WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevent fingernail clams

  1. Modelling 2,4-dichlorophenol bioavailability and bioaccumulation by the freshwater fingernail clam Sphaerium corneum using artificial particles and humic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrengia Guerrero, N.R.; Taylor, M.G.; Simkiss, K.

    2007-01-01

    The complex and variable composition of natural sediments makes it very difficult to predict the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of sediment-bound contaminants. Several approaches have been proposed to overcome this problem, including an experimental model using artificial particles with or without humic acids as a source of organic matter. For this work, we have applied this experimental model, and also a sample of a natural sediment, to investigate the uptake and bioaccumulation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) by Sphaerium corneum. Additionally, the particle-water partition coefficients (K d ) were calculated. The results showed that the bioaccumulation of 2,4-DCP by clams did not depend solely on the levels of chemical dissolved, but also on the amount sorbed onto the particles and the characteristics and the strength of that binding. This study confirms the value of using artificial particles as a suitable experimental model for assessing the fate of sediment-bound contaminants. - An experimental model is proposed to better understand the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of sediment-bound 2,4-dichlorophenol

  2. EPR Dosimetry in Irradiated Fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinella, M.R.; Dubner, D.L.; Bof, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is being transformed in a complementary tool of biologically-based methods for evaluation of dose after accidental radiation exposure. Many efforts are being carried out in laboratories to evaluate the performance of different materials for its use in EPR doses measurements and for improving the current methods for spectrum analysis and calibration curves determinations. In our country the EPR techniques have been used in different areas with dosimetric (alanine) and non dosimetric purposes. Now we are performing the first studies to obtain properly dose response curves to be used for accidental dose assessments through irradiated fingernails. It is by now well known that the fingernails present two types of signals, a background one (BKS), originated in elastic and inelastic mechanical deformations and the radio induced one (RIS), object of interest (I). In this work we will present some of the previous studies performed to characterize the fingernail samples and we analyse the additive dose method for data obtained employing the technique of the substraction of the spectrum recorded at two different microwave powers in order to reduce the BKS signal. Fingernail samples collected from different donors were treated by soaking in water during 10 min and 5 min drying on paper towel and the BKS signals were studied previously its irradiation. The statistical analysis (R statistics) show a distribution with a Standard Deviation of 24% respects to its media. During these studies we also conserved in freezer for more than 6 months irradiated fingernails that, were periodically measured and the statistical analysis of the peak to peak amplitude show a normal distribution through the Quantile correlation test with a SD 11% respected to its median. (authors)

  3. A wearable fingernail chemical sensing platform: pH sensing at your fingertips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jayoung; Cho, Thomas N; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Wang, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    This article demonstrates an example of a wearable chemical sensor based on a fingernail platform. Fingernails represent an attractive wearable platform, merging beauty products with chemical sensing, to enable monitoring of our surrounding environment. The new colorimetric pH fingernail sensor relies on coating artificial nails with a recognition layer consisted of pH indicators entrapped in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix. Such color changing fingernails offer fast and reversible response to pH changes, repeated use, and intense color change detected easily with naked eye. The PVC matrix prevents leaching out of the indicator molecules from the fingernail sensor toward such repeated use. The limited narrow working pH range of a single pH indicator has been addressed by multiplexing three different pH indicators: bromothymol blue (pH 6.0-7.6), bromocresol green (pH 3.8-5.4), and cresol red (pH 7.2-8.8), as demonstrated for analyses of real-life samples of acidic, neutral, and basic character. The new concept of an optical wearable chemical sensor on fingernail platforms can be expanded towards diverse analytes for various applications in connection to the judicious design of the recognition layer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry in fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanyukha, Alex; Benevides, Luis A.; Reyes, Ricardo; Trompier, Francois; Clairand, Isabelle; Swartz, Harold M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Based on the capabilities of new instrumentation and the experience gained in the use of teeth for 'after-the-fact' dosimetry, we have undertaken a systematic electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of irradiated fingernails. There have been only a modest number of previous studies of radiation-induced signals in fingernails. While these have given us some promising aspects, overall results have been inconsistent. The most significant problem of EPR fingernail dosimetry is the presence of two signals of non-radiation origin that overlap the radiation-induced signal (RIS), making it almost impossible to do dose measurements below 5 Gy. Historically, these two non-radiation components were named mechanically-induced signal (MIS) and background signal (BKS). In order to investigate them in detail, three different methods of MIS and BKS mutual isolation have been developed and implemented. Having applied these methods, we were able to understand that fingernail tissue, after cut, can be modeled as a deformed sponge, where the MIS and BKS are associated with the stress from elastic and plastic deformations respectively. A sponge has a unique mechanism of mechanical stress absorption, which is necessary for fingernails in order to perform its everyday function of protecting the fingertips from hits and trauma. Like a sponge, fingernails are also known to be an effective water absorber. When a sponge is saturated with water, it tends to restore to its original shape, and when it looses water, it becomes deformed again. The same happens to fingernail tissue. Our suggested interpretation of the mechanical deformation in fingernails gives also a way to distinguish between the MIS and RIS. Obtained results show that the MIS in irradiated fingernails can be almost completely eliminated without a significant change to the RIS by soaking the sample for 10 minutes in water. This is an ongoing study but even at its present state of development, it has shown that it

  5. EXAMINATION OF FINGERNAIL CONTENTS AND STOOL FOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer Center

    intestinal helminths and protozoa. The objective of this study was to determine the level of fingernail ... prevalence rates of the major protozoan and helminthic infections (1,2). Intestinal parasites have been widely distributed in ..... Methods of Food-borne Disease. Control With Special reference to. Ethiopia. 1997; 32-59. 14.

  6. Factors influencing EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D.L.; Spinella, M.R.; Bof, E.

    2010-01-01

    The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors) [es

  7. Influence of particle characteristics and organic matter content on the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of pyrene by clams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrengia Guerrero, N.R.; Taylor, M.G.; Wider, E.A.; Simkiss, K.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental model with artificial particles and humic acids describes bioavailability of sediment-bound pyrene to clams. - Hydrophobic chemicals are known to associate with sediment particles including those from both suspended particulate matter and bottom deposits. The complex and variable composition of natural particles makes it very difficult therefore, to predict the bioavailability of sediment-bound contaminants. To overcome these problems we have previously devised a test system using artificial particles, with or without humic acids, for use as an experimental model of natural sediments. In the present work we have applied this experimental technique to investigate the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of pyrene by the freshwater fingernail clam Sphaerium corneum. The uptake and accumulation of pyrene in clams exposed to the chemical in the presence of a sample of natural sediment was also investigated. According to the results obtained, particle surface properties and organic matter content are the key factors for assessing the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of pyrene by clams

  8. Stable isotope composition of human fingernails from Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolmusová, Zuzana; Rapčanová, Anna; Michalko, Juraj; Čech, Peter; Veis, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope composition of human fingernails has proven to be useful for documenting human dietary information and geographical patterns in archeological, forensic, anthropological and biological studies. Therefore, it is of interest to detect all factors influencing the stable isotopic composition in the certain regions in the world. Carbon and nitrogen isotope data of human fingernail keratin from 52 individuals from Slovakia were reported in this study. The online combustion and continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometer Delta V Advantage was used for δ 13 C and δ 15 N analysis of fingernail keratin samples from 24 vegetarian and 28 omnivorous individuals. A group of people with frequent meat consumption showed enrichment in 13 C and 15 N isotopes in fingernails. A similar trend was observed with increasing seafood in an individual's diet. Moreover a significant difference was revealed between smokers and nonsmokers for both δ 13 C and δ 15 N values. These data were compared to previously published δ 13 C and δ 15 N fingernail values from across the globe. This study brings new information on the stable isotope signature of individuals from Slovakia and characterizes the Central European region for the first time. The stable isotope composition of fingernails is influenced by the frequency of meat and seafood consumption as well as smoking. - Highlights: • This study deals with stable isotope analyses of fingernails from Slovak volunteers. • δ 13 C and δ 15 N values of vegetarian and omnivore fingernails were compared. • Influence of sex, diet and smoking was studied

  9. Stable isotope composition of human fingernails from Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grolmusová, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.grolmusova@geology.sk [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Laboratory of Isotope Geology, Mlynská dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Rapčanová, Anna [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); Michalko, Juraj; Čech, Peter [State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Laboratory of Isotope Geology, Mlynská dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Veis, Pavel [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Laboratory of Isotope Geology, Mlynská dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-15

    Stable isotope composition of human fingernails has proven to be useful for documenting human dietary information and geographical patterns in archeological, forensic, anthropological and biological studies. Therefore, it is of interest to detect all factors influencing the stable isotopic composition in the certain regions in the world. Carbon and nitrogen isotope data of human fingernail keratin from 52 individuals from Slovakia were reported in this study. The online combustion and continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometer Delta V Advantage was used for δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N analysis of fingernail keratin samples from 24 vegetarian and 28 omnivorous individuals. A group of people with frequent meat consumption showed enrichment in {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotopes in fingernails. A similar trend was observed with increasing seafood in an individual's diet. Moreover a significant difference was revealed between smokers and nonsmokers for both δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values. These data were compared to previously published δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N fingernail values from across the globe. This study brings new information on the stable isotope signature of individuals from Slovakia and characterizes the Central European region for the first time. The stable isotope composition of fingernails is influenced by the frequency of meat and seafood consumption as well as smoking. - Highlights: • This study deals with stable isotope analyses of fingernails from Slovak volunteers. • δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of vegetarian and omnivore fingernails were compared. • Influence of sex, diet and smoking was studied.

  10. Effects of water on fingernail electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tengda; Zhao, Zhixin; Zhang, Haiying; Zhai, Hezheng; Ruan, Shuzhou; Jiao, Ling; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-09-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is a promising biodosimetric method, and fingernails are sensitive biomaterials to ionizing radiation. Therefore, kinetic energy released per unit mass (kerma) can be estimated by measuring the level of free radicals within fingernails, using EPR. However, to date this dosimetry has been deficient and insufficiently accurate. In the sampling processes and measurements, water plays a significant role. This paper discusses many effects of water on fingernail EPR dosimetry, including disturbance to EPR measurements and two different effects on the production of free radicals. Water that is unable to contact free radicals can promote the production of free radicals due to indirect ionizing effects. Therefore, varying water content within fingernails can lead to varying growth rates in the free radical concentration after irradiation-these two variables have a linear relationship, with a slope of 1.8143. Thus, EPR dosimetry needs to be adjusted according to the water content of the fingernails of an individual. When the free radicals are exposed to water, the eliminating effect will appear. Therefore, soaking fingernail pieces in water before irradiation, as many researchers have previously done, can cause estimation errors. In addition, nails need to be dehydrated before making accurately quantitative EPR measurements. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  11. New trace element determinations in the fingernails of ALS patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dalsem, D.J.; Robinson, L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ehmann, W.D. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-02-01

    ORNL`s High Flux Isotope Reactor was used in a neutron activation analysis experiment to determine selected elemental composition of fingernails from patients afflicted with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (AL). While no statistical difference were found in aluminium a suggestive difference was observed for copper concentrations.

  12. New trace element determinations in the fingernails of ALS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dalsem, D.J.; Robinson, L.; Ehmann, W.D.

    1996-01-01

    ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor was used in a neutron activation analysis experiment to determine selected elemental composition of fingernails from patients afflicted with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (AL). While no statistical difference were found in aluminium a suggestive difference was observed for copper concentrations

  13. Intestinal parasites from fingernails of sidewalk food vendors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriptiastuti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal infections with soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are still prevalent in Indonesia, particularly in urban communities. Transmission of parasitic infections is effected directly or indirectly through objects contaminated with feces, including food, water, fingers and fingernails, indicating the importance of fecal-oral human-to-human transmission. Sidewalk food vendors (SFVs preparing food for their customers are a potential source of infections with many intestinal helminths and protozoa. Compared to other parts of the hand, the area beneath fingernails harbors the most microorganisms and is most difficult to clean. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in fingernail dirt of SFVs and to identify the associated factors. This study involved 112 SFVs in the vicinity of Hospital X in Central Jakarta, and used microscopic examination of SFV fingernail dirt for determining species prevalence of intestinal parasites. This study showed that 94 samples out of 112 (83.9% were positive for intestinal parasites; 60 samples (63.8% represented single infections and 34 (36.2% mixed infections. Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were found in 30 (26.8% samples and Giardia lamblia cysts in 12 (17.89%. The highest prevalence was found in subjects with primary school education, among whom 20 (30.8% had single infections of A. lumbricoides and 16 (24.6% mixed infections with A. lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. In conclusion, prevalence of intestinal parasites in SFV fingernail dirt is extremely high, with the highest prevalence among less educated SFVs. It is recommended to provide health education and training to all SFVs.

  14. Intestinal parasites from fingernails of sidewalk food vendors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriptiastuti Suriptiastuti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal infections with soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are still prevalent in Indonesia, particularly in urban communities. Transmission of parasitic infections is effected directly or indirectly through objects contaminated with feces, including food, water, fingers and fingernails, indicating the importance of fecal-oral human-to-human transmission. Sidewalk food vendors (SFVs preparing food for their customers are a potential source of infections with many intestinal helminths and protozoa. Compared to other parts of the hand, the area beneath fingernails harbors the most microorganisms and is most difficult to clean. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in fingernail dirt of SFVs and to identify the associated factors. This study involved 112 SFVs in the vicinity of Hospital X in Central Jakarta, and used microscopic examination of SFV fingernail dirt for determining species prevalence of intestinal parasites. This study showed that 94 samples out of 112 (83.9% were positive for intestinal parasites; 60 samples (63.8% represented single infections and 34 (36.2% mixed infections. Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were found in 30 (26.8% samples and Giardia lamblia cysts in 12 (17.89%. The highest prevalence was found in subjects with primary school education, among whom 20 (30.8% had single infections of A. lumbricoides and 16 (24.6% mixed infections with A. lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. In conclusion, prevalence of intestinal parasites in SFV fingernail dirt is extremely high, with the highest prevalence among less educated SFVs. It is recommended to provide health education and training to all SFVs.

  15. Detection of Enteropathogenic Bacteria under Fingernails of Canteen Workers at Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalinie Nalammah Nahenthran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food poisoning is a major problem in Indonesia as most people do not clean under their fingernails to remove bacteria. This study was designed to detect enteropathogenic bacteria under the fingernails of canteen workers in Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from October−November 2014 at the Faculty of Medicine’s Microbiology Laboratory to detect enteropathogenic bacteria under the fingernails of canteen workers in Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, 30 canteen workers were selected by random sampling from three canteens. Samples were collected from the fingernails of both the right and left hands by using a cotton swab. Sixty specimens were cultured for identification of the enteropathogenic bacteria by using gram staining method and biochemical tests. Results: The highest percentage of enteropathogenic bacteria found under the fingernails of canteen workers was Klebsiella pneumoniae with a percentage of 45% followed by Enterobacter aerogenes with a percentage of 25.7%, Salmonella paratyphii with a percentage of 9.7%, E. coli with a percentage of 6.4%, and Serratia sp, Proteus mirabillis, Klebsiella oxytoca and Shigella sp. with a percentage of 3.2%. Conclusions: The highest number of bacteria found under the fingernails of the canteen workers is Klebsiella pneumoniae, followed by Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella paratyphii and E. coli which has potential to cause gastroenteritis if cross-contamination occurs between the fingernails and the food.

  16. Photosymbiotic giant clams are transformers of solar flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Amanda L; Vahidinia, Sanaz; Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Morse, Daniel E; Sweeney, Alison M

    2014-12-06

    'Giant' tridacnid clams have evolved a three-dimensional, spatially efficient, photodamage-preventing system for photosymbiosis. We discovered that the mantle tissue of giant clams, which harbours symbiotic nutrition-providing microalgae, contains a layer of iridescent cells called iridocytes that serve to distribute photosynthetically productive wavelengths by lateral and forward-scattering of light into the tissue while back-reflecting non-productive wavelengths with a Bragg mirror. The wavelength- and angle-dependent scattering from the iridocytes is geometrically coupled to the vertically pillared microalgae, resulting in an even re-distribution of the incoming light along the sides of the pillars, thus enabling photosynthesis deep in the tissue. There is a physical analogy between the evolved function of the clam system and an electric transformer, which changes energy flux per area in a system while conserving total energy. At incident light levels found on shallow coral reefs, this arrangement may allow algae within the clam system to both efficiently use all incident solar energy and avoid the photodamage and efficiency losses due to non-photochemical quenching that occur in the reef-building coral photosymbiosis. Both intra-tissue radiometry and multiscale optical modelling support our interpretation of the system's photophysics. This highly evolved 'three-dimensional' biophotonic system suggests a strategy for more efficient, damage-resistant photovoltaic materials and more spatially efficient solar production of algal biofuels, foods and chemicals.

  17. Trace element correlations with age and sex in human fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, K.

    1995-01-01

    Concentrations of 17 elements in fingernails of 92 control individuals with ages ranging from 4 months to 93 years living in a relatively non-industrial environment were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Statistical analysis demonstrated several different patterns of trace element correlation with age and sex. Bromine, Co, Cr, Fe, Na and Sb were found to be negatively correlated (p.<0.05) with age, while Zn was positively correlated (p.<0.05). Silver, Au, Se, and Zn concentrations were found to be higher in females than in males. Males had higher concentrations of Na and K than females. Significant interelement correlations were also observed. The age and sex variations observed should prove to be useful in proper interpretation of elemental imbalances associated with degenerative neurological diseases, especially in view of recent reports that markers for AD have been detected in external tissue. (author). 22 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Characterization of human fingernail elements using PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Ajose, O.A.; Makinde, N.O.; Buoso, M.C.; Ceccato, D.; De Poli, M.; Moschini, G.

    2005-01-01

    PIXE technique was employed in the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in finger-nails of 62 healthy young adults (30 females and 32 males), aged between 20 and 37 years. The elemental concentrations in the nails of the analyzed population provide good reference data set for further health studies. The PIXE measurements were carried out using 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN-2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova), Italy. The results show the presence of twenty elements. Their metabolic roles in humans are presented and discussed. The comparison of our results with those of other authors are also presented

  19. Development and Implementation of an Ultrasonic Method to Characterize Acoustic and Mechanical Fingernail Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacarescu, Rares Anthony

    The human fingernail is a vital organ used by humans on a daily basis and can provide an immense supply of information based on the biological feedback of the body. By studying the quantitative mechanical and acoustic properties of fingernails, a better understanding of the scarcely-investigated field of ungual research can be explored. Investigating fingernail properties with the use of pulse-echo ultrasound is the aim of this thesis. This thesis involves the application of a developed portable ultrasonic device in a hospital-based data collection and the advancement of ultrasonic methodology to include the calculation of acoustic impedance, density and elasticity. The results of the thesis show that the reflectance method can be utilized to determine fingernail properties with a maximum 17% deviation from literature. Repeatability of measurements fell within a 95% confidence interval. Thus, the ultrasonic reflectance method was validated and may have potential clinical and cosmetic applications.

  20. A study of association between fingernail elements and osteoporosis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, Maryam; Hosseinimakarem, Zahra; Hassan Tavassoli, Seyed

    2012-09-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is used to investigate the possible effect of osteoporosis on the elemental composition of fingernails. Also, the ability to classify healthy, osteopenic, and osteoporotic subjects based on their fingernail spectra has been examined. 46 atomic and ionic emission lines belonging to 13 elements, which are dominated by calcium and magnesium, have been identified. Measurements are carried out on fingernail clippings of 99 subjects including 27 healthy, 47 osteopenic, and 25 osteoporotic subjects. The Pearson correlations between spectral intensities of different elements of fingernail and age and bone mineral densities (BMDs) in nail samples are calculated. Correlations between line intensities of some elements such as sodium and potassium, calcium and iron, magnesium and silicon and also between some fingernail elements, BMD, and age are observed. Although some of these correlations are weak, some information about mineral metabolism can be deduced from them. Discrimination between nail samples of healthy, osteopenic, and osteoporotic subjects is shown to be somehow possible by a discriminant function analysis using 46 atomic emission lines of the LIBS spectra as input variables. The results of this study provide some evidences for association between osteoporosis and elemental composition of fingernails measured by LIBS.

  1. Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Detected in the Oral Cavity and Fingernails of Mid-Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tsung-chieh Jane; Hughes, James P; Feng, Qinghua; Hulbert, Ayaka; Hawes, Stephen E; Xi, Long Fu; Schwartz, Stephen M; Stern, Joshua E; Koutsky, Laura A; Winer, Rachel L

    2015-12-01

    Oral and fingernail human papillomavirus (HPV) detection may be associated with HPV-related carcinoma risk at these nongenital sites and foster transmission to the genitals. We describe the epidemiology of oral and fingernail HPV among mid-adult women. Between 2011 and 2012, 409 women aged 30 to 50 years were followed up for 6 months. Women completed health and behavior surveys and provided self-collected oral, fingernail, and vaginal specimens at enrollment and exit for type-specific HPV DNA testing. Concordance of type-specific HPV detection across anatomical sites was described with κ statistics. Using generalized estimating equations or exact logistic regression, we measured the univariate associations of various risk factors with type-specific oral and fingernail HPV detection. Prevalence of detecting HPV in the oral cavity (2.4%) and fingernails (3.8%) was low compared with the vagina (33.1%). Concordance across anatomical sites was poor (κ history (OR, 11.1; 95% CI, 2.8-infinity), lifetime number of male vaginal sex partners at least 10 (OR vs. 0-3 partners, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.2-infinity), and lifetime number of open-mouth kissing partners at least 16 (OR vs. 0-15 partners, infinity; 95% CI, 2.6-infinity, by exact logistic regression) were each associated with oral HPV detection. Although our findings support HPV DNA deposition or autoinoculation between anatomical sites in mid-adult women, the rarity of HPV in the oral cavity and fingernails suggests that oral/fingernail HPV does not account for a significant fraction of HPV in genital sites.

  2. New trace element determinations in the fingernails of ALS patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dalsem, D.J.; Ehmann, W.D. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Robinson, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) afflicts 2 of every 100,000 people in the United States each year. A well-known example of ALS today is Stephen Hawking. He is a theoretical physicist, the author of A Brief History of Time, and is virtually immobilized by ALS. Diseases that cause progressive paralysis because of motor neuron degeneration in the central nervous system are termed motor neuron disorders (MND). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a common form of MND. Pain-free, progressive muscular weakness is the most common clinical symptom. There is chronic weakness with atrophy of the affected muscles by the time the disease is diagnosed. Atrophy eventually results in wheelchair confinement and then only bed without the ability to speak or swallow. Death often occurs as a result of respiratory problems. Unlike other neurodegenerative diseases, in ALS the patient`s bladder and bowel control, eye movement, and mental faculties are preserved. The question today is whether or not certain trace elements are involved in the etiology or pathogenesis of ALS. A collaborative study was undertaken by the University of Kentucky and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using neutron activation analysis (NAA) to study trace element concentrations in ALS patients fingernails to determine if there existed statistically significant imbalances.

  3. Ten-month recolonization of the k-area cooling water system by the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea was found in the Savannah River near Augusta, Georgia, in 1973. In 1975, Corbicula clogged heat exchangers and caused a shutdown of P Reactor, one of three operating nuclear production reactors (P, K, and C) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Clams were subsequently removed from K-Area and C-Area cooling water systems. At K Area, large volumes of river water are discharged into three 23-megaliter basins (Figure 1) where some settling occurs before the water is pumped through heat exchangers in the reactor area. The deposited silt provides a suitable substrate for Corbicula growth and reproduction. The silt must be removed at regular inervals to prevent heat exchanger pluggage arising from high populations of clams in the basins. The 186 basins at K Area were sampled to determine: the buildup of the Corbicula population since the basins were last cleaned, the size/age distribution of the clam population, and the occurrence of clam larvae. In addition, debris from flushes of Emergency Cooling Water Headers CW-39 and RW-1 were analyzed to determine: the relative abundance of live and dead clams, the size/age distribution of clams, and the volume of individual debris components

  4. Significance of fingernail and toenail mercury concentrations as biomarkers for prenatal methylmercury exposure in relation to segmental hair mercury concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Chan, Hing M; Domingo, José L; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Kawakami, Shoichi; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the appropriateness of mercury (Hg) concentrations in fingernails and toenails at parturition for detecting prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg). Total Hg concentrations were measured in 54 paired samples of fingernails, toenails, maternal blood, and maternal hair (1cm incremental segments from the scalp toward the tip) collected at 4th weeks of (early) pregnancy, and the same specimens and cord blood collected at parturition. Strong correlations were observed between Hg concentrations in fingernails and toenails at early pregnancy (r=0.923, pMercury concentrations in fingernails and toenails at parturition represented strong correlations with those in cord blood (r=0.803, pMercury in fingernails and toenails at early pregnancy reflected the maternal Hg body burden level approximately 5 months retroactively. At parturition, Hg levels in fingernails and toenails also showed strong correlations with those in cord blood. In addition, Hg levels in fingernails and toenails at parturition reflected more recent MeHg exposure, compared with those at early pregnancy. These results suggest that fingernails and toenails at parturition are useful biomarkers for prenatal MeHg exposure for mothers and fetuses, especially during the third-trimester of gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nickel concentrations in fingernails as a measure of occupational exposure to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, K; Gammelgaard, Bente; Menné, T

    1991-01-01

    in nails (p less than 0.001). The difference between the 2 levels was also significant (p less than 0.001). No correlation between the nickel concentration in fingernails and the duration of exposure could be demonstrated. It was concluded that the higher the nickel level in the fingernails, the greater...... is the possibility that the person is occupationally exposed to nickel. Nail analysis is suggested as a measure of occupational exposure to nickel.......The nickel concentration in fingernails from 2 groups of people occupationally exposed to nickel was determined. In one group, comprising 83 persons moderately exposed to nickel, the mean +/- standard deviation (SD) was 29.2 micrograms/g +/- 56.7 micrograms/g and the median 13.8 micrograms/g (range...

  6. Prevalence and correlates of beta human papillomavirus detection in fingernail samples from mid-adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Winer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs have not been evaluated in fingernails from healthy individuals. To determine prevalence and correlates of β-HPVs in fingernails from healthy mid-adult women, we tested archived samples collected from 2011 to 2012 using a multiplex PCR combined with Luminex technology for 46 β-HPV genotypes. One hundred thirteen (61.1% of 185 fingernail samples were positive for β-HPV, and the median number of types detected in positive samples was 2 (interquartile range: 1–4. The most common genotypes detected were HPV-23 (β−2 (13.5%, HPV-38 (β−2 (13.0%, HPV-5 (β−1 (9.2%, HPV-107 (β−2 (8.7%, and HPV-120 (β−2 (8.7%. In multivariate analysis, β-HPV detection was associated with age (prevalence ratio [PR] for women 40–51 years versus 30–39 years = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.05–1.62 and race (PR for non-white versus white race = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.45–0.94. The prevalence of β-HPV in fingernail samples from healthy mid-adult women was similar to the prevalence of β-HPV reported at other cutaneous sites in prior studies. We did not identify any significant health or sexual behavior predictors of β-HPV detection in fingernails. Our results support the hypothesis that fingers may serve as a source of transmission or autoinoculation of cutaneous HPVs to other anatomic sites. Keywords: Fingernails, Women, Beta-HPV, Prevalence, Mid-adult, Risk factor

  7. Who's working on giant clam culture?

    OpenAIRE

    Vega, M.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    An examination is made of the literature on giant clam (Tridacna ) culture methods induced spawning, larvae, larval and post-larval rearing and socioeconomics. ASFA and the ICLARM library and professional staff collections were used for the search.

  8. The Role of Symbiotic Zooxanthellae on Giant Clam Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Ambariyanto

    1997-01-01

    Zooxanthellae, Symbiodinium sp, are single cell dinoflagellate algae known to live in association with many marine invertebrates such as hermatypic corals, sea anemones, jellyfish and giant clams (family Tridacnidae). In giant clams, these photosynthetic algae are located in a tubular system (known as Z tube system) which occurs within the clams. Apart from filter feeding, the nutrition of the clams is provided by zooxanthellae. These algae are capable of translocating part of their photosynt...

  9. The changes of fingernail microcirculation in the patients with hand skin radiation damage caused by β rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guoquan; Qian Jianjun; Wang Zuofa

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To observe the microcirculation changes in the patients with hand skin radiation damage caused by β rays. Methods: The XOX-1A type microcirculation microscope was used in observation of the microcirculation changes of fingernail, in 22 patients with III-IV degree hand skin radiation damage caused by β rays. Results: A series of abnormal signs were observed in all these patients and it was found that the microcirculation abnormality of the fingernail were the most clinical significant sign. Conclusion: The fingernail microcirculation changes can be used as an indicator for prognosis in the hand skin radiation damage patients

  10. The Clam Trail: Blending Science Education, Public Art, and Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscio, Cara; Flimlin, Gef; Bushnell, Rick

    2011-01-01

    The Barnegat Bay Shellfish Restoration's Clam Trail is an award-winning scavenger hunt that combines science education, public art, and tourism. This family adventure has participants seeking out giant painted fiberglass clams, upweller clam nurseries, and points of interest in search of science facts to record on their forms. Upon returning these…

  11. Continuous cooling transformation behaviors of CLAM steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qing-sheng; Zheng, Shu-hui; Huang, Qun-ying; Liu, Shao-jun; Han, Yang-yang

    2013-01-01

    The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) behaviors of CLAM (China Low Activation Martensitic) steel were studied, the CCT diagram was constructed, and the influence of cooling rates on the microstructures was also investigated. The microstructures were investigated using optical microscopy (OM) and microhardness tests were also carried out. The results showed that CLAM steel possessed high hardenability and there were ferrite and martensite transformation regions only. The maximum cooling rate to form ferrite microstructure was found to be 10–12 K/min. In order to obtain fully ferrite microstructure, the cooling rate should be lower than 1 K/min. The CCT diagram also gave relevant parameters such as the transformation temperatures, i.e., A c1 , A c3 , M s and M f were 1124 K, 1193 K, 705 K and 593 K, respectively. The diagram made it possible to predict the microstructures and properties of CLAM steel with different cooling rates

  12. Relative element levels in the paired samples of scalp hair and fingernails of patients from New Delhi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar, A. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110 067 (India)]. E-mail: sukumarindia@rediffmail.com; Subramanian, R. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110 067 (India)

    2007-01-01

    Specific elements are bioconcentrated in human hair and nails, which have unique advantages of application in population monitoring studies thereby, recognized as biological tools for disease diagnosis and prevention. However, investigations are meager for relative element profile in hair and nails of same subjects. In this study, hair and nails were analyzed to find effects of age, sex, smoking habit, diet, urban and rural exposure gradients, occupation, and health on element levels. Scalp hair and fingernails were sampled along with a questionnaire from urban and rural subjects of New Delhi; patients of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes were identified clinically. Cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc concentrations were determined by AAS in both the samples; CRM (human hair powder) analysis showed acceptable precision and accuracy in element measurement. In comparison to controls, Cr-H and Zn-H levels were lower respectively in female hypertensive and total hypertensive subjects, whereas, Zn-N and Cu-N were lower respectively in total CHD and diabetic subjects, and hypertensive and CHD urban subjects. Cd concentrations were higher in both the samples of tobacco smoking rural subjects than that of non-smokers. Farmers had lower Pb-H than rural businessmen did. Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations were different due to rural and urban gradient but not to the influence of age, sex, and diet. Pb value was alone correlated between the paired samples. Thus, higher Cd levels in the smokers and lower Cr, Cu and Zn levels in the patients were observed.

  13. Relative element levels in the paired samples of scalp hair and fingernails of patients from New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukumar, A.; Subramanian, R.

    2007-01-01

    Specific elements are bioconcentrated in human hair and nails, which have unique advantages of application in population monitoring studies thereby, recognized as biological tools for disease diagnosis and prevention. However, investigations are meager for relative element profile in hair and nails of same subjects. In this study, hair and nails were analyzed to find effects of age, sex, smoking habit, diet, urban and rural exposure gradients, occupation, and health on element levels. Scalp hair and fingernails were sampled along with a questionnaire from urban and rural subjects of New Delhi; patients of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes were identified clinically. Cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc concentrations were determined by AAS in both the samples; CRM (human hair powder) analysis showed acceptable precision and accuracy in element measurement. In comparison to controls, Cr-H and Zn-H levels were lower respectively in female hypertensive and total hypertensive subjects, whereas, Zn-N and Cu-N were lower respectively in total CHD and diabetic subjects, and hypertensive and CHD urban subjects. Cd concentrations were higher in both the samples of tobacco smoking rural subjects than that of non-smokers. Farmers had lower Pb-H than rural businessmen did. Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations were different due to rural and urban gradient but not to the influence of age, sex, and diet. Pb value was alone correlated between the paired samples. Thus, higher Cd levels in the smokers and lower Cr, Cu and Zn levels in the patients were observed

  14. Analysis of trace elements in the shell of asari clams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, J.; Sakamoto, W.; Arai, N.; Yoshida, K.

    1999-01-01

    Strontium concentration in the shells of asari clams collected at different locations was analyzed by PIXE. The Sr concentration of external surface of shell umbo was ranged from 1000 to 3500 ppm for individuals. The Sr concentration of clams collected at Shirahama showed positive correlation with shell length, whereas clams collected at Maizuru did not show significant correlation. This result may be caused from the difference of the spawning seasons between two areas. (author)

  15. Continuous cooling transformation behaviors of CLAM steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qing-sheng, E-mail: qingsheng.wu@fds.org.cn; Zheng, Shu-hui; Huang, Qun-ying; Liu, Shao-jun; Han, Yang-yang

    2013-11-15

    The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) behaviors of CLAM (China Low Activation Martensitic) steel were studied, the CCT diagram was constructed, and the influence of cooling rates on the microstructures was also investigated. The microstructures were investigated using optical microscopy (OM) and microhardness tests were also carried out. The results showed that CLAM steel possessed high hardenability and there were ferrite and martensite transformation regions only. The maximum cooling rate to form ferrite microstructure was found to be 10–12 K/min. In order to obtain fully ferrite microstructure, the cooling rate should be lower than 1 K/min. The CCT diagram also gave relevant parameters such as the transformation temperatures, i.e., A{sub c1}, A{sub c3}, M{sub s} and M{sub f} were 1124 K, 1193 K, 705 K and 593 K, respectively. The diagram made it possible to predict the microstructures and properties of CLAM steel with different cooling rates.

  16. Study for applying microwave power saturation technique on fingernail/EPR dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byeong Ryong; Choi, Hoon; Nam, Hyun Ill; Lee, Byung Ill [Radiation Health Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    There is growing recognition worldwide of the need to develop effective uses of dosimetry methods to assess unexpected exposure to radiation in the event of a large scale event. One of physically based dosimetry methods electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been applied to perform retrospective radiation dosimetry using extracted samples of tooth enamel and nail(fingernail and toenail), following radiation accidents and exposures resulting from weapon use, testing, and production. Human fingernails are composed largely of a keratin, which consists of {alpha} helical peptide chains that are twisted into a left handed coil and strengthened by disulphide cross links. Ionizing radiation generates free radicals in the keratin matrix, and these radicals are stable over a relatively long period (days to weeks). Most importantly, the number of radicals is proportional to the magnitude of the dose over a wide dose range (0{approx}30 Gy). Also, dose can be estimated at four different locations on the human body, providing information on the homogeneity of the radiation exposure. And The results from EPR nail dosimetry are immediately available However, relatively large background signal (BKS) converted from mechanically induced signal (MIS) after cutting process of fingernail, normally overlaps with the radiation induced signal (RIS), make it difficult to estimate accurate dose accidental exposure. Therefore, estimation method using dose response curve was difficult to ensure reliability below 5 Gy. In this study, In order to overcome these disadvantages, we measured the reactions of RIS and BKS (MIS) according to the change of Microwave power level, and researched about the applicability of the Power saturation technique at low dose.

  17. Trace element determination in fingernails, hair and blood serum in patients with Crohn's disease using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschmann, H.

    1984-01-01

    The determination of trace elements and electrolyte concentrations in blood serum, hair and fingernails of 16 patients with Crohn's disease was carried out by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis. In the serum a significant decline in the zinc content could be registered, while the remaining trace elements remained in the normal range. The parenteral nutrition also showed a zinc deficiency. There was, however, also an iron deficiency. The studies of the hair and fingernails gave the following results: Rubidium and antimony in the normal range; zinc, selenium, iron and cobalt below normal values. (orig./PW) [de

  18. Elemental concentration distribution in human fingernails – A 3D study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda-Vargas, C.A.; Mars, J.A.; Gihwala, D.

    2012-01-01

    The verification of pathologies has normally been based on analysis of blood (serum and plasma), and physiological tissue. Recently, nails and in particular human fingernails have become an important medium for pathological studies, especially those of environmental origin. The analytical technique of PIXE has been used extensively in the analysis of industrial samples and human tissue specimens. The application of the analytical technique to nails has been mainly to bulk samples. In this study we use micro-PIXE and -RBS, as both complementary and supplementary, to determine the elemental concentration distribution of human fingernails of individuals. We report on the 3D quantitative elemental concentration distributions (QECDs) of various elements that include C, N and O as major elements (10–20%), P, S, Cl, K and Ca as minor elements (1–10%) and Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, Na, Mg, Cu, Ni, Cr, Rb, Br, Sr and Se as trace elements (less than 1%). For PIXE and RBS the specimens were bombarded with a 3 MeV proton beam. To ascertain any correlations in the quantitative elemental concentration distributions, a linear traverse analysis was performed across the width of the nail. Elemental distribution correlations were also obtained.

  19. Polydactylous Transverse Erythronychia: Report of a Patient with Multiple Horizontal Red Bands Affecting the Fingernails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Carina; Beutler, Bryce D; Cohen, Philip R

    2017-06-01

    Redness of the nail plate-erythronychia-is a common condition involving one or multiple digits. It may affect the entire nail or present as longitudinal red bands that extend from the proximal nail fold to the distal tip of the nail plate. Rarely, red bands may traverse the nail bed horizontally. Although erythronychia is often idiopathic, it has also been associated with amyloidosis, Darier's disease, lichen planus, and various other cutaneous conditions. We describe the clinical features of a 64-year-old Caucasian man who presented with transverse and longitudinal erythronychia affecting his fingernails. In addition, we review the classification of erythronychia and summarize the acute and chronic conditions that have been associated with this clinical finding. The features of a man with polydactylous transverse and longitudinal erythronychia are presented. In addition, PubMed was used to search the following terms: erythronychia, longitudinal erythronychia, red lunulae, and subungual. All papers were reviewed, and relevant articles, along with their references, were evaluated. Informed consent was obtained from the patient for being included in the study. A 64-year-old Caucasian man with a past medical history significant for testicular cancer and pulmonary embolism presented with multiple horizontal pink-red bands affecting his fingernails. The discoloration was most prominent in the region distal to the lunula. In addition, the nails of the fifth digit of his left hand and third digit of his right hand featured longitudinal red bands extending from the distal curvature of the lunula to the free edge of the nail plate. A diagnosis of polydactylous longitudinal and transverse erythronychia, based on the clinical presentation, was established. Our patient's red bands were asymptomatic and he was not concerned about the cosmetic appearance of his nails; therefore, no additional investigation or treatment was required. Polydactylous transverse erythronychia is a

  20. Razor clam to RoboClam: burrowing drag reduction mechanisms and their robotic adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, A G; V; Dorsch, D S; Slocum, A H; Hosoi, A E; Deits, R L H

    2014-01-01

    Estimates based on the strength, size, and shape of the Atlantic razor clam (Ensis directus) indicate that the animal's burrow depth should be physically limited to a few centimeters; yet razor clams can dig as deep as 70 cm. By measuring soil deformations around burrowing E. directus, we have found the animal reduces drag by contracting its valves to initially fail, and then fluidize, the surrounding substrate. The characteristic contraction time to achieve fluidization can be calculated directly from soil properties. The geometry of the fluidized zone is dictated by two commonly-measured geotechnical parameters: coefficient of lateral earth pressure and friction angle. Calculations using full ranges for both parameters indicate that the fluidized zone is a local effect, occurring between 1–5 body radii away from the animal. The energy associated with motion through fluidized substrate—characterized by a depth-independent density and viscosity—scales linearly with depth. In contrast, moving through static soil requires energy that scales with depth squared. For E. directus, this translates to a 10X reduction in the energy required to reach observed burrow depths. For engineers, localized fluidization offers a mechanically simple and purely kinematic method to dramatically reduce energy costs associated with digging. This concept is demonstrated with RoboClam, an E. directus-inspired robot. Using a genetic algorithm to find optimal digging kinematics, RoboClam has achieved localized fluidization burrowing performance comparable to that of the animal, with a linear energy-depth relationship, in both idealized granular glass beads and E. directus' native cohesive mudflat habitat. (paper)

  1. The effects of clam fishing on the properties of surface sediments in the lagoon of Venice, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Aspen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting of clams(Tapes philippinarum has important socio-economic and environmental implications for the Venice lagoon area, Italy. Clam harvesting disrupts the structure of benthic communities but the effects upon sediment stability and surface structure remain unclear. The effect of clam fishing on the sediment properties of the lagoon bed was investigated at two different sites, a heavily fished site (San Angelo and an infrequently fished site (San Giaccomo. Both sites were assessed for immediate impacts of fishing, using indicators of biogenic sediment stabilisation. Samples were taken at three points along three 100 m linear transects at each site prior to and post fishing. Paired samples were also taken parallel to each transect at a distance of 5m, to allow for temporal variation. Sediment stability, measured with a cohesive strength meter (CSM, was significantly higher at the less impacted site (F1,34 = 6.23, p a (chl a, colloidal-S carbohydrate and dry bulk density were observed on the transect after fishing but not adjacent to the fishing path. At the heavily impacted site, clam fishing by trawling had, in general, no significant effect on the biological and physical properties (although chl a did decrease significantly after fishing. The lack of a significant impact from fishing at the impacted site was attributed to the higher frequency of fishing occurring in this area. Hence, frequent fishing of the lagoon prevents establishment of biotic communities, preventing biostabilisation and thus reduces the stability of the surface sediment. Keywords: clam harvesting, erosion threshold, microphytobenthos, sediment, stability

  2. Reproduction and recruitment patterns of the surf clam Donax serra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproduction and recruitment patterns of the surf clam Donax serra (Bivalvia, Donacidae) on two ... Keywords: condition index, Donax serra, histology, Namibia, recruitment, reproduction, sandy beach ecology ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Interpretation of laser desorption mass spectra of unexpected inorganic species found in a cosmetic sample of forensic interest: fingernail polish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Emily; Harrington, Danielle; Allison, John

    2009-08-01

    When analytes containing color are irradiated with a pulsed UV laser in the ion source of a mass spectrometer, molecules such as dyes or pigments absorb energy, resulting in their desorption and ionization. This method, laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS), has been used successfully to analyze colorants of forensic interest in a wide variety of materials. Here, we present and interpret the most complex of such spectra obtained to date from a sample of fingernail polish. Interpretation of the spectrum provides a unique opportunity to characterize the laser desorption mass spectra of some unexpected inorganic materials found in cosmetics, such as "broken glass", cyanide compounds, and heavy metals. Also, the possibility of a useful forensic database of LDMS spectra of fingernail polishes is considered.

  4. Calculation of dose conversion factors for doses in the fingernails to organ doses at external gamma irradiation in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khailov, A.M.; Ivannikov, A.I.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Stepanenko, V.F.; Orlenko, S.P.; Flood, A.B.; Williams, B.B.; Swartz, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Absorbed doses to fingernails and organs were calculated for a set of homogenous external gamma-ray irradiation geometries in air. The doses were obtained by stochastic modeling of the ionizing particle transport (Monte Carlo method) for a mathematical human phantom with arms and hands placed loosely along the sides of the body. The resulting dose conversion factors for absorbed doses in fingernails can be used to assess the dose distribution and magnitude in practical dose reconstruction problems. For purposes of estimating dose in a large population exposed to radiation in order to triage people for treatment of acute radiation syndrome, the calculated data for a range of energies having a width of from 0.05 to 3.5 MeV were used to convert absorbed doses in fingernails to corresponding doses in organs and the whole body as well as the effective dose. Doses were assessed based on assumed rates of radioactive fallout at different time periods following a nuclear explosion. - Highlights: • Elemental composition and density of nails were determined. • MIRD-type mathematical human phantom with arms and hands was created. • Organ doses and doses to nails were calculated for external photon exposure in air. • Effective dose and nail doses values are close for rotational and soil surface exposures.

  5. Toxicological effects of paracetamol on the clam Ruditapes philippinarum: exposure vs recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Bruno; Nunes, Joana; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina; Freitas, Rosa

    2017-11-01

    Exposure of wild organisms to anthropogenic substances never follows a definite time-course and pulsed events can often determine biological responses to such chemicals, confounding the interpretation of toxicological data. This is the case of specific chemicals such as pharmaceutical drugs, which are commonly released by sewage systems into sensitive areas, including estuaries. The presence and amount of these chemicals in the wild can be modulated by events such as dilution due to heavy rain, floods, or by varying patterns of domestic water use (daily vs. seasonal). The present study aimed to obtain additional data about the toxicity of paracetamol towards the marine clam species Ruditapes philippinarum, following realistic modes of exposure. Thus, the toxicity assessment was made after an acute exposure to different concentrations of paracetamol, followed by a recovery period. The adopted toxicological endpoints included energy-related parameters (glycogen content, GLY; protein content, PROT; electron transport system activity, ETS), activity of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidase, GPx; Glutathione-S-transferases, GSTs), levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), neurotoxicity (cholinesterases activity, ChEs), and indicators of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation, LPO). The here obtained results showed an increase in SOD and GPx activities after exposure. In organisms exposed to the highest concentration tested it was also possible to observe a significant increase in GSTs activity. However, these alterations in the antioxidant defence system were not able to prevent the occurrence of oxidative stress in exposed organisms. Furthermore, exposure to paracetamol induced neurotoxicity in clams, with a concentration-dependent ChEs inhibition along the exposure concentrations. Exposure to paracetamol also led to an increase of GLY content which resulted from metabolic activity depression along the increasing exposure

  6. Low cycle fatigue properties of CLAM steel at 823 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xue [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Lixin [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yan, Wei; Wang, Wei [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sha, Wei [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Shan, Yiyin, E-mail: yyshan@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yang, Ke, E-mail: kyang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2014-09-08

    China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel is considered to be the main candidate material for the first wall components of future fusion reactors in China. In this paper, the low cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of CLAM steel is studied under fully reversed tension–compression loading at 823 K in air. Total strain amplitude was controlled from 0.14% to 1.8% with a constant strain rate of 2.4×10{sup −3} s{sup −1}. The corresponding plastic strain amplitude ranged from 0.023% to 1.613%. The CLAM steel displayed continuous softening to failure at 823 K. The relationship between strain, stress and fatigue life was obtained using the parameters obtained from fatigue tests. The LCF properties of CLAM steel at 823 K followed Coffin–Manson relationship. Furthermore, irregular serration was observed on the stress–strain hysteresis loops of CLAM steel tested with the total strain amplitude of 0.45–1.8%, which was attributed to the dynamic strain aging (DSA) effect. During continuous cyclic deformation, the microstructure and precipitate distribution of CLAM steel changed gradually. Many tempered martensitic laths were decomposed into subgrains, and the size and number of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbide and MX carbonitride precipitates decreased with the increase of total strain amplitude. The response cyclic stress promoted the recovery of martensitic lath, while the thermal activation mainly played an important role on the growth of precipitates in CLAM steel at 823 K. In order to have a better understanding of high-temperature LCF behavior, the potential mechanisms controlling stress–strain response, DSA phenomenon and microstructure changes have also been evaluated.

  7. Ancient Clam Gardens Increased Shellfish Production: Adaptive Strategies from the Past Can Inform Food Security Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groesbeck, Amy S.; Rowell, Kirsten; Lepofsky, Dana; Salomon, Anne K.

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining food production while sustaining productive ecosystems is among the central challenges of our time, yet, it has been for millennia. Ancient clam gardens, intertidal rock-walled terraces constructed by humans during the late Holocene, are thought to have improved the growing conditions for clams. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the beach slope, intertidal height, and biomass and density of bivalves at replicate clam garden and non-walled clam beaches in British Columbia, Canada. We also quantified the variation in growth and survival rates of littleneck clams (Leukoma staminea) we experimentally transplanted across these two beach types. We found that clam gardens had significantly shallower slopes than non-walled beaches and greater densities of L. staminea and Saxidomus giganteus, particularly at smaller size classes. Overall, clam gardens contained 4 times as many butter clams and over twice as many littleneck clams relative to non-walled beaches. As predicted, this relationship varied as a function of intertidal height, whereby clam density and biomass tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to non-walled beaches at relatively higher intertidal heights. Transplanted juvenile L. staminea grew 1.7 times faster and smaller size classes were more likely to survive in clam gardens than non-walled beaches, specifically at the top and bottom of beaches. Consequently, we provide strong evidence that ancient clam gardens likely increased clam productivity by altering the slope of soft-sediment beaches, expanding optimal intertidal clam habitat, thereby enhancing growing conditions for clams. These results reveal how ancient shellfish aquaculture practices may have supported food security strategies in the past and provide insight into tools for the conservation, management, and governance of intertidal seascapes today. PMID:24618748

  8. Calculating the Contribution of Zooxanthellae to Giant Clams Respiration Energy Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Ambariyanto

    2002-01-01

    Giant clams (Tridacnidae) are known to live in association with photosynthetic single cell dinoflagellate algae commonly called zooxanthellae. These algae which can be found in the mantle of the clams are capable of transferring part of their photosynthates which become an important source of energy to the host ( apart from filter feeding activity). In order to understand the basic biological processes of the giant clams , the contribution of zooxanthellae to the clam's energy requirement nee...

  9. Isotopic Analysis of Fingernails as a USGS Open House Demonstration of the Use of Stable Isotopes in Foodweb Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S. R.; Kendall, C.; Young, M. B.; Choy, D.

    2011-12-01

    The USGS Isotope Tracers Project uses stable isotopes and tritium to add a unique dimension of chemical information to a wide range of environmental investigations. The use and application of isotopes is usually an unfamiliar and even esoteric topic to the general public. Therefore during three USGS open house events, as a public outreach effort, we demonstrated the use of stable isotopes by analyzing nitrogen and carbon isotopes from very small fragments of fingernail from willing participants. We titled the exhibit "You Are What You Eat". The results from all participants were plotted on a graph indicating the general influence of different food groups on the composition of body tissues as represented by fingernails. All participants were assigned a number and no personal-identification information was collected. A subset of participants provided us with an estimate of the number of days a week various foods were eaten and if they were vegetarians, vegans or non-vegetarians. Volunteers from our research group were on hand to explain and discuss fundamental concepts such as how foods attain their isotopic composition, the difference between C3 and C4 plants, the effects of assimilation, trophic enrichment, and the various uses of stable isotopes in environmental studies. The results of the fingernail analyses showed the variation of the range of isotopic compositions among about 400 people at each event, the distinct influence of C4 plants (mainly corn and cane sugar) on our carbon isotopic composition, and the isotopic differences between vegetarians and non vegetarians among other details (http://wwwrcamnl.wr.usgs.gov/isoig/projects/fingernails/). A poll of visitors attending the open house event in 2006 indicated that "You Are What You Eat" was among the most popular exhibits. Following the first two open house events we were contacted by a group of researchers from Brazil who had completed a very similar study. Our collaboration resulted in a publication in

  10. Toxicity of a traditional molluscicide to asian clam veligers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; ,; Miho Yoshioka,; Bahram Farokhkish,; ,; Gross, Jackson A.; Sepulveda, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture and hatchery industries are in need of effective control methods to reduce the risk of spreading aquatic invasive species, such as the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea, through aquaculture and hatchery activities. The planktonic nature of Asian clam veligers enables this life stage to enter water-based infrastructure undetected, including hatchery trucks used to stock fish. Once in hatchery trucks, veligers can disperse overland and establish in previously uninvaded habitats. As a result, there is a need to develop techniques that result in veliger mortality but do not harm fish. In September 2012, we conducted laboratory trials to determine if a molluscicide (750 mg/L potassium chloride and 25 mg/L formalin) commonly used to kill zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) veligers in hatchery trucks can also effectively kill Asian clam veligers. We exposed Asian clam veligers to this molluscicide for 1, 3, and 5 h in each of two water types: deionized water and filtered lake water. We found ,20% mortality at the 1-h exposure period and 100% mortality at both the 3-h and 5-h exposure periods, regardless of water type. This laboratory study represents an important step toward reducing the spread of Asian clams by aquaculture facilities.

  11. Effect of low salinity on the yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YBM. Carvalho

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the lethal salinity (LC50 for the yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides (Bivalvia: Mesodesmatidae and identify histopathological alterations that could be used to diagnose structural changes in clam tissue. Clams in two size classes (adults and juveniles were placed in 10 L chambers and exposed to salinities of 35, 30, 25, 20, 15, 10, and 5 g/L. There were triplicate chambers with seven clams each for each salinity. The LC50 values for a 48 h exposure were 6.5 g/L and 5.7 g/L for adults and juveniles, respectively. For a 96 h exposure, the LC50 values were 10.5 g/L for adults and 8.8 g/L for juveniles. The histological examination of yellow clams exposed to 10 g/L for 96 h showed intercellular oedema and necrotic foci in the epithelium of the digestive gland and occlusion of the lumen of the digestive gland. In conclusion, M. mactroides can be characterised as a moderately euryhaline species, tolerating salinities from 35 to 15 g/L.

  12. Understanding arsenic metabolism through a comparative study of arsenic levels in the urine, hair and fingernails of healthy volunteers from three unexposed ethnic groups in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brima, Eid I.; Haris, Parvez I.; Jenkins, Richard O.; Polya, Dave A.; Gault, Andrew G.; Harrington, Chris F.

    2006-01-01

    Very little is known about arsenic (As) metabolism in healthy populations that are not exposed to high concentrations of As in their food or water. Here we present a study with healthy volunteers from three different ethnic groups, residing in Leicester, UK, which reveals statistically significant differences in the levels of total As in urine and fingernail samples. Urine (n = 63), hair (n = 36) and fingernail (n = 36) samples from Asians, Somali Black-Africans and Whites were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS). The results clearly show that the total concentrations of As in urine and fingernail samples of a Somali Black-African population (urine 7.2 μg/g creatinine; fingernails 723.1 μg/kg) are significantly (P 0.05) in the level of As in the hair samples from these three groups; Somali Black-Africans (116.0 μg/kg), Asians (117.4 μg/kg) and Whites (141.2 μg/kg). Significantly different levels of total As in fingernail and urine and a higher percentage of urinary DMA in the Somali Black-Africans are suggestive of a different pattern of As metabolism in this ethnic group

  13. Effects of predation by sea ducks on clam abundance in soft-bottom intertidal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tyler; Esler, Daniel N.; Boyd, W. Sean

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have documented strong, top-down predation effects of sea ducks on mussel populations in rocky intertidal communities. However, the impact of these gregarious predators in soft-bottom communities has been largely unexplored. We evaluated effects of predation by wintering surf scoters Melanitta perspicillata and white-winged scoters M. fusca on clam populations in soft-bottom intertidal habitats of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Specifically, we documented spatial and temporal variation in clam density (clams m–2), scoter diet composition, and the consequences of scoter predation on clam abundance. Of the 3 most numerous clams, Manila clams Venerupis philippinarum and varnish clams Nuttallia obscurata were the primary prey items of both scoter species, while clams of the genus Macoma were rarely consumed by scoters. Between scoter arrival in the fall and departure in the spring, Manila clams decreased in density at most sample sites, while varnish clam densities did not change or declined slightly. Our estimates of numbers of clams consumed by scoters accounted for most of the observed declines in combined abundance of Manila and varnish clams, despite the presence of numerous other vertebrate and invertebrate species known to consume clams. For Macoma spp., we detected an over-winter increase in density, presumably due to growth of clams too small to be retained by our sieve (<5 mm) during fall sampling, in addition to the lack of predation pressure by scoters. These results illustrate the strong predation potential of scoters in soft-bottom intertidal habitats, as well as their potentially important role in shaping community structure.

  14. The Clam-Gallas Palace in Prague: Emblematic Architecture?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Lubomír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2010), s. 1-10 ISSN 0885-968X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Clam-Gallas Palace * Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach * architecture * emblem s * imprints Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  15. Male DNA under female fingernails after scratching: transfer and persistence evaluation by RT-PCR analysis and Y-STR typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuvaro, Alessandra; Bini, Carla; Dilloo, Silvia; Sarno, Stefania; Pelotti, Susi

    2018-04-17

    The collection of biological debris beneath fingernails can be useful in forensic casework when a struggle between the victim and the offender is suspected. In the present study, we set up a controlled scratching experiment in which female volunteers scratched the male volunteers' forearms, simulating a defensive action during an assault. A total of 160 fingernail samples were collected: 80 "control samples" before the scratching, 40 samples immediately after the scratching (t = 0 h), and 40 samples 5 h after the scratching (t = 5 h). The aim was to evaluate, using a real-time PCR approach and Y-STR profiling, the transfer and the persistence of male DNA under female fingernails after scratching. A significant reduction in DNA yield was observed between fingernail samples collected immediately and those collected 5 h after scratching, with a corresponding decrease in Y-STR profile quality. Overall, 38/40 (95%) of the fingernail samples collected immediately (t = 0 h) and 24/40 (60%) of those collected 5 h later (t = 5 h) were suitable for comparison and the scratched male volunteers could not be excluded as donors of the foreign DNA from 37 (92.5%) of the t = 0 h and from 10 (25%) of the t = 5 h profiles. The analysis of male DNA under female fingernails showed that Y-chromosome STR typing may provide extremely valuable genetic information of the male contributor(s), although 5 h after scratching the profile of the scratched male was lost in three-quarters of samples.

  16. A quantitative analysis of the polyamine in lung cancer patient fingernails by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jun Zhe; Matsumoto, Akihito; Li, Gao; Jiang, Ying-Zi; Yu, Hai-Fu; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Inoue, Koichi; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2014-04-01

    A quantitative analysis of polyamines in lung cancer patient fingernails by the combination of 4-(N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-7-fluoro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole derivatives and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry is described. The reaction of the reagent with eight kinds of polyamines, that is, N(1) -acetylputrescine (N(1) -actPUT), N(8) -acetylspermidine, N(1) -acetylspermine, 1,3-diaminopropane, putrescine (PUT), cadaverine, spermidine and spermine (SPM) effectively occurs at 60 °C for 30 min. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 5) were 5-100 fmol. A good linearity was achieved from the calibration curves, which was obtained by plotting the peak area ratios of the analytes relative to the internal standard (IS), that is, 1,6-diaminohexane, vs the injected amounts of polyamines (r(2)  > 0.996), and the intra-day and inter-day assay precisions were group, as compared with the healthy volunteers, the concentrations of SPM had a statistically significant (p < 0.05) correlation. Therefore, because the proposed method provides a good mass accuracy and the trace detection of the polyamines in human fingernails, this analytical technique could be a noninvasive technique to assist in the diagnosis and assessment of disease activity in lung cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in hard clams (Mercanaria mercanaria) by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and the effect of HHP on the physical characteristics of hard clam meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootian, Gabriel K; Flimlin, George E; Karwe, Mukund V; Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-02-01

    Shellfish may internalize dangerous pathogens during filter feeding. Traditional methods of depuration have been found ineffective against certain pathogens. The objective was to explore high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as an alternative to the traditional depuration process. The effect of HHP on the survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in live clams (Mercanaria mercanaria) and the impact of HHP on physical characteristics of clam meat were investigated. Clams were inoculated with up to 7 log CFU/g of a cocktail of V. parahaemolyticus strains via filter feeding. Clams were processed at pressures ranging from 250 to 552 MPa for hold times ranging between 2 and 6 min. Processing conditions of 450 MPa for 4 min and 350 MPa for 6 min reduced the initial concentration of V. parahaemolyticus to a nondetectable level (5 log reductions. The volume of clam meat (processed in shell) increased with negligible change in mass after exposure to pressure at 552 MPa for 3 min, while the drip loss was reduced. Clams processed at 552 MPa were softer compared to those processed at 276 MPa. However, all HHP processed clams were found to be harder compared to unprocessed. The lightness (L*) of the meat increased although the redness (a*) decreased with increasing pressure. Although high pressure-processed clams may pose a significantly lower risk from V. parahaemolyticus, the effect of the accompanied physical changes on the consumer's decision to purchase HHP clams remains to be determined. Shellfish may contain dangerous foodborne pathogens. Traditional methods of removing those pathogen have been found ineffective against certain pathogens. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of high hydrostatic pressure on V. parahaemolyticus in clams. Processing conditions of 450 MPa for 4 min and 350 MPa for 6 min reduced the initial concentration of V. parahaemolyticus to a nondetectable level, achieving >5 log reductions. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Biodiesel Production from Castor Oil by Using Calcium Oxide Derived from Mud Clam Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, S.; Ahmed, A. S.; Anr, Reddy; Hamdan, S.

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic potential of calcium oxide synthesized from mud clam shell as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production was studied. The mud clam shell calcium oxide was characterized using particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and BET gas sorption analyzer. The catalyst performance of mud clam shell calcium oxide was studied in the transesterification of castor oil as biodiesel. Catalyst characterization and transesterification s...

  19. Ancient clam gardens, traditional management portfolios, and the resilience of coupled human-ocean systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Jackley

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous communities have actively managed their environments for millennia using a diversity of resource use and conservation strategies. Clam gardens, ancient rock-walled intertidal beach terraces, represent one example of an early mariculture technology that may have been used to improve food security and confer resilience to coupled human-ocean systems. We surveyed a coastal landscape for evidence of past resource use and management to gain insight into ancient resource stewardship practices on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. We found that clam gardens are embedded within a diverse portfolio of resource use and management strategies and were likely one component of a larger, complex resource management system. We compared clam diversity, density, recruitment, and biomass in three clam gardens and three unmodified nonwalled beaches. Evidence suggests that butter clams (Saxidomus gigantea had 1.96 times the biomass and 2.44 times the density in clam gardens relative to unmodified beaches. This was due to a reduction in beach slope and thus an increase in the optimal tidal range where clams grow and survive best. The most pronounced differences in butter clam density between nonwalled beaches and clam gardens were found at high tidal elevations at the top of the beach. Finally, clam recruits (0.5-2 mm in length tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to nonwalled beaches and may be attributed to the addition of shell hash by ancient people, which remains on the landscape today. As part of a broader social-ecological system, clam garden sites were among several modifications made by humans that collectively may have conferred resilience to past communities by providing reliable and diverse access to food resources.

  20. Further development of the SEA-Clam wave energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamy, N.W.; Peatfield, A.M.

    1984-04-01

    The final design of the SEA-Clam as a unit for a large 2 GW scheme has been described. This is the leading wave energy device arising out of the UK National Wave Energy Program and is seen as having the greatest potential for further development particularly for smaller scale applications. The small scale market for wave energy is examined and the design and cost parameters evaluated for the 250 kW to 1000 kW range of SEA-Clam units. Building a demonstration prototype rated at 650 kW and producing an annual average output of 250 kW is identified as the next step towards the commercial exploitation of wave energy.

  1. Evaluation of 4-nonylphenol toxicity in the clam Tapes philippinarum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Deppieri, Martina; Oschino, Vanessa; Marin, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Lethal and sub lethal effects of 4-nonylphenol (NP) were investigated in the clam Tapes philippinarum from the Lagoon of Venice. In a 96-h lethality test, bivalves were exposed to the following NP concentrations: 0, 0+acetone, .19, 0.38, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg NP/L. The 96-h LC 50 value was 1.12 mg P/L. No mortality was observed at 0.19 mg NP/L, whereas at 1.5 and 3.0 mg P/L both siphons and foot of clams were often cut-off, the animals being unable to withdraw them before shell closure, suggesting the possible narcotic effect of NP. Lower concentrations (0, 0+acetone, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, nd 0.2 mg NP/L) were then used to evaluate sub lethal NP effects on clearance rate (CR), respiration rate (RR), scope for growth (SFG), and survival in ir. Following a 7-day exposure, decreased RRs were found at all NP concentrations tested. Significant decreases in the CR and SFG were only observed at the two highest NP concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 mg/L), with SFG reductions reaching 54% and 71%, respectively. Last, the highest concentrations tested significantly decreased the resistance of clams to exposure to air and enhanced the mortality rate. As the lowest effective NP concentrations are similar to environmentally realistic levels, a condition of potential risk for the well-being of clam populations in estuarine areas is highlighted

  2. Sensory Characteristics of Mud Clam (Polymesoda Erosa) Hydrolysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normah Ismail; Noorasma Mustakim

    2016-01-01

    Mud clam (Polymesoda erosa) was hydrolysed using two different microbial enzymes; alcalase and flavourzyme. The volatile compounds, amino acids and molecular weight associated with umami and bitter taste in mud clam hydrolysate were determined by head space solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography (HS-SPME-GCMS), High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The characteristics of hydrolysates produced using alcalase and flavourzyme were compared. In total, eighteen, seven and six volatile compounds were identified in the flesh, alcalase hydrolysate and flavourzyme hydrolysate, respectively. 2-piperidinone volatile compound content which is associated with bitterness was 6.79 % in alcalase hydrolysate and 3.78 % in flavourzyme hydrolysate. SDS-PAGE results showed that alcalase hydrolysate contains smaller peptide (<52 kDa) compared to flavourzyme hydrolysate (<126 kDa). In addition, sensory analysis using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) showed that flavourzyme hydroysate was the least bitter but elicited more umami taste compared to alcalase hydrolysate. Further treatments are still needed to enhance umami taste and to remove bitter taste in mud clam hydrolysate. (author)

  3. Bitterness and Physichochemical Properties of Angelwing Clam (Pholas Orientalis) Hydrolysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normah Ismail; Nurul Fasihah Razak

    2016-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates from angelwing clam were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis using bromelain. The bitterness of hydrolysates was evaluated based on the degree hydrolysis (DH), sensory analysis, molecular weight distribution and functional group. By using 3 % of enzyme substrate ratio bromelain resulted in high DH value at 12.57 % when angelwing clam was hydrolysed for 2 hours. Sensory analysis showed that angelwing hydrolysate was bitter. Angelwing hydrolysate had molecular weight below 50 kDa. The lower molecular weight indicated that the protein has been degraded into smaller peptide chains which contribute to bitter taste. Moreover, the high peak of amine group in angelwing hydrolysate (3385.6 cm -1 ) suggested that bitterness exists. Angelwing hydrolysate had higher protein content, lower fat content and had good water holding capacity than the flesh. This result suggested that angelwing hydrolysate could be useful as food ingredient even though bitter taste developed after the hydrolysis. Thus, debittering should be considered in order to pave the way for full utilization of angelwing clam hydrolysate as a food ingredient. (author)

  4. Development and validation of an ex vivo electron paramagnetic resonance fingernail bio-dosimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiaoming; Swarts, Steven G.; Marsh, Stephen D.; Demidenko, Eugene; Flood, Ann B.; Grinberg, Oleg; Gui, Jiang; Mariani, Michael; Ruuge, Andres E.; Tipikin, Dmitry; Swartz, Harold M.; Sidabras, Jason W.; Wilcox, Dean E.

    2014-01-01

    There is an imperative need to develop methods that can rapidly and accurately determine individual exposure to radiation for screening (triage) populations and guiding medical treatment in an emergency response to a large-scale radiological/nuclear event. To this end, a number of methods that rely on dose-dependent chemical and/or physical alterations in biomaterials or biological responses are in various stages of development. One such method, ex vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) nail dosimetry using human nail clippings, is a physical bio-dosimetry technique that takes advantage of a stable radiation-induced signal (RIS) in the keratin matrix of fingernails and toenails. This dosimetry method has the advantages of ubiquitous availability of the dosimetric material, easy and non-invasive sampling, and the potential for immediate and rapid dose assessment. The major challenge for ex vivo EPR nail dosimetry is the overlap of mechanically induced signals and the RIS. The difficulties of analysing the mixed EPR spectra of a clipped irradiated nail were addressed in the work described here. The following key factors lead to successful spectral analysis and dose assessment in ex vivo EPR nail dosimetry: (1) obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical nature, the decay behaviour, and the microwave power dependence of the EPR signals, as well as the influence of variation in temperature, humidity, water content, and O 2 level; (2) control of the variability among individual samples to achieve consistent shape and kinetics of the EPR spectra; (3) use of correlations between the multiple spectral components; and (4) use of optimised modelling and fitting of the EPR spectra to improve the accuracy and precision of the dose estimates derived from the nail spectra. In the work described here, two large clipped nail datasets were used to test the procedures and the spectral fitting model of the results obtained with it. A 15-donor nail set with 90 nail samples

  5. Morula-like cells in photo-symbiotic clams harboring zooxanthellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, K; Nishijima, M; Maruyama, T

    1998-06-01

    Symbiosis is observed between zooxanthellae, symbiotic dinoflagellates, and giant clams and related clams which belong to the families Tridacnidae and Cardiidae. We have previously shown that a photo-symbiotic clam Tridacna crocea has three types of hemocytes, the eosinophilic granular hemocyte with phagocytic activity, the agranular cell with electron lucent granules, and the morula-like cell with large (ca. 2 mum in diameter) colorless granules. The function of the morula-like cell is not clear, but it has not been reported in any other bivalves except photo-symbiotic clams T. crocea and Tridacna maxima. In order to clarify whether it is specific to photo-symbiotic clams or not, we studied hemocytes in the photo-symbiotic clams Tridacna derasa (Tridacnidae), Hippopus hippopus (Tridacnidae) and Corculum cardissa (Cardiidae), and a closely related non-symbiotic clam Fulvia mutica (Cardiidae). The eosinophilic granular hemocytes and the agranular cells were found in all of the clams examined. However, the morula-like cells which were packed with many large electron dense granules (ca. 2 mum in diameter), were observed only in the photo-symbiotic clams. In F. mutica, a closely related non-symbiotic clam, this type of hemocyte was not found. Instead a hemocyte with vacuoles and a few large granules containing peroxidase activity was observed. The large granules of F. mutica varied in size from ca. 1-9 mum in diameter. Present data suggests that the presence of morula-like cells is restricted to photo-symbiotic clams and that the hemocytes associated with the morula-like cells may have some functional relationship to symbiosis with zooxanthellae.

  6. A SOCIAL COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A SMALL-SCALE CLAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results from the CBA yielded positive net present values (NPVs) for project options involving live clams being sold on the export market (to Hong Kong) for R24.70 kg-1 and negative NPVs for domestic market options (Johannesburg and Cape Town), where the clam would be sold for R6.50 kg-1. Assuming a discount rate ...

  7. The Stability of the Giant Clam Holobiont over Time and during Bleaching Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Pappas, Melissa

    2017-12-01

    The stability of marine photosymbiotic holobionts has major implications for the future of coral reef communities. This study aims to describe the stability of the Red Sea giant clam holobiont over the duration of one year and during induced bleaching stress under laboratory thermal manipulations. Tridacnid clams of the species Tridacna maxima were sampled at three reef locations near the central Saudi coast of the Red Sea. Associated Symbiodinium of Red Sea giant clams have previously been described to be part of only Clade A, which suggests a strong specificity in the clam-algal partnership, but specific types and potential shifting of types within this clade have not been examined for giant clams. The results from this study confirm that tridacnid symbiont types shift over time and the change between three A1 types suggests a biological and functional significance of two undescribed A1 Symbiodinium types. Experimental bleaching shows that Red Sea giant clams, although exposed to rather hot temperatures naturally, will bleach at 34°C after two weeks, and severely bleached clams likely will not recover. During bleaching, Symbiodinium types shift as well, and shift more drastically than seasonal shifts during the year. This shifting may be an evolved characteristic of the giant clam to aid in surviving major changes in the environment. However, more research is needed to determine if these holobionts are capable of keeping up with the global forecast of warming in reef environments.

  8. Assessment of clam ruditapes philippinarum as Heavy metal bioindicators using NMR-based metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Linbao; You, Liping [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, CAS, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai (China); The Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yu, Junbao; Cong, Ming; Wang, Qing; Li, Fei; Li, Lianzhen; Zhao, Jianmin; Li, Chenghua; Wu, Huifeng [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, CAS, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai (China)

    2011-08-15

    There are mainly distributed three pedigrees (White, Liangdao Red, and Zebra) of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in Yantai population along the Bohai marine and coast. However, the biological differences to environmental stressors have been ignored in toxicology studies, which could lead to the distortion of biological interpretations of toxicological effects induced by environmental contaminants. In this study, we applied a system biology approach, metabolomics to compare the metabolic profiles in digestive gland from three pedigrees of clam and characterize and compare the metabolic responses induced by mercury in clam digestive gland tissues to determine a sensitive pedigree of clam as a preferable bioindicator for metal pollution monitoring and toxicology research. The most abundant metabolites, respectively, included branched-chain amino acids, alanine, and arginine in White samples, glutamate, dimethylglycine, and glycine in Zebra clams and acetylcholine, betaine, glucose, and glycogen in Liangdao Red clams. After 48 h exposure of 20 {mu}g L{sup -1} Hg{sup 2+}, the metabolic profiles from the three pedigrees of clams showed differentially significant changes in alanine, glutamate, succinate, taurine, hypotaurine, glycine, arginine, glucose, etc. Our findings indicate the toxicological effects of mercury exposure in Manila clams including the neurotoxicity, disturbances in energetic metabolisms and osmoregulation in the digestive glands and suggest that Liangdao Red pedigree of clam could be a preferable bioindicator for the metal pollution monitoring based on the more sensitive classes of metabolic changes from digestive glands compared with other two (White and Zebra) pedigrees of clams. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Bioaccumulation of gasoline in brackish green algae and popular clams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihan A. El-Shoubaky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha clathrata and the clams (Tapes decussates and Venerupis aurea grow together in Timsah Lake, Suez Canal, Egypt. Our ultimate goal is to validate the bioaccumulation of gasoline in the marine organisms and their behavior after exposure to the pollutant, experimentally. These species were treated with a serial treatment of gasoline (1000, 4000, 16,000 and 64,000 μl in aquaria with brackish sea-water for 72 h. The tested green algae and clams were taken for an analysis of total hydrocarbon accumulation daily. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between the four species and also between the duration of exposure. The accumulation of gasoline in U. lactuca and E. clathrata reached their maximum after 48 h at 1000 and 4000 μl. The highest absorption was registered after 24 h only at 16,000 and at 64,000 μl. U. lactuca recorded complete mortality in 64,000 μl at 72 h whereas E. clathrata registered death at 48 h and 72 h in the same treatment. V. aurea was more sensitive than T. decussates. The accumulation of gasoline reached its maximum in V. aurea after only 24 h in the first treatment while it retarded to 48 h in T. decussates with a lesser accumulation. However, both clam species accumulated the highest amount of petroleum hydrocarbons during the first hour of exposure at the first treatment. In the third and fourth treatments, clams did not accumulate gasoline but began to dispose it from their tissues till it became less than that in the control. Mortality gradually increased with time in each treatment except the last one (64,000 μl in which 100% death of the specimens was observed. In general, the bioaccumulation of gasoline level was in a descending order as follows: U. lactuca > E. clathrata > V. aurea > T. decussates. Their behavior changed from accumulation to detoxification with time and with the increase in pollutant concentration. Generally, these

  10. Report on feasibility study of the Clam Wave Energy Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The main emphasis of the feasibility study has been towards producing an acceptable spine design for the Clam wave energy converter. Concrete and steel designs based on a mathematical model of the waveloading have been produced. Progress is also reported in the design of a bellows for a low-pressure air power transmission system. A narrow wave tank and scale model have been constructed in order to carry out a test programme on various aspects of the device's construction and performance.

  11. Second generation wave energy device - the clam concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamy, N.W.

    1981-01-01

    A device concept is presented which has arisen from a system approach adopted by a research group with considerable experience in the discipline of wave energy. The Clam, which can be classified as a spine-based pneumatic terminator, is deemed to be a second generation wave energy device in that it tries to utilize system components already identified as attractive, while at the same time avoiding known problem areas. A working model of this wave power device at an engineering scale is discussed for trials in real waves. 3 refs.

  12. Photosymbiotic Giant Clams are Transformers of Solar Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    function to forward-scatter light reflected from high albedo sand or from the highly reflec- tive clam shell itself (M. Lim 2014, personal communication...grains: aggregates made of crystalline water ice . Icarus 215, 682–694. (doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.04.011) 17. Denton EJ, Land MF. 1971 Mechanism of...2005.50.5.1490) 29. McFarland WN, Munz FW. 1975 Part II: the photic environment of clear tropical seas during the day. Vis. Res. 15, 1063–1070. (doi

  13. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB bioaccumulation by Manila clam from polluted areas of Venice lagoon (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sfriso, Adriano; Facca, Chiara; Raccanelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    POP bioaccumulation pathways in the clam Tapes philippinarum were examined for two years from juveniles to adult size. Two polluted sites, one with sandy sediment, the other muddy were compared with a reference site characterized by low contamination levels. Juvenile clams coming from a hatchery were reared both on the sediment and in nets suspended at 30 cm from the bottom. POP changes in clam tissue were related to the concentrations recorded in sediments and in the particulate matter during the entire fattening period. Results provided interesting data on the relationships between environmental contamination and bioaccumulation. Contrary to studies on the decontamination times of the clams collected in polluted areas, this work investigates the preferential clam bioaccumulation pathways during growth under different environmental conditions. In general POP bioaccumulation resulted to be correlated to concentrations in SPM rather than in sediments and was higher in S-clams rather than in B-clams. -- Highlights: • PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCB accumulation in clam tissues during growth. • Muddy and sandy polluted areas. • How sediment and suspended matter contamination affect clam toxicity. • Clam toxicity and law limits. -- Clam bioaccumulation pathways in polluted areas

  14. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB bioaccumulation by Manila clam from polluted areas of Venice lagoon (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfriso, Adriano; Facca, Chiara; Raccanelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    POP bioaccumulation pathways in the clam Tapes philippinarum were examined for two years from juveniles to adult size. Two polluted sites, one with sandy sediment, the other muddy were compared with a reference site characterized by low contamination levels. Juvenile clams coming from a hatchery were reared both on the sediment and in nets suspended at 30 cm from the bottom. POP changes in clam tissue were related to the concentrations recorded in sediments and in the particulate matter during the entire fattening period. Results provided interesting data on the relationships between environmental contamination and bioaccumulation. Contrary to studies on the decontamination times of the clams collected in polluted areas, this work investigates the preferential clam bioaccumulation pathways during growth under different environmental conditions. In general POP bioaccumulation resulted to be correlated to concentrations in SPM rather than in sediments and was higher in S-clams rather than in B-clams. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Great Lakes clams find refuge from zebra mussels in restored, lake-connected marsh (Ohio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, more than 95 percent of the freshwater clams once found in Lake Erie have died due to the exotic zebara mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Zebra mussels attach themselves to native clams in large numbers, impeding the ability of the clams to eat and burrow. However, in 1996, we discovered a population of native clams in Metzger Marsh in western Lake Erie (about 50 miles [80 km] east of Toledo) that were thriving despite the longtime presence of zebra mussel in surrounding waters. At that time, Metzger Marsh was undergoing extensive restoration, including construction of a dike to replace the eroded barrier beach and of a water-control structure to maintain hydrologic connections with the lake (Wilcox and Whillans 1999). The restoration plan called for a drawdown of water levels to promote plant growth from the seedbank -- a process that would also destroy most of the clam population. State and federal resource managers recommended removing as many clams as possible to a site that was isolated from zebra mussels, and then returning them to the marsh after it was restored. We removed about 7,000 native clams in 1996 and moved them back to Metzger Marsh in 1999.

  16. Recovery of intertidal hardshelled clams in Prince William Sound from Exxon Valdez oiling and shoreline treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, J.P.; Lees, D.C.; Driskell, W.B.

    1994-01-01

    Native little neck (Protothaca staminea) and butter clams (Saxidomus giganteus) were quantitatively surveyed from 1989 through 1993 to evaluate effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Hydraulic washing of sand and gravel beaches altered beach morphology by transporting material down slope from upper elevations, often burying the lower beach in several centimeters of sediment having a relatively low content of fines and organic carbon. Hydraulically washed beaches showed significant reductions in clam densities in 1989 and 1990. Recruitment of clams was very limited on these beaches through 1993; as a result, clam densities on these hydraulically washed beaches remain very depressed compared to those on beaches that were unoiled or oiled but not washed. Littlenecks transplanted from a reference site to a heavily oiled but untreated site showed significant patterns of increased mortality, decreased growth, and increased bioaccumulation of PAH in response to a gradient in sediment PAH, This same heavily oiled site has consistently had among the highest rates of hardshelled clam recruitment of any of the sites sampled. Littlenecks also were transplanted to another heavily oiled beach that had been hydraulically washed and had little remaining hydrocarbons. These clams showed very high survival, yet this beach has had very little clam recruitment. It is hypothesized that recruitment at this site may be inhibited by the low level of finer sediments and low organic content remaining after washing

  17. Freshwater Clam Extract Ameliorates Triglyceride and Cholesterol Metabolism through the Expression of Genes Involved in Hepatic Lipogenesis and Cholesterol Degradation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater clam (Corbicula spp. is a popular edible bivalve and has been used as a folk remedy for liver disease in Asia. As a Chinese traditional medicine, it is said that freshwater clam ameliorates alcoholic intoxication and cholestasis. In this study, to estimate the practical benefit of freshwater clam extract (FCE, we compared the effects of FCE and soy protein isolate (SPI on triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism in rats. FCE and SPI lowered serum cholesterol, and FCE tended to reduce serum triglycerides. FCE enhanced fecal sterol excretion and hepatic mRNA levels of CYP7A1 and ABCG5 more substantially than SPI; however, both diets reduced hepatic cholesterol. Both of the diets similarly suppressed liver lipids improved Δ9-desaturated fatty acid profile, and FCE was associated with a reduction in FAS and SCD1 mRNA levels. Hepatic transcriptome analysis revealed that inhibition of lipogenesis-related gene expression may contribute to downregulation of hepatic triglycerides by FCE. FCE would have better potential benefits for preventing metabolic disorders, through greater improvement of metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol, likely through a mechanism similar to SPI.

  18. Concentrations of organotin compounds in sediment and clams collected from coastal areas in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, Sayaka; Arai, Takaomi; Harino, Hiroya; Ohji, Madoka; Nguyen Duc Cu; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2004-01-01

    Levels of butyltin (BT) and phenyltin (PT) compounds were determined in sediments and clam Meretrix spp. collected from north and central coastal areas in Vietnam. Concentrations of TBT in sediments ranged from 0.89 to 34 ng g -1 dry wt and those in clams ranged from 1.4 to 56 ng g -1 wet wt. The levels of TBT in sediments and clams from Vietnam were within limits reported from other countries. Further, the TBT level in clams was lower than the tolerable average residue level (TARL) estimated based on tolerable daily intake (TDI). Trace amounts of PTs were also found in both sediment and clam samples. In sediments from north and central Vietnam, the concentrations of TBT were highest in the order of Hue (28 ng g -1 dry wt), Cua Luc (15 ng g -1 dry wt), Sam Son (6.3 ng g -1 dry wt), and Tra Co (5.5 ng g -1 dry wt). Among the clams from north and central Vietnam, the levels of TBT in clams from Cua Luc were dramatically high at 47 ng g -1 wet wt. TBT formed the principal butyltin species in sediment at all sites studied. The ratios of TBT in sediment were higher among BT compounds at all study sites. Of total BTs, TBT was the dominant species in clams from almost all sites studied. In spatial distribution, TPT showed a pattern similar to TBT, suggesting the use of TPT as an antifouling paint. The partition coefficient between sediment and calms was calculated. The partition coefficients of TBT and TPT were 2.01 (0.56-5.5) and 9.23 (3.1-20), respectively. These results show that sediment-bound TBT is a source of contamination to clams in addition to dissolved TBT

  19. Identification of clam plasma proteins that bind its pathogen Quahog Parasite Unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rachel; Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle; Allam, Bassem

    2018-06-01

    The hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) is among the most economically-important marine species along the east coast of the United States, representing the first marine resource in several Northeastern states. The species is rather resilient to infections and the only important disease of hard clams results from an infection caused by Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX), a protistan parasite that can lead to significant mortality events in wild and aquacultured clam stocks. Though the presence of QPX disease has been documented since the 1960s, little information is available on cellular and molecular interactions between the parasite and the host. This study examined the interactions between the clam immune system and QPX cells. First, the effect of clam plasma on the binding of hemocytes to parasite cells was evaluated. Second, clam plasma proteins that bind QPX cells were identified through proteomic (LC-MS/MS) analyses. Finally, the effect of prior clam exposure to QPX on the abundance of QPX-reactive proteins in the plasma was evaluated. Results showed that plasma factors enhance the attachment of hemocytes to QPX. Among the proteins that specifically bind to QPX cells, several lectins were identified, as well as complement component proteins and proteolytic enzymes. Furthermore, results showed that some of these lectins and complement-related proteins are inducible as their abundance significantly increased following QPX challenge. These results shed light on plasma proteins involved in the recognition and binding of parasite cells and provide molecular targets for future investigations of factors involved in clam resistance to the disease, and ultimately for the selection of resistant clam stocks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Recolonization of reactor cooling water system by the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    Recolonization rates for the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea ranged from 3.0 to 5.6 metric tons per year in cooling water basins for a nuclear production reactor at the Savannah River Plant. However, a 10-month cleaning cycle for each basin (flow area, 6100 m 2 ) keeps the depth of the silt/clam layer low. With this cleaning frequency, Corbicula are not reaching heat exchangers at sufficient size or in sufficient numbers to restrict flow. Data are presented on the size/age distribution for clams recolonizing cooling water basins between cleanings

  1. The Stability of the Giant Clam Holobiont over Time and during Bleaching Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Pappas, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Experimental bleaching shows that Red Sea giant clams, although exposed to rather hot temperatures naturally, will bleach at 34°C after two weeks, and severely bleached clams likely will not recover. During bleaching, Symbiodinium types shift as well, and shift more drastically than seasonal shifts during the year. This shifting may be an evolved characteristic of the giant clam to aid in surviving major changes in the environment. However, more research is needed to determine if these holobionts are capable of keeping up with the global forecast of warming in reef environments.

  2. Comparison of arsenic levels in fingernails with urinary As species as biomarkers of arsenic exposure in residents living close to a coal-burning power plant in Prievidza District, Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, M.; Pesch, B.; Wittsiepe, R.; Jakubis, P.; Miskovic, P.; Keegan, T.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Ranft, U. [Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    The associations between As levels in fingernails with both As concentrations in urine and environmental samples are reported. The participants (aged 20 - 80 years, mean 66 years) lived in the vicinity of a coal-burning power plant with high As emissions in the Prievidza District, Slovakia. Samples were taken in 1999 and 2000. The As levels in fingernails (n = 524) were measured after washing and digestion with microwave heating by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The spot urine samples (n = 436) were speciated for inorganic As (As{sub inorg}), monomethylarsonic (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) by hydride-cryogenic trap-atomic absorption spectrometry. The geometric mean As level in fingernails was 0.10 {mu}g/g (range, {lt}0.01-2.94 {mu}g/g). There was a clear association between As in fingernails and the distance of the home to the power plant (P {lt}0.001). The association between the distance to the power plant and total urinary As (As{sub sum}) (n = 436, no fish consumption during the last 3 days before sample collection) was less pronounced (P = 0.018). The As levels in fingernails were positively correlated to As in soil (n = 207, r = 0.23, P{lt}0.001) and to As in house dust (n = 209, r = 0.30, P{lt}0.001). The associations between urinary As{sub sum} and As concentrations in soil (n = 159, r = 0.13, P{lt}0.105) and in house dust (n = 162, r = 0.14, P{lt}0.081) were quite similar. It is concluded that As levels in fingernails are a reliable marker of environmental As exposure, and that As concentrations in fingernails reflect the As exposure in a similar manner compared with urinary As-sum and As species.

  3. Risk-based probabilistic approach to assess the impact of false mussel invasions on farmed hard clams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chung-Min; Ju, Yun-Ru; Chio, Chia-Pin; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a risk-based predictive model to assess the impact of false mussel Mytilopsis sallei invasions on hard clam Meretrix lusoria farms in the southwestern region of Taiwan. The actual spread of invasive false mussel was predicted by using analytical models based on advection-diffusion and gravity models. The proportion of hard clam colonized and infestation by false mussel were used to characterize risk estimates. A mortality model was parameterized to assess hard clam mortality risk characterized by false mussel density and infestation intensity. The published data were reanalyzed to parameterize a predictive threshold model described by a cumulative Weibull distribution function that can be used to estimate the exceeding thresholds of proportion of hard clam colonized and infestation. Results indicated that the infestation thresholds were 2-17 ind clam(-1) for adult hard clams, whereas 4 ind clam(-1) for nursery hard clams. The average colonization thresholds were estimated to be 81-89% for cultivated and nursery hard clam farms, respectively. Our results indicated that false mussel density and infestation, which caused 50% hard clam mortality, were estimated to be 2,812 ind m(-2) and 31 ind clam(-1), respectively. This study further indicated that hard clam farms that are close to the coastal area have at least 50% probability for 43% mortality caused by infestation. This study highlighted that a probabilistic risk-based framework characterized by probability distributions and risk curves is an effective representation of scientific assessments for farmed hard clam in response to the nonnative false mussel invasion.

  4. Annual harvests of Corbicula populations prevent clogging of nuclear reactor heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    An annual program for removal of millions of Corbicula from upstream cooling water basins has prevented reclogging of nuclear reactor heat exchanger distributor plates at the Savannah River Plant during the past seven years. There are nine 32-megaliter basins in the three operating reactor areas where some settling of particulates occurs before cooling water is passed through screens in route to heat exchangers. Annual cleanings keep silt/clam substrate levels low and clam sizes small. Data are presented on the size/age distribution for clams recolonizing basins between cleanings

  5. Elimination of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in Clam by Using Zeolite in a Station of Depuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdoura, Morsi; Sellami, Hanen; Khannous, Lamia; Ketata, Najib; Neila, Idriss Ben; Traore, Al Ibrahim; Chekir, Zouhair; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-09-01

      The application of natural zeolite for water and wastewater treatment has been carried out and is still a promising technique in environmental cleaning processes. Natural zeolite can be used to improve the purification process of clams (Ruditapes decussatus). Thus, our study aimed at improving the clam purification system in order to reduce Escherichia coli and eliminate Salmonella in samples artificially contaminated with this bacterium using a natural zeolite to replace the biological filter. The results showed that zeolite used in a depuration system improved the clam purification process. Moreover, natural zeolite exhibited high performance in the adsorption of bacteria and allowed to reduce the Escherichia coli abundance in 24 h, thus ensuring purified clams conformity with the ISO 16649-3 standard. These results indicate the beneficial effects of using zeolite in the adsorption of bacteria and the reduction in the abundance of Escherichia coli and set the Salmonella from marine organisms.

  6. Biodiesel Production from Castor Oil by Using Calcium Oxide Derived from Mud Clam Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic potential of calcium oxide synthesized from mud clam shell as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production was studied. The mud clam shell calcium oxide was characterized using particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and BET gas sorption analyzer. The catalyst performance of mud clam shell calcium oxide was studied in the transesterification of castor oil as biodiesel. Catalyst characterization and transesterification study results of synthesized catalyst proved the efficiency of the natural derived catalyst for biodiesel production. A highest biodiesel yield of 96.7% was obtained at optimal parameters such as 1 : 14 oil-to-methanol molar ratio, 3% w/w catalyst concentration, 60°C reaction temperature, and 2-hour reaction time. Catalyst reusability test shows that the synthesized calcium oxide from mud clam shell is reusable up to 5 times.

  7. Addressing Sustainability of Clam Farming in the Venice Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Melaku Canu

    2011-09-01

    According to the System Approach Framework (SAF, based on previous studies and stakeholder interactions, we developed a model integrating ecological, social, and economic (ESE aspects. We chose the aspects necessary to represent the essential dynamics of major ecological, social, and economic clam farming system components to project the consequences of implementing alternative management policies and to address the ecological and social carrying capacity. Results of the simulations suggest that a properly managed farming system can sustain an acceptable income and support the local community, while reducing negative environmental impacts, social conflicts, and consumer health risks and improving system resilience. The results highlight the importance of an interdisciplinary, participatory, and adaptive approach in planning the management of this important renewable resource.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties in TIG welding of CLAM steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qiang; Lei Yucheng; Chen Xizhang; Ren Wenjie; Ju Xin; Ye Yimin

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten insert gas (TIG) welding on China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel under identical conditions was performed. Microhardness test, tensile test, Charpy impact test and microstructure measurements were carried out on TIG welded joints after post weld heat-treatment. Hardening at WM and softening in HAZ is detected in the TIG weld joint. Microhardness in WM decreased when the temperature of PWHT increased. The ultimate tensile stress of weld metal is higher than that of HAZ and BM. Absorbed energy increased with PWHT temperature rising, until PWHT was done at 760 deg. C/30 min, the specimen ductile fractured in local area. The microstructure of the weld metal for every specimen was found to be tempered martensite with a little of delta ferrite. M 23 C 6 particles are the predominant type of carbides. Oxide precipitate phases appeared in WM, which are the primary crack initiation sites and it is critically important minimize their formation.

  9. Welding techniques development of CLAM steel for Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Chunjing [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China)], E-mail: lcj@ipp.ac.cn; Huang Qunying; Wu Qingsheng; Liu Shaojun [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Lei Yucheng [Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212013 (China); Muroga, Takeo; Nagasaka, Takuya [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Jifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Zhang Jianxun [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shanxi, 710049 (China); Li Jinglong [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shanxi, 710072 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Fabrication techniques for Test Blanket Module (TBM) with CLAM are being under development. Effect of surface preparation on the HIP diffusion bonding joints was studied and good joints with Charpy impact absorbed energy close to that of base metal have been obtained. The mechanical properties test showed that effect of HIP process on the mechanical properties of base metal was little. Uniaxial diffusion bonding experiments were carried out to study the effect of temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties. And preliminary experiments on Electron Beam Welding (EBW), Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welding and Laser Beam Welding (LBW) were performed to find proper welding techniques to assemble the TBM. In addition, the thermal processes assessed with a Gleeble thermal-mechanical machine were carried out as well to assist the fusion welding research.

  10. Sublethal Effects of Tributyltin on the Hard Shell Clam, Mercenaria mercenaria,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    7) Laughlin, R.8., Jr., R.G. Gustafson and Peter Distribution/ Pendoley. 1987. Acute toxicity of tributyltin Avaiabilty Cdes( TBT ) to early life...Dist rSpecial Gustafson. 1987. Chronic embryo larval toxicity I of tributyltin ( TBT ) to the hard shell clam, All Aercenaria mercenaria. In preparation... tributyltin compounds ( TBT ). Post-set clams microalgae, Isochyis galmna Tahiti strain. TBT survived exposures up to 7.5 1i / for 25 days. No corentrations in

  11. Gametogenic development and spawning of the mud clam, Polymesoda erosa (Solander, 1876) at Chorao Island, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Clemente, S.; Ingole, B.S.

    islands of tropical and sub-tropical regions (Meehan 1982). Given the extensive use of the mangrove clam in the diet of many tropical islanders, the potential exists to exploit this clam commercially. An under- standing of the reproductive biology...: baban@nio.org Published in collaboration with the University of Bergen and the Institute of Marine Research, Norway, and the Marine Biological Laboratory, University of Copenhagen, Denmark Marine Biology Research, 2009; 5: 109C1121 (Accepted 12 June 2008...

  12. Soft shell clams Mya arenaria with disseminated neoplasia demonstrate reverse transcriptase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, M.L.; Kim, C.H.; Reno, P.W.

    1998-01-01

    Disseminated neoplasia (DN), a proliferative cell disorder of the circulatory system of bivalves, was first reported in oysters in 1969. Since that time, the disease has been determined to be transmissible through water-borne exposure, but the etiological agent has not been unequivocally identified. In order to determine if a viral agent, possibly a retrovirus, could be the causative agent of DN, transmission experiments were performed, using both a cell-free filtrate and a sucrose gradient-purified preparation of a cell-free filtrate of DN positive materials. Additionally, a PCR-enhanced reverse transcriptase assay was used to determine if reverse transcriptase was present in tissues or hemolymph from DN positive soft shell clams Mya arenaria. DN was transmitted to healthy clams by injection with whole DN cells, but not with cell-free flitrates prepared from either tissues from DN positive clams, or DN cells. The cell-free preparations from DN-positive tissues and hemolymph having high levels of DN cells in circulation exhibited positive reactions in the PCR-enhanced reverse transcriptase assay. Cell-free preparations of hemolymph from clams having low levels of DN (<0.1% of cells abnormal), hemocytes from normal soft shell clams, and normal soft shell clam tissues did not produce a positive reaction in the PCR enhanced reverse transcriptase assay.

  13. REVIEW: Symbiosis between the Giant Clams (Bivalvia: Cardiidae and Zooxanthellae (Dinophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UDHI EKO HERNAWAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant clams are the largest bivalves in the world that maintain a mutual relationship with zooxanthellae. Individual giant clam can harbor heterogeneous zooxanthellae, at least four taxa in genus Symbiodinium. The Symbiodinium lives in the zooxanthellal tubular system, a tube structure arising from one of the diverticular duct of the clam’s stomach. Since the numbers of zooxanthellae is the one of some significant factors contributing to the clams growth and survival, the giant clams need to adjust the number of zooxanthellae for physiological reason with unclear mechanism. The important role of the symbiotic relationship to the clams can be seen on the survival, growth and nutrition of the clams. There are at least two significant factors determining the symbiosis, i.e. water temperature in related with level of light intensities and ammonium-phosphate rate. Some topic is still unclear, i.e. the determination of species in genus Symbiodinium, the mechanism for adjusting the population numbers of the algae and what kind of environmental factors determining the symbiosis. Thereby further research is still needed to clarify those missing.

  14. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate in six species of giant clams and the evolution of dimethylsulfide after death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.W.; Hill, S.D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Zoology; Dacey, J.W.H. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., Woods Hole, MA (United States). Dept. of Biology; Edward, A. [Micronesia College, Pohnpei (Micronesia, Federated States); Hicks, W.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Bioichemistry and Molecular Biology

    2004-05-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) could accumulate in large concentrations in animals living symbiotically with algae. The giant clam family Tridacnidae accumulates DMSP because they have a symbiotic relationship with dinoflagellates (or zooxanthellae). In this study, well preserved clam tissues from the western Pacific Islands were analyzed to provide definitive evidence of DMSP in the tissues. Six of the common species in the Tridacnidae family were examined. The objective was to test the hypothesis that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is released from clam tissues soon after death due to the breakdown of DMSP tissue. In particular, it determined if DMS is responsible for the problem of potent odours and off-taste that have hindered the commercial success of giant clams mariculture. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was used in this study to measure DMSP concentrations in siphonal mantle, byssal mantle, adductor muscle and gill tissues. The formation of DMS by tissues after death was documented. It was suggested that since giant clams associate with dinoflagellates, they could accumulate DMSP to high concentrations which could affect multiple properties and functions. It was concluded that the perishability of giant clam tissues is most likely due to the high concentrations of DMS produced one day post mortem. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  15. A study on the etiological agent and clinico-mycological correlation of fingernail onychomycosis in eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Nilay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis manifests itself in various forms, notably onychodystrophy, onycholysis, subungual hyperkeratosis, or nail-plate discoloration. Not necessarily nail changes mentioned here should always be of fungal origin. Objective: The present study is planned to get an idea about etiological agent and clinical correlation in fingernail onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: Nail-clipping and subungual debris of patients with above mentioned nail changes were subjected to KOH preparation. Culture was done on SDA and SDCCA media. Species identification was done by colony character, pigment production, LCB staining, and some special tests like germ tube test, etc. Results: Out of 85 cases, 44 cases showed the growth of fungus, amounting to 51.76% positivity. Among those 44 cases, the infective fungal agents were predominantly dermatophytes (50%, and the rest were due to yeasts (27.27% and moulds (22.72%. Among the different species, Trichophyton rubrum (29.54% accounted for the majority of dermatophytes; Candida albicans (11.78% was the predominant yeast; and Aspergillus niger (18.18% the commonest mold. No significant association could be established between the different fungal species and various clinical manifestations. Positive results were found more with fungal culture (95.45% than KOH preparation (63.64%. Conclusion: The results show that nail changes are not always a reliable marker for predicting the causative organism, and relying only on the clinical manifestation (i.e., pattern of nail changes in the diagnosis of onychomycosis is often misleading. The present study highlights the need for microbiological confirmation in case of onychomycosis.

  16. Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca chemosynthetic symbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girguis Peter R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to the host and making genome-wide evolutionary analyses possible. Results To examine the genomic evolution of the vesicomyid symbionts, a comparative genomics framework, including the existing genomic data combined with heterologous microarray hybridization results, was used to analyze conserved gene content in four vesicomyid symbiont genomes. These four symbionts were chosen to include a broad phylogenetic sampling of the vesicomyid symbionts and represent distinct chemosynthetic environments: cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Conclusion The results of this comparative genomics analysis emphasize the importance of the symbionts' chemoautotrophic metabolism within their hosts. The fact that these symbionts appear to be metabolically capable autotrophs underscores the extent to which the host depends on them for nutrition and reveals the key to invertebrate colonization of these challenging environments.

  17. Assessment of thermo-mechanical behavior in CLAM steel first wall structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fubin; Yao Man

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► China Low Activation Martensitic steel (CLAM) as FW the structural material. ► The thermo-mechanical behavior of the FW was analyzed under the condition of normal ITER operation combined effect of plasma heat flux and neutron heating. ► The temperature dependence of the material physical properties of CLAM is summarized. - Abstract: The temperature and strain distributions of the mockup with distinct structural material (SS316L or China Low Activation Martensitic steel (CLAM)) in two-dimensional model were calculated and analyzed, based on a high heat flux (HHF) test recently reported with heat flux of 3.2 MW/m 2 . The calculated temperature and strain results in the first wall (FW), in which SS316L is as the structural material, showed good agreement with HHF test. By substituting CLAM steel for SS316L the contrast analysis indicates that the thermo-mechanical property for CLAM steel is better than that of SS316 at the same condition. Furthermore, the thermo-mechanical behavior of the FW was analyzed under the condition of normal ITER operation combined effect of plasma heat flux and neutron heating.

  18. Assessment of thermo-mechanical behavior in CLAM steel first wall structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Fubin, E-mail: liufubin_1216@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, Liaoning (China); Yao Man, E-mail: yaoman@dlut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, Liaoning (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer China Low Activation Martensitic steel (CLAM) as FW the structural material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermo-mechanical behavior of the FW was analyzed under the condition of normal ITER operation combined effect of plasma heat flux and neutron heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature dependence of the material physical properties of CLAM is summarized. - Abstract: The temperature and strain distributions of the mockup with distinct structural material (SS316L or China Low Activation Martensitic steel (CLAM)) in two-dimensional model were calculated and analyzed, based on a high heat flux (HHF) test recently reported with heat flux of 3.2 MW/m{sup 2}. The calculated temperature and strain results in the first wall (FW), in which SS316L is as the structural material, showed good agreement with HHF test. By substituting CLAM steel for SS316L the contrast analysis indicates that the thermo-mechanical property for CLAM steel is better than that of SS316 at the same condition. Furthermore, the thermo-mechanical behavior of the FW was analyzed under the condition of normal ITER operation combined effect of plasma heat flux and neutron heating.

  19. Aquaculture Land-Use Policy: The Case of Clam Farming in Thaibinh Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thu Hang NGO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy-making and enforcement remains centralized in Vietnam. Policies have been formulated with less scientific and public justification, thus being largely bureaucratic and infeasible, and in many cases, they have created plagues for people at the grass-roots levels. This article focuses on the implementation of policies related to intertidal land-use and supports for clam farming in the Thaibinh province as a case study to explore the impacts of policies on clam farming and farmers. During the period of 2011–2013, provincial policies on intertidal land allocation and technical and financial supports had boosted clam farming development in the province to a surprising extent. Rapid expansion of the clam farming area has created significant consequences for the farming sector, as well as farmer’s lives. However, for the same provincial policies, but with different enforcement, different farming outcomes for clam farmers in the three study communes have resulted. Where farmers had more of a voice and choice in bidding for the intertidal areas they preferred, they faced fewer problems. It is, thus, suggested that a more decentralized policy-making and enforcement are needed, in which more scientific assessment and farmer participation are required to not only make government policy more successful in supporting farmers and achieving their expected outcomes, but also to provide farmers with more room to make their own farming decisions from which farming and marketing risks could be mitigated.

  20. Phylogenetic diversity and functional characterization of the Manila clam microbiota: a culture-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Laura; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Raymond, Natalie; Henriques, Isabel; Garabetian, Frédéric; Alves, Artur

    2017-09-01

    According to the hologenome theory, the microbiota contributes to the fitness of the holobiont having an important role in its adaptation, survival, development, health, and evolution. Environmental stress also affects the microbiota and its capability to assist the holobiont in coping with stress factors. Here, we analyzed the diversity of cultivable bacteria associated with Manila clam tissues (mantle, gills, hemolymph) in two non-contaminated sites (Portugal and France) and one metal-contaminated site (Portugal). A total of 240 isolates were obtained. Representative isolates (n = 198) of the overall diversity were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and subjected to functional characterization. Isolates affiliated with Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Proteobacteria (mostly Pseudoalteromonadaceae and Vibrionaceae) were dominant in non-contaminated sites while Actinobacteria (mostly Microbacteriaceae) dominated in the metal-contaminated site. The main factor affecting the microbiota composition was contamination. No significant differences were observed between clam tissues and geographic regions. Several isolates tested positive for antibacterial activity, biofilm formation, protease, and siderophore production. The results show that the Manila clam harbors a diverse microbiota that may contribute to clam protection and overall fitness, as well as to its adaptation to stressful environments. In addition, the Manila clam microbiota is revealed as a promising source of novel probiotics with potential application in aquaculture.

  1. Impediment to Symbiosis Establishment between Giant Clams and Symbiodinium Algae Due to Sterilization of Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Takeo; Yamada, Hideaki; Inoue, Ken; Iwai, Kenji; Hatta, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    To survive the juvenile stage, giant clam juveniles need to establish a symbiotic relationship with the microalgae Symbiodinium occurring in the environment. The percentage of giant clam juveniles succeeding in symbiosis establishment (“symbiosis rate”) is often low, which is problematic for seed producers. We investigated how and why symbiosis rates vary, depending on whether giant clam seeds are continuously reared in UV treated or non treated seawater. Results repeatedly demonstrated that symbiosis rates were lower for UV treated seawater than for non treated seawater. Symbiosis rates were also lower for autoclaved seawater and 0.2-µm filtered seawater than for non treated seawater. The decreased symbiosis rates in various sterilized seawater suggest the possibility that some factors helping symbiosis establishment in natural seawater are weakened owing to sterilization. The possible factors include vitality of giant clam seeds, since additional experiments revealed that survival rates of seeds reared alone without Symbiodinium were lower in sterilized seawater than in non treated seawater. In conclusion, UV treatment of seawater was found to lead to decreased symbiosis rates, which is due possibly to some adverse effects common to the various sterilization techniques and relates to the vitality of the giant clam seeds. PMID:23613802

  2. Immune- and Pollution-mediated DNA Damage in Two Wild Mya arenaria Clam Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Gagné

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In aquatic environments, genotoxicity results from the effects of pollution combined with the inflammatory response triggered by the immune system. Indeed, the production of nitrosylated DNA and proteins are though to arise from the production of peroxinitrite during phagocytosis and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine new DNA biomarkers that differentiate between immune- and pollution-mediated genotoxicity in wild clam populations. Intertidal clam populations were sampled and analyzed for gonadal DNA strand breaks, DNA nitrosylation and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR activity (purine salvage pathway. The clam weight-to-shell-length ratio, the gonado-somatic index (GSI, age status, lipid peroxidation, xenobiotic conjugation activity (glutathione S-transferase (GST and phagocytic activity were examined to shed light on their relationships with the observed genotoxic endpoints. XOR activity and DNA strand breaks were generally elevated at polluted sites and correlated significantly with clam weight-to-shell-length ratios and DNA nitrosylation. DNA nitrosylation was also higher at some sites and correlated significantly with phagocytic activity and with DNA strand breaks. This study showed that DNA strand breaks were associated with both immune- and pollution-mediated effects. This suggests that there is a loss of DNA repair capacity due to the combined effects of aging, pollution and immune response in wild clam populations that are impacted by anthropogenic activity.

  3. Continuous water quality monitoring for the hard clam industry in Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, Derk C; Heuberger, David; Sturmer, Leslie N; Baker, Shirley M

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, Florida's fast-growing hard clam aquaculture industry became eligible for federal agricultural crop insurance through the US Department of Agriculture, but the responsibility for identifying the cause of mortality remained with the grower. Here we describe the continuous water quality monitoring system used to monitor hard clam aquaculture areas in Florida and show examples of the data collected with the system. Systems recording temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, water depth, turbidity and chlorophyll at 30 min intervals were installed at 10 aquaculture lease areas along Florida's Gulf and Atlantic coasts. Six of these systems sent data in real-time to a public website, and all 10 systems provided data for web-accessible archives. The systems documented environmental conditions that could negatively impact clam survival and productivity and identified biologically relevant water quality differences among clam aquaculture areas. Both the real-time and archived data were used widely by clam growers and nursery managers to make management decisions and in filing crop loss insurance claims. While the systems were labor and time intensive, we recommend adjustments that could reduce costs and staff time requirements.

  4. Impediment to symbiosis establishment between giant clams and Symbiodinium algae due to sterilization of seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Takeo; Yamada, Hideaki; Inoue, Ken; Iwai, Kenji; Hatta, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    To survive the juvenile stage, giant clam juveniles need to establish a symbiotic relationship with the microalgae Symbiodinium occurring in the environment. The percentage of giant clam juveniles succeeding in symbiosis establishment ("symbiosis rate") is often low, which is problematic for seed producers. We investigated how and why symbiosis rates vary, depending on whether giant clam seeds are continuously reared in UV treated or non treated seawater. Results repeatedly demonstrated that symbiosis rates were lower for UV treated seawater than for non treated seawater. Symbiosis rates were also lower for autoclaved seawater and 0.2-µm filtered seawater than for non treated seawater. The decreased symbiosis rates in various sterilized seawater suggest the possibility that some factors helping symbiosis establishment in natural seawater are weakened owing to sterilization. The possible factors include vitality of giant clam seeds, since additional experiments revealed that survival rates of seeds reared alone without Symbiodinium were lower in sterilized seawater than in non treated seawater. In conclusion, UV treatment of seawater was found to lead to decreased symbiosis rates, which is due possibly to some adverse effects common to the various sterilization techniques and relates to the vitality of the giant clam seeds.

  5. Gene transcription and biomarker responses in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure to ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milan, Massimo; Pauletto, Marianna; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca; Marin, Maria Gabriella; Matozzo, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are a class of emerging environmental contaminants that continuously enter aquatic environments. Presently, little information is available about the effects of these substances on non-target organisms, such as bivalves. We investigated the effects of ibuprofen (IBU) on the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. Clams were exposed for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days to 0, 100 and 1000 μg IBU/L, and established biomarker responses (haemolymph lysozyme, gill acetylcholinesterase and digestive gland superoxide dismutase activities) as well as digestive gland transcriptome were evaluated. A two-way ANOVA revealed significant effects of both “IBU concentration” and “exposure duration” on biomarker responses. Overall, the enzyme activities were generally lower in IBU-exposed clams than in controls. Although limited knowledge of the mollusc transcriptome makes it difficult to interpret the effects of IBU on clams, the gene transcription analysis using DNA microarrays enabled the identification of the putative molecular mode of action of the IBU. The functional analysis of differentially transcribed genes suggests that IBU can interfere with various signalling pathways in clams, such as arachidonic acid metabolism, apoptosis, peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors, and nuclear factor-kappa B. In addition, several genes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics (e.g., glutathione S-transferase, sulfotransferase, cytochrome P450) were also found to be significantly affected by IBU exposure. In summary, the integrated approach of gene transcription analysis and biomarker responses facilitated the elucidation of the putative mechanisms of action of IBU in non-target species.

  6. Improved recovery of repeat intoxicated drivers using fingernails and blood spots to monitor alcohol and other substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Pamela; Brown, Guida; Hallinan, Patricia; Becerra, Sergio; Lewis, Doug

    2017-01-02

    This study reports the results of a pilot program in Kenosha County that used a combination of direct biomarkers extracted from blood spots and nails to monitor repeat intoxicated drivers for their use of alcohol and drugs with a detection window spanning from 3 weeks to several months. The objectives were to test whether the direct biomarkers phosphatidylethanol (PEth), ethylglucuronide (EtG), and 5 drug metabolites would (1) help assessors obtain a more objective evaluation of repeat offenders during the assessment interview, (2) allow for timely identification of relapses and improve classification of drivers into risk categories, and (3) predict recidivism by identifying offenders most likely to obtain a subsequent operating while intoxicated (OWI) offense within 4 years of enrollment in the program. All (N = 261) repeat offenders were tested using PEth obtained from blood spots and EtG obtained from fingernails; 159 participants were also tested for a 5 drugs of abuse nail panel. Drivers were tested immediately after the assessment interview (baseline) and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after baseline. Based on biomarker results and self-reports of abstinence, offenders were classified into different risk categories and required to follow specific testing timelines based on the program's decision tree. The baseline analysis shows that 60% of drivers tested positive for alcohol biomarkers (EtG, PEth, or both) at the assessment interview, with lower detection rates (0-11%) for the 5 drug metabolites. The comparison of biomarkers results to self-reports of abstinence identified 28% of all offenders as high risk and assigned them to more frequent testing and more intense monitoring. The longitudinal analysis shows that 56% (completers) of participants completed the program successfully and the remaining 44% (noncompliant) terminated prematurely. Two thirds (68%) of the completers were able to reduce or control their drinking and one third relapsed at least one time

  7. Long-Term Surveys Show Invasive Overbite Clams (Potamocorbula amurensis are Spatially Limited in Suisun Marsh, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Baumsteiger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss2art6The overbite clam (Potamocorbula amurensis is a major invasive species in the San Francisco Estuary, California, and has been implicated in the decline of pelagic productivity and native fish species. Little is known of its impact on Suisun Marsh, a large brackish tidal region of the estuary. We looked at the abundance and spatial distribution of clams in the marsh, including examining the influence of water quality, using long-term (1988–2015 otter trawl surveys. Temporal trends indicated that overbite clam abundance has been increasing, but adult clams were spatially restricted to a single large slough (Suisun. Clams were absent from most interior channels, limiting their overall effect on the marsh aquatic ecosystem. Abiotic variables, particularly salinity, proved important predictors of overbite clam abundance, although the variables examined alone could not explain overbite clam distributions. We propose that connectivity, detritus loads, and/or predation pressure may work in conjunction with abiotic variables to cause poor survival rates for recruits in interior marsh sites, keeping the distribution limited. Overall results are encouraging for restoration projects in brackish tidal marshes that need to deal with overbite clams.

  8. Review on the Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Malaysian Clams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Faruk Hossen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current review discusses the levels of six heavy metals in different clam species from 34 sites of Malaysian coasts. The concentrations (µg/g dry weight of these heavy metals ranged around 0.18–8.51, 0.13–17.20, 2.17–7.80, 0.84–36.00, 24.13–368.00, and 177.82–1912.00 for Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Fe, respectively. It was observed that the concentrations of metals slightly depend on different clam species but mostly depend on site locations. According to Malaysian Food Regulation (1985, about 30% and more than 50% sites are safe from Cd and Pb contamination, respectively, and also the clam species from the other populations studied were safe for consumption.

  9. Numerical simulation and experimental study of CLAM T-shapes for fusion applications by hydroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xunzhong; Tao Jie; Liu Hongbing; Li Ming

    2010-01-01

    The integral hydroforming process to prepare CLAM T-shapes for fusion applications was evaluated by means of numerical simulation. The paper firstly investigated the effect of different paths on the protrusion height and distribution of thickness thinning rate of T-shapes. Then, it discussed that the friction coefficient between die and tube blank played an important role in manufacturing high quality T-shapes. Subsequently, the practical hydroforming was performed based on the simulation results with the aid of special lubrication coatings with friction coefficient 0.07. It is obviously indicated that the simulation results agree well with the experimental ones in geometry size and wall thickness distribution. The results indicate that the numerical simulation guides the practical hydroforming of CLAM tube effectively and determines the actual cold forming process parameters rapidly. The sound CLAM T-shapes with proper geometry size and thickness distribution can be obtained by the optimal hydroforming process. (authors)

  10. Occurrence of antibiotics in mussels and clams from various FAO areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Luca Maria; Nobile, Maria; Malandra, Renato; Panseri, Sara; Arioli, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    Filter feeders, like mussels and clams, are suitable bioindicators of environmental pollution. These shellfish, when destined for human consumption, undergo a depuration step that aims to nullify their pathogenic microorganism load and decrease chemical contamination. Nevertheless, the lack of contamination by drugs may not be guaranteed. Antimicrobials are a class of drugs of particular concern due to the increasing phenomenon of antibiotic resistance. Their use in breeding and aquaculture is a major cause of this. We developed a multiclass method for the HPLC-MS/MS analysis of 29 antimicrobials, validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/UE guidelines, and applied it to 50 mussel and 50 clam samples derived from various Food and Agricultural Organisation marine zones. The results obtained, indicate a negligible presence of antibiotics. Just one clam sample showed the presence of oxytetracycline at a concentration slightly higher than the European Union Maximum residue limit set for fish. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Environmental context and trophic trait plasticity in a key species, the tellinid clam Macoma balthica L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnroos, Anna; Nordström, M. C.; Aarnio, K.

    2015-01-01

    Species show varying levels of plasticity regarding morphology, physiology and behaviour in relation to their immediate environment, and several trait characteristics are habitat-dependent. Determining when and how the environmental context changes trait expression is of key importance...... for understanding the role of individual species for ecosystem functioning. The tellinid clam Macoma balthica can vary its feeding behaviour, shifting between deposit- and suspension-feeding. In order to study the context-dependency of this trophic plasticity in adult clams, we conducted an experiment assessing...... food uptake by using stable isotope signatures (delta C-13 and delta N-15). We transplanted individuals between and within two shallow bays differing in exposure (exposed sheltered) and sediment characteristics. Our results show that isotope signatures of clams differed between the two habitats...

  12. Clam bioaccumulation of Alkylphenols and Polyciclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Venice lagoon under different pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademollo, N; Patrolecco, L; Matozzo, V; Marin, M G; Valsecchi, S; Polesello, S

    2017-11-15

    Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAFs) of nonylphenols (NPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Ruditapes philippinarum from the Venice Lagoon (Italy) were determined with the aim to verify whether the routine biomonitoring studies are reliable in contaminated sites. Clams and sediments were collected in field campaigns (October 2003 to June 2004) in three sites of the Venice Lagoon. Results showed that Marghera and Campalto sediments were more contaminated by NPs and PAHs than Poveglia. Different trends were observed in the contamination of clams with the highest BSAFs found at Poveglia. BSAF trend appeared to be inversely related to the contaminant pressure on the sites. These results suggest that clam bioaccumulation is not always representative of the chemical pressure on aquatic biota. The direct correlation between sediment and biota concentrations in contaminated sites can be lost as a function of the site-specific conditions such as sediment toxicity and food availability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Review on the Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Malaysian Clams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Md Faruk; Hamdan, Sinin; Rahman, Md Rezaur

    2015-01-01

    The current review discusses the levels of six heavy metals in different clam species from 34 sites of Malaysian coasts. The concentrations (µg/g dry weight) of these heavy metals ranged around 0.18-8.51, 0.13-17.20, 2.17-7.80, 0.84-36.00, 24.13-368.00, and 177.82-1912.00 for Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Fe, respectively. It was observed that the concentrations of metals slightly depend on different clam species but mostly depend on site locations. According to Malaysian Food Regulation (1985), about 30% and more than 50% sites are safe from Cd and Pb contamination, respectively, and also the clam species from the other populations studied were safe for consumption.

  14. Effect of coastal eutrophication on heavy metal bioaccumulation and oral bioavailability in the razor clam, Sinonovacula constricta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Tengxiu; Li, Shunxing; Chen, Lihui; Zheng, Fengying; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Razor clams are often exposed to coastal eutrophication. • The bioaccumulation of Fe, Ni, V, and As was promoted by eutrophication. • Bionic gastrointestinal tract was used for metal oral bioavailability assessment. • Eutrophication decreased oral bioavailability of Fe and Pb but enhanced for V. • The daily maximum allowable intakes are controlled by eutrophication levels. - Abstract: As traditional seafoods, the razor clams are widely distributed from tropical to temperate areas. Coastal razor clams are often exposed to eutrophication. Heavy metal contamination is critical for seafood safety. However, how eutrophication affects bioaccumulation and oral bioavailability of heavy metals in the razor clams is unknown. After a four-month field experimental cultivation, heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, V, As, and Pb) could be bioaccumulated by the razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) through exposure to metals present in water and sediments or in the food chain, and then transferred to human via consumption of razor clams. Bionic gastrointestinal digestion and monolayer liposome extraction are used for metal oral bioavailability (OBA) assessment. The influence of eutrophication on OBA is decreased for Fe and Pb and increased for V. A significant positive linear correlation was observed between the bioaccumulation factors of Fe, Ni, V, and As in razor clams and the coastal eutrophication. These results may be due to the effect of eutrophication on metal species transformation in coastal seawater and subcellular distribution in razor clams. The maximum allowable daily intakes of razor clams are controlled by eutrophication status and the concentration of affinity-liposome As in razor clams

  15. Effect of coastal eutrophication on heavy metal bioaccumulation and oral bioavailability in the razor clam, Sinonovacula constricta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Tengxiu [College of Chemistry and Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Li, Shunxing, E-mail: lishunxing@mnnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology (China); Chen, Lihui [College of Chemistry and Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Zheng, Fengying; Huang, Xu-Guang [College of Chemistry and Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology (China)

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Razor clams are often exposed to coastal eutrophication. • The bioaccumulation of Fe, Ni, V, and As was promoted by eutrophication. • Bionic gastrointestinal tract was used for metal oral bioavailability assessment. • Eutrophication decreased oral bioavailability of Fe and Pb but enhanced for V. • The daily maximum allowable intakes are controlled by eutrophication levels. - Abstract: As traditional seafoods, the razor clams are widely distributed from tropical to temperate areas. Coastal razor clams are often exposed to eutrophication. Heavy metal contamination is critical for seafood safety. However, how eutrophication affects bioaccumulation and oral bioavailability of heavy metals in the razor clams is unknown. After a four-month field experimental cultivation, heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, V, As, and Pb) could be bioaccumulated by the razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) through exposure to metals present in water and sediments or in the food chain, and then transferred to human via consumption of razor clams. Bionic gastrointestinal digestion and monolayer liposome extraction are used for metal oral bioavailability (OBA) assessment. The influence of eutrophication on OBA is decreased for Fe and Pb and increased for V. A significant positive linear correlation was observed between the bioaccumulation factors of Fe, Ni, V, and As in razor clams and the coastal eutrophication. These results may be due to the effect of eutrophication on metal species transformation in coastal seawater and subcellular distribution in razor clams. The maximum allowable daily intakes of razor clams are controlled by eutrophication status and the concentration of affinity-liposome As in razor clams.

  16. Microstructure and nanoindentation of the CLAM steel with nanocrystalline grains under Xe irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yongqin, E-mail: chang@ustb.edu.cn; Zhang, Jing; Li, Xiaolin; Guo, Qiang; Wan, Farong; Long, Yi

    2014-12-15

    This work presents an early look at irradiation effects on China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel with nanocrystalline grains (NC-CLAM steels) under 500 keV Xe-ion bombardment at room temperature to doses up to 5.3 displacements per atom (dpa). The microstructure in the topmost region of the steel is composed of nanocrystalline grains with an average diameter of 13 nm. As the samples were implanted at low dose, the nanocrystalline grains had martensite lath structure, and many dislocations and high density bubbles were introduced into the NC-CLAM steels. As the irradiation dose up to 5.3 dpa, a tangled dislocation network exists in the lath region, and the size of the bubbles increases. X-ray diffraction results show that the crystal quality decreases after irradiation, although the nanocrystals obviously coarsen. Grain growth under irradiation may be ascribed to the direct impact of the thermal spike on grain boundaries in the NC-CLAM steels. In irradiated samples, a compressive stress exists in the surface layer because of grain growth and irradiation-introduced defects, while the irradiation introduced grain-size coarsening and defects gradients from the surface to matrix result in a tensile stress in the irradiated NC-CLAM steels. Nanoindentation was used to estimate changes in mechanical properties during irradiation, and the results show that the hardness of the NC-CLAM steels increases with increasing irradiation dose, which was ascribed to the competition between the grain boundaries and the irradiation-introduced defects.

  17. An overview of the welding technologies of CLAM steels for fusion application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xizhang, E-mail: kernel.chen@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, ZhenJiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Huang Yuming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, ZhenJiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Madigan, Bruce [Montana Tech. of University of Montana, Butte, MT 59701 (United States); Zhou Jianzhong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, ZhenJiang, Jiangsu 221013 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Welding technologies of China Low Activation Martensitic steel is overviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most welding technologies in use are discussed and suggestions are given. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proper welding technologies could ensure weld properties but more detailed work are necessary. - Abstract: China Low Activation Martensitic steel (CLAMs), a kind of RAFM steel with Chinese intellectual property rights, is considered as the primary structural material for the China-designed ITER test blanket module (TBM). As one of the key issues in the fabrication of the fusion reactor, the welding technologies of CLAMs are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the weldability of CLAMs by different welding methods, and on the properties of as-welded and post-weld heat-treated joints. Recent highlights in research and development for the welding of CLAMs show that proper welding procedure could provide welds with adequate tensile strength but the welds exhibit lower impact toughness compared with the base metal. Post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) and the application of ultrasonic energy during TIG welding could dramatically improve impact toughness. Research also shows that welds in CLAMs have sufficient resistance to swelling under irradiation as well as suitable compatibility with liquid LiPb. The microstructure, mechanical and other physical properties of welds are significantly different from those of the base metal due to the complicated welding thermal cycle. The weld joint is the area most likely to fail one or more of the design requirements within the fusion reactor. Therefore significant additional research is necessary to ensure safe application of welded CLAM steel for fusion reactor construction.

  18. Temporal Analyses of Select Macroinvertebrates in the Upper Mississippi River System, 1992-1995

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauer, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    The annual variability in mayflies (Ephemeroptera), fingernail clams (Sphaeriidae), and midges (chironomidae) in six study areas of the Upper Mississippi River System from 1992 to 1995 was examined...

  19. Glycation in human fingernail clippings using ATR-FTIR spectrometry, a new marker for the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopman, Renaat; Van de Vyver, Thijs; Kishabongo, Antoine Sadiki; Katchunga, Philippe; Van Aken, Elisabeth H; Cikomola, Justin; Monteyne, Tinne; Speeckaert, Marijn M; Delanghe, Joris R

    2017-01-01

    Although HbA1c is a good diagnostic tool for diabetes, the precarity of the health system and the costs limit the use of this biomarker in developing countries. Fingernail clippings contain ±85% of keratins, which are prone to glycation. Nail keratin glycation may reflect the average glycemia over the last months. We explored if attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) can be used as a non-invasive tool for assessing glycation in diabetes. Using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, glycation and deglycation experiments with fructosamine 3-kinase allowed to identify the spectrum that corresponds with keratin glycation in fingernail clippings. Clippings of 105 healthy subjects and 127 diabetics were subjected to the standardized ATR-FTIR spectroscopy method. In vitro glycation resulted in an increased absorption at 1047cm -1 . Following enzymatic deglycation, this peak diminished significantly, proving that the AUC between 970 and 1140cm -1 corresponded with glycated proteins. Within-run CV of the assay was 3%. Storage of nail clippings at 37°C for 2weeks did not significantly change results. In diabetics, glycated nail protein concentrations (median: 1.51μmol/g protein, IQR: 1.37-1.85μmol/g protein) were significantly higher than in the controls (median: 1.19μmol/g protein, IQR: 1.09-1.26μmol/g protein) (p<0.0001). ROC analysis yielded an AUC of 0.92 at a cut-off point of 1.28μmol/g nail (specificity: 82%; sensitivity: 90%). No correlation was observed between the glycated nail protein concentrations and HbA1c. Protein glycation analysis in fingernails with ATR-FTIR spectroscopy could be an alternative affordable technique for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes. As the test does not consume reagents, and the preanalytical phase is extremely robust, the test could be particularly useful in developing countries. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  1. Uptake and release of paralytic shellfish toxins by the clam Ruditapes decussatus exposed to Gymnodinium catenatum and subsequent depuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Maria João; Vale, Carlos; Grilo, Rita Velez; Ferreira, João Gomes

    2012-06-01

    A laboratory experiment was performed with the clam Ruditapes decussatus, fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum and the non-toxic algae Isochrysis galbana (14 days) and subsequently only with I. galbana (15 days). Individual paralytic shellfish toxins were determined by LC-FLD in G. catenatum cells, whole clam tissues, and particulate organic matter (POM) produced by clams. The toxins dcSTX and dcGTX2 + 3 in the algae were less abundant than C1 + 2 and B1, but were predominant in clams during both the exposure and depuration phases. The toxin dcNEO was only detected in clams during a short period, indicating conversion from other compounds. The toxin composition of the POM indicated the export of dcSTX as faeces or pseudo-faeces along the entire experiment (2.5-14 nmol mg(-1)), B1 was present in a short period of the exposure and C1 + 2 and dcGTX2 + 3 absent. A mass balance calculation indicated that approximately 95% of C1 + 2 and 85% of B1 supplied to the clams were converted into other toxins or lost in solution. Conversely, the net gain of 512, 61 and 31 nmol for dcSTX, dcGTX2 + 3 and dcNEO, respectively, suggests the conversion from other assimilated compounds by clams during exposure and depuration phases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Association between sex inequality in animal protein intake and economic development in the Papua New Guinea highlands: The carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of scalp hair and fingernail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezaki, Masahiro; Naito, Yuichi I; Tsutaya, Takumi; Baba, Jun; Tadokoro, Kiyoshi; Odani, Shingo; Morita, Ayako; Natsuhara, Kazumi; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Vengiau, Gwendalyn; Siba, Peter M; Yoneda, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    People in the Papua New Guinea Highlands consume sweet potatoes as their dietary staple; consumption of animal protein is limited. In such societies with marginal protein intake, the intra-household allocation of animal protein in terms of sex or age is of importance. The objective of this study was to investigate how the allocation pattern of protein-rich foods by sex and age is associated with economic development in the Papua New Guinea Highlands. The carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of fingernails, collected in 1995 in two areas (Tari and Port Moresby [the national capital where Tari migrants resided]), and of scalp hair, collected in 2007, 2012, and 2013 in three areas of different degree of economic development (Levani, Tari, and Goroka) were analyzed. Analysis of fingernail samples showed that δ(15)N was lower in rural communities than in the urban migrant community, while a sex difference in δ(15)N (higher in males than in females) was found in the former but not in the latter community. Age was not associated with either δ(15)N or δ(13)C values. The analysis of scalp hair samples showed that δ(15)N values were lowest in Levani, the least developed area. Furthermore, there were statistically significant sex differences in δ(15)N values in Levani but not in Tari and Goroka. Age was not associated with either δ(15)N or δ(13)C values. The sex inequality in animal protein consumption seems to have decreased as the communities in the Papua New Guinea Highlands have experienced economic development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Direct contribution of clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) to benthic fluxes, nitrification, denitrification and nitrous oxide emission in a farmed sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, David T.; Nizzoli, Daniele; Fano, Elisa A.; Viaroli, Pierluigi

    2015-03-01

    The influence of the manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) on N-cycle processes, and oxygen and nutrient fluxes in a farmed sediment was investigated using a multiple core incubation approach and parallel incubations of individual clams. Clam population/biomass density varied ∼8-fold between cores and all sediment-water column solute (O2. N2, N2O, NH4+, NOX and DIN) fluxes and benthic process (N-regeneration, nitrification and denitrification) rates were strongly and significantly correlated with clam density/biomass. Isolated clams exhibited high rates of respiration, N-excretion, nitrification and denitrification of 2050 ± 70, 395 ± 49, 201 ± 42 and 235 ± 40 nmol individual-1 h-1, respectively. The direct contribution of the clams and their associated microbiota to benthic processes was estimated by multiplying the per individual rates by the number of clams in each incubated core. The clams on average directly accounted for 64-133% of total rates of sediment oxygen demand, N-regeneration, nitrification and denitrification, indicating that they regulated processes primarily through their own metabolic activity and that of bacteria that colonise them. Clams and the farmed sediments were significant sources of the greenhouse gas N2O, but this was primarily due to their high nitrification and denitrification rates, rather than high specific N2O yields, as N2O emissions represented farmed sediments had a high denitrification efficiency of 67 ± 10%, but this ecosystem service came at the environmental cost of increased N-regeneration and N2O emission rates. The measured N2O emissions indicate that bivalve aquaculture may be a significant source of N2O. It is therefore recommended that N2O emissions should be included in the impact assessments of current and future bivalve-farming projects.

  4. The clam (Chamelea gallina: evaluation of the effects of solids suspended in seawater on bivalve molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatora Angela Angioni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the effects of solids in suspension in seawater on clams (Chamelea gallina. The aim was to investigate the possible correlation between the widespread deaths of clams in the coastal waters of the central and northern Adriatic in the last five years and increased concentrations of solids in suspension. The research involved conducting 96-hour tests on clams farmed in aquariums containing filtered seawater. The tests were preceded by a 7-day adaptation stage to allow the molluscs to acclimatise. During this period, the clams were fed on unicellular seaweed (Dunaliella tertiolecta. The molluscs were exposed to particles of solids in suspension consisting of pools of silica gel (SiO2 granules of various sizes, similar to those constituting silt, whose presence and suspension in the sea considerably increase after heavy rain and heavy seas. The study established that the number of deaths caused by solids suspended in seawater at the concentrations used in the tests was not statistically significant.

  5. Allometric relationships in the bioconcentration of heavy metals by the edible tropical clam Gafrarium tumidum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedouin, L.; Metian, M.; Teyssie, J.-L.; Fowler, S.W.; Fichez, R.; Warnau, M.

    2006-01-01

    Although metal contamination is a problem of major concern in the lagoon of New Caledonia due to intense mining activities conducted on land, very little is known on the metal ecotoxicology of local marine organisms. The clam Gafrarium tumidum was investigated to assess its usefulness as a bioindicator species of metal contamination in this lagoon. More particularly, allometric relationships between metal accumulation and clam size were determined for five common metals in New Caledonian lagoon waters (Cd, Cr, Co, Zn and Ag) using a highly sensitive radiotracer technique. Experimental results showed that allometric relationships were dependent on the element and on the body compartment considered. As a rule, allometric relationships of metal concentration factor were more pronounced in shell than in soft parts. Significant relationships with clam size for Cd, Cr, Co and Zn followed inverse power functions. In contrast, the degree of Ag bioaccumulation was positively correlated with size. In view of the literature on Ag in bivalves, the latter observation suggests the occurrence of a specific detoxification mechanism (sequestration) that would be more efficient in old individuals. Overall, the experimental results indicate that the use of G. tumidum as a bioindicator in monitoring programmes requires selecting individuals of a specific size range in order to obtain comparable information about ambient metal levels. Since the size effect is greatest among smaller individuals, it is recommended to select clams with a shell width greater than 35 mm

  6. Allozyme electrophoresis as a tool for distinguishing different zooxanthellae symbiotic with giant clams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, B. K.; Monje, V.; Silvestre, V.; Sison, M.; Belda-Baillie, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    The taxonomy of zooxanthellae in marine invertebrate symbioses is not well understood owing mainly to their lack of reliable morphological differences. Nevertheless, previous work using protein and DNA electrophoreses has set the stage for advancing our taxonomic understanding of cnidarian zooxanthellae. Here we present the use of allozymes as genetic markers for distinguishing algal isolates from tridacnid hosts. Zooxanthellae from seven Tridacna and Hippopus species were isolated and maintained in axenic clonal cultures over many generations. Of 16 enzyme systems, α- and β-esterase (EST), esterase-F (EST-F), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) were found suitable polymorphic markers of genetic differences among clonal cultures. Of 39 clonal isolates, 97% were found to be genetically distinguishable. This high extent of genetic variation in zooxanthellae within and between clam species was unexpected, and is difficult to explain based solely on the general notion of asexual reproduction in symbiotic zooxanthellae. Our results are also consistent with the occurrence of sexual reproduction in clam zooxanthellae. The close genetic similarity of the symbionts of Tridacna gigas, the largest and fastest-growing clam species, and the difficulty of initiating their clonal cultures in the given nutrient medium, compared with the symbionts of other clam species, are further indicative of possibly distinct algal symbionts in T. gigas. These findings are discussed in light of current taxonomic understanding of these organisms.

  7. CLAM - CoLlAborative eMbedded networks for submarine surveillance: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Casari, Paolo; Petrioli, Chiara; Grythe, Knut; Husoy, Thor; Zorzi, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the CLAM project, which aims at developing a collaborative embedded monitoring and control platform for submarine surveillance by combining cutting edge acoustic vector sensor technology and 1D, 2D, 3D sensor arrays, underwater wireless sensor networks protocol

  8. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots induce oxidative stress and behavioral impairments in the marine clam Scrobicularia plana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Zalouk-Vergnoux, Aurore; Poirier, Laurence; Lopes, Christelle; Risso-de-Faverney, Christine; Guibbolini, Marielle; Gilliland, Douglas; Perrein-Ettajani, Hanane; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots have a number of current applications in electronics and solar cells and significant future potential in medicine. The aim of the present study was to examine the toxic effects of CdS quantum dots on the marine clam Scrobicularia plana exposed for 14 d to these nanomaterials (10 µg Cd L(-1) ) in natural seawater and to compare them with soluble Cd. Measurement of labile Cd released from CdS quantum dots showed that 52% of CdS quantum dots remained in the nanoparticulate form. Clams accumulated the same levels of Cd regardless of the form in which it was delivered (soluble Cd vs CdS quantum dots). However, significant changes in biochemical responses were observed in clams exposed to CdS quantum dots compared with soluble Cd. Increased activities of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were significantly higher in clams exposed in seawater to Cd as the nanoparticulate versus the soluble form, suggesting a specific nano effect. The behavior of S. plana in sediment showed impairments of foot movements only in the case of exposure to CdS quantum dots. The results show that oxidative stress and behavior biomarkers are sensitive predictors of CdS quantum dots toxicity in S. plana. Such responses, appearing well before changes might occur at the population level, demonstrate the usefulness of this model species and type of biomarker in the assessment of nanoparticle contamination in estuarine ecosystems. © 2015 SETAC.

  9. Effect of mining activities on the clam fisheries and bottom fauna of Goa estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.

    Comparison of two clam beds and associated benthic fauna, in Mandovi and Cumbarjua canal estuarine system of Goa, India, severely affected by massive inputs of mining rejects, revealed that, in less than 10 years (1972-73 to 1982-83), high biotic...

  10. Allometric relationships in the bioconcentration of heavy metals by the edible tropical clam Gafrarium tumidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedouin, L. [International Atomic Energy Agency-Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC-98000 Monaco (Monaco); Laboratoire de Biologie et d' Environnement Marins, FRE 2727, La Rochelle University, 22 Av. Michel Crepeau, F-17000 La Rochelle (France); Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Centre d' Oceanologie de Marseille, Station Marine d' Endoume, Rue de la Batterie des Lions, F-13007 Marseille (France); Metian, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency-Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC-98000 Monaco (Monaco); Teyssie, J.-L. [International Atomic Energy Agency-Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC-98000 Monaco (Monaco); Fowler, S.W. [International Atomic Energy Agency-Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC-98000 Monaco (Monaco); Fichez, R. [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Centre d' Oceanologie de Marseille, Station Marine d' Endoume, Rue de la Batterie des Lions, F-13007 Marseille (France); Warnau, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency-Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC-98000 Monaco (Monaco)]. E-mail: m.warnau@iaea.org

    2006-07-31

    Although metal contamination is a problem of major concern in the lagoon of New Caledonia due to intense mining activities conducted on land, very little is known on the metal ecotoxicology of local marine organisms. The clam Gafrarium tumidum was investigated to assess its usefulness as a bioindicator species of metal contamination in this lagoon. More particularly, allometric relationships between metal accumulation and clam size were determined for five common metals in New Caledonian lagoon waters (Cd, Cr, Co, Zn and Ag) using a highly sensitive radiotracer technique. Experimental results showed that allometric relationships were dependent on the element and on the body compartment considered. As a rule, allometric relationships of metal concentration factor were more pronounced in shell than in soft parts. Significant relationships with clam size for Cd, Cr, Co and Zn followed inverse power functions. In contrast, the degree of Ag bioaccumulation was positively correlated with size. In view of the literature on Ag in bivalves, the latter observation suggests the occurrence of a specific detoxification mechanism (sequestration) that would be more efficient in old individuals. Overall, the experimental results indicate that the use of G. tumidum as a bioindicator in monitoring programmes requires selecting individuals of a specific size range in order to obtain comparable information about ambient metal levels. Since the size effect is greatest among smaller individuals, it is recommended to select clams with a shell width greater than 35 mm.

  11. Preliminary Study on Hot Isostatic Pressing Diffusion Bonding for CLAM Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chunjing Li; Qunying Huang; Yican Wu

    2006-01-01

    China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel is being developed in ASIPP (Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) since three years ago. CLAM is selected as the major candidate structure materials for the FDS series design of fusion reactors and for China liquid metal LiPb Test Blanket Module (TBM) for ITER i.e. DFLL-TBM, which are being carried out in ASIPP. Since the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding technique is one of the main candidate bonding techniques for manufacturing of the first wall of a fusion reactor, research of the HIP technique on CLAM/CLAM is greatly needed. Preliminary HIP diffusion bonding experiments on CLAM steel have been performed. A few machining approaches such as dry-milling, turnery and grounding etc. were used to prepare the sample surfaces and then they were degreased with a mixture of alcohol, ether and acetone in an ultrasonic bath. The samples were joined by HIP diffusion bonding with the compression pressure of 150 MPa and the holding time of 2 ∼ 3 hours under different temperatures between 950 deg. and 1100 deg.. Different seal techniques of the capsules were studied as well. Then appropriate post heat treatment was done. Tests on mechanical properties of the joints such as tensile strength and impact toughness have been performed. The preliminary results show that the tensile properties are roughly the same as those of the base material. The absorbed energy of the joints at present is a little low and further research is needed to increase it. Microstructure of the joints was studied by optical microscope, SEM and TEM. Compositions of the defects on the joining line were analyzed by EDS. Through analysis of the results, optimized parameters for HIP are given. (author)

  12. Gene transcription and biomarker responses in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure to ibuprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milan, Massimo; Pauletto, Marianna; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca [Department of Comparative Biomedicine and Food Science, University of Padova, Viale dell' Universita 16, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Marin, Maria Gabriella [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Via Ugo Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); Matozzo, Valerio, E-mail: matozzo@bio.unipd.it [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Via Ugo Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    Pharmaceuticals are a class of emerging environmental contaminants that continuously enter aquatic environments. Presently, little information is available about the effects of these substances on non-target organisms, such as bivalves. We investigated the effects of ibuprofen (IBU) on the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. Clams were exposed for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days to 0, 100 and 1000 {mu}g IBU/L, and established biomarker responses (haemolymph lysozyme, gill acetylcholinesterase and digestive gland superoxide dismutase activities) as well as digestive gland transcriptome were evaluated. A two-way ANOVA revealed significant effects of both 'IBU concentration' and 'exposure duration' on biomarker responses. Overall, the enzyme activities were generally lower in IBU-exposed clams than in controls. Although limited knowledge of the mollusc transcriptome makes it difficult to interpret the effects of IBU on clams, the gene transcription analysis using DNA microarrays enabled the identification of the putative molecular mode of action of the IBU. The functional analysis of differentially transcribed genes suggests that IBU can interfere with various signalling pathways in clams, such as arachidonic acid metabolism, apoptosis, peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors, and nuclear factor-kappa B. In addition, several genes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics (e.g., glutathione S-transferase, sulfotransferase, cytochrome P450) were also found to be significantly affected by IBU exposure. In summary, the integrated approach of gene transcription analysis and biomarker responses facilitated the elucidation of the putative mechanisms of action of IBU in non-target species.

  13. New polymorphic microsatellite markers derived from hemocyte cDNA library of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum challenged by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Park, Kyung-Il; Cho, Moonjae; Youn, Seok-Hyun; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2017-03-01

    Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important benthic animals in the coastal north Pacific region, where clam populations have been mixed genetically through trade and aquaculture activities. Accordingly, identification of the genetically different clam populations has become one of the most important issues to manage interbreeding of the local and introduced clam populations. To identify genetically different populations of clam populations, we developed 11 expressed sequence tag (EST)-microsatellite loci (i.e., simple sequence repeat, SSR) from 1,128 clam hemocyte cDNA clones challenged by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni. Genotype analysis using the markers developed in this study demonstrated that clams from a tidal flat on the west coast contained 6 to 19 alleles per locus, and a population from Jeju Island had 4 to 20 alleles per locus. The expected heterozygosity of the 2 clam populations ranged from 0.472 to 0.919 for clams from the west coast, and 0.494 to 0.919 for clams from Jeju Island, respectively. Among the 11 loci discovered in this study, 7 loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. The 5 loci developed in this study also successfully amplified the SSRs of R. variegatus, a clam species taxonomically very close to R. philippinarum, from Hong Kong and Jeju Island. We believe that the 11 novel polymorphic SSR developed in this study can be utilized successfully in Manila clam genetic diversity analysis, as well as in genetic discrimination of different clam populations.

  14. Bioaccumulation of hydrocarbons derived from terrestrial and anthropogenic sources in the Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, in San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Wilfred E.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rapp, John B.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment was made in Suisun Bay, California, of the distributions of hydrocarbons in estuarine bed and suspended sediments and in the recently introduced asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis. Sediments and clams were contaminated with hydrocarbons derived from petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Distributions of alkanes and of hopane and sterane biomarkers in sediments and clams were similar, indicating that petroleum hydrocarbons associated with sediments are bioavailable to Potamocorbula amurensis. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments and clams were derived mainly from combustion sources. Potamocorbula amurensis is therefore a useful bioindicator of hydrocarbon contamination, and may be used as a biomonitor of hydrocarbon pollution in San Francisco Bay.

  15. Impact of High Hydrostatic Pressure on the Shelling Efficacy, Physicochemical Properties, and Microstructure of Fresh Razor Clam (Sinonovacula constricta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Xiao-Ting; Cui, Yan; Lin, Xu-Dong; Yu, Jing-Feng; Liao, Xiao-Jun; Ling, Jian-Gang; Shang, Hai-Tao

    2018-02-01

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments (200, 300, and 400 MPa for 1, 3, 5 and 10 min) on the shelling efficacy (the rate of shelling, the rate of integrity and yield of razor clam meat) and the physicochemical (drip loss, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, lipid oxidation, Ca 2+ -ATPase activity, myofibrillar protein content), microbiological (total viable counts) and microstructural properties of fresh razor clam (Sinonovacula constricta) were investigated. HHP treatments significantly (P hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is now well known as a nonthermal processing technology and becoming increasingly acknowledged. However, it has not been widely applied to shell seafood due to its uncertain influence on its quality and shelling property. This study could provide valuable information regarding the shelling efficacy, physicochemical properties, and microstructure of razor clam treated by HHP. And it demonstrated that HHP showed a positive impact on quality of razor clam treated by HHP. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Size-related and seasonal diet of the manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum), as determined using dual stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Yeon Jee; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2013-12-01

    Stable isotope ratios of lab-cultured Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) and those from natural tidal flats of Seonjae Island in Korea were investigated in terms of their dietary uptake patterns in relation to body size and season. The smallest size group of wild Manila clams revealed significantly depleted δ15N based on the results of a one-way ANOVA. There was significant seasonal change in the proportional contribution of food sources, especially in winter, from benthic particulate organic matter (BPOM) to pelagic particulate organic matter (POM). Laboratory-cultured Manila clams showed growth rates of 6.02-37.75 mm/yr, and smaller-sized clams did not fully utilise the microalgal diets that were provided constantly. Instead, they derived most of their energy from detritus or dead microalgae that had settled on the bottom. Bigger clams, however, exhibited well-balanced source contributions, converting the microalgal diets into biomass. This demonstrates intra-specific differences in the growth rates and preferred diet uptakes of Manila clams, even under similar environmental conditions.

  17. Effects of clam size, food type, sediment characteristic, and seawater carbonate chemistry on grazing capacity of Venus clam Cyclina sinensis (Gmelin, 1791)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Zhou, Kai; Liu, Xin; Lai, Qifang; Zhang, Dong; Shi, Liyan

    2017-09-01

    Aquaculture in saline-alkaline water has a major problem: microalgal blooming causes the pH of water to increase dramatically, thereby causing damage to the reared organisms. To solve this problem, we set out to find a candidate filter-feeding bivalve species suitable for saline-alkaline water to graze on microalgae and to control the pH. In the current study, we investigated the effect of carbonate alkalinity (CA, 2.5, 10.0, and 20.0 meq/L) and pH (8.0, 8.5, and 9.0) on the grazing capacity (GC) of the clam Cyclina sinensis. Additionally, the effect of clam size (small, medium, and large) and microalgae species ( Nannochloropsis oculata, Chaetoceros müelleri, and Isochrysis galbana), and the effect of bottom sediment characteristic (mud, sandy mud, and muddy sand) and thickness (3 and 6 cm) were analyzed as well. The results show that the GC on I. galbana was the highest and small size had the maximum GC/ W ( W: wet weight including body and shells). No significant differences were observed between sediment type and thickness. Regarding CA and pH, a significant decrease in GC by the pH or by their interaction was found. The GC of C. sinensis was not greatly reduced in the treatments of pH≤8.5 and CA≤20.0, and also not affected by bottom sediment type, indicating that this clam is capable to manage microalgal concentrations and might be a candidate species for pH reduction in saline-alkaline water ponds.

  18. Creep deformation and rupture behavior of CLAM steel at 823 K and 873 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Boyu; Huang, Bo; Li, Chunjing; Liu, Shaojun; Xu, Gang; Zhao, Yanyun; Huang, Qunying

    2014-12-01

    China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel is selected as the candidate structural material in Fusion Design Study (FDS) series fusion reactor conceptual designs. The creep property of CLAM steel has been studied in this paper. Creep tests have been carried out at 823 K and 873 K over a stress range of 150-230 MPa. The creep curves showed three creep regimes, primary creep, steady-state creep and tertiary creep. The relationship between minimum creep rate (ε˙min) and the applied stress (σ) could be described by Norton power law, and the stress exponent n was decreased with the increase of the creep temperature. The creep mechanism was analyzed with the fractographes of the rupture specimens which were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The coarsening of precipitates observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicated the microstructural degradation after creep test.

  19. Heavy metal concentrations in the razor clams (Solen spp.) from Muara Tebas, Sarawak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devagi Kanakaraju; Connie Jios; Shabdin Mohd Long

    2008-01-01

    The razor clams (Solen spp) or locally known as ambal in Sarawak collected from Muara Tebas were studied for their heavy metals contents in tissues and shells. Sediment samples were also tested for their metal contents. Concentrations of Pb, Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd and Mn were determined by using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). Tissues of razor clams showed highest concentrations of Fe and Zn, while shells accumulated highest concentrations of Pb and Mn. The lowest metal concentrations found were Cu and Cd. In general, the levels of metals in ambal were within the permissible limit recommended by international standard, the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). However, the study revealed that the sediments at Muara Tebas fall under the category of slightly polluted (for Pb) when compared to the guidelines suggested by United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA). (author)

  20. Creep deformation and rupture behavior of CLAM steel at 823 K and 873 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Boyu; Huang, Bo; Li, Chunjing; Liu, Shaojun; Xu, Gang; Zhao, Yanyun; Huang, Qunying

    2014-01-01

    China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel is selected as the candidate structural material in Fusion Design Study (FDS) series fusion reactor conceptual designs. The creep property of CLAM steel has been studied in this paper. Creep tests have been carried out at 823 K and 873 K over a stress range of 150–230 MPa. The creep curves showed three creep regimes, primary creep, steady-state creep and tertiary creep. The relationship between minimum creep rate (ε-dot min ) and the applied stress (σ) could be described by Norton power law, and the stress exponent n was decreased with the increase of the creep temperature. The creep mechanism was analyzed with the fractographes of the rupture specimens which were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The coarsening of precipitates observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicated the microstructural degradation after creep test

  1. Acute and chronic exposure in mussel (aulacomya ater) and clam (semelle solida) with Cs137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringas, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two of the most common Peruvian benthonic molluscs, have been shown to be effective concentrators of Cesium-137 and have also proven useful as indicators of that radionuclide in their natural environment, according with results in this paper. However the clam is a better indicator, when determining environmental acute release of Cesium-137 due to reactor accidents, nuclear tests, accidents in nuclear ships, submarines and radioactive material transport, and the mussel for a continuous monitoring of environmental radio contaminant levels. (author). 11 refs

  2. Effect of weld spacing on microstructure and mechanical properties of CLAM electron beam welding joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yutao; Huang, Bo, E-mail: aufa0007@163.com; Zhang, Junyu; Zhang, Baoren; Liu, Shaojun; Huang, Qunying

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The welded joints of CLAM steel with different weld spacings have been fabricated with electron beam welding, and a simplified model of CLAM sheet was proposed. • The microstructure and mechanical properties such as microhardness, impact and tensile were investigated at different welding spacing for both conditions of as-welded and post weld heat treatment (PWHT). • The effect of the welding thermal cycle was significantly when the weld spacings were smaller than 4 mm. • When the weld spacing was small enough, the original microstructures would be fragmented with the high heat input. - Abstract: China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel has been chosen as the primary structural material in the designs of dual function lithium-lead (DFLL) blanket for fusion reactors, China helium cooled ceramic breeder (HCCB) test blanket module (TBM) for ITER and China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR) blanket. The cooling components of the blankets are designed with high density cooling channels (HDCCs) to remove the high nuclear thermal effectively. Hence, the welding spacing among the channels are small. In this paper, the welded joints of CLAM steel with different weld spacings have been fabricated with electron beam welding (EBW). The weld spacing was designed to be 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm. The microstructure and mechanical properties such as microhardness, impact and tensile were investigated at different welding spacing for both conditions of as-welded and post weld heat treatment (PWHT). The PWHT is tempering at 740 °C for 120 min. The results showed that the grain size in the heat affected zone (HAZ) increased with the increasing weld spacing, and the joint with small weld spacing had a better performance after PWHT. This work would give useful guidance to improve the preparation of the cooling components of blanket.

  3. Ecotoxicological Effects of Chemical Contaminants Adsorbed to Microplastics in the Clam Scrobicularia plana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit O'Donovan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although microplastics (MPs are distributed globally in the marine environment, a great deal of unknowns relating to their ecotoxicological effects on the marine biota remains. Due to their lipophilic nature, microplastics have the potential to adsorb persistent organic pollutants present in contaminated regions, which may increase their detrimental impact once assimilated by organisms. This study investigates the ecotoxicological effects of exposure to low-density polyethylene (LDPE microplastics (11–13 μm, with and without adsorbed contaminants (benzo[a]pyrene—BaP and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid—PFOS, in the peppery furrow shell clam, Scrobicularia plana. Environmentally relevant concentrations of contaminants (BaP−16.87 ± 0.22 μg g−1 and PFOS−70.22 ± 12.41 μg g−1 were adsorbed to microplastics to evaluate the potential role of plastic particles as a source of chemical contamination once ingested. S. plana were exposed to microplastics, at a concentration of 1 mg L−1, in a water-sediment exposure setup for 14 days. Clams were sampled at the beginning of the experiment (day 0 and after 3, 7, and 14 days. BaP accumulation, in whole clam tissues, was analyzed. A multi-biomarker assessment was conducted in the gills, digestive gland, and haemolymph of clams to clarify the effects of exposure. This included the quantification of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferases enzyme activities, oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation levels, genotoxicity (single and double strand DNA breaks, and neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity. Results suggest a potential mechanical injury of gills caused by ingestion of microplastics that may also affect the analyzed biomarkers. The digestive gland seems less affected by mechanical damage caused by virgin microplastic exposure, with the MPs-adsorbed BaP and PFOS exerting a negative influence over the assessed

  4. Microbiota and environmental stress: how pollution affects microbial communities in Manila clams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, M; Carraro, L; Fariselli, P; Martino, M E; Cavalieri, D; Vitali, F; Boffo, L; Patarnello, T; Bargelloni, L; Cardazzo, B

    2018-01-01

    Given the crucial role of microbiota in host development, health, and environmental interactions, genomic analyses focusing on host-microbiota interactions should certainly be considered in the investigation of the adaptive mechanisms to environmental stress. Recently, several studies suggested that microbiota associated to digestive tract is a key, although still not fully understood, player that must be considered to assess the toxicity of environmental contaminants. Bacteria-dependent metabolism of xenobiotics may indeed modulate the host toxicity. Conversely, environmental variables (including pollution) may alter the microbial community and/or its metabolic activity leading to host physiological alterations that may contribute to their toxicity. Here, 16s rRNA gene amplicon sequencing has been applied to characterize the hepatopancreas microbiota composition of the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. The animals were collected in the Venice lagoon area, which is subject to different anthropogenic pressures, mainly represented by the industrial activities of Porto Marghera (PM). Seasonal and geographic differences in clam microbiotas were explored and linked to host response to chemical stress identified in a previous study at the transcriptome level, establishing potential interactions among hosts, microbes, and environmental parameters. The obtained results showed the recurrent presence of putatively detoxifying bacterial taxa in PM clams during winter and over-representation of several metabolic pathways involved in xenobiotic degradation, which suggested the potential for host-microbial synergistic detoxifying actions. Strong interaction between seasonal and chemically-induced responses was also observed, which partially obscured such potentially synergistic actions. Seasonal variables and exposure to toxicants were therefore shown to interact and substantially affect clam microbiota, which appeared to mirror host response to environmental variation. It

  5. Composting clam processing wastes in a laboratory- and pilot-scale in-vessel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhu; Lane, Robert; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-01-01

    Waste materials from the clam processing industry (offal, shells) have several special characteristics such as a high salinity level, a high nitrogen content, and a low C/N ratio. The traditional disposal of clam waste through landfilling is facing the challenges of limited land available, increasing tipping fees, and strict environmental and regulatory scrutiny. The aim of this work is to investigate the performance of in-vessel composting as an alternative for landfill application of these materials. Experiments were performed in both laboratory-scale (5L) and pilot-scale (120L) reactors, with woodchips as the bulking agent. In the laboratory-scale composting test, the clam waste and woodchips were mixed in ratios from 1:0.5 to 1:3 (w/w, wet weight). The high ratios resulted in a better temperature performance, a higher electrical conductivity, and a higher ash content than the low-ratio composting. The C/N ratio of the composts was in the range of 9:1-18:1. In the pilot-scale composting test, a 1:1 ratio of clam waste to woodchips was used. The temperature profile during the composting process met the US Environmental Protection Agency sanitary requirement. The final cured compost had a C/N ratio of 14.6, with an ash content of 167.0+/-14.1g/kg dry matter. In addition to the major nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and sodium), the compost also contained trace amounts of zinc, manganese, copper, and boron, indicating that the material can be used as a good resource for plant nutrients.

  6. Clam-Gallasův palác - emblematická architektura?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Lubomír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, - (2009), s. 91-98 ISSN 0231-7443. [Život pražských paláců. Praha, 09.10.2007-11.10.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Clam-Gallas Palace * Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach * architecture * emblem s * imprints Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  7. Intersex related gene expression profiles in clams Scrobicularia plana: Molecular markers and environmental application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocan, Corina M.; Cubero-Leon, Elena; Langston, William J.; Pope, Nick; Cornelius, Keith; Hill, E.M.; Alvarez-Munoz, Diana; Indiveri, Paolo; Lerebours, Adelaide; Minier, Christophe; Rotchell, Jeanette M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Expression of intersex-related genes was analysed in clam gonads sampled from the Channel. • Genes were differentially expressed at sites with varying levels of intersex and contaminants. • Correlations between gene expressions, key contaminants and sampling sites were identified. • No single gene expression studied correlated with intersex incidence. - Abstract: Intersex, the appearance of female characteristics in male gonads, has been identified in several aquatic species. It is a widespread phenomenon in populations of the bivalve, Scrobicularia plana, from the southwest coast of the U.K. Genes previously identified as differentially expressed (ferritin, testicular haploid expressed gene, THEG, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA; receptor activated protein kinase C, RACK; cytochrome B, CYB; and cytochrome c oxidase 1, COX1) in intersex clams relative to normal male clams, were selected for characterisation and an environmental survey of the Channel region. Transcripts were significantly differentially expressed at sites with varying intersex incidence and contaminant burdens. Significant correlations between specific gene expressions, key contaminants and sampling locations have been identified, though no single gene was associated with intersex incidence. The results highlight the difficulty in understanding the intersex phenomenon in molluscs where there is still a lack of knowledge on the control of normal reproduction

  8. Fracture toughness of China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kunfeng [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Liu, Shaojun, E-mail: shaojun.liu@fds.org.cn [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huang, Qunying [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Xu, Gang; Jiang, Siben [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • The fracture toughness of CLAM steel at room temperature is 417.9 kJ/m{sup 2} measured by unloading compliance method according to the ASTM E1820-11. • The fracture toughness of CLAM steel at room temperature can be calculated on the basis of the fractal dimensions measured under plane strain conditions. The calculated result and relative error for this experiment are 454.6 kJ/m{sup 2} and 8.78% respectively. • The calculation method could be used to estimate the fracture toughness of materials with analysis of the fracture surface. - Abstract: The fracture toughness (J{sub IC}) of China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel was tested at room temperature through the compact tension specimen, the result is 417.9 kJ/m{sup 2}, which is similar to the JLF-1 at same experimental conditions. The microstructural observation of the fracture surface shows that the fracture mode is a typical ductile fracture. Meanwhile, the fracture toughness is also calculated on the basis of the fractal dimension and the calculated result is 454.6 kJ/m{sup 2}, which is consistent well with the experimental result. This method could be used to estimate the fracture toughness of materials by analyzing of the fracture surface.

  9. Effect of Tantalum content on the low cycle fatigue properties of CLAM steel at 823 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Xiangwei [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Liu, Shaojun, E-mail: shaojun.liu@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Zhao, Yanyun; Wang, Kun [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The fatigue life initially decreased and then increased as the Ta content was increased from 0.027 wt% to 0.18 wt%. • The softening rate had declined with Ta content increased and the reduced softening rate was attributed to the increased number of Ta-rich MX particles. • The grain size and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} were closely associated with the Ta content. • The crack distribution was quite sensitive to the Ta content. - Abstract: The effect of tantalum (Ta) content on the low cycle fatigue (LCF) properties of CLAM steel at 823 K was investigated in this paper. Low cycle fatigue tests were carried out on four ingots of CLAM steel with Ta contents of 0.027 wt%, 0.078 wt%, 0.15 wt% and 0.18 wt%, respectively. The results showed that the fatigue life and softening behavior of CLAM steel were influenced by Ta content. The fatigue life initially decreased and then increased as the Ta content was increased from 0.027 wt% to 0.18 wt%. The softening rate had declined with Ta content increased and the reduced softening rate was attributed to the increased number of Ta-rich MX particles.

  10. Changes in fatty acid composition in the giant clam Tridacna maxima in response to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubousquet, Vaimiti; Gros, Emmanuelle; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Viguier, Bruno; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Bertrand, Cédric; Lecellier, Gaël J

    2016-10-15

    Temperature can modify membrane fluidity and thus affects cellular functions and physiological activities. This study examines lipid remodelling in the marine symbiotic organism, Tridacna maxima, during a time series of induced thermal stress, with an emphasis on the morphology of their symbiont Symbiodinium First, we show that the French Polynesian giant clams harbour an important proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA), which reflects their tropical location. Second, in contrast to most marine organisms, the total lipid content in giant clams remained constant under stress, though some changes in their composition were shown. Third, the stress-induced changes in fatty acid (FA) diversity were accompanied by an upregulation of genes involved in lipids and ROS pathways. Finally, our microscopic analysis revealed that for the giant clam's symbiont, Symbiodinium, thermal stress led to two sequential cell death processes. Our data suggests that the degradation of Symbiodinium cells could provide an additional source of energy to T maxima in response to heat stress. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Triangular gold nanoparticles modify shell characteristics and increase antioxidant enzyme activities in the clam Ruditapes decussatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhafidh, Khazri; Badreddine, Sellami; Mezni, Amine; Mouhamed, Dellali; Wiem, Saidani; Imen, Bouzidi; David, Sheehan; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Hamouda, Beyrem

    2018-04-19

    Nanoparticles may cause adverse environmental effects but there is limited information on their interactions with marine organisms. Our aim was to examine the effects of triangular gold nanoparticles (Tr-Au NPs) on the clam, Ruditapes decussatus. Clams were exposed to Tr-Au1 = 5 µg/L and Tr-Au2 = 10 µg/L for 2 and 7 days. Effects on shell structure were investigated. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione transferase (GST) activities, protein carbonyl levels and malondialdehyde content were used to assess biochemical status. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) showed that Tr-Au NPs modified shell structure and morphology. Tr-Au NPs size increased forming aggregate particles. Tr-Au NPs increased SOD, CAT and GST activities in gill and digestive gland in a concentration- and time-dependent manner indicating defence against oxidative stress. Enhanced lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl levels confirmed oxidative stress. Tr-Au NPs cause oxidative stress and affect shell structure of clams. These findings may have relevance to other marine species.

  12. Assessment of relationship between rainfall and Escherichia coli in clams (Chamelea gallina using the Bayes Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Ciccarelli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of bivalve shellfish harvested from water contaminated with sewage pollution presents a risk of human infections and targeting control measures require a good understanding of environmental factors influencing the transport and the fate of faecal contaminants within the hydrological catchments. Although there has been extensive development of regression models, the point of this paper, focused on the relationship between rainfall events and concentrations of Escherichia coli monitored in clams, was the use of a Bayesian approach, by the Bayes Factor. The study was conducted on clams harvested from the south coast of Marche Region (Italy, a coastal area impacted by continuous treated effluents, intermittent rainfalldependent untreated sewage spillage - as a consequence of stormwater overflowing - and rivers with an ephemeral flow regime. The work compared the different interpretation criteria of Bayes Factor, confirmed that E. coli concentrations in clams from the studied area varied in correlation with rainfall events, and demonstrated the effectiveness of Bayes Factor in the assessment of shellfish quality in coastal marine waters. However, it suggested that further investigations would be warranted to determine which environmental factors provide the better basis for accurate and timely predictions. Furthermore the gathered data could be useful, to the local authorities of Marche Region, in the definition of flexible monitoring programmes, taking into account the atmospheric events that could affect the correct functioning of sewage managing systems and the flow of tributary rivers.

  13. Modeling habitat suitability of the invasive clam Corbicula fluminea in a Neotropical shallow lagoon, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. L. Silveira

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to model the habitat suitability for an invasive clam Corbicula fluminea in a coastal shallow lagoon in the southern Neotropical region (–30.22, –50.55. The lagoon (19km2, maximum deep 2.5m was sampled with an Ekman dredge in an orthogonal matrix comprising 84 points. At each sampling point, were obtained environmental descriptors as depth, organic matter content (OMC, average granulometry (Avgran, and the percentage of sand (Pcsand. Prediction performance of Generalized Linear Models (GLM, Generalized Additive Models (GAM and Boosted Regression Tree (BRT were compared. Also, niche overlapping with other native clam species (Castalia martensi, Neocorbicula limosa and Anodontites trapesialis was examined. A BRT model with 1400 trees was selected as the best model, with cross-validated correlation of 0.82. The relative contributions of predictors were Pcsand-42.6%, OMC-35.8%, Avgran-10.9% and Depth-10.8%. Were identified that C. fluminea occur mainly in sandy sediments with few organic matter, in shallow areas nor by the shore. The PCA showed a wide niche overlap with the native clam species C. martensi, N. limosa and A. trapesialis.

  14. Histopathology and stress biomarkers in the clam Venerupis philippinarum from the Venice Lagoon (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo Papo, Michele; Bertotto, Daniela; Quaglio, Francesco; Vascellari, Marta; Pascoli, Francesco; Negrato, Elena; Binato, Giovanni; Radaelli, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the histomorphology and the stress response in the bivalve Venerupis philippinarum sampled in four differently polluted sites of the Venice Lagoon (Palude del Monte, Marghera, Ca' Roman and Val di Brenta). This species is often used as bioindicator of environmental pollution since it can bioaccumulate a large variety of pollutants because of its filter feeding. Chemical analyses for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed on whole soft tissues of V. philippinarum. The histological evaluation of clams revealed the presence of Perkinsus sp. infection in animals from all sites, although a very high prevalence of parasites was evidenced in clams from Ca' Roman. Perkinsus sp. were systemically distributed in the mantle, in the intestine and digestive gland, in gonads and gills. The trophozoites of Perkinsus sp. were found isolated or in cluster surrounded by a heavy hemocitical response. Haemocytes always exhibited an immunopositivity to cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and nitrotyrosine (NT) antibodies. The digestive gland of animals from Palude del Monte showed the highest malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, whereas clams from Ca' Roman exhibited the highest quantity of metallothioneins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microstructure evolution of the oxide dispersion strengthened CLAM steel during mechanical alloying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Liangliang [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Liu, Shaojun, E-mail: shaojun.liu@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Mao, Xiaodong [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A nano-sized oxides dispersed ODS-CLAM steel was obtained by MA and HIP. • A minimum saturated grain size of down to 30 nm was achieved by varying the milling time from 0 to 100 h. • Solution of W in the MA powder could be significantly improved by increasing MA rotation speed. - Abstracts: Oxide dispersion strengthened Ferritic/Martensitic steel is considered as one of the most potential structural material for future fusion reactor, owing to its high mechanical properties and good irradiation resistance. The oxide dispersion strengthened China Low Activation Martensitic (ODS-CLAM) steel was fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The microstructural evolutions during the process of ball milling and subsequent consolidation were investigated by SEM, XRD and TEM. The results showed that increasing the milling time during the first 36 h milling could effectively decrease the grain size to a value of around 30 nm, over which grain sized remained nearly constant. Increasing the rotation speed promoted the solution of tungsten (W) element obviously and decreased the grain size to a certain degree. Observation on the consolidated and further heat-treated ODS-CLAM steel samples indicated that a martensite microstructure with a high density of nano-particles was achieved.

  16. Irradiation control of pathogenic bacteria and their growth during storage in short neckde clam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Hua; Wang Feng; Ha Yiming; Liu Shuliang

    2009-01-01

    The growth of pathogenic bacteria during storage and their D 10 values by irradiation in short necked clam were evaluated. The results showed that the D 10 values of the total bacteria count, E. coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus in short necked clam at 0 degree C ∼ 4 degree C condition were 0.70, 0.56, 0.20kGy, respectively. The results showed that total bacteria count in vacuum packaged short necked clam sample was 4.46 log (CFU/g) after 3kGy 60 Co γ-irradiation and 28 days stored under 0 degree C ∼ 4 degree C, which could meet the requirement of related aquatic product standards, the E. coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus would not detected after 0.4kGy irradiation and 7 days storage at 0 degree C ∼ 4 degree C. Therefore, micro-organisms could be controled effectively by 3 kGy irradiation and its shelf-life could extend to 28 days. (authors)

  17. Giant Clams and Rising CO2: Light May Ameliorate Effects of Ocean Acidification on a Solar-Powered Animal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Ann Watson

    Full Text Available Global climate change and ocean acidification pose a serious threat to marine life. Marine invertebrates are particularly susceptible to ocean acidification, especially highly calcareous taxa such as molluscs, echinoderms and corals. The largest of all bivalve molluscs, giant clams, are already threatened by a variety of local pressures, including overharvesting, and are in decline worldwide. Several giant clam species are listed as 'Vulnerable' on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and now climate change and ocean acidification pose an additional threat to their conservation. Unlike most other molluscs, giant clams are 'solar-powered' animals containing photosynthetic algal symbionts suggesting that light could influence the effects of ocean acidification on these vulnerable animals. In this study, juvenile fluted giant clams Tridacna squamosa were exposed to three levels of carbon dioxide (CO2 (control ~400, mid ~650 and high ~950 μatm and light (photosynthetically active radiation 35, 65 and 304 μmol photons m-2 s-1. Elevated CO2 projected for the end of this century (~650 and ~950 μatm reduced giant clam survival and growth at mid-light levels. However, effects of CO2 on survival were absent at high-light, with 100% survival across all CO2 levels. Effects of CO2 on growth of surviving clams were lessened, but not removed, at high-light levels. Shell growth and total animal mass gain were still reduced at high-CO2. This study demonstrates the potential for light to alleviate effects of ocean acidification on survival and growth in a threatened calcareous marine invertebrate. Managing water quality (e.g. turbidity and sedimentation in coastal areas to maintain water clarity may help ameliorate some negative effects of ocean acidification on giant clams and potentially other solar-powered calcifiers, such as hard corals.

  18. Growth and Histological Effects to Protothaca staminea (Littleneck Clam) of Long-Term Exposure to Chlorinated Sea Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, C. I.; Hillman, A. E.; Wilkinson, P.; Woodruff, D. L.

    1980-08-01

    There has been considerable concern about the potential for long-term effects to marine organisms from chlorinated sea water. As part of a larger study to investigate the effects of materials resulting from seawater chlorination on marine organisms, groups of littleneck clams, Protothaca staminea, were exposed to sea water that had been chlorinated. Two experiments were conducted. In one test, groups of littleneck clams were exposed to dilutions of chlorinated sea water that had average chlorine produced oxidant (CPO) concentrations of 16 {micro}g/l or less. In the second test, groups of clams were exposed to chlorinated seawater-unchlorinated seawater mixtures that had target CPO concentrations of 0, 6, 12, 25, 50 and 100 {micro}g/l. In the first experiment, length measurements were made on all clams at approximately one-month intervals for three months. In the second test, length, weight, depth, width and edge etching were used to measure growth, and subsamples were harvested and measured at one-month intervals. In addition, clams were preserved for histological examination. The clams in the first experiment all had negative growth. In the second test, growth was inhibited under all conditions through the first four months of exposure. During the last four months, there was positive signs of growth at the 0, 6 and 12 {micro}g/l CPO test conditions. Histological examination indicates that P. staminea does not adapt well to being held in aquaria. Most clams, tram all test and control conditions, showed evidence of necrosis at one month. This condition seemed to improve with longer exposure at lower CPO concentrations but persisted at CPO concentrations of 25 {micro}g/l and higher. Other histological effects were apparent at the higher exposure concentrations as the length of exposure increased.

  19. Giant Clams and Rising CO2: Light May Ameliorate Effects of Ocean Acidification on a Solar-Powered Animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sue-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change and ocean acidification pose a serious threat to marine life. Marine invertebrates are particularly susceptible to ocean acidification, especially highly calcareous taxa such as molluscs, echinoderms and corals. The largest of all bivalve molluscs, giant clams, are already threatened by a variety of local pressures, including overharvesting, and are in decline worldwide. Several giant clam species are listed as 'Vulnerable' on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and now climate change and ocean acidification pose an additional threat to their conservation. Unlike most other molluscs, giant clams are 'solar-powered' animals containing photosynthetic algal symbionts suggesting that light could influence the effects of ocean acidification on these vulnerable animals. In this study, juvenile fluted giant clams Tridacna squamosa were exposed to three levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) (control ~400, mid ~650 and high ~950 μatm) and light (photosynthetically active radiation 35, 65 and 304 μmol photons m-2 s-1). Elevated CO2 projected for the end of this century (~650 and ~950 μatm) reduced giant clam survival and growth at mid-light levels. However, effects of CO2 on survival were absent at high-light, with 100% survival across all CO2 levels. Effects of CO2 on growth of surviving clams were lessened, but not removed, at high-light levels. Shell growth and total animal mass gain were still reduced at high-CO2. This study demonstrates the potential for light to alleviate effects of ocean acidification on survival and growth in a threatened calcareous marine invertebrate. Managing water quality (e.g. turbidity and sedimentation) in coastal areas to maintain water clarity may help ameliorate some negative effects of ocean acidification on giant clams and potentially other solar-powered calcifiers, such as hard corals.

  20. Acidified seawater increases accumulation of cobalt but not cesium in manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Narin; Kocaoğlan, Hasan Oğuz; Kılıç, Önder; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Belivermiş, Murat

    2018-04-01

    The pH of seawater around the world is expected to continue its decline in the near future in response to ocean acidification that is driven by heightened atmospheric CO 2 emissions. Concomitantly, economically-important molluscs that live in coastal waters including estuaries and embayments, may be exposed to a wide assortment of contaminants, including trace metals and radionuclides. Seawater acidification may alter both the chemical speciation of select elements as well as the physiology of organisms, and may thus pose at risk to many shellfish species, including the manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The bioconcentration efficiency of two common radionuclides associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, 134 Cs and 57 Co, were investigated by exposing live clams to dissolved 134 Cs and 57 Co at control (pH = 8.1) and two lowered pH (pH = 7.8 and 7.5) levels using controlled aquaria. The uptake and depuration kinetics of the two radionuclides in the whole-body clam were followed for 21 and 35 days, respectively. At steady-state equilibrium, the concentration factor (CF ss ) for 57 Co increased as the pH decreased (i.e. 130 ± 5, 194 ± 6, and 258 ± 10 at pH levels 8.1, 7.8 and 7.5, respectively), whereas the 134 Cs uptake was not influenced by a change in pH conditions. During depuration, the lowest depuration rate constant of 57 Co by the manila clam was observed at the intermediate pH of 7.8. An increase in the accumulation of 57 Co at the intermediate pH value was thought to be caused mainly by the aragonitic shell of the clam, as well as the low salinity and alkalinity of seawater used in the experiment. Considering that accumulation consists of uptake and depuration, among the three pH conditions moderately acidified seawater enhanced most the accumulation of 57 Co. Accumulation of 134 Cs was not strongly influenced by a reduced pH condition, as represented by an analogous uptake constant rate and CF ss in each treatment. Such results suggest that

  1. Purification and Characterization of Hemagglutinating Proteins from Poker-Chip Venus (Meretrix lusoria and Corbicula Clam (Corbicula fluminea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Fu Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemagglutinating proteins (HAPs were purified from Poker-chip Venus (Meretrix lusoria and Corbicula clam (Corbicula fluminea using gel-filtration chromatography on a Sephacryl S-300 column. The molecular weights of the HAPs obtained from Poker-chip Venus and Corbicula clam were 358 kDa and 380 kDa, respectively. Purified HAP from Poker-chip Venus yielded two subunits with molecular weights of 26 kDa and 29 kDa. However, only one HAP subunit was purified from Corbicula clam, and its molecular weight was 32 kDa. The two Poker-chip Venus HAPs possessed hemagglutinating ability (HAA for erythrocytes of some vertebrate animal species, especially tilapia. Moreover, HAA of the HAP purified from Poker-chip Venus was higher than that of the HAP of Corbicula clam. Furthermore, Poker-chip Venus HAPs possessed better HAA at a pH higher than 7.0. When the temperature was at 4°C–10°C or the salinity was less than 0.5‰, the two Poker-chip Venus HAPs possessed better HAA compared with that of Corbicula clam.

  2. Low cycle fatigue properties of CLAM steel at 450 °C and 550 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yanyun; Zhai, Xiangwei; Liu, Shaojun, E-mail: shaojun.liu@fds.org.cn

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Low cycle fatigue properties of CLAM steel were investigated at 450 °C and 550 °C. • CLAM steel showed the continuous softening up to fail failure under cyclic loading. The degree of softening increased with increasing temperature. • Dislocation density decrease and subgrain coarsening during the test process were the possible reasons for the cyclic softening of the CLAM steel. - Abstract: The low cycle fatigue behavior of China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel has been studied using a constant strain rate of 8 × 10{sup −3}/s with the strain amplitudes ranging from 0.3% to 0.8% at 450 °C and 550 °C. Cyclic stress response showed a gradual softening until complete failure. The fatigue life decreased with increasing test temperature, and the effect of temperature on fatigue life was more pronounced at lower strain amplitudes. The cyclic deformation behavior at different temperatures has been analyzed according to the hysteresis loop, and the mechanism of cyclic softening was interpreted in view of the changes taking place in dislocation density and lath structures. Evaluation of low cycle fatigue properties of CLAM steel at 450 °C and 550 °C can help in design of the Chinese Test Blanket Module (TBM) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and a future fusion power plant.

  3. In situ studies with Asian clams (Carbacula fluminea) detect acid mine drainage and nutrient inputs in low-order streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soucek, D. J.; Schmidt, T. S.; Cherry, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates the correlation between transplanted Asiatic clam and indigenous community responses to acid mine drainage and nutrient loading in first-to-third-order streams, by comparing the toxicological endpoints of clam survival and growth with benthic macro-invertebrate community indices as community responses to both acid mine drainage and nutrient loading. Clam survival was found to be positively correlated with water column pH and negatively correlated with conductivity and metal concentrations. There was also a positive correlation with the relative abundance of the macro-invertebrate Ephemeroptera, the most sensitive taxonomic group, to acid mine drainage in this watershed. No correlation was found between clam growth and acid mine drainage inputs, but there was evidence of positive correlation with nitrate concentrations and the relative abundance of collector-filterer functional feeding groups. These results suggest that clam growth is related to nutrient levels and accurately reflect benthic macro-invertebrate responses to nutrient loading. 28 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria in sian-sianzih (fermented clams), a traditional fermented food in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-sheng; Wu, Hui-chung; Li, Ya-han; Leong, Kun-hon; Pua, Xiao-hui; Weng, Ming-kai; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

    2012-01-30

    Sian-sianzih (fermented clams) is a popular traditional fermented food in Taiwan. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microflora in sian-sianzih have not been studied in detail. In this study, LAB from sian-sianzih were isolated, characterized and identified. A total of 186 cultures of LAB were isolated from seven sian-sianzih samples and 29 cultures were isolated from its main raw substrate: clams. The identification results revealed up to 11 distinct bacterial species belonging to five genera in sian-sianzih, and three species belonging to two genera in clams. The most common bacterial genera in sian-sianzih were Lactobacillus and Weissella, followed by Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Lactococcus. A regional similarity in LAB, with differences in diversity, was observed in the current study. On the other hand, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was the most common species found in raw clam samples. The results also suggested that greater LAB diversity could be observed in wild clams than in cultured ones. Furthermore, antibacterial activities of the isolates were determined, and one Weisella hellenica strain showed inhibitory activity against the indicator strain Lactobacilluas sakei JCM 1157(T) . A sensory assessment of seven sian-sianzih samples was also performed and the results indicated that diversity of LAB has a great effect on its aroma and taste formation. The results demonstrate that various LAB species are distributed in sian-sianzih and have a great effect on the flavor of sian-sianzih. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. A novel approach for acid mine drainage pollution biomonitoring using rare earth elements bioaccumulated in the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnail, Estefanía; Pérez-López, Rafael; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Nieto, José Miguel; DelValls, T Ángel

    2017-09-15

    Lanthanide series have been used as a record of the water-rock interaction and work as a tool for identifying impacts of acid mine drainage (lixiviate residue derived from sulphide oxidation). The application of North-American Shale Composite-normalized rare earth elements patterns to these minority elements allows determining the origin of the contamination. In the current study, geochemical patterns were applied to rare earth elements bioaccumulated in the soft tissue of the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea after exposure to different acid mine drainage contaminated environments. Results show significant bioaccumulation of rare earth elements in soft tissue of the clam after 14 days of exposure to acid mine drainage contaminated sediment (ΣREE=1.3-8μg/gdw). Furthermore, it was possible to biomonitor different degrees of contamination based on rare earth elements in tissue. The pattern of this type of contamination describes a particular curve characterized by an enrichment in the middle rare earth elements; a homologous pattern (E MREE =0.90) has also been observed when applied NASC normalization in clam tissues. Results of lanthanides found in clams were contrasted with the paucity of toxicity studies, determining risk caused by light rare earth elements in the Odiel River close to the Estuary. The current study purposes the use of clam as an innovative "bio-tool" for the biogeochemical monitoring of pollution inputs that determines the acid mine drainage networks affection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of post-weld heat treatment on the mechanical properties of CLAM/316L dissimilar joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Junyu [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Huang, Bo [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wu, Qingsheng, E-mail: qingsheng.wu@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Chunjing; Huang, Qunying [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Dissimilar joints between CLAM and 316L steels welded by TIG were investigated. • After PWHTs, the hardening in HAZ on the CLAM steel side decreased remarkably. • Tempering at 740 °C for 2 h was considered as the preferable treatment rule. - Abstract: Dissimilar welding between China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel and 316L austenitic stainless steel was investigated to achieve the reliable connection between test blanket modules (TBMs) and piping system in the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). The dissimilar joints were welded by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process with a filler material type-309. In order to stabilize the microstructure and improve the strength and toughness, post-weld heat treatments (PWHTs) of tempering at 740 °C, 780 °C and 820 °C, respectively, for 2 h were performed. The microstructure observation showed that tempering at 740 °C for 2 h was the preferable PWHT rule in this work. After the treatment, the hardening in heat affected zone (HAZ) on the CLAM steel side decreased remarkably. The tensile strength of the joint was roughly the same as that of the base metal. The impact toughness of HAZ on the CLAM steel side was 77% of that of the base metal. The absorbed energy of HAZ of 316L steel decreased by 93 J, and that of weld metal (WM) was 110 J after the treatment.

  7. NMR-Based Metabolomic Investigations on the Differential Responses in Adductor Muscles from Two Pedigrees of Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum to Cadmium and Zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbao Yu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important economic species in shellfishery in China due to its wide geographic distribution and high tolerance to environmental changes (e.g., salinity, temperature. In addition, Manila clam is a good biomonitor/bioindicator in “Mussel Watch Programs” and marine environmental toxicology. However, there are several pedigrees of R. philippinarum distributed in the marine environment in China. No attention has been paid to the biological differences between various pedigrees of Manila clams, which may introduce undesirable biological variation in toxicology studies. In this study, we applied NMR-based metabolomics to detect the biological differences in two main pedigrees (White and Zebra of R. philippinarum and their differential responses to heavy metal exposures (Cadmium and Zinc using adductor muscle as a target tissue to define one sensitive pedigree of R. philippinarum as biomonitor for heavy metals. Our results indicated that there were significant metabolic differences in adductor muscle tissues between White and Zebra clams, including higher levels of alanine, glutamine, hypotaurine, phosphocholine and homarine in White clam muscles and higher levels of branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine, succinate and 4-aminobutyrate in Zebra clam muscles, respectively. Differential metabolic responses to heavy metals between White and Zebra clams were also found. Overall, we concluded that White pedigree of clam could be a preferable bioindicator/biomonitor in marine toxicology studies and for marine heavy metals based on the relatively high sensitivity to heavy metals.

  8. Evaluation of Using Caged Clams to Monitor Contaminated Groundwater Exposure in the Near-Shore Environment of the Hanford Site 300 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Kyle B.; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.

    2008-01-31

    The Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) has been identified as an indicator species for locating and monitoring contaminated groundwater in the Columbia River. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a field study to explore the use of caged Asiatic clams to monitor contaminated groundwater upwelling in the 300 Area near-shore environment and assess seasonal differences in uranium uptake in relation to seasonal flow regimes of the Columbia River. Additional objectives included examining the potential effects of uranium accumulation on growth, survival, and tissue condition of the clams. This report documents the field conditions and procedures, laboratory procedures, and statistical analyses used in collecting samples and processing the data. Detailed results are presented and illustrated, followed by a discussion comparing uranium concentrations in Asiatic clams collected at the 300 Area and describing the relationship between river discharge, groundwater indicators, and uranium in clams. Growth and survival, histology, and other sources of environmental variation also are discussed.

  9. Verification of the effect of surface preparation on Hot Isostatic Pressing diffusion bonding joints of CLAM steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yanyun [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Chunjing, E-mail: chunjing.li@fds.org.cn [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huang, Bo; Liu, Shaojun [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huang, Qunying [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) diffusion bonding with CLAM steel is the primary candidate fabrication technique for the first wall (FW) of DFLL-TBM. Surface state is one of the key factors for the joints quality. The effect of surface state prepared with grinder and miller on HIP diffusion bonding joints of CLAM steel was investigated. HIP diffusion bonding was performed at 140 MPa and 1373 K within 3 h. The mechanical properties of the joints were investigated with instrumented Charpy V-notch impact tests and the microstructures of the joints were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the milled samples with fine surface roughness were more suitable for CLAM steel HIP diffusion bonding.

  10. Size-dependent effects of low level cadmium and zinc exposure on the metabolome of the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spann, Nicole, E-mail: nicole.spann@web.de [Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom); Aldridge, David C., E-mail: da113@cam.ac.uk [Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom); Griffin, Julian L., E-mail: jlg40@mole.bio.cam.ac.uk [Sanger Building, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom); Jones, Oliver A.H., E-mail: o.jones@gmail.com [Sanger Building, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Small and large Corbicula fluminea were exposed to cadmium and zinc spiked sediment. Metabolomic changes in the freshwater clams were determined by NMR and GC-MS. Metabolic perturbations were related to amino acid and energy related metabolism. Small and large clams were differentiated by their metabolic composition. Size classes showed opposite responses to metal stress. - Abstract: The toxic effects of low level metal contamination in sediments are currently poorly understood. We exposed different sized Asian clams, Corbicula fluminea, to sediment spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of either zinc, cadmium or a zinc-cadmium mixture for one week. This freshwater bivalve is well suited for sediment toxicity tests as it lives partly buried in the sediment and utilises sediment particles as a food resource. After one week, the whole tissue composition of low molecular weight metabolites was analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The condition index (ratio of tissue dry weight to volume inside the shell valves) was also measured. Small and large clams were clearly differentiated by their metabolic composition and the two size classes showed opposite responses to the mixture spiked sediment. No effects of zinc alone on the metabolome were found and cadmium only influenced the smaller size class. The main perturbations were seen in amino acid and energy metabolism, with small clams using amino acids as an energy resource and larger clams primarily drawing on their larger storage reserves of carbohydrates. Our study demonstrates that metabolomics is a useful technique to test for low level toxicity which does not manifest in mortality or condition index changes. The differing effects between the two size classes stress that it is important to consider age/size when conducting metabolomic and ecotoxicology assessments, since testing for the effects on only one size class makes

  11. Size-dependent effects of low level cadmium and zinc exposure on the metabolome of the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spann, Nicole; Aldridge, David C.; Griffin, Julian L.; Jones, Oliver A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: Small and large Corbicula fluminea were exposed to cadmium and zinc spiked sediment. Metabolomic changes in the freshwater clams were determined by NMR and GC–MS. Metabolic perturbations were related to amino acid and energy related metabolism. Small and large clams were differentiated by their metabolic composition. Size classes showed opposite responses to metal stress. - Abstract: The toxic effects of low level metal contamination in sediments are currently poorly understood. We exposed different sized Asian clams, Corbicula fluminea, to sediment spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of either zinc, cadmium or a zinc–cadmium mixture for one week. This freshwater bivalve is well suited for sediment toxicity tests as it lives partly buried in the sediment and utilises sediment particles as a food resource. After one week, the whole tissue composition of low molecular weight metabolites was analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The condition index (ratio of tissue dry weight to volume inside the shell valves) was also measured. Small and large clams were clearly differentiated by their metabolic composition and the two size classes showed opposite responses to the mixture spiked sediment. No effects of zinc alone on the metabolome were found and cadmium only influenced the smaller size class. The main perturbations were seen in amino acid and energy metabolism, with small clams using amino acids as an energy resource and larger clams primarily drawing on their larger storage reserves of carbohydrates. Our study demonstrates that metabolomics is a useful technique to test for low level toxicity which does not manifest in mortality or condition index changes. The differing effects between the two size classes stress that it is important to consider age/size when conducting metabolomic and ecotoxicology assessments, since testing for the effects on only one size

  12. Evaluation of the Appearance of Nail Polish Following Daily Treatment of Ex Vivo Human Fingernails With Topical Solutions of Tavaborole or Efinaconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahovic, Tracey C; Coronado, Dina; Chanda, Sanjay; Merchant, Tejal; Zane, Lee T

    2016-01-01

    Patients with onychomycosis may mask infected nails with polish. Tavaborole topical solution, 5% is a boron-based, small-molecule pharmaceutical approved for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes; efinaconazole topical solution, 10% is approved for the same indication. Nail polish appearance after application of tavaborole (dropper) or efinaconazole (brush); respective applicator appearance; presence of color transfer from respective applicators; and color transfer to remaining solutions after dosing of polished nails were evaluated. Twelve ex vivo human cadaver fingernails were cleaned, polished with two coats of L'Oréal® Nail Color, Devil Wears Red #420, and mounted on floral foam. Nails were treated with tavaborole or efinaconazole solutions once daily for 7 days. Dropper and brush applicators were applied to white watercolor paper immediately after dosing to evaluate color transfer from polished nails. On day 7, remaining solutions were transferred to clear glass vials to evaluate color transfer from applicators to solutions. Nails, applicators, and papers were photographed daily following application; remaining solutions were photographed after 7 days of dosing. Tavaborole-treated polished nails showed no polish discoloration, and tavaborole applicators did not change in appearance during treatment. No color transfer from polished nails was evident to applicator, paper, or remaining solution. Efinaconazole-treated polished nails showed substantial polish changes after the first day of treatment, with polish appearance and discoloration progressively worsening over 7 days of treatment. Color transfer from nails was evident to applicator, paper, and remaining solution. Daily dropper application of tavaborole to ex vivo polished nails did not alter polish appearance. Brush application of efinaconazole produced visible changes in polish appearance and color transfer to applicators, paper, and

  13. Presence of enteric viruses, bioaccumulation and stability in Anomalocardia brasiliana clams (Gmelin, 1791).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Doris Sobral Marques; Dominot, Ana Ferreira Ávila; Moresco, Vanessa; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte

    2018-02-02

    Bivalve mollusks are filter feeders and may accumulate human pathogens in their tissues. Many studies demonstrated human diseases associated with bivalve consumption, especially oysters. Anomalocardia brasiliana clams are distributed along the Brazilian coastal area and are an exotic ingredient for some typical dishes in Brazil. Even though there are several reports describing the contamination of oysters and mussels with human pathogens, there is a lack of studies reporting contamination of A. brasiliana with human pathogens. An evaluation of natural microbiological contamination in A. brasiliana samples over a period of 18months (November 2014 to April 2016) showed that the bacteria indices were in accordance with Brazilian regulations (E. colitime period. NoV GI was the most adsorbed virus after 24h. HAV concentration was time, reaching its highest values after 24h (times (0, 1, 1.5, 3 and 5mins), viral infectivity was evaluated using ICC-et-RT-qPCR. The temperature inside the DT remained time and after 5min of cooking the HAdV reached a decay of 90% (1 log 10 ). The results showed a real warn to the consumers that can be exposed to infectious human viruses if they eat these clams improperly cooked. HAV was the most detected virus in these animals, which may lead to outbreaks. A. brasiliana exhibited distinct behavior in NoV GI bioaccumulation and persistence, pointing to the need for further studies about the cellular ligands used by these viruses to become attached to these clams. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oyster and clam culturing environments in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei-Ting; Jong, Koa-Jen; Lin, Yu-Ren; Tsai, Shing-en; Tey, Yao Hsien; Wong, Hin-chung

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most prevalent gastroenteritis pathogen in Taiwan and some other Asian countries, and it frequently occurs in oysters and other seafood. This study monitors changes in the density of V. parahaemolyticus and environmental parameters in oyster and hard clam aquacultural environments in Taiwan. Water, sediment and shellfish samples were collected from five sampling sites in 2008-2010, and analyzed for environmental physiochemical parameters, numbers of indicator bacteria (total aerobic counts, total coliforms and fecal coliforms), Vibrio and V. parahaemolyticus present. The results for open oyster farms and hard clam ponds did not differ significantly. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 77.5, 77.5, 70.8 and 68.8% of the water, sediment, oyster and clam samples, respectively. The densities of V. parahaemolyticus were significantly higher in shellfish than in sediment or water samples, with mean values of 1.33, 1.04 and -0.02 Log CFU/g, respectively. Among these five sampling sites, Shengang and Fangyuan yielded significantly different data from those obtained at the other three sites. As determined by linear multiple regression, V. parahaemolyticus density in water samples depended significantly on the precipitation and Vibrio count, while the V. parahaemolyticus density in the sediment or shellfish samples depended significantly on the salinity of the seawater. Among 1076 isolates examined, a total of three putative pathogenic isolates were identified from 2.5% of the examined samples, and these isolates exhibited hemolytic or urease activities and the presence of gene markers for tdh, trh, type III secretion system (T3SS) 1 (vcrD1) or T3SS2α (vcrD2). The results herein may facilitate the assessment of risk associated with this pathogen in Taiwan and other geographically similar regions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Corrosion behavior of CLAM steel weldment in flowing liquid Pb-17Li at 480 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xizhang; Shen Zheng; Chen Xing; Lei Yucheng; Huang Qunying

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The research shows that the CLAM steel weldment have its own corrosion mechanism in liquid Pb-17Li alloy. The basic rule of the corrosion behaviour of weldments is that the coorosion rate decreases obviously with the increasing of exposed time. ► The weight loss of CLAM steel weldment is far higer than the base metal after exposed to Pb-17Li alloy. Corrosion has little effects on elements of weldment sample surfaces. And an easier corrosion area in the weld joint are found. ► A simple presumably corrosion behavior model is established. The model demonstrate that the easier corroded area will be formed when the direction of martensite laths form small-angle with the specimen surface, The easy corrosion area is the martensite lath area lack of Cr and distributes like laths, the cross-section area is 1 μm 2 to 4 μm 2, the existence of the easier corrosion area is one of the reasons that lead to the difference of the corrosion rate. - Abstract: CLAM (China Low Activation Martensitic) steel is considered as one of the candidate structural materials in liquid LiPb blanket concepts. Welding is one of the essential technologies for its practical application, CLAM steel weldment shows a great difference with base metal due to the effect of welding thermal cycle. In order to investigate the corrosion behavior and mechanism of CLAM weldments in liquid Pb-17Li, the experiments were performed by exposing the TIG weldment samples in flowing LiPb at 480 °C. The weight loss test of exposed specimens show that in 500 h, 1000 h dynamic conditions, corrosion resistance of CLAM steel weldment is poor, SEM analysis shows that the thicker martensite lath in weld area lead to higher corrosion amount, EDS results show that the influence of corrosion on surface elements is small, and surface corrosion is even, EDX analysis shows that the penetration of Pb-17Li does not exist in the joint. With the increasing of exposure time, the corrosion rate decreases

  16. Manila clams from Hg polluted sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons (Italy) harbor detoxifying Hg resistant bacteria in soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide; Faleri, Claudia; Maida, Isabel; Fani, Renato

    2013-01-01

    A mechanism of mercury detoxification has been suggested by a previous study on Hg bioaccumulation in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in the polluted Marano and Grado lagoons and in this study we demonstrate that this event could be partly related to the detoxifying activities of Hg-resistant bacteria (MRB) harbored in clam soft tissues. Therefore, natural clams were collected in six stations during two different periods (winter and spring) from Marano and Grado Lagoons. Siphons, gills and hepatopancreas from acclimatized clams were sterile dissected to isolate MRB. These anatomical parts were glass homogenized or used for whole, and they were lying on a solid medium containing 5 mg l −1 HgCl 2 and incubated at 30 °C. A total of fourteen bacterial strains were isolated and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis, revealing that strains were representative of eight bacterial genera, four of which were Gram-positive (Enterococcus, Bacillus, Jeotgalicoccus and Staphylococcus) and other four were Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas, Vibrio, Raoultella and Enterobacter). Plasmids and merA genes were found and their sequences determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique shows the presence of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria by using different molecular probes in siphon and gills. Bacterial clumps inside clam flesh were observed and even a Gram-negative endosymbiont was disclosed by transmission electronic microscope inside clam cells. Bacteria harbored in cavities of soft tissue have mercury detoxifying activity. This feature was confirmed by the determination of mercuric reductase in glass-homogenized siphons and gills. -- Highlights: ► We isolated Gram-positive and Gram-negative Hg resistant strains from soft tissues of Ruditapes philippinarum. ► We identify 14 mercury resistant strains by 16S rRNA gene sequences. ► Bacteria in siphon and gill tissues of clams were observed by TEM and identified with

  17. Manila clams from Hg polluted sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons (Italy) harbor detoxifying Hg resistant bacteria in soft tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, Franco [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Cà Foscari University of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Cà Foscari University of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Faleri, Claudia [Department of Environmental Science ‘G. Sarfatti’, University of Siena, 53100 Siena (Italy); Maida, Isabel; Fani, Renato [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Via Romana, 17, University of Florence, 50125 Florence (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    A mechanism of mercury detoxification has been suggested by a previous study on Hg bioaccumulation in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in the polluted Marano and Grado lagoons and in this study we demonstrate that this event could be partly related to the detoxifying activities of Hg-resistant bacteria (MRB) harbored in clam soft tissues. Therefore, natural clams were collected in six stations during two different periods (winter and spring) from Marano and Grado Lagoons. Siphons, gills and hepatopancreas from acclimatized clams were sterile dissected to isolate MRB. These anatomical parts were glass homogenized or used for whole, and they were lying on a solid medium containing 5 mg l{sup −1} HgCl{sub 2} and incubated at 30 °C. A total of fourteen bacterial strains were isolated and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis, revealing that strains were representative of eight bacterial genera, four of which were Gram-positive (Enterococcus, Bacillus, Jeotgalicoccus and Staphylococcus) and other four were Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas, Vibrio, Raoultella and Enterobacter). Plasmids and merA genes were found and their sequences determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique shows the presence of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria by using different molecular probes in siphon and gills. Bacterial clumps inside clam flesh were observed and even a Gram-negative endosymbiont was disclosed by transmission electronic microscope inside clam cells. Bacteria harbored in cavities of soft tissue have mercury detoxifying activity. This feature was confirmed by the determination of mercuric reductase in glass-homogenized siphons and gills. -- Highlights: ► We isolated Gram-positive and Gram-negative Hg resistant strains from soft tissues of Ruditapes philippinarum. ► We identify 14 mercury resistant strains by 16S rRNA gene sequences. ► Bacteria in siphon and gill tissues of clams were observed by TEM and identified

  18. ALAM/CLAM and some applications of computer algebra systems to problems in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell-Clark, R.A.

    1973-01-01

    This paper is divided into three parts. Part A presents a historical survey of the development of the system, a brief description of its features and, finally, a critical assessment. ALAM and CLAM have been used in many problems in General Relativity; the vast majority of these belong to a set of standard calculations termed ''metric applications''. However, four large non-standard applications have been attempted successfully and these are described in Part B. CAMAL is the only other system which has been used extensively for work in relativity. CAMAL has played an important role in two research projects and details of these are given in Part C

  19. Expression of cyp1a protein in the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea (Müller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranković Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the expression of CYP1A in the foot, gill and visceral mass of the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea in relation to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs exposure. Different PCBs congeners were found in the foot and visceral mass, while the expression of CYP1A was observed only in the visceral mass. However the level of CYP1A expression in the visceral mass was not related to the level of PCBs present in the tissue. Our results indicate a higher rate of biotransformation and lower threshold of CYP1A induction in the visceral mass compared with other tissues.

  20. Reproductive Cycle of Hard Clam, Meretrix lyrata Sowerby, 1851 (Bivalvia: Veneridae) from Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamli, Hadi; Idris, Mohd Hanafi; Rajaee, Amy Halimah; Kamal, Abu Hena Mustafa

    2015-12-01

    A study of the reproductive cycle of the hard clam, Meretrix lyrata, was documented based on histological observation and Gonad Index (GI). Samples were taken from estuarine waters of the Buntal River in Sarawak, Malaysia. The gonad of M. lyrata started to develop in September 2013. Gametogenesis continued to develop until the maturation and spawning stage from February to April 2014. The GI pattern for a one-year cycle showed a significant correlation with chlorophyll a. The corresponding GI with chlorophyll a suggested that the development of the reproductive cycle of M. lyrata required a high amount of food to increase gametogenesis.

  1. Comparison of corrosion behavior of EUROFER and CLAM steels in flowing Pb–15.7Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konys, J., E-mail: juergen.konys@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Krauss, W. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Zhu, Z.; Huang, Q. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Ferritic martensitic steels are envisaged to be applied as structural materials in HCLL blanket systems. Their compatibility with the liquid breeder, which is in direct contact with the structural alloy, will be essential for reliable and safe operation of the designed blankets. Formerly performed corrosion tests of RAFM steels in PICOLO loop of KIT were mainly done at high flow velocities, e.g., 0.22 m/s and delivered severe attack with material loss rates above 400 μm/yr at 823 K. Meanwhile, flow velocities for corrosion testing have been reduced into the “cm range” to be near fusion relevant conditions. Among the international ITER-partners, many varieties of RAFM steels have been developed and manufactured within the last decade, e.g., the so-called Chinese Low Activation Martensitic steel (CLAM). In this paper, the long term corrosion behavior of EUROFER and CLAM steel in flowing Pb–15.7Li will be presented at a flow velocity of about 0.10 m/s and compared with earlier obtained results of RAFM steels exposed at other operation parameters of PICOLO loop. The observed corrosion attack is near 220 μm/yr and fits well to predictions made by MATLIM-modeling for low flow velocities in the turbulent flow regime.

  2. Genetic diversity of giant clams (Tridacna spp.) and their associated Symbiodinium in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Pappas, Melissa

    2017-05-19

    The biodiversity of the Red Sea remains relatively understudied, particularly for invertebrate taxa. Documenting present patterns of biodiversity is essential for better understanding Red Sea reef ecosystems and how these ecosystems may be impacted by stressors (such as fishing and climate change). Several species of giant clams (genus Tridacna) are reported from the Red Sea, although the majority of research effort has occurred in the Gulf of Aqaba. We investigated the genetic diversity (16S rDNA) of the Tridacna species found in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea. We also investigated the genetic diversity (ITS rDNA) of symbiotic dinoflagellates Symbiodinium associated with these clams. Samples were collected from nine reefs on a cross-shelf gradient near Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. Two species, T. squamosa and T. maxima, were recorded, with the latter being the most abundant. Tridacna squamosina, a species recently reported in the northern Red Sea, was not found, suggesting that this species is not present or is very rare in our study region. All tridacnids sampled were found to harbor Symbiodinium grouped in Clade A, considered an opportunistic, heat-tolerant symbiont group in anemones and corals. The consistent association with Clade A Symbiodinium in central Red Sea tridacnids may reflect the consequence of adaptation to the relatively extreme conditions of the Red Sea. This study contributes to an ever-growing catalog of Red Sea biodiversity and serves as important baseline information for a region experiencing dynamic pressures.

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the TIG welded joints of fusion CLAM steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Zhizhong, E-mail: zhizhongjiang2006@yahoo.com.c [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Ren Litian; Huang Jihua; Ju Xin; Wu Huibin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Huang Qunying; Wu Yican [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2010-12-15

    The CLAM steel plates were butt-welded through manual tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) process, and the following post-welding heat treatment (PWHT) at 740 {sup o}C for 1 h. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joints were measured. The results show that both hardening and softening occur in the weld joints before PWHT, but the hardening is not removed completely in the weld metal and the fusion zone after PWHT. In as-welded condition, the microstructure of the weld metal is coarse lath martensite, and softened zone in heat-affected zone (HAZ) consists of a mixture of tempered martensite and ferrite. After PWHT, a lot of carbides precipitate at all zones in weld joints. The microstructure of softened zone transforms to tempered sorbite. Tensile strength of the weld metal is higher than that of HAZ and base metal regardless of PWHT. However, the weld metal has poor toughness without PWHT. The impact energy of the weld metal after PWHT reaches almost the same level as the base metal. So it is concluded that microstructure and mechanical properties of the CLAM steel welded joints can be improved by a reasonable PWHT.

  4. Population dynamics of the freshwater clam Galatea paradoxa from the Volta River, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjei-Boateng D.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Population parameters such as asymptotic (L∞, growth coefficient (K, mortality rates (Z,F and M, exploitation level (E and recruitment pattern of the freshwater clam Galatea paradoxa were estimated using length-frequency data from the Volta River estuary, Ghana. The L∞ for G. paradoxa at the Volta estuary was 105.7 mm, the growth coefficient (K and the growth performance index (Ǿ ranged between 0.14–0.18 year-1 and 3.108–3.192, respectively. Total mortality (Z was 0.65–0.82 year-1, while natural mortality (M and fishing mortality (F were 0.35–0.44 year-1 and 0.21–0.47 year-1, respectively, with an exploitation level of 0.32–0.57. The recruitment pattern suggested that G. paradoxa has year-round recruitment with a single pulse over an extended period (October–March in the Volta River. The Volta River stock of G. paradoxa is overfished and requires immediate action to conserve it. This can be achieved by implementing a minimum landing size restriction and intensifying the culture of smaller clams which is a traditional activity at the estuary.

  5. Clams sensitivity towards As and Hg: A comprehensive assessment of native and exotic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Cátia; Freitas, Rosa; Antunes, Sara C; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina

    2016-03-01

    To assess the environmental impact of As and Hg, bioindicator organisms such as bivalves have been used. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed the impacts of As and Hg in Ruditapes decussatus and Ruditapes philippinarum, which are native and exotic species in Europe, respectively. The main goal of the present study was to assess elements' partitioning and detoxification strategies of R. decussatus and R. philippinarum. Both clams showed a higher capacity to bioconcentrate Hg (BCF 2.29-7.49), when compared to As (0.59-1.09). Furthermore, As accumulation in both species was similar in the soluble and insoluble fractions, while in both species the majority of Hg was found in the insoluble fraction. Clams exposed to As showed different detoxification strategies, since R. decussatus had higher ability to enhance antioxidant enzymes and metallothioneins in order to reduce toxicity, and R.philippinarum increased glutathione S-transferase Ω activity, that catalyzes monomethyl arsenate reduction, the rate-limiting reaction in arsenic biotransformation. When exposed to Hg, R. decussatus presented, higher synthesis of antioxidant enzymes and lower LPO, being able to better tolerate Hg than the exotic species R. philippinarum. Thus under relevant levels of As and Hg contamination our work evidenced the higher ability of R. decussatus to survive and inhabit coastal environments not heavily contaminated by Hg and As. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic diversity of giant clams (Tridacna spp.) and their associated Symbiodinium in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Pappas, Melissa; He, Song; Hardenstine, Royale; Kanee, Hana; Berumen, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    The biodiversity of the Red Sea remains relatively understudied, particularly for invertebrate taxa. Documenting present patterns of biodiversity is essential for better understanding Red Sea reef ecosystems and how these ecosystems may be impacted by stressors (such as fishing and climate change). Several species of giant clams (genus Tridacna) are reported from the Red Sea, although the majority of research effort has occurred in the Gulf of Aqaba. We investigated the genetic diversity (16S rDNA) of the Tridacna species found in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea. We also investigated the genetic diversity (ITS rDNA) of symbiotic dinoflagellates Symbiodinium associated with these clams. Samples were collected from nine reefs on a cross-shelf gradient near Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. Two species, T. squamosa and T. maxima, were recorded, with the latter being the most abundant. Tridacna squamosina, a species recently reported in the northern Red Sea, was not found, suggesting that this species is not present or is very rare in our study region. All tridacnids sampled were found to harbor Symbiodinium grouped in Clade A, considered an opportunistic, heat-tolerant symbiont group in anemones and corals. The consistent association with Clade A Symbiodinium in central Red Sea tridacnids may reflect the consequence of adaptation to the relatively extreme conditions of the Red Sea. This study contributes to an ever-growing catalog of Red Sea biodiversity and serves as important baseline information for a region experiencing dynamic pressures.

  7. Overview on the welding technologies of CLAM steel and the DFLL TBM fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyu Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dual Functional Lithium Lead (DFLL blanket was proposed for its advantages of high energy exchange efficiency and on-line tritium extraction, and it was selected as the candidate test blanket module (TBM for China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR and the blanket for Fusion Design Study (FDS series fusion reactors. Considering the influence of high energy fusion neutron irradiation and high heat flux thermal load on the blanket, China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM steel was selected as the structural material for DFLL blanket. The structure of the blanket and the cooling internal components were pretty complicated. Meanwhile, high precision and reliability were required in the blanket fabrication. Therefore, several welding techniques, such as hot isostatic pressing diffusion bonding, tungsten inner gas welding, electron beam welding and laser beam welding were developed for the fabrication of cooling internals and the assembly of the blanket. In this work, the weldability on CLAM steel by different welding methods and the properties of as-welded and post-weld heat-treated joints were investigated. Meanwhile, the welding schemes and the assembly strategy for TBM fabrication were raised. Many tests and research efforts on scheme feasibility, process standardization, component qualification and blanket assembly were reviewed.

  8. Two new miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements in the genome of the clam Donax trunculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šatović, Eva; Plohl, Miroslav

    2017-10-01

    Repetitive sequences are important components of eukaryotic genomes that drive their evolution. Among them are different types of mobile elements that share the ability to spread throughout the genome and form interspersed repeats. To broaden the generally scarce knowledge on bivalves at the genome level, in the clam Donax trunculus we described two new non-autonomous DNA transposons, miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs), named DTC M1 and DTC M2. Like other MITEs, they are characterized by their small size, their A + T richness, and the presence of terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). DTC M1 and DTC M2 are 261 and 286 bp long, respectively, and in addition to TIRs, both of them contain a long imperfect palindrome sequence in their central parts. These elements are present in complete and truncated versions within the genome of the clam D. trunculus. The two new MITEs share only structural similarity, but lack any nucleotide sequence similarity to each other. In a search for related elements in databases, blast search revealed within the Crassostrea gigas genome a larger element sharing sequence similarity only to DTC M1 in its TIR sequences. The lack of sequence similarity with any previously published mobile elements indicates that DTC M1 and DTC M2 elements may be unique to D. trunculus.

  9. Fishery of the short-necked clam Paphia undulata in Southern Negros Occidental, Central Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Villarta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study documents the fishery of the short-necked clam Paphia undulata in coastal waters of southern Negros Occidental. Catch and effort estimates were determined based on daily records of compressor divers gathered between February-July 2008 in Himamaylan City and July 2008-May 2009 in the town of Hinigaran. Fishing and marketing practices in both areas were also documented and population biology information noted.Compared to earlier conditions, present fishing patterns show a worsened stage of overexploitation primarily characterized by collection of predominantly small and immature (mostly <45 mm shell lengths sizes. Intensity/duration and location of fishing also varied due to both abundance and demand factors.The difference in sizes of clams and the varying fishing durations in each area suggest a non-uniform pattern of settlement resulting most likely from differential larval recruitment, the likely factors causing the local boom and bust fishery. The larger and long term extent of the effect of these factors can only be further investigated by parallel 2-3 year fishery-dependent and -independent surveys

  10. A quantitative estimation of the energetic cost of brown ring disease in the Manila clam using Dynamic Energy Budget theory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flye Sainte Marie, J.G.; Jean, F.; Paillard, C.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Brown ring disease (BRD) in the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, is a bacterial disease caused by the pathogen Vibrio tapetis. This disease induces the formation of a characteristic brown conchiolin deposit on the inner shell and is associated with a decrease in condition index indicating that

  11. PARTICLE REMOVAL RATES BY THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS, ITS BURROW, AND A COMMENSAL CLAM: EFFECTS ON ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant intertidal inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the bivalve Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities by the shrimp and by its commensal clam, as well as particle se...

  12. Biomarker responses and contamination levels in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum for biomonitoring the Lagoon of Venice (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Binelli, Andrea; Parolini, Marco; Locatello, Lisa; Marin, Maria Gabriella

    2010-03-01

    A multibiomarker approach was used to assess effects of environmental contaminants in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum from the Lagoon of Venice. Bivalves were collected in 8 sites of the Lagoon (Campalto, Marghera, Palude del Monte, Valle di Brenta, Cà Roman, San Servolo, Fusina and Canale Dese), differently influenced by both anthropogenic impact and natural conditions. The following biomarkers were chosen: total haemocyte count and lysozyme activity in cell-free haemolymph as immunomarkers, acetylcholinesterase activity in gills as a biomarker of exposure to neurotoxic compounds, vitellogenin-like protein levels in both digestive gland and cell-free haemolymph as a biomarker of exposure to estrogenic compounds, and survival-in-air widely used to evaluate general stress conditions in clams. In addition, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) and its breakdown products (DDE, DDD), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) were measured in clams. Results demonstrated that the integrated approach between biomarkers and chemical analyses in R. philippinarum is a useful tool in biomonitoring the Lagoon of Venice. The biomarker responses suggested quite similar contamination levels in the entire Lagoon, although the relative impact of differing classes of pollutants changed among sites according to potential sources, as chemical analyses demonstrated. Overall, among the sampling sites investigated, Palude del Monte can represent an environmental risk area, bearing in mind its peculiar use for clam culture.

  13. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest). Common Littleneck Clam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    cells in clam (P. tenerrima) in having December and January (Quayle 1943). w , , radiating ribs more prominent than The growth of gametes reaches a...reproductive cycle levels in intertidal mollusks of of Protothaca stamine ’ using histo- California. Veliger 14(4):365-372. logical, wet weight-dry

  14. Radio-resistance of some bacterial pathogens in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) and mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licciardello, J.J.; D'Entremont, D.L.; Lundstrom, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation decimal reduction doses were determined for E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Strept. faecalis, Staph, aureus, and the Total Plate Count in a soft-shell clam or mussel substrate. Factors to be considered for designing and irradiation bacterial-decontamination process for shellfish are discussed

  15. Intra-specific diet shift in manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) as revealed by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes and fatty acid biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Y.; Shin, K.

    2011-12-01

    Manila clams sampled in Seonjae Island, Korea with shell lengths (SL) below 19.76 mm in average showed a significantly depleted carbon and nitrogen isotope values (Pcultured in IFHRI. The result of fatty acid composition of manila clams in relation to size or growth rate suggests that fast growing clams would have rapid metabolism of fatty acids not required by the animals and an accumulation of the essential fatty acids (PUFA). In addition, their higher energy requirement and more active state of development would further diminish lipid reserve of the species.

  16. Prevalence and Density of Digenetic Trematode Metacercariae in Clams and Oysters from Western Coastal Regions of the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja

    2017-08-01

    A survey was performed to know the recent infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae in clams and oysters from 4 sites in western coastal regions of the Republic of Korea (=Korea). Four species of clams (Mactra veneriformis, Ruditapes philippinarum, Cyclina sinensis, and Saxidomus purpuratus) were collected from Taean-gun, Chungcheongnam-do (Province), Buan-gun (County) and Gochang-gun, Jeollabuk-do, and oysters, Crassostrea gigas, from Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do were transferred to our laboratory on ice and examined by the artificial digestion method. The metacercariae of Himasthla alincia were detected in 3 species of clams, M. veneriformis, R. philippinarum, and C. sinensis from the 3 surveyed areas. The positive rate and the mean density per clam infected were 98.9% (30.8 metacercariae) in M. veneriformis, 60.0% (5.0) in R. philippinarum, and 96.0% (28.4) in C. sinensis. The positive rate (mean density) of Acanthoparyphium tyosenense metacercariae in M. veneriformis was 50.0% (2.1) from Taean-gun and 70.0% (2.8) from Gochang-gun. The metacercariae of Parvatrema spp. were detected in M. veneriformis and R. philippinarum from Taean-gun and Gochang-gun; the positive rate (mean density) was 63.3% (4,123) and 50.0% (19) in M. veneriformis, and 6.7% (126) and 100% (238) in R. philippinarum from the 2 regions, respectively. The metacercariae of Gymnophalloides seoi were detected in all 30 oysters from Shinan-gun, and their average density per oyster was 646. From the above results, it has been confirmed that more than 3 species of metacercariae are prevalent in clams from the western coastal regions, and G. seoi metacercariae are still prevalent in oysters from Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea.

  17. Clam wave energy converter. Report for period July 1979 to December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    Work by the Sea Energy Asociates Ltd - Lanchester Polytechnic Wave Energy Group on the Clam device since the April 1979 feasibility study has shown it to be a well developed and viable device capable of extracting energy economically from sea waves. The experience of the team includes mooring, structural and device tests from 1/100th to 1/10th scale in narrow and wide tanks, Draycote Reservoir and on Loch Ness. Theoretical and semi-empirical modelling has become increasingly important. Recently a test rig to assess a 1/10th scale power take off system, based on a Wells turbine, has been completed. The philosophy of the project team has been to aim for a device as simple as possible, with a small number of moving parts in order to minimise maintenance problems.

  18. Comparative Study of the Accumulation of Ni in Different Tissues of Mussels and Soft Clams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalkiadakis O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two bivalves, the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the soft clam Callista chione were exposed to various Ni concentrations for a total period of 20 days, and then a depuration period of 10 days followed. Nickel accumulation in gills, mantle and the remaining body of the animals was measured after 5, 10, 15 and 20 days of exposure to Ni-contaminated seawater. The two organisms showed different behavior regarding Ni accumulation in all three tissues examined. In all concentrations, Ni accumulation increased with time in all three tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis with gills being the most effective accumulator per dry mass. On the other hand, Callista chione showed an initial response to Ni contamination the first 5 days, followed by stabilization or even a slight decrease of Ni accumulation.

  19. Combined proteomic and metallomic analyses in Scrobicularia plana clams to assess environmental pollution of estuarine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Raúl; Santos, Hugo Miguel; Bebianno, Maria João; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis; Capelo, José Luis

    2016-12-15

    Estuaries are very important ecosystems with great ecological and economic value, but usually highly impacted by anthropogenic pressure. Thus, the assessment of pollution levels in these habitats is critical in order to evaluate their environmental quality. In this work, we combined complementary metallomic and proteomic approaches with the aim to monitor the effects of environmental pollution on Scrobicularia plana clams captured in three estuarine systems from the south coast of Portugal; Arade estuary, Ria Formosa and Guadiana estuary. Multi-elemental profiling of digestive glands was carried out to evaluate the differential pollution levels in the three study areas. Then, proteomic analysis by means of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed twenty-one differential proteins, which could be associated with multiple toxicological mechanisms induced in environmentally stressed organisms. Accordingly, it could be concluded that the combination of different omic approaches presents a great potential in environmental research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of antioxidant enzymes of clam Ruditapes philippinarum as biomarker to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, Ying; Sui, Yadong; Xiao, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The typical organic pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) anthracene was selected as a contaminant to investigate its effects on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The results show that SOD, CAT and GSH-Px had diff erent induction and inhibition reactions to anthracene stress, and that three diff erent organs in R. philippinarum (visceral mass, muscle tissue and mantle) had diff erent sensitivities to anthracene stress. This study suggest that SOD activities of the visceral mass, CAT activitities of the mantle and the visceral mass, and GSH-Px activity of the muscle tissue could be used as sensitive indicators of anthracene stress in R. philippinarum.

  1. Parasites of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus from Western Johor Straits, Malaysian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the apicomplexa as well as other parasites infecting organs/tissues of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus, from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly by hand picking, in November and December 2013. Histological techniques were performed, stained using Masson's Trichrome protocol and observed under light microscope. The results showed that gonad and gill were the most infected organs followed by digestive gland, intestine and adductor muscle. No pathology condition was observed in the mantle. Histophatological examination showed that the gregarine, Nematopsis, unidentified coccidian and Perkinsus were found in the gill and gonad, and also in the numerous hemocytes. Other pathological conditions such as bacteria-like inclusion and intracellular bacteria were also observed in the same organs. Further investigations are needed particularly on other molluscs present at the study area. Understanding the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  2. The Manila clam population in Arcachon Bay (SW France): Can it be kept sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Cécile; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Gam, Mériame; Paroissin, Christian; Bru, Noëlle; Caill-Milly, Nathalie

    2010-02-01

    The venerid clam Ruditapes philippinarum is the most prominent suspension-feeding bivalve inhabiting muddy intertidal seagrass beds in Arcachon Bay (SW France). It is exploited by fishermen, and Arcachon Bay ranks number one in France in terms of production and total biomass of this species. Previous studies revealed a decrease in the standing stock of R. philippinarum since 2003 and unbalanced length-frequency distributions with a lack of juveniles and of adults > 40 mm. Consequently, the population dynamics of this bivalve were studied at four intertidal sites and one oceanic site in Arcachon Bay. As clam size structure did not allow classical dynamics computations, field monitoring was coupled with field experiments (tagging-recapture) over two years. Monitoring of condition index and gonadal maturation stages highlighted a high variability in spawning number and intensity between sites. Recruitment events in the exploited area varied spatially but with uniformly low values. Von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) parameters ( K, L∞) were determined using Appeldoorn and ELEFAN methods. In the exploited sites in the inner lagoon, K was relatively high (mean = 0.72 yr - 1 ) but L∞ was low (mean = 41.1 mm) resulting in a moderate growth performance index (Φ' = 2.99). Growth parameters were not correlated with immersion time and L∞ was different between sites. Comparison of mortality coefficients ( Z) between cage experiments and field monitoring suggested that fishing accounts for 65-75% of total adult mortality. Low recruitment, a low growth rate and a normal mortality rate led to low somatic production (4.1 and 8.7 g Shell-Free Dry Weight (SFDW) m - 2 yr - 1 ) and an annual P/ B ratio from 0.44 to 0.92 yr - 1 . Under current conditions, the possibility of a sustainable population in Arcachon Bay will strongly depend on recruitment success and fishing management.

  3. Influence of the invasive Asian clam Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae) on estuarine epibenthic assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilarri, M. I.; Souza, A. T.; Antunes, C.; Guilhermino, L.; Sousa, R.

    2014-04-01

    One of the most widespread invasive alien species (IAS) in aquatic ecosystems is the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea. Several studies have shown that C. fluminea can cause large-scale changes in macrozoobenthic assemblages; however, very few attempted to investigate the effects of this IAS on mobile epibenthic species, such as fishes and crustaceans. In this context, the influence of C. fluminea on epibenthic species was investigated during one year by comparing the associated epibenthic fauna in three nearby sites of the Minho estuary (NW of the Iberian Peninsula), wherein the abiotic conditions are similar but the density of the Asian clam is highly different. From a total of 13 species, six were significantly influenced by C. fluminea; five responded positively, namely the brown shrimp Crangon crangon, the European eel Anguilla anguilla, the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, the brown trout Salmo trutta fario and the great pipefish Syngnathus acus, whereas the shore crab Carcinus maenas was negatively influenced. However, stomach contents analysis revealed that fish and crustacean species do not feed on C. fluminea, suggesting that this IAS is still not a large component of the diet of higher trophic levels in this estuarine ecosystem. Our results suggest that the structure provided by C. fluminea shells is likely to be one of the main factors responsible for the differences observed. C. fluminea physical structure seems to influence the epibenthic associated fauna, when found in densities higher than 1000 ind./m2, with sedentary small-bodied crustaceans and fishes being mainly attracted by the increasing in habitat complexity and consequent enhancement of heterogeneity and shelter availability.

  4. Ecotoxicological evaluation of tributyltin toxicity to the equilateral venus clam, Gomphina veneriformis (Bivalvia: Veneridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiyun; Kim, Rosa; Park, Jung Jun; Shin, Hyun Chool; Lee, Jung Sick; Cho, Hyeon Seo; Lee, Yeon Gyu; Kim, Jongkyu; Kwak, Inn-Sil

    2012-03-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is the most common pesticide in marine and freshwater environments. To evaluate the potential ecological risk posed by TBT, we measured biological responses such as growth rate, gonad index, sex ratio, the percentage of intersex gonads, filtration rate, and gill abnormalities in the equilateral venus clam (Gomphina veneriformis). Additionally, the biochemical and molecular responses were evaluated in G. veneriformis exposed to various concentrations of TBT. The growth of G. veneriformis was significantly delayed in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to all tested TBT concentrations. After TBT was administered to G. veneriformis, the gonad index decreased and the sex balance was altered. The percentage of intersex gonads also increased significantly in treated females, whereas no intersex gonads were detected in the solvent control group. Additionally, intersex gonads were detected in male G. veneriformis specimens exposed to relatively high TBT concentrations (20 μg L⁻¹). The filtration rate was also reduced in a dose-dependent manner in TBT-exposed G. veneriformis. We also noted abnormal gill morphology in TBT-exposed G. veneriformis. Furthermore, increases in antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in TBT-exposed G. veneriformis clams, regardless of dosage. Vitellogenin gene expression also increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner in G. veneriformis exposed to TBT. These results provide valuable information regarding our understanding of the toxicology of TBT in G. veneriformis. Moreover, the responses of biological and molecular factors could be utilized as information for risk assessments and marine monitoring of TBT toxicity. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Whole-Genome and Transcriptome of the Manila Clam (Ruditapes philippinarum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Seyoung; Kim, Yun-Ji; Markkandan, Kesavan; Shin, Wonseok; Oh, Sumin; Woo, Jiyoung; Yoo, Jongsu; An, Hyesuck; Han, Kyudong

    2017-06-01

    The manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, is an important bivalve species in worldwide aquaculture including Korea. The aquaculture production of R. philippinarum is under threat from diverse environmental factors including viruses, microorganisms, parasites, and water conditions with subsequently declining production. In spite of its importance as a marine resource, the reference genome of R. philippinarum for comprehensive genetic studies is largely unexplored. Here, we report the de novo whole-genome and transcriptome assembly of R. philippinarum across three different tissues (foot, gill, and adductor muscle), and provide the basic data for advanced studies in selective breeding and disease control in order to obtain successful aquaculture systems. An approximately 2.56 Gb high quality whole-genome was assembled with various library construction methods. A total of 108,034 protein coding gene models were predicted and repetitive elements including simple sequence repeats and noncoding RNAs were identified to further understanding of the genetic background of R. philippinarum for genomics-assisted breeding. Comparative analysis with the bivalve marine invertebrates uncover that the gene family related to complement C1q was enriched. Furthermore, we performed transcriptome analysis with three different tissues in order to support genome annotation and then identified 41,275 transcripts which were annotated. The R. philippinarum genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of potential genetic studies, a reference genome for comparative analysis of bivalve species and unraveling mechanisms of biological processes in molluscs. We believe that the R. philippinarum genome will serve as an initial platform for breeding better-quality clams using a genomic approach. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Abundance of Vibrio cholerae, V. vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) from Long Island sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jessica L; Lüdeke, Catharina H M; Bowers, John C; DeRosia-Banick, Kristin; Carey, David H; Hastback, William

    2014-12-01

    Vibriosis is a leading cause of seafood-associated morbidity and mortality in the United States. Typically associated with consumption of raw or undercooked oysters, vibriosis associated with clam consumption is increasingly being reported. However, little is known about the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in clams. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters and clams harvested concurrently from Long Island Sound (LIS). Most probable number (MPN)-real-time PCR methods were used for enumeration of total V. cholerae, V. vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus, and pathogenic (tdh(+) and/or trh(+)) V. parahaemolyticus. V. cholerae was detected in 8.8% and 3.3% of oyster (n = 68) and clam (n = 30) samples, with levels up to 1.48 and 0.48 log MPN/g in oysters and clams, respectively. V. vulnificus was detected in 97% and 90% of oyster and clam samples, with median levels of 0.97 and -0.08 log MPN/g, respectively. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in all samples, with median levels of 1.88 and 1.07 log MPN/g for oysters and clams, respectively. The differences between V. vulnificus and total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels in the two shellfish species were statistically significant (P oysters than in hard clams. Additionally, the data suggest differences in vibrio populations between shellfish harvested from different growing area waters within LIS. These results can be used to evaluate and refine illness mitigation strategies employed by risk managers and shellfish control authorities. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Morphological and functional characterization of hemocytes from two deep-sea vesicomyid clams Phreagena okutanii and Abyssogena phaseoliformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tame, Akihiro; Ozawa, Genki; Maruyama, Tadashi; Yoshida, Takao

    2018-03-01

    Deep-sea vesicomyid clams harboring intracellular symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria are often dominant in chemosynthetic animal communities. Although they are known to have erythrocytes, little is known about other hemocytes. To investigate the types and roles of various hemocytes in vesicomyid clams, we performed morphological, histochemical and functional characterization of the hemocytes in two species, Phreagena okutanii, collected from 873 to 978 m depth, and Abyssogena phaseoliformis, from 5199 to 5355 m. Both were found to have three types of hemocytes: erythrocytes (ERCs), eosinophilic granulocytes (EGs), and basophilic granulocytes (BGs). The ERCs contain hemoglobin in the cytoplasm, with basophilic vacuoles containing acid polysaccharide, neutral lipids, and peroxidase. The EGs were found to contain acid polysaccharides and eosinophilic granules containing lysosomal enzymes, acid and alkaline phosphatases, chloroacetate esterase, and peroxidase. Although BGs had some basophilic granules with alkaline phosphatase, they lacked acid phosphatase and acid polysaccharides. The EGs and BGs were shown to have phagocytic ability, while the ERCs exhibited no phagocytosis. The EGs showed higher phagocytic activity as well as a higher phagosome-lysosome fusion rate than BGs. The hemocytes of the two vesicomyid species differed in the intracellular structures. In A. phaseoliformis, ERCs additionally contained neutral polysaccharides in vacuoles and had vesicles with acinus-like acidic mucus in the cytoplasm, neither of which were observed in P. okutanii. The eosinophilic granules in the EGs had heteromorphically-elongated shapes containing homogeneously electron-dense material in P. okutanii, but were more spherical and composed of fibrous structures in A. phaseoliformis. The difference in hemocytes between the two clams seems to be reflective of phylogenetically differentiated lineages adapting to differing conditions in their respective deep-sea environments

  8. Bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to short-neck clam (Paphia undulata) from sediment matrices in mudflat ecosystem of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Hwai, Tan Shau

    2017-06-01

    The bioaccumulation and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were characterized in sediment and Paphia undulata (short-neck clam) from six mudflat areas in the west coasts of Peninsular Malaysia. The concentrations of total PAHs varied from 357.1 to 6257.1 and 179.9 ± 7.6 to 1657.5 ± 53.9 ng g -1 dry weight in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. PAHs can be classified as moderate to very high level of pollution in sediments and moderate to high level of pollution in short-neck clams. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs and principal component analysis indicate both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources with significant dominance of pyrogenic source. The first PAHs biota-sediment accumulation factors and relative biota-sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. Evaluation of PAH levels in sediments and short-neck clams indicates that short-neck clam could be introduced as a good biomonitor in mudflats. The results also demonstrated that under environmental conditions, the sedimentary load of hydrocarbons appears to be one of the factors controlling their bioavailability to biota.

  9. Distribution of 137Cs activities in clams, Tivela mactroidea collected along the northern coast of Venezuela and the island of Margarita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Alfonso, J.A.; Cordoves, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Clam meats were obtained directly from the fishermen on the beaches in front of where the clams were collected at eight sites; seven along the northern coast of Venezuela and one on the northern coast of the island of Margarita (Venezuela). Marine sediments were also collected in the same corresponding areas as the clams. 137 Cs was determined both in clam meats and the marine sediments by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry employing a hyperpure germanium detector. About 5 kg portions of clam meats were washed and dried in the laboratory, before 500 cm 3 volumes were transferred and weighed in the measuring containers. Similarly, 500 cm 3 volumes of marine sediments that were dried and ground to pass a 85 μm sieve were transferred to the measuring containers. The samples were counted for 150,000 seconds of real time. The 137 Cs activity of the clam meats ranged from -1 (our detection limit) to 0.36 Bq x kg -1 (dried weigh). These values are all within the range of values considered for environmental fallout from the nuclear weapons tests. Finally, all the values for the corresponding marine sediments were below our detection limit of 0.1 Bq x kg -1 of 137 Cs (dried weigh). (author)

  10. Wave actions and topography determine the small-scale spatial distribution of newly settled Asari clams Ruditapes philippinarum on a tidal flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Ryogen; Saito, Hajime; Tanaka, Yoshio; Higano, Junya; Kuwahara, Hisami

    2012-03-01

    There are many studies on spatial distributions of Asari clam Ruditapes philippinarum adults on tidal flats but few have dealt with spatial distributions of newly settled Asari clam (physical/topographical conditions on tidal flats. We examined small-scale spatial distributions of newly settled individuals on the Matsunase tidal flat, central Japan, during the low spring tides on two days 29th-30th June 2007, together with the shear stress from waves and currents on the flat. The characteristics of spatial distribution of newly settled Asari clam markedly varied depending on both of hydrodynamic and topographical conditions on the tidal flat. Using generalized linear models (GLMs), factors responsible for affecting newly settled Asari clam density and its spatial distribution were distinguished between sampling days, with "crest" sites always having a negative influence each on the density and the distribution on both sampling days. The continuously recorded data for the wave-current flows at the "crest" site on the tidal flat showed that newly settled Asari clam, as well as bottom sediment particles, at the "crest" site to be easily displaced. Small-scale spatial distributions of newly settled Asari clam changed with more advanced benthic stages in relation to the wave shear stress.

  11. Systems-level modeling the effects of arsenic exposure with sequential pulsed and fluctuating patterns for tilapia and freshwater clam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.-Y.; Tsai, J.-W.; Ju, Y.-R.; Liao, C.-M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to use quantitative systems-level approach employing biotic ligand model based threshold damage model to examine physiological responses of tilapia and freshwater clam to sequential pulsed and fluctuating arsenic concentrations. We tested present model and triggering mechanisms by carrying out a series of modeling experiments where we used periodic pulses and sine-wave as featured exposures. Our results indicate that changes in the dominant frequencies and pulse timing can shift the safe rate distributions for tilapia, but not for that of freshwater clam. We found that tilapia increase bioenergetic costs to maintain the acclimation during pulsed and sine-wave exposures. Our ability to predict the consequences of physiological variation under time-varying exposure patterns has also implications for optimizing species growing, cultivation strategies, and risk assessment in realistic situations. - Systems-level modeling the pulsed and fluctuating arsenic exposures.

  12. Systems-level modeling the effects of arsenic exposure with sequential pulsed and fluctuating patterns for tilapia and freshwater clam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.-Y. [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Tsai, J.-W. [Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Ecology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Ju, Y.-R. [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Liao, C.-M., E-mail: cmliao@ntu.edu.t [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    The purpose of this paper was to use quantitative systems-level approach employing biotic ligand model based threshold damage model to examine physiological responses of tilapia and freshwater clam to sequential pulsed and fluctuating arsenic concentrations. We tested present model and triggering mechanisms by carrying out a series of modeling experiments where we used periodic pulses and sine-wave as featured exposures. Our results indicate that changes in the dominant frequencies and pulse timing can shift the safe rate distributions for tilapia, but not for that of freshwater clam. We found that tilapia increase bioenergetic costs to maintain the acclimation during pulsed and sine-wave exposures. Our ability to predict the consequences of physiological variation under time-varying exposure patterns has also implications for optimizing species growing, cultivation strategies, and risk assessment in realistic situations. - Systems-level modeling the pulsed and fluctuating arsenic exposures.

  13. Developmental Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Genes Involved in Larval Metamorphosis of the Razor Clam, Sinonovacula constricta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Donghong; Wang, Fei; Xie, Shumei; Sun, Fanyue; Wang, Ze; Peng, Maoxiao; Li, Jiale

    2016-04-01

    The razor clam Sinonovacula constricta is an important commercial species. The deficiency of developmental transcriptomic data is becoming the bottleneck of further researches on the mechanisms underlying settlement and metamorphosis in early development. In this study, de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed for S. constricta at different early developmental stages by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 paired-end (PE) sequencing technology. A total of 112,209,077 PE clean reads were generated. De novo assembly generated 249,795 contigs with an average length of 585 bp. Gene annotation resulted in the identification of 22,870 unigene hits against the NCBI database. Eight unique sequences related to metamorphosis were identified and analyzed using real-time PCR. The razor clam reference transcriptome would provide useful information on early developmental and metamorphosis mechanisms and could be used in the genetic breeding of shellfish.

  14. Combined Effects of Temperature and Seston Concentration on the Physiological Energetics of the Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Yoon Kang

    Full Text Available The suspension-feeding Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is a native species of the western Pacific that is now widely distributed around the globe because of its commercial importance. To determine the adaptive physiological responses to changing thermal and nutritional conditions, clearance, filtration, feces production, ammonium excretion, respiration rates, and scope for growth (SFG were measured in adult clams. The clams were exposed to 24 treatments involving the combination of four water temperatures (8, 13, 18, and 23°C and six concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM: 9.5 to 350.5 mg L(-1. Physiological rates were standardized by using the mean (480 mg of tissue dry weights of experimental clams using allometric equations between physiological variables and tissue dry weight. Higher clearance rates were recorded at higher temperatures and lower SPM concentrations, and these rates decreased with increasing SPM concentration at individual temperatures. Consumed energy increased with increasing temperature and SPM concentration, peaking at around 100-200 mg L(-1 at 18-23°C. Whereas fecal energy was largely determined by SPM concentration, ammonia excretion was mainly governed by temperature. Respiration rate studies revealed a predominant quadratic effect of temperature on the metabolism, indicating a lack of acclimatory adjustment of metabolic rate to rising temperature. SFG values were positive under almost all the treatment conditions and were much higher at higher SPM concentrations (> 45 mg L(-1, with the highest level being recorded at 18°C and 100-200 mg L(-1 SPM. Increased filtration rate offset the increased metabolic cost at warm temperatures. Our holistic findings suggest that a high degree of physiological plasticity allows R. philippinarum to tolerate the wide range of temperatures and SPM concentrations that are found in tidal flats, accounting in part for the successful distribution of this species over a

  15. Shell shape analysis and spatial allometry patterns of Manila Clam (Ruditapes philippinarium) in a mesotidal coastal lagoon

    OpenAIRE

    Caill-Milly, Nathalie; Bru, Noëlle; Mahé, Kélig; D'Amico, Franck

    2012-01-01

    While gradual allometric changes of shells are intrinsically driven by genotype, morphometrical shifts can also be modulated by local environmental conditions. Consequently the common use of a unique dimension (usually length) to assess bivalves’ growth may mask phenotypic differences in valve shape among populations. A morphometric exhaustive study was conducted on Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, by acquiring data in the French Arcachon Bay (intrasite phenotypic variability) and by com...

  16. Identification of larvae: The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), quagga mussel (Dreissena rosteriformis bugensis), and Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Black, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    There are presently four freshwater bivalves in the United States that produce larvae or veligers commonly found in the water column: two forms of Asian clams and two species of dreissenids. Portions of the geographic range of three of these bivalves, one species of Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), and quagga mussels (Dreissena rosteriformis bugensis), overlap, causing problems with larval identification. To determine which characteristics can be used to separate larval forms, adult Asian clams, quaggas, and zebra mussels were brought into the laboratory and induced to spawn, and the resulting larvae were reared. Hybrids between quaggas and zebra mussels were also produced, but not reared to maturity. Characteristics allowing for the most rapid and accurate separation of larvae were hinge length, shell length/height, shell shape, shell size, and the presence or absence of a foot and velum. These characteristics were observed in laboratory-reared larvae of known parentage and field-caught larvae of unknown parentage. In most cases, larvae of the Asian clam can be readily separated from those produced by either type of dreissenid on the basis of shell size and presence of a foot. Separating the gametes and embryos of the two types of dreissenids is not possible, but after shell formation, most of the larval stages can be distinguished. Hinge length, shell length/height, and the similarity in size of the shell valves can be used to separate straight-hinged, umbonal, pediveliger, and plantigrade larvae. Quagga × zebra mussel hybrids show characteristics of both parents and are difficult to identify.

  17. Survival and growth of the giant clam larvae utilizing zooxanthellae from Acropora valenciennesi, Tridacna crocea and Sarcophyton trocheliophorum

    OpenAIRE

    A. Niartiningsih; Magdalena Litaay; Niradhyna W. M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know the survival and growth of the giant clam larvae given zooxanthellae from different host. The field experiment was conducted from September ???November 2006 at hatchery of Marine Field Station Barrang Lompo Island, Makassar. Zooxanthellae hosts used were: (A) Table coral (Acropora valenciennesi); (B) Tridacna crocea, (C) soft coral (Sarcophyton trocheliophorum) and (D) control (no additional zooxanthellae). The Complete Randomized Design with four treatments ...

  18. Physiological responses to copper in giant clams: a comparison of two methods in revealing effects on photosynthesis in zooxanthellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfwing, Tina; Blidberg, Eva; Tedengren, Michael

    2002-08-01

    In the present work physiological responses to a short term, sub-lethal exposure to copper (5 microg Cu2 l(-1) were studied on two species of giant clams, Tridacna gigas and Hippopus hippopus. All giant clams (fam. Tridacnidae) maintain a symbiotic relationship with photo-synthesising microalgae (zooxanthellae) and the phytotoxic effects of this copper concentration were approached with two different end points: changes in oxygen production and maximal quantum yield (Fv/Fm). Additionally we measured respiration, whereby Pg:R ratios could be calculated for the system (algae and clam) and used as an indicator of stress. Cu accumulation was only determined for T. gigas and showed significantly higher tissue concentrations in exposed specimens (11.3 microg Cu g(-1) dry wt) compared to the controls (4.2 microg Cu g(-1)). Both species displayed significantly reduced Pg:R ratios due to exposure, mainly explained by lowered gross production. No indication of stress was shown in the fluorescence measurements and possible explanations are discussed in the paper. We propose that inhibitions in the slow kinetics of photosynthesis were not captured by this fluorescence parameter. Accordingly we suggest that measurements of maximum fluorescence yield should be accompanied by complementary parameters when studying pollutants with unclear phytotoxic mechanisms.

  19. Risk-based approach to appraise valve closure in the clam Corbicula fluminea in response to waterborne metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, C.-M.; Jou, L.-J.; Chen, B.-C.

    2005-01-01

    We developed a risk-based approach to assess how the valve closure behavior of Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea responds to waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd). We reanalyzed the valve closure response data from published literature to reconstruct the response time-dependent dose-response profiles based on an empirical three-parameter Hill equation model. We integrated probabilistic exposure profiles of measured environmental Cu and Cd concentrations in the western coastal areas of Taiwan with the reconstructed dose-response relationships at different integration times of response to quantitatively estimate the valve response risk. The risk assessment results implicate exposure to waterborne Cu and Cd may pose no significant risk to clam valve activity in the short-time response periods (e.g., <30 min), yet a relative high risk for valve closure response to waterborne Cu at response times greater than 120 min is alarming. We successfully linked reconstructed dose-response profiles and EC50-time relationships associated with the fitted daily valve opening/closing rhythm characterized by a three-parameter lognormal function to predict the time-varying bivalve closure rhythm response to waterborne metals. We parameterized the proposed predictive model that should encourage a risk-management framework for discussion of future design of biological monitoring systems. - A model was developed to link valve closure in clams to concentrations of metals in water

  20. Shell Shape Analysis and Spatial Allometry Patterns of Manila Clam (Ruditapes philippinarum in a Mesotidal Coastal Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Caill-Milly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While gradual allometric changes of shells are intrinsically driven by genotype, morphometrical shifts can also be modulated by local environmental conditions. Consequently the common use of a unique dimension (usually length to assess bivalves’ growth may mask phenotypic differences in valve shape among populations. A morphometric exhaustive study was conducted on Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, by acquiring data in the French Arcachon Bay (intrasite phenotypic variability and by comparing with other sites in the literature (intersite phenotypic variability. 2070 shells were subsampled, weighted, and automatically measured using TNPC software. Some ratios’ values indicate a relatively round and globular shape shell in comparison with other sites confirming poor conditions for some individuals. Among adult clams, three main morphological groups were identified and discussed according to spatial considerations. Allometric relations for pairs of shell descriptors were determined by testing classical linear and piecewise regression models on log-transformed relation of Huxley. A significant shape change correlated to size was observed; it corresponds to the second year of life of the clam. Relationships between density, disease, and shell shape are demonstrated and discussed related to other potential factors affecting shell shape. Finally, consequences on population regulation are addressed.

  1. Study of the toxic effects of flame retardant PBDE-47 on the clam Chamelea gallina (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatora Angela Angioni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenylether (PBDE-47 on the Chamelea gallina clam (according to current commercial regulations: Venus gallina. PBDEs, which are used as flame retardants in various industrial products, are classed as hazardous substances by Directive 2011/65/EU. They are bioaccumulative compounds, considered to be endocrine disruptors, genotoxic, neurotoxic and practically ubiquitous, and their concentration in the environment has considerably increased in recent years. The aim of this study is to establish the effects of PBDE-47 on Chamelea gallina: toxic power and any harmful effects on the gonads, bioaccumulation capacity in the tissues, and possible entry into the food chain. The research used 96-hour and 21-day experimental tests on clams housed in filtered seawater. The tests were preceded by a period of acclimatisation of the molluscs lasting five to seven days. The clams were fed on seaweed (Dunaliella tertiolecta. The choice of the toxic compound PBDE-47 was based on the high concentration, among the congeners of PBDE, found in some aquatic species. The study demonstrated that the concentration of the contaminant used did not alter the vital functions, cause significant levels of mortality or lead to evident alteration in the gonads of Chamelea gallina. However, the research demonstrated the bioaccumulation capacity of the bivalve mollusc, allowing PBDE-47 to enter the food chain.

  2. Toxicological effects induced by cadmium in gills of Manila clam ruditapes philippinarum using NMR-based metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Linbao; Liu, Xiaoli; You, Liping; Zhou, Di [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, CAS, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai (China); The Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yu, Junbao; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, CAS, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai (China); Feng, Jianghua [Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2011-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) has become an important heavy metal contaminant in the sediment and seawater along the Bohai Sea and been of great ecological risk due to its toxic effects to marine organisms. In this work, the toxicological effects caused by environmentally relevant concentrations (10 and 40 {mu}g L{sup -1}) of Cd were studied in the gill tissues of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure for 24, 48, and 96 h. Both low (10 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and high (40 {mu}g L{sup -1}) doses of Cd caused the disturbances in energy metabolism and osmotic regulation and neurotoxicity based on the metabolic biomarkers such as succinate, alanine, branched chain amino acids, betaine, hypotaurine, and glutamate in clam gills after 24 h of exposure. However, the recovery of toxicological effects of Cd after exposure for 96 h was obviously observed in clam to Cd exposures. Overall, these results indicated that NMR-based metabolomics was applicable to elucidate the toxicological effects of heavy metal contaminants in the marine bioindicator. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Atypical feeding behavior of Long-tailed Ducks in the wake of a commercial fishing boat while clamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Matthew; Osenton, Peter C.; White, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    A foraging group of Clangula hyemalis (Long-tailed Duck) was observed on 10 February 2010 diving behind a commercial boat that was clamming near Monomoy Island, Nantucket Sound, MA. We used a shotgun to collect 9 of the ducks, and our analyses of gizzard and gullet (esophagus and proventriculus) revealed 37 food items in the gizzard and 16 in the gullet. Mollusca were the dominant food in the gizzard (49%), whereas Crustacea were dominant in the gullet (57%). Crustacea were the second most important food in the gizzard (38%), whereas Mollusca were the second most important food in the gullet (31%). Relatively high volumes of the Amphipoda Caprella sp. (skeleton shrimp) and the Decopoda Crangon septemspinosa (Sand Shrimp) were recorded in the gullet and gizzard. Ensis directus (Atlantic Jackknife Clam) formed the greatest volume of Mollusca in the gizzard (15%) and in the gullet (15%). Long-tailed Ducks had fed on this Bivalvia and several other species of Mollusca that had no shell or broken shell when consumed. Many of the food organisms were apparently dislodged and some damaged by the clamming operation creating an opportunistic feeding strategy for the Long-tailed Ducks.

  4. Metabolic physiology of the invasive clam, Potamocorbula amurensis: the interactive role of temperature, salinity, and food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathan A; Chen, Xi; Stillman, Jonathon H

    2014-01-01

    In biological systems energy serves as the ultimate commodity, often determining species distributions, abundances, and interactions including the potential impact of invasive species on native communities. The Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis invaded the San Francisco Estuary (SFE) in 1986 and is implicated in the decline of native fish species through resource competition. Using a combined laboratory/field study we examined how energy expenditure in this clam is influenced by salinity, temperature and food availability. Measures of metabolism were made at whole organism (metabolic rate) and biochemical (pyruvate kinase (PK) and citrate synthase (CS) enzyme activities) levels. We found in the field, over the course of a year, the ratio of PK to CS was typically 1.0 suggesting that aerobic and fermentative metabolism were roughly equivalent, except for particular periods characterized by low salinity, higher temperatures, and intermediate food availabilities. In a 30-day laboratory acclimation experiment, however, neither metabolic rate nor PK:CS ratio was consistently influenced by the same variables, though the potential for fermentative pathways did predominate. We conclude that in field collected animals, the addition of biochemical measures of energetic state provide little additional information to the previously measured whole organism metabolic rate. In addition, much of the variation in the laboratory remained unexplained and additional variables, including reproductive stage or body condition may influence laboratory-based results. Further study of adult clams must consider the role of organismal condition, especially reproductive state, in comparisons of laboratory experiments and field observations.

  5. Establishing the norm of Cognitive Adaptive Test/Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CAT/CLAMS) in Chinese infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y C; Huang, C C; Hu, S C

    1998-01-01

    The Cognitive Adaptive Test/Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CAT/CLAMS) has been recommended as a useful diagnostic tool for cognitive delay. To provide wider application of this instrument as a general screening tool for pediatricians, a normative percentile graph from a large convenience sample of Chinese infants has been established. The effects of environmental factors on early language and adaptive development were also analyzed. A total of 402 normal infants aged 4 to 36 months attending well-child clinics were recruited. These infants were from all socioeconomic strata, and half were bilingual with Mandarin and Taiwanese. Grandmothers were the chief caretakers or co-caretakers in 28% of this population. The milestones were attained in a sequential and orderly fashion. In contrast to the adaptive ability, there was a wide variation in language acquisition between age 12 and 24 months. Multiple stepwise regression of demographic and environmental factors revealed that age was the main variance in CAT score (P = 0.0001). In CLAMS score, however, age and caretakers were the significant predictors (P = 0.0001). Infants cared for by both mothers and grandmothers had higher CLAMS score by two months over those cared by mothers only (P = 0.001). Those cared for by grandmothers only had lower language score than those by mothers only, though without statistical significance (P = 0.05). Bilingualism, birth order, numbers of siblings, familial structures, and parental socioeconomic status had no effect on early development.

  6. Freshwater Clams (Pilsbryoconcha Exilis) as an Potential Local Mineral Sources in Weaning Food to Overcome Stunting in Grobogan, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, S. R.; Anjani, Gemala; Wijayanti, Hartanti Sandi; Nuryanto

    2018-02-01

    Based on a preliminary survey in Grobogan Central Java, one of the local food that has a prospective nutrient content developed is freshwater clams. Results of PSG report in 2015, especially in Grobogan district with stunting problem of 31.5% consisting of 7.2% very short and 24.1% short. From the stunting event factor, the role of weaning food in the form of baby porridge is the most important component in the fulfillment of infant nutrition. The research is divided into two stages of the research is the initial stage to make the formulation process by way of freshwater clams, nutrient analysis, and formula calculation. The second stage is the process of formulation weaning food by way of formula making, nutrient analysis, and acceptance test of weaning food on the baby slurry is substituted by the freshwater clams. The influence statistically different substitution of freshwater clams on protein content (p=0.014), fat (p=0,041), carbohydrate (p=0,039), water (p=0,0001), ash (p=0.0001), iron (p=0.0001), and zinc (p=0.0001). There is no influence substitution of freshwater clams on energy content (p=0,129) and fiber (p=0,225). The percentage of favorite level on the acceptance test of color (p=0,005) and taste (p=0,006) was statistically different, but there was no difference flavour (p=0,913) and texture (p=0,198). freshwater clams flour is rich in iron and zinc content, so it can serve as local food, especially in Grobogan Central Java as a stunting handling. Obtained from the results of several formulations substituted of freshwater clams in formulation 2 is a formula that can meet the standards of KEPMENKES except on the content of protein and moisture content. Formula 2 acceptable to the panelists, except for the assessment of taste.

  7. Capillary crystallization and molecular-replacement solution of haemoglobin II from the clam Lucina pectinata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavira, José A.; Jesus, Walleska de; Camara-Artigas, Ana; López-Garriga, Juan; García-Ruiz, Juan M.

    2006-01-01

    The haemoglobin II from the clam L. pectinata has been crystallized using counter-diffusion in single capillary in the presence of agarose to improve crystal quality. Initial phases have been obtained by molecular replacement. Haemoglobin II is one of three haemoglobins present in the cytoplasm of the Lucina pectinata mollusc that inhabits the Caribbean coast. Using HBII purified from its natural source, crystallization screening was performed using the counter-diffusion method with capillaries of 0.2 mm inner diameter. Crystals of HbII suitable for data collection and structure determination were grown in the presence of agarose at 0.1%(w/v) in order to improve their quality. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4 2 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 152.35 Å, and diffracted X-rays to a resolution of better than 2.0 Å. The asymmetric unit is a homodimer with a corresponding Matthews coefficient (V M ) of 3.15 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 61% by volume

  8. Is metal contamination responsible for increasing aneuploidy levels in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum?

    KAUST Repository

    Piló, D.

    2016-11-03

    The present study assessed the metal genotoxicity potential at chromosome-level in the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum collected along different areas of the Tagus estuary. Higher levels of aneuploidy on gill cells were detected at the most sediment contaminated area both in May (31.7%) and October (36.0%) when compared to a less contaminated area over the same periods (20.3% and 29.0% respectively). Interestingly, metal bioaccumulation in gills was higher in the specimens collected at the least contaminated area with the exception of Pb. Indeed, the multivariate analysis revealed a stronger relation between aneuploidy and sediment contamination than between aneuploidy and the bioaccumulation of the metals. The temporal and spatial inconsistency found for the bioaccumulation of metals in R. philippinarum and the positive correlation between sediment contamination and aneuploidy at the most contaminated area suggest that these chromosome-level effects might be due to chronic metal contamination occurring in the Tagus estuary, rather than a direct result of the temporal variation of bioavailable contaminants. The vertical transmission phenomenon of bivalve aneuploidy levels may then be perpetuating those levels on clams from the most contaminated area. The present results shed light about the effect of metal toxicity at the chromosome-level in species inhabiting chronic contaminated areas and highlight the use of aneuploidy as an effective tool to identify persistent contamination in worldwide transitional waters.

  9. Characterization and function of carbonic anhydrases in the zooxanthellae-giant clam symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, B K; Yellowlees, D

    1998-03-22

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) has been purified from the host tissue of Tridacna gigas, a clam that lives in symbiosis with the dinoflagellate alga, Symbiodinium. At least two isoforms of CA were identified in both gill and mantle tissue. The larger (70 kDa) isoform is a glycoprotein with both N- and O-glycans attached and has highest homology to CAII. It is associated with the membrane fraction while the smaller (32 kDa) is present in the aqueous phase in both tissues. The 32 kDa CA has high homology with mammalian CAI at the N-terminus. Both isoforms cross-reacted with antibodies to CAII from chicken. Immunohistology demonstrated that the 70 kDa CA is present within the ciliated branchial filaments and cells lining the tertiary water channels in the gills of T. gigas. This is consistent with a role in the transport of inorganic carbon (Ci) to the haemolymph and therefore supply of Ci to the zooxanthellae. CA was also detected in mantle epithelial cells where it may also contribute to Ci supply to the zooxanthellae. The hyaline body and nerve tissue in the mantle express the 70 kDa CA where it may be involved in light sensing and nervous transmission.

  10. Overfishing population characteristics of razor clam, Ensis macha, from Independencia Bay, Peru, in 2004 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tarazona

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative monthly samplings, in 2004, were carried out to estimate the density and biomass of Ensis macha (Molina 1782, from Morro Quemado area, Bay Independence, Pisco. The present study analyzes biometric relationships, growth parameters and somatic production using the ELEFAN I routine and the Crisp’s method. During the year 2004 the rate of exploitation (E= 0.69 y-1 was significantly bigger than the values of 2003 and the monthly landings (maximum of 335 t and fishing effort (maximum of 848 trips were twice increased. These changes induced in the same year a significant decrease of population mean density (D= 54.13 ind. m-2 and the halfway reduction of somatic production (P= 81.99 gAFDW m-2 y-1 and P/B rate (0.38 y-1 values, regarding the values of the previous year. Also, a significant increment of total mortality rate (2.84 y-1 and the fishing mortality rate (1.97 y-1 were twice increased, regarding the previous year. It is assumed that the population of razor clams already was a overfishing commercial resource in the 2003 and that the increment of fishing pressure in the 2004, particularly during the second semester, intensified its overfishing resource condition.

  11. Sterilization of freeze dried manila clam (Ruditapea philippinarum) porridge for immuno-compromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Beom Seok; Park, Jae Nam

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and different conditions (vacuum packaging, antioxidant and freezing) on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of freeze dried Manila clam porridge (MCP) for immuno-compromised patient food. McP can be sterilized at 1 kGy to 10 kGy. the initial counts of total aerobic bacteria and yeast molds in the non-irradiated MCP were 2.4±0.5 and 1.2±0.3 log CFU g"-'1, respectively, but gamma irradiation significantly decreased the total aerobic bacteria to below the detection limit (1 log CFU g"-"1) (5 kGy). Moreover, gamma irradiation effectively eliminated yeasts/molds at dose below than 1 kGy. However, gamma irradiation accelerated the increase of lipid oxidation and therefore, decreased the sensory characteristics of MCP as irradiation dose increased. to improve the sensory qualities of gamma irradiated MCP, combination treatment (vacuum packaging, 0.1% vitamin c) were applied. there was no significant difference in the overall acceptance scores between the combined-treatment sample (5.6 points) and the non-irradiated samples (6.0). the results indicate that combination treatment (vacuum packaging, 0.1% vitamin c) may help to maintain the quality of MCP. therefore, it considered that irradiation of MCP with combined treatment and this is an effective method for the consumption as a special purpose food such as for space travel or immuno-compromised patients

  12. Morphometry, growth and reproduction of an Atlantic population of the razor clam Ensis macha (Molina, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Barón

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Ensis macha is a razor clam distributed throughout the coasts of southern Argentina and Chile. Even though it represents a valuable fishery resource, the exploitation of its Atlantic populations has begun only in recent years. This study provides the first estimates of growth rate, an interpretation of the reproductive cycle on the coast of the northern Argentine Patagonia and an analysis of the species morphometry. Growth was estimated by direct observation of growth rings on the valves by two observers. The reproductive cycle was interpreted by the analysis of temporal change of oocyte size frequency distributions. Parameter estimations for the von Bertalanffy equations respectively obtained by observers 1 and 2 were 154 and 153.7 mm for L?, 0.25 and 0.20 yr-1 for k, and -0.08 and -0.72 yr for t0. Two spawning peaks were detected: September-November 1999 and May-June 2000. However, mature females were found all year round. An abrupt change in the relationship between shell length and height was detected at 11.2 mm length.

  13. Preliminary study of HDA coating on CLAM steel followed by high temperature oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaoqiang, E-mail: newboy.chen@163.com; Huang, Qunying; Yan, Zilin; Song, Yong; Liu, Shaojun; Jiang, Zhizhong

    2013-11-15

    A hot-dip aluminizing process is expected to produce aluminide coatings on structural materials to resist tritium permeation, corrosion, and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects in the fusion reactor blanket. China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel, which is the candidate structural material for the LiPb blanket system in China, was coated with pure aluminum and with an Al–Si alloy. Factors affecting the thickness and morphology of the aluminide coatings were studied. After the hot-dipping treatment, FeAl{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} were observed at the Al/steel interface. The existence of silicon in the molten aluminum suppressed the growth of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5}, built up the thickness of FeAl{sub 3} slightly, and contributed to reducing the thickness of the intermetallic layer. The brittle phase of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} had completely transformed to ductile phases of FeAl{sub 2}, FeAl and α-Fe(Al) after high temperature heat-treatment in air. Kirkendall voids were found in the diffusion layer, due to the rapid interdiffusion of iron and aluminum during oxidation. Cracks and pores were observed on the coating surface and at the interlayer. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the oxide layer.

  14. Complement C3 gene: Expression characterization and innate immune response in razor clam Sinonovacula constricta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Maoxiao; Niu, Donghong; Wang, Fei; Chen, Zhiyi; Li, Jiale

    2016-08-01

    Complement component 3 (C3) is central to the complement system, playing an important role in immune defense, immune regulation and immune pathology. Several C3 genes have been characterized in invertebrates but very few in shellfish. The C3 gene was identified from the razor clam Sinonovacula constricta, referred to here as Sc-C3. It was found to be highly homologous with the C3 gene of Ruditapes decussatus. All eight model motifs of the C3 gene were found to be included in the thiolester bond and the C345C region. Sc-C3 was widely expressed in all healthy tissues with expression being highest in hemolymph. A significant difference in expression was revealed at the umbo larvae development stage. The expression of Sc-C3 was highly regulated in the hemolymph and liver, with a distinct response pattern being noted after a challenge with Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus. It is therefore suggested that a complicated and unique response pathway may be present in S. constricta. Further, serum of S. constricta containing Sc-C3 was extracted. This was activated by LPS or bacterium for verification for function. The more obvious immune function of Sc-C3 was described as an effective membrane rupture in hemocyte cells of rabbit, V. parahemolyticus and Vibrio anguillarum. Thus, Sc-C3 plays an essential role in the immune defense of S. constricta. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a Taqman real-time PCR assay for rapid detection and quantification of Vibrio tapetis in extrapallial fluids of clams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Bidault

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio tapetis is known as the causative agent of Brown Ring Disease (BRD in the Manila clam Venerupis (=Ruditapes philippinarum. This bivalve is the second most important species produced in aquaculture and has a high commercial value. In spite of the development of several molecular methods, no survey has been yet achieved to rapidly quantify the bacterium in the clam. In this study, we developed a Taqman real-time PCR assay targeting virB4 gene for accurate and quantitative identification of V. tapetis strains pathogenic to clams. Sensitivity and reproducibility of the method were assessed using either filtered sea water or extrapallial fluids of clam injected with the CECT4600T V. tapetis strain. Quantification curves of V. tapetis strain seeded in filtered seawater (FSW or extrapallial fluids (EF samples were equivalent showing reliable qPCR efficacies. With this protocol, we were able to specifically detect V. tapetis strains down to 1.125 101 bacteria per mL of EF or FSW, taking into account the dilution factor used for appropriate template DNA preparation. This qPCR assay allowed us to monitor V. tapetis load both experimentally or naturally infected Manila clams. This technique will be particularly useful for monitoring the kinetics of massive infections by V. tapetis and for designing appropriate control measures for aquaculture purposes.

  16. Nutrients and clam contamination by Escherichia coli in a meso-tidal coastal lagoon: Seasonal variation in counter cycle to external sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Maria João; Soares, Florbela; Matias, Domitília; Vale, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sources of nutrients and E. coli in Ria Formosa linked to tourism in summer. • Lower nutrient values and clam contamination by E. coli in summer. • Bactericide effect of temperature and solar radiation causes lower E. coli. • Higher biological consumption of nutrients in warmer periods. • Results mirror possible effects of climate changes on coastal lagoons. - Abstract: The clam Ruditapes decussatus was transplanted from a natural recruitment area of Ria Formosa to three sites, surveyed for nutrients in water and sediments. Specimens were sampled monthly for determination of Escherichia coli, condition index and gonadal index. Higher nutrient values in low tide reflect drainage, anthropogenic sources or sediment regeneration, emphasising the importance of water mixing in the entire lagoon driven by the tide. Despite the increase of effluent discharges in summer due to tourism, nutrient concentrations and E. coli in clams were lower in warmer periods. The bactericide effect of temperature and solar radiation was better defined in clams from the inlet channel site than from sites closer to urban effluents. High temperature in summer and torrential freshwater inputs to Ria Formosa may anticipate climate change scenarios for south Europe. Seasonal variation of nutrients and clam contamination may thus point to possible alterations in coastal lagoons and their ecosystem services

  17. Microcystin uptake and biochemical responses in the freshwater clam Corbicula leana P. exposed to toxic and non-toxic Microcystis aeruginosa: Evidence of tolerance to cyanotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thanh-Luu; Shimizu, Kazuya; Dao, Thanh-Son; Hong-Do, Lan-Chi; Utsumi, Motoo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the accumulation and adverse effects of toxic and non-toxic Microcystis in the edible clam Corbicula leana . Treated clams were exposed to toxic Microcystis at 100 μg of MC (microcystin)-LR eq  L -1 for 10 days. The experimental organism was then placed in toxin-free water and fed on non-toxic Microcystis for the following 10 days for depuration. Filtering rates (FRs) by C. leana of toxic and non-toxic Microcystis and of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris as a control were estimated. Adverse effects were evaluated though the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Clam accumulated MCs (up to 12.7 ± 2.5 μg g -1 dry weight (DW) of free MC and 4.2 ± 0.6 μg g -1 DW of covalently bound MC). Our results suggest that although both toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria caused adverse effects by inducing the detoxification and antioxidant defense system, the clam was quite resistant to cyanotoxins. The estimated MC concentration in C. leana was far beyond the World Health Organization's (WHO) provisional tolerable daily intake (0.04 μg kg -1  day -1 ), suggesting that consuming clams harvested during cyanobacterial blooms carries a high health risk.

  18. Microcystin uptake and biochemical responses in the freshwater clam Corbicula leana P. exposed to toxic and non-toxic Microcystis aeruginosa: Evidence of tolerance to cyanotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Luu Pham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the accumulation and adverse effects of toxic and non-toxic Microcystis in the edible clam Corbicula leana. Treated clams were exposed to toxic Microcystis at 100 μg of MC (microcystin-LReq L−1 for 10 days. The experimental organism was then placed in toxin-free water and fed on non-toxic Microcystis for the following 10 days for depuration. Filtering rates (FRs by C. leana of toxic and non-toxic Microcystis and of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris as a control were estimated. Adverse effects were evaluated though the activity of catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione S-transferase (GST. Clam accumulated MCs (up to 12.7 ± 2.5 μg g−1 dry weight (DW of free MC and 4.2 ± 0.6 μg g−1 DW of covalently bound MC. Our results suggest that although both toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria caused adverse effects by inducing the detoxification and antioxidant defense system, the clam was quite resistant to cyanotoxins. The estimated MC concentration in C. leana was far beyond the World Health Organization's (WHO provisional tolerable daily intake (0.04 μg kg−1 day−1, suggesting that consuming clams harvested during cyanobacterial blooms carries a high health risk.

  19. Enhanced trace element concentrations in tissues of the clam Ruditapes decussatus transplanted to areas influenced by human activities (Ria Formosa, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Botelho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine the extent to which human activities near the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon influence the accumulation of trace elements (TE in Ruditapes decussatus, individuals were transplanted from a natural bank located in the lower lagoon to three sites located in clam growth grounds under the influence of a small city (Faro, a fish farming centre (Olhão and a site near the lagoon inlet (Lavajo. Concentrations were determined in substrate of the clam grounds and in the digestive gland, gills, mantle plus siphons, and remaining tissues of clams in four periods of the year. These measurements were accomplished with the monthly survey of the gametogenic stages, condition index, proteins, glycogen, total lipids, pH and osmolarity of hemolymph. Arsenic, Cu, Mn, V, Cr and Pb were preferentially linked to the digestive gland, while Cd was linked to the gills. TE concentrations in the digestive gland and remaining tissues were higher in winter, most likely reflecting additional inputs associated with rain. The lack of disruptions in biological parameters and the prolonged period of spawning and gonad recovery in clams suggest that the current TE availability in the lagoon has a minor influence on the reproductive cycle and hence on clam production.

  20. Accumulation and elimination profiles of paralytic shellfish poison in the short-necked clam Tapes japonica fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsur, Mohamad; Takatani, Tomohiro; Yamaguchi, Yasunaga; Sagara, Takefumi; Noguchi, Tamao; Arakawa, Osamu

    2007-02-01

    The paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-producing dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum (Gc) was fed to the short-necked clam Tapes japonica, and the accumulation, transformation and elimination profiles of PSP were investigated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization (HPLC-FLD). The short-necked clams ingested most of the Gc cells (4 x 10(6) cells) supplied as a bolus at the beginning of the experiment, and accumulated a maximal amount of toxin (181 nmol/10 clams) after 12 hr. The rate of toxin accumulation at that time was 16%, which rapidly decreased thereafter. During the rearing period, a variation in toxin composition, derived presumably from the transformation of toxin analogues in the clams, was observed, including a reversal of the ratio of C2 to C1, and the appearance of carbamate (gonyautoxin (GTX) 2, 3) and decarbamoyl (dc) derivatives (decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX) and dcGTX2, 3), which were undetectable in Gc cells. The total amount of toxin contained in clams and residue (remaining Gc cells and/or excrement in the rearing tank) gradually declined, and only about 1% of the supplied toxin was detected at the end of the experiment.

  1. Analysis of trace elements in the shells of short-necked clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia) with respect to reconstruction of individual life history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Jumpei; Sakamoto, Wataru

    1998-01-01

    Strontium (Sr) concentration in the shells of short-necked clams collected at different locations (Shirahama, warm area and Maizuru, cold area, Japan) was analyzed by two methods, PIXE and EPMA. The Sr concentration of external surface of shell umbo, which was made during short term at early benthic phase, was analyzed by PIXE, and was ranged from 1000 to 3500 ppm for individuals. The Sr concentration of clams collected at Shirahama showed positive correlation with shell length (SL) in individuals with SL < 31 mm, whereas clams collected at Maizuru did not show significant correlation. This result may be caused from the difference of the spawning seasons between two areas. The Sr concentration of cross section of shell umbo, which develops thicker continuously during their life to form faint stratum structure, was analyzed by EPMA along the line across the stratum structure. Some surges and long term waving patterns of the Sr concentration were observed. These results suggest that the life histories of individual clams could be recorded in the shell umbo cross sections as variations of trace elements and analyses of trace elements could clarify the histories of individual clams. (author)

  2. Toxicity and the fractional distribution of trace metals accumulated from contaminated sediments by the clam Scrobicularia plana exposed in the laboratory and the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, J., E-mail: judit.kalman@uca.es [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Bonnail-Miguel, E. [Department of Physical-Chemistry, University of Cadiz, Poligono Industrial Rio San Pedro s/n, 11,510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Smith, B.D. [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Bury, N.R. [Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Science, King' s College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Rainbow, P.S. [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    The relationship between the subcellular distribution of accumulated toxic metals into five operational fractions (subsequently combined into presumed detoxified and non-detoxified components) and toxicity in the clam Scrobicularia plana was investigated under different laboratory exposures. Clams were exposed to metal contaminated media (water and diet) and analysed for the partitioning of accumulated As, Cu and Zn into subcellular fractions. In general, metallothionein-like proteins, metal-rich granules and cellular debris in different proportions acted as main storage sites of accumulated metals in the clam soft tissues for these three metals. No significant differences were noted in the accumulation rates of As, Cu and Zn of groups of individuals with or without apparent signs of toxicity after up to 30 days of exposure to naturally contaminated sediment mixtures. There was, however, an increased proportional accumulation of Cu in the non-detoxified fraction with increased Cu accumulation rate in the clams, suggesting that the Cu uptake rate from contaminated sediments exceeded the combined rates of elimination and detoxification of Cu, with the subsequent likelihood for toxic effects in the clams. - Highlights: • Scrobicularia plana accumulated As, Cu and Zn from naturally toxic sediments. • Toxic metals were accumulated in detoxified and non-detoxified components. • Cu accumulation in the non-detoxified pool increased with increased Cu uptake rate. • Cu uptake rate exceeded combined loss and detoxification rates to cause toxicity.

  3. Toxicity and the fractional distribution of trace metals accumulated from contaminated sediments by the clam Scrobicularia plana exposed in the laboratory and the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, J.; Bonnail-Miguel, E.; Smith, B.D.; Bury, N.R.; Rainbow, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the subcellular distribution of accumulated toxic metals into five operational fractions (subsequently combined into presumed detoxified and non-detoxified components) and toxicity in the clam Scrobicularia plana was investigated under different laboratory exposures. Clams were exposed to metal contaminated media (water and diet) and analysed for the partitioning of accumulated As, Cu and Zn into subcellular fractions. In general, metallothionein-like proteins, metal-rich granules and cellular debris in different proportions acted as main storage sites of accumulated metals in the clam soft tissues for these three metals. No significant differences were noted in the accumulation rates of As, Cu and Zn of groups of individuals with or without apparent signs of toxicity after up to 30 days of exposure to naturally contaminated sediment mixtures. There was, however, an increased proportional accumulation of Cu in the non-detoxified fraction with increased Cu accumulation rate in the clams, suggesting that the Cu uptake rate from contaminated sediments exceeded the combined rates of elimination and detoxification of Cu, with the subsequent likelihood for toxic effects in the clams. - Highlights: • Scrobicularia plana accumulated As, Cu and Zn from naturally toxic sediments. • Toxic metals were accumulated in detoxified and non-detoxified components. • Cu accumulation in the non-detoxified pool increased with increased Cu uptake rate. • Cu uptake rate exceeded combined loss and detoxification rates to cause toxicity

  4. Favored use of anti-predator netting (APN) applied for the farming of clams leads to little benefits to industry while increasing nearshore impacts and plastics pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, L I

    2015-02-15

    An overview of the efficacy of anti-predator netting (APN) used by the shellfish industry is presented. There is little support that the currently favored APN effectively protects farmed clams from predators. Evidence does suggest that APN leads to impacts and pollution. APN is an attractant for predators, e.g., crabs, by providing a refuge within Ulva sp. which attaches onto the surface of APN. APN entrains silt and organic matter and increases sediment temperatures degrading habitat underneath the APN. APN present hazards to fish and wildlife and is a source of plastics to the marine environment. The continued use of ineffective APN does not serve either the environment or industry well, and many of these issues could be addressed through the alternate use of "ancient" technology used by aboriginal people to maintain clam gardens; building of rock walls optimizing the amount of clam habitat thereby increasing numbers without the use of APN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Insights into the establishment of the Manila clam on a tidal flat at the southern end of an introduced range in Southern California, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew M Talley

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystem modifications have contributed to the spread of introduced species through alterations of historic disturbance regimes and resource availability, and increased propagule pressure. Frequency of occurrence of the Manila clam (Venerupis phillipinarum, Veneridae in Southern California estuaries has increased from absent or sparse to common since the mid-1990s. Potential invasion vectors include seafood sales and aquaculture, and spread from established northern populations over decades. The clam's post-settlement habitat preferences are, however, uncertain in this region. Our project aimed to identify factors associated with established patches of the clam within a bay toward the southern end of this introduced range. During summer 2013, we sampled 10 tidal flat sites in Mission Bay, San Diego; each containing an area with and without hard structure (e.g., riprap, boulders. We measured likely environmental influences (e.g., sediment variables, distance to ocean. Manila clam densities across the bay were most strongly associated with site, where highest densities were located in the northern and/or back halves of the bay; and weakly correlated with lower porewater salinities. Within sites, Manila clam density was enhanced in the presence of hard structure in most sites. Prevailing currents and salinity regimes likely contribute to bay wide distributions, while hard structures may provide suitable microhabitats (refuge from predators and physical stress and larval entrapment within sites. Results provide insights into decisions about future shoreline management efforts. Finally, we identify directions for future study to better understand and therefore predict patterns of establishment of the Manila clam in the southern portion of its introduced range.

  6. Can ecological history influence response to pollutants? Transcriptomic analysis of Manila clam collected in different Venice lagoon areas and exposed to heavy metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Massimo; Matozzo, Valerio; Pauletto, Marianna; Di Camillo, Barbara; Giacomazzo, Matteo; Boffo, Luciano; Binato, Giovanni; Marin, Maria Gabriella; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Chronic exposure to environmental pollutants can exert strong selective pressures on natural populations, favoring the transmission over generations of traits that enable individuals to survive and thrive in highly impacted environments. The lagoon of Venice is an ecosystem subject to heavy anthropogenic impact, mainly due to the industrial activities of Porto Marghera (PM), which led to a severe chemical contamination of soil, groundwater, and sediments. Gene expression analysis on wild Manila clams collected in different Venice lagoon areas enabled to identify differences in gene expression profiles between clams collected in PM and those sampled in clean areas, and the definition of molecular signatures of chemical stress. However, it remains largely unexplored to which extent modifications of gene expression patterns persists after removing the source of contamination. It is also relatively unknown whether chronic exposure to xenobiotics affects the response to other chemical pollutants. To start exploring such issues, in the present study a common-garden experiment was coupled with transcriptomic analysis, to compare gene expression profiles of PM clams with those of clams collected in the less impacted area of Chioggia (CH) during a period under the same control conditions. Part of the two experimental groups were also exposed to copper for seven days to assess whether different "ecological history" does influence response to such pollutant. The results obtained suggest that the chronic exposure to chemical pollution generated a response at the transcriptional level that persists after removal for the contaminated site. These transcriptional changes are centered on key biological processes, such as defense against either oxidative stress or tissue/protein damage, and detoxification, suggesting an adaptive strategy for surviving in the deeply impacted environment of Porto Marghera. On the other hand, CH clams appeared to respond more effectively to copper

  7. Expression of a symbiosis-specific gene in Symbiodinium type A1 associated with coral, nudibranch and giant clam larvae

    KAUST Repository

    Mies, M.

    2017-05-24

    Symbiodinium are responsible for the majority of primary production in coral reefs and found in a mutualistic symbiosis with multiple animal phyla. However, little is known about the molecular signals involved in the establishment of this symbiosis and whether it initiates during host larval development. To address this question, we monitored the expression of a putative symbiosis-specific gene (H+-ATPase) in Symbiodinium A1 ex hospite and in association with larvae of a scleractinian coral (Mussismilia hispida), a nudibranch (Berghia stephanieae) and a giant clam (Tridacna crocea). We acquired broodstock for each host, induced spawning and cultured the larvae. Symbiodinium cells were offered and larval samples taken for each host during the first 72 h after symbiont addition. In addition, control samples including free-living Symbiodinium and broodstock tissue containing symbionts for each host were collected. RNA extraction and RT-PCR were performed and amplified products cloned and sequenced. Our results show that H+-ATPase was expressed in Symbiodinium associated with coral and giant clam larvae, but not with nudibranch larvae, which digested the symbionts. Broodstock tissue for coral and giant clam also expressed H+-ATPase, but not the nudibranch tissue sample. Our results of the expression of H+-ATPase as a marker gene suggest that symbiosis between Symbiodinium and M. hispida and T. crocea is established during host larval development. Conversely, in the case of B. stephanieae larvae, evidence does not support a mutualistic relationship. Our study supports the utilization of H+-ATPase expression as a marker for assessing Symbiodinium-invertebrate relationships with applications for the differentiation of symbiotic and non-symbiotic associations. At the same time, insights from a single marker gene approach are limited and future studies should direct the identification of additional symbiosis-specific genes, ideally from both symbiont and host.

  8. Coping with seawater acidification and the emerging contaminant diclofenac at the larval stage: A tale from the clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Marco; Chemello, Giulia; Finos, Livio; Ingrosso, Gianmarco; Giani, Michele; Marin, Maria G

    2016-10-01

    Seawater acidification could alter the susceptibility of marine organisms to emerging contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals. In this study, the combined effects of seawater acidification and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac on survival, growth and oxidative stress-related parameters (catalase activity and lipid peroxidation) in the larvae of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum were investigated for the first time. An experimental flow-through system was set up to carry out a 96-h exposure of clam larvae. Two pH levels (pH 8.0, the control, and pH 7.8, the predicted pH by the end of this century) were tested with and without diclofenac (0.5 μg/L). After 4 days, mortality was dramatically higher under reduced pH, particularly in the presence of diclofenac (62% of the larvae dead). Shell morphology was negatively affected by both acidification and diclofenac from the first day of exposure. The percentage of abnormal larvae was always higher at pH 7.8 than in controls, peaking at 98% in the presence of diclofenac after 96 h. Instead, shell length, shell height or the ratio of these values were only negatively influenced by reduced pH throughout the whole experiment. After 96 h, catalase activity was significantly increased in all larvae kept at pH 7.8, whereas no significant difference in lipid peroxidation was found among the treatments. This study demonstrates a high susceptibility of R. philippinarum larvae to a slight reduction in seawater pH. Furthermore, the results obtained highlight that acidification enhances the sensitivity of clam larvae to environmentally relevant concentrations of diclofenac. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Best management strategies for sustainable giant clam fishery in French Polynesia islands: answers from a spatial modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Van Wynsberge

    Full Text Available The giant clam Tridacna maxima has been largely overexploited in many tropical regions over the past decades, and was therefore listed in appendix II of the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES in 1985. In French Polynesia, several atolls and islands harbor the world's highest stocks of giant clams in very shallow and accessible areas, which are therefore highly vulnerable to fishing pressure. The local fishery authority (i.e., Direction des Resources Marines or "DRM" implemented several management schemes in 2002 to control and regulate fishing pressure. However, for further decisions DRM was missing a sensitivity analysis on the effectiveness of the possible management actions. Here, we report on the use of a deterministic Viable Population Analysis (VPA and spatially-explicit age-based population model that simulated the 30-year trajectory of a Tridacna maxima stock under different management approaches. Specifically, given various scenarios of intra-island larval dispersal, we tested which of No-take-Areas (NTAs, rotational closures, size limits, quotas, and restocking schemes would lead to the highest future stocks in Tubuai and Raivavae, two exploited islands of the Austral archipelago. For both islands, stock abundances were estimated in 2004/2010 and 2005/2010 respectively, and natural mortalities were assessed previously only in Tubuai. When compared to field data, the model successfully predicted the 2010 stocks for Tubuai, but proved to be less reliable for Raivavae, where natural mortality rates may well be different from those on Tubuai. For Tubuai, the spatial model suggested that reducing fishing effort (through fixed quotas and banning fishing below the 12 cm size limit (as currently implemented were the most effective management actions to sustain T. maxima populations into the future. Implementing NTAs was of poor effectiveness. NTAs increased giant clam stock inside the protected area, but also

  10. Size dependent bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity of gold nanoparticles in an endobenthic invertebrate: The Tellinid clam Scrobicularia plana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jinfen; Buffet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Poirier, Laurence; Amiard-Triquet, Claude; Gilliland, Douglas; Joubert, Yolaine; Pilet, Paul; Guibbolini, Marielle; Risso de Faverney, Christine; Roméo, Michèle; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have important technological applications resulting in an increased potential for release to the environment, and a greater possibility of toxicological effects. The marine bivalve Scrobicularia plana was exposed to AuNPs of size 5, 15 and 40 nm during a 16 d laboratory exposure at 100 μg Au L −1 . After exposure to AuNPs forming aggregates (>700 nm), the clams accumulated Au in their soft tissues. Biochemical (biomarkers) and behavioral (burrowing and feeding) responses were investigated. Au NPs were responsible of metallothionein induction (5, 40 nm), increased activities of catalase (15, 40 nm) and superoxide dismutase (40 nm) and of glutathione S-transferase by the three sizes of AuNPs indicating defense against oxidative stress. Exposure to AuNPs impaired burrowing behavior. However, it must be underlined that these effects were observed at a dose much higher than expected in the environment. - Highlights: ► AuNPs were aggregated to a maximum distribution peak at 0.6 μm in seawater. ► Scrobicularia plana accumulated Au with higher accumulation for bigger NPs. ► Induction of MT, CAT, SOD and GST showed oxidative stress in clams. ► TBARS levels advocated no significant oxidative damage in clams. ► Gold is an inert metal, ecotoxic effects are probably due to the nanoparticle form. - AuNPs were aggregated in seawater, Scrobicularia plana accumulated Au with higher accumulation for bigger NPs and increased activities of biomarkers showed oxidative stress.

  11. Early development, survival and growth rates of the giant clam Tridacna crocea (Bivalvia: Tridacnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mies

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tridacnid clams are conspicuous inhabitants of Indo-Pacific coral reefs and are traded and cultivated for the aquarium and food industries. In the present study, daily growth rates of larvae of the giant clam Tridacna crocea were determined in the laboratory during the first week of life. Adults were induced to spawn via intra-gonadal serotonin injection through the byssal orifice. After spawning oocytes were collected, fertilized and kept in 3 L glass beakers and raceways treated with antibiotics to avoid culture contamination. Larvae were fed twice with the microalga Isochrysis galbana and zooxanthellae were also offered twice during the veliger stage (days 4 and 6. Larval length was measured using a digitizing tablet coupled to a microcomputer. Larval mortality was exponential during the first 48 hours of life declining significantly afterwards. Mean growth rate was 11.3 μm day-1, increasing after addition of symbionts to 18.0 μm day-1. Survival increased to ca. 75% after the addition of zooxanthellae. The results describe the growth curve for T. crocea larvae and suggest that the acquisition of symbionts by larvae may be useful for larval growth and survival even before larvae have attained metamorphosis.Bivalves tridacnídeos são habitantes conspícuos dos recifes da região do Indo-Pacífico e são cultivados e comercializados para os mercados alimentício e aquarista. No estudo apresentado foram determinadas as taxas de crescimento diário durante a primeira semana de vida da larva do bivalve ornamental Tridacna crocea. As matrizes foram induzidas à desova por meio de uma injeção intragonadal de serotonina realizada através do orifício bissal. Após desova, ovócitos foram coletados, fertilizados e mantidos em béqueres de vidro e tanques de fluxo contínuo tratados com antibióticos para evitar contaminação. Larvas foram alimentadas em duas ocasiões com a microalga Isochrysis galbana e zooxantelas foram oferecidas também por

  12. Settlement, mortality and growth of the asari clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) for a collapsed population on a tidal flat in Nakatsu, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Naoaki; Kamimura, Satomi; Hamaguchi, Masami; Saito, Hajime; Iwano, Hideki; Egashira, Junichi; Fukuda, Yuichi; Tawaratsumida, Takahiko; Nagamoto, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Koichi

    2012-04-01

    Although fluctuation and decline in bivalve populations have been reported worldwide, the underlying processes are not yet fully understood. This lack of understanding is partly due to an absence of demographic information for the early post-settlement period. This is the case particularly for annual production of the asari clam (also commonly known as the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum) in Japan, which has greatly decreased in recent years. A remarkable decrease has been observed in the Nakatsu tidal flat, where current yields are less than 0.02% of the maximum yield. Possible explanations for this decline are: 1. limitation on recruitment due to overfishing; and 2. the demographic processes of growth and mortality have been altered by environmental changes, such as rise in seawater temperature or decrease in phytoplankton abundance. However, because of a lack of demographic information (e.g., the initial densities of larval settlement and mortality and growth rates post-settlement), the reasons for the decline, and the relative importance of each period in the life cycle in determining population abundance, remain unclear. Despite the decline, we observed high levels of recruitment of 0-year-class clams on the Nakatsu tidal flat in spring 2005, where more than 10,000 individuals m- 2 3-5 mm in shell length, estimated to have settled during the previous autumn, were observed. To obtain demographic information on the Nakatsu clams, we investigated two factors. First, we investigated the distribution of the 0-year-class clams and their rate of change in density as a combination of mortality, emigration and immigration on the whole tidal flat after a year. Second, we investigated the rate of change in the density and growth of clams after settlement in the center of the flat for 3 years. The rate of decrease in the density of the 0-year-class clams over the whole tidal flat after a year was greater at the stations where the initial density was higher. This

  13. Comparative bioaccumulation and toxicity of silver in different populations of the intra-sedimentary clam Macoma balthica exposed or not to metal contamination in their natural medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard-Triquet, C.; Geffard, A.; Boisson, F.; Ballan-Dufrancais, C.; Jeantet, A.Y.; Berthet, B.; Mouneyrac, C.

    1999-01-01

    Tolerance to pollutants was observed in living organisms chronically exposed in their environment and detoxification processes have been evoked to explain such observations. In the present study, this hypothesis has been tested in clams originating from an industrialized estuary (Loire, Fr) and from an area submitted only to low anthropogenic influx (Bay of Somme, Fr). The comparison was carried out at different contamination levels in clams exposed to silver (50 to 100 ng Ag.ml -1 till LT 50 when 50% lethality was reached), a metal which has been described as liable to be detoxified through insolubilization and/or binding to metallothionein (MT)

  14. Haemocytic leukemia in Prince Edward Island (PEI) soft shell clam (Mya arenaria): Spatial distribution in agriculturally impacted estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttray, Annette; Reinisch, Carol; Miller, Jason; Ernst, William; Gillis, Patricia; Losier, Melanie; Sherry, James

    2012-01-01

    Intensive farming of potatoes in Prince Edward Island (PEI) relies on the repeated and widespread application of fertilizers and pesticides. In PEI the main potato farming areas are in close proximity and drain directly to estuaries. Runoff from high agricultural activity watersheds could impact benthic organism health in the depositional zone of downstream estuaries. The estuarine filter feeder Mya arenaria (soft-shell clam) could be particularly vulnerable to both particle-adsorbed and water soluble contaminants. M. arenaria is susceptible to haemocytic leukemia. In May 2009, we established that heavily proliferated leukemia (HPL) prevalence was generally higher in PEI estuaries located downstream of high intensity potato farming (Dunk and Wilmot estuaries) watersheds than in estuaries downstream of lower intensity areas. Using Mab-1E10 based immunocytochemistry we observed that leukemic haemocytes from the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries were 1E10 negative whereas those from the Ox/Sheep estuary (low potato farming intensity) were 1E10 positive. The expression of genes in the p53 tumour suppressor pathway enabled us to differentiate groups of leukemic and normal M. arenaria, validating our diagnoses. In October 2009, we confirmed that HPL prevalence was elevated in the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries compared to reference (Souris River). Moreover, leukemia prevalence declined with distance from the river mouths along transects through the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries. The pesticides ß-endosulfan and α-endosulfan were detected in surface sediments from the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries, but not in sediments from either the Souris River or several other lower intensity potato farming watersheds. Our study provides evidence of an association between intensity of potato farming and prevalence of clam leukemia at downstream estuaries in PEI. - Highlights: ► We examined leukemia prevalence in PEI clams Mya arenaria. ► Prevalence was generally higher downstream of high intensity

  15. Haemocytic leukemia in Prince Edward Island (PEI) soft shell clam (Mya arenaria): Spatial distribution in agriculturally impacted estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muttray, Annette, E-mail: amuttray@rescan.com [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Reinisch, Carol, E-mail: creinisch@mbl.edu [Visiting Scientist Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Miller, Jason, E-mail: j.miller@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Ernst, William, E-mail: bill.ernst@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 45 Alderney Drive, Dartmouth, NS, Canada B2Y 2N6 (Canada); Gillis, Patricia, E-mail: patty.gillis@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Losier, Melanie, E-mail: melanie.losier@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Atlantic Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Environmental Science Centre, P.O. Box 23005 Moncton, NB, Canada E1A 6S8 (Canada); Sherry, James, E-mail: jim.sherry@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2012-05-01

    Intensive farming of potatoes in Prince Edward Island (PEI) relies on the repeated and widespread application of fertilizers and pesticides. In PEI the main potato farming areas are in close proximity and drain directly to estuaries. Runoff from high agricultural activity watersheds could impact benthic organism health in the depositional zone of downstream estuaries. The estuarine filter feeder Mya arenaria (soft-shell clam) could be particularly vulnerable to both particle-adsorbed and water soluble contaminants. M. arenaria is susceptible to haemocytic leukemia. In May 2009, we established that heavily proliferated leukemia (HPL) prevalence was generally higher in PEI estuaries located downstream of high intensity potato farming (Dunk and Wilmot estuaries) watersheds than in estuaries downstream of lower intensity areas. Using Mab-1E10 based immunocytochemistry we observed that leukemic haemocytes from the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries were 1E10 negative whereas those from the Ox/Sheep estuary (low potato farming intensity) were 1E10 positive. The expression of genes in the p53 tumour suppressor pathway enabled us to differentiate groups of leukemic and normal M. arenaria, validating our diagnoses. In October 2009, we confirmed that HPL prevalence was elevated in the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries compared to reference (Souris River). Moreover, leukemia prevalence declined with distance from the river mouths along transects through the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries. The pesticides ss-endosulfan and {alpha}-endosulfan were detected in surface sediments from the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries, but not in sediments from either the Souris River or several other lower intensity potato farming watersheds. Our study provides evidence of an association between intensity of potato farming and prevalence of clam leukemia at downstream estuaries in PEI. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined leukemia prevalence in PEI clams Mya arenaria. Black

  16. Bio-accumulation of some trace metals in the short-neck clam Paphia malabarica from Mandovi estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KrishnaKumari, L.; Kaisary, S.; Rodrigues, V.

    distributed along the coast of Goa and forms an inexpensive and delicious seafood among recorded as Ag/g dry weight in the whole soft tissue was 3.8, 30.3, 13.5, estuary, Goa. Clams were categorised into two groups, 25–35 mm (small size) and 35–40 mm (big size.... Concentration factor was determined as a ratio of mean metal content (dissolved) in water (Ag/l) and that in the soft tissue (Ag/kg wet weight). All the analyses were carried out in duplicate, and the average values are reported in this paper. 3. Results...

  17. Baseline of organotin pollution in fishes, clams, shrimps, squids and crabs collected from the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jadhav, S.; Bhosale, D.; Bhosle, N.B.

    is available. The present study was planned to assess organotin contamination levels in edible marine organisms collected from the fish markets of Goa, Karwar and Mumbai, the west coast of India. The sampling locations: Goa (15.5ºN, 73.9ºE), Karwar (14.8º... of Karwar is around 36,000 tonnes. Mumbai coast is about 140 km long. Mumbai is among busiest harbours on the west coast of India is known for industrial pollution. The fishes, clams, crabs and squids and shrimps were collected from local fish markets...

  18. Compatibility of CLAM steel weldments with static LiPb alloy at 550 Degree-Sign C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xizhang, E-mail: kernel.chen@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, ZhenJiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Shen Zheng; Li Peng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, ZhenJiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Madigan, Bruce [Montana Tech. of University of Montana, Butte, MT 59701 (United States); Huang Yuming; Lei Yucheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, ZhenJiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Huang Qunying [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 031 (China); Zhou Jianzhong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, ZhenJiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corrosion extent of weld zone is higher than that of HAZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thick martensite lath and large residual stress lead to higher corrosion rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr on the surface of weld zone decreases by about 50%, W increases slightly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer After 500 h and 1000 h of corrosion, weight losses are 0.272 mg/cm{sup 2} and 0.403 mg/cm{sup 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing of corrosion time, the corrosion rate decreases significantly. - Abstract: CLAM steel is considered as a structural material to be used in the Test Blanket Module as a barrier or blanket adjacent to liquid LiPb in fusion reactors. In this paper, CLAM steel is welded by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, and the compatibility of the weldment with liquid LiPb is tested. Specimens were corroded in static liquid LiPb, with corrosion times of 500 h and 1000 h, at 550 Degree-Sign C, and the corresponding weight losses are 0.272 mg/cm{sup 2} and 0.403 mg/cm{sup 2} respectively. Also the corrosion rate decreases with increased corrosion time. In the as-welded condition, corrosion resistance of the weld zone is higher than that of the HAZ (Heat Affected Zone). Likely, thick martensite lath and large residual stresses at the welding zone result in higher corrosion rates. The compatibility of CLAM steel weld joints with high temperature liquid LiPb can be improved to some extent through a post-weld tempering process. The surface of the as-welded CLAM steel is uniformly corroded and the concentration of Cr on the surface decreases by about 50% after corrosion. Penetration of LiPb into the matrix is observed for neither the as-welded nor the as-tempered conditions. Influenced by thick martensite lath and large residual stresses, the welded area, especially the weld zone, is easily corroded, therefore it is of primary importance to protect the welded area in the solid blanket of the fusion reactor.

  19. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). SURF CLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    ter across the vitelline membrane; the Male and female surf clams are identi- innqr germinal vesicle averages 0.79 cal in external appearance, and...Jones et al. ) (1978) reported age-size relationships In laboratcry experiments con- using cut and polished shells (Table ducted •t 21.7 0 C (71 0 F...and Long Island’s south period (4-6 weeks), due to a persist - shore, out. to a depth of 75 m (246 ent southerly flow of air;. and ft), because of the

  20. Effect of cadmium in the clam Ruditapes decussatus assessed by proteomic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chora, Suze [University of Algarve, CIMA, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, Campus de Gambelas, 8000-139 Faro (Portugal); University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis EA 4228 ECOMERS ' Ecosystemes Cotiers Marins et Reponses aux stress' Parc Valrose, BP 71, 06108 Nice cedex 2 (France); Starita-Geribaldi, Mireille [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Laboratory of Oral Microbiology, URE 01., Faculty of Odontology, Pole Universitaire Saint-Jean d' Angely, 24 avenue des Diables Bleus 06357 Nice cedex 4 (France); Guigonis, Jean-Marie [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Plateforme Bernard Rossi - Proteome Metabolome IFR50, Nice, F-06107 (France); Samson, Michel [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Plateforme Bernard Rossi - Proteome Metabolome IFR50, Nice, F-06107 (France); INSERM, Unite 638, Nice, F-06107 (France); Romeo, Michele [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis EA 4228 ECOMERS ' Ecosystemes Cotiers Marins et Reponses aux stress' Parc Valrose, BP 71, 06108 Nice cedex 2 (France); Bebianno, Maria Joao, E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [University of Algarve, CIMA, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, Campus de Gambelas, 8000-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2009-10-04

    Cadmium, an environmental stressor due to its toxicity, persistence and accumulation in biota, is widespread in the aquatic environment. Cadmium accumulation kinetics have revealed that Ruditapes decussatus has a high affinity to this metal. Proteomics is an effective tool to evaluate the toxic effects of contaminants. The aim of this study was to investigate the Cd effects in the gill and digestive gland of the sentinel species R. decussatus. Protein expression profiles (PEPs) in the clam tissues exposed to Cd (40 {mu}g l{sup -1}, 21 days) were compared to unexposed ones. Cd induces major changes in tissue-specific protein expression profiles in gill and digestive gland. This tissue dependent response results mainly from differences in Cd accumulation, protein inhibition and/or autophagy. An overall decrease of protein spots was detected in both treated tissues, being higher in gill. Some of the spots more drastically altered after pollutants exposure were excised and nine were identified by micro liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Proteins identified by homology search in databases included: three proteins (8-fold) up-regulated, one down-regulated, four suppressed and one induced. Cd induces major changes in proteins involved in cytoskeletal structure maintenance (muscle-type actin, adductor muscle actin and {beta}-tubulin), cell maintenance (Rab GDP) and metabolism (ALDH and MCAD, both identified by de novo sequencing) suggesting potential energetic change. They provide a valuable knowledge of Cd effects at biochemical and molecular levels in the gill and digestive gland of R. decussatus.

  1. Sterilization of freeze dried manila clam (Ruditapea philippinarum) porridge for immuno-compromised patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Beom Seok; Park, Jae Nam [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and different conditions (vacuum packaging, antioxidant and freezing) on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of freeze dried Manila clam porridge (MCP) for immuno-compromised patient food. McP can be sterilized at 1 kGy to 10 kGy. the initial counts of total aerobic bacteria and yeast molds in the non-irradiated MCP were 2.4±0.5 and 1.2±0.3 log CFU g{sup -}'1, respectively, but gamma irradiation significantly decreased the total aerobic bacteria to below the detection limit (1 log CFU g{sup -1}) (5 kGy). Moreover, gamma irradiation effectively eliminated yeasts/molds at dose below than 1 kGy. However, gamma irradiation accelerated the increase of lipid oxidation and therefore, decreased the sensory characteristics of MCP as irradiation dose increased. to improve the sensory qualities of gamma irradiated MCP, combination treatment (vacuum packaging, 0.1% vitamin c) were applied. there was no significant difference in the overall acceptance scores between the combined-treatment sample (5.6 points) and the non-irradiated samples (6.0). the results indicate that combination treatment (vacuum packaging, 0.1% vitamin c) may help to maintain the quality of MCP. therefore, it considered that irradiation of MCP with combined treatment and this is an effective method for the consumption as a special purpose food such as for space travel or immuno-compromised patients.

  2. Molecular characteristics of hemoglobins in blood clam and their immune responses to bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Zhang, Yanan; Jing, Zhao; Fan, Tingjun

    2017-06-01

    Bivalve hemoglobins have antibacterial activities, while the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In our study, three full-length cDNAs of hemoglobins from blood clam skHbs were obtained, encoding putative polypeptides of 147, 150, and 152 amino acids, respectively. Predicted advanced protein structures showed that the skHbs had amphipathic antibacterial structures, displayed the typical structural characteristics of proteins with globin-like fold containing numerous alpha-helixes, and forming a homodimeric skHbI and a heterotetrameric skHbII complex. After injected with alive and heat-killed Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, the mRNA levels of skHbI and skHbII were both significantly upregulated through increasing the expression of peptidoglycan recognition protein-like (PGRP-like) protein and Toll-like receptor (TLR-like) protein induced by peptidoglycan on the surface of the bacteria, but there were no obvious differences in their protein levels. Besides, reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected to participate in the resistance to B. subtilis. These implied that skHbs could involve in the innate immune responses to Gram-positive bacterial infection directly with their amphipathic structures and indirectly by increasing ROS production through PGRP triggering Toll pathway. In conclusion, our findings reveal the structural characteristics of skHbs and their mechanism against Gram-positive bacteria thereby providing the molecular evidence for fundamental innate antibacterial activities by invoking respiratory proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus budgets of bottom-cultured clam Ruditapes philippinarum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng-li; Zhang, An-guo; Yuan, Xiu-tang; Liang, Bin; Liu, Shu-xi

    2015-04-01

    In order to elucidate the role of bottom-cultured clams in the coastal nutrient cycle, the seasonal filtration, ingestion and biodeposition rates were in situ measured and carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budgets of Ruditapes philippinarum among four seasons were modeled. The results showed that the scope for growth of R. philippinarum in carbon (SFG(C)), nitrogen (SFG(N)), and phosphorus (SFG(P)) all varied significantly among seasons, with the highest values in spring. Meanwhile, SFG(C) was negative in summer, SFG(N) and SFG(P) were always positive throughout the year. The seasonal variations of SFG(C), SFG(N) and SFG(P) were -3.94-49.82 mg C x ind(-1) x d(-1), 0.72-9.49 mg N x ind(-1) x d(-1), and 0.15-3.06 mg P x ind(-1) x d(-1), respectively. The net growth efficiencies in carbon (K(C2)), nitrogen (K(N2)), and phosphorus (K(P2)) also showed a distinct seasonal pattern among seasons, and ranked as K(P2) > K(N2) > K(C2). The C, N, and P budgets illustrated that the R. philippinarum population relatively used more N and P than C for growth and efficiently transferred the pelagic primary production to a higher trophic level. The current study suggested that R. philippinarum bottom-cultured at large scale might play a dominant role in the nutrient cycle of the coastal ecosystem and should be considered as an important ecological component in coastal areas.

  4. A biomineralization study of the Indo-Pacific giant clam Tridacna gigas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, M. E.; Pérez-Huerta, A.; Aharon, P.; Street, S. C.

    2017-06-01

    The giant clam, Tridacna gigas, is an important faunal component of reef ecosystems of the Indo-Pacific region. In addition to its ecological role, shells of this bivalve species are useful bioarchives for past climate and environmental reconstructions. However, the biomineralization processes involved in shell aragonite deposition are insufficiently understood. Here, we present a study of the shell microstructure of modern specimens from Palm Island, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, and Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea (PNG), using a combination of petrography, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and stable carbon isotope ratios. Daily growth increments were recognizable in all specimens through ontogeny, and counting these growth lines provides a robust specimen age estimate. For the internal layers, paired increments of organized aragonitic needles and compact, oblong crystals were recognized in a specimen from PNG, whereas specimens from GBR were composed of shield-like crystals that were not definable at the microscale. The combination of nutrient availability, rainfall and solar irradiance are likely to be the most significant factors controlling shell growth and may explain the observed differences in microstructure. The external layer, identical in all specimens, was composed of dendritic microstructure that is significantly enriched in 13C compared to the internal layer, suggesting different metabolic controls on layer deposition. We propose that the mineralization of the internal and external layers is independent from each other and associated with the activity of specific mantles. Future studies using T. gigas shells as bioarchives should consider the microstructure as it reflects the environment in which the individual lived and the differences in mineralization pathways of internal and external layers.

  5. Highly restricted gene flow and deep evolutionary lineages in the giant clam Tridacna maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryanto, A.; Kochzius, M.

    2009-09-01

    The tropical Indo-West Pacific is the biogeographic region with the highest diversity of marine shallow water species, with its centre in the Indo-Malay Archipelago. However, due to its high endemism, the Red Sea is also considered as an important centre of evolution. Currently, not much is known about exchange among the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and West Pacific, as well as connectivity within the Indo-Malay Archipelago, even though such information is important to illuminate ecological and evolutionary processes that shape marine biodiversity in these regions. In addition, the inference of connectivity among populations is important for conservation. This study aims to test the hypothesis that the Indo-Malay Archipelago and the Red Sea are important centres of evolution by studying the genetic population structure of the giant clam Tridacna maxima. This study is based on a 484-bp fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene from 211 individuals collected at 14 localities in the Indo-West Pacific to infer lineage diversification and gene flow as a measure for connectivity. The analysis showed a significant genetic differentiation among sample sites in the Indo-West Pacific (Φst = 0.74, P < 0.001) and across the Indo-Malay Archipelago (Φst = 0.72, P < 0.001), indicating restricted gene flow. Hierarchical AMOVA revealed the highest fixation index (Φct = 0.8, P < 0.001) when sample sites were assigned to the following regions: (1) Red Sea, (2) Indian Ocean and Java Sea, (3) Indonesian throughflow and seas in the East of Sulawesi, and (4) Western Pacific. Geological history as well as oceanography are important factors that shape the genetic structure of T. maxima in the Indo-Malay Archipelago and Red Sea. The observed deep evolutionary lineages might include cryptic species and this result supports the notion that the Indo-Malay Archipelago and the Red Sea are important centres of evolution.

  6. Influence of different cooling rates on the microstructure of the HAZ and welding CCT diagram of CLAM steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Shuhui, E-mail: shzheng@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Wu Qingsheng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Huang Qunying [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Liu Shaojun; Han Yangyang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The evolution of microstructure in the weld HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) under welding thermal cycle was simulated by Gleeble-1500. The microstructures and properties of HAZ at different cooling rates were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microhardness test. The results showed that when the cooling rates ranged from 3600 K/min to 60 K/min, fully martensitic transformations were achieved, and the cooling rates had little influence on the microstructure and microhardness of martensite. The maximum cooling rate to form ferrite was 60 K/min. When the cooling rates ranged from 60 K/min to 1 K/min, the microhardness of the HAZ began to decrease due to the presence of ferrite, and the lath sizes grew up to 0.13-0.15 {mu}m. The critical cooling rate to gain fully ferrite was found to be slower than 1 K/min. The welding CCT diagram of CLAM steel was constructed and it showed that there were ferrite and martensite transformation regions only. The diagram made it possible to predict the microstructures and properties of HAZ and became an important tool to evaluate weldability of CLAM steel.

  7. Influence of different cooling rates on the microstructure of the HAZ and welding CCT diagram of CLAM steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shuhui; Wu Qingsheng; Huang Qunying; Liu Shaojun; Han Yangyang

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure in the weld HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) under welding thermal cycle was simulated by Gleeble-1500. The microstructures and properties of HAZ at different cooling rates were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microhardness test. The results showed that when the cooling rates ranged from 3600 K/min to 60 K/min, fully martensitic transformations were achieved, and the cooling rates had little influence on the microstructure and microhardness of martensite. The maximum cooling rate to form ferrite was 60 K/min. When the cooling rates ranged from 60 K/min to 1 K/min, the microhardness of the HAZ began to decrease due to the presence of ferrite, and the lath sizes grew up to 0.13-0.15 μm. The critical cooling rate to gain fully ferrite was found to be slower than 1 K/min. The welding CCT diagram of CLAM steel was constructed and it showed that there were ferrite and martensite transformation regions only. The diagram made it possible to predict the microstructures and properties of HAZ and became an important tool to evaluate weldability of CLAM steel.

  8. Development and validation of 89 novel expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite markers in blood clam, Tegillarca granosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Shuangshuang; Fang, Jun; Cai, Yilong; Chai, Xueliang; Xiao, Guoqiang

    2017-06-01

    Blood clam, Tegillarca granosa, is an important shellfish in Chinese mariculture industry. Investigative research in this species, such as genetic linkage mapping, requires a large panel of molecular markers. In present study, a total of 89 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed in T. granosa using the sequence database of Life Sciences Technology 454 next generation sequencing technology. All 89 loci were characterized in 20 individual clams from a natural population inhabiting Yueqing Gulf, Zhejiang Province, China. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus varied between 2 and 15, while the observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content varied between 0.000 and 1.000, 0.102 and 0.921, and 0.048 and 0.886, respectively. Of the 89 loci identified, 32 loci deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium following Bonferroni correction. Thirty nine markers, which were shown to be polymorphic in a full-sibling family, were tested in Mendelian segregations. As expected, 32 loci were co-dominantly segregated in a Mendelian fashion. These novel developed microsatellite markers represent useful research tools for investigation of population genetic structure and genetic diversity in this species.

  9. Histopathological survey of the mussel Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae and the clam Gari solida (Psammobiidae from southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Cremonte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 175 specimens of mussels, Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae, and 56 specimens of clams, Gari solida (Psammobiidae, were collected in natural beds and culture sites of southern Chile. Juvenile mussel specimens (3 cm of maximum length were free of parasites and diseases, whilst the commercial sized populations was parasitized by intracellular inclusions of bacteria-like organisms in the digestive gland epithelium and in the gills, by ciliates in the gills, turbellarians similar to Paravortex (Rhabocoela in the intestine lumen and copepods attached to the gills. In addition, the disseminated neoplasia disease was also present although in low prevalences. In the clam, G. solida, prokariotic inclusions were found in the digestive gland epithelium and bacteria-like organisms in the gills, often encapsulated by haemocytes; oocysts containing up to 8 sporozoites similar to Nematopsis (Apicomplexa in the connective tissue, causing haemocytic infiltration when the intensity of infection was high; ciliates belonging to two different species (one of them similar to Trichodina inhabiting the gills; and a turbellarian similar to Paravortex in the lumen of digestive system without apparent host reaction. The populations of the bivalve species here studied were devoid of serious pathogens.

  10. Conversion of Biowaste Asian Hard Clam (Meretrix lusoria) Shells into White-Emitting Phosphors for Use in Neutral White LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsung-Yuan; Wang, Chih-Min; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Lin, Hsiu-Mei

    2016-12-02

    The increasing volume and complexity of waste associated with the modern economy poses a serious risk to ecosystems and human health. However, the remanufacturing and recycling of waste into usable products can lead to substantial resource savings. In the present study, clam shell waste was first transformed into pure and well-crystallized single-phase white light-emitting phosphor Ca₉Gd(PO₄)₇:Eu 2+ ,Mn 2+ materials. The phosphor Ca₉Gd(PO₄)₇:Eu 2+ ,Mn 2+ materials were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method and the carbothermic reduction process, and then characterized and analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The structural and luminescent properties of the phosphors were investigated as well. The PL and quantum efficiency measurements showed that the luminescence properties of clam shell-based phosphors were comparable to that of the chemically derived phosphors. Moreover, white light-emitting diodes were fabricated through the integration of 380 nm chips and single-phase white light-emitting phosphors (Ca 0.979 Eu 0.006 Mn 0.015 )₉Gd(PO₄)₇ into a single package of a white light emitting diode (WLED) emitting a neutral white light of 5298 K with color coordinates of (0.337, 0.344).

  11. Conversion of Biowaste Asian Hard Clam (Meretrix lusoria Shells into White-Emitting Phosphors for Use in Neutral White LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Yuan Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing volume and complexity of waste associated with the modern economy poses a serious risk to ecosystems and human health. However, the remanufacturing and recycling of waste into usable products can lead to substantial resource savings. In the present study, clam shell waste was first transformed into pure and well-crystallized single-phase white light-emitting phosphor Ca9Gd(PO47:Eu2+,Mn2+ materials. The phosphor Ca9Gd(PO47:Eu2+,Mn2+ materials were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method and the carbothermic reduction process, and then characterized and analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD and photoluminescence (PL measurements. The structural and luminescent properties of the phosphors were investigated as well. The PL and quantum efficiency measurements showed that the luminescence properties of clam shell-based phosphors were comparable to that of the chemically derived phosphors. Moreover, white light-emitting diodes were fabricated through the integration of 380 nm chips and single-phase white light-emitting phosphors (Ca0.979Eu0.006Mn0.0159Gd(PO47 into a single package of a white light emitting diode (WLED emitting a neutral white light of 5298 K with color coordinates of (0.337, 0.344.

  12. Effects of LSP on micro-structures and residual stresses in a 4 mm CLAM steel weld joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xizhang, E-mail: chenxizhang@wzu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wenzhou University., Wenzhou 325035 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Fang, Yuanyuan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Shuyan; Kelleher, Joe F. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Zhou, Jianzhong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-05-15

    The effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on the distribution of residual stress and micro-structure of China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel weldment were investigated via neutron diffraction and optical microscope (OM). A pair of 4 mm CLAM steel plates joined by GTA welding. Special attention is paid to the generation of high level compressive residual stresses introduced by LSP. Residual stress in longitudinal, normal and transversal direction at weldment surface and longitudinal stress through thickness are evaluated via neutron diffraction. Compressive residual stress after LSP occurred at more than 90% areas within the weld joint, it is almost double the areas of compressive stress compare to weldment surface before LSP. The maximum compressive normal residual stress becomes to −183 MPa after LSP from −63 MPa before LSP. The Modification of surface micro-structures including weld zone (WZ), heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal (BM) are also discussed. Results to date demonstrate that laser shock processing has been a great potential method for the improvement of mechanical performance of components.

  13. Biomonitoring approach with mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk) and clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve, 1850) in the Lagoon of Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschino, Vanessa; Delaney, Eugenia; Meneghetti, Francesca; Ros, Luisa Da

    2011-06-01

    Transplanted Mytilus galloprovincialis and native Ruditapes philippinarum were deployed in 10 sampling stations with different pollution impact within the Lagoon of Venice to evaluate the temporal variations and the suitability of the following cytochemical and histochemical biomarkers just as indicators of environmental stress: lysosomal membrane stability, lipofuscins, neutral lipids and lysosome to cytoplasm volume ratio. The physiological status of the organisms was also investigated by determining the survival in air capability and the reburrowing rate (clams). The biological parameters were assessed in June and October. Furthermore, for a better definition of the environmental aspects of the study sites, heavy metal, PAH and PCB concentrations were also evaluated in the sediments. As a whole, the biological responses examined in both species from all the sampling sites showed significant differences between the two seasonal campaigns, only lysosomal membrane stability exhibited less variability. Pollutants in sediments generally showed low-intermediate contamination levels, few hotspots persisting mostly in the inner areas of the lagoon, the most influenced by the industrial zone. Transplanted mussels were more responsive than native clams and the biological responses of both species varied temporally. The range of the spatial variability was always narrow and reflected only partially the broader variability shown by the chemical content in the sediments. In this sense, biological responses seemed to be particularly influenced by the high temporal and spatial heterogeneity that characterise the Lagoon of Venice, as well as most of the transitional environments.

  14. Invasive zebra mussels (Driessena polymorpha) and Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) survive gut passage of migratory fish species: implications for dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Michael R.; Shoup, Daniel E.; Long, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction and spread of invasive species is of great concern to natural resource managers in the United States. To effectively control the spread of these species, managers must be aware of the multitude of dispersal methods used by the organisms. We investigated the potential for survival through the gut of a migrating fish (blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus) as a dispersal mechanism for two invasive bivalves: zebra mussel (Driessena polymorpha) and Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea). Blue catfish (N = 62) were sampled over several months from Sooner Lake, Oklahoma, transported to a laboratory and held in individual tanks for 48 h. All fecal material was collected and inspected for live mussels. Survival was significantly related to water temperature in the lake at the time of collection, with no mussels surviving above 21.1 C°, whereas 12 % of zebra mussels (N = 939) and 39 % of Asian clams (N = 408) consumed in cooler water survived gut passage. This research demonstrates the potential for blue catfish to serve as a dispersal vector for invasive bivalves at low water temperatures.

  15. Consequences of an uncertain mass mortality regime triggered by climate variability on giant clam population management in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Andréfouët, Serge; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Remoissenet, Georges

    2018-02-01

    Despite actions to manage sustainably tropical Pacific Ocean reef fisheries, managers have faced failures and frustrations because of unpredicted mass mortality events triggered by climate variability. The consequences of these events on the long-term population dynamics of living resources need to be better understood for better management decisions. Here, we use a giant clam (Tridacna maxima) spatially explicit population model to compare the efficiency of several management strategies under various scenarios of natural mortality, including mass mortality due to climatic anomalies. The model was parameterized by in situ estimations of growth and mortality and fishing effort, and was validated by historical and new in situ surveys of giant clam stocks in two French Polynesia lagoons. Projections on the long run (100 years) suggested that the best management strategy was a decrease of fishing pressure through quota implementation, regardless of the mortality regime considered. In contrast, increasing the minimum legal size of catch and closing areas to fishing were less efficient. When high mortality occurred due to climate variability, the efficiency of all management scenarios decreased markedly. Simulating El Niño Southern Oscillation event by adding temporal autocorrelation in natural mortality rates increased the natural variability of stocks, and also decreased the efficiency of management. These results highlight the difficulties that managers in small Pacific islands can expect in the future in the face of global warming, climate anomalies and new mass mortalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Enzymatic Hydrolysates of Razor Clam Sinonovacula constricta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity of razor clam hydrolysates produced using five proteases, namely, pepsin, trypsin, alcalase, flavourzyme and proteases from Actinomucor elegans T3 was investigated. Flavourzyme hydrolysate showed the highest level of degree of hydrolysis (DH (45.87% followed by A. elegans T3 proteases hydrolysate (37.84% and alcalase (30.55%. The A. elegans T3 proteases was observed to be more effective in generating small peptides with ACE-inhibitory activity. The 3 kDa membrane permeate of A. elegans T3 proteases hydrolysate showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 0.79 mg/mL. After chromatographic separation by Sephadex G-15 gel filtration and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography, the potent fraction was subjected to MALDI/TOF-TOF MS/MS for identification. A novel ACE-inhibitory peptide (VQY was identified exhibiting an IC50 of 9.8 μM. The inhibitory kinetics investigation by Lineweaver-Burk plots demonstrated that the peptide acts as a competitive ACE inhibitor. The razor clam hydrolysate obtained by A. elegans T3 proteases could serve as a source of functional peptides with ACE-inhibitory activity for physiological benefits.

  17. Three vibrio-resistance related EST-SSR markers revealed by selective genotyping in the clam Meretrix meretrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qing; Yue, Xin; Chai, Xueliang; Wang, Hongxia; Liu, Baozhong

    2013-08-01

    The clam Meretrix meretrix is an important commercial bivalve distributed in the coastal areas of South and Southeast Asia. In this study, marker-trait association analyses were performed based on the stock materials of M. meretrix with different vibrio-resistance profile obtained by selective breeding. Forty-eight EST-SSR markers were screened and 27 polymorphic SSRs of them were genotyped in the clam stocks with different resistance to Vibrio parahaemolyticus (11-R and 11-S) and to Vibrio harveyi (09-R and 09-C). Allele frequency distributions of the SSRs among different stocks were compared using Pearson's Chi-square test, and three functional EST-SSR markers (MM959, MM4765 and MM8364) were found to be associated with vibrio-resistance trait. The 140-bp allele of MM959 and 128-bp allele of MM4765 had significantly higher frequencies in resistant groups (11-R and 09-R) than in susceptive/control groups (11-S and 09-C) (P SSR markers were consistent with the three subgroups distinctions. The putative functions of contig959, contig4765 and contig8364 also suggested that the three SSR-involved genes might play important roles in immunity of M. meretrix. All these results supported that EST-SSR markers MM959, MM4765 and MM8364 were associated with vibrio-resistance and would be useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in M. meretrix genetic breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How life history influences the responses of the clam Scrobicularia plana to the combined impacts of carbamazepine and pH decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Rosa; Almeida, Ângela; Calisto, Vânia; Velez, Cátia; Moreira, Anthony; Schneider, Rudolf J.; Esteves, Valdemar I.; Wrona, Frederick J.; Soares, Amadeu M.V. M.; Figueira, Etelvina

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the bivalve Scrobicularia plana, collected from two contrasting areas (pristine location and mercury contaminated area), was selected to assess the biochemical alterations imposed by pH decrease, carbamazepine (an antiepileptic) and the combined effect of both stressors. The effects on oxidative stress related biomarkers after 96 h exposure revealed that pH decrease and carbamazepine induced alterations on clams, with greater impacts on individuals from the contaminated area which presented higher mortality, higher lipid peroxidation and higher glutathione S-transferase activity. These results emphasize the risk of extrapolating results from one area to another, since the same species inhabiting different areas may be affected differently when exposed to the same stressors. Furthermore, the results obtained showed that, when combined, the impact of pH decrease and carbamazepine was lower than each stressor acting alone, which could be related to the defence mechanism of valves closure when bivalves are under higher stressful conditions. - Highlights: • Environmentally relevant concentrations of CBZ and pH 7.1 impacted the performance of Scrobicularia plana. • The combination of CBZ and pH 7.1 did not induce higher impacts compared with stressors acting alone. • Clams from a polluted area showed greater alterations than clams collected from an unpolluted area. - pH decrease and carbamazepine induced biochemical alterations on clams (Scrobicularia plana), with greater impacts on individuals from the contaminated area

  19. Age and growth of the sword razor clam Ensis arcuatus in the Ría de Pontevedra (NW Spain): Influence of environmental parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Otero, A.; Gaspar, M. B.; Macho, G.; Vázquez, E.

    2014-01-01

    The sword razor clam Ensis arcuatus is the most important commercial species of razor clam in Spain, and its fishery in the Ría de Pontevedra (Galicia, NW Spain) is the most productive. Despite the economic importance of this species, information on its biology is scarce. This study reports shell morphometric relationships, age, and growth rates of E. arcuatus in three fishing beds in the Ría de Pontevedra (Brensa, Bueu and Ons, located in respectively the inner, middle and outer zones of the ria), providing the first estimates of growth parameters for the species in the Iberian Peninsula. Growth was estimated by examination of surface growth rings and internal shell microgrowth patterns (acetate peel technique) that proved to be the most suitable method for growth estimate. Growth of E. arcuatus was slower in Bueu (L∞ = 140.4, k = 0.40) followed by Brensa (L∞ = 151.91, k = 0.40) and Ons (L∞ = 172.7, k = 0.33), and the clams reached commercial size in 1.7, 2.3 and 2.8 years in Ons, Brensa and Bueu, respectively. The differences in growth between sites in relation to environmental parameters are evaluated and the implications for the razor clam fishery are discussed.

  20. Tropomyosin and Actin Identified as Major Allergens of the Carpet Clam (Paphia textile and the Effect of Cooking on Their Allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailatul Hani Mohamad Yadzir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify the major allergenic proteins of clam (Paphia textile and to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of these identified proteins. Methods. Clam protein extracts were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. IgE reactive proteins were then analyzed by immunoblotting with sera from patients with positive skin prick tests (SPT to the raw clam extract. Mass spectrometry was used to identify the major allergenic proteins of this clam. Results. Raw extract showed 12 protein bands (18–150 kDa. In contrast, fewer protein bands were seen in the boiled extract; those ranging from 40 to 150 kDa were denatured. The protein profiles were similarly altered by frying or roasting. The immunoblots of raw and boiled extracts yielded 10 and 2 IgE-binding proteins, respectively. The fried and roasted extracts showed only a single IgE-binding protein at 37 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 37 and 42 kDa major allergens indicated that these spots were tropomyosin and actin, respectively. Conclusion. The two major allergens of Paphia textile were identified as the thermostable tropomyosin and a new thermolabile allergen actin.

  1. Ecotoxicological and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Short-Neck Clam (Paphia undulata) and Contaminated Sediments in Malacca Strait, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Sharifi, Reza

    2017-10-01

    The distribution, sources, and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediment and the edible tissue of short-neck clam (Paphia undulata) from mudflat ecosystem in the west coast of Malaysia were investigated. The concentrations of ∑ 16 PAHs varied from 347.05 to 6207.5 and 179.32 to 1657.5 ng g -1 in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. The calculations of mean PEL quotients (mean-PELQs) showed that the ecological risk of PAHs in the sediment samples was low to moderate-high level, whereas the total health risk through ingestion and dermal contact was considerably high. The PAHs biota sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. The source apportionment of PAHs in sediment using positive matrix factorization model indicated that the highest contribution to the PAHs was from diesel emissions (30.38%) followed by oil and oil derivate and incomplete coal combustion (23.06%), vehicular emissions (16.43%), wood combustion (15.93%), and natural gas combustion (14.2%). A preliminary evaluation of human health risk using chronic daily intake, hazard index, benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent (BaP eq ) concentration, and the incremental lifetime cancer risk indicated that PAHs in short-neck clam would induce potential carcinogenic effects in the consumers.

  2. Evaluation of the MODIS Aerosol Retrievals over Ocean and Land during CLAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R. C.; Remer, L. A.; Martins, J. V.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Plana-Fattori, A.; Redemann, J.; Wenny, B.

    2005-04-01

    The Chesapeake Lighthouse Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) experiment took place from 10 July to 2 August 2001 in a combined ocean-land region that included the Chesapeake Lighthouse [Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE)] and the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), both along coastal Virginia. This experiment was designed mainly for validating instruments and algorithms aboard the Terra satellite platform, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Over the ocean, MODIS retrieved aerosol optical depths (AODs) at seven wavelengths and an estimate of the aerosol size distribution. Over the land, MODIS retrieved AOD at three wavelengths plus qualitative estimates of the aerosol size. Temporally coincident measurements of aerosol properties were made with a variety of sun photometers from ground sites and airborne sites just above the surface. The set of sun photometers provided unprecedented spectral coverage from visible (VIS) to the solar near-infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) wavelengths. In this study, AOD and aerosol size retrieved from MODIS is compared with similar measurements from the sun photometers. Over the nearby ocean, the MODIS AOD in the VIS and NIR correlated well with sun-photometer measurements, nearly fitting a one-to-one line on a scatterplot. As one moves from ocean to land, there is a pronounced discontinuity of the MODIS AOD, where MODIS compares poorly to the sun-photometer measurements. Especially in the blue wavelength, MODIS AOD is too high in clean aerosol conditions and too low under larger aerosol loadings. Using the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative code to perform atmospheric correction, the authors find inconsistency in the surface albedo assumptions used by the MODIS lookup tables. It is demonstrated how the high bias at low aerosol loadings can be corrected. By using updated urban/industrial aerosol

  3. Geochemical influences on assimilation of sediment-bound metals in clams and mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griscom, S.B.; Fisher, N.S.; Luoma, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed to evaluate the extent to which Cd, Co, Ag, Se, Cr, and Zn bound to sediments with different geochemical properties could be assimilated by the mussel Mytilus edulis and the clam Macoma balthica. Oxidized and reduced radiolabeled sediments were fed to suspension-feeding animals, the depuration patterns of the individuals were followed by ??-spectrometry, and the assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of ingested metals were determined. AEs from geochemically diverse sediments typically varied less than 2-fold and ranged from 1% for Cr to 42% for Zn. Metals were assimilated from anoxic sediment by both animals; Ag, Cd, and Co AEs in M. balthica were 9-16%, 2-fold lower than from oxic sediment, but in M. edulis AEs were about two times greater from anoxic sediment for all metals but Ag. For oxic sediment, Cd and Co AEs in M. edulis decreased 3-4-fold with increased sediment exposure time to the metals with smaller but significant effects also noted for Zn and Se but not Ag. A less pronounced decrease in AE for M. balthica was evident only after 6 months exposure time. Sequential extractions of the oxidized sediments showed a transfer of metals into more resistant sediment components over time, but the rate did not correlate with a decrease in metal AEs. Comparing the two bivalves, TOC concentrations had an inconsistent effect on metal AEs. AEs of metals from bacteria-coated glass beads were slightly higher than from humic acid-coated beads, which were comparable with whole-sediment AEs. There was correspondence of AE with desorption of Ag, Cd, Co, and Se (but not Zn) from sediments into pH 5 seawater, measured to simulate the gut pH of these bivalves. The results imply that metals associated with sulfides and anoxic sediments are bioavailable, that the bioavailability of metals from sediments decreases over exposure time, that organic carbon content generally has a small effect on AEs, and that AEs of sediment-bound metals differ among

  4. Certification of Trace Elements and Methyl Mercury Mass Fractions in IAEA-461 Clam (Gafrarium tumidum) Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories is to assist Member States in the use of both stable and radioisotope analytical techniques to understand, monitor and protect the environment. In this context, the major impact exerted by large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is an issue of primary concern for the IAEA and the IAEA Environment Laboratories. The marine pollution assessments required to understand such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments. The IAEA Environment Laboratories has been assisting national laboratories and regional laboratory networks since the early 1970s through the provision of reference material programme for the analysis of radionuclides, trace elements and organic compounds in marine samples. Quality assurance, quality control and associated good laboratory practice are essential components of all marine environmental monitoring studies. Quality control procedures are commonly based on the analysis of certified reference materials and reference samples in order to validate analytical methods used in monitoring studies and to assess the reliability and comparability of measurement data. Data that are not based on adequate quality assurance and quality control can be erroneous, and their misuse can lead to poor environmental management decisions. This publication describes the production of the IAEA-461 certified reference material, which was produced following ISO Guide 34:2009, General Requirements for the Competence of Reference Material Producers. A sample of approximately 60 kg of clams (Gafrarium tumidum) was collected in Noumea, New Caledonia, and processed at the IAEA Environment Laboratories to produce a certified reference material of marine biota. The sample contained certified mass fractions for arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, mercury, methyl mercury, manganese, nickel, selenium, vanadium and zinc. The produced vials

  5. A study of the naturalisation and dispersal of a non-native bivalve, the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve 1850) in estuaries along the South coast of England.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, was introduced into the British Isles in the 1980s for the purpose of aquaculture in order to take advantage of the rapid growth rate and high profitability of this non-native species. The decision to import the Manila clam, was based on the findings of a report commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food which determined that the Manila clam would be able to be grown to marketable size faster than the local species Ruditapes decuss...

  6. Characterisation of 12 microsatellite loci in the Vietnamese commercial clam Lutraria rhynchaena Jonas 1844 (Heterodonta: Bivalvia: Mactridae) through next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Binh Thanh; Tan, Mun Hua; Lee, Yin Peng; Gan, Han Ming; Tran, Trang Thi; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    The marine clam Lutraria rhynchaena is gaining popularity as an aquaculture species in Asia. Lutraria populations are present in the wild throughout Vietnam and several stocks have been established and translocated for breeding and aquaculture grow-out purposes. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of utilising Illumina next-generation sequencing technology to streamline the identification and genotyping of microsatellite loci from this clam species. Based on an initial partial genome scan, 48 microsatellite markers with similar melting temperatures were identified and characterised. The 12 most suitable polymorphic loci were then genotyped using 51 individuals from a population in Quang Ninh Province, North Vietnam. Genetic variation was low (mean number of alleles per locus = 2.6; mean expected heterozygosity = 0.41). Two loci showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and the presence of null alleles, but there was no evidence of linkage disequilibrium among loci. Three additional populations were screened (n = 7-36) to test the geographic utility of the 12 loci, which revealed 100 % successful genotyping in two populations from central Vietnam (Nha Trang). However, a second population from north Vietnam (Co To) could not be successfully genotyped and morphological evidence and mitochondrial variation suggests that this population represents a cryptic species of Lutraria. Comparisons of the Qang Ninh and Nha Trang populations, excluding the 2 loci out of HWE, revealed statistically significant allelic variation at 4 loci. We reported the first microsatellite loci set for the marine clam Lutraria rhynchaena and demonstrated its potential in differentiating clam populations. Additionally, a cryptic species population of Lutraria rhynchaena was identified during initial loci development, underscoring the overlooked diversity of marine clam species in Vietnam and the need to genetically characterise population representatives prior

  7. Distribution of haemic neoplasia of soft-shelled clams in Prince Edward Island: an examination of anthropogenic factors and effects of experimental fungicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, D R; MacCallum, G S; McGladdery, S E; Davidson, J

    2016-05-01

    Haemic neoplasia was first considered a disease of concern for soft-shell clams in Prince Edward Island (PEI) when it was diagnosed as the cause of mass mortalities in 1999. The aetiology of the disease remains elusive, but has been associated with environmental degradation. In this study, a 2-year (2001-2002) geographic and seasonal survey was conducted for haemic neoplasia, using histology, in soft-shell clams from PEI. In addition, using geographic information system, the association between anthropogenic factors in the watersheds at sites affected by haemic neoplasia and the prevalence of the disease was investigated. Finally, histopathological changes were assessed in soft-shell clams experimentally exposed to four concentrations of chlorothalonil for 27 days. Haemic neoplasia could not be induced at any concentration of chlorothalonil. Clams exposed to a concentration of 1000 μg L(-1) of the fungicide, however, exhibited an LC50 of 17 days. Although this information provides additional toxicity information (LC50) for soft-shell clams, further experiments are required to assess longer term exposure to the fungicide. The highest prevalences of haemic neoplasia in PEI were found in North River and Miscouche (28.3-50.9% and 33.0-77.8%, respectively). No clear seasonal patterns were found. There was a correlation between haemic neoplasia prevalence and watersheds with a high percentage of potato acreage and forest coverage (P = 0.026 and P = 0.045, respectively), suggesting a link between anthropogenic activity and the prevalence of the disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Recruitment of mud clam Polymesoda erosa (Solander, 1876 in a mangrove habitat of Chorao island, Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Clemente

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Habitat-specific settlement success results either from active habitat selection or differential mortality after non-selective settlement. The mud clam Polymesoda erosa (Solander, 1876 is an ecologically and economically important benthic invertebrate with high abundance in the mangrove forests of Chorao Island, Goa, India. A one-year study (Jul 2004-Jul 2005 was conducted to characterize the patterns of post-larval settlement and survival of P. erosa in the mangrove habitat. The mean density of settling post-larvae was 28 no.m-2 with a majority of settlers during Sept 04. The density of adult clams in the landward zone ranged from 7-12 no.m-2 (mean: 9 ± 6 sd; n=122. In the seaward region, adults were completely absent at the low tide level. Higher densities of juveniles observed at the low- and mid-tide levels were assumed to be due to frequent inundation which allowed the young individuals to feed adequately and attain the critical sizes at which vulnerability to physical and biological constraints is substantially reduced, whereas, at high-tide level, increased desiccation may account for the mortality of settlers. It is speculated that initially the settlers settle according to the hydrodynamic conditions for sedimentation; however, adult survival is affected by their recruitment in a suitable habitat (e.g. substrates near Avicennia sp.. Thus, habitat dependent viability during the post-settlement phase could be the best explanation for the non-random, patchy distribution of P. erosa observed in the Chorao mangrove swamp.Um assentamento larval bem sucedido resulta da seleção ativa do habitat pelas larvas ou da mortalidade diferencial destas após o assentamento não seletivo. Nos manguezais da ilha Chorao, Goa, India, a ostra do lodo Polymesoda erosa (Solander, 1876 é um invertebrado muito abundante e de importância econômica. O presente trabalho, realizado durante um ano (julho de 2004 a julho de 2005, visou caracterizar os padr

  9. Short-term acute hypercapnia affects cellular responses to trace metals in the hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanina, Anna V.; Beniash, Elia; Etzkorn, Markus; Meyers, Tiffany B.; Ringwood, Amy H.; Sokolova, Inna M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •P CO 2 alters accumulation of Cd and Cu in clam cells. •Accumulation of Cd induces release of free Zn 2+ . •Accumulation of Cu induces an increase in free Cu 2+ and Fe 2+ . •Metal-induced oxidative stress is alleviated at high P CO 2 . •Toxicity of Cu in likely enhanced while that of Cd alleviated by high P CO 2 . -- Abstract: Estuarine and coastal habitats experience large fluctuations of environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, partial pressure of CO 2 (P CO 2 ) and pH; they also serve as the natural sinks for trace metals. Benthic filter-feeding organisms such as bivalves are exposed to the elevated concentrations of metals in estuarine water and sediments that can strongly affect their physiology. The effects of metals on estuarine organisms may be exacerbated by other environmental factors. Thus, a decrease in pH caused by high P CO 2 (hypercapnia) can modulate the effects of trace metals by affecting metal bioavailability, accumulation or binding. To better understand the cellular mechanisms of interactions between P CO 2 and trace metals in marine bivalves, we exposed isolated mantle cells of the hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) to different levels of P CO 2 (0.05, 1.52 and 3.01 kPa) and two major trace metal pollutants – cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu). Elevated P CO 2 resulted in a decrease in intracellular pH (pH i ) of the isolated mantle cells from 7.8 to 7.4. Elevated P CO 2 significantly but differently affected the trace metal accumulation by the cells. Cd uptake was suppressed at elevated P CO 2 levels while Cu accumulation has greatly accelerated under hypercapnic conditions. Interestingly, at higher extracellular Cd levels, labile intracellular Cd 2+ concentration remained the same, while intracellular levels of free Zn 2+ increased suggesting that Cd 2+ substitutes bound Zn 2+ in these cells. In contrast, Cu exposure did not affect intracellular Zn 2+ but led to a profound increase in the intracellular levels

  10. Simulation and analysis of the residual stresses in functionally graded Al2O3 coatings on CLAM steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zilin; Huang Qunying; Song Yong; Guo Zhihui; Wu Yican

    2008-01-01

    Alumina coatings on CLAM steel substrate are proposed to serve as tritium, corrosion and electric insulation barriers in the design of Dual Functional Lithium Lead Test Blanket Module (DFLL-TBM) in China in the frame of ITER. In order to avoid the crack failure due to thermal expansion mismatch of the coating and the substrate, the functionally graded materials (FGM) concept was adopted. In this paper, the residual thermal stresses in the coatings were calculated with the commercial software ANSYS. It is recommended that the compositional factor, numbers of the gradient interlayers and the thickness of the FGM zone are p=0.8, N=8, H=0.6 mm, respectively, according to the simulation results. These results could be helpful and theoretical guidance to the preparation and optimization of the coatings in the future. (authors)

  11. Heavy metal determinations in algae and clams and their possible employment for assessing the sea water quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, C; Fabbri, D; Torsi, G

    2001-01-01

    An empirical criterion for a possible classification of sea water quality is proposed. It is based on the knowledge of metal content in algae (Ulva Rigida) and clams (Tapes Philippinarum), two species present in marine ecosystems. The elements considered are Hg, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn. The analytical technique employed is Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DPASV) in the case of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, while the determination of mercury is obtained by the Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (CV-AAS) technique with SnCl2 as reducing agent. The analytical procedure has been verified on three standard reference materials: Sea Water BCR-CRM 403, Ulva Lactuca BCR-CRM 279 and Mussel Tissue BCR-CRM 278. For all the elements, in addition to detection limits, accuracy and precision are given: the former, expressed as relative error (e), and the latter, expressed as relative standard deviation (Sr), were in all cases lower than 6%.

  12. Composition and Dynamics of the Nucleolinus, a Link between the Nucleolus and Cell Division Apparatus in Surf Clam (Spisula) Oocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliegro, Mark C.; Hartson, Steven; Alliegro, Mary Anne

    2012-01-01

    The nucleolinus is a little-known cellular structure, discovered over 150 years ago (Agassiz, L. (1857) Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America, First Monograph, Part IIL, Little, Brown and Co., Boston) and thought by some investigators in the late 19th to mid-20th century to function in the formation of the centrosomes or spindle. A role for the nucleolinus in formation of the cell division apparatus has recently been confirmed in oocytes of the surf clam, Spisula solidissima (Alliegro, M. A., Henry, J. J., and Alliegro, M. C. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 13718–13723). However, we know so little about the composition and dynamics of this compartment, it is difficult to construct mechanistic hypotheses or even to be sure that prior reports were describing analogous structures in the cells of mammals, amphibians, plants, and other organisms where it was observed. Surf clam oocytes are an attractive model to approach this problem because the nucleolinus is easily visible by light microscopy, making it accessible by laser microsurgery as well as isolation by common cell fractionation techniques. In this report, we analyze the macromolecular composition of isolated Spisula nucleolini and examine the relationship of this structure to the nucleolus and cell division apparatus. Analysis of nucleolinar RNA and protein revealed a set of molecules that overlaps with but is nevertheless distinct from the nucleolus. The proteins identified were primarily ones involved in nucleic acid metabolism and cell cycle regulation. Monoclonal antibodies generated against isolated nucleolini revealed centrosomal forerunners in the oocyte cytoplasm. Finally, induction of damage to the nucleolinus by laser microsurgery altered the trafficking of α- and γ-tubulin after fertilization. These observations strongly support a role for the nucleolinus in cell division and represent our first clues regarding mechanism. PMID:22219192

  13. Genetic diversity and population differentiation of small giant clam Tridacna maxima in Comoros islands assessed by microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Mohamed, Nadjim; Yu, Qian; Chanfi, Mohamed Ibrahim; Li, Yangping; Wang, Shi; Huang, Xiaoting; Bao, Zhenmin

    2016-01-01

    Small giant clam, Tridacna maxima , widely distributed from French Polynesia to East Africa, has faced population declines due to over-exploitation. Comoros islands are an important biogeographic region due to potential richness of marine species, but no relevant information is available. In order to facilitate devising effective conservation management plan for T. maxima , nine microsatellite markers were used to survey genetic diversity and population differentiation of 72 specimens collected from three Comoros islands, Grande Comore, Moheli and Anjouan. A total of 51 alleles were detected ranged from 2 to 8 per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.260 to 0.790 and from 0.542 to 0.830, respectively. All populations have high genetic diversity, especially the population in Moheli, a protected area, has higher genetic diversity than the others. Significant heterozygote deficiencies were recorded, and null alleles were probably the main factor leading to these deficits. F ST value indicated medium genetic differentiation among the populations. Although significant, AMOVA revealed 48.9 % of genetic variation within individuals and only a small variation of 8.9 % was found between populations. Gene flow was high ( Nm  = 12.40) between Grande Comore and Moheli, while lower ( Nm  = 1.80) between Grande Comore and Anjouan, explaining geographic barriers to genetic exchanges might exist in these two islands. Global gene flow analysis ( Nm  = 5.50) showed that larval dispersal is enough to move between the islands. The high genetic diversity and medium population differentiation revealed in the present study offer useful information on genetic conservation of small giant clams.

  14. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: radionuclide concentrations in fish and clams and estimated doses via the marine pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Phillips, W.A.; Eagle, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The survey consisted, in part, of an aerial radiological reconnaissance to map the external gamma-ray exposure rates. As a secondary phase, terrestrial and marine samples were collected to assess the radiological dose from pertinent food chains to atoll inhabitants. The marine sample collection, processing, and dose assessment methodology are presented as well as the concentration data for 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, and any of the other gamma emitters in fish and clam muscle tissue from the different species collected. Doses are calculated from the average radionuclide concentrations in fish and clam muscle tissue assuming an average daily intake of 200 and 10 g, respectivelty. The 90 Sr concentration in muscle tissue is very low and there is little difference in the average concentrations from the different fish from different atolls or islands. The 239+240 Pu concentration in the muscle tissue of all reef species, however, is higher than that in pelagic lagoon fish. In contrast, 137 Cs concentrations are lowest in the muscle tissue of the bottom-feeding reef species and highest in pelagic logoon fish. Recent measurements of radionuclide concentrations in fish muscle tissue and other marine dietary items from international sources show that the average concentrations in species from the Marshall Islands are comparable to those in fish typically consumed as food in the United States and are generally lower than those in most international marine dietary items. The whole-body dose rates based on continuous consumption of 200 g/d of fish range from 0.028 to 0.1 mrem/y; the bone-marrow dose rates range from 0.029 to 0.12 mrem/y. The dose commitment, or 30-y integral doses, range from 0.00063 to 0.0022 rem for the whole body and from 0.00065 to 0.0032 rem for the bone marrow

  15. Composition and dynamics of the nucleolinus, a link between the nucleolus and cell division apparatus in surf clam (Spisula) oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliegro, Mark C; Hartson, Steven; Alliegro, Mary Anne

    2012-02-24

    The nucleolinus is a little-known cellular structure, discovered over 150 years ago (Agassiz, L. (1857) Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America, First Monograph, Part IIL, Little, Brown and Co., Boston) and thought by some investigators in the late 19th to mid-20th century to function in the formation of the centrosomes or spindle. A role for the nucleolinus in formation of the cell division apparatus has recently been confirmed in oocytes of the surf clam, Spisula solidissima (Alliegro, M. A., Henry, J. J., and Alliegro, M. C. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 13718-13723). However, we know so little about the composition and dynamics of this compartment, it is difficult to construct mechanistic hypotheses or even to be sure that prior reports were describing analogous structures in the cells of mammals, amphibians, plants, and other organisms where it was observed. Surf clam oocytes are an attractive model to approach this problem because the nucleolinus is easily visible by light microscopy, making it accessible by laser microsurgery as well as isolation by common cell fractionation techniques. In this report, we analyze the macromolecular composition of isolated Spisula nucleolini and examine the relationship of this structure to the nucleolus and cell division apparatus. Analysis of nucleolinar RNA and protein revealed a set of molecules that overlaps with but is nevertheless distinct from the nucleolus. The proteins identified were primarily ones involved in nucleic acid metabolism and cell cycle regulation. Monoclonal antibodies generated against isolated nucleolini revealed centrosomal forerunners in the oocyte cytoplasm. Finally, induction of damage to the nucleolinus by laser microsurgery altered the trafficking of α- and γ-tubulin after fertilization. These observations strongly support a role for the nucleolinus in cell division and represent our first clues regarding mechanism.

  16. Toxicological responses of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix exposed to excess dissolved iron or challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Qing; Zhang, Yong; Peng, Hui-Fang; Ke, Cai-Huan; Huang, He-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe accumulated in hepatopancreas tissues after iron-enriched exposure. • Ferritin expression was positively correlated with iron concentration in seawater. • Ferritin appears to be involved in iron homeostasis and immune defense mechanism of M. meretrix. • mRNAs of cytokine genes responded faster than antioxidant enzyme genes in immune defense mechanism. • The study gives a new potential biomarker for monitoring iron levels in seawater. - Abstract: The responses of genes encoding defense components such as ferritin, the lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha factor (LITAF), the inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (IκB), metallothionein, and glutathione peroxidase were assessed at the transcriptional level in order to investigate the toxicological and immune mechanism of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix (HCMM) following challenge with iron or a bacterium (Vibrio parahaemolyticus). Fe dissolved in natural seawater led to an increase of Fe content in both the hepatopancreas and gill tissue of HCMM between 4 and 15 days of exposure. The ferritin gene responded both transcriptionally as indicated by real-time quantitative PCR and translationally as shown by western blotting results to iron exposure and both transcriptional and translational ferritin expression in the hepatopancreas had a positive correlation with the concentration of dissolved iron in seawater. Both iron and V. parahaemolyticus exposure triggered immune responses with similar trends in clam tissues. There was a significant post-challenge mRNA expression of LITAF and IκB at 3 h, ferritin at 24 h, and metallothionein and glutathione peroxidase at 48 h. This behavior might be linked to their specific functions in physiological processes. These results suggested that similar signaling pathways were triggered during both iron and V. parahaemolyticus challenges. Here, we indicated that the ferritin of Meretrix meretrix was an intermediate in the pathway of iron homeostasis

  17. Seawater acidification affects the physiological energetics and spawning capacity of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum during gonadal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xian; Yang, Feng; Zhao, Liqiang; Yan, Xiwu

    2016-06-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to have widespread implications for marine bivalve mollusks. While our understanding of its impact on their physiological and behavioral responses is increasing, little is known about their reproductive responses under future scenarios of anthropogenic climate change. In this study, we examined the physiological energetics of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to CO 2 -induced seawater acidification during gonadal maturation. Three recirculating systems filled with 600 L of seawater were manipulated to three pH levels (8.0, 7.7, and 7.4) corresponding to control and projected pH levels for 2100 and 2300. In each system, temperature was gradually increased ca. 0.3°C per day from 10 to 20°C for 30days and maintained at 20°C for the following 40days. Irrespective of seawater pH levels, clearance rate (CR), respiration rate (RR), ammonia excretion rate (ER), and scope for growth (SFG) increased after a 30-day stepwise warming protocol. When seawater pH was reduced, CR, ratio of oxygen to nitrogen, and SFG significantly decreased concurrently, whereas ammonia ER increased. RR was virtually unaffected under acidified conditions. Neither temperature nor acidification showed a significant effect on food absorption efficiency. Our findings indicate that energy is allocated away from reproduction under reduced seawater pH, potentially resulting in an impaired or suppressed reproductive function. This interpretation is based on the fact that spawning was induced in only 56% of the clams grown at pH 7.4. Seawater acidification can therefore potentially impair the physiological energetics and spawning capacity of R. philippinarum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxicological responses of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix exposed to excess dissolved iron or challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Zhang, Yong [Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and the Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Peng, Hui-Fang [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Ke, Cai-Huan, E-mail: chke@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Huang, He-Qing, E-mail: hqhuang@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and the Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Fe accumulated in hepatopancreas tissues after iron-enriched exposure. • Ferritin expression was positively correlated with iron concentration in seawater. • Ferritin appears to be involved in iron homeostasis and immune defense mechanism of M. meretrix. • mRNAs of cytokine genes responded faster than antioxidant enzyme genes in immune defense mechanism. • The study gives a new potential biomarker for monitoring iron levels in seawater. - Abstract: The responses of genes encoding defense components such as ferritin, the lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha factor (LITAF), the inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (IκB), metallothionein, and glutathione peroxidase were assessed at the transcriptional level in order to investigate the toxicological and immune mechanism of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix (HCMM) following challenge with iron or a bacterium (Vibrio parahaemolyticus). Fe dissolved in natural seawater led to an increase of Fe content in both the hepatopancreas and gill tissue of HCMM between 4 and 15 days of exposure. The ferritin gene responded both transcriptionally as indicated by real-time quantitative PCR and translationally as shown by western blotting results to iron exposure and both transcriptional and translational ferritin expression in the hepatopancreas had a positive correlation with the concentration of dissolved iron in seawater. Both iron and V. parahaemolyticus exposure triggered immune responses with similar trends in clam tissues. There was a significant post-challenge mRNA expression of LITAF and IκB at 3 h, ferritin at 24 h, and metallothionein and glutathione peroxidase at 48 h. This behavior might be linked to their specific functions in physiological processes. These results suggested that similar signaling pathways were triggered during both iron and V. parahaemolyticus challenges. Here, we indicated that the ferritin of Meretrix meretrix was an intermediate in the pathway of iron homeostasis

  19. Sequencing and de novo assembly of the Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea transcriptome using the Illumina GAIIx method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea is currently one of the most economically important aquatic species in China and has been used as a test organism in many environmental studies. However, the lack of genomic resources, such as sequenced genome, expressed sequence tags (ESTs and transcriptome sequences has hindered the research on C. fluminea. Recent advances in large-scale RNA-Seq enable generation of genomic resources in a short time, and provide large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technique with an Illumina GAIIx method to analyze the transcriptome from the whole bodies of C. fluminea. More than 62,250,336 high-quality reads were generated based on the raw data, and 134,684 unigenes with a mean length of 791 bp were assembled using the Velvet and Oases software. All of the assembly unigenes were annotated by running BLASTx and BLASTn similarity searches on the Nt, Nr, Swiss-Prot, COG and KEGG databases. In addition, the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs, Gene Ontology (GO terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genome (KEGG annotations were also assigned to each unigene transcript. To provide a preliminary verification of the assembly and annotation results, and search for potential environmental pollution biomarkers, 15 functional genes (five antioxidase genes, two cytochrome P450 genes, three GABA receptor-related genes and five heat shock protein genes were cloned and identified. Expressions of the 15 selected genes following fluoxetine exposure confirmed that the genes are indeed linked to environmental stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The C. fluminea transcriptome advances the underlying molecular understanding of this freshwater clam, provides a basis for further exploration of C. fluminea as an environmental test organism and promotes further studies on other bivalve organisms.

  20. Inactivation of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor inoculated into Peruvian ''choro'' mussels (Aulacomya ater) and two species of clams (Argopecten purpuratus and Gari solida) using medium-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Z.; Bernuy, B.; Kahn, G.; Zapata, G.; Vivanco, M.; Guzman, E.; Leon, R.

    2001-01-01

    The radiation decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) for Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor inoculated through the natural feeding system into three species of bivalve mollusks from the Peruvian Pacific coast: ''choro'' mussels (Aulacome ater), ''abanico'' clams (Argopecten purpuratus), and common clams (Gari solida), was determined in vivo. The D 10 value obtained in vivo was 0.14 kGy in all mollusks tested. Concurrent studies conducted to determine the potential use of irradiation to extend the microbiological shelf-life of the mollusks during post-irradiation storage at 0-1 deg. C indicated that a dose of 1.0 kGy was optimal for choro mussels and abanico clams, whereas 2.0 kGy produced the best results when treating common clams. Shelf-life extension thus achieved was 31 days for choro mussels, 16 days for abanico clams, and 21 days for common clams. Non-irradiated control samples of all mollusks spoiled after 17 days of refrigerated storage. There were no significant (p<.05) adverse effects from the application of the optimal radiation treatments on the sensory characteristics (i.e. appearance, odor, flavor, and texture) of the mollusks. Total volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and pH values were examined for use as indexes of seafood freshness. (author)

  1. Development of the 'SEA-Clam' wave energy device for small scale use. Interim report 1st August 1983 - 30th April 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-04-01

    An Interim Report on the development of the Sea-Clam wave energy device for small scale use is presented. Experimental tests to measure the productivity of the Clam system, using 1/14th linear scale models of a 80 m long x 7 to 9 m deep x 5 m wide device intended for small community use are outlined. A feature of these experiments has been the development of a rotating damper which enables damping rate to be readily varied during a series of successive tests, a major advance in power measurements of air systems at this scale. Development of corded bags, progress made during the period with mathematical modelling of the turbine-generator power take-off system, and use of paralleled induction generators run at near-synchronous speed in conjuction with either a 3-phase base supply or an on-board alternator to provide magnetization current are discussed.

  2. Development of the 'SEA-Clam' wave energy device for small scale use. Interim report 1st August 1983 - 30th April 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-04-01

    An Interim Report on the development of the Sea-Clam wave energy device for small scale use is presented. Experimental tests to measure the productivity of the Clam system, using 1/14th linear scale models of a 80 m long x 7 to 9 m deep x 5 m wide device intended for small community use are outlined. A feature of these experiments has been the development of a rotating damper which enables damping rate to be readily varied during a series of successive tests, a major advance in power measurements of air systems at this scale. Development of corded bags, progress made during the period with mathematical modelling of the turbine-generator power take-off system, and use of paralleled induction generators run at near-synchronous speed in conjuction with either a 3-phase base supply or an on-board alternator to provide magnetization current are discussed.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance and detection of the mecA gene besides enterotoxin-encoding genes among coagulase-negative Staphylococci isolated from clam meat of Anomalocardia brasiliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Jacqueline Ellen Camelo; Ferreira, Ewerton Lucena; Nascimento, Danielle Cristina de Oliveira; Ventura, Roberta Ferreira; de Oliveira, Wagner Luis Mendes; Leal, Nilma Cintra; Lima-Filho, José Vitor

    2013-12-01

    The marine clam Anomalocardia brasiliana is a candidate as a sentinel animal to monitor the contamination levels of coliforms in shellfish-harvesting areas of Brazil's northeastern region. The aim of the present study was to search enterotoxin-encoding genes plus the mecA gene among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolates from shellfish meats of A. brasiliana. The specimen clam (n=48; 40 clams per sample) was collected during low tide in the bay area of Mangue Seco from April through June 2009, and random samples of chilled and frozen shelled clam meat (n=33; 250 g per sample) were obtained from retail shops from January through March 2012. Seventy-nine CNS isolates were identified, including Staphylococcus xylosus, S. cohnii spp. urealyticus, S. sciuri, and S. lentus. A high percentage of isolates resistant to erythromycin (58.5%), penicillin (51.2%), and tetracycline (43.9%), and the fluoroquinolones levofloxacin (39%) and ciprofloxacin (34.1%) were recorded from those environmental samples. Isolates from retail shops were particularly resistant to oxacillin (55.3%) and penicillin (36.8%). All CNS resistant to oxacillin and/or cefoxitin were positive for the presence of the mecA gene, but phenotypically susceptible to vancomycin. Also, the enterotoxin-encoding genes seg and seh were detected through multiplex-polymerase chain reaction in 77.7% and 88.8% of the isolates from environmental samples, versus 90.5% and 100% of the isolates from retail shops, respectively. The data reveal the risk to public health due to consuming raw or undercooked shellfish containing enterotoxigenic plus methicillin-resistant CNS.

  4. Effects of environmental and biological conditions on the recruitment and growth of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum on the west coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Lyeol; Kwon, Soon Hyun; Lee, Hyung-Gon; Yu, Ok Hwan

    2017-03-01

    The distribution of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, which is often dominant in intertidal zones, is influenced by both environmental and biological conditions. However, there have been few comprehensive studies on the interactive effects of these two groups of factors. The present study examined the environmental and biological parameters determining the population dynamics of the clams that is a dominant component of the intertidal communities of Euhangri and Padori on the west coast of Korean peninsula. We collected R. philippinarum and other members of the macrobenthos (> 1 mm long) monthly from 0.25 m2 quadrats deployed in the intertidal zones at Euhangri, Taean, and Padori during the period from August 2013 to January 2015. Physicochemical parameters of the water and sediment were measured at the same time. Water temperature and salinity is high and low in the summer to winter, respectively. While mean grain size of the sediment was higher at Euhangri than at Padori, total mean density of R. philippinarum was higher at Euhangri (325 ind./ 0.25 m2 at Padori vs. 194 ind./0.25 m2 at Euhangri). Settled spat (population increased, the condition index of individual clams decreased, but as the population density of the spat increased the body condition index increased. The chlorophyll a content of the sediments at Padori exceeded that at Euhangri and decreased as the population of R. philippinarum increased. The shapes of R. philippinarum shells at Euhangri were more prolate than those at Padori, and the condition index at Euhangri exceeded that at Padori, indicating better growth conditions at Euhangri. The condition index and density of R. philippinarum were affected by the amount of chlorophyll a in the water column and in the sediment. The recruitment success of spats was negatively influenced by spat density. We suggest that regulation of habitat conditions for R. philippinarum, including the food supply, will optimize production of these commercial

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in i-type lysozyme gene and their correlation with vibrio-resistance and growth of clam Meretrix meretrix based on the selected resistance stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xin; Wang, Hongxia; Huang, Xiaohong; Wang, Chao; Chai, Xueliang; Wang, Chunde; Liu, Baozhong

    2012-09-01

    I-type lysozyme is considered to play crucial roles in both anti-bacteria and digestion function of the bivalve, which signifies that it is related to both immunity and growth. In this study, based on the principle of case-control association analysis, using the stock materials with different vibrio-resistance profile obtained by selective breeding, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DNA partial sequence of an i-type lysozyme of Meretrix meretrix (MmeLys) were discovered and examined for their association with vibrio-resistance and growth. Twenty-seven SNPs were detected and fifteen of them were genotyped in clam stocks with different resistance to Vibrio harveyi (09-C and 09-R) and to Vibrio parahaemolyticus (11-S and 11-R). Allele frequency distribution among different stocks was compared. And wet weight of clams with different genotype at each SNP locus was compared. The results indicated that SNP locus 9 was associated with V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus resistance and growth of M. meretrix. Loci 12 and 14 were associated with both V. parahaemolyticus-resistance and growth, and also have the potential to be related with V. harveyi-resistance of M. meretrix. Therefore these three SNPs especially locus 9 were the potential markers which may be involved in assisting resistance selective breeding. In addition, this study showed evidence that improvements in clam resistance to vibriosis could be achieved through selective breeding. All results provided encouragement for the continuation of the selective breeding program for vibrio-resistance gain in clam M. meretrix and the application of polymorphisms in MmeLys to the future marker assisted selection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Selecting a set of housekeeping genes for quantitative real-time PCR in normal and tetraploid haemocytes of soft-shell clams, Mya arenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, A; Dohoo, C; McKenna, P; Delaporte, M; Berthe, F C J

    2008-09-01

    The transcripts involved in the molecular mechanisms of haemic neoplasia in relation to the haemocyte ploidy status of the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria, have yet to be identified. For this purpose, real-time quantitative RT-PCR constitutes a sensitive and efficient technique, which can help determine the gene expression involved in haemocyte tetraploid status in clams affected by haemic neoplasia. One of the critical steps in comparing transcription profiles is the stability of selected housekeeping genes, as well as an accurate normalization. In this study, we selected five reference genes, S18, L37, EF1, EF2 and actin, generally used as single control genes. Their expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR at different levels of haemocyte ploidy status in order to select the most stable genes. Using the geNorm software, our results showed that L37, EF1 and S18 represent the most stable gene expressions related to various ploidy status ranging from 0 to 78% of tetraploid haemocytes in clams sampled in North River (Prince Edward Island, Canada). However, actin gene expression appeared to be highly regulated. Hence, using it as a housekeeping gene in tetraploid haemocytes can result in inaccurate data. To compare gene expression levels related to haemocyte ploidy status in Mya arenaria, using L37, EF1 and S18 as housekeeping genes for accurate normalization is therefore recommended.

  7. Large-scale mitochondrial COI gene sequence variability reflects the complex colonization history of the invasive soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria (L.) (Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasota, Rafal; Pierscieniak, Karolina; Garcia, Pascale; Simon-Bouhet, Benoit; Wolowicz, Maciej

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine genetic diversity in the soft-shell clam Mya arenaria on a wide geographical scale using mtDNA COI gene sequences. Low levels of genetic diversity was found, which can most likely be explained by a bottleneck effect during Pleistocene glaciations and/or selection. The geographical genetic structuring of the studied populations was also very low. The star-like phylogeny of the haplotypes indicates a relatively recent, rapid population expansion following the glaciation period and repeated expansion following the founder effect(s) after the initial introduction of the soft-shell clam to Europe. North American populations are characterized by the largest number of haplotypes, including rare ones, as expected for native populations. Because of the founder effect connected with initial and repeated expansion events, European populations have significantly lower numbers of haplotypes in comparison with those of North America. We also observed subtle differentiations among populations from the North and Baltic seas. The recently founded soft-shell clam population in the Black Sea exhibited the highest genetic similarity to Baltic populations, which confirmed the hypothesis that M. arenaria was introduced to the Gulf of Odessa from the Baltic Sea. The most enigmatic results were obtained for populations from the White Sea, which were characterized by high genetic affinity with American populations.

  8. Comparison of two methods for the detection of hepatitis A virus in clam samples (Tapes spp.) by reverse transcription-nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suñén, Ester; Casas, Nerea; Moreno, Belén; Zigorraga, Carmen

    2004-03-01

    The detection of hepatitis A virus in shellfish by reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR) is hampered mainly by low levels of virus contamination and PCR inhibitors in shellfish. In this study, we focused on getting a rapid and sensitive processing procedure for the detection of HAV by RT-nested PCR in clam samples (Tapes spp.). Two previously developed processing methods for virus concentration in shellfish have been improved upon and compared. The first method involves acid adsorption, elution, polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, chloroform extraction and PEG precipitation. The second method is based on elution with a glycine buffer at pH 10, chloroform extraction and concentration by ultracentrifugation. Final clam concentrates were processed by RNA extraction or immunomagnetic capture of viruses (IMC) before the RT-nested PCR reaction. Both methods of sample processing combined with the RNA extraction from the concentrates were very efficient when they were assayed in seeded and naturally contaminated samples. The results show that the first method was more effective in removal inhibitors and the second was simpler and faster. The IMC of HAV from clam concentrates processed by method 1 was revealed to be a very effective method of simultaneously removing residual PCR inhibitors and of concentrating the virus.

  9. The Whitish Inner Mantle of the Giant Clam, Tridacna squamosa, Expresses an Apical Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA Which Displays Light-Dependent Gene and Protein Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen K. Ip

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Giant clams live in symbiosis with extracellular zooxanthellae and display high rates of growth and shell formation (calcification in light. Light-enhanced calcification requires an increase in the supply of Ca2+ to, and simultaneously an augmented removal of H+ from, the extrapallial fluid where shell formation occurs. We have obtained the complete coding cDNA sequence of Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA from the thin and whitish inner mantle, which is in touch with the extrapallial fluid, of the giant clam Tridacna squamosa. The deduced PMCA sequence consisted of an apical targeting element. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed that PMCA had an apical localization in the shell-facing epithelium of the inner mantle, whereby it can actively secrete Ca2+ in exchange for H+. More importantly, the apical PMCA-immunofluorescence of the shell-facing epithelium of the inner mantle increased significantly after 12 h of exposure to light. The transcript and protein levels of PMCA/PMCA also increased significantly in the inner mantle after 6 or 12 h of light exposure. These results offer insights into a light-dependable mechanism of shell formation in T. squamosa and a novel explanation of light-enhanced calcification in general. As the inner mantle normally lacks light sensitive pigments, our results support a previous proposition that symbiotic zooxanthellae, particularly those in the colorful and extensible outer mantle, may act as light-sensing elements for the host clam.

  10. Fracture toughness and fracture behavior of CLAM steel in the temperature range of 450 °C-550 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyun; Liang, Mengtian; Zhang, Zhenyu; Jiang, Man; Liu, Shaojun

    2018-04-01

    In order to analyze the fracture toughness and fracture behavior (J-R curves) of China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel under the design service temperature of Test Blanket Module of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, the quasi-static fracture experiment of CLAM steel was carried out under the temperature range of 450 °C-550 °C. The results indicated that the fracture behavior of CLAM steel was greatly influenced by test temperature. The fracture toughness increased slightly as the temperature increased from 450 °C to 500 °C. In the meanwhile, the fracture toughness at 550 °C could not be obtained due to the plastic deformation near the crack tip zone. The microstructure analysis based on the fracture topography and the interaction between dislocations and lath boundaries showed two different sub-crack propagation modes: growth along 45° of the main crack direction at 450 °C and growth perpendicular to the main crack at 500 °C.

  11. Growth, Survival and Reproduction of the Giant Clam Tridacna maxima (Röding 1798, Bivalvia) in Two Contrasting Lagoons in French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Andréfouët, Serge; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Wabnitz, Colette C. C.; Menoud, Mathilde; Le Moullac, Gilles; Levy, Peva; Gilbert, Antoine; Remoissenet, Georges

    2017-01-01

    Shell growth, reproduction, and natural mortality of the giant clam Tridacna maxima were characterized over a two-year-period in the lagoon of the high island of Tubuai (Austral Archipelago) and in the semi-closed lagoon of Tatakoto (Tuamotu Archipelago) in French Polynesia. We also recorded temperature, water level, tidal slope, tidal range, and mean wave height in both lagoons. Lower lagoon aperture and exposure to oceanic swells at Tatakoto than at Tubuai was responsible for lower lagoon water renewal, as well as higher variability in temperature and water level at Tatakoto across the studied period. These different environmental conditions had an impact on giant clams. Firstly, spawning events in the lagoon of Tatakoto, detected by gonad maturity indices in June and July 2014, were timed with high oceanic water inflow and a decrease in lagoon water temperature. Secondly, temperature explained differences in shell growth rates between seasons and lagoons, generating different growth curves for the two sites. Thirdly, local mortality rates were also found to likely be related to water renewal patterns. In conclusion, our study suggests that reef aperture and lagoon water renewal rates play an integral role in giant clam life history, with significant differences in rates of shell growth, mortality and fertility found between open versus semi-closed atoll lagoons in coral reef ecosystems. PMID:28118406

  12. Effect of thermal aging on grain structural characteristic and Ductile-to-Brittle transition temperature of CLAM steel at 550 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Chen, Jianwei [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Xu, Gang, E-mail: gang.xu@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The grain boundary length per unit area decreased with the increasing aging time. • The fraction of LABs increased obviously after thermal aging. • Prior austenitic grain refinement is more important to improve low temperature toughness. - Abstract: In this work, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to investigate the grain structure evolution of China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel samples which were aged at 550 °C for 0 h, 2000 h, 4000 h and 10,000 h. The results showed that the prior austenitic grain size increased with the aging time, which led to the decrease of grain boundary length. The fraction of misorientation angle in a range from about 4 to 10° increased obviously after thermal aging for 10,000 h, and it indicated that the fine subgrains formed in the CLAM steel during the long-term thermal exposure. Furthermore, Charpy impact experiments were carried out to analyze the toughness of the CLAM steel before and after aging, particularly the Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT). Though amounts of fine subgrians formed in matrix, a substantial increase in DBTT (∼40.1 °C) had been noticed after aging for 10,000 h. The results showed that the high angle boundaries such as prior austenitic grain boundaries are more effective in retarding the propagation of cleavage crack than subgrain boundaries.

  13. Laboratory simulation reveals significant impacts of ocean acidification on microbial community composition and host-pathogen interactions between the blood clam and Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Shanjie; Liu, Saixi; Su, Wenhao; Shi, Wei; Xiao, Guoqiang; Yan, Maocang; Liu, Guangxu

    2017-12-01

    It has been suggested that climate change may promote the outbreaks of diseases in the sea through altering the host susceptibility, the pathogen virulence, and the host-pathogen interaction. However, the impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on the pathogen components of bacterial community and the host-pathogen interaction of marine bivalves are still poorly understood. Therefore, 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and host-pathogen interaction analysis between blood clam (Tegillarca granosa) and Vibrio harveyi were conducted in the present study to gain a better understanding of the ecological impacts of ocean acidification. The results obtained revealed a significant impact of ocean acidification on the composition of microbial community at laboratory scale. Notably, the abundance of Vibrio, a major group of pathogens to many marine organisms, was significantly increased under ocean acidification condition. In addition, the survival rate and haemolytic activity of V. harveyi were significantly higher in the presence of haemolymph of OA treated T. granosa, indicating a compromised immunity of the clam and enhanced virulence of V. harveyi under future ocean acidification scenarios. Conclusively, the results obtained in this study suggest that future ocean acidification may increase the risk of Vibrio pathogen infection for marine bivalve species, such as blood clams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phytoplankton growth balanced by clam and zooplankton grazing and net transport into the low-salinity zone of the San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmerer, Wim J.; Thompson, Janet K.

    2014-01-01

    We estimated the influence of planktonic and benthic grazing on phytoplankton in the strongly tidal, river-dominated northern San Francisco Estuary using data from an intensive study of the low salinity foodweb in 2006–2008 supplemented with long-term monitoring data. A drop in chlorophyll concentration in 1987 had previously been linked to grazing by the introduced clam Potamocorbula amurensis, but numerous changes in the estuary may be linked to the continued low chlorophyll. We asked whether phytoplankton continued to be suppressed by grazing and what proportion of the grazing was by benthic bivalves. A mass balance of phytoplankton biomass included estimates of primary production and grazing by microzooplankton, mesozooplankton, and clams. Grazing persistently exceeded net phytoplankton growth especially for larger cells, and grazing by microzooplankton often exceeded that by clams. A subsidy of phytoplankton from other regions roughly balanced the excess of grazing over growth. Thus, the influence of bivalve grazing on phytoplankton biomass can be understood only in the context of limits on phytoplankton growth, total grazing, and transport.

  15. Growth, Survival and Reproduction of the Giant Clam Tridacna maxima (Röding 1798, Bivalvia in Two Contrasting Lagoons in French Polynesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Van Wynsberge

    Full Text Available Shell growth, reproduction, and natural mortality of the giant clam Tridacna maxima were characterized over a two-year-period in the lagoon of the high island of Tubuai (Austral Archipelago and in the semi-closed lagoon of Tatakoto (Tuamotu Archipelago in French Polynesia. We also recorded temperature, water level, tidal slope, tidal range, and mean wave height in both lagoons. Lower lagoon aperture and exposure to oceanic swells at Tatakoto than at Tubuai was responsible for lower lagoon water renewal, as well as higher variability in temperature and water level at Tatakoto across the studied period. These different environmental conditions had an impact on giant clams. Firstly, spawning events in the lagoon of Tatakoto, detected by gonad maturity indices in June and July 2014, were timed with high oceanic water inflow and a decrease in lagoon water temperature. Secondly, temperature explained differences in shell growth rates between seasons and lagoons, generating different growth curves for the two sites. Thirdly, local mortality rates were also found to likely be related to water renewal patterns. In conclusion, our study suggests that reef aperture and lagoon water renewal rates play an integral role in giant clam life history, with significant differences in rates of shell growth, mortality and fertility found between open versus semi-closed atoll lagoons in coral reef ecosystems.

  16. Short-term acute hypercapnia affects cellular responses to trace metals in the hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanina, Anna V; Beniash, Elia; Etzkorn, Markus; Meyers, Tiffany B; Ringwood, Amy H; Sokolova, Inna M

    2013-09-15

    Estuarine and coastal habitats experience large fluctuations of environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, partial pressure of CO2 ( [Formula: see text] ) and pH; they also serve as the natural sinks for trace metals. Benthic filter-feeding organisms such as bivalves are exposed to the elevated concentrations of metals in estuarine water and sediments that can strongly affect their physiology. The effects of metals on estuarine organisms may be exacerbated by other environmental factors. Thus, a decrease in pH caused by high [Formula: see text] (hypercapnia) can modulate the effects of trace metals by affecting metal bioavailability, accumulation or binding. To better understand the cellular mechanisms of interactions between [Formula: see text] and trace metals in marine bivalves, we exposed isolated mantle cells of the hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) to different levels of [Formula: see text] (0.05, 1.52 and 3.01 kPa) and two major trace metal pollutants - cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu). Elevated [Formula: see text] resulted in a decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) of the isolated mantle cells from 7.8 to 7.4. Elevated [Formula: see text] significantly but differently affected the trace metal accumulation by the cells. Cd uptake was suppressed at elevated [Formula: see text] levels while Cu accumulation has greatly accelerated under hypercapnic conditions. Interestingly, at higher extracellular Cd levels, labile intracellular Cd(2+) concentration remained the same, while intracellular levels of free Zn(2+) increased suggesting that Cd(2+) substitutes bound Zn(2+) in these cells. In contrast, Cu exposure did not affect intracellular Zn(2+) but led to a profound increase in the intracellular levels of labile Cu(2+) and Fe(2+). An increase in the extracellular concentrations of Cd and Cu led to the elevated production of reactive oxygen species under the normocapnic conditions (0.05 kPa [Formula: see text] ); surprisingly, this effect was mitigated in

  17. Remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay (California, USA), by the Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis. I. Introduction and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, James T.; Thompson, Janet K.; Schemel, Laurence E.; Nichols, Frederic H.

    1990-01-01

    The euryhaline bivalve mollusc Potamocorbula amurensis (family Corbulidae), a native of China, Japan, and Korea, has recently appeared and become very abundant in San Francisco Bay. This clam appears to have been introduced as veliger larvae in the seawater ballast of cargo vessels. It was first collected in northern San Francisco Bay in late 1986. P, amurensis then spread throughout the estuary within 2 yr and reached densities at some sites exceeding 10 000 m-2 It lives primarily in the subtidal on all substrates (mud, sand, peat, and clay) and is found in the full range of bay salinities (estuary ecosystem. These could include changes in (1) trophic dynamics (through competition with other suspension-feeding and deposit-feeding infauna; changes in benthic community energy flow; availability of a new and abundant prey item for birds, fish, and crabs; and reduction - as a result of its filter feeding - of phytoplankton standmg stock) and (2) benthic dynamics (through inhibition and/or enhancement of infauna due to substrate destabilization; alteration of suspended sediment load of near-bottom water; and change of sediment surface redox balance). The early detection of the appearance and spread of P. amurensis in San Francisco Bay makes this one of the best documented invasions of any estuary in the world.

  18. Surfing the vegetal pole in a small population: extracellular vertical transmission of an 'intracellular' deep-sea clam symbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Tetsuro; Igawa, Kanae; Tame, Akihiro; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Aoki, Yui; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Nagai, Yukiko; Ozawa, Genki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Deguchi, Ryusaku; Fujikura, Katsunori; Maruyama, Tadashi; Yoshida, Takao

    2016-05-01

    Symbiont transmission is a key event for understanding the processes underlying symbiotic associations and their evolution. However, our understanding of the mechanisms of symbiont transmission remains still fragmentary. The deep-sea clam Calyptogena okutanii harbours obligate sulfur-oxidizing intracellular symbiotic bacteria in the gill epithelial cells. In this study, we determined the localization of their symbiont associating with the spawned eggs, and the population size of the symbiont transmitted via the eggs. We show that the symbionts are located on the outer surface of the egg plasma membrane at the vegetal pole, and that each egg carries approximately 400 symbiont cells, each of which contains close to 10 genomic copies. The very small population size of the symbiont transmitted via the eggs might narrow the bottleneck and increase genetic drift, while polyploidy and its transient extracellular lifestyle might slow the rate of genome reduction. Additionally, the extracellular localization of the symbiont on the egg surface may increase the chance of symbiont exchange. This new type of extracellular transovarial transmission provides insights into complex interactions between the host and symbiont, development of both host and symbiont, as well as the population dynamics underlying genetic drift and genome evolution in microorganisms.

  19. Fingernails as biological indices of metal exposure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    roadways workshops, and lead battery factories. ..... optimum intake and the safe range of each element. More ... rial of nail by adopting necessary quality control measures ... Pandey G N 1994 A text book of chemical technology, Vol. 2.

  20. Fingernails Yield Clues to Limb Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is involved in limb formation in mammalian embryonic development, as well as limb regeneration in amphibians. ... of the nail stem cells and the underlying layer of cells called the nail epithelium are left ...

  1. Evaluation of toxicological effects induced by tributyltin in clam Ruditapes decussatus using high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Study of metabolic responses in heart tissue and detection of a novel metabolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanana, H; Simon, G; Kervarec, N; Cérantola, S

    2014-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a highly toxic pollutant present in many aquatic ecosystems. Its toxicity in mollusks strongly affects their performance and survival. The main purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of TBT toxicity in clam Ruditapes decussatus by evaluating the metabolic responses of heart tissues, using high-resolution magic angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HRMAS NMR), after exposure to TBT (10 -9 , 10 -6 and 10 -4 M) during 24 h and 72 h. Results show that responses of clam heart tissue to TBT exposure are not dose dependent. Metabolic profile analyses indicated that TBT 10 -6 M, contrary to the two other doses tested, led to a significant depletion of taurine and betaine. Glycine levels decreased in all clam groups treated with the organotin. It is suggested that TBT abolished the cytoprotective effect of taurine, betaine and glycine thereby inducing cardiomyopathie. Moreover, results also showed that TBT induced increase in the level of alanine and succinate suggesting the occurrence of anaerobiosis particularly in clam group exposed to the highest dose of TBT. Taken together, these results demonstrate that TBT is a potential toxin with a variety of deleterious effects on clam and this organotin may affect different pathways depending to the used dose. The main finding of this study was the appearance of an original metabolite after TBT treatment likely N-glycine-N'-alanine. It is the first time that this molecule has been identified as a natural compound. Its exact role is unknown and remains to be elucidated. We suppose that its formation could play an important role in clam defense response by attenuating Ca 2+ dependent cell death induced by TBT. Therefore this compound could be a promising biomarker for TBT exposure.

  2. Effects of ocean acidification driven by elevated CO2 on larval shell growth and abnormal rates of the venerid clam, Mactra veneriformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Hoon; Yu, Ok Hwan; Yang, Eun Jin; Kang, Sung-Ho; Kim, Won; Choy, Eun Jung

    2016-11-01

    The venerid clam ( Mactra veneriformis Reeve 1854) is one of the main cultured bivalve species in intertidal and shallow subtidal ecosystems along the west coast of Korea. To understand the effects of ocean acidification on the early life stages of Korean clams, we investigated shell growth and abnormality rates and types in the D-shaped, umbonate veliger, and pediveliger stages of the venerid clam M. veneriformis during exposure to elevated seawater pCO2. In particular, we examined abnormal types of larval shell morphology categorized as shell deformations, shell distortions, and shell fissures. Specimens were incubated in seawater equilibrated with bubbled CO2-enriched air at (400±25)×10-6 (ambient control), (800±25)×10-6 (high pCO2), or (1 200±28)×10-6 (extremely high pCO2), the atmospheric CO2 concentrations predicted for the years 2014, 2084, and 2154 (70-year intervals; two human generations), respectively, in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario. The mean shell lengths of larvae were significantly decreased in the high and extremely high pCO2 groups compared with the ambient control groups. Furthermore, under high and extremely high pCO2 conditions, the cultures exhibited significantly increased abundances of abnormal larvae and increased severity of abnormalities compared with the ambient control. In the umbonate veliger stage of the experimental larvae, the most common abnormalities were shell deformations, distortions, and fissures; on the other hand, convex hinges and mantle protuberances were absent. These results suggest that elevated CO2 exerts an additional burden on the health of M. veneriformis larvae by impairing early development.

  3. Induction of Symbiosis in Tridacna crocea (C. Bivalvia, F. Tridacnidae Using Zooxanthellae from T. gigas and from T. crocea: Effects on Clam Survival and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suzanne Mingoa-Licuanan

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Survival and growth of post-metamorphic Tridacna crocea juveniles were improved by inducing symbiosis with fresh or cloned zooxanthellae (Tg10 derived from T. gigas. Although clam growth was best with Tc4, survival was also poorest. Symbiosis with specific zooxanthellae was established at the pediveliger stage, with reinfection a few days after. It is suggested that while survival and growth may be easily monitored and may be used as indicators of good performance of a functional holobiont, other phenotypic traits such as resistance to disease, bleaching, etc. may also be considered in evaluating the effectivity of the selected zooxanthellae.

  4. Development of the 'SEA-Clam' wave energy device for small scale use. Report for period 1st August 1983 - 31st March 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-01

    The Report presented covers the work of the Sea Energy Associates Ltd./Coventry (Lanchester) Polytechnic Wave Energy Group on the development of the SEA Clam concept from a 290 metre long, 45 000 tonne displacement unit rated at 10 MW to a smaller unit, typically 500 to 1000 kW, for island or remote coastal communities. Productivity measurements, flexible bag development, and work on the Wells' turbine which has been concentrated on the outline design and costing of an engineered unit for this application are discussed.

  5. From water to land: How an invasive clam may function as a resource pulse to terrestrial invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Adriana; Souza, Allan T; Ilarri, Martina; Pascoal, Cláudia; Sousa, Ronaldo

    2015-12-15

    Resource pulses are episodes of low frequency, large magnitude and short duration that result in increased resource availability in space and time, with consequences for food web dynamics. Studies assessing the importance of resource pulses by invasive alien species in the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are rare, especially those in the direction from water to land. This study assessed the importance of massive die-offs of the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) as a resource pulse to the terrestrial invertebrate community after an extreme climatic event using a manipulative experiment. We used 5 levels of C. fluminea density (0, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000ind·m(-2)), with terrestrial invertebrates being censused 7, 30 and 90days after C. fluminea addition. We also assessed the possible effect of plots position, where plots that delimited the experiment were assigned as edge plots and the remaining as core plots. Clear differences were detected in abundance, biomass, richness and diversity of terrestrial invertebrates depending on the C. fluminea density, time and position. Interestingly, the highest abundance of adult Diptera was observed 7days after C. fluminea addition, whereas that of the other terrestrial invertebrates was on day 30, both with C. fluminea densities higher than 500ind·m(-2) located on the edge of the experimental design. This study highlights the importance of major resource pulses after massive die-offs of invasive bivalves, contributing with remarkable amounts of carrion for adjacent terrestrial systems. Part of this carrion can be consumed directly by a great number of invertebrate species while the remainder can enter the detrital food web. Given the high density and biomass attained by several invasive bivalves worldwide and the predicted increase in the number, intensity and magnitude of extreme climatic events, the ecological importance of this phenomenon should be further investigated. Copyright © 2015

  6. A microarray-based analysis of gametogenesis in two Portuguese populations of the European clam Ruditapes decussatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Teixeira de Sousa

    Full Text Available The European clam, Ruditapes decussatus is a species with a high commercial importance in Portugal and other Southern European countries. Its production is almost exclusively based on natural recruitment, which is subject to high annual fluctuations. Increased knowledge of the natural reproductive cycle of R. decussatus and its molecular mechanisms would be particularly important in providing new highly valuable genomic information for better understanding the regulation of reproduction in this economically important aquaculture species. In this study, the transcriptomic bases of R. decussatus reproduction have been analysed using a custom oligonucleotide microarray representing 51,678 assembled contigs. Microarray analyses were performed in four gonadal maturation stages from two different Portuguese wild populations, characterized by different responses to spawning induction when used as progenitors in hatchery. A comparison between the two populations elucidated a specific pathway involved in the recognition signals and binding between the oocyte and components of the sperm plasma membrane. We suggest that this pathway can explain part of the differences in terms of spawning induction success between the two populations. In addition, sexes and reproductive stages were compared and a correlation between mRNA levels and gonadal area was investigated. The lists of differentially expressed genes revealed that sex explains most of the variance in gonadal gene expression. Additionally, genes like Foxl2, vitellogenin, condensing 2, mitotic apparatus protein p62, Cep57, sperm associated antigens 6, 16 and 17, motile sperm domain containing protein 2, sperm surface protein Sp17, sperm flagellar proteins 1 and 2 and dpy-30, were identified as being correlated with the gonad area and therefore supposedly with the number and/or the size of the gametes produced.

  7. Veligers of the invasive Asian clam Corbicula fluminea in the Columbia River Basin: Broadscale distribution, abundance, and ecological associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Whitney; Bollens, Stephen M.; Counihan, Timothy D.; Rollwagen-Bollens, Gretchen; Zimmerman, Julie; Emerson, Joshua E.

    2017-01-01

    The invasive Asian clam Corbicula fluminea was introduced to North America in the 1930s and now inhabits most regions of the conterminous United States; however, the distribution and ecology of C. fluminea in the Columbia River Basin is poorly understood. During 2013 and 2014, 5 Columbia-Snake River reservoirs were sampled monthly from May through September, along with 23 additional lakes and reservoirs sampled once each summer. Associations among C. fluminea veligers, other components of the plankton, and environmental variables were analyzed using non-metric multidimensional scaling and canonical correspondence analysis. Corbicula fluminea veligers were found in high abundances in all mainstem Columbia-Snake River reservoirs, with an annual mean abundance of 71.2 individuals per cubic meter (inds./m3). Only 3 of 23 lakes and (non-mainstem) reservoirs contained C. fluminea, with abundances considerably lower (maximum = 21.2 inds./m3) than in the mainstem reservoirs. A diatom-dominated community preceded the spawning of C. fluminea in early summer at all sites. Corbicula fluminea veligers characterized the plankton community in late summer and were associated with cyanobacteria and high water temperatures. A third community, characterized by cyanobacteria, was apparent in non-mainstem sites in July and August. Our analyses describe the relationship of C. fluminea to the plankton community and environment, which contributes to our understanding of the possible effects of C. fluminea infestations and which waterbodies in the Columbia River Basin are at risk for infestation. Understanding the effects and environmental determinants of invasive mollusks will be increasingly important in the future with the possible arrival of zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) or quagga (D. bugensis) mussels to the region.

  8. The Effect of Season on the Metabolic Profile of the European Clam Ruditapes decussatus as Studied by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Aru

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the metabolome of Ruditapes decussatus, an economically and ecologically important marine bivalve species widely distributed in the Mediterranean region, was characterized by using proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy. Significant seasonal variations in the content of carbohydrates and free amino acids were observed. The relative amounts of alanine and glycine were found to exhibit the same seasonal pattern as the temperature and salinity at the harvesting site. Several putative sex-specific biomarkers were also discovered. Substantial differences were found for alanine and glycine, whose relative amounts were higher in males, while acetoacetate, choline and phosphocholine were more abundant in female clams. These findings reveal novel insights into the baseline metabolism of the European clam and represent a step forward towards a comprehensive metabolic characterization of the species. Besides providing a holistic view on the prominent nutritional components, the characterization of the metabolome of this bivalve represents an important prerequisite for elucidating the underlying metabolic pathways behind the environment-organism interactions.

  9. Effects of Freshwater Clam Extract Supplementation on Time to Exhaustion, Muscle Damage, Pro/Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines, and Liver Injury in Rats after Exhaustive Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Wen Liao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The potent anti-inflammatory activities and tissue-protective effects of freshwater clams (Corbicula fluminea have been well reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of freshwater clam extract (FCE supplementation on time to exhaustion, muscle damage, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and liver injury in rats after exhaustive exercise. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (SC; SC group with FCE supplementation (SC+FCE; exhaustive exercise (E; and E group with FCE supplementation (E+FCE. The SC+FCE and E+FCE groups were treated with gavage administration of 20 mg/kg for seven consecutive days. Blood samples were collected for the evaluation of biochemical parameters. The cytokine levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were also examined. Twenty-four hours after exhaustive exercise, the rat livers were removed for H & E staining. The FCE supplementation could extend the time to exhaustion in exercised rats. The levels of CPK, LDH, AST, ALT, lactate, TNF-α and H & E stains of the liver injury were significantly decreased in the E+FCE group, but the blood glucose and IL-10 were significantly higher in comparison with the E group. This study suggests that FCE supplementation may improve endurance performance and reduce exercise-induced muscle damage, inflammatory stress and liver injury.

  10. Paralytic shellfish toxins in the chocolata clam, Megapitaria squalida (Bivalvia: Veneridae, in Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gárate-Lizárraga

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence and toxic profiles of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST in the chocolata clam Megapitaria squalida were investigated. From December 2001 to December 2002, 25 clams were obtained monthly from Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California. Additionally, net (20 µm and bottle phytoplankton samples were also collected to identify toxic species. Toxins were analyzed by HPLC with post-column oxidation and fluorescence detection. Toxicity in the clam was low and varied from 0.14 to 5.46 µg/STXeq/100 g. Toxicity was detected in December, March, April, June, and August. Toxin profile was composed mainly by STX, GTX2, GTX3, dcGTX2, dcGTX3, C2, dcSTX and B1. Gymnodinium catenatum was the only PST-producing dinoflagellate identified in the phytoplankton samples throughout the study period. G. catenatum was observed mainly in net samples from December 2001 to December 2002; however, in bottle samples, G. catenatum was only observed in five months. Highest abundance (2 600 cells l-1 was observed in March and the lowest (160 cells l-1 in June. G. catenatum mainly formed two-cell chains and rarely four or eight. The presence of PST in net phytoplankton samples support the fact that G. catenatum is the main source of PST in the clams. This study represents the first report of PST toxins in the chocolata clam from Bahía de La PazSe investigó la ocurrencia así como los perfiles de toxinas paralíticas (PST en la almeja chocolata Megapitaria squalida (Sowerby, 1835, de la cual se recolectaron mensualmente 25 ejemplares de diciembre del 2001 a diciembre del 2000 en La Bahía de La Paz, Golfo de California. Simultáneamente, se obtuvieron muestras de fitoplancton de botella y de red (20 µM para identificar especies tóxicas, así como para detectar la presencia de toxinas paralíticas. Las toxinas se analizaron por HPLC con una oxidación post-columna y detección fluorescente. La toxicidad en las almejas fue baja y varió de 0.14 a 5.46 µg/STXeq/100 g y se

  11. Subcellular partitioning profiles and metallothionein levels in indigenous clams Moerella iridescens from a metal-impacted coastal bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zaosheng, E-mail: zswang@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Boulevard, Xiamen 361021 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Feng, Chenglian; Ye, Chun [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Youshao [State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301 (China); Yan, Changzhou, E-mail: czyan@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Boulevard, Xiamen 361021 (China); Li, Rui; Yan, Yijun; Chi, Qiaoqiao [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Boulevard, Xiamen 361021 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Subcellular partitioning profile of metals were investigated in biomonitor organism. • Cu, Zn and Cd levels in main fraction of HSP increase along accumulation gradients. • Despite MTs as the major binding pool, detoxification of Cd and Pb was incomplete. • Induced MTs were sequentially correlated with Cu, Zn and Cd levels in HSP fraction. • Intracellular metal fates highlighted the metabolic availability within organism. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of environmental metal exposure on the accumulation and subcellular distribution of metals in the digestive gland of clams with special emphasis on metallothioneins (MTs) was investigated. Specimens of indigenous Moerella iridescens were collected from different natural habitats in Maluan Bay (China), characterized by varying levels of metal contamination. The digestive glands were excised, homogenized and six subcellular fractions were separated by differential centrifugation procedures and analyzed for their Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb contents. MTs were quantified independently by spectrophotometric measurements of thiols. Site-specific differences were observed in total metal concentrations in the tissues, correlating well with variable environmental metal concentrations and reflecting the gradient trends in metal contamination. Concentrations of the non-essential Cd and Pb were more responsive to environmental exposure gradients than were tissue concentrations of the essential metals, Cu and Zn. Subcellular partitioning profiles for Cu, Zn and Cd were relatively similar, with the heat-stable protein (HSP) fraction as the dominant metal-binding compartment, whereas for Pb this fraction was much less important. The variations in proportions and concentrations of metals in this fraction along with the metal bioaccumulation gradients suggested that the induced MTs play an important role in metal homeostasis and detoxification for M. iridescens in the metal-contaminated bay. Nevertheless

  12. Embrionary and larval development of the marine clam Tivela mactroides (Bivalvia:Veneridaein Zulia State,Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinett M Reverol

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The marine clam,Tivela mactroides ,from Caño Sagua beach,Venezuela,was spawned and reared under laboratory conditions to monitor its early development.Spawning was spontaneous but in some cases it had to be induced by the additon of eggs and sperm.After fertilization,the embryonic development occurred at 5 hr approximately. Trochophore larvae were observed between eight and ten hours later.Straight-hinged veliger stage appeared 15 hr after fertilization.Transition from veliger stage to the umbo stage occurred about eight days after fertilization.Pediveliger stage was observed 22 days after fertilization.Metamorphosis of T.mactroides was not successful under our laboratory conditions;probably the bacterial contamination and subsequent mortalities were important factors constraining the final phase of the larval cycle.However,in a few cases young individuals were observed.We suspect that this was due to unfavorable conditions (e.g.:bacterial contamination, unsuitable food availability,etc.and the broad variation in developmental times,suggesting that these stages might be particularly sensitive to environmental changes.These results may not necessarily reflect what happens under natural conditions.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4:903-909.Epub 2005 Jun 24.La almeja Tivela mactroides ,de la playa Caño Sagua, Venezuela,fue desovada y cultivada bajo condiciones de laboratorio,monitoreando su desarrollo embrionario y larvario.El desove fue espontáneo,sin embargo,en algunos casos se indujo adicionando óvulos y espermatozoides. El desarrollo embrionario se produjo en cinco horas, aproximadamente.La larva trocófora fue observada a las diez horas,mientras que la prodisoconcha aparece a las 15 horas después de la fertilización.La larva disoconcha aparece ocho días después de la fecundación y la veliconcha,aproximadamente a los 20 días.La metamorfosis de T.mactroides no fue satisfactoria bajo estas condiciones, ya que la contaminación bacterial fue uno de los

  13. Cool's Clams Casino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobey, Paul; Williams, David E.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical game that reinforces basic multiplication facts, strengthens concepts of factors and multiples, and also provides arithmetic drill is described. Four variations of the game are also provided. (JT)

  14. Ocean Acidification Affects the Cytoskeleton, Lysozymes, and Nitric Oxide of Hemocytes: A Possible Explanation for the Hampered Phagocytosis in Blood Clams, Tegillarca granosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenhao; Rong, Jiahuan; Zha, Shanjie; Yan, Maocang; Fang, Jun; Liu, Guangxu

    2018-01-01

    An enormous amount of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has been dissolved into the ocean, leading to a lower pH and changes in the chemical properties of seawater, which has been termed ocean acidification (OA). The impacts of p CO 2 -driven acidification on immunity have been revealed recently in various marine organisms. However, the mechanism causing the reduction in phagocytosis still remains unclear. Therefore, the impacts of p CO 2 -driven OA at present and near-future levels (pH values of 8.1, 7.8, and 7.4) on the rate of phagocytosis, the abundance of cytoskeleton components, the levels of nitric oxide (NO), and the concentration and activity of lysozymes (LZM) of hemocytes were investigated in a commercial bivalve species, the blood clam ( Tegillarca granosa ). In addition, the effects of OA on the expression of genes regulating actin skeleton and nitric oxide synthesis 2 ( NOS2 ) were also analyzed. The results obtained showed that the phagocytic rate, cytoskeleton component abundance, concentration and activity of LZM of hemocytes were all significantly reduced after a 2-week exposure to the future OA scenario of a pH of 7.4. On the contrary, a remarkable increase in the concentration of NO compared to that of the control was detected in clams exposed to OA. Furthermore, the expression of genes regulating the actin cytoskeleton and NOS were significantly up-regulated after OA exposure. Though the mechanism causing phagocytosis seemed to be complicated based on the results obtained in the present study and those reported previously, our results suggested that OA may reduce the phagocytosis of hemocytes by (1) decreasing the abundance of cytoskeleton components and therefore hampering the cytoskeleton-mediated process of engulfment, (2) reducing the concentration and activity of LZM and therefore constraining the degradation of the engulfed pathogen through an oxygen-independent pathway, and (3) inducing the production of NO, which may negatively

  15. Can the hemoglobin characteristics of vesicomyid clam species influence their distribution in deep-sea sulfide-rich sediments? A case study in the Angola Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, C.; Zorn, N.; Le Bruchec, J.; Caprais, J. C.; Potier, N.; Leize-Wagner, E.; Lallier, F. H.; Olu, K.; Andersen, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Vesicomyids live in endosymbiosis with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and therefore need hydrogen sulfide to survive. They can nevertheless live in a wide range of sulfide and oxygen levels and depths, which may explain the exceptional diversity of this clam family in deep-sea habitats. In the Gulf of Guinea, nine species of vesicomyid clams are known to live in cold-seep areas with pockmarks from 600 to 3200 m deep, as well as in the organic-rich sediments of the Congo deep-sea fan at 5000 m deep. Our previous study showed that two species living in a giant pockmark have different oxygen carriers, suggesting different adaptations to hypoxia. Here, we studied the hemoglobin structure and oxygen affinity in three other species, Calyptogena valdiviae, Elenaconcha guiness and Abyssogena southwardae to determine whether the characteristics of their oxygen carriers contribute to their distribution in sulfide-rich sediments at a regional scale. Documenting pairwise species associations in various proportions, we give a semi-quantitative account of their local distribution and oxygen and sulfide measurements at seven sites. Mass spectrometry showed that each vesicomyid species has four intracellular monomeric hemoglobin molecules of 15-16 kDa, all differing in their molecular mass. As expected, the monomers showed no cooperativity in oxygen binding. Their oxygen affinities were very high (below 1 Torr), but differed significantly. C. valdiviae had the highest affinity and was dominant in the Harp pockmark, the site with the lowest oxygen content (half the value of fully oxygenated water). A. southwardae dominated in the Congo Lobe area, the site with the deepest sulfides. We discuss how hemoglobin may favor an active, vertical distribution of vesicomyids in sulfide-rich sediments.

  16. Microhabitat and biology of Sphaerium striatinum in a central New York stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittman, Dawn E.; Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.

    2018-01-01

    In many lotic systems, drastic declines in freshwater bivalve populations, including fingernail clams (Sphaeriidae), have created concerns about biodiversity and future ecosystem services. We examined the local occurrence of the historically common fingernail clam, Sphaerium striatinum, in a central New York stream. We sampled the density of sphaeriids and measured the associated habitat variables (substrate, depth, water flow) to test within-stream multivariate benthic microhabitat association. Size distribution, density, and diel feeding periodicity were measured as focal aspects of fingernail clam biology and ecology. S. striatinum tended to be found in microhabitats that had harder substrates and faster flow. The Labrador Creek fingernail clam local population had positive indicators (size distribution, density). There was significant diel periodicity in feeding behavior. The clams fed most actively during the 0400–0800 h periods. This kind of behavioral periodicity can indicate a significant ecological interaction between predators and bivalve prey. Increased understanding of the behavioral ecology of small native freshwater bivalves in an unimpacted headwater stream is a fundamental building block for development of overall ecological conservation goals for freshwater bivalves and their lotic habitats.

  17. Molecular characterization of a novel algal glutamine synthetase (GS) and an algal glutamate synthase (GOGAT) from the colorful outer mantle of the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, and the putative GS-GOGAT cycle in its symbiotic zooxanthellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fam, Rachel R S; Hiong, Kum C; Choo, Celine Y L; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2018-05-20

    Giant clams harbor symbiotic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium), which are nitrogen-deficient, mainly in the fleshy and colorful outer mantle. This study aimed to sequence and characterize the algal Glutamine Synthetase (GS) and Glutamate Synthase (GLT), which constitute the glutamate synthase cycle (or GS-GOGAT cycle, whereby GOGAT is the protein acronym of GLT) of nitrogen assimilation, from the outer mantle of the fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa. We had identified a novel GS-like cDNA coding sequence of 2325 bp, and named it as T. squamosa Symbiodinium GS1 (TSSGS1). The deduced TSSGS1 sequence had 774 amino acids with a molecular mass of 85 kDa, and displayed the characteristics of GS1 and Nucleotide Diphosphate Kinase. The cDNA coding sequence of the algal GLT, named as T. squamosa Symbiodinium GLT (TSSGLT), comprised 6399 bp, encoding a protein of 2133 amino acids and 232.4 kDa. The zooxanthellal origin of TSSGS1 and TSSGOGAT was confirmed by sequence comparison and phylogenetic analyses. Indeed, TSSGS1 and TSSGOGAT were expressed predominately in the outer mantle, which contained the majority of the zooxanthellae. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the expression of TSSGS1 and TSSGOGAT in the cytoplasm and the plastids, respectively, of the zooxanthellae in the outer mantle. It can be concluded that the symbiotic zooxanthellae of T. squamosa possesses a glutamate synthase (TSSGS1-TSSGOGAT) cycle that can assimilate endogenous ammonia produced by the host clam into glutamate, which can act as a substrate for amino acid syntheses. Thus, our results provide insights into why intact giant clam-zooxanthellae associations do not excrete ammonia under normal circumstances. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of toxicological effects induced by tributyltin in clam Ruditapes decussatus using high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Study of metabolic responses in heart tissue and detection of a novel metabolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hanana

    2014-01-01

    The main finding of this study was the appearance of an original metabolite after TBT treatment likely N-glycine-N′-alanine. It is the first time that this molecule has been identified as a natural compound. Its exact role is unknown and remains to be elucidated. We suppose that its formation could play an important role in clam defense response by attenuating Ca2+ dependent cell death induced by TBT. Therefore this compound could be a promising biomarker for TBT exposure.

  19. Salmonella Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and in vegetable and fruit harvesting and packing operations may help prevent salmonellosis caused by contaminated foods. Better education of food industry workers in basic food safety and restaurant inspection procedures may prevent cross-contamination and other ...

  20. Pinnatoxin G is responsible for atypical toxicity in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and clams (Venerupis decussata) from Ingril, a French Mediterranean lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Philipp; Abadie, Eric; Hervé, Fabienne; Berteaux, Tom; Séchet, Véronique; Aráoz, Romulo; Molgó, Jordi; Zakarian, Armen; Sibat, Manoëlla; Rundberget, Thomas; Miles, Christopher O.; Amzil, Zouher

    2014-01-01

    Following a review of official control data on shellfish in France, Ingril Lagoon had been identified as a site where positive mouse bioassays for lipophilic toxins had been repeatedly observed. These unexplained mouse bioassays, also called atypical toxicity, coincided with an absence of regulated toxins and rapid death times in mice observed in the assay. The present study describes pinnatoxin G as the main compound responsible for the toxicity observed using the mouse bioassay for lipophilic toxins. Using a well-characterised standard for pinnatoxin G, LC-MS/MS analysis of mussel samples collected from 2009 to 2012 revealed regular occurrences of pinnatoxin G at levels sufficient to account for the toxicity in the mouse bioassays. Baseline levels of pinnatoxin G from May to October usually exceeded 40 µg kg−1 in whole flesh, with a maximum in September 2010 of around 1200 µg kg−1. These concentrations were much greater than those at the other 10 sites selected for vigilance testing, where concentrations did not exceed 10 µg kg−1 in a 3-month survey from April to July 2010, and where rapid mouse deaths were not typically observed. Mussels were always more contaminated than clams, confirming that mussel is a good sentinel species for pinnatoxins. Profiles in mussels and clams were similar, with the concentration of pinnatoxin A less than 2% that of pinnatoxin G, and pteriatoxins were only present in non-quantifiable traces. Esters of pinnatoxin G could not be detected by analysis of extracts before and after alkaline hydrolysis. Analysis with a receptor-binding assay showed that natural pinnatoxin G was similarly active on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as chemically synthesized pinnatoxin G. Culture of Vulcanodinium rugosum, previously isolated from Ingril lagoon, confirmed that this alga is a pinnatoxin G producer (4.7 pg cell−1). Absence of this organism from the water column during prolonged periods of shellfish contamination and the dominance

  1. Dynamics and chemistry of vortex remnants in late Arctic spring 1997 and 2000: Simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Konopka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution simulations of the chemical composition of the Arctic stratosphere during late spring 1997 and 2000 were performed with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS. The simulations were performed for the entire northern hemisphere on two isentropic levels 450 K (~18 km and 585 K (~24 km. The spatial distribution and the lifetime of the vortex remnants formed after the vortex breakup in May 1997 display different behavior above and below 20 km. Above 20 km, vortex remnants propagate southward (up to 40°N and are "frozen in'' in the summer circulation without significant mixing. Below 20 km the southward propagation of the remnants is bounded by the subtropical jet. Their lifetime is shorter by a factor of 2 than that above 20 km, owing to significant stirring below this altitude. The behavior of vortex remnants formed in March 2000 is similar but, due to an earlier vortex breakup, dominated during the first 6 weeks after the vortex breakup by westerly winds, even above 20 km. Vortex remnants formed in May 1997 are characterized by large mixing ratios of HCl indicating negligible, halogen-induced ozone loss. In contrast, mid-latitude ozone loss in late boreal spring 2000 is dominated, until mid-April, by halogen-induced ozone destruction within the vortex remnants, and subsequent transport of the ozone-depleted polar air masses (dilution into the mid-latitudes. By varying the intensity of mixing in CLaMS, the impact of mixing on the formation of ClONO2 and ozone depletion is investigated. We find that the photochemical decomposition of HNO3 and not mixing with NOx-rich mid-latitude air is the main source of NOx within the vortex remnants in March and April 2000. Ozone depletion in the remnants is driven by ClOx photolytically formed from ClONO2. At the end of May 1997, the halogen-induced ozone deficit at 450 K poleward of 30°N amounts to ~12% with ~10% in the polar vortex and ~2% in well-isolated vortex remnants

  2. Tropical troposphere to stratosphere transport of carbon monoxide and long-lived trace species in the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pommrich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the mixing ratio of trace gases of tropospheric origin entering the stratosphere in the tropics are of interest for assessing both troposphere to stratosphere transport fluxes in the tropics and the impact of these transport fluxes on the composition of the tropical lower stratosphere. Anomaly patterns of carbon monoxide (CO and long-lived tracers in the lower tropical stratosphere allow conclusions about the rate and the variability of tropical upwelling to be drawn. Here, we present a simplified chemistry scheme for the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS for the simulation, at comparatively low numerical cost, of CO, ozone, and long-lived trace substances (CH4, N2O, CCl3F (CFC-11, CCl2F2 (CFC-12, and CO2 in the lower tropical stratosphere. For the long-lived trace substances, the boundary conditions at the surface are prescribed based on ground-based measurements in the lowest model level. The boundary condition for CO in the lower troposphere (below about 4 km is deduced from MOPITT measurements. Due to the lack of a specific representation of mixing and convective uplift in the troposphere in this model version, enhanced CO values, in particular those resulting from convective outflow are underestimated. However, in the tropical tropopause layer and the lower tropical stratosphere, there is relatively good agreement of simulated CO with in situ measurements (with the exception of the TROCCINOX campaign, where CO in the simulation is biased low ≈10–15 ppbv. Further, the model results (and therefore also the ERA-Interim winds, on which the transport in the model is based are of sufficient quality to describe large scale anomaly patterns of CO in the lower stratosphere. In particular, the zonally averaged tropical CO anomaly patterns (the so called "tape recorder" patterns simulated by this model version of CLaMS are in good agreement with observations, although the simulations show a too rapid upwelling

  3. Fate of isotopically labeled zinc oxide nanoparticles in sediment and effects on two endobenthic species, the clam Scrobicularia plana and the ragworm Hediste diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Amiard-Triquet, Claude; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Risso-de Faverney, Christine; Guibbolini, Marielle; Valsami-Jones, Eugénia; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Although it is reported that metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, which are among the most rapidly commercialized materials, can cause toxicity to organisms, their fate in the environment and toxicity to marine organisms are not well understood. In this study, we used a stable isotope labelling approach to trace the fate of nanoparticles (NPs) in sediments and also investigated bio-uptake in two estuarine intra-sedimentary invertebrates Scrobicularia plana and Nereis diversicolor. We selected exposure to 3 mg kg(-1) sediment ZnO NPs since this level is a realistic prediction of the environmental concentration in sediments. 67ZnO NPs (DLS: 21-34 nm, positively charged: 31.3 mV) suspensions were synthesised in diethylene glycol (DEG). We explored the fate of 67ZnO NPs in sediment, 67Zn bioaccumulation and the biochemical (biomarkers of defence and damage) and behavioural (burrowing kinetics and feeding rates) biomarkers in both species to 67ZnO NPs and DEG on its own during a 16 d laboratory exposure. After exposure, 67Zn concentrations in sediment showed higher levels in the upper section (1cm: 2.59 mg kg(-1)) decreasing progressively (2 cm: 1.63 mg kg(-1), 3 cm: 0.90 mg kg(-1), 4 cm: 0.67 mg kg(-1)) to a minimum value at the bottom (5 cm: 0.31 mg kg(-1)). 67Zn bioaccumulation was observed in both organisms exposed to 67ZnO NPs in DEG but no major inter-species differences were found. At the biochemical level, 67ZnO NPs exposure significantly induced increased glutathione-S-transferase activity in worms and catalase activity in clams whereas superoxide dismutase activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels were not affected in any species. Exposure to DEG on its own leads to a significant increase of metallothionein-like protein levels in clams compared with those exposed to 67ZnO NPs or controls. Burrowing behaviour as well as feeding rate were significantly impaired in both species exposed to 67ZnO NPs. Concerning exposure to DEG on its own

  4. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  5. Evidence for the role of horizontal transfer in generating pVT1, a large mosaic conjugative plasmid from the clam pathogen, Vibrio tapetis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël Erauso

    Full Text Available The marine bacterium Vibrio tapetis is the causative agent of the brown ring disease, which affects the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and causes heavy economic losses in North of Europe and in Eastern Asia. Further characterization of V. tapetis isolates showed that all the investigated strains harbored at least one large plasmid. We determined the sequence of the 82,266 bp plasmid pVT1 from the CECT4600(T reference strain and analyzed its genetic content. pVT1 is a mosaic plasmid closely related to several conjugative plasmids isolated from Vibrio vulnificus strains and was shown to be itself conjugative in Vibrios. In addition, it contains DNA regions that have similarity with several other plasmids from marine bacteria (Vibrio sp., Shewanella sp., Listonella anguillarum and Photobacterium profundum. pVT1 contains a number of mobile elements, including twelve Insertion Sequences or inactivated IS genes and an RS1 phage element related to the CTXphi phage of V. cholerae. The genetic organization of pVT1 underscores an important role of horizontal gene transfer through conjugative plasmid shuffling and transposition events in the acquisition of new genetic resources and in generating the pVT1 modular organization. In addition, pVT1 presents a copy number of 9, relatively high for a conjugative plasmid, and appears to belong to a new type of replicon, which may be specific to Vibrionaceae and Shewanelleacae.

  6. Ocean acidification weakens the immune response of blood clam through hampering the NF-kappa β and toll-like receptor pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Saixi; Shi, Wei; Guo, Cheng; Zhao, Xinguo; Han, Yu; Peng, Chao; Chai, Xueliang; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-07-01

    The impact of pCO2 driven ocean acidification on marine bivalve immunity remains poorly understood. To date, this impact has only been investigated in a few bivalve species and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. In the present study, the effects of the realistic future ocean pCO2 levels (pH at 8.1, 7.8, and 7.4) on the total number of haemocyte cells (THC), phagocytosis status, blood cell types composition, and expression levels of twelve genes from the NF-kappa β signaling and toll-like receptor pathways of a typical bottom burrowing bivalve, blood clam (Tegillarca granosa), were investigated. The results obtained showed that while both THC number and phagocytosis frequency were significantly reduced, the percentage of red and basophil granulocytes were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, upon exposure to elevated pCO2. In addition, exposure to pCO2 acidified seawater generally led to a significant down-regulation in the inducer and key response genes of NF-kappa β signaling and toll-like receptor pathways. The results of the present study revealed that ocean acidification may hamper immune responses of the bivalve T. granosa which subsequently render individuals more susceptible to pathogens attacks such as those from virus and bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The usability of ark clam shell (Anadara granosa) as calcium precursor to produce hydroxyapatite nanoparticle via wet chemical precipitate method in various sintering temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiri, Mohammad Zulhasif Ahmad; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Abdullah, Che Azurahanim Che; Alassan, Zarifah Nadakkavil; Baharuddin, Nur Fadilah; Zaid, Mohd Hafiz Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This paper reported the uses of ark clam shell calcium precursor in order to form hydroxyapatite (HA) via the wet chemical precipitation method. The main objective of this research is to acquire better understanding regarding the effect of sintering temperature in the fabrication of HA. Throughout experiment, the ratio of Ca:P were constantly controlled, between 1.67 and 2.00. The formation of HA at these ratio was confirmed by means of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. In addition, the effect of sintering temperature on the formation of HA was observed using X-ray diffraction analysis, while the structural and morphology was determined by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy. The formation of HA nanoparticle was recorded (~35-69 nm) in the form of as-synthesize HA powder. The bonding compound appeared in the formation of HA was carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy such as biomaterials that are expected to find potential applications in orthopedic and biomedical industries .

  8. A novel widespread cryptic species and phylogeographic patterns within several giant clam species (Cardiidae: Tridacna) from the Indo-Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsken, Thomas; Keyse, Jude; Liggins, Libby; Penny, Shane; Treml, Eric A; Riginos, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Giant clams (genus Tridacna) are iconic coral reef animals of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, easily recognizable by their massive shells and vibrantly colored mantle tissue. Most Tridacna species are listed by CITES and the IUCN Redlist, as their populations have been extensively harvested and depleted in many regions. Here, we survey Tridacna crocea and Tridacna maxima from the eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans for mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (ITS) sequence variation and consolidate these data with previous published results using phylogenetic analyses. We find deep intraspecific differentiation within both T. crocea and T. maxima. In T. crocea we describe a previously undocumented phylogeographic division to the east of Cenderawasih Bay (northwest New Guinea), whereas for T. maxima the previously described, distinctive lineage of Cenderawasih Bay can be seen to also typify western Pacific populations. Furthermore, we find an undescribed, monophyletic group that is evolutionarily distinct from named Tridacna species at both mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This cryptic taxon is geographically widespread with a range extent that minimally includes much of the central Indo-Pacific region. Our results reinforce the emerging paradigm that cryptic species are common among marine invertebrates, even for conspicuous and culturally significant taxa. Additionally, our results add to identified locations of genetic differentiation across the central Indo-Pacific and highlight how phylogeographic patterns may differ even between closely related and co-distributed species.

  9. A novel widespread cryptic species and phylogeographic patterns within several giant clam species (Cardiidae: Tridacna from the Indo-Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Huelsken

    Full Text Available Giant clams (genus Tridacna are iconic coral reef animals of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, easily recognizable by their massive shells and vibrantly colored mantle tissue. Most Tridacna species are listed by CITES and the IUCN Redlist, as their populations have been extensively harvested and depleted in many regions. Here, we survey Tridacna crocea and Tridacna maxima from the eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans for mitochondrial (COI and 16S and nuclear (ITS sequence variation and consolidate these data with previous published results using phylogenetic analyses. We find deep intraspecific differentiation within both T. crocea and T. maxima. In T. crocea we describe a previously undocumented phylogeographic division to the east of Cenderawasih Bay (northwest New Guinea, whereas for T. maxima the previously described, distinctive lineage of Cenderawasih Bay can be seen to also typify western Pacific populations. Furthermore, we find an undescribed, monophyletic group that is evolutionarily distinct from named Tridacna species at both mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This cryptic taxon is geographically widespread with a range extent that minimally includes much of the central Indo-Pacific region. Our results reinforce the emerging paradigm that cryptic species are common among marine invertebrates, even for conspicuous and culturally significant taxa. Additionally, our results add to identified locations of genetic differentiation across the central Indo-Pacific and highlight how phylogeographic patterns may differ even between closely related and co-distributed species.

  10. Application of electron-beam irradiation on the production of salted and seasoned short-necked clam, Tapes Pilippinarum, for safe distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.; Song, H.P.; Choe, J.H.; Jung, S. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, A. [Quality Control and Utilization of Animal Products, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.J. [Food Safety Research Division, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam 463-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, C. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Salted and seasoned short-necked clam (Tapes Philippinarum; SNC) and its major ingredients, red hot pepper powder, ginger, garlic and onion were irradiated at 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 kGy, respectively, and the microbiological and sensory quality were evaluated. The water activities of SNC and red pepper powder were 0.91 and 0.56, respectively, and others were higher than 0.97. The initial microbial populations of SNC were approximately 3.99, 4.38 and 2.22 log CFU/g for total aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold, and coliform bacteria. The highest contamination of total aerobic bacteria was detected from ground ginger among ingredients at 5.51 log CFU/g. Electron-beam irradiation (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 kGy) significantly reduced the initial microbial level of SNC and its ingredients not only immediately after irradiation, but also during storage at 10 {sup o}C for 4 weeks (p<0.05). There was no adverse change of sensory score except for the color of onion irradiated at 5 kGy, which results in a lower score than control. From the results electron-beam irradiation is a useful tool to enhance the storage stability and safe distribution of SNC.

  11. Preventative Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  12. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  14. Preventing Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  15. Prevent Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips for Teachers Report Cyberbullying Print Share Prevent Cyberbullying Be Aware of What Your Kids are Doing ... Signs a Child is Being Cyberbullied or is Cyberbullying Others Many of the warning signs that cyberbullying ...

  16. Preventing Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protective factors listed below: Skills in problem solving, conflict resolution, and nonviolent ways of handling disputes Effective ... 2017 Page last updated: August 9, 2017 Content source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division ...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics ... increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse ...

  19. Preventing accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    As the most effective strategy for improving safety is to prevent accidents from occurring at all, the Volpe Center applies a broad range of research techniques and capabilities to determine causes and consequences of accidents and to identify, asses...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility ... Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 ...

  2. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  3. Light exposure enhances urea absorption in the fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, and up-regulates the protein abundance of a light-dependent urea active transporter, DUR3-like, in its ctenidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christabel Y L; Hiong, Kum C; Boo, Mel V; Choo, Celine Y L; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2018-04-19

    Giant clams live in nutrient-poor reef waters of the Indo-Pacific and rely on symbiotic dinoflagellates ( Symbiodinium spp., also known as zooxanthellae) for nutrients. As the symbionts are nitrogen deficient, the host clam has to absorb exogenous nitrogen and supply it to them. This study aimed to demonstrate light-enhanced urea absorption in the fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa , and to clone and characterize the urea active transporter DUR3-like from its ctenidium (gill). The results indicate that T. squamosa absorbs exogenous urea, and the rate of urea uptake in the light was significantly higher than that in darkness. The DUR3-like coding sequence obtained from its ctenidium comprised 2346 bp, encoding a protein of 782 amino acids and 87.0 kDa. DUR3-like was expressed strongly in the ctenidium, outer mantle and kidney. Twelve hours of exposure to light had no significant effect on the transcript level of ctenidial DUR3-like However, between 3 and 12 h of light exposure, DUR3-like protein abundance increased progressively in the ctenidium, and became significantly greater than that in the control at 12 h. DUR3-like had an apical localization in the epithelia of the ctenidial filaments and tertiary water channels. Taken together, these results indicate that DUR3-like might participate in light-enhanced urea absorption in the ctenidium of T. squamosa When made available to the symbiotic zooxanthellae that are known to possess urease, the absorbed urea can be metabolized to NH 3 and CO 2 to support amino acid synthesis and photosynthesis, respectively, during insolation. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of toxicological effects induced by tributyltin in clam Ruditapes decussatus using high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Study of metabolic responses in heart tissue and detection of a novel metabolite

    OpenAIRE

    Hanana, H.; Simon, G.; Kervarec, N.; Cérantola, S.

    2014-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a highly toxic pollutant present in many aquatic ecosystems. Its toxicity in mollusks strongly affects their performance and survival. The main purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of TBT toxicity in clam Ruditapes decussatus by evaluating the metabolic responses of heart tissues, using high-resolution magic angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HRMAS NMR), after exposure to TBT (10−9, 10−6 and 10−4 M) during 24 h and 72 h. Results show that response...

  5. A Microarray Study of Carpet-Shell Clam (Ruditapes decussatus Shows Common and Organ-Specific Growth-Related Gene Expression Differences in Gills and Digestive Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Saavedra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth rate is one of the most important traits from the point of view of individual fitness and commercial production in mollusks, but its molecular and physiological basis is poorly known. We have studied differential gene expression related to differences in growth rate in adult individuals of the commercial marine clam Ruditapes decussatus. Gene expression in the gills and the digestive gland was analyzed in 5 fast-growing and five slow-growing animals by means of an oligonucleotide microarray containing 14,003 probes. A total of 356 differentially expressed genes (DEG were found. We tested the hypothesis that differential expression might be concentrated at the growth control gene core (GCGC, i.e., the set of genes that underlie the molecular mechanisms of genetic control of tissue and organ growth and body size, as demonstrated in model organisms. The GCGC includes the genes coding for enzymes of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway (IIS, enzymes of four additional signaling pathways (Raf/Ras/Mapk, Jnk, TOR, and Hippo, and transcription factors acting at the end of those pathways. Only two out of 97 GCGC genes present in the microarray showed differential expression, indicating a very little contribution of GCGC genes to growth-related differential gene expression. Forty eight DEGs were shared by both organs, with gene ontology (GO annotations corresponding to transcription regulation, RNA splicing, sugar metabolism, protein catabolism, immunity, defense against pathogens, and fatty acid biosynthesis. GO term enrichment tests indicated that genes related to growth regulation, development and morphogenesis, extracellular matrix proteins, and proteolysis were overrepresented in the gills. In the digestive gland overrepresented GO terms referred to gene expression control through chromatin rearrangement, RAS-related small GTPases, glucolysis, and energy metabolism. These analyses suggest a relevant role of, among others

  6. Biodynamic modelling of the bioaccumulation of trace metals (Ag, As and Zn) by an infaunal estuarine invertebrate, the clam Scrobicularia plana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, J.; Smith, B.D.; Bury, N.R.; Rainbow, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodynamic modelling is used to predict accumulation of Ag, As and Zn in S. plana. • Dissolved and sediment-associated metals contribute to total metal bioaccumulation. • Relative importance varies with water and sediment concentrations and geochemistries. - Abstract: Biodynamic modelling was used to investigate the uptake and accumulation of three trace metals (Ag, As, Zn) by the deposit feeding estuarine bivalve mollusc Scrobicularia plana. Radioactive labelling techniques were used to quantify the rates of trace metal uptake (and subsequent elimination) from water and sediment diet. The uptake rate constant from solution (±SE) was greatest for Ag (3.954 ± 0.375 l g −1 d −1 ) followed by As (0.807 ± 0.129 l g −1 d −1 ) and Zn (0.103 ± 0.016 l g −1 d −1 ). Assimilation efficiencies from ingested sediment were 40.2 ± 1.3% (Ag), 31.7 ± 1.0% (Zn) and 25.3 ± 0.9% (As). Efflux rate constants after exposure to metals in the solution or sediment fell in the range of 0.014–0.060 d −1 . By incorporating these physiological parameters into biodynamic models, our results showed that dissolved metal is the predominant source of accumulated Ag, As and Zn in S. plana, accounting for 66–99%, 50–97% and 52–98% of total accumulation of Ag, As and Zn, respectively, under different field exposure conditions. In general, model-predicted steady state concentrations of Ag, As and Zn matched well with those observed in clams collected in SW England estuaries. Our findings highlight the potential of biodynamic modelling to predict Ag, As and Zn accumulation in S. plana, taking into account specific dissolved and sediment concentrations of the metals at a particular field site, together with local water and sediment geochemistries

  7. Ecological effects of the harvest phase of geoduck clam (Panopea generosa Gould, 1850) aquaculture on infaunal communities in southern Puget Sound, Washington USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBlaricom, Glenn R.; Eccles, Jennifer L.; Olden, Julian D.; Mcdonald, P. Sean

    2015-01-01

    Intertidal aquaculture for geoducks (Panopea generosa Gould, 1850) is expanding in southern Puget Sound, Washington, where gently sloping sandy beaches are used for field culture. Geoduck aquaculture contributes significantly to the regional economy, but has become controversial because of a range of unresolved questions involving potential biological impacts on marine ecosystems. From 2008 through 2012, the authors used a “before-after-control-impact” experimental design, emphasizing spatial scales comparable with those used by geoduck culturists to evaluate the effects of harvesting market-ready geoducks on associated benthic infaunal communities. Infauna were sampled at three different study locations in southern Puget Sound at monthly intervals before, during, and after harvests of clams, and along extralimital transects extending away from the edges of cultured plots to assess the effects of harvest activities in adjacent uncultured habitat. Using multivariate statistical approaches, strong seasonal and spatial signals in patterns of abundance were found, but there was scant evidence of effects on the community structure associated with geoduck harvest disturbances within cultured plots. Likewise, no indications of significant “spillover” effects of harvest on uncultured habitat adjacent to cultured plots were noted. Complementary univariate approaches revealed little evidence of harvest effects on infaunal biodiversity and indications of modest effects on populations of individual infaunal taxa. Of 10 common taxa analyzed, only three showed evidence of reduced densities, although minor, after harvests whereas the remaining seven taxa indicated either neutral responses to harvest disturbances or increased abundance either during or in the months after harvest events. It is suggested that a relatively active natural disturbance regime, including both small-scale and large-scale events that occur with comparable intensity but more frequently than

  8. Effect of permethrin, anthracene and mixture exposure on shell components, enzymatic activities and proteins status in the Mediterranean clam Venerupis decussata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellami, Badreddine; Khazri, Abdelhafidh; Mezni, Amine; Louati, Héla; Dellali, Mohamed; Aissa, Patricia; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Beyrem, Hamouda; Sheehan, David

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We assessed toxicity of anthracene, permethrin and their mixture on clams. • Tissue and stressor-dependent changes were observed in biochemical responses. • Permethrin induces phase transition from aragonite to calcite in shell structure. • Interactive effects were observed on digestive gland and gill biomarkers. • Both approaches give new vision to risk assessment of organic pollution. - Abstract: Anthracene (ANT) and permethrin (PER) are two of the more toxic compounds reaching the marine environment. This study aimed to determine the impact of these molecules on Venerupis decussata, an economically important species cultured on the Tunisian coast. Shell structure and its possible transformation upon exposure to the two contaminants were studied by X-ray diffraction and gravimetric analyses. Results revealed a phase transition in shell composition from aragonite to calcite after PER exposure, to a mixture of PER and ANT (Mix) but not for ANT alone. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities were determined in digestive gland and gills after exposure to ANT, PER and Mix to assess the impact of the contamination on the oxidative status of V. decussata. Enzyme activities increased in the digestive gland after PER treatment and in the gills after ANT treatment. PER exposure significantly reduced the levels of free thiols and increased levels of carbonylated proteins in the digestive gland, as compared to controls. In contrast, ANT exposure significantly reduced free thiols and increased the number of carbonylated proteins in the gills. Mix induced additive effects as measured by both enzymatic and proteomic approaches. The present study suggests that PER has a strong effect on shell structure; that PER and ANT exposure generate compound-dependent oxidative stress in the tissues of V. decussata and that a mixture of the two compounds has synergistic effects on biochemical response

  9. Processes of physical change to the seabed and bivalve recruitment over a 10-year period following experimental hydraulic clam dredging on Banquereau, Scotian Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkinson, K.; King, E. L.; Li, M. Z.; Roddick, D.; Kenchington, E.; Han, G.

    2015-01-01

    A previous study on the effects of experimental hydraulic clam dredging on seabed habitat and commercial bivalve populations revealed a lack of recovery after a 3-year post-dredging period (1998-2001) on a deep (65-75 m) offshore sandy bank on the Scotian Shelf, Canada. Follow-up sidescan sonar surveys were carried out 5 and 10 years after dredging (2003, 2008) in order to identify long-term processes of seabed recovery. Grab sampling was carried out 10 years after dredging to identify post-dredging commercial bivalve recruitment. Changes in the seafloor, including dredge tracks, were documented with a series of 7 sidescan sonar surveys between 1998 and 2008. A sediment mobility model was constructed based on modeled tidal current and hindcast wave data over this time period to quantify natural seabed disturbance and interpret changes to the dredge tracks mapped by sidescan sonar surveys. The model indicated that tidal currents had minimal effect on sediment mobilization. The main driving force associated with re-working of surficial sediments as evidenced by deterioration of dredge tracks in sonograms was annual fall/winter storms. While the annual frequency of storms and associated wave heights was variable, the observations and sediment mobility calculations suggest that the most influential variable is the magnitude of individual large storms, specifically storms with a significant wave height of ∼11 m. These storms are capable of generating mobile sediment layers of 20-30 cm thickness, equivalent to the dredge blade cutting depth. It appears that, with minor exceptions, sediment properties have returned to pre-dredging conditions 10 years after dredging in this habitat. Based on known age-length relationships, the four commercial bivalve species showed very low recruitment at the experimental site over the 10-year post-dredging period. However, this is unlikely due to a dredging effect since a similar pattern was observed in non-dredged areas.

  10. Effect of permethrin, anthracene and mixture exposure on shell components, enzymatic activities and proteins status in the Mediterranean clam Venerupis decussata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellami, Badreddine, E-mail: sellamibadreddine@gmail.com [Laboratory of Environment Biomonitoring, Coastal Ecology Unit, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerta, University of Carthage, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); Khazri, Abdelhafidh [Laboratory of Environment Biomonitoring, Coastal Ecology Unit, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerta, University of Carthage, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); Mezni, Amine [Unit of Research 99/UR12-30, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, 7021 Jarzouna (Tunisia); Louati, Héla; Dellali, Mohamed; Aissa, Patricia; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Beyrem, Hamouda [Laboratory of Environment Biomonitoring, Coastal Ecology Unit, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerta, University of Carthage, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); Sheehan, David, E-mail: d.sheehan@ucc.ie [Environmental Research Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University College Cork, Western Gateway Building, Western Road, Cork (Ireland)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We assessed toxicity of anthracene, permethrin and their mixture on clams. • Tissue and stressor-dependent changes were observed in biochemical responses. • Permethrin induces phase transition from aragonite to calcite in shell structure. • Interactive effects were observed on digestive gland and gill biomarkers. • Both approaches give new vision to risk assessment of organic pollution. - Abstract: Anthracene (ANT) and permethrin (PER) are two of the more toxic compounds reaching the marine environment. This study aimed to determine the impact of these molecules on Venerupis decussata, an economically important species cultured on the Tunisian coast. Shell structure and its possible transformation upon exposure to the two contaminants were studied by X-ray diffraction and gravimetric analyses. Results revealed a phase transition in shell composition from aragonite to calcite after PER exposure, to a mixture of PER and ANT (Mix) but not for ANT alone. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities were determined in digestive gland and gills after exposure to ANT, PER and Mix to assess the impact of the contamination on the oxidative status of V. decussata. Enzyme activities increased in the digestive gland after PER treatment and in the gills after ANT treatment. PER exposure significantly reduced the levels of free thiols and increased levels of carbonylated proteins in the digestive gland, as compared to controls. In contrast, ANT exposure significantly reduced free thiols and increased the number of carbonylated proteins in the gills. Mix induced additive effects as measured by both enzymatic and proteomic approaches. The present study suggests that PER has a strong effect on shell structure; that PER and ANT exposure generate compound-dependent oxidative stress in the tissues of V. decussata and that a mixture of the two compounds has synergistic effects on biochemical response.

  11. Heavy metals in sediments and soft tissues of the Antarctic clam Laternula elliptica: more evidence as a possible biomonitor of coastal marine pollution at high latitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodopivez, Cristian; Curtosi, Antonio; Villaamil, Edda; Smichowski, Patricia; Pelletier, Emilien; Mac Cormack, Walter P

    2015-01-01

    Studies on metal contamination in 25 de Mayo Island, Antarctica, yielded controversial results. In this work, we analyzed Antarctic marine sediments and Antarctic clam (Laternula elliptica) tissues to investigate the possible use of this mollusk as a biomonitor of metals and to identify the sources of metal pollution. Different types of paint from several buildings from Carlini Station were examined to assess their contribution to the local and random metal pollution. Five sediment samples, 105 L. elliptica specimens (40.2-78.0mm length) and four types of paint were analyzed to quantify Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Metal concentrations in sediments were lower than the global averages of the earth's crust, with the exception of Cd and Cu. These results were related to the contribution of the local fresh-water runoff. The different varieties of paint showed low levels of Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn, whereas a broad range of values were found in the case of Cr and Pb (20-15,100 μg·g(-1) and 153-115,500 μg·g(-1) respectively). The remains of the paint would be responsible for the significant increases in Cr and Pb which are randomly detected by us and by other authors. High levels of Fe and Cd, in comparison to other Antarctic areas, appear to be related to the terrigenous materials transported by the local streams. Accumulation indexes suggested that kidney tissue from L. elliptica could be an adequate material for biomonitoring pollution with Cd, Zn and probably also Pb. In general, relationships between size and metal contents reported by other authors were not verified, suggesting that this issue should be revised. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    1999-01-01

    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  13. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  15. Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... corresponding to World Suicide Prevention Day, to celebrate life, hope, and reasons to live. SAMHSA is committed to ... members, and helping people navigate the struggles of life to find a sustainable sense of hope, meaning, and purpose. For information about how you ...

  16. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  17. Biodynamic modelling of the bioaccumulation of trace metals (Ag, As and Zn) by an infaunal estuarine invertebrate, the clam Scrobicularia plana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, J., E-mail: judit.kalman@uca.es [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Smith, B.D. [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Bury, N.R. [Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Science, King' s College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Rainbow, P.S. [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Biodynamic modelling is used to predict accumulation of Ag, As and Zn in S. plana. • Dissolved and sediment-associated metals contribute to total metal bioaccumulation. • Relative importance varies with water and sediment concentrations and geochemistries. - Abstract: Biodynamic modelling was used to investigate the uptake and accumulation of three trace metals (Ag, As, Zn) by the deposit feeding estuarine bivalve mollusc Scrobicularia plana. Radioactive labelling techniques were used to quantify the rates of trace metal uptake (and subsequent elimination) from water and sediment diet. The uptake rate constant from solution (±SE) was greatest for Ag (3.954 ± 0.375 l g{sup −1} d{sup −1}) followed by As (0.807 ± 0.129 l g{sup −1} d{sup −1}) and Zn (0.103 ± 0.016 l g{sup −1} d{sup −1}). Assimilation efficiencies from ingested sediment were 40.2 ± 1.3% (Ag), 31.7 ± 1.0% (Zn) and 25.3 ± 0.9% (As). Efflux rate constants after exposure to metals in the solution or sediment fell in the range of 0.014–0.060 d{sup −1}. By incorporating these physiological parameters into biodynamic models, our results showed that dissolved metal is the predominant source of accumulated Ag, As and Zn in S. plana, accounting for 66–99%, 50–97% and 52–98% of total accumulation of Ag, As and Zn, respectively, under different field exposure conditions. In general, model-predicted steady state concentrations of Ag, As and Zn matched well with those observed in clams collected in SW England estuaries. Our findings highlight the potential of biodynamic modelling to predict Ag, As and Zn accumulation in S. plana, taking into account specific dissolved and sediment concentrations of the metals at a particular field site, together with local water and sediment geochemistries.

  18. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  19. Evaluation of Heavy and Trace Metals in Fingernails of Young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WAHAB

    These elements have been produced by alteration and distribution via wind blow. The result indicates that soil or road dust plays an important role in the concentration buildup of the road side dust near automobile workshops. Table 2: Concentration of heavy metals in the soil samples in the automobile workshop. Metals.

  20. Manganese Concentrations In Hair and Fingernail of Some Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    hair samples of school children scoring poorly in tests to assess general intelligence, visual motor skills, receptive language, verbal memory, non- .... changes of elements in the body over a long period .... Vanadium Using Short Time Neutron.

  1. Rotating preventers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  2. Sunburn: Treatment and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  3. Carbonic anhydrase 2-like in the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa: characterization, localization, response to light, and possible role in the transport of inorganic carbon from the host to its symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Yuen K; Koh, Clarissa Z Y; Hiong, Kum C; Choo, Celine Y L; Boo, Mel V; Wong, Wai P; Neo, Mei L; Chew, Shit F

    2017-12-01

    The fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa , lives in symbiosis with zooxanthellae which reside extracellularly inside a tubular system. Zooxanthellae fix inorganic carbon (C i ) during insolation and donate photosynthate to the host. Carbonic anhydrases catalyze the interconversion of CO 2 and HCO3-, of which carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) is the most ubiquitous and involved in many biological processes. This study aimed to clone a CA2 homolog ( CA2-like ) from the fleshy and colorful outer mantle as well as the thin and whitish inner mantle of T. squamosa , to determine its cellular and subcellular localization, and to examine the effects of light exposure on its gene and protein expression levels. The cDNA coding sequence of CA2-like from T. squamosa comprised 789 bp, encoding 263 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 29.6 kDa. A phenogramic analysis of the deduced CA2-like sequence denoted an animal origin. CA2-like was not detectable in the shell-facing epithelium of the inner mantle adjacent to the extrapallial fluid. Hence, CA2-like is unlikely to participate directly in light-enhanced calcification. By contrast, the outer mantle, which contains the highest density of tertiary tubules and zooxanthellae, displayed high level of CA2-like expression, and CA2-like was localized to the tubule epithelial cells. More importantly, exposure to light induced significant increases in the protein abundance of CA2-like in the outer mantle. Hence, CA2-like could probably take part in the increased supply of inorganic carbon (C i ) from the host clam to the symbiotic zooxanthellae when the latter conduct photosynthesis to fix C i during light exposure. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  4. Molecular Characterization of a Dual Domain Carbonic Anhydrase From the Ctenidium of the Giant Clam, Tridacna squamosa, and Its Expression Levels After Light Exposure, Cellular Localization, and Possible Role in the Uptake of Exogenous Inorganic Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Z. Y. Koh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A Dual-Domain Carbonic Anhydrase (DDCA had been sequenced and characterized from the ctenidia (gills of the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, which lives in symbiosis with zooxanthellae. DDCA was expressed predominantly in the ctenidium. The complete cDNA coding sequence of DDCA from T. squamosa comprised 1,803 bp, encoding a protein of 601 amino acids and 66.7 kDa. The deduced DDCA sequence contained two distinct α-CA domains, each with a specific catalytic site. It had a high sequence similarity with tgCA from Tridacna gigas. In T. squamosa, the DDCA was localized apically in certain epithelial cells near the base of the ctenidial filament and the epithelial cells surrounding the tertiary water channels. Due to the presence of two transmembrane regions in the DDCA, one of the Zn2+-containing active sites could be located externally and the other one inside the cell. These results denote that the ctenidial DDCA was positioned to dehydrate HCO3- to CO2 in seawater, and to hydrate the CO2 that had permeated the apical membrane back to HCO3- in the cytoplasm. During insolation, the host clam needs to increase the uptake of inorganic carbon from the ambient seawater to benefit the symbiotic zooxanthellae; only then, can the symbionts conduct photosynthesis and share the photosynthates with the host. Indeed, the transcript and protein levels of DDCA/DDCA in the ctenidium of T. squamosa increased significantly after 6 and 12 h of exposure to light, respectively, denoting that DDCA could participate in the light-enhanced uptake and assimilation of exogenous inorganic carbon.

  5. In vitro exposure of haemocytes of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum to titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles: nanoparticle characterisation, effects on phagocytic activity and internalisation of nanoparticles into haemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa, Ilaria; Marin, Maria Gabriella; Caicci, Federico; Franceschinis, Erica; Martucci, Alessandro; Matozzo, Valerio

    2015-02-01

    The continuous growth of nanotechnology and nano-industries, the considerable increase of products containing nanoparticles (NPs) and the potential release of NPs in aquatic environments suggest a need to study NP effects on aquatic organisms. In this context, in vitro assays are commonly used for evaluating or predicting the negative effects of chemicals and for understanding their mechanisms of action. In this study, a physico-chemical characterisation of titanium dioxide NPs (n-TiO2) was performed, and an in vitro approach was used to investigate the effects of n-TiO2 on haemocytes of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. In particular, the effects on haemocyte phagocytic activity were evaluated in two different experiments (with and without pre-treatment of haemocytes) by exposing cells to P25 n-TiO2 (0, 1 and 10 μg/mL). In addition, the capability of n-TiO2 to interact with clam haemocytes was evaluated with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). In this study, n-TiO2 particles showed a mean diameter of approximately 21 nm, and both anatase (70%) and rutile (30%) phases were revealed. In both experiments, n-TiO2 significantly decreased the phagocytic index compared with the control, suggesting that NPs are able to interfere with cell functions. The results of the TEM analysis support this hypothesis. Indeed, we observed that TiO2 NPs interact with cell membranes and enter haemocyte cytoplasm and vacuoles after 60 min of exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the internalisation of TiO2 NPs into R. philippinarum haemocytes. The present study can contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of action of TiO2 NPs in bivalve molluscs, at least at the haemocyte level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  7. Cholera Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... name=”commit” type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention of ... of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention & Control Topics Ending Cholera: The Global Roadmap to 2030 ...

  8. Host specificity of Pisidium coreanum (Bivalvia: Sphaeriidae) to larval infection with a human intestinal fluke Echinostoma cinetorchis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y K; Soh, C T; Park, G M; Hwang, M K; Chung, P R

    2006-10-01

    The fingernail clam, Pisidium coreanum, has been traditionally consumed raw as a so-called drug therapy by patients with bone fractures in Korea. The present study was designed to determine the possible occurrence and, if present, the prevalence of Echinostoma cinetorchis in P. coreanum collected at a local site, and to determine the susceptibility of the clams in the laboratory to infection with miracidia and cercariae of E. cinetorchis. No cercariae or metacercariae of E. cinetorchis were observed in field-collected P. coreanum clams. In susceptibility experiments with laboratory-reared clams, individuals exposed to miracidia of E. cinetorchis did not release cercariae by 20 days after exposure; necropsy of exposed clams failed to show development of any sporocysts or rediae. To confirm the possibility of these clams serving as an experimental second intermediate host of E. cinetorchis, 20 of them were exposed to E. cinetorchis cercariae from experimentally infected Segmentina hemisphaerula that had been previously exposed to miracidia of E. cinetorchis; all exposed clams became infected. Metacercariae from clams at 14 days postinfection were fed to rats, and adult worms were recovered from the ileocecal regions. This is the first report of P. coreanum serving as second intermediate host of E. cinetorchis.

  9. Polio and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Essays Photo Collections Videos Polio Today → Polio + Prevention Polio + Prevention Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling ... for poliovirus within 48 hours of onset. Bulbar polio More extensive paralysis, involving the trunk and muscles ...

  10. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Talking to Teens about Healthy Relationships ... of child abuse prevention through our Pinwheels for Prevention campaign. ...

  11. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiatives Best Practices Our Network Media Resources National Suicide Prevention Lifeline We can all help prevent suicide. The ... Call The Lifeline Everyone Plays A Role In Suicide Prevention Here are some helpful links: GET HELP NOW ...

  12. Prevention Research Matters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Prevention Research Matters is a series of one-on-one interviews with researchers from 26 university prevention research centers across the country. Their work focuses on preventing and controlling chronic diseases like obesity, cancer, and heart disease.

  13. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Medications Institutional Settings Prevention ...

  14. Environmental Impact Research Program. Gravel Bar Mussel Communities: A Community Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    mussels) and the Corbiculacea (the small fingernail and pea clams). Throughout the world, the unionacean mussels are generally associated with larger... proteins , and forms the ligament of the bivalve shell. This elasticity is very important to the mechanical functioning of the bivalve. 27. In all...Wildlife Service, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, pp 38-41. Washington, DC, March 1q70. Jorgensen, C. B. 1975. Comparative physiology of

  15. The properties of weft knitted fabric medical and preventive treatment action using eco-raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halavska, L.; Batrak, O.

    2016-07-01

    A new trend in the world is the clothing production using the new types of ecological raw materials application - milk, pineapple, coconut, hemp, banana, eucalyptus, clams, corn, bamboo, soya, nettle yarn. This makes it possible to create textile materials of new generation with unique antibacterial and antiseptic properties. Such materials have a positive preventive and sometimes therapeutic effect on people, and their health. Eco-raw materials clothing is able to protect the human body from the environment harmful effects: cold, heat, rain, dust, opportunely remove from underclothing layer the steam and gases, sweat; maintain in underclothing layer the necessary microclimate for normal organism functioning. Study of knitwear consumer properties, produced with eco-materials, is an urgent task of the world vector, directed on ecological environmental protection. This paper presents the research results of hygroscopicity and capillarity weft knitted fabrics, what knitted from different types of eco-raw materials: bamboo yarn, yarn containing soybean and nettle yarn. Character of influence of the liquid raising level changes depending on the experiment time and the knitting structure is revealed.

  16. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... options....

  18. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure ...

  19. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  20. Cancer treatment - preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...

  1. Research Areas: Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI’s prevention research has a broad focus, from identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that influence cancer risk to studying the biology of how cancer develops and studying ways to disseminate prevention interventions.

  2. Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Perhaps you have learned that you have a ... I lower my chances of developing type 2 diabetes? Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program shows ...

  3. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home ...

  4. Prevention of gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffat, J.W.; Taylor, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    We apply a new theory of gravitation to the question of gravitational collapse to show that collapse is prevented in this theory under very reasonable conditions. This result also extends to prevent ultimate collapse of the Universe. (orig.)

  5. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  6. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  7. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Preventing Weight Gain Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful eating ...

  8. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  9. Settings for Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Suicide Populations Racial/Ethnic Groups Older Adults Adolescents LGBT Military/Veterans Men Effective Prevention Comprehensive Approach Identify ... Based Prevention Settings American Indian/Alaska Native Settings Schools Colleges and Universities Primary Care Emergency Departments Behavioral ...

  10. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional printing [PDF-1.5MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ...

  11. Fall Prevention: Simple Tips to Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a gentle exercise that involves slow and graceful dance-like movements. Such activities reduce the risk of ... healthy-lifestyle/healthy-aging/in-depth/fall-prevention/art-20047358 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  12. Cancer risks and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessey, M.P.; Gray, M.

    1985-01-01

    A series of essays in honour of Sir Richard Doll is presented. Chapters cover the preventability of cancer, geography, smoking, diet, occupation, radiation, infections and immune impairment, exogenous and endogenous hormones, other drugs, prevention through legislation and by education and cancer risks and prevention in the Third World. The chapter on radiation has been indexed separately. (UK)

  13. Statewide Suicide Prevention Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Employees Statewide Suicide Prevention Council DHSS State of Alaska Home Divisions and Agencies National Suicide Prevention Lifeline Alaska Community Mental Health Centers National Survivors of Suicide Meetings Presentations 2010 Alaska Statewide Suicide Prevention Summit: Mending the Net Connect with us on

  14. Prevention IS Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-26

    This podcast provides an overview of the Prevention IS Care campaign, which provides HIV prevention tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with patients who are living with HIV.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  15. Molecular characterization, light-dependent expression, and cellular localization of a host vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (VHA) subunit A in the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, indicate the involvement of the host VHA in the uptake of inorganic carbon and its supply to the symbiotic zooxanthellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Yuen K; Hiong, Kum C; Lim, Leon J Y; Choo, Celine Y L; Boo, Mel V; Wong, Wai P; Neo, Mei L; Chew, Shit F

    2018-06-15

    The giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, represents a clam-zooxanthellae association. In light, the host clam and the symbiotic zooxanthellae conduct light-enhanced calcification and photosynthesis, respectively. We had cloned the cDNA coding sequence of a Vacuolar-type Proton ATPase (VHA) subunit A, ATP6V1A, from T. squamosa, whereby the VHA is an electrogenic transporter that actively 'pumps' H + out of the cell. The ATP6V1A of T. squamosa comprised 1866 bp, encoding a protein of 622 amino acids and 69.9 kDa, and had a host-origin. Its gene expression was strong in the ctenidium and the colorful outer mantle, but weak in the whitish inner mantle, corroborating a previous proposition that VHA might have a trivial role in light-enhanced calcification. Light exposure led to significant increases in the gene and protein expression levels of ATP6V1A/ATP6V1A in the ctenidium and the outer mantle. In the ctenidium, the ATP6V1A was localized in the apical epithelia of the filaments and tertiary water channels, indicating that the VHA could participate in the increased excretion of H + produced during light-enhanced calcification. Additionally, the excreted H + would augment HCO 3 - dehydration in the external medium and facilitate the uptake of CO 2 by the ctenidium during insolation. In the outer mantle, the ATP6V1A was detected in intracellular vesicles in a type of cells, presumably iridocytes, surrounding the zooxanthellal tubules, and in the apical epithelium of zooxanthellal tubules. Hence, the host VHA could participate in the transfer of inorganic carbon from the hemolymph to the luminal fluid of the tubules by increasing the supply of H + for the dehydration of HCO 3 - to CO 2 during insolation to benefit the photosynthesizing zooxanthellae. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Prevention of mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Gühne, Uta

    2013-12-01

    Investment in prevention is a major public health requirement. Mental disorders are common and are associated with severe consequences. They are a major target for prevention. Based on vulnerabilitiy-stress-models the theoretical background for prevention in mental disorders is outlined. Effective strategies for children, adolescents, adults and individuals in old age do exist. Results regarding the prevention of depres-sion and psychoses are outlined and risk groups which require current actions are determined. Current activities towards a national prevention strategy in Germany are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Prevention Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual′s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

  18. Use of Population Parameters in Examining Changes in the Status of the Short-Necked Clam Paphia undulata Born, 1778 (Mollusca, Pelecypoda: Veneridae in Coastal Waters of Southern Negros Occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabelle del Norte Campos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth, recruitment, mortality and exploitation rate of the short-necked clam Paphia undulata (Born, 1778 were studied in southern Negros Occidental waters between August 2007 and July 2008 from length-frequency data derived from catches of divers, to be able to compare with earlier data derived and analyzed 13 years ago by Agasen et al. (1998. Both sets of data were analyzed using the FiSAT software (Gayanilo & Pauly, 1997. The asymptotic shell length (S¥ = 79 mm derived from the present data proved to be smaller compared to the earlier data (SL¥ = 81.5 mm due to the lack of bigger sizes in the present samples. The growth constant (K = 1.0 yr-1 was however comparable indicating it to be a more species-characteristic parameter. Two recruitment pulses for each study were derived and were found to be correlated with the spawning pattern in the species. The value of natural mortality (M = 1.57 yr-1 derived from bivalve literature, is deemed more appropriate compared to the earlier estimate (M = 2.89 yr-1 based on Pauly’s (1980 empirical equation developed for fish. Total mortality (Z values for both studies were comparable, but a higher level of fishing mortality (F = 4.61 yr-1 was estimated for the present data set, thus resulting likewise in a higher exploitation rate (E = 0.75. These, together with fishery information from an accompanying paper (Villarta & del Norte-Campos, 2010, not only validate the earlier findings of overexploitation due to lack of management, but reveal a worsening condition of the stock, most likely as a result of growth overfishing. Overexploitation can only be mitigated by imposing stringent restrictions in terms of the minimum size for exploitation (45 mm shell length and closed seasons during the spawning peak (August-November.

  19. The ctenidium of the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, expresses an ammonium transporter 1 that displays light-suppressed gene and protein expression and may be involved in ammonia excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Mel V; Hiong, Kum C; Goh, Enan J K; Choo, Celine Y L; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2018-04-24

    Ammonium transporters (AMTs) can participate in ammonia uptake or excretion across the plasma membrane of prokaryotic, plant and invertebrate cells. The giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, harbors nitrogen-deficient symbiotic zooxanthellae, and normally conducts light-enhanced ammonia absorption to benefit the symbionts. Nonetheless, it can excrete ammonia when there is a supply of exogenous nitrogen or exposed to continuous darkness. This study aimed to elucidate the role of AMT1 in the ctenidium of T. squamosa by cloning and characterizing the AMT1/AMT1, determining its subcellular localization, and examining changes in its transcript and protein expression levels in response to light exposure. The cDNA coding sequence of AMT1 from T. squamosa consisted of 1527 bp and encoded 508 amino acids of 54.6 kDa. AMT1-immunofluorescence was detected mainly at the apical epithelium of ctenidial filaments, and it decreased significantly after 12 h of exposure to light. By contrast, the epithelial cells surrounding the tertiary water channels in the ctentidium, which are known to exhibit light-enhanced glutamine synthetase expression and take part in the assimilation of exogenous ammonia in light, did not display any AMT1-immunolabelling. Furthermore, the transcript level and protein abundance of ctenidial AMT1/AMT1 decreased significantly at the 6th and 12th h of light exposure. Taken together, these results indicate that AMT1 might participate in ammonia excretion instead of ammonia absorption and assimilation in T. squamosa. It is probable that the expression levels of AMT1/AMT1 need to be down-regulated during light exposure to achieve light-enhanced ammonia uptake.

  20. Prevention of suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health problem in India, probably even bigger than in the West. Suicidal behavior is the best conceptualized as a multifaceted complex problem involving social factors and mental illnesses. Broadly, there are two approaches to suicide prevention; population preventive strategies and high-risk preventive strategies. Population preventive strategies include reducing availability of means for suicide, education of primary care physicians, influencing media portrayal of suicidal behavior, education of the public, telephone helplines, and addressing economic issues associated with suicidal behavior. High-risk preventive strategy includes identifying individuals with high risk of committing suicide, intensively treating mental illness if present, and providing psychosocial support. Thus, prevention requires a multipronged effort with collaboration from various sectors including mental health professionals, social justice department, and macroeconomic policy makers.

  1. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  2. CSI cardiac prevent 2015

    OpenAIRE

    S Ramakrishnan; Manisha Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    The CSI Cardiac Prevent 2015 was held at Hotel Taj Palace, New Delhi, on September 25-27, 2015. The major challenge was to create interest among cardiologists and physicians on preventive cardiology, a neglected area. The theme of the conference was "Innovations in Heart Disease Prevention.′′ This conference included "CSI at WHF Roadmap Workshop, Inauguration Ceremony, scientific program, plenary sessions, Nursing/Dietician track, Industry Exhibition, Social Events," Great India blood pressur...

  3. Prevention of Prosthetic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin O.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition

  4. Prevention, not just treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G L; Hilling, L

    1998-03-01

    A tragic burden of disease, disability, and death has resulted from smoking. The role of pulmonary rehabilitation is not only in treatment and rehabilitation of lung disease but in the prevention of lung disease. The skills of the pulmonary rehabilitation specialist should be used in the earlier detection and prevention of lung disease through primary and secondary prevention. The spirometer must gain acceptance in the medical community as the early tool to evaluate lung health, not the chest radiograph or the stethoscope. The lung age formula and sputum pap smears are just a few of the evaluation tools used to detect and motivate susceptible individuals. Prevention is the key to enhancing lung health.

  5. Crime-prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Lone

    In Denmark, crime prevention is embedded in state professional practices in kindergartens, schools and youth clubs. These welfare institutions are conceived as safe places that safeguard children and young people through inclusive learning environments, warm and empathic relationships between......-sectional cooperation called “SSP”. SSP is a locally anchored cooperation of the school (S), the social services (S) and the police (P) and its aim is to create a coordinated system of prevention, e.g., to prevent crime or school drop outs. In continuation of this, crime preventive work is understood as a practice...

  6. Work hazard prevention plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertos Campos, F.

    2009-01-01

    The prevention of industrial risks is a constantly evolving discipline that has changed considerable in the last 25 years. The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants has always been operated with a clear policy favoring prevention by supporting the principle of its integration, i. e., that the hierarchical functional organization of the company make sure that industrial risk prevention is effective and that health and safety standards are met. The historical evolution of occupational safety in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant shows a a clear trend towards improvement and is the results of many years of hard work and effort by the plants own and contractor personnel in the field of industrial risk prevention. (Author)

  7. Speech disorder prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladis Fornaris-Méndez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Language therapy has trafficked from a medical focus until a preventive focus. However, difficulties are evidenced in the development of this last task, because he is devoted bigger space to the correction of the disorders of the language. Because the speech disorders is the dysfunction with more frequently appearance, acquires special importance the preventive work that is developed to avoid its appearance. Speech education since early age of the childhood makes work easier for prevent the appearance of speech disorders in the children. The present work has as objective to offer different activities for the prevention of the speech disorders.

  8. Toxoplasmosis: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Printable Resources Additional ...

  9. HIV Risk and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Risk and Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  10. Can I Prevent Acne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth / For Teens / Can I Prevent Acne? Print en español ¿Puedo prevenir el acné? What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...

  11. [Prevention of psychosocial risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle, Édouard; Trichard-Salembier, Alexandra; Sobaszek, Annie

    2018-02-01

    The theme of psychosocial risks remains in the workplace. It is therefore essential that all members of a company are made aware of the terminology and specific prevention actions in this field. Distinguishing between the manifestations of these risks and their causes and consequences helps to improve prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevention of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartalena, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Smoking is the most important risk factor for the occurrence/progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), as well as for its lower/slower response to immunosuppression. Accordingly, refrain from smoking should be urged, both as primary prevention (removal of risk factors in Graves' patients without GO), secondary prevention (early detection and treatment of asymptomatic/very mild GO) and tertiary prevention (reduction of complications/disability of overt GO). A 6-month course of 200 μg/day sodium selenite can prevent progression of mild GO to more severe GO and is, therefore, a form of secondary prevention and, probably, primary prevention. Correction of thyroid dysfunction and stable maintenance of euthyroidism are important preventive measures. The optimal treatment for hyperthyroidism in patients with GO is uncertain, because evidence demonstrating the superiority of antithyroid drugs over thyroid ablation (radioiodine, thyroidectomy, or both) is lacking. If radioiodine is used, low-dose steroid prophylaxis is recommended, particularly in smokers, to prevent radioiodine-associated GO progression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  14. Poison Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care , Technology: For more info about the national Poison Help program and to request materials visit: http Seniors & Disabilities Services Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention State of Alaska myAlaska My

  15. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  16. Measuring waste prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Lasaridi, Katia

    2013-05-01

    The Waste Framework Directive (WFD-2008/98/EC) has set clear waste prevention procedures, including reporting, reviewing, monitoring and evaluating. Based on the WFD, the European Commission and will offer support to Member States on how to develop waste prevention programmes through guidelines and information sharing on best practices. Monitoring and evaluating waste prevention activities are critical, as they constitute the main tools to enable policy makers, at the national and local level, to build their strategic plans and ensure that waste prevention initiatives are effective and deliver behaviour change. However, how one can measure something that is not there, remains an important and unresolved research question. The paper reviews and attempts to evaluate the methods that are being used for measuring waste prevention and the impact of relevant implemented activities at the household level, as the available data is still limited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Light induces changes in activities of Na+/K+(NH4+-ATPase, H+/K+(NH4+-ATPase and glutamine synthetase in tissues involved directly or indirectly in light-enhanced calcification in the giant clam Tridacna squamosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Y K Ip

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 12 h of exposure to light, as compared with 12 h of exposure to darkness (control, on enzymatic activities of transporters involved in the transport of NH4+ or H+, and activities of enzymes involved in converting NH4+ to glutamate/glutamine in inner mantle, outer mantle and ctenidia of the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa. Exposure to light resulted in a significant increase in the effectiveness of NH4+ in substitution for K+ to activate Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA, manifested as a significant increase in the Na+/NH4+-activated-NKA activity in the inner mantle. However, similar phenomena were not observed in the extensible outer mantle, which contained abundant symbiotic zooxanthellae. Hence, during light-enhanced calcification, H+ released from CaCO3 deposition could react with NH3 to form NH4+ in the extrapallial fluid, and NH4+ could probably be transported into the shell-facing inner mantle epithelium through NKA. Light also induced an increase in the activity of glutamine synthetase, which converts NH4+ and glutamate to glutamine, in the inner mantle. Taken together, these results explained observations reported elsewhere that light induced a significant increase in pH and a significant decrease in ammonia concentration in the extrapallial fluid, as well as a significant increase in the glutamine concentration in the inner mantle, of T. squamosa. Exposure of T. squamosa to light also led to a significant decrease in the N-ethylmaleimide (NEM-sensitive-V-H+-ATPase (VATPase in the inner mantle, and significant increases in the Na+/K+-activated-NKA, H+/NH4+-activated-H+/K+-ATPase and NEM-sensitive-VATPase activities in ctenidia, indicating that light-enhanced calcification might perturb Na+ homeostasis and acid/base balance in the hemolymph, and might involve the active uptake of NH4+ from the environment. This is the first report on light having direct enhancing effects on activities of certain

  18. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    A number of novel preventive treatment options which, as with traditional methods, can be differentiated into 3 categories of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary), have been and are being currently investigated. Those reviewed are either commercially available or appear relatively close...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  19. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have be...

  20. Obesity Prevention and Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Eleanor R; Olson, Alexandra; DiFazio, Marc; Cassidy, Omni

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is widespread, associated with several physical and psychosocial comorbidities, and is difficult to treat. Prevention of obesity across the lifespan is critical to improving the health of individuals and society. Screening and prevention efforts in primary care are an important step in addressing the obesity epidemic. Each period of human development is associated with unique risks, challenges, and opportunities for prevention and intervention. Screening tools for overweight/obesity, although imperfect, are quick and easy to administer. Screening should be conducted at every primary care visit and tracked longitudinally. Screening tools and cutoffs for overweight and obesity vary by age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. CSI cardiac prevent 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The CSI Cardiac Prevent 2015 was held at Hotel Taj Palace, New Delhi, on September 25-27, 2015. The major challenge was to create interest among cardiologists and physicians on preventive cardiology, a neglected area. The theme of the conference was "Innovations in Heart Disease Prevention.′′ This conference included "CSI at WHF Roadmap Workshop, Inauguration Ceremony, scientific program, plenary sessions, Nursing/Dietician track, Industry Exhibition, Social Events," Great India blood pressure Survey, and CSI Smart Heart App. A total of 848 delegates/faculties attended this conference against a total of 1140 people registered for the meeting.

  2. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  3. Help prevent hospital errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000618.htm Help prevent hospital errors To use the sharing features ... in the hospital. If You Are Having Surgery, Help Keep Yourself Safe Go to a hospital you ...

  4. Institutional Preventive Stress Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, James C.

    1987-01-01

    Stress is an inevitable characteristic of academic life, but colleges and universities can introduce stress management activities at the organizational level to avert excessive tension. Preventive actions are described, including flexible work schedules and social supports. (Author/MSE)

  5. Preventing Diabetes Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems Diabetes, Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Diabetes Problems View or Print All Sections Heart Disease & ... to help control symptoms and restore intimacy. Depression & Diabetes Depression is common among people with a chronic, ...

  6. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores ... sores? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  7. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hours? play_arrow What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? play_arrow What are the ... for someone with a spinal cord injury to do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow Why is ...

  8. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities Effective protection for children Language: ... more use of sealants and reimbursement of services. Dental care providers can Apply sealants to children at ...

  9. Preventing Learned Helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Cheri

    1986-01-01

    To prevent learned helplessness in learning disabled students, teachers can share responsibilities with the students, train students to reinforce themselves for effort and self control, and introduce opportunities for changing counterproductive attitudes. (CL)

  10. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and how can it be increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  11. Can Vaginitis Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... examples of safe sex. 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Self-study STD module—vaginitis . ... Halvorson New Chief of Gynecologic Health and Disease Branch Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, ...

  12. Preventing food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review...... is one of seven inter-linked evidence syntheses that are being undertaken in order to provide a state-of-the-art synopsis of the current evidence base in relation to epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and clinical management, and impact on quality of life, which will be used to inform clinical...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....

  13. Naval Preventive Diplomacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cassel, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Naval power, as part of a U.S. preventive diplomacy effort, can be flexibly mixed with political, economic, and informational power to intervene early in places of incipient crisis or before mass violence...

  14. Prevention of cisplatin nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayati Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin has a well-established role in the treatment of broad spectrum of malignancies; however its use is limited because of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN which can be progressive in more than 50% of cases. The most important risk factors for CIN include higher doses of cisplatin, previous cisplatin chemotherapy, underlying kidney damage and concurrent treatment with other potential nephrotoxin agents, such as aminoglycosides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, or iodinated contrast media. Different strategies have been offered to diminish or prevent nephrotoxicity of cisplatin. The standard approach for prevention of CIN is the administration of lower doses of cisplatin in combination with full intravenous hydration prior and after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in the kidney may be prevented by natural antioxidant compounds. The results of this review show that many strategies for prevention of CIN exist, however, attention to the administration of these agent for CIN is necessary.

  15. Disaster prevention surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Satoru; Kamiya, Eisei

    2001-01-01

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has supplied many management systems to nuclear reactor institution. 'The nuclear countermeasures-against-calamities special-measures' was enforced. A nuclear entrepreneur has devised the measure about expansion prevention and restoration of a calamity while it endeavors after prevention of generating of a nuclear calamity. Our company have supplied the 'disaster prevention surveillance system' to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokai Research Establishment aiming at strengthening of the monitoring function at the time (after the accident) of the accident used as one of the above-mentioned measures. A 'disaster prevention surveillance system' can share the information on the accident spot in an on-site command place, an activity headquarters, and support organizations, when the serious accident happens. This system is composed of various sensors (temperature, pressure and radiation), cameras, computers and network. (author)

  16. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.

  17. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  18. United to prevent emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    2001-01-01

    The paper is about the national plan of contingencies, as tool of coordination inter-institutional that has allowed strengthening the actions of prevention and attention of spills of hydrocarbons and chemical substances in Colombia

  19. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from ... Rosenberg, PsyD Understanding SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa ...

  20. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  1. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  2. Prevent Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If you have an injury, health condition, or disability, ask your doctor or nurse which types of exercise are best for you. Get tips on staying active with a disability . Next section Prevent Injuries Previous section Am I ...

  3. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow ...

  4. Home Improvements Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Home Improvements Prevent Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... and ensure your safety. "Safe-ty-fy" Your Home Some Questions for Your Provider Will my medicines ...

  5. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  6. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes ... this PDF Share this page: WHAT ARE COMMON KNEE INJURIES? Pain Syndromes One of the most common ...

  7. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  8. Sexual Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Sexual Violence Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir April ... stop sexual violence before it begins. Understanding Sexual Violence Sexual violence is any sexual activity where consent ...

  9. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  10. Prevention of malignant neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    D. G. Zaridze; D. M. Maksimovich

    2017-01-01

    Research in causation of cancer is an important part of cancer research in general and is an essential prerequisite for cancer prevention. The effective primary prevention is not visible without evidence based knowledge in the causation of cancer in humans.There is sufficient evidence that certain life style and environment factors cause cancer in humans. These factors include: smoking and other types of tobacco consumption, overweight and obesity, lack of physical activity, diet rich in proc...

  11. Early prevention of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating...

  12. Industrial pollution prevention handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    This book presents the techniques, technologies, regulations, and strategies that define pollution prevention. The subject is addressed from many perspectives by prominent experts. In many ways pollution prevention, rather than being a specialty field itself, is actually a convergence of fields drawing upon knowledge in a wide variety of more typical fields of expertise. Individual chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  13. [Can falls be prevented?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubousset, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Most recommendations and measures intended to prevent falls focus on the elderly (see HAS guideline of April 2009) but, in our opinion, this isfar too late: prevention must begin much earlier, not only by identifying persons at risk, but also by providing personalized lifestyle advice adapted to each individual's biomechanical, somatic, neurological and biological characteristics. The first preventive measure is to identify a possible deterioration of balance, starting with a physical examination at the age of 45 and repeated regularly throughout life. Extrinsic preventive measures focusing on the domestic and external environments are clearly necessary. But what is most important is to detect and, if necessary, correct any degradation of intrinsic (intracorporeal or somatic) factors starting at the age of 45 years; these include vision, vestibular function and balance, proprioception, and psychological and neurological status. Chronic illnesses and their treatments must also be taken into account: treatment must be limited to indispensable drugs; sedative psychotropics must be avoided if possible; and polymedication must be tightly controlled, as it is a major risk factor for falls. Prevention also requires a diet sufficiently rich in protein, calcium and vitamin D3 (to prevent osteoporosis), and regular daily exercise adapted to the individual, if possible associated with a simultaneous cognitive task. The last key point is the absolute need for thorough functional rehabilitation after any accidental or medical trauma, regardless of age, with the aim of restoring functional status to that existing prior to the accident.

  14. Preventive Migraine Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article reviews the evidence base for the preventive treatment of migraine. Recent Findings: Evidence-based guidelines for the preventive treatment of migraine have recently been published by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and the Canadian Headache Society (CHS), providing valuable guidance for clinicians. Strong evidence exists to support the use of metoprolol, timolol, propranolol, divalproex sodium, sodium valproate, and topiramate for migraine prevention, according to the AAN. Based on best available evidence, adverse event profile, and expert consensus, topiramate, propranolol, nadolol, metoprolol, amitriptyline, gabapentin, candesartan, Petasites (butterbur), riboflavin, coenzyme Q10, and magnesium citrate received a strong recommendation for use from the CHS. Summary: Migraine preventive drug treatments are underutilized in clinical practice. Principles of preventive treatment are important to improve compliance, minimize side effects, and improve patient outcomes. Choice of preventive treatment of migraine should be based on the presence of comorbid and coexistent illness, patient preference, reproductive potential and planning, and best available evidence. PMID:26252585

  15. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Courts Cultural Competence Diverse Populations and Communities Domestic Violence Human Trafficking Laws & Policies Service Array Statistics ... Home Topics Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children ...

  16. Grant Programs for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  17. [Preventive strategies for dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Patrick; Schmicker, Marlen; Müller, Notger G

    2017-05-01

    In the context of the demographically induced increase in the prevalence of dementia and the simultaneous lack of causal pharmacological therapies, preventive approaches are gaining in importance. By reducing risk factors and with measures which induce neuroplasticity successful aging can be supported. This article summarizes the current developments in preventing dementia by modification of life style factors. The main focus lies on the impact of cognitive and physical activity on neuroprotection. A promising approach combines both activities within a dance training program. Further studies that meet the demanding criteria of a randomized clinical trial are urgently needed.

  18. Building in Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    this chapter devotes its focus primarily on the small bumps on the road by initially discussing how physical structural prevention can be an appropriate strategy not only to bring about behavioural change in the population as a whole but also to reduce the negative consequences of a stigmatising health...... preventive work might be changed to direct focus onto a greater extent on establishing frameworks for people to master their own lives instead of one-sided initiatives, which leave the individual with a sense of guilt at their own illness....

  19. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  20. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  1. Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.

  2. Aspirin for Primary Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Ilana B; Owens, Douglas K

    2017-07-01

    Aspirin reduces the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke, and the risk of colorectal cancer. Aspirin increases the risk of gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding. The best available evidence supports initiating aspirin in select populations. In 2016, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommended initiating aspirin for the primary prevention of both cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer among adults ages 50 to 59 who are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Adults 60 to 69 who are at increased cardiovascular disease risk may also benefit. There remains considerable uncertainty about whether younger and older patients may benefit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevention in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Stephen; Bridgman, Colette; Brocklehurst, Paul

    2015-01-01

    could be identified early enough to facilitate prevention, what evidence based therapies and treatments were available and how, given the collective evidence, could these be introduced in general dental practice within different reimbursement models. CONCLUSIONS: While examples of best practice were...... provided from both social care and insurance models it was clear that further work was required on both provider and payer side to ensure that evidence based prevention was both implemented properly but also reimbursed sufficiently. It is clear that savings can be made but these must not be overstated...

  4. HOW TO PREVENT FRAUD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela – Corina Chersan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fraud can range from minor employee theft and unproductive behavior tomisappropriation of assets and fraudulent financial reporting. The risk of fraud can be reduced through a combination of prevention and detection measures. Moreover, prevention and deterrence measures are much less costly than the time and expense required for fraud detection and investigation. The information presented in this document generally is applicable to entities of all sizes. However, the degree to which certain programs and controls are applied in smaller, less-complex entities and the formality of theirapplication are likely to differ from larger organizations.

  5. Prevention of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Maja H; Ebbehøj, Niels E; Vejlstrup, Søren Grove

    2018-01-01

    Objective Occupational hand eczema has adverse health and socioeconomic impacts for the afflicted individuals and society. Prevention and treatment strategies are needed. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on sickness absence, quality of life and severity...... of hand eczema. Methods PREVEX (PreVention of EXema) is an individually randomized, parallel-group superiority trial investigating the pros and cons of one-time, 2-hour, group-based education in skin-protective behavior versus treatment as usual among patients with newly notified occupational hand eczema...

  6. Preventing falls and fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfarsson, J; Robinson, B E

    1994-11-01

    One of four persons over age 65 in the community falls; those over age 75 in institutions fall more frequently. Falls, a complex phenomena suggesting present disease and predicting future disability, are caused by interactions between the environment and dynamic balance which is determined by the quality of sensory input, central processing, and motor responses. Clinical factors which predispose to falling often produce observable disturbances in gait and balance, making observation critical in assessment. Acute illness and drug therapy produce particularly preventable falls. Therapeutic exercise and environmental modification for safety are the clinical interventions most likely to successfully prevent fall-related injury.

  7. Gender-Based Violence Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…

  8. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? play_arrow What are the most important ... to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be increased? play_ ...

  9. Prevention of relapsing backache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raspe, Heiner

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model! and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school, ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods: The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the

  10. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  11. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  12. Endometrial Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  13. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  14. Esophageal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  15. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  16. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  17. Injury Prevention Research

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

  18. Bullying Prevention for Kids

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses what victims of bullying may experience and provides recommendations for coping with it.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  19. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  20. Police and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Lisa; Smith, Mark; Long, Matthew; Kisby, Charlotte; Hawton, Keith

    2016-05-01

    Police officers are frequently the first responders to individuals in crisis, but generally receive little training for this role. We developed and evaluated training in suicide awareness and prevention for frontline rail police in the UK. To investigate the impact of training on officers' suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Fifty-three participants completed a brief questionnaire before and after undertaking training. In addition, two focus groups were conducted with 10 officers to explore in greater depth their views and experiences of the training program and the perceived impact on practice. Baseline levels of suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge were mixed but mostly positive and improved significantly after training. Such improvements were seemingly maintained over time, but there was insufficient power to test this statistically. Feedback on the course was generally excellent, notwithstanding some criticisms and suggestions for improvement. Training in suicide prevention appears to have been well received and to have had a beneficial impact on officers' attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Further research is needed to assess its longer-term effects on police attitudes, skills, and interactions with suicidal individuals, and to establish its relative effectiveness in the context of multilevel interventions.