, including agricultural sector. The objective of this paper is to estimate the magnitude of the influence of flood disaster on land price changes in Yogyakarta, using a hedonic price approach. The sample are is choosen from the vulnerable flood area mapped by Geographical Information Systems (GIS, from which farmers and land owner are selected as the respondents. The paper finds the evidence of a high level of flood stream coefficient, indicating that the flood significantly reduces the land price. The average of household’s marginal willingness to pay for the decrease in flood stream level is estimated to be Rp 2.175.  Keywords: Agricultural land, marginal willingness to pay (MWTP, hedonic priceJEL classification numbers: Q15, Q19

  7. Development Bank Encourages Natural Disaster Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-02-01

    In an effort to make countries in Latin America and the Caribbean less vulnerable to natural disasters, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) announced on 21 December 2005 that it has developed a new draft disaster risk management policy to encourage its member countries to plan for these events. The IDB, the major development bank for the region, decided to place a focus on natural disaster risk planning following several devastating disasters in the region in the 1990s, including 1998's Hurricane Mitch, said Caroline Clarke, IDB senior specialist in disaster prevention and risk management. The IDB provides loans, technical assistance, and policy guidance to reduce poverty and promote sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  8. The World Trade Center Attack Disaster preparedness: health care is ready, but is the bureaucracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    When a disaster occurs, it is for governments to provide the leadership, civil defense, security, evacuation, and public welfare. The medical aspects of a disaster account for less than 10% of resource and personnel expenditure. Hospitals and health care provider teams respond to unexpected occurrences such as explosions, earthquakes, floods, fires, war, or the outbreak of an infectious epidemic. In some geographic locations where natural disasters are common, such as earthquakes in Japan, such disaster practice drills are common. In other locations, disaster drills become pro forma and have no similarity to real or even projected and predicted disasters. The World Trade Center disaster on 11 September 2001 provides new information, and points out new threats, new information systems, new communication opportunities, and new detection methodologies. It is time for leaders of medicine to re-examine their approaches to disaster preparedness. PMID:11737919

  9. Toward more flood resilience: Is a diversification of flood risk management strategies the way forward?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Wiering, Mark; van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Matczak, Piotr; Crabbé, Ann; Raadgever, G.T.; Bakker, M.H.N.; Priest, Sally; Larrue, Corinne; Ek, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    European countries face increasing flood risks because of urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of strategies for flood risk management (FRM), including flood risk prevention

  10. Photovoltaic application for disaster relief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W.R. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, and earthquakes are natural disasters that can happen at any time destroying homes, businesses, and natural surroundings. One such disaster, Hurricane Andrew, devastated South Florida leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless. Many people were without electrical service, functioning water and sewage systems, communications, and medical services for days, even weeks in the aftermath of the storm. Emergency management teams, the military, and countless public and private organizations staged a massive relief effort. Dependency on electrical utility power became a pronounced problem as emergency services were rendered to survivors and the rebuilding process started. Many of the energy needs of emergency management organizations, relief workers, and the general public can be satisfied with solar electric energy systems. Photovoltaic (PV) power generated from solar energy is quiet, safe, inexhaustible and pollution-free. Previously, photovoltaics have supplied emergency power for Hurricanes Hugo and Andrew, and the earthquake at Northridge in Southern California. This document focuses on photovoltaic technology and its application to disaster relief efforts.

  11. Impact of social preparedness on flood early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girons Lopez, M.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Seibert, J.

    2017-01-01

    Flood early warning systems play a major role in the disaster risk reduction paradigm as cost-effective methods to mitigate flood disaster damage. The connections and feedbacks between the hydrological and social spheres of early warning systems are increasingly being considered as key aspects for successful flood mitigation. The behavior of the public and first responders during flood situations, determined by their preparedness, is heavily influenced by many behavioral traits such as perceived benefits, risk awareness, or even denial. In this study, we use the recency of flood experiences as a proxy for social preparedness to assess its impact on the efficiency of flood early warning systems through a simple stylized model and implemented this model using a simple mathematical description. The main findings, which are based on synthetic data, point to the importance of social preparedness for flood loss mitigation, especially in circumstances where the technical forecasting and warning capabilities are limited. Furthermore, we found that efforts to promote and preserve social preparedness may help to reduce disaster-induced losses by almost one half. The findings provide important insights into the role of social preparedness that may help guide decision-making in the field of flood early warning systems.

  12. Managing ecological drought and flood within a nature-based approach. Reality or illusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbac-Cotoara-Zamfir, Rares; Finger, David; Stolte, Jannes

    2017-04-01

    , from an ecological perspective, floods are not disasters in the sense that human society typically views them. Considering all previous aspects, it is clear that events like floods and droughts can't be avoided, but the hydrological extremes related to these events can be sustainable managed using a series of actions based on two inter-connected approaches: prevention approach and post-event management approach. The main objective remains the necessity of limiting the consequences of water hazards on socio-economic sectors but also the need of quickly and sustainable recovering after an event like this. However, the question still remains valid: Ecological flood and ecological drought can be managed through a nature-based approach? This paper will focus on a theoretical analysis of these "ecological" hydro-meteorological events and will debate a possible nature-based approach for their sustainable management.

  13. Towards Automated Analysis of Urban Infrastructure after Natural Disasters using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axel, Colin

    Natural disasters, such as earthquakes and hurricanes, are an unpreventable component of the complex and changing environment we live in. Continued research and advancement in disaster mitigation through prediction of and preparation for impacts have undoubtedly saved many lives and prevented significant amounts of damage, but it is inevitable that some events will cause destruction and loss of life due to their sheer magnitude and proximity to built-up areas. Consequently, development of effective and efficient disaster response methodologies is a research topic of great interest. A successful emergency response is dependent on a comprehensive understanding of the scenario at hand. It is crucial to assess the state of the infrastructure and transportation network, so that resources can be allocated efficiently. Obstructions to the roadways are one of the biggest inhibitors to effective emergency response. To this end, airborne and satellite remote sensing platforms have been used extensively to collect overhead imagery and other types of data in the event of a natural disaster. The ability of these platforms to rapidly probe large areas is ideal in a situation where a timely response could result in saving lives. Typically, imagery is delivered to emergency management officials who then visually inspect it to determine where roads are obstructed and buildings have collapsed. Manual interpretation of imagery is a slow process and is limited by the quality of the imagery and what the human eye can perceive. In order to overcome the time and resource limitations of manual interpretation, this dissertation inves- tigated the feasibility of performing fully automated post-disaster analysis of roadways and buildings using airborne remote sensing data. First, a novel algorithm for detecting roadway debris piles from airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) point clouds and estimating their volumes is presented. Next, a method for detecting roadway flooding in aerial

  14. An analysis of Japan Disaster Medical Assistance Team (J-DMAT) deployments in comparison with those of J-DMAT's counterpart in the United States (US-DMAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Akira; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2010-12-01

    Lessons learned from the Great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake of 1995 underscored the necessity of establishing Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs) in Japan, and in 2005, the Japanese government's Central Disaster Prevention Council revised its Basic Disaster Management Plan to include full deployment of DMATs in disaster areas. Defining a DMAT as a trained, mobile, self-contained medical team that can act in the acute phase of a disaster (48 to 72 hours after its occurrence) to provide medical treatment in the devastated area, the revised plan called for the training of DMAT personnel for rapid deployment to any area of the country hit by a disaster. This paper presents descriptive data on the number and types of missions carried out by Japan DMAT (J-DMAT) in its first 5 years, and clarifies how J-DMAT differs from its counterpart in the United States (US-DMAT). The DMAT that the present authors belong to has been deployed for 2 natural disasters and 1 man-made disaster, and the operations carried out during these deployments are analyzed. Reports on J-DMAT activities published from 2004 through 2009 by the Japanese Association for Disaster Medicine are also included in the analysis. After training courses for J-DMAT personnel started in fiscal 2004, J-DMATs were deployed for 8 disasters in a period of 4 years. Five of these were natural disasters, and 3 man-made. Of the 5 natural disasters, 3 were earthquakes, and of the 3 man-made disasters, 2 were derailment accidents. Unlike in the United States, where hurricanes and floods account for the greatest number of DMAT deployments, earthquakes cause the largest number of disasters in Japan. Because Japan is small in comparison with the US (Japan has about 1/25 the land area of the US), most J-DMATs head for devastated areas by car from their respective hospitals. This is one reason why J-DMATs are smaller and more agile than US-DMATs. Another difference is that J-DMATs' activities following earthquakes involve

  15. Remote Sensing Contributions to Prediction and Risk Assessment of Natural Disasters Caused by Large Scale Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Small, Jennifer; Britch, S. C.; Tucker, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Remotely sensed vegetation measurements for the last 30 years combined with other climate data sets such as rainfall and sea surface temperatures have come to play an important role in the study of the ecology of arthropod-borne diseases. We show that epidemics and epizootics of previously unpredictable Rift Valley fever are directly influenced by large scale flooding associated with the El Ni o/Southern Oscillation. This flooding affects the ecology of disease transmitting arthropod vectors through vegetation development and other bioclimatic factors. This information is now utilized to monitor, model, and map areas of potential Rift Valley fever outbreaks and is used as an early warning system for risk reduction of outbreaks to human and animal health, trade, and associated economic impacts. The continuation of such satellite measurements is critical to anticipating, preventing, and managing disease epidemics and epizootics and other climate-related disasters.

  16. In Time of Emergency. A Citizen's Handbook on Nuclear Attack and Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    A major emergency affecting a large number of people may occur anytime and any place. Natural disasters such as a flood, tornado, fire, hurricane, blizzard or earthquake, or an enemy nuclear attack on the United States may all constitute a major emergency. In any type of general disaster, lives can be saved if people are prepared for the emergency…

  17. Building of a Disaster Recovery Framework for E-Learning Environment Using Private Cloud Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togawa, Satoshi; Kanenishi, Kazuhide

    2014-01-01

    In this research, we have built a framework of disaster recovery such as against earthquake, tsunami disaster and a heavy floods for e-Learning environment. Especially, our proposed framework is based on private cloud collaboration. We build a prototype system based on IaaS architecture, and this prototype system is constructed by several private…

  18. Making Women's Voices Count in Natural Disaster Programs in East Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Trohanis, Zoe Elena; Svetlosakova, Zuzana; Carlsson-Rex, Helene

    2011-01-01

    The East Asia region is highly prone to the impacts of natural disasters. Situated in the ring of fire, countries in the region are regularly hit by typhoons, earthquakes, floods, and other events. Natural disasters can have major impacts on the social and economic welfare of a population, and often pose serious obstacles in the achievement of sustainable social and economic development. M...

  19. Storms over the Urban Forest: Planning, Responding, and Regreening-- A community Guide to Natural Disaster Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa L. Burban; John W. Andresen

    1994-01-01

    Natural disasters which can occur in the United States include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, and related high-velocity winds, as well as ice storms. Preparing for these natural disasters, which strike urban forests in large cities and small communities, should involve the cooperative effort of a wide array of municipal agencies, private arboricultural companies,...

  20. A Post-Disaster Assessment of Riverine Communities Impacted by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study adopts a post-disaster analysis of the 2012 flood event in the riverine communities of. Lokoja, Nigeria. It focuses on the perceived causes and impacts of the disaster and coping mechanisms adopted by the affected populations. The study was based on a survey of 193 randomly selected households in five ...

  1. A Post-Disaster Assessment of Riverine Communities Impacted by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study adopts a post-disaster analysis of the 2012 flood event in the riverine communities of Lokoja, Nigeria. It focuses on the perceived causes and impacts of the disaster and coping mechanisms adopted by the affected populations. The study was based on a survey of 193 randomly selected households in five ...

  2. On the relation between weather-related disaster impacts, vulnerability and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.; Petersen, A.C.; Ligtvoet, W.

    2014-01-01

    Disasters such as floods, storms, heatwaves and droughts can have enormous implications for health, the environment and economic development. In this article, we address the question of how climate change might have influenced the impact of weather-related disasters. This relation is not

  3. Review of the flood risk management system in Germany after the major flood in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annegret H. Thieken

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Widespread flooding in June 2013 caused damage costs of €6 to 8 billion in Germany, and awoke many memories of the floods in August 2002, which resulted in total damage of €11.6 billion and hence was the most expensive natural hazard event in Germany up to now. The event of 2002 does, however, also mark a reorientation toward an integrated flood risk management system in Germany. Therefore, the flood of 2013 offered the opportunity to review how the measures that politics, administration, and civil society have implemented since 2002 helped to cope with the flood and what still needs to be done to achieve effective and more integrated flood risk management. The review highlights considerable improvements on many levels, in particular (1 an increased consideration of flood hazards in spatial planning and urban development, (2 comprehensive property-level mitigation and preparedness measures, (3 more effective flood warnings and improved coordination of disaster response, and (4 a more targeted maintenance of flood defense systems. In 2013, this led to more effective flood management and to a reduction of damage. Nevertheless, important aspects remain unclear and need to be clarified. This particularly holds for balanced and coordinated strategies for reducing and overcoming the impacts of flooding in large catchments, cross-border and interdisciplinary cooperation, the role of the general public in the different phases of flood risk management, as well as a transparent risk transfer system. Recurring flood events reveal that flood risk management is a continuous task. Hence, risk drivers, such as climate change, land-use changes, economic developments, or demographic change and the resultant risks must be investigated at regular intervals, and risk reduction strategies and processes must be reassessed as well as adapted and implemented in a dialogue with all stakeholders.

  4. Himalayan/Karakoram Disaster After Disaster: The Pain Will Not Be Ending Anytime Soon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Leonard, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Are recent natural disasters in the Himalaya/Karakoram partly human-caused? Will disasters diminish or increase in frequency? Natural disasters in this region are nothing new. Earthquakes, floods, landslides, avalanches, and debris flows have occurred in the Himalaya/Karakoram since the mountains first grew from the sea. Simply put, the Himalaya/Karakoram, being South Asia's 'water tower' and an active plate tectonic collision zone, must shed water and debris to the lowlands and the sea. When this activity occurs swiftly and with high intensity at or near human settlements, the results are often deadly. Remote sensing analysis of recent disasters coupled with demography, news accounts, and field studies indicate that there is a component of human responsibility. Two overarching human elements include (1) settlement and infrastructure encroachment into hazardous mountain areas and (2) aggravation of climate change. Both are substantially responsible--separately or together--for most of the recent tragedies. These conclusions provide the answer to when the disasters will end: not soon. Unfortunately, disasters will almost surely increase. Whether natural disasters have increased in frequency over the region's long historical record may be debated and must be researched. This expected link is a challenge to assess due to the stochastic nature of disasters and their triggering events (e.g., earthquakes and extreme weather events). While Himalayan tectonism, rock mechanics, glaciation, and climate are fundamental causes of the disasters, so are human land uses. Encroaching development into ever-hazardous zones is a paramount cause of much human tragedy. Climate change is harder to pin down specifically as a cause of some of these disasters, because some disasters are linked to rare extreme weather events and mass movements, which may be statistically but not individually attributable in part to climate change. Nevertheless, evidence supports a major role of climate

  5. Determination of Disaster Awareness, Attitude Levels and Individual Priorities at Kocaeli University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdan, Serpil

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: In disaster prone countries, preparedness is an important factor in disaster mitigation. There are various disaster management approaches. However, one common point of these approaches is that they are "preventive." First and foremost of the principal components of the preventive approach is preparedness and education.…

  6. Flood Finder: Mobile-based automated water level estimation and mapping during floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongsiriyaporn, B; Jariyavajee, C; Laoharawee, N; Narkthong, N; Pitichat, T; Goldin, S E

    2014-01-01

    Every year, Southeast Asia faces numerous flooding disasters, resulting in very high human and economic loss. Responding to a sudden flood is difficult due to the lack of accurate and up-to- date information about the incoming water status. We have developed a mobile application called Flood Finder to solve this problem. Flood Finder allows smartphone users to measure, share and search for water level information at specified locations. The application uses image processing to compute the water level from a photo taken by users. The photo must be of a known reference object with a standard size. These water levels are more reliable and consistent than human estimates since they are derived from an algorithmic measuring function. Flood Finder uploads water level readings to the server, where they can be searched and mapped by other users via the mobile phone app or standard browsers. Given the widespread availability of smartphones in Asia, Flood Finder can provide more accurate and up-to-date information for better preparation for a flood disaster as well as life safety and property protection

  7. Partisan amplification of risk: American perceptions of nuclear energy risk in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, Sara K.; Cacciatore, Michael A.; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Runge, Kristin; Su, Leona Y.; Kim, Jiyoun; Xenos, Michael; Corley, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study examines risk perceptions toward nuclear power before and after the Fukushima Daiichi disaster using nationally representative survey samples of American adults. Scope: On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 8.4 earthquake, the largest in the nation's history, occurred off the coast of Japan. The earthquake produced a devastating tsunami that flooded areas of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant and resulted in a loss of power to the plant's cooling system. In the weeks that followed, the world watched as Japanese and international nuclear power safety experts scrambled to contain the damage and prevent a full meltdown. Although the Fukushima Daiichi disaster was heavily covered in media, there is little empirical research on how this coverage impacted audience risk perceptions. Our analysis goes beyond examining aggregate risk perceptions, instead focusing on how specific sub-populations responded to the disaster. Conclusion: We found that ideological groups responded differently to the events in Japan. In particular, risk perceptions among conservatives decreased following the incident. Moreover, we found that media use exacerbated these effects. We discuss possible explanations for these findings. - Highlights: • We explored American risk perceptions of nuclear energy pre- and post-Fukushima. • Impacts of the disaster endured, likely due to relatively high media coverage. • Conservatives who paid more attention to media perceived less risk post-Fukushima. • Media coverage can serve to polarize opinions instead of mainstreaming them

  8. Natural disasters and the gas pipeline system. Topical report, August 1994-June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atallah, S.; Saxena, S.; Martin, S.B.; Willowby, A.B.; Alger, R.

    1996-11-15

    Episodic descriptions are provided of the effect of the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) on the gas pipeline systems of Pacific Gas & Electric Company and the City of Palo Alto and of the Northridge earthquake (1994) on Southern California Gas` pipeline system. The emergency response plans and activities of South Carolina Electric & Gas Company during hurricane Hugo (1989) and of City Gas Company of Florida and other small gas companies during hurricane Andrew (1992) are also reviewed. Descriptions of the great Flood of 1993 and its effects on the operations of Iowa-Illinois Gas & Electric Company and Laclede Gas Company and of the San Jacinto River Floods on the transmission lines of Valero Gas Co. are also provided. Local and federal regulatory requirements, and the current practices by the gas industry for dealing with natural disasters, such as through preventive measures (e.g., strapping of water heaters, excess flow valves), and the tracking of weather-related events are described. The important role that preplanning and coordination with the local emergency response bodies and other gas utilities plays during a natural disaster is examined.

  9. A disaster relief exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliotti, Fulvia; Novaro Mascarello, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) is an effective tool for military applications, both for properly military operations, such as research missions and road surveillance, and for civilian support after natural disasters, like landslides, floods, and earthquakes, when reaching victims is often hard or it would take too much time for their survival. Information are needed without hazarding the life of the military troops. When roads, bridges and other communication ways are usually not available, the unmanned platform is the only easy and fast way to contact people. It can be launched directly from the operation site and it could take crucial information or carry medication, necessaries and everything that could help rescue teams. The unmanned platform can also be used for the first aid in an emergency situation when the use of a helicopter is too dangerous and other troops could be involved in heavy fighting. The RPAS has some advantages. First is the reduced cost, compared to traditional aircraft, that could enable the user to have several operating units. Secondly, pilots are not on board and therefore, if needed, the crew' rotation and rest do not imply the need to stop operations. The third fact is that, depending on the type of delivery that is used, the operations may take place on a twenty-four hours' base. The main benefit achieved with these three facts is that continuous operation may take place and eventually make up the capacity difference. To sum up, the main motivation behind this employment of UAS is to replace human lives on the cockpits and to assure the execution of Dangerous, Dull and Dirty missions. In May 2015, the ERIDANO Exercise was performed in Moncalieri city, near Turin (Italy) and it was a joint exercise between the Italian Army, National Emergency Service and Politecnico of Turin. The aim was the control and management of emergency situations due to natural disasters. In particular, a flood was simulated. A multicopter was used

  10. Flood management in urban Senegal: an actor-oriented perspective on national and transnational adaptation interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaer, Caroline; Thiam, Mame Demba; Nygaard, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    In Senegal, considerable development assistance has been allocated to addressing the problem of repeated flooding in urban areas, involving changing thematic objectives, from short-term disaster relief to wide-ranging sanitation and drainage programmes. In spite of these numerous flood management...... interventions, the number of flood victims in Senegal’s urban centres has increased steadily since 1999. This article contributes empirically and conceptually to recent studies highlighting poor national disaster risk-management frameworks in West Africa, by investigating how floods have been managed in Senegal...

  11. Wildfire Disasters and Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Patricia Frohock

    2016-12-01

    Multiple factors contribute to wildfires in California and other regions: drought, winds, climate change, and spreading urbanization. Little has been done to study the multiple roles of nurses related to wildfire disasters. Major nursing organizations support disaster education for nurses. It is essential for nurses to recognize their roles in each phase of the disaster cycle: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Skills learned in the US federal all-hazards approach to disasters can then be adapted to more specific disasters, such as wildfires, and issues affecting health care. Nursing has an important role in each phase of the disaster cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Betwixt Droughts and Floods: Flood Management Politics in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Maier-Knapp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to create greater understanding of the political dynamics that influence domestic disaster relief and management (DRM in Thailand, this article takes a closer look at these dynamics by outlining the main actors involved in flood-related DRM. It acknowledges the importance of international and military actors but emphasises the role of national and subnational authorities. The article then identifies the central issues of DRM governance as capacity and bureaucracy and discusses these through a chronological assessment of the flood crisis in Thailand in 2011, interweaving the colourful domestic politics with various political cleavages and dichotomies, and thereby distinguishing between three main dichotomies which it considers as the central drivers of the political dynamics and institutional development of DRM. These issues can be summarised as old versus new institutions, technocracy versus bureaucracy and centralised (but with direct people-orientation through greater channels of citizenry participation versus decentralised bureaucracy with an indirect orientation towards people.

  13. Issues and Challenges in Flood Risk Management—Editorial for the Special Issue on Flood Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan N. Jonkman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent flood-related disasters (Japan, Thailand, US, Australia emphasize the need for an effective management of flood risks. As an introduction to this special issue, this editorial summarizes some of the key challenges in the field. Flood risk management needs to recognize the interconnections between infrastructures, economic systems and the role of human factors in assessing and managing the risk. The challenge for flood management in the future is to develop robust and resilient solutions that perform well in uncertain future conditions.

  14. Public Assistance Worksheets for Damage from 2010 Floods to the East Valley Water District

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Valley Water District (EVWD) in San Bernardino, California had significant damage due to flooding in December 2010. There was a presidentially-declared disaster. EVWD applied to FEMA under the Public Assistance Grant Program.

  15. Australasian disasters of national significance: an epidemiological analysis, 1900-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, David A; Bartley, Bruce; Hibble, Belinda A; Varshney, Kavita

    2015-04-01

    A regional epidemiological analysis of Australasian disasters in the 20th century to present was undertaken to examine trends in disaster epidemiology; to characterise the impacts on civil society through disaster policy, practice and legislation; and to consider future potential limitations in national disaster resilience. A surveillance definition of disaster was developed conforming to the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) criteria (≥10 deaths, ≥100 affected, or declaration of state emergency or appeal for international assistance). The authors then applied economic and legislative inclusion criteria to identify additional disasters of national significance. The surveillance definition yielded 165 disasters in the period, from which 65 emerged as disasters of national significance. There were 38 natural disasters, 22 technological disasters, three offshore terrorist attacks and two domestic mass shootings. Geographic analysis revealed that states with major population centres experienced the vast majority of disasters of national significance. Timeline analysis revealed an increasing incidence of disasters since the 1980s, which peaked in the period 2005-2009. Recent seasonal bushfires and floods have incurred the highest death toll and economic losses in Australasian history. Reactive hazard-specific legislation emerged after all terrorist acts and after most disasters of national significance. Timeline analysis reveals an increasing incidence in natural disasters over the past 15 years, with the most lethal and costly disasters occurring in the past 3 years. Vulnerability to disaster in Australasia appears to be increasing. Reactive legislation is a recurrent feature of Australasian disaster response that suggests legislative shortsightedness and a need for comprehensive all-hazards model legislation in the future. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  16. [Prevention of acute enteric infections and viral hepatitis A appearing in connection with a natural disaster in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butaev, T M; Gadzieva, G K; Kulaev, A M; Ambalova, B D

    2003-01-01

    Materials on the work of the sanitary and epidemiological service in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, aimed at the prophylaxis of acute enteric infections and viral hepatitis A under the conditions of the emergency situation caused natural calamities (inundation, high flood), are presented. The competent planning and operative realization of organizational, prophylactic and anti-epidemic measures have made it possible to keep morbidity in acute enteric infections and viral hepatitis A on a sporadic level.

  17. Mold After a Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... Are You Prepared? Information for Specific Groups Disaster Evacuation Centers Infection Control Infection Control Guidance for Community ...

  18. Detection and attribution of extreme weather disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Stone, Dáithí; Hansen, Gerrit

    2014-05-01

    , with consequences being a function of the intensity of the physical weather event, the exposure and value of assets, and vulnerabilities. We have examined selected major extreme events and disasters, including superstorm Sandy in 2012, the Pakistan floods and the hea