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  1. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Fei, Yutong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  2. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and swelling of the liver. ...

  3. Preventing hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  4. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many NIDDK research projects related to hepatitis and liver disease: A recent study concluded that about half of patients with chronic hepatitis C recovered after receiving initial treatments from two drugs, ...

  5. "Hepatitis" - Prevention and management in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Sharma, Varun; Kaur, Saravpreet

    2015-01-01

    Today, viral hepatitis has become a silent epidemic worldwide. It is the major cause of liver cirrhosis and liver carcinoma. In a dental office, infections can be expedited through several routes, including direct or indirect contact with blood, oral fluids, droplet splatter, aerosols, etc. The aim of the present review is to increase the awareness among dental practitioners, so as to reduce the burden of hepatitis in their community. Electronic databases like PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, etc. were searched using the keywords hepatitis, dentist, liver disease, and infection control. Manual search of various journals and books was also carried out. Only highly relevant articles from English literature were considered for the present review. The results revealed that the dentists were among the high-risk groups for hepatitis, and they have little information on the factors associated with adherence to hepatitis B vaccination. A dentist can play a major role in the prevention of hepatitis by considering each and every patient as a potential carrier of hepatitis. Proper infection control, sterilization, and prophylactic vaccination protocols should be followed in order to reduce the risk of hepatitis.

  6. Hepatitis A and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information about hepatitis A, visit www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hav . The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Academy of Family Physicians, and the American Academy of Pediatrics strongly recommend all children receive their vaccines according ...

  7. Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in hemodialysis (HD) patients are associated with adverse outcomes, especially after kidney transplantation. Review: In the HD setting, cross-contamination to patients via environmental surfaces, supplies, equipment, multiple-dose medication vials ...

  8. Epidemiology and prevention of hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, So Young; Lee, Chang Hong

    2011-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been a major global cause of morbidity and mortality. The recognition of the problem led to a worldwide effort to reduce transmission of HBV through routine infant vaccination. HBV infection is the most common cause of chronic liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma in Korea. After hepatitis B vaccine era, seroprevalence of hepatits B surface antigen is decreasing, particularly in children. Hepatitis B vaccine is remarkably safe and shows high immunogenicity. Universal childhood immunization with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine in the first year of life is a highly effective method for prevention and control of hepatitis B.

  9. ?Hepatitis? ? Prevention and management in dental practice

    OpenAIRE

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Sharma, Varun; Kaur, Saravpreet

    2015-01-01

    Today, viral hepatitis has become a silent epidemic worldwide. It is the major cause of liver cirrhosis and liver carcinoma. In a dental office, infections can be expedited through several routes, including direct or indirect contact with blood, oral fluids, droplet splatter, aerosols, etc. The aim of the present review is to increase the awareness among dental practitioners, so as to reduce the burden of hepatitis in their community. Electronic databases like PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, etc. ...

  10. Yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: efficacy with hepatitis B immune globulin in prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Tong, M.J.; Toy, P.T.; Vyas, G.N.; Nair, P.V.; Weissman, J.Y.; Krugman, S.

    1987-01-01

    A yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was licensed recently by the Food and Drug administration and is now available. To assess the efficacy of the yeast-recombinant vaccine, the authors administered the vaccine in combination with hepatitis B immune globulin to high-risk newborns. If infants whose mothers were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and the e antigen receive no immunoprophylaxis, 70% to 90% become infected with the virus, and almost all become chronic carriers. Among infants in this study who received hepatitis B immune globulin at birth and three 5- + g doses of yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, only 4.8% became chronic carriers, a better than 90% level of protection and a rate that is comparable with that seen with immune globulin and plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis surface antigen and antibodies were detected by radioimmunoassay. These data suggest that, in this high-risk setting, the yeast-recombinant vaccine is as effective as the plasma-derived vaccine in preventing hepatitis B virus infection and the chronic carrier state

  11. Awareness And Preventive Measures Against Hepatitis B Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of Hepatitis B Virus(HBV) infection among Dental Surgeons in Lagos state and to identify preventive measures adopted against HBV infection. Materials and Methods: 220 structured self-administered questionnaires about knowledge of HBV and infection ...

  12. Effect of health education on knowledge and prevention on Hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of health education on knowledge and prevention on Hepatitis infection among secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo state. ... Based on these findings, the study recommended that health education/ health campaign should be directed to school students and Specific risk practices ...

  13. Prevention of transmission of HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis in prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Reid, Stewart E; Schwitters, Amee; Wiessing, Lucas; El-Bassel, Nabila; Dolan, Kate; Moazen, Babak; Wirtz, Andrea L; Verster, Annette; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-09-10

    The prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis are higher in prisons than in the general population in most countries worldwide. Prisons have emerged as a risk environment for these infections to be further concentrated, amplified, and then transmitted to the community after prisoners are released. In the absence of alternatives to incarceration, prisons and detention facilities could be leveraged to promote primary and secondary prevention strategies for these infections to improve prisoners health and reduce risk throughout incarceration and on release. Effective treatment of opioid use disorders with opioid agonist therapies (eg, methadone and buprenorphine) prevents blood-borne infections via reductions in injection in prison and after release. However, large gaps exist in the implementation of these strategies across all regions. Collaboration between the criminal justice and public health systems will be required for successful implementation of these strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vaccines for preventing hepatitis B in health-care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Gluud, C

    2005-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver diseases. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for health-care workers.......Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver diseases. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for health-care workers....

  15. Prevention of hepatitis B virus infection from hepatitis B core antibody-positive donor graft using hepatitis B immune globulin and lamivudine in living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Taketoshi; Shimada, Mitsuo; Kishikawa, Keiji; Shimura, Tatsuo; Soejima, Yuji; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Hashimoto, Kohji; Mochida, Yasushi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2005-12-01

    Hepatic grafts from hepatitis B surface antigen-negative and anti-core antibody (HBcAb)-positive donors have been shown to transmit hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Recently, it has been reported that combined hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and lamivudine therapy is effective in the prevention of hepatitis B recurrence after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). In this report, we assessed the efficacy of combined HBIG and lamivudine therapy in preventing HBV transmission by graft with HBcAb-positive donors. We studied 22 patients who had undergone LDLT with allografts from HBcAb-positive living donors at Gunma University Hospital and Kyushu University Hospital. Long-term combined HBIG and lamivudine therapy were administrated to all recipients. Serum samples from the donor and recipient were tested for HBcAb, HBV DNA, and hepatitis B surface antibody. Liver biopsies from grafts were tested for HBV DNA. All recipients were HBcAb negative before LDLT. All of the donor livers were HBV DNA positive at the time of LDLT. All of the recipients had HBsAb titers greater than 300 mIU/ml 4 weeks after LDLT, and remained 100 mIU/ml thereafter. None of the recipients have become infected with HBV with a follow-up of 25-86 months. Perioperative combined HBIG and lamivudine therapy can prevent HBV infection in recipients who receive liver grafts from HBcAb-positive donors.

  16. Recommendations for Prevention of Hepatitis A Based on a Cost‐Effectiveness Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Tormans; P. van Damme (Damme); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Hepatitis A viral infection poses a substantial risk for travelers from low‐endemic countries visiting high‐endemic destinations. In this study, the general indications for the optimal prevention of hepatitis A are derived using a cost‐effectiveness analysis based on the risk

  17. Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Pregnancy : US Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calonge, Ned; Petitti, Diana B.; DeWitt, Thomas G.; Dietrich, Allen J.; Gregory, Kimberly D.; Grossman, David; Isham, George; LeFevre, Michael L.; Leipzig, Rosanne M.; Marion, Lucy N.; Melnyk, Bernadette; Moyer, Virginia A.; Ockene, Judith K.; Sawaya, George F.; Schwartz, J. Sanford; Wilt, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Description: Reaffirmation of the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for hepatitis B virus hepatitis B virus infection in pregnancy. Methods: The USPSTF performed a brief literature update, including a search for new and substantial evidence on the benefits

  18. HIV/hepatitis coinfection in eastern Europe and new pan-European approaches to hepatitis prevention and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Shete, Priya B; Eramova, Irina

    2007-01-01

    treatment, those who need only hepatitis or only HIV/AIDS treatment, and those who need both. Though the protocols should provide practical guidelines for physicians and assist in the development of national treatment standards, there is still a need for targeted prevention, treatment and care interventions...

  19. Hepatitis Prevention (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-27

    Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that’s usually caused by a virus. It can result in chronic illness and even death. In this podcast, Dr. Francisco Averhoff discusses hepatitis.  Created: 7/27/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/27/2017.

  20. Prevention of mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... Abstract: Background: Sub- Sa- hara Africa including Nigeria has the second largest global burden of chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection after Asia. Mother-to-child transmission. (MTCT) of HBV is the most com- monroute of transmission in high endemic areas .MTCT of hepatitis. B virus ...

  1. Secondary Prevention of Hepatitis B in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K. Veldhuijzen (Irene)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPeople with chronic hepatitis B virus infection remain infectious to others and are at risk of serious liver disease such as liver cirrhosis or liver cancer later in life. In the Netherlands, hepatitis B is low endemic and acute infections are mainly transmitted through sexual contact.

  2. Prevention of mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV is the most commonroute of transmission in high endemic areas .MTCT of hepatitis B virus infection continues to occur despite the interventions of hepatitis B vaccinations and immunoglobulins in settings where it is practiced. Infants most at risk are those whose mothers have ...

  3. Preventive effect of taraxasteryl acetate from Inula britannica subsp. japonica on experimental hepatitis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, K; Kiyohara, H; Tanaka, M; Matsumoto, T; Cyong, J C; Yamada, H

    1995-02-01

    The survival rate for acute hepatic failure induced by Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was increased when a hot water extract from the flowers of Inula britannica L. subsp. japonica Kitam. was injected into the experimental hepatitis mice, and anti-hepatitis substances could be extracted with CHCl3. The CHCl3 extract from I.britannica was fractionated and anti-hepatitis fractions IB-3-2 and IB-3-3 were obtained. IB-3-3 had the most potent anti-hepatitis activity among the fractions but further purification of the active compound was not achieved because of the low yield. IB-3-2 contained only one substance which was identified to be taraxasteryl acetate by 1H- and 13C-NMR and MS. Taraxasteryl acetate showed potent preventive activity against acute hepatic failure induced by P.acnes and LPS in a dose-dependent manner, however deacetylation and modification of the olefinic bonds significantly decreased the anti-hepatitis activity of taraxasteryl acetate. Taraxasteryl acetate also inhibited the increment of plasma transaminase on acute hepatic failure induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or D-galactosamine. From a histological study it appeared that degeneration and necrosis, which were observed in the liver from CCl4 mice, were not found in the liver cells from taraxasteryl acetate treated mice. These results indicates that taraxasteryl acetate shows preventive effects on experimental hepatitis caused by either immunologically induced injuries or hepatotoxic chemicals.

  4. Update on Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    1971. Viral hepatits type B MS-2 strain): studies on active immunization. JAMA 217:41-45. Lau, J. Y. N., and T. L. Wright. 1993. Molecular virology...PUBLICATION REPORT 1906 06/99 UPDATE ON DIAGNOSIS, MANAGEMENT, AND PREVENTION OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION By Francis J. Mahoney U.S. NAVAL...MICROBIOLOGY REVIEWS, Apr. 1999, p. 351-366 0893-8512/99/$04.00+0 Vol. 12, No. 2 Update on Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Hepatitis B

  5. The dynamics, causes and possible prevention of Hepatitis E outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Nannyonga

    Full Text Available Rapidly spreading infectious diseases are a serious risk to public health. The dynamics and the factors causing outbreaks of these diseases can be better understood using mathematical models, which are fit to data. Here we investigate the dynamics of a Hepatitis E outbreak in the Kitgum region of northern Uganda during 2007 to 2009. First, we use the data to determine that R0 is approximately 2.25 for the outbreak. Secondly, we use a model to estimate that the critical level of latrine and bore hole coverages needed to eradicate the epidemic is at least 16% and 17% respectively. Lastly, we further investigate the relationship between the co-infection factor for malaria and Hepatitis E on the value of R0 for Hepatitis E. Taken together, these results provide us with a better understanding of the dynamics and possible causes of Hepatitis E outbreaks.

  6. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to prevent HBV infection. Read more about hepatitis B . What Is Hepatitis C? Like hepatitis B, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) ... It Possible to Donate Blood After Having Hepatitis B? Hepatitis C Hand Washing Immunizations Blood Transfusions Blood Test: Liver ...

  7. Occupational Hepatitis B Exposure: A Peek into Indian Dental Students’ Knowledge, Opinion, and Preventive Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the level of knowledge, opinions, and preventive practices followed by dental students against Hepatitis B. The study also explored if any correlation existed between knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices score. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a dental teaching institution. The subjects comprised 216 dental students. The study was conducted using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared to assess knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices against Hepatitis B. Kruskal-Wallis and Kendall Tau test were performed. Results. The study found that only 44.4% of the students were vaccinated with Hepatitis B vaccine. 59.3% of the students reported washing their hands after contact with patient’s body fluids. 63.9% used personal protective measures like facemask, aprons, head cap, eye shields, and so forth, while treating patients. Median knowledge, opinion, and practice scores were found to be 5.00, 3.00, and 3.00, respectively. Significant correlation was obtained between knowledge and preventive practices score (r=0.385, p value <0.0001. Conclusion. Effective measures need to be taken to improve preventive practices of the students to prevent them from risk of Hepatitis transmission. Mandatory vaccination against Hepatitis B needs to be implemented.

  8. Efficacy and safety of lamivudine or tenofovir plus intramuscular hepatitis B immunoglobulin in prevention of hepatitis B virus reinfection after liver transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri-Toosi, Mohssen; Kasraianfard, Amir; Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Dashti, Habibollah; Moini, Majıd; Najafi, Atabak; Salimi, Javad; Jafarian, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis B immunoglobulin prophylaxis in combination with antiviral drugs is recommended for prevention of hepatitis B virus reinfection after liver transplant. However, there is no consensus on a standard prophylactic method, and controversy exists over the duration, dose, and route of administration. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of intramuscular hepatitis B immunoglobulin in combination with lamivudine and/or tenofovir and discontinuation of hepatitis B immunoglobulin after 1 year for prevention of hepatitis B virus reinfection. Patients with hepatitis Brelated liver cirrhosis who had undergone primary liver transplants were enrolled. The prophylactic protocol involved intraoperative intramuscular hepatitis B immunoglobulin at 10 000 IU, tapering to 5000 IU daily for the first 6 days, weekly for a month, every 2 weeks for the next month, and monthly for a year after liver transplant, in combination with antiviral drugs. From January 2002 until March 2014, two hundred sixty-eight liver transplants were performed. Forty-four patients (16.4%) who underwent liver transplants due to hepatitis B-related liver failure were enrolled. Five patients had hepatocellular carcinoma; 20 had both hepatitis D and hepatitis B virus infection. The median age was 47 years (range, 26-59 y) with a median model for end stage liver disease score of 20. Thirty-three patients were men (76%). Sixty-one percent of patients were negative for hepatitis B virus DNA at the time of transplant. The median follow-up was 13.6 months (range, 0-142 mo). Only 1 patient (2.3%) experienced hepatitis B virus reinfection (at 44.7 months posttransplant), which was successfully treated with tenofovir. Five patients died (11.4%) during the follow-up from nonhepatitis B causes. Intramuscular hepatitis B immunoglobulin in combination with lamivudine or tenofovir and discontinuation of hepatitis B immunoglobulin after 1 year posttransplant may provide safe and cost

  9. Prevention of hepatitis B virus transmission by the gastrointestinal fibrescope. Successful disinfection with an aldehyde liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeld, U; Bansky, G; Jaeger, M; Schmid, M

    1981-11-01

    In a prospective study we examined the efficacy of a standardized disinfection method in preventing the transmission of hepatitis B virus by the gastrointestinal fibrescope. Four HBSAg- and Dane particle-positive patients who have been endoscoped served as possible sources of hepatitis B virus infection. We cleaned the instrument with a 10% aldehyde liquid and used it immediately thereafter in 10 HBSAg-negative patients. Eight of them were followed-up for 7 months after the endoscopic procedure. None of them showed serological evidence of an endoscopically transmitted hepatitis B virus infection. It is concluded that disinfection with an aldehyde liquid is effective in preventing the transmission of hepatitis B virus by the fibrescope.

  10. 77 FR 66469 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section 10(a...--Treatment as Prevention; (2) Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Client Level Data Update; (3) Viral Hepatitis... prevention and control of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the support of health care services to persons living with...

  11. [Prevention of hepatitis in dialysis centers. A catalog of recommendations and suggestions. 3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, H; Schmidt, U

    1979-07-01

    This last of three reports on the prevention of hepatitis in dialysis centres deals with the kind and frequency of desinfection measures in the dialysis area, contains advices to the mode of transfer of patients between dialysis centres and makes demands to the tests of hepatitis-B-antigen and antibodies. Finally proposals concerning the frequency of controls for HBs-antigen and anti-HBs and for the passive immunisation with anti-HBs-enriched immunoglobulin are rendered.

  12. The prevention of hepatitis | Buchel | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The identification and characterisation of the hepatitis viruses A, B, C, D and E has allowed greater insight into their diagnosis, prevalence and modes of transmission. The clinical, pathological and serological features of each of these viruses have been dealt with elsewhere in this issue of the SAMJ, as have general and ...

  13. [Prevention of hepatitis C at Center for Haemodialisys of Clinical Centre of University of Sarajevo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miseljić, Sanja; Resić, Halima; Avdić, Emir; Osmić, Ibrahim; Helać-Cvijetić, Dzana; Sahović, Vahidin; Avdagić, Melka; Barhawi, Hasan; Corić, Aida; Miseljić, Nenad; Ajanović, Selma

    2005-01-01

    The patients with the chronical programm for haemodialisys have the higher risk from getting ill virus hepatitis C in the realtion to the rest population. Was the evaluation of the prevalence and incidence of hepatitis C at the Center for Haemodialisys CCU Sarajevo and the effect of the prevalentive measures on the incidence of the serum conversion of hepatitis C, in the period from 2002 till 2004 year. By the examening is comprehended 155 patients aged 54,58 +/- 14,797 years, with the aproximative length of the haemodialisys 58,9 +/- 53,9 months. Patients at the chronic programm of the bicarbonite haemodialisys taree times per week, and antibodies on the hepatitis C were determined III generation. Also was determined PCR. During the periiod of examination the dialized population was increased also 2002 year the prevalence of hepatitis C was 23,87% (37/155), in 2003 year 29,29% (46/157) and 2004 year the pregalence amounted 26,28% (46/175). Incidence of hepatitis C was significantly decreased in the course of the period of followup and in 2002 year was 16,21%, in 2003 year 13,04%, that in 2004 year would amount 4,34%, that is only in two patients occurred the serum conversion on hepatitis C. By applying of the corresponding protocoles and their strict realization (desinfection of the hands, wearing of gloves, apparatus desinfection) and separation of the dialyzed monitors for anti HCV positive and anti HCV negative patients dicreased significantly the hepatitis C incidence in our dialyzed population. The strict application of the preventive measures can completely prevent the speading occurrence of hepatitis C on haemodialisys.

  14. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. Viruses cause most cases of hepatitis. The type ... can lead to scarring, called cirrhosis, or to liver cancer. Sometimes hepatitis goes away by itself. If it does not, ...

  15. 78 FR 64221 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment; Notice of Meeting In... given of the following virtual committee meeting. Name: CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment Dates and Times: November 13, 2013, 10:00 a.m.-4:30 p.m. November...

  16. Antiviral therapy for prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality in chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Maja; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Dahl, Emilie K

    2013-01-01

    The effect of antiviral therapy on clinical outcomes in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) is not established. We aimed to assess the effects of interferon and/or nucleos(t)ide analogues versus placebo or no intervention on prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and mortality in chronic HBV....

  17. Preventive effects of chronic exogenous growth hormone levels on diet-induced hepatic steatosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ya-ping

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, which is characterized by hepatic steatosis, can be reversed by early treatment. Several case reports have indicated that the administration of recombinant growth hormone (GH could improve fatty liver in GH-deficient patients. Here, we investigated whether chronic exogenous GH levels could improve hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet in rats, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Results High-fat diet-fed rats developed abdominal obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance. Chronic exogenous GH improved fatty liver, by reversing dyslipidaemia, fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Exogenous GH also reduced serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha levels, and ameliorated hepatic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Hepatic fat deposition was also reduced by exogenous GH levels, as was the expression of adipocyte-derived adipokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin, which might improve lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis. Exogenous GH seems to improve fatty liver by reducing fat weight, improving insulin sensitivity and correcting oxidative stress, which may be achieved through phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of a group of signal transducers and activators of hepatic signal transduction pathways. Conclusions Chronic exogenous GH has positive effects on fatty liver and may be a potential clinical application in the prevention or reversal of fatty liver. However, chronic secretion of exogenous GH, even at a low level, may increase serum glucose and insulin levels in rats fed a standard diet, and thus increase the risk of insulin resistance.

  18. Ketogenic essential amino acids modulate lipid synthetic pathways and prevent hepatic steatosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Yasushi; Nishikata, Natsumi; Shikata, Nahoko; Kimura, Yoshiko; Aleman, Jose O; Young, Jamey D; Koyama, Naoto; Kelleher, Joanne K; Takahashi, Michio; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2010-08-10

    Although dietary ketogenic essential amino acid (KAA) content modifies accumulation of hepatic lipids, the molecular interactions between KAAs and lipid metabolism are yet to be fully elucidated. We designed a diet with a high ratio (E/N) of essential amino acids (EAAs) to non-EAAs by partially replacing dietary protein with 5 major free KAAs (Leu, Ile, Val, Lys and Thr) without altering carbohydrate and fat content. This high-KAA diet was assessed for its preventive effects on diet-induced hepatic steatosis and whole-animal insulin resistance. C57B6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet, and hyperinsulinemic ob/ob mice were fed with a high-fat or high-sucrose diet. The high-KAA diet improved hepatic steatosis with decreased de novo lipogenesis (DNL) fluxes as well as reduced expressions of lipogenic genes. In C57B6 mice, the high-KAA diet lowered postprandial insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance, in association with restored expression of muscle insulin signaling proteins repressed by the high-fat diet. Lipotoxic metabolites and their synthetic fluxes were also evaluated with reference to insulin resistance. The high-KAA diet lowered muscle and liver ceramides, both by reducing dietary lipid incorporation into muscular ceramides and preventing incorporation of DNL-derived fatty acids into hepatic ceramides. Our results indicate that dietary KAA intake improves hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance by modulating lipid synthetic pathways.

  19. Fighting Hepatitis B in North Korea: Feasibility of a Bi-modal Prevention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnewehr, Markus; Stich, August

    2015-11-01

    In North Korea, the prevalence of hepatitis B is high due to natural factors, gaps in vaccination, and the lack of antiviral treatment. Aid projects are urgently needed, however impeded by North Korea's political and economical situation and isolation. The feasibility of a joint North Korean and German humanitarian hepatitis B prevention program was assessed. Part 1: Hepatitis B vaccination catch-up campaign. Part 2: Implementation of endoscopic ligation of esophageal varices (EVL) by trainings in Germany and North Korea. By vaccinating 7 million children between 2010 and 2012, the hepatitis B vaccination gap was closed. Coverage of 99.23% was reached. A total of 11 hepatitis B-induced liver cirrhosis patients (mean age 41.1 yr) with severe esophageal varices and previous bleedings were successfully treated by EVL without major complications. A clinical standard operating procedure, a feedback system and a follow-up plan were developed. The bi-modal preventive strategy was implemented successfully. Parts of the project can serve as an example for other low-income countries, however its general transferability is limited due to the special circumstances in North Korea.

  20. Ketogenic essential amino acids modulate lipid synthetic pathways and prevent hepatic steatosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Noguchi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Although dietary ketogenic essential amino acid (KAA content modifies accumulation of hepatic lipids, the molecular interactions between KAAs and lipid metabolism are yet to be fully elucidated.We designed a diet with a high ratio (E/N of essential amino acids (EAAs to non-EAAs by partially replacing dietary protein with 5 major free KAAs (Leu, Ile, Val, Lys and Thr without altering carbohydrate and fat content. This high-KAA diet was assessed for its preventive effects on diet-induced hepatic steatosis and whole-animal insulin resistance. C57B6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet, and hyperinsulinemic ob/ob mice were fed with a high-fat or high-sucrose diet. The high-KAA diet improved hepatic steatosis with decreased de novo lipogenesis (DNL fluxes as well as reduced expressions of lipogenic genes. In C57B6 mice, the high-KAA diet lowered postprandial insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance, in association with restored expression of muscle insulin signaling proteins repressed by the high-fat diet. Lipotoxic metabolites and their synthetic fluxes were also evaluated with reference to insulin resistance. The high-KAA diet lowered muscle and liver ceramides, both by reducing dietary lipid incorporation into muscular ceramides and preventing incorporation of DNL-derived fatty acids into hepatic ceramides.Our results indicate that dietary KAA intake improves hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance by modulating lipid synthetic pathways.

  1. Novel methods of hepatitis C treatment and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja M. Chmielewska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite available treatment, Hepatitis C remains one of most serious burdens to public health. Current therapy based on pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin has significant side effects and its effectiveness varies for different genotypes of the virus. Four novel drugs – viral protease inhibitors (telaprevir, boceprevir, simeprevir and polymerase inhibitor – sofosbuvir have been introduced in last years for use in combination with standard-of-care treatment. For the first time interferon free therapies were approved with the use of combination of sofosbuvir+ribavirin. New therapies improve virological response rates but also increase the cost, side effects and raise the issue of drug resistance. Numerous novel anti-HCV compounds have been evaluated in advanced clinical trials including inhibitors of viral proteins (protease, polymerase and NS5A and inhibitors of host factors involved in HCV replication (cyclophilin A, microRNA – miR-122. New interferon-free therapies reducing severe side effects are expected to enter the market within few months. At the same time efforts are undertaken to determine the host and viral factors with predictive value for HCV treatment response, enabling personalized therapy approach. The main success in this field was the discovery of interleukin IL28B polymorphism, which correlates with positive standard-of-care treatment response. An effective vaccination may be an alternative for antiviral drugs, but no anti-HCV vaccine is available currently. It is well proved that successful vaccination should induce antibody and T-cell responses specific against a range of HCV genotypes. With this aim, new subunit and genetic candidate vaccines have been evaluated in I and II phase clinical trials. This review summarizes the recent developments in the field of new drug development and vaccine studies against hepatitis C virus.

  2. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes can alleviate some of the symptoms. Long-term effects can last as long as six months to one year. Hepatitis A is rarely fatal (100 deaths per year in the United States), but 20% of hepatitis A cases require hospitalization. Swallowing fecal matter, even in microscopic quantities. Infection ...

  3. Hepatitis B immunoglobulin during pregnancy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Ahizechukwu C; Eleje, George U; Eke, Uzoamaka A; Xia, Yun; Liu, Jiao

    2017-02-11

    Hepatitis is a viral infection of the liver. It is mainly transmitted between people through contact with infected blood, frequently from mother to baby in-utero. Hepatitis B poses significant risk to the fetus and up to 85% of infants infected by their mothers at birth develop chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) is a purified solution of human immunoglobulin that could be administered to the mother, newborn, or both. HBIG offers protection against HBV infection when administered to pregnant women who test positive for hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) or hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), or both. When HBIG is administered to pregnant women, the antibodies passively diffuse across the placenta to the child. This materno-fetal diffusion is maximal during the third trimester of pregnancy. Up to 1% to 9% infants born to HBV-carrying mothers still have HBV infection despite the newborn receiving HBIG plus active HBV vaccine in the immediate neonatal period. This suggests that additional intervention such as HBIG administration to the mother during the antenatal period could be beneficial to reduce the transmission rate in utero. To determine the benefits and harms of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) administration to pregnant women during their third trimester of pregnancy for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus infection. We searched the The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science), SCOPUS, African Journals OnLine, and INDEX MEDICUS up to June 2016. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and portal of the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) in December 2016. We included randomised clinical trials comparing HBIG versus placebo or no intervention in pregnant women with HBV. Two authors extracted data independently. We analysed dichotomous outcome data using risk ratio (RR

  4. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low because of routine testing of donated blood. Sexual transmission and transmission among family members through close contact ... associated with drinking contaminated water. Hepatitis Viruses ... B Blood, needles, sexual 10% of older children develop chronic infection. 90% ...

  5. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Sina Ogholikhan; Kathleen B. Schwarz

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  6. Active vaccination to prevent de novo hepatitis B virus infection in liver transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Che; Yong, Chee-Chien; Chen, Chao-Long

    2015-01-01

    The shortage of organ donors mandates the use of liver allograft from anti-HBc(+) donors, especially in areas highly endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The incidence of de novo hepatitis B infection (DNH) is over 30%-70% among recipients of hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) (+) grafts without any prophylaxis after liver transplantation (LT). Systematic reviews showed that prophylactic therapy [lamivudine and/or hepatitits B immunoglobulin (HBIG)] dramatically reduces the probability of DNH. However, there are limited studies regarding the effects of active immunization to prevent DNH, and the role of active vaccination is not well-defined. This review focuses on the feasibility and efficacy of pre- and post-LT HBV vaccination to prevent DNH in HBsAg(-) recipient using HBcAb(+) grafts. The presence of HBsAb in combination with lamivudine or HBIG results in lower incidence of DNH and may reduce the requirement of HBIG. There was a trend towards decreasing incidence of DNH with higher titers of HBsAb. High titers of HBsAb (> 1000 IU/L) achieved after repeated vaccination could eliminate the necessity for additional antiviral prophylaxis in pediatric recipients. In summary, active vaccination with adequate HBsAb titer is a feasible, cost-effective strategy to prevent DNH in recipients of HBcAb(+) grafts. HBV vaccination is advised for candidates on waiting list and for recipients after withdrawal of steroids and onset of low dose immunosuppression after transplantation. PMID:26494965

  7. Short Course of Postoperative Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin Plus Antivirals Prevents Reinfection of Liver Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Chi, Aileen; Quan, David J; Roberts, John P; Terrault, Norah A

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) has been an integral component of prophylaxis against hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence in liver transplantation (LT) recipients, but HBIG is costly and inconvenient to administer, prompting consideration of alternative regimens. In this retrospective cohort, we report on the success of antiviral therapy combined with a short course (in hospital only) HBIG in liver transplant recipients with HBV DNA less than 100 IU/mL pre-LT. A total of 42 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive, human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis D virus-negative patients with pretransplant HBV DNA undetectable to 100 IU/mL who received HBIG 5000 IU in anhepatic phase and daily for 5 days together with nucleos(t)ide analogues indefinitely yielded 1- and 3-year cumulative incidences of recurrence, defined by positive serum HBsAg, of 2.9% (upper 95% confidence interval, 19%). One patient had HBV viremia 16 months post-LT without detectable HBsAg. Both patients with either HBsAg positivity or viremia had recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed within a month of detection. Post-LT survival was 98% and 94% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. We conclude that a very short course of HBIG combined with long-term antiviral therapy is highly effective in preventing HBV recurrence and should be the preferred strategy for LT recipients with undetectable or low-level viremia at time of LT.

  8. PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF HEPATITIS VIRUS INFECTION IN HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparno Chakrabarti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Infections with Hepatitis viruses B and C pose major problems both short and long term respectively after HSCT. The key to prevention for Hepatitis B disease remains vaccination for HBV-naïve patients and judicial use of anti-viral therapy in both pre- and post-transplant settings for HBV-infected patients. HBsAg positive grafts to HBV-naïve recipients result in transmission of the virus in about 50%. The newer anti-viral agents have enabled effective treatment of post-transplant patients who might be lamivudine-resistant or might develop so. Selecting a previously infected donor who has high titres of surface antibody for HBsAg positive patients gives the best chance for immunological clearance. The most challenging aspect of preventing HBV reactivation remains the duration of anti-viral therapy and timing of its withdrawal as most reactivations and often fatal ones occur after this period. Hepatitis C, on the other hand affects long-term survival with early onset of fibrosis and cirrhosis. Early effect of Hepatitis C virus on the immune system remains conjectural. The standard combination therapy seems to be effective, but data on this front remains sparse, as in the case of the use of newer antiviral agents. HSCT from HCV infected grafts result in more consistent transmission of the virus and pre-donation treatment of donors should be undertaken to render them non-viremic, if possible.  The current understanding and recommendations regarding prevention and management of these infections in HSCT recipients are discussed.

  9. Effects of hepatitis B immunization on prevention of mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus and on the immune response of infants towards hepatitis B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Gui, Xi-en; Teter, Caroline; Zhong, Hairong; Pang, Zhiyong; Ding, Lixiong; Li, Fengliang; Zhou, Yun; Zhang, Ling

    2014-10-21

    Combined immunization with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) plus hepatitis B vaccine (HB vaccine) can effectively prevent perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). With the universal administration of HB vaccine, anti-HBs conferred by HB vaccine can be found increasingly in pregnant women, and maternal anti-HBs can be passed through the placenta. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of hepatitis B immunization on preventing mother-to-infant transmission of HBV and on the immune response of infants towards HB vaccine. From 2008 to 2013, a prospective study was conducted in 15 centers in China. HBsAg-positive pregnant women and their infants aged 8-12 months who completed immunoprophylaxis were enrolled in the study and tested for HBV markers (HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HBe and anti-HBc). Antepartum administration of HBIG to HBsAg-positive women was based on individual preference. HBsAg-negative pregnant women and their infants of 7-24 months old who received HB vaccines series were enrolled and tests of their HBV markers were performed. 1202 HBsAg-positive mothers and their infants aged 8-12 months were studied and 40 infants were found to be HBsAg positive with the immunoprophylaxis failure rate of 3.3%. Infants with immunoprophylaxis failure were all born to HBeAg-positive mothers of HBV-DNA ≥6 log₁₀copies/ml. Among infants of HBeAg-positive mothers, immunoprophylaxis failure rate in vaccine plus HBIG group, 7.9% (29/367), was significantly lower than the vaccine-only group, 16.9% (11/65), p=0.021; there was no significant difference in the immunoprophylaxis failure rate whether or not antepartum HBIG was given to the pregnant woman, 10.3% (10/97) vs 9.0% (30/335), p=0.685. Anti-HBs positive rate was 56.3% (3883/6899) among HBsAg-negative pregnant women and anti-HBs positive rate was 94.2% in cord blood of anti-HBs-positive mothers. After completing the HB vaccine series, anti-HBs positive rate among infants with maternal anti

  10. Hepatitis and liver disease knowledge and preventive practices among health workers in Mexico: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Noreen; Flores, Yvonne N; Ramirez, Paula; Bastani, Roshan; Salmerón, Jorge

    2014-04-01

    To assess the knowledge and preventive practices regarding hepatitis and liver disease among a sample of participants in the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study. The study population consisted of 892 participants from Cuernavaca, Mexico. Demographic characteristics, knowledge about hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and liver disease in general, as well as information about prevention practices were obtained from self-reported questionnaires. Participants were grouped into categories that were created using information about their professional background and patient contact status. Knowledge and prevention practices were compared within these categories. Inadequate levels of knowledge and preventive practices were found, even within the more highly educated group. Nearly 57 % of the participants had inadequate knowledge about liver disease in general, while 76 and 79 % had inadequate knowledge about Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV), respectively. For general liver disease, the mean knowledge score increased significantly with education, history of HCV screening, and low alcohol consumption. Health workers should be better educated about hepatitis and liver disease so they can reduce their own risk and share their knowledge of how to prevent liver disease with patients.

  11. Prevention of post-transfusion hepatitis c transmission through donor blood and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Chechetkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of organizational aspects of preventing the transmission of hepatitis C virus with donor blood and its components.Materials and methods. An activity of the blood service establishments in Russia for the prevention of HCV infection through transfusion of blood and its components on the basis of the analysis of sectoral statistical surveys was studied.Results. The frequency of detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in blood donors and its components during 2009–2013 decreased by more than 1,5 times. The percentage of donors who have identified markers of hepatitis C virus was significantly different in different regions: from 0,51% to 1,36%. The activity of the blood service implemented method of plasma quarantine resulting annually rejected from 0,32% to 0,23% as a result of the identified markers of HCV. Pathogen inactivated plasma volume increased in 3 times, the platelet concentrate in 3,2 times.Conclusion. To ensure the safety of donated blood and its components in the blood service effectively the modern technology use for to prevention transmission of the HCV: quarantine of plasma, donor selection and development, inactivation of pathogens. The degree of implementation in practice of nonpaid voluntary blood transfusions significantly increased and is characterized by regional features in recent years .

  12. Prevention of de novo hepatitis B with adefovir dipivoxil in recipients of liver grafts from hepatitis B core antibody-positive donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Matthew S; Olsen, Sonja K; Pichardo, Elsa M; Heese, Scott; Stiles, Jessica B; Abdelmessih, Rita; Verna, Elizabeth C; Guarrera, James V; Emond, Jean C; Brown, Robert S

    2012-07-01

    Lamivudine has been shown to prevent de novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in liver transplantation (LT) patients receiving hepatitis B core antibody-positive (HBcAb(+)) grafts, but it may produce long-term resistance. Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) might be effective in preventing de novo hepatitis and resistance. A single-center, prospective trial was conducted with 16 adults (10 men and 6 women, mean age = 54 ± 11 years) who underwent LT with HBcAb(+) grafts between September 2007 and October 2009. After LT, patients were given ADV [10 mg daily (adjusted for renal function)]. No hepatitis B immune globulin was administered. At LT, all graft recipients were hepatitis B surface antigen-negative (HBsAg(-)), 38% were surface antibody-positive (HBsAb(+)), and 50% were HBcAb(+). The median follow-up after LT was 1.8 years (range = 1.0-2.6 years). All recipients had undetectable HBV DNA (HBcAb(-) before LT became HBsAg(+) after 52 weeks. One recipient was switched from ADV to entecavir for chronic renal insufficiency, and 19% of the patients had renal dose adjustments. There was a nonsignificant trend of increasing creatinine levels over time (1.2 mg/dL at LT, 1.3 mg/dL 1 year after LT, and 2.0 mg/dL 2 years after LT, P = 0.27). A comparison with a control cohort of LT recipients with hepatitis C virus who did not receive ADV showed no difference in the creatinine levels at LT or 1 year after LT. In conclusion, ADV prophylaxis prevents HBV replication in recipients of HBcAb(+) livers but does not fully protect recipients from de novo HBV. Long-term follow-up is needed to better determine the risk of de novo infection. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Prevention of cholesterol gallstones by inhibiting hepatic biosynthesis and intestinal absorption of cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Helen H; Portincasa, Piero; de Bari, Ornella; Liu, Kristina J; Garruti, Gabriella; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A; Wang, David Q.-H

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol cholelithiasis is a multifactorial disease influenced by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors, and represents a failure of biliary cholesterol homeostasis in which the physical-chemical balance of cholesterol solubility in bile is disturbed. The primary pathophysiologic event is persistent hepatic hypersecretion of biliary cholesterol, which has both hepatic and small intestinal components. The majority of the environmental factors are probably related to Western-type dietary habits, including excess cholesterol consumption. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the US, is nowadays a major treatment for gallstones. However, it is invasive and can cause surgical complications, and not all patients with symptomatic gallstones are candidates for surgery. The hydrophilic bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been employed as first-line pharmacological therapy in a subgroup of symptomatic patients with small, radiolucent cholesterol gallstones. Long-term administration of UDCA can promote the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. However, the optimal use of UDCA is not always achieved in clinical practice because of failure to titrate the dose adequately. Therefore, the development of novel, effective, and noninvasive therapies is crucial for reducing the costs of health care associated with gallstones. In this review, we summarize recent progress in investigating the inhibitory effects of ezetimibe and statins on intestinal absorption and hepatic biosynthesis of cholesterol, respectively, for the treatment of gallstones, as well as in elucidating their molecular mechanisms by which combination therapy could prevent this very common liver disease worldwide. PMID:23419155

  14. Bridging the silos in HIV and Hepatitis C prevention: a cross-provincial qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Anik; Harris, Greg; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Doucet, Shelley

    2017-09-01

    The Our Youth Our Response (OYOR) study explored the scope and accessibility of existing youth-oriented human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C (HCV) prevention in Atlantic Canada. A cross-provincial, qualitative population health and gender-based analytic approach was used in this study. Four hundred and twenty-five documents were part of the initial scoping review, while 47 in-depth interviews across youth-relevant sectors were undertaken to explore the perceptions related to current approaches to youth-oriented HIV/HCV prevention policies and programs. The study also conducted focus group discussions with 21 key informants aimed at identifying strategies to address the challenges identified from the interview data. Five overarching themes emerged from our triangulated data in relation to the present state of youth-related HIV/HCV prevention. These included: inter-organizational and intersectoral collaboration; youth engagement; access to testing; harm reduction; and education. Our findings will assist in informing the next generation for HIV/HCV prevention aimed at youth. Specifically, the results indicate that future prevention initiatives should support the use of intersectoral collaboration, gender-based approaches, and HIV/HCV testing innovation to help de-stigmatize prevention efforts.

  15. Prevention of Post Transfusion Hepatitis Employing Sensitive Assay for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Screening(Topics in Transfusion Medicine 1990 : Autologous Transfusion and Post-Transfusion Hepatitis)

    OpenAIRE

    小島, 秀男; 大竹, 幸子; 富樫, 和枝; 石口, 重子; 山田, 恵子; 品田, 章二; Kojima, Hideo; Ohtake, Sachiko; Togashi, Kazue; Ishiguchi, Shigeko; Yamada, Keiko; Shinada, Shoji

    1990-01-01

    Post transfusion Hepatitis (PTH) is one of serious side effects and some times lead to fulminant hepatic failure in case transfused blood contain very low level (under the sensitivity of usual screening method) of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Redcross blood center and blood transfusion devision of our hospital have been employed reverse passive hemmaglutination method (RPHA) for HBsAg screening. Authors employed EIA for sensitive HBsAg test system and compared with RPHA method. Of 2,255 sera from...

  16. PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF HEPATITIS VIRUS INFECTION IN HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Mukherjee

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Infections with Hepatitis viruses B and C pose major problems both short and long term respectively after HSCT. The key to prevention for Hepatitis B disease remains vaccination for HBV-naïve patients and judicial use of anti-viral therapy in both pre- and post-transplant settings for HBV-infected patients. HBsAg positive grafts to HBV-naïve recipients result in transmission of the virus in about 50%. The newer anti-viral agents have enabled effective treatment of post-transplant patients who might be lamivudine-resistant or might develop so. Selecting a previously infected donor who has high titres of surface antibody for HBsAg positive patients gives the best chance for immunological clearance. The most challenging aspect of preventing HBV reactivation remains the duration of anti-viral therapy and timing of its withdrawal as most reactivations and often fatal ones occur after this period. Hepatitis C, on the other hand affects long-term survival with early onset of fibrosis and cirrhosis. Early effect of Hepatitis C virus on the immune system remains conjectural. The standard combination therapy seems to be effective, but data on this front remains sparse, as in the case of the use of newer antiviral agents. HSCT from HCV infected grafts result in more consistent transmission of the virus and pre-donation treatment of donors should be undertaken to render them non-viremic, if possible.  The current understanding and recommendations regarding prevention and management of these infections in HSCT recipients are discussed.

  17. Prevention of hepatitis B transmission in Indo-Chinese refugees with active and passive immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L L; Hovell, M; Benenson, A S

    1991-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a cause of disability and death worldwide, with high rates of perinatal transmission in third world countries, including those of Indochina. Prevention of transmission by active and passive immunization has been available since 1982. This study looked at the serological response of Indo-Chinese refugees to these products in an outpatient primary care clinic and at the compliance problems found in this setting. The carrier rate of all patients screened was 81/446 (18.5%), with 37/233 (15.8%) of prenatal patients as carriers. Newborns whose mothers were carriers were started on an immunization program. The combination of HBIG and vaccine was more than 90% effective in inducing immunity and preventing the carrier state; only two children of the 26 studied who received both active and passive immunization became carriers. Both failures were in children of HBeAg positive mothers. In contrast, those children exposed who had not received treatment (because of birth prior to 1982) had a 33% carrier rate. This success rate was found despite compliance problems in completing the immunizations on schedule. Only 23% of children received their vaccine within four weeks of the recommended schedule, with a mean delay of 1.3 months. Of the 79 children beginning immunizations, 11 moved before completion. All children remaining in San Diego completed the regimen. Thus, the benefits of giving the passive and active immunization to infants of hepatitis B carriers were clear. However, compliance problems jeopardize the effectiveness of a hepatitis B immunization program in this population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Partial prevention of hepatic lipid alterations in nude mice by neonatal thymulin gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Bravo, Margarita M; Polo, Mónica P; Reggiani, Paula C; Rimoldi, Omar J; Dardenne, Mireille; Goya, Rodolfo G

    2006-08-01

    During adult life athymic (nude) male mice display not only a severe T-cell-related immunodeficiency but also endocrine imbalances and a moderate hyperglycemia. We studied the impact of congenital athymia on hepatic lipid composition and also assessed the ability of neonatal thymulin gene therapy to prevent the effects of athymia. We constructed a recombinant adenoviral vector, RAd-metFTS, expressing a synthetic DNA sequence encoding met-FTS, an analog of the thymic peptide facteur thymique sérique (FTS), whose Zn-bound biologically active form is known as thymulin. On postnatal day 1-2 homozygous (nu/nu) nude and heterozygous (nu/+) mice were injected with 10(8) pfu of RAd-metFTS or RAd-betagal (control vector) intramuscularly. The animals were processed at 52 d of age. Serum thymulin, glycemia, hepatic phospholipid FA composition and free and esterified cholesterol were determined. Adult homozygous male nudes were significantly (P < 0.01) hyperglycemic when compared with their heterozygous counterparts (2.04 vs. 1.40 g/L, respectively). The relative percentage of 16:0, 18:1 n-9, and 18:1n-7 FA was lower, whereas that of 18:0, 20:4n-6, and 22:6n-3 FA was higher, in hepatic phospholipid (PL) of nu/nu animals as compared with their nu/+ counterparts. Some of these alterations, such as that in the relative content of 22:6n-3 in liver PL and the unsaturation index, were completely or partially prevented by neonatal thymulin gene therapy. We conclude that the thymus influences lipid metabolism and that thymulin is involved in this modulatory activity.

  19. [Can prevention of hepatitis B following exposure to hepatitis virus be improved by immediate administration of HB immune serum?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häcki, W H; Knoblauch, M; Uehlinger, M; Bansky, G; Giger, M; Grob, P J

    1983-06-11

    Sixty-five medical personnel thought to be exposed to hepatitis-B-surface antigen (HBs) positive material by accidental needle stick were treated with 4 ml hepatitis B-immunoglobulin (SRK, Swiss Red Cross). The prophylaxis was started as soon as possible, mostly within an hour or two. 56 patients were followed up with clinical and serological tests at monthly intervals for 9 months. In individuals exposed to HBs-antigen negative material, signs of HBV-infection could be detected only in one. In 36 cases potentially infectious material proved to be HBs-Ag positive. Six of the medical personnel (16.7%) had signs of hepatitis B-virus infection. One individual (2.8%) developed clinical hepatitis type B. Three (8.3%) converted to active hepatitis B markers (anti-HBs and/or anti-HBc) without clinical symptoms. Two of four who already had anti-HBs before exposure developed antibodies to HBc afresh at three- and six-month intervals. These serological conversions and the one case of clinical hepatitis developed despite the fact that HB-Ig was given in nearly all cases within one hour of exposure. The incubation period was 5-8 months. It is concluded that even rapid prophylaxis with HB-Ig after needle stick exposure does not afford 100% protection. It is urged that any passive prophylaxis with HB-Ig in exposed personnel should be complemented by active hepatitis B immunization.

  20. Developing a Culturally Appropriate HIV and Hepatitis C Prevention Intervention for Latino Criminal Justice Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Rosa, Mario de la; Martin, Steve; O'Connell, Daniel; Castro, Jose

    2016-07-01

    The population within the criminal justice system suffers from various health disparities including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). African American and Latino offenders represent the majority of the offender population. Evidence-based interventions to prevent HIV and HCV among criminal justice clients are scant and usually do not take cultural differences into account. Toward this end, this study describes the process of culturally adapting an HIV/HCV prevention intervention for Latino criminal justice clients in Miami, Florida, by using the ecological validity model. Recommendations for culturally adapting an intervention for Latinos include an emphasis on language and integrating cultural themes such as familism and machismo. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Dietary Rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa) oil prevents high diet-induced hepatic steatosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Espessailles, Amanda; Dossi, Camila G; Espinosa, Alejandra; González-Mañán, Daniel; Tapia, Gladys S

    2015-09-01

    The effects of dietary Rosa mosqueta (RM, Rosa rubiginosa) oil, rich in α-linolenic acid, in the prevention of liver steatosis were studied in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6j mice were fed either a control diet or HFD with or without RM oil for 12 weeks. The results indicate that RM oil supplementation decreases fat infiltration of the liver from 43.8% to 6.2%, improving the hepatic oxidative state, insulin levels, HOMA index, and both body weight and adipose tissue weight of HFD plus RM treated animals compared to HFD without supplementation. In addition, the DHA concentration in the liver was significantly increased in HFD fed mice with RM oil compared to HFD (3 vs. 1.6 g per 100 g FAME). The n-6/n-3 ratio was not significantly modified by treatment with RM. Our findings suggest that RM oil supplementation prevents the development of hepatic steatosis and the obese phenotype observed in HFD fed mice.

  2. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of age or older and persons with other liver diseases, such as hepatitis B or C.Hepatitis A vaccine can prevent hepatitis A. Hepatitis ... You use illegal drugs. You have a chronic liver disease such as hepatitis B or hepatitis C. You are being treated with clotting-factor concentrates. ...

  3. Epidemiology, surveillance, and prevention of hepatitis C virus infections in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priti R; Thompson, Nicola D; Kallen, Alexander J; Arduino, Matthew J

    2010-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the United States; the prevalence in maintenance hemodialysis patients substantially exceeds that in the general population. In hemodialysis patients, HCV infection has been associated with increased occurrence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and increased mortality. Injection drug use and receipt of blood transfusions before 1992 has accounted for most prevalent HCV infections in the United States. However, HCV transmission among patients undergoing hemodialysis has been documented frequently. Outbreak investigations have implicated lapses in infection control practices as the cause of HCV infections. Preventing these infections is an emerging priority for renal care providers, public health agencies, and regulators. Adherence to recommended infection control practices is effective in preventing HCV transmission in hemodialysis facilities. In addition, adoption of routine screening to facilitate the detection of incident HCV infections and hemodialysis-related transmission is an essential component of patient safety and infection prevention efforts. This article describes the current epidemiology of HCV infection in US maintenance hemodialysis patients and prevention practices to decrease its incidence and transmission. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Spatio-Temporal Epidemiology of Viral Hepatitis in China (2003–2015: Implications for Prevention and Control Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis, as one of the most serious notifiable infectious diseases in China, takes heavy tolls from the infected and causes a severe economic burden to society, yet few studies have systematically explored the spatio-temporal epidemiology of viral hepatitis in China. This study aims to explore, visualize and compare the epidemiologic trends and spatial changing patterns of different types of viral hepatitis (A, B, C, E and unspecified, based on the classification of CDC at the provincial level in China. The growth rates of incidence are used and converted to box plots to visualize the epidemiologic trends, with the linear trend being tested by chi-square linear by linear association test. Two complementary spatial cluster methods are used to explore the overall agglomeration level and identify spatial clusters: spatial autocorrelation analysis (measured by global and local Moran’s I and space-time scan analysis. Based on the spatial autocorrelation analysis, the hotspots of hepatitis A remain relatively stable and gradually shrunk, with Yunnan and Sichuan successively moving out the high-high (HH cluster area. The HH clustering feature of hepatitis B in China gradually disappeared with time. However, the HH cluster area of hepatitis C has gradually moved towards the west, while for hepatitis E, the provincial units around the Yangtze River Delta region have been revealing HH cluster features since 2005. The space-time scan analysis also indicates the distinct spatial changing patterns of different types of viral hepatitis in China. It is easy to conclude that there is no one-size-fits-all plan for the prevention and control of viral hepatitis in all the provincial units. An effective response requires a package of coordinated actions, which should vary across localities regarding the spatial-temporal epidemic dynamics of each type of virus and the specific conditions of each provincial unit.

  5. Efficacy of Acetylshikonin in Preventing Obesity and Hepatic Steatosis in db/db Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ling Su

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zicao (Lithospermum erythrorhizon has been used in clinics as a traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Acetylshikonin (AS is the main ingredient of Zicao, Xinjiang, China. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity and anti-nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD efficacy of AS in a model of spontaneous obese db/db mice. Mice were divided into Wild Type (WT groups and db/db groups, which received no treatment or treatment with 100 mg/kg/day clenbuterol (CL hydrochloride or 540 mg/kg/day AS by oral gavage for eight weeks. The results provided the evidence that AS prevented obesity and NAFLD including reduction in body weight, food efficiency ratio, serum triglyceride (TG and free fatty acid (FFA levels in db/db mice. Administration of AS markedly suppressed the levels of hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and pro-inflammatory cytokines in treated groups when compared with that of db/db groups. Further investigation of the lipid synthesis-related protein using Western blotting revealed that hepatic protein expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1, fatty acid synthetase (FAS and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR were significantly downregulated by AS treatment. These findings suggest that AS exerts anti-obesity and anti-NAFLD effects through the regulation of lipid metabolism and anti-inflammatory effects.

  6. Entry Inhibitors: A Perspective for Prevention of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Che C; Chung, Raymond T; Baumert, Thomas F

    2017-09-08

    Entry inhibitors are emerging as an attractive class of therapeutics for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Entry inhibitors target either virion-associated factors or cellular factors necessary for infection. By blocking entry into cells, entry inhibitors prevent both the establishment of persistent reservoirs and the emergence of resistant variants during viral replication. Furthermore, entry inhibitors protect naïve cells from virus-induced alterations. Combining entry inhibitors with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) may therefore improve treatment outcomes, particularly in the context of organ transplantation. The role of DAAs in transplantation, while still under clinical investigation, carries the risk of recipient infection and HCV-induced disease, since DAAs act only after infection is established. Thus, entry inhibitors provide a perspective to improve patient outcomes during organ transplantation. Applying this approach for transplant of organs from HCV-positive donors to HCV-negative recipients may also contribute to alleviate the medical burden of organ shortage.

  7. 78 FR 32392 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... care setting and integrating STD screening and treatment services in HIV care settings); (2) The test... Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92...

  8. Antiviral therapy for prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimer, Nina; Dahl, Emilie Kristine; Gluud, Lise Lotte

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether antiviral therapy reduces the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis C.......To determine whether antiviral therapy reduces the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis C....

  9. Knowledge gaps and research priorities in the prevention and control of hepatitis E virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, Van der W.H.M.; Dalton, H.R.; Johne, R.; Pavio, N.; Bouwknegt, M.; Wu, T.; Cook, N.; Meng, X.J.

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), family Hepeviridae, is a main cause of epidemic hepatitis in developing countries and sporadic and cluster cases of hepatitis in industrialized countries. There are an increasing number of reported cases in humans especially in industrialized countries, and there is a high

  10. An economic analysis of premarriage prevention of hepatitis B transmission in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somi Mohammad

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the economic aspects of HBV (hepatitis B virus transmission prevention for premarriage individuals in a country with cultural backgrounds like Iran and intermediate endemicity of HBV infection. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis model was used from the health care system and society perspectives. The effectiveness was defined as the number of chronic HBV infections averted owing to one of the following strategies: 1 HBsAg screening to find those would-be couples one of whom is HBsAg positive and putting seronegative subjects on a protection protocol comprising HBV vaccination, single dose HBIG and condom protection. 2 HBsAg screening as above, in addition to performing HBcAb screening in the HBsAg negative spouses of the HBsAg positive persons and giving the protocol only to HBcAb negative ones. Sensitivity and threshold analyses were conducted. Results The cost of each chronic infection averted was 202$ and 197$ for the strategies 1 and 2, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that strategy 2 was always slightly cheaper than strategy 1. The discounted threshold value for the lifetime costs of chronic liver disease, above which the model was cost saving was 2818$ in strategy 1 and 2747$ in strategy 2. Conclusions Though premarriage prevention of HBV transmission in the countries with cultural backgrounds similar to Iran seems cost saving, further studies determining precise costs of HBV infection in Iran can lead to a better analysis.

  11. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis B KidsHealth / For Teens / Hepatitis B What's in this ... Prevented? Print en español Hepatitis B What Is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver ...

  12. Preclinical evaluation of multi antigenic HCV DNA vaccine for the prevention of Hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyojin; Jeong, Moonsup; Oh, Jooyeon; Cho, Youngran; Shen, Xuefei; Stone, John; Yan, Jian; Rothkopf, Zachary; Khan, Amir S; Cho, Byung Mun; Park, Young K; Weiner, David B; Son, Woo-Chan; Maslow, Joel N

    2017-03-07

    Direct-acting antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is costly and does not protect from re-infection. For human and chimpanzees, recovery from acute HCV infection correlates with host CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. DNA plasmids targeting the HCV non-structural antigens NS3, NS4, and NS5, were previously reported to induce robust and sustained T cell responses in mice and primates. These plasmids were combined with a plasmid encoding cytokine IL-28B, together named as VGX-6150. The dose-dependent T cell response and safety of VGX-6150 administered intramuscularly and followed by electroporation was assessed in mice. Immune responses plateaued at 20 μg/dose with IL-28B demonstrating significant immunoadjuvant activity. Mice administered VGX-6150 at 40, 400, and 800 μg given either as a single injection or as 14 injections given bi-weekly over 26 weeks showed no vaccine related changes in any clinical parameter compared to placebo recipients. There was no evidence of VGX-6150 accumulation at the injection site or in any organ 1 month following the 14 th vaccination. Based on these studies, the approximate lethal dose (ALD) exceeds 800 μg/dose and the NOAEL was 800 μg/dose in mouse. In conclusion, VGX-6150 appears safe and a promising preventive vaccine candidate for HCV infection.

  13. Prevention and Care of Hepatitis B in Senegal; Awareness and Attitudes of Medical Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquet, Antoine; Wandeler, Gilles; Tine, Judicaël; Diallo, Mouhamadou Baïla; Manga, Noel M; Dia, Ndeye Mery; Fall, Fatou; Dabis, François; Seydi, Moussa

    2017-08-01

    In highly endemic settings for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection such as Senegal, access to HBV prevention and care is rapidly evolving. In this context, all medical practitioners should have baseline knowledge on HBV infection and promote access to vaccination, screening, and care. A knowledge and attitudes survey on HBV infection was conducted among a randomly selected sample of medical practitioners in Senegal. Participants were asked to fill-out a questionnaire on the HBV epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. A 60-item knowledge score was computed; the lower quartile of the observed score was used to define poor knowledge. Factors associated with poor knowledge were assessed using a logistic regression model. A total of 127 medical practitioners completed the questionnaire. Only 14 (11.0%) participants knew that HBV vaccine could be safely administered to pregnant women and 65 (51.2%) to newborns. Older practitioners (> 40 years) as well as general practitioners (compared with specialists) were more likely to have a poor knowledge score with odds ratios (ORs) of 3.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-9.2) and 2.6 (95% CI 1.0-7.3), respectively. Practitioners who declared not to recommend HBV screening frequently during their consultation were more likely to present a poor knowledge score [OR: 3.0; (95% CI 1.1-8.2)]. As universal HBV screening is being promoted in countries with endemic HBV infection, our finding that poor screening attitudes were associated with a poor knowledge is of concern. There is a need to raise awareness of medical practitioners in Senegal toward universal HBV screening and early vaccination of newborns.

  14. Awareness and knowledge of hepatitis B infection and prevention and the use of hepatitis B vaccination in the Hong Kong adult Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Pui Wah; Suen, Sik Hung; Chan, Oi Ka; Lao, Tzu Hsi; Leung, Tak Yeung

    2012-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global public health problem and it is an important cause of acute, chronic and fulminant hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The prevalence of HBV infection in Hong Kong over the past decade remained unchanged at 10%, despite the implementation of universal neonatal and availability of adult vaccination. We suspect that the current state of affairs is attributable to inadequate awareness and knowledge of HBV transmission and prevention in the general population, resulting in a low rate of uptake of HBV vaccination by the lay public. Therefore, we have embarked in this study to evaluate the awareness and knowledge on HBV infection in our local Chinese population, their attitude on the prevention of horizontal transmission of HBV, and the use of HBV vaccination, especially in those who were born before the era of universal neonatal vaccination. The factors associated with HBV screening, vaccination uptake, and knowledge were examined in a face-to-face questionnaire survey on a group of adult Chinese in Hong Kong. Within this group, 14% was considered to have good knowledge for HBV infection, and 26% had HBV vaccination. Age, occupation, having children, and family monthly income, are independent factors associated with vaccination. This study suggests insufficient public awareness of HBV infection in the Hong Kong Adult Chinese population.

  15. The prevention and treatment of biliary complications occurred after CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for hepatic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianjun; Zheng Jiasheng; Cui Xiongwei; Cui Shichang; Sun Bin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the prevention and treatment of biliary complications occurred after CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatic neoplasms. Methods: A total of 1136 patients, including 920 males and 216 females, with hepatic neoplasms were enrolled in this study. The hepatic tumors consisted of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (n=1037), hepatic metastasis (n=83) and hepatic cavernous hemangioma (n=16). The diameters of the tumors ranged from 0.5 to 16 cm. A total of 1944 RFA procedures were carried out in all patients. Results: Thirty-five patients developed biliary complication (35/1944, 1.80%). Twelve patients developed asymptomatic bile duct dilatation and no special treatment was given. Obstructive jaundice occurred in two patients and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiocholecystic drainage (PTCD) together with subsequent inner stent implantation had to be carried out. Eighteen patients developed biloma, and liver abscess formation secondary to biloma infection occurred in seven of them. Percutaneous transhepatic biloma drainage (PTBD) was adopted in all these patients. One patient suffered from obstructive jaundice complicated by biloma, and both PTCD and PTBD combined with inner stent implantation were simultaneously performed. One patient had the biloma secondary to obstructive jaundice, and PTCD followed by PTBD was conducted in turn. One patient developed obstructive jaundice secondary to biloma, and PTBD followed by PTCD was employed in turn. Conclusion: Obstructive jaundice and biloma are severe biliary complications occurred after CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for hepatic tumors, and PTCD and/or PTBD should be carried out without delay to treat these complications. The clinical symptoms can be relieved, or even completely disappear, after treatment. (authors)

  16. Vaccines for preventing hepatitis B in healthcare workers (an updated protocol)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Anders; Kolster, Chastine; Gluud, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of hepatitis B vaccines in healthcare workers.......This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of hepatitis B vaccines in healthcare workers....

  17. Randomised clinical trial: escitalopram for the prevention of psychiatric adverse events during treatment with peginterferon-alfa-2a and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Knegt, R. J.; Bezemer, G.; van Gool, A. R.; Drenth, J. P. H.; Hansen, B. E.; Droogleever Fortuyn, H. A.; Weegink, C. J.; Hengeveld, M. W.; Janssen, H. L. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Treatment of hepatitis C with peginterferon and ribavirin is associated with psychiatric side-effects, frequently necessitating dose reduction or therapy cessation. Aim To assess the efficacy of prophylactic escitalopram to prevent psychiatric side-effects during peginterferon and

  18. Hepatic lentiviral gene transfer prevents the long-term onset of hepatic tumours of glycogen storage disease type 1a in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clar, Julie; Mutel, Elodie; Gri, Blandine; Creneguy, Alison; Stefanutti, Anne; Gaillard, Sophie; Ferry, Nicolas; Beuf, Olivier; Mithieux, Gilles; Nguyen, Tuan Huy; Rajas, Fabienne

    2015-04-15

    Glycogen storage disease type 1a (GSD1a) is a rare disease due to the deficiency in the glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) catalytic subunit (encoded by G6pc), which is essential for endogenous glucose production. Despite strict diet control to maintain blood glucose, patients with GSD1a develop hepatomegaly, steatosis and then hepatocellular adenomas (HCA), which can undergo malignant transformation. Recently, gene therapy has attracted attention as a potential treatment for GSD1a. In order to maintain long-term transgene expression, we developed an HIV-based vector, which allowed us to specifically express the human G6PC cDNA in the liver. We analysed the efficiency of this lentiviral vector in the prevention of the development of the hepatic disease in an original GSD1a mouse model, which exhibits G6Pase deficiency exclusively in the liver (L-G6pc(-/-) mice). Recombinant lentivirus were injected in B6.G6pc(ex3lox/ex3lox). SA(creERT2/w) neonates and G6pc deletion was induced by tamoxifen treatment at weaning. Magnetic resonance imaging was then performed to follow up the development of hepatic tumours. Lentiviral gene therapy restored glucose-6 phosphatase activity sufficient to correct fasting hypoglycaemia during 9 months. Moreover, lentivirus-treated L-G6pc(-/-) mice presented normal hepatic triglyceride levels, whereas untreated mice developed steatosis. Glycogen stores were also decreased although liver weight remained high. Interestingly, lentivirus-treated L-G6pc(-/-) mice were protected against the development of hepatic tumours after 9 months of gene therapy while most of untreated L-G6pc(-/-) mice developed millimetric HCA. Thus the treatment of newborns by recombinant lentivirus appears as an attractive approach to protect the liver from the development of steatosis and hepatic tumours associated to GSD1a pathology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. 20-years of population-based cancer registration in hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention in the Gambia, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Ebrima; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Hainaut, Pierre; Bah, Yusupha; Nyan, Ousman; Taal, Makie

    2013-01-01

    The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS) was designed as a randomised control trial of infant hepatitis B vaccination applied to public health policy, with the main goal of preventing primary liver cancer later in adult life in The Gambia. To that effect, the National Cancer Registry of The Gambia (NCR), a population-based cancer registry (PBCR), was established in 1986 to actively collect data on all cancer diagnosis nation-wide. We extracted 20-years (1990-2009) of data to assess for the first time, the evolution of the most common cancers, also describe and demonstrate the role of the PBCR in a hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention programme in this population. We estimated Age-Standardised Incidence Rates (ASR (W)) of the most common cancers registered during the period by gender. The registration period was divided into four 5-year intervals and incidence rates were estimated for each interval. The most common cancers in males were liver, prostate, lung plus bronchus, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and stomach, accounting for 60%, 5%, 4%, 5% and 3%, respectively. Similarly, cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, breast and NHL, were the most common in females, accounting for 33%, 24%, 11% and 4% of the female cancers, respectively. Cancer incidence has remained relatively stable over time, but as shown elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa the disease is a threat in The Gambia. The infection related cancers which are mostly preventable (HBV in men and HPV/HIV in women) were the most common. At the moment the data is not enough to detect an effect of hepatitis B vaccination on liver cancer incidence in The Gambia. However, we observed that monitoring case occurrence through PBCR is a key public health pre-requisite for rational planning and implementation of targeted interventions for improving the health of the population.

  20. 20-years of population-based cancer registration in hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention in the Gambia, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrima Bah

    Full Text Available The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS was designed as a randomised control trial of infant hepatitis B vaccination applied to public health policy, with the main goal of preventing primary liver cancer later in adult life in The Gambia. To that effect, the National Cancer Registry of The Gambia (NCR, a population-based cancer registry (PBCR, was established in 1986 to actively collect data on all cancer diagnosis nation-wide. We extracted 20-years (1990-2009 of data to assess for the first time, the evolution of the most common cancers, also describe and demonstrate the role of the PBCR in a hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention programme in this population.We estimated Age-Standardised Incidence Rates (ASR (W of the most common cancers registered during the period by gender. The registration period was divided into four 5-year intervals and incidence rates were estimated for each interval. The most common cancers in males were liver, prostate, lung plus bronchus, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and stomach, accounting for 60%, 5%, 4%, 5% and 3%, respectively. Similarly, cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, breast and NHL, were the most common in females, accounting for 33%, 24%, 11% and 4% of the female cancers, respectively.Cancer incidence has remained relatively stable over time, but as shown elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa the disease is a threat in The Gambia. The infection related cancers which are mostly preventable (HBV in men and HPV/HIV in women were the most common. At the moment the data is not enough to detect an effect of hepatitis B vaccination on liver cancer incidence in The Gambia. However, we observed that monitoring case occurrence through PBCR is a key public health pre-requisite for rational planning and implementation of targeted interventions for improving the health of the population.

  1. 20-Years of Population-Based Cancer Registration in Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer Prevention in The Gambia, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Ebrima; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Hainaut, Pierre; Bah, Yusupha; Nyan, Ousman; Taal, Makie

    2013-01-01

    Background The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS) was designed as a randomised control trial of infant hepatitis B vaccination applied to public health policy, with the main goal of preventing primary liver cancer later in adult life in The Gambia. To that effect, the National Cancer Registry of The Gambia (NCR), a population-based cancer registry (PBCR), was established in 1986 to actively collect data on all cancer diagnosis nation-wide. We extracted 20-years (1990-2009) of data to assess for the first time, the evolution of the most common cancers, also describe and demonstrate the role of the PBCR in a hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention programme in this population. Methods and Findings We estimated Age-Standardised Incidence Rates (ASR (W)) of the most common cancers registered during the period by gender. The registration period was divided into four 5-year intervals and incidence rates were estimated for each interval. The most common cancers in males were liver, prostate, lung plus bronchus, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and stomach, accounting for 60%, 5%, 4%, 5% and 3%, respectively. Similarly, cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, breast and NHL, were the most common in females, accounting for 33%, 24%, 11% and 4% of the female cancers, respectively. Conclusions Cancer incidence has remained relatively stable over time, but as shown elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa the disease is a threat in The Gambia. The infection related cancers which are mostly preventable (HBV in men and HPV/HIV in women) were the most common. At the moment the data is not enough to detect an effect of hepatitis B vaccination on liver cancer incidence in The Gambia. However, we observed that monitoring case occurrence through PBCR is a key public health pre-requisite for rational planning and implementation of targeted interventions for improving the health of the population. PMID:24098724

  2. PREVENTION OF POST-TRANSFUSION HEPATITIS BY SCREENING OF ANTIBODY TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN IN HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Transfusion-associated hepatitis B viral infection continues to be a major problem in India even after adoption of mandatory screening for HBsAg by ELISA method. The high incidence of TAHBV is reported in patients receiving multiple transfusions.

    Objective: To study the seroprevalence of hepatitis B core antibody among healthy voluntary blood donors

    Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Transfusion Medicine of a tertiary care referral hospital. A total of 12,232 volunteers after passing through the stringent criteria were selected for blood donation. Donor samples were tested for all mandatory transfusion transmissible infections and anti HBc IgM (Monolisa HBc IgM PLUS:BIO-RAD, France. Reactive results were confirmed by repeat testing in duplicate. Donor data was analyzed using SPSS software and Chi-square test was used to calculate the significance of difference between the groups.

    Results:A total of 12,232 healthy voluntary blood donors were recruited. Majority (93.4% were males. Median age of donor population was 26 years (range: 18-60 years. Eighty six (0.7% were positive for HBsAg, which comes under “low prevalence (<2% zone” as per WHO. On screening for HBcAg Ig M, 15 (0.1% were found to be positive and none were HBsAg reactive. There was no significance of difference in the mean age between reactive and non-reactive donors.

    Conclusion:Evaluating the usefulness of anti-HBc screening is critical. Anti HBcAg IgM screening may be included in routine screening of donors as it is an indicator of occult HBV during window period. The cost and the unnecessary wastage of the blood units when they are positive for anti HBsAg along with the core antibody need to be studied.

     

  3. Getting the message straight: effects of a brief hepatitis prevention intervention among injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Lauretta E; Green, Traci C; Singer, Merrill; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Marshall, Patricia A; Heimer, Robert

    2009-12-15

    To redress gaps in injection drug users' (IDUs) knowledge about hepatitis risk and prevention, we developed a brief intervention to be delivered to IDUs at syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in three US cities. Following a month-long campaign in which intervention packets containing novel injection hygiene supplies and written materials were distributed to every client at each visit, intervention effectiveness was evaluated by comparing exposed and unexposed participants' self-reported injection practices. Over one-quarter of the exposed group began using the novel hygiene supplies which included an absorbent pad ("Safety Square") to stanch blood flow post-injection. Compared to those unexposed to the intervention, a smaller but still substantial number of exposed participants continued to inappropriately use alcohol pads post-injection despite exposure to written messages to the contrary (22.8% vs. 30.0%). It should also be noted that for those exposed to the intervention, 8% may have misused Safety Squares as part of pre-injection preparation of their injection site; attention should be paid to providing explicit and accurate instruction on the use of any health promotion materials being distributed. While this study indicates that passive introduction of risk reduction materials in injection drug users through syringe exchange programs can be an economical and relatively simple method of changing behaviors, discussions with SEP clients regarding explicit instructions about injection hygiene and appropriate use of novel risk reduction materials is also needed in order to optimize the potential for adoption of health promotion behaviors. The study results suggest that SEP staff should provide their clients with brief, frequent verbal reminders about the appropriate use when distributing risk reduction materials. Issues related to format and language of written materials are discussed.

  4. Prospective interventional study of tenofovir in pregnancy to prevent vertical transmission of hepatitis B in highly viremic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellier, Pierre O; Maylin, Sarah; Berçot, Béatrice; Chopin, Dorothée; Lopes, Amanda; Simoneau, Guy; Evans, John; Delcey, Véronique; Bénifla, Jean-Louis; Simon, François; Bergmann, Jean-François

    2017-03-01

    The risk of vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) increases as maternal HBV DNA increase, despite serovaccination to newborns. From 1 July 2012 to 1 January 2016, all pregnant women in Lariboisiere Hospital, Paris, France, with HBV DNA of 5 log10 IU/ml and above were administered tenofovir from week 28 of pregnancy until delivery. HBV DNA was measured at months 1, 2 of tenofovir and at delivery. The newborns were serovaccinated, tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb)±HBV DNA, and hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) when aged 9 months, and then 24 months. This study was registered in http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02039362). Thirty-one women gave birth to 37 newborns. Maternal HBV DNA at baseline was 8.23 log10 IU/ml and above in 12 pregnancies. The mean (median) HBV DNA were 4.4±1.2 (4.8), 3.3±1.7 (3.8), and 2.1±1.9 (2.0) log10 IU/ml at months 1, 2 of tenofovir and at delivery, respectively. Twenty-seven newborns were followed up: none of the 19 children aged 9 months or older was positive for hepatitis B surface antigen when aged 9 months; 14 children tested positive for HBcAb (probably transferred maternal antibodies, not found when aged 24 months) and for HBsAb without HBV DNA. Four of the 19 children showed HBsAb without HBcAb, the last being doubtful for HBcAb and HBsAb without HBV DNA. Eight newborns aged less than 9 months were not tested. Tenofovir from week 28 of pregnancy to highly viremic HBV women plus serovaccination to newborns could prevent chronic and past infection.

  5. Influence of Hepatitis B immunization to prevent vertical transmission of Hep-B virus in infants bam from Hep-B positive mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Fitria

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases worldv.ide. Indonesia has moderate-high endemicity for hepatitis B infection. Perinatal transmission increases the risk for chronic hepatitis B. Infants from HBsAg-positive mothers should receive hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG and vaccination within 12 hours of birth, but this practice is not routinely done in Indonesia due to financial constraints. Objectives To detennine the influence of Hep-B immunization on preventing Hepatitis B vertical transmission. Methods A descriptive cohort study was conducted from May 2009 - January 2010. Subjects were term infants born from HBsAg-positive mothers v.ith no history of HBIG administration. They had received complete hepatitis B immunization and 1 month after the last dose were evaluated for HBsAg and anti-HBs. Cord blood was also taken during labor to measure HBsAg. Results There were 22 infants born from HBsAg-positive mother who met the inclusion criteria. HBsAgwas positive in 6 of22 cord blood specimens. There were 15 infants who completed this study. One of 15 infants had positive HBsAg after completed hepatitis B immunization and 12 of 15 infants had protective level of anti-HBs. Effectiveness of hepatitis B immunization to prevent vertical transmission in this study was 70-90%. Conclusion Hepatitis B immunization can prevent vertical transmission of hepatitis B in infants born to mothers who are HBsAg-positive even without administration of HBIG.

  6. Moringa Leaves Prevent Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Guinea Pigs by Reducing the Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almatrafi, Manal Mused; Vergara-Jimenez, Marcela; Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Norris, Gregory H.; Blesso, Christopher N.; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms by which Moringa oleifera leaves (ML) modulate hepatic lipids, guinea pigs were allocated to either control (0% ML), 10% Low Moringa (LM) or 15% High Moringa (HM) diets with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks, guinea pigs were sacrificed and liver and plasma were collected to determine plasma lipids, hepatic lipids, cytokines and the expression of genes involved in hepatic cholesterol (CH) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism. There were no differences in plasma lipids among groups. A dose-response effect of ML was observed in hepatic lipids (CH and TG) with the lowest concentrations in the HM group (p < 0.001), consistent with histological evaluation of lipid droplets. Hepatic gene expression of diglyceride acyltransferase-2 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, as well as protein concentrations interleukin (IL)-1β and interferon-γ, were lowest in the HM group (p < 0.005). Hepatic gene expression of cluster of differentiation-68 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c were 60% lower in both the LM and HM groups compared to controls (p < 0.01). This study demonstrates that ML may prevent hepatic steatosis by affecting gene expression related to hepatic lipids synthesis resulting in lower concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides and reduced inflammation in the liver. PMID:28640194

  7. Moringa Leaves Prevent Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Guinea Pigs by Reducing the Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Mused Almatrafi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanisms by which Moringa oleifera leaves (ML modulate hepatic lipids, guinea pigs were allocated to either control (0% ML, 10% Low Moringa (LM or 15% High Moringa (HM diets with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks, guinea pigs were sacrificed and liver and plasma were collected to determine plasma lipids, hepatic lipids, cytokines and the expression of genes involved in hepatic cholesterol (CH and triglyceride (TG metabolism. There were no differences in plasma lipids among groups. A dose-response effect of ML was observed in hepatic lipids (CH and TG with the lowest concentrations in the HM group (p < 0.001, consistent with histological evaluation of lipid droplets. Hepatic gene expression of diglyceride acyltransferase-2 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, as well as protein concentrations interleukin (IL-1β and interferon-γ, were lowest in the HM group (p < 0.005. Hepatic gene expression of cluster of differentiation-68 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c were 60% lower in both the LM and HM groups compared to controls (p < 0.01. This study demonstrates that ML may prevent hepatic steatosis by affecting gene expression related to hepatic lipids synthesis resulting in lower concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides and reduced inflammation in the liver.

  8. Moringa Leaves Prevent Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Guinea Pigs by Reducing the Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almatrafi, Manal Mused; Vergara-Jimenez, Marcela; Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Norris, Gregory H; Blesso, Christopher N; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-06-22

    To investigate the mechanisms by which Moringa oleifera leaves (ML) modulate hepatic lipids, guinea pigs were allocated to either control (0% ML), 10% Low Moringa (LM) or 15% High Moringa (HM) diets with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks, guinea pigs were sacrificed and liver and plasma were collected to determine plasma lipids, hepatic lipids, cytokines and the expression of genes involved in hepatic cholesterol (CH) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism. There were no differences in plasma lipids among groups. A dose-response effect of ML was observed in hepatic lipids (CH and TG) with the lowest concentrations in the HM group ( p < 0.001), consistent with histological evaluation of lipid droplets. Hepatic gene expression of diglyceride acyltransferase-2 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, as well as protein concentrations interleukin (IL)-1β and interferon-γ, were lowest in the HM group ( p < 0.005). Hepatic gene expression of cluster of differentiation-68 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c were 60% lower in both the LM and HM groups compared to controls ( p < 0.01). This study demonstrates that ML may prevent hepatic steatosis by affecting gene expression related to hepatic lipids synthesis resulting in lower concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides and reduced inflammation in the liver.

  9. Using a chronic hepatitis B Registry to support population-level liver cancer prevention in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robotin MC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Monica C Robotin,1–3 Ximena Masgoret,1 Mamta Porwal,4 David Goldsbury,5 Chee Khoo,6,7 Jacob George,2,3 1School of Medicine, The University of Notre Dame Australia, Darlinghurst, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Camperdown, 3Storr Liver Center, Westmead Institute for Medical Research, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, 4Australian School of Graduate Management, University of New South Wales, Kensington, 5Cancer Council NSW, Woolloomooloo, 6Royal Australasian College of General Practitioners, Sydney, 7University of Western Sydney, Macarthur, NSW, Australia Background: Approximately 1% of Australians have chronic hepatitis B (CHB, which disproportionately affects people born in hepatitis B-endemic countries. Currently, approximately half of the people affected remain undiagnosed and antiviral treatment uptake is suboptimal (~5%. This increases the likelihood of developing end-stage disease complications, particularly hepatocellular cancer (HCC, and largely accounts for the significant increases in HCC incidence and mortality in Australia over the last decades. As our previous economic modeling suggested that CHB screening and treatment is cost-effective, we tested the feasibility of a primary care-based model of CHB diagnosis and management to prevent HCC.Materials and methods: From 2009 to 2016, the B Positive program trialed a CHB screening and management program in an area of high disease prevalence in Sydney, Australia. Trained local primary care providers (general practitioners screened and managed their CHB patients using a purpose-built CHB Registry and a risk stratification algorithm, which allocated patients to ongoing primary care-based management or specialist referral.Results: The program enrolled and followed up >1,500 people (25% of the target population. Their median age was 48 years, with most participants being born in China (50% or Vietnam (32%. The risk stratification algorithm allocated most Registry participants (n=847

  10. [Evaluation of midwives' practices for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B in Abidjan (Ivory Coast)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagny, A; Bathaix Yao, F; Bangoura, D; Kouame, D H; Kacou Ya Kissi-Anzouan, H; De, O; Diallo, K; Lawson-Ananisoh, L M; Mahassadi, K A; Attia Koffi, A; Ndri-Yoman, T

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) assumes and requires good practices by midwives. The objective of this study was to evaluate their practices for this prevention. This prospective, descriptive study in Abidjan took place from January 2 to May 31, 2014 and included the midwives in Abidjan (recruited from university hospitals, general hospitals, and peripheral health care facilities) at the time of the survey who agreed to complete this written survey. Univariate analyses were done with Pearson Chi 2 tests or Fisher's test, as appropriate, Ppractices, including HBsAg testing (P = 0.023) and immunization of the newborn at birth (P = 0.005). Midwives' practices for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HBV in Abidjan are improving.

  11. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  12. Testosterone prevents protein loss via the hepatic urea cycle in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Teresa; Poljak, Anne; McLean, Mark; Bahl, Neha; Ho, Ken K Y; Birzniece, Vita

    2017-04-01

    The urea cycle is a rate-limiting step for amino acid nitrogen elimination. The rate of urea synthesis is a true indicator of whole-body protein catabolism. Testosterone reduces protein and nitrogen loss. The effect of testosterone on hepatic urea synthesis in humans has not been studied. To determine whether testosterone reduces hepatic urea production. An open-label study. Eight hypogonadal men were studied at baseline, and after two weeks of transdermal testosterone replacement (Testogel, 100 mg/day). The rate of hepatic urea synthesis was measured by the urea turnover technique using stable isotope methodology, with 15 N 2 -urea as tracer. Whole-body leucine turnover was measured, from which leucine rate of appearance (LRa), an index of protein breakdown and leucine oxidation (Lox), a measure of irreversible protein loss, were calculated. Testosterone administration significantly reduced the rate of hepatic urea production (from 544.4 ± 71.8 to 431.7 ± 68.3 µmol/min; P  Testosterone treatment significantly reduced net protein loss, as measured by percent Lox/LRa, by 19.3 ± 5.8% ( P  testosterone administration ( r 2  = 0.59, P  Testosterone replacement reduces protein loss and hepatic urea synthesis. We conclude that testosterone regulates whole-body protein metabolism by suppressing the urea cycle. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. Hepatic Uptake of Rectally Administered Butyrate Prevents an Increase in Systemic Butyrate Concentrations in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, Christina M; Bloemen, Johanne G; van den Broek, Maartje A; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Venema, Koen; Buurman, Wim A; Dejong, Cornelis H

    2015-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), fermentation products of undigested fibers, are considered beneficial for colonic health. High plasma concentrations are potentially harmful; therefore, information about systemic SCFA clearance is needed before therapeutic use of prebiotics or colonic SCFA administration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rectal butyrate administration on SCFA interorgan exchange. Twelve patients (7 men; age: 66.4 ± 2.0 y; BMI 24.5 ± 1.4 kg/m(2)) undergoing upper abdominal surgery participated in this randomized placebo-controlled trial. During surgery, 1 group received a butyrate enema (100 mmol sodium butyrate/L; 60 mL; n = 7), and the other group a placebo (140 mmol 0.9% NaCl/L; 60 mL; n = 5). Before and 5, 15, and 30 min after administration, blood samples were taken from the radial artery, hepatic vein, and portal vein. Plasma SCFA concentrations were analyzed, and fluxes from portal-drained viscera, liver, and splanchnic area were calculated and used for the calculation of the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) over a 30-min period. Rectal butyrate administration led to higher portal butyrate concentrations at 5 min compared with placebo (92.2 ± 27.0 μmol/L vs. 14.3 ± 3.4 μmol/L, respectively; P butyrate-treated group, iAUCs of gut release (282.8 ± 133.8 μmol/kg BW · 0.5 h) and liver uptake (-293.7 ± 136.0 μmol/kg BW · 0.5 h) of butyrate were greater than in the placebo group [-16.6 ± 13.4 μmol/kg BW · 0.5 h (gut release) and 16.0 ± 13.8 μmol/kg BW · 0.5 h (liver uptake); P = 0.01 and P butyrate release did not differ between groups. After colonic butyrate administration, splanchnic butyrate release was prevented in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery. These observations imply that therapeutic colonic SCFA administration at this dose is safe. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02271802. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Blood borne infections in sport: risks of transmission, methods of prevention, and recommendations for hepatitis B vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, R; Wallace, W A

    2004-12-01

    Athletes are at risk of blood borne infections through bleeding injuries or injection of drugs with contaminated syringes. Prevention should focus on reducing non-sport associated risky behaviour, as well as dealing appropriately with bleeding injuries. The risk of transmission of hepatitis B virus is particularly high in athletes in contact and collision sports, those who live in or travel to endemic regions, injecting drug abusers, and those who practice first aid when there is no healthcare practitioner available. It is recommended that such athletes, and also adolescent athletes, should be vaccinated against the virus as a routine.

  15. Psychometric properties of a questionnaire assessing nursing professionals′ knowledge regarding etiology and prevention of viral hepatitis B and C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Viral hepatitis B and C are a global public health problem. For better targeting their detection and prevention, nursing professionals′ should have adequate knowledge and skills. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed at developing a "viral hepatitis questionnaire" and then validating it among nursing professionals′ working in a Medical College of North India. Materials and Methods: A fifteen-item questionnaire was developed by the principal investigator. This was based on a systematic search in database namely "PubMed" "IndMed" "Directory of Open Access journals" and "Google scholar". It was then administered to 318 nursing professionals′. The psychometric properties of the questionnaire were assessed in terms of construct validity and reliability. Results: The average age of the study subjects was 23.4 years (SD = 17.2, range = 18 years-54 years. Sampling adequacy as measured by Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO test was 0.82. This indicated relevance of the factorial model. Varimax rotation revealed that all items had achieved the required loading of 0.3. The internal consistency ranged from 0.81 to 0.87. The intra class correlation coefficient ranged from 0.67 to 0.71. Conclusion: " Viral hepatitis questionnaire" (VHQ appears to be a reliable and valid measure of assessing nursing professionals′ knowledge about viral hepatitis B and C. Its periodic use can serve the purpose of assessing nursing professionals′ training needs. It is further recommended that it should be tested among nursing staff in different healthcare facilities of India, in order to assess its wider performance.

  16. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation with immunosuppressive therapy in rheumatic diseases: assessment and preventive strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, L H; Zein, N N; Vassilopoulos, D

    2006-01-01

    Understanding of the natural history and basic biology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has increased greatly in recent years. In view of this, the following are reviewed here: (a) recent advances in HBV biology pertinent to the rheumatic disease population; (b) the risks of HBV reactivation in patients with rheumatic disease undergoing immunosuppression; and (c) potential strategies to manage these risks.

  17. Multidimensionality Matters: An Effective HIV, Hepatitis C, and Substance-Use Prevention Program for Minority Parolees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jennifer L.; Fandel, Johnna; Esposito, Rashaun; Pace, Elizabeth; Banks, Mekka; Denious, Jean E.

    2012-01-01

    African Americans and Hispanics are more likely than Whites to be incarcerated, and are also disparately affected by HIV, hepatitis C, and substance use. Reaching these populations as they leave prison is important given high rates of substance use and sexual risk-taking behaviors among U.S. prisoners. A 12-session, culturally appropriate,…

  18. Primer for Teachers: Quick and Easy Liver Wellness, Hepatitis B and Substance Abuse Prevention Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Thelma King

    This guide provides information for teachers to use in teaching about liver wellness, hepatitis B, and substance abuse. The guide includes effective motivational techniques to help students understand how valuable their liver is to their health and well being. It also provides basic information to help students avoid liver damaging behaviors, such…

  19. Prevention of de novo hepatitis B infection from HbcAb-positive donors in living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K W; Lee, D S; Lee, H H; Kim, S J; Joh, J W; Seo, J M; Choe, Y H; Lee, S K

    2004-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) prophylaxis is necessary to prevent de novo hepatitis B infection from HbcAb-positive donors. However, which protocol is more effective is somewhat controversial. Also, it is uncertain whether it is necessary to administer HBV prophylaxis for HbsAb-positive recipients. This study attempted to determine whether it is necessary to administer HBV prophylaxis for HbsAb-positive patients and to evaluate the efficacy of an HBIG monotherapy protocol. From May 1996 to July 2001, among 128 donors examined for HbcAb, 58 donors (45.3%) were HbcAb-positive. Eighteen HbcAb-positive grafts were transplanted to HbsAg-negative recipients. The 4 patients who died of unrelated causes were excluded from this study. Of 14 study cases, 12 recipients were HbsAb-positive, and 2 were HbsAb-naive. Prior to late 1998, we used HBV vaccination only for de novo infection prophylaxis. However, starting from December 1998, HBIG was administered from the time of the liver transplantation regardless of HBsAb positivity. The overall rate of de novo HBV infections from HbcAb-positive donors was 21.4% (3 of 14). All 3 recipients without HBIG prophylaxis presented with de novo HBV infections. Two were HbsAb-positive preoperatively. No de novo HBV infections occurred among recipients with HBIG prophylaxis. Therefore, it is essential to administer HBV prophylaxis even for vaccinated HbsAb-positive patients. HBIG monotherapy is effective to prevent de novo hepatitis B infections from HbcAb-positive donors in living donor liver transplantation.

  20. Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C; Gong, Yanzhang; Brok, J

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection.......Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection....

  1. Prevention of perinatal hepatitis B transmission in Haimen City, China: Results of a community public health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alison A; Cohen, Chari; Huang, Peixin; Qian, Liping; London, W Thomas; Block, Joan M; Chen, Gang

    2015-06-12

    In regions where hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic, perinatal transmission is common. Infected newborns have a 90% chance of developing chronic HBV infection, and 1 in 4 will die prematurely from HBV-related liver disease. In 2010, the Hepatitis B Foundation and the Haimen City CDC launched the Gateway to Care campaign in Haimen City, China to improve awareness, prevention, and control of HBV infection citywide. The campaign included efforts to prevent perinatal HBV transmission by screening all pregnant women for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), following those who tested positive, and administering immunoprophylaxis to their newborns at birth. Of 5407 pregnant women screened, 185 were confirmed HBsAg-positive and followed until delivery. At age one, 175 babies were available for follow up testing. Of those, 137 tested negative for HBsAg and positive for antibodies to HBsAg, indicating protection. An additional 34 HBsAg-negative babies also tested negative for antibodies to HBsAg or had indeterminate test results, were considered to have had inadequate immune responses to the vaccine, and were given a booster dose. A higher prevalence of nonresponse to HBV vaccine was observed among babies born to hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive mothers and mothers with high HBV DNA titers. The remaining 4 babies tested positive for HBsAg and negative for antibodies, indicative of active HBV infection. The mothers of all 4 had viral loads ≥8×10(6) copies/ml in the third trimester. Although inadequate response or nonresponse to HBV vaccine was more common among babies born to HBeAg-positive and/or high viral load mothers, these risk factors did not completely predict nonresponsiveness. All babies born to HBV-infected mothers should be tested upon completion of the vaccine series to ascertain adequate protection. Some babies of HBeAg-positive mothers with high viral load may still become HBV infected despite timely immunoprophylaxis with HBV vaccine and HBIG

  2. Impact of treatment on hepatitis C virus transmission and incidence in Egypt: A case for treatment as prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, H H; Abu-Raddad, L J

    2017-06-01

    Egypt has launched a hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment programme using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Our aim was to assess the impact of five plausible programme scale-up and sustainability scenarios for HCV treatment as prevention in Egypt. We developed and analysed a mathematical model to assess programme impact using epidemiologic, programming and health economics measures. The model was parametrized with current and representative natural history, HCV prevalence and programme data. HCV incidence in Egypt is declining, but will persist at a considerable level for decades unless controlled by interventions. Across the five programme scenarios, 1.75-5.60 million treatments were administered by 2030. Reduction in incidence (annual number of new infections) by 2030 ranged between 29% and 99%, programme-attributed reduction in incidence rate (new infections per susceptible person per year) ranged between 18% and 99%, number of infections averted ranged between 42 393 and 469 599, and chronic infection prevalence reached as low as 2.8%-0.1%. Reduction in incidence rate year by year hovered around 7%-15% in the first decade of the programme in most scenarios. Treatment coverage in 2030 ranged between 24.9% and 98.8%, and number of treatments required to avert one new infection ranged between 9.5 and 12.1. Stipulated targets for HCV by 2030 could not be achieved without scaling-up treatment to 365 000 per year and sustaining it for a decade. In conclusion, DAA scale-up will have an immense and immediate impact on HCV incidence in Egypt. Elimination by 2030 is feasible if sufficient resources are committed to programme scale-up and sustainability. HCV treatment as prevention is a potent and effective prevention approach. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Viral Hepatitis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Application of active immunization in the prevention of de novo hepatitis B virus infection after pediatric liver transplantation with HBcAb positive donor liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yufeng; Lu, Wei; Gao, Wei; Dong, Chong; Han, Chao; Liu, Yihe

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the effect of active immunization on prevention of post-transplantation de novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients receiving liver grafts from hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) positive donors. A retrospective analysis was conducted. Eighty-seven children undergoing liver transplantation from HBcAb positive donors admitted to Tianjin First Center Hospital from October 2012 to December 2016 were enrolled, and the data of donors and recipients were collected. The hepatitis B vaccine was given before operation for hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) > 1 000 U/L; hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) 100 U/kg was given during the operation, in order to prevent children from HBV infected by obtaining passive immunity quickly, children with HBsAb HBcAb positive donor livers, 9 (10.3%) developed de novo HBV infection, which occurred in 16 (10, 25) months after liver transplantation. Among the 9 children with HBV infection, 7 children had HBsAb HBcAb positive donors with preventive treatment.

  4. Supplementation with Vitis vinifera L. skin extract improves insulin resistance and prevents hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Izabelle Barcellos; de Bem, Graziele Freitas; Cordeiro, Viviane Silva Cristino; da Costa, Cristiane Aguiar; de Carvalho, Lenize Costa Reis Marins; da Rocha, Ana Paula Machado; da Costa, Gisele França; Ognibene, Dayane Teixeira; de Moura, Roberto Soares; Resende, Angela Castro

    2017-07-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common complications of obesity. The Vitis vinifera L. grape skin extract (ACH09) is an important source of polyphenols, which are related to its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activities. We hypothesized that ACH09 could also exert beneficial effects on metabolic disorders associated with obesity and evaluated ACH09's influence on high-fat (HF) diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were fed a standard diet (10% fat, control) or an HF diet (60% fat, HF) with or without ACH09 (200mg/[kg d]) for 12weeks. Our results showed that ACH09 reduced HF diet-induced body weight gain, prevented hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis, and improved hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. The underlying mechanisms of these beneficial effects of ACH09 may involve the activation of hepatic insulin-signaling pathway because the expression of phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phosphorylated Akt serine/threonine kinase 1, and glucose transporter 2 was increased by ACH09 and correlated with improvement of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. ACH09 reduced the expression of the lipogenic factor sterol regulatory-element binding protein-1c in the liver and upregulated the lipolytic pathway (phosphorylated liver kinase B1/phosphorylated adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase), which was associated with normal hepatic levels of triglyceride and cholesterol and prevention of steatosis. ACH09 prevented the hepatic oxidative damage in HF diet-fed mice probably by restoration of antioxidant activity. In conclusion, ACH09 protected mice from HF diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. The regulation of hepatic insulin signaling pathway, lipogenesis, and oxidative stress may contribute to ACH09's protective effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intravenous interferon during the anhepatic phase of liver retransplantation and prevention of recurrence of cholestatic hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwo, Paul Y; Saxena, Romil; Cummings, Oscar W; Tector, A Joseph

    2007-12-01

    Cholestatic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection post orthotopic liver transplantation is associated with a poor prognosis. We describe 2 patients who received interferon and ribavirin for cholestatic HCV infection with clearance of HCV RNA from the serum. Both developed signs of graft failure necessitating repeat orthotopic liver transplantation, and at surgery, interferon was administered during the anhepatic phase to prevent graft reinfection. Both patients are doing well with no evidence of recurrent viremia at 36 and 24 months of follow-up after repeat transplantation, respectively. Our results suggest that in those with cholestatic HCV infection, repeat transplantation after viral clearance is feasible and can occur without reinfection of the graft, challenging the current practice of denying retransplantation for patients with cholestatic HCV. The role of anhepatic administration of interferon deserves further examination, and this combination may provide a solution in a subset of patients with an otherwise poor prognosis. Copyright (c) 2007 AASLD.

  6. New treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV): scope for preventing liver disease and HCV transmission in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R J; Martin, N K; Rand, E; Mandal, S; Mutimer, D; Vickerman, P; Ramsay, M E; De Angelis, D; Hickman, M; Harris, H E

    2016-08-01

    New direct-acting antivirals have the potential to transform the hepatitis C (HCV) treatment landscape, with rates of sustained viral response in excess of 90%. As these new agents are expensive, an important question is whether to focus on minimizing the consequences of severe liver disease, or reducing transmission via 'treatment as prevention'. A back-calculation model was used to estimate the impact of treatment of mild, moderate and compensated cirrhosis on incident cases of HCV-related end-stage liver disease/hepatocellular carcinoma (ESLD/HCC). In addition, a dynamic model was used to determine the impact on incidence and prevalence of chronic infection in people who inject drugs (PWID), the main risk group in England. Treating 3500 cirrhotics per year was predicted to reduce ESLD/HCC incidence from 1100 (95% CrI 970-1240) cases per year in 2015 to 630 (95% CrI 530-770) in 2020, around half that currently expected, although treating moderate-stage disease will also be needed to sustain this reduction. Treating mild-stage PWID was required to make a substantial impact on transmission: with 2500 treated per year, chronic prevalence/annual incidence in PWID was reduced from 34%/4.8% in 2015 to 11%/1.4% in 2030. There was little overlap between the two goals: treating mild stage had virtually no impact on ESLD/HCC within 15 years, but the long timescale of liver disease means relatively few PWID reach cirrhosis before cessation of injecting. Strategies focussing on treating advanced disease have the potential for dramatic reductions in severe morbidity, but virtually no preventative impact. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Viral Hepatitis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Randomised clinical trial: escitalopram for the prevention of psychiatric adverse events during treatment with peginterferon-alfa-2a and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegt, R.J. de; Bezemer, G.; Gool, A.R. van; Drenth, J.P.H.; Hansen, B.E.; Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.; Weegink, C.J.; Hengeveld, M.W.; Janssen, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2011; 34: 1306-1317 SUMMARY: Background Treatment of hepatitis C with peginterferon and ribavirin is associated with psychiatric side-effects, frequently necessitating dose reduction or therapy cessation. Aim To assess the efficacy of prophylactic escitalopram to prevent

  8. Resource Manual for Handling Body Fluids in the School Setting To Prevent the Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    Guidelines to prevent the transmission of blood-borne diseases, especially those caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), in the school setting are provided in this resource manual for school staff. Sections include information on the reasons for the development of this manual; a summary of the means of HIV…

  9. Resource Manual for Handling Body Fluids in the School Setting To Prevent Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    This Maryland resource manual provides local education agencies with guidelines on how to handle body fluids to prevent the transmission of diseases, especially Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), in the school setting. The first section summarizes the reasons for development of the manual. The second section summarizes…

  10. Hepatitis C virus infection epidemiology among people who inject drugs in Europe: a systematic review of data for scaling up treatment and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiessing, Lucas; Ferri, Marica; Grady, Bart; Kantzanou, Maria; Sperle, Ida; Cullen, Katelyn J.; Hatzakis, Angelos; Prins, Maria; Vickerman, Peter; Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Hope, Vivian D.; Matheï, Catharina; Busch, Martin; Bollaerts, Kaat; Bogdanova, Violeta; Nesheva, Elmira; Fotsiou, Nasia; Kostrikis, Leontios; Mravčík, Viktor; Řehák, Vratislav; Částková, Jitka; Hobstová, Jiřina; Nechanská, Blanka; Fouchard, Jan; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Tefanova, Valentina; Tallo, Tatjana; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Henrikki; Brisacier, Anne-Claire; Michot, Isabelle; Jauffret-Roustide, Marie; Zimmermann, Ruth; Fotiou, Anastasios; Gazdag, Gábor; Tarján, Anna; Galvin, Brian; Garavan, Carrie; Thornton, Lelia; Cruciani, Mario; Basso, Monica; Karnīte, Anda; Caplinskiene, Irma; Lopes, Sofia; Origer, Alain; Melillo, Jackie; Camilleri, Moses; Demanuele, Carlo Olivari; Croes, Esther; Op de Coul, Eline; Rosińska, Magdalena; Struzik, Marta; Martins, Mário; Duran, Domingos; Vilar, Graça; Resende, Maria Emília; Martins, Helena Cortes; Abagiu, Adrian Octavian; Ruta, Simona; Arama, Victoria; Kopilovic, Boris; Kustec, Tanja; Klavs, Irena; Aleixandre, Noelia Llorens; Folch, Cinta; Bravo, Maria Jose; Gómez, Rosario Sendino; Berglund, Torsten; Strandberg, Joakim; Hope, Vivian; Hotho, Daphne; van Houdt, Sabine; Low, Andrea; Mcdonald, Bethan; Platt, Lucy; Kalamara, Eleni; Giraudon, Isabelle; Groshkova, Teodora; Palladino, Claudia; Hutchinson, Sharon; Ncube, Fortune; Eramova, Irina; Goldberg, David; Vicente, Julian; Griffiths, Paul

    2014-01-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are a key population affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Treatment options are improving and may enhance prevention; however access for PWID may be poor. The availability in the literature of information on seven main topic areas (incidence, chronicity, genotypes, HIV

  11. Artesunate prevents rats from the clozapine-induced hepatic steatosis and elevation in plasma triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yanmei Li,1,2 Ruibing Su,3 Shuqin Xu,2 Qingjun Huang,1 Haiyun Xu1,2 1The Mental Health Center, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Anatomy, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Forensics and Pathology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic with therapeutic efficacy in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients and low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects. However, the use of clozapine has been limited by its adverse effects on metabolism. Artesunate is a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin and was shown to decrease the plasma cholesterol and triglyceride in rabbits and rats in recent studies. The aim of this study was to examine possible effects of artesunate on the clozapine-induced metabolic alterations in rats given saline, clozapine, artesunate, or clozapine plus artesunate for 6 weeks. The clozapine group showed significantly high plasma levels of triglyceride, hepatic steatosis, and fibrosis along with high levels of C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase compared to the saline group. But the treatment had no effect on weight gain and caused no hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and behavioral changes in the rats. More significantly, these clozapine-induced changes were not seen in rats coadministered with clozapine plus artesunate. These results added evidence supporting psychiatrists to try add-on treatment of artesunate in schizophrenia patients to ameliorate clozapine-induced adverse metabolic effects. Keywords: artesunate, clozapine, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, schizophrenia 

  12. Know More Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of every 4 were born from 1945-1965. Hepatitis C can cause liver damage and liver failure. Over time, chronic Hepatitis ... body and prevent liver damage, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer. “Hepatitis C: Did You Know?” Watch this video encouraging ...

  13. Salvianolic Acid a prevents the pathological progression of hepatic fibrosis in high-fat diet-fed and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Guifen; Yang, Xiuying; Xuan, Qi; Shi, Lili; Zhang, Hengai; Chen, Bainian; Li, Xiaoxiu; Zu, Mian; Zhou, Dan; Guo, Jing; Yang, Haiguang; Zhang, Li; Du, Guanhua

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes patients have an increased risk of developing hepatic fibrosis. Salvianolic acid A (SalA) has been reported to be a strong polyphenolic anti-oxidant and free radical scavenger. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of SalA on the pathological progression of hepatic fibrosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and to clarify the underlying mechanisms. Type 2 diabetic animal model with hepatic fibrosis was developed by a high-sucrose, HFD and low-dose STZ injection (i.p.). Diabetic rats were randomly divided into SalA group (0.3 mg/kg/day) and diabetic control groups fed with a HFD. After administration for four months, SalA reversed the hyperlipidemia and reduced hepatic triglyceride (TG). Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) and Picro acid-Sirius red staining results indicated that SalA significantly alleviated the lesions of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, with the reduction of type I and III collagens. The expression of α-smooth-muscle-actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in the liver were markedly down-regulated by SalA treatment. TUNEL staining showed that SalA reduced apoptosis in hepatocytes. In addition, SalA improved hepatic mitochondrial respiratory function in diabetic rats. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that SalA could prevent the pathological progression of hepatic fibrosis in HFD-fed and STZ-induced diabetic rats. The underlying mechanisms may be involved in reducing oxidative stress, suppressing α-SMA and TGF-β1 expression, as well as exerting anti-apoptotic and mitochondria-protective effects.

  14. HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and sexually-transmitted infection prevention among Egyptian substance users

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhoum, Atef

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores cultural influences in high-risk behaviour among Egyptian substance users in the Middle Eastern, conservative, male-dominated and predominantly Muslim society in which they live. It investigates why they practice unprotected sex despite the risk of infection by blood-borne viruses (BBVs) and sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), and the factors influencing their risk practices. The study seeks to inform policy and to improve methods of preventing BBVs/STI...

  15. Trends in knowledge, attitudes, and practices of travel risk groups toward prevention of hepatitis A: results from the Dutch Schiphol Airport survey 2002 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genderen, Perry J J; van Thiel, Pieter P A M; Mulder, Paul G H; Overbosch, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the travelers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) profile indicated an important educational need among those traveling to risk destinations. Initiatives to improve such education should target all groups of travelers, including business travelers, those visiting friends and relatives (VFR), and older adult travelers. In the years 2002 to 2009, a longitudinal questionnaire-based survey was conducted at the Dutch Schiphol Airport with the aim to study trends in KAP of travel risk groups toward prevention of hepatitis A. The risk groups last-minute travelers, solo travelers, business travelers, travelers VFR, and older adult travelers were specifically studied. A total of 3,045 respondents were included in the survey. Travelers to destinations with a high risk for hepatitis A had significantly less accurate risk perceptions (knowledge) than travelers to low-to-intermediate-risk destinations. The relative risk for hepatitis A in travelers to high-risk destinations was probably mitigated by less intended risk-seeking behavior and by higher protection rates against hepatitis A as compared with travelers to low-to-intermediate-risk destinations. Logistic regression analyses showed that an age >60 years was the only significant determinant for improvement of their knowledge. Trend analyses showed a significant change over time in attitude toward more risk-avoiding behavior and toward higher protection rates against hepatitis A in travelers to high-risk destinations. The KAP profile of the risk groups travelers VFR (irrespective of hepatitis A risk of their destination) and solo as well as last-minute travelers to high-risk destinations substantially increased their relative risk for hepatitis A. The results of this longitudinal survey in Dutch travelers suggest an annual 5% increase in protection rates against hepatitis A coinciding with an annual 1% decrease in intended risk-seeking behavior. This improvement may reflect the

  16. Salicornia herbacea prevents weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation in obese ICR mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichiah, P B Tirupathi; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Foods that are rich in fat and or sodium chloride promote obesity and associated diseases, whereas intake of dietary fiber averts obesity development. Salicornia herbacea (SH) is a rich source of dietary fiber and high in sodium chloride; therefore, we investigated whether replacing common salt with SH in a high-fat diet could prevent obesity development. Mice were divided into five groups: group ND was fed a normal diet, group HD was fed a high-fat diet, group HD-NaCl was fed a high fat diet with sodium chloride 10 g kg(-1) , group HD-CL was fed a high-fat diet with cellulose 30 g kg(-1) and group HD-SH was fed a high-fat diet with SH powder 50 g kg(-1) . The amount of sodium chloride and cellulose added in the respective diet was equivalent to their amount in SH. Data from our study showed that, SH supplementation significantly decreased body weight gain, liver weight, hepatic triglyceride, serum leptin and insulin, along with the mRNA level of key lipid anabolic genes such as SREBP-1c, PPARγ and FAS compared to the HD group. The results of this study demonstrated that SH is a potential natural anti-obesity agent that can be used in place of sodium chloride. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Antiviral Stilbene 1,2-Diamines Prevent Initiation of Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication at the Outset of Infection▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaminza, Pablo; Pitram, Suresh M.; Dreux, Marlene; Krasnova, Larissa B.; Whitten-Bauer, Christina; Dong, Jiajia; Chung, Josan; Fokin, Valery V.; Sharpless, K. Barry; Chisari, Francis V.

    2011-01-01

    The recent development of a cell culture model of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection based on the JFH-1 molecular clone has enabled discovery of new antiviral agents. Using a cell-based colorimetric screening assay to interrogate a 1,200-compound chemical library for anti-HCV activity, we identified a family of 1,2-diamines derived from trans-stilbene oxide that prevent HCV infection at nontoxic, low micromolar concentrations in cell culture. Structure-activity relationship analysis of ∼300 derivatives synthesized using click chemistry yielded compounds with greatly enhanced low nanomolar potency and a >1,000:1 therapeutic ratio. Using surrogate models of HCV infection, we showed that the compounds selectively block the initiation of replication of incoming HCV RNA but have no impact on viral entry, primary translation, or ongoing HCV RNA replication, nor do they suppress persistent HCV infection. Selection of an escape variant revealed that NS5A is directly or indirectly targeted by this compound. In summary, we have identified a family of HCV inhibitors that target a critical step in the establishment of HCV infection in which NS5A translated de novo from an incoming genomic HCV RNA template is required to initiate the replication of this important human pathogen. PMID:21430055

  18. Roles of Toll-like Receptor 7 and 8 in Prevention of Intrauterine Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Tian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 5% of newborns were infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV via intrauterine transmission, but most of the infants born to HBV-positive mothers are protected from infection. However, the mechanisms by which intrauterine transmission is avoided remain elusive, and the roles of toll-like receptors (TLRs have been proposed. The aims of this study were to clarify if TLR 7 and 8 are involved in the prevention of intrauterine transmission of HBV. Methods: Real time polymerase-chain reaction (PCR was used to determine the expression of TLRs and cytokines in placenta and trophoblasts. The expression of MyD88 was interfered with small interfering RNA (siRNA in trophoblasts. An in intro model mimicking trophoblast barrier was established to evaluate the effect of MyD88 siRNA on HBV transmission across trophoblast barrier. Results: There were significant differences in placental expression of TLR7 (F=3.263, P=0.048 and TLR8 (F=3.257, P=0.048 among control (HBV-negative women, non-infected group (HBV-positive women whose infants were not infected and infected group (HBV-positive women whose infants were infected. The expression of TLR7 was significantly higher in non-infected group than infected group (P=0.039 and control (P=0.043. There was a significant difference in TLR8 expression between non-infected group and control (P=0.014, and the difference was close to but not significant (P=0.074 between non-infected and infected groups. Exposure of trophoblast to HBV significantly induced the expression of TLR7 (PConclusions: TLR7 and TLR8 on trophoblastic cells play an important role in the prevention of intrauterine HBV transmission by inhibiting HBV translocation across trophoblast.

  19. Cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibition prevents hepatic carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine in alcohol-fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic alcohol ingestion increases hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which is associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. We investigated whether treatment with chlormethiazole (CMZ), a CYP2E1 inhibitor, protects against alcohol-associated hepatic carcinogenesis in rats. Rats were fed either an ethan...

  20. Culturally Appropriate Photonovel Development and Process Evaluation for Hepatitis B Prevention in Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese American Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Yoon, Hyeyeon; Chen, Lu; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Asian Americans have disproportionately high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the United States and yet have low hepatitis B screening and vaccination rates. We developed three photonovels specifically designed for Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans and evaluated their cultural relevance and effectiveness in increasing…

  1. Effects of preventive versus "on-demand" nutritional support on paid labour productivity, physical exercise and performance status during PEG-interferon-containing treatment for hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Ellen J; van Meer, Suzanne; van Hoek, Bart; van Soest, Hanneke; van Nieuwkerk, Karin M J; Arends, Joop E; Siersema, Peter D; van Erpecum, Karel J

    2016-04-01

    Deterioration of nutritional status during PEG-interferon containing therapy for chronic hepatitis C can be ameliorated by preventive nutritional support. We aimed to explore whether such support also affects paid labour productivity, physical exercise and performance status. In this prospective randomized controlled trial (J Hepatol 2012;57:1069-75), 53 patients with chronic hepatitis C had been allocated to "on demand" support (n=26: nutritional intervention if weight loss>5%) or preventive support (n=27: regular dietary advice plus energy- and protein-rich evening snack) during PEG-interferon-containing therapy. Paid labour productivity, physical exercise and performance status were evaluated at baseline, after 24 and (if applicable) after 48 weeks of treatment. At baseline, 46% of patients performed paid labour and 62% performed some kind of physical exercise. Furthermore, most patients were able to carry out normal activity with only minor symptoms of disease (mean Karnofsky performance score: 94). Decreases of paid labour productivity (-21% vs. -70%, P=0.003), physical exercise activity (-43% vs. -87%, P=0.005) and Karnofsky performance scores (-12% vs. -24%, Pnutritional support were even more pronounced after 48 weeks. Preventive nutritional support markedly ameliorates decreases of paid labour productivity, physical exercise and performance status during PEG-interferon-containing treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Cost-effectiveness and affordability of strategy for preventing mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y; Zhang, S X; Yang, P C; Cai, Y L; Zou, Y H

    2017-07-10

    Objective: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of nationwide prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) strategy for hepatitis B, and estimate the willing to pay and budget impacts on the PMTCT. Methods: The decision analytic Markov model for the PMTCT was constructed and a birth cohort of Chinese infants born in 2013 was used to calculate the cost-effectiveness of the PMTCT among them compared with those receiving no intervention. The parameters in the model were obtained from literatures of national surveys or Meta-analysis. The costs, cases of HBV-related diseases and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were obtained from the societal and payer perspectives, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was used as measures of strategy optimization. One-way and probability sensitivity analysis were performed to explore the uncertainty of the primary results. In addition, cost-effectiveness acceptability curve and cost-effectiveness affordability curves were drawn to illustrate the cost effectiveness threshold and financial budget of the PMTCT strategy. Results: The lifetime cost for PMTCT strategy was 4 063.5 yuan (RMB) per carrier, which was 37 829.7 yuan (RMB) lower compared with those receiving no intervention. Due to the strategy, a total of 24.516 1 QALYs per person would be gained, which was higher than that in those receiving no intervention. From societal perspective, the ICER was -59 136.6 yuan (RMB) per additional QALYs gained, indicating that the PMTCT is cost effective. The results were reliable indicated by one-way, multi-way and probability sensitivity analyses. By the CEAC, the willing to pay was much lower than the cost-effectiveness threshold. From the affordability curve of the PMTCT strategy, the annual budget ranged from 590.4 million yuan (RMB) to 688.8 million yuan (RMB), which was lower than the financial ability. Based on the results of cost-effectiveness affordability curves, the higher annual budget was determined

  3. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  4. Evaluation of a programme for prevention of vertical transmission of hepatitis B in a rural block in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Mary Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate a community based programme of antenatal screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and selective immunization of children commencing at birth, at a secondary care hospital in south India. The primary objective was to assess immunization coverage among children born to HBsAg positive women; secondary objectives were to study the prevalence of HBsAg among antenatal women, prevalence of HBsAg among immunized children (to estimate vaccine efficacy, seroconversion rate and relationship of maternal hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg to hepatitis infection. Methods: The prevalence of hepatitis B antigen among antenatal women and immunization coverage achieved with hepatitis B vaccine in a rural block in Vellore, Tamil Nadu were assessed through examination of records. Children born between May 2002 and December 2007 to hepatitis B positive women were followed up for a serological evaluation, based on which vaccine efficacy and the effect of maternal hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg on breakthrough infection was estimated. Results: The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among antenatal women was 1.58 % (95% CI: 1.35-1.81%. Vaccine coverage for three doses as per a recommended schedule (including a birth dose was 70 per cent, while 82.4 per cent eventually received three doses (including a birth dose. Estimated vaccine efficacy was 68 per cent and seroconversion 92.4 per cent in children aged 6-24 months. Maternal HBeAg was significantly associated with either anti-HBc or HBsAg in immunized children, RR=5.89 (95% CI: 1.21-28.52%. Interpretation & conclusions: The prevalence of hepatitis B among antenatal women in this region was low and a programme of selective immunization was found to be feasible, achieving a high coverage for three doses of the vaccine including a birth dose.

  5. Prevenção das hepatites virais através de imunização Viral hepatitis prevention by immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Targa Ferreira

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada e crítica da prevenção das hepatites virais A e B, através de imunização. FONTE DOS DADOS: Revisão de artigos médicos obtidos através do banco de dados MEDLINE, sendo selecionados os mais atuais e representativos do tema (2000-2006. Foram também pesquisados os sites do Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC e American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP, da Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP e do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A prevenção das hepatites virais é um enorme desafio para o sistema de saúde pública dos países e das comunidades médica e científica. Os vírus das hepatites ocasionam importante morbimortalidade no mundo, causando doença hepática aguda e crônica. Vacinas altamente eficazes estão disponíveis no mercado para prevenir novas infecções pelos vírus A e B. Entretanto, as hepatites virais A e B continuam a estar entre as doenças preveníveis por vacinas mais comumente notificadas. Neste artigo, revisamos as vacinas usadas para prevenir essas infecções com o objetivo de expandir o conhecimento e o uso da prevenção dessas doenças infecciosas. CONCLUSÃO: Embora as vacinas contra as hepatites A e B sejam recomendadas para vários grupos de risco, a cobertura vacinal estimada ainda é modesta e existem muitas oportunidades perdidas de vacinação. Para que haja diminuição na incidência das hepatites A e B, duas doenças preveníveis por vacinas, é necessário que os médicos incentivem seus pacientes a receber as vacinas.OBJECTIVE: To present an updated review and criticism of viral hepatitis A and B prevention by immunization. SOURCES OF DATA: Review of medical articles obtained from the MEDLINE database. The most recent and representative articles on the subject (2000-2006 were selected. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP, Brazilian Society of Pediatrics and Brazilian

  6. Coenzyme Q10 prevents hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in a male rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Hargreaves, Iain P; Neergheen, Viruna; Aiken, Catherine E; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; McConnell, Josie M; Ozanne, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well established that low birth weight and accelerated postnatal growth increase the risk of liver dysfunction in later life. However, molecular mechanisms underlying such developmental programming are not well characterized, and potential intervention strategies are poorly defined. Objectives: We tested the hypotheses that poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth would lead to increased hepatic fibrosis (a pathological marker of liver dysfunction) and that postnatal supplementation with the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) would prevent this programmed phenotype. Design: A rat model of maternal protein restriction was used to generate low-birth-weight offspring that underwent accelerated postnatal growth (termed “recuperated”). These were compared with control rats. Offspring were weaned onto standard feed pellets with or without dietary CoQ10 (1 mg/kg body weight per day) supplementation. At 12 mo, hepatic fibrosis, indexes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin signaling were measured by histology, Western blot, ELISA, and reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Results: Hepatic collagen deposition (diameter of deposit) was greater in recuperated offspring (mean ± SEM: 12 ± 2 μm) than in controls (5 ± 0.5 μm) (P supplementation increased (P adulthood, which was associated with higher indexes of oxidative stress and inflammation and hyperinsulinemia. CoQ10 supplementation prevented liver fibrosis accompanied by downregulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperinsulinemia. PMID:26718412

  7. Coenzyme Q10 prevents hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in a male rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Hargreaves, Iain P; Neergheen, Viruna; Aiken, Catherine E; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; McConnell, Josie M; Ozanne, Susan E

    2016-02-01

    It is well established that low birth weight and accelerated postnatal growth increase the risk of liver dysfunction in later life. However, molecular mechanisms underlying such developmental programming are not well characterized, and potential intervention strategies are poorly defined. We tested the hypotheses that poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth would lead to increased hepatic fibrosis (a pathological marker of liver dysfunction) and that postnatal supplementation with the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) would prevent this programmed phenotype. A rat model of maternal protein restriction was used to generate low-birth-weight offspring that underwent accelerated postnatal growth (termed "recuperated"). These were compared with control rats. Offspring were weaned onto standard feed pellets with or without dietary CoQ10 (1 mg/kg body weight per day) supplementation. At 12 mo, hepatic fibrosis, indexes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin signaling were measured by histology, Western blot, ELISA, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Hepatic collagen deposition (diameter of deposit) was greater in recuperated offspring (mean ± SEM: 12 ± 2 μm) than in controls (5 ± 0.5 μm) (P supplementation increased (P adulthood, which was associated with higher indexes of oxidative stress and inflammation and hyperinsulinemia. CoQ10 supplementation prevented liver fibrosis accompanied by downregulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperinsulinemia.

  8. Hepatitis A vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and persons with other liver diseases, such as hepatitis B or C. Hepatitis A vaccine can prevent hepatitis A. Hepatitis A ... have a chronic liver disease such as hepatitis B or hepatitis C, are being treated with clotting-factor concentrates, work ...

  9. Hepatitis E Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Levick

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in the developing world. It is a waterborne virus that can cause epidemics in the face of overcrowding and poor sanitation. Although the hepatitis illness is usually self-limiting, it has a high mortality in pregnant women and can become a chronic infection in the immunosuppressed. Treatment is mostly supportive and prevention is by good water hygiene.

  10. The prevention of hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attenuated by the administration of IG even after exposure to the virus, provided this takes place at least 2 weeks before the onset of jaundice.12 ... be partially effective.19.20 These data support the concept that anti-HBs antibody is the protective neutralising antibody and that vaccine-induced antibody confers protection ...

  11. Information from teachers on viral hepatitis transmission and prevention in Brazil Información de los maestros sobre la transmisión y la prevención de las hepatitis virales en el Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Gaze

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess school teachers' level of knowledge on prevention of viral hepatitis (VH. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three cities of Brazil, from August to November of 1999. The sample was composed of 360 subjects: 334 women and 26 men, 81 (22.5% from Belém, 123 (34.2% from Natal and 156 (43.3% from Rio de Janeiro. Cultural differences in knowledge were identified using a questionnaire to classify, according to semantic content, categories of transmission and preventive practices. Responses were scored as right or wrong. Data were tabulated and analyzed using EPIINFO 6.04 and open answers were classified according to semantic content. Comparison of the answer frequencies between cities was done through the chi-square test. RESULTS: Transmission category (TC (n=837 answers and prevention category (PC (n=771 answers "food-and waterborne" transmission items were the most frequently mentioned (40%. For TC, "food-and waterborne" answers were followed by "bloodborne" (16%, "inadequate knowledge" (9%, "possible causes of hepatic disease" (9%, and "sexual transmission" (7% answers. For PC items, "food-and waterborne" answers were followed by "general aspects of prevention" (13%, "immunization" (9%, "quality of health services" (8% and "sexual prevention" (5% items. "Right" scores for transmission mechanisms and prevention practices varied from zero to 80%. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings suggest that investments should be made to disseminate appropriate knowledge on VH prevention, mainly addressing sexual transmission and intravenous drug use.OBJETIVO: Evaluar los conocimientos y prácticas de profesores escolares en la prevención de hepatitis viral. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal en tres ciudades de Brasil, de agosto a noviembre de 1999. La muestra estuvo constituida por 360 sujetos: 334 mujeres y 26 hombres, 81 (22.5% de Belém, 123 (34.2% de Nataly 156 (43.3% de Río de Janeiro. Se

  12. Performance evaluation of four dominant anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb) kits in Japan for preventing de novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eiji; Deguchi, Matsuo; Kagita, Masanori; Yoshioka, Nori; Kita, Mifumi; Asari, Seishi; Suehisa, Etsuji; Hidaka, Yoh; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    The determination of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb) has become an important means of evaluating the risk factors of de novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection before starting intensive immunosuppressive drug therapies. Four dominant HBcAb determination reagents used in Japan were evaluated with HBcIgM, HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAb, and HBV DNA reagents in order to study their clinical utility. Four kinds of HBcAb reagent kits (HBcAb Total and HBcAb-IgG reagent) were evaluated with 526 clinical specimens, including 344 negative specimens, at Osaka University Hospital. The dynamic range of each kit was evaluated by testing serially diluted serum from pooled sera with high HBcAb concentration. The reagent that showed the largest dynamic range was the Lumipulse HBcAb-N (HBcAb-IgG reagent). Regarding clinical sensitivity and specificity, Centaur HBcAb (HBcAb Total reagent) gave several "doubtful negative" results and ARCHITECT HBcII (HBcAb Total reagent) had the most discrepant positive results. By comparing the cut-off-index distribution of negative specimens using a parameter of "distance from the mean to the cut-off divided by the SD", Centaur was determined to be the best (distance/SD = 12.65), with Lumipulse and Elecsys Anti-HBc (HBcAb Total reagent) in the second group (8.13 and 7.00, respectively), and ARCHITECT rated as the worst (3.25). In this evaluation, Elecsys and Lumipulse HBcAb kits showed good clinical sensitivity and specificity and were considered to be suitable for evaluating the risk factors of de novo HBV infection.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of antiviral therapy during late pregnancy to prevent perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV infections are perinatally transmitted from chronically infected mothers. Supplemental antiviral therapy during late pregnancy with lamivudine (LAM, telbivudine (LdT, or tenofovir (TDF can substantially reduce perinatal HBV transmission compared to postnatal immunoprophylaxis (IP alone. However, the cost-effectiveness of these measures is not clear. Aim. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective of supplemental antiviral agents for preventing perinatal HBV transmission in mothers with high viral load (>6 log10 copies/mL. Methods. A systematic review and network meta-analysis were performed for the risk of perinatal HBV transmission with antiviral therapies. A decision analysis was conducted to evaluate the clinical and economic outcomes in China of four competing strategies: postnatal IP alone (strategy IP, or in combination with perinatal LAM (strategy LAM + IP, LdT (strategy LdT + IP, or TDF (strategy TDF + IP. Antiviral treatments were administered from week 28 of gestation to 4 weeks after birth. Outcomes included treatment-related costs, number of infections, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. One- and two-way sensitivity analyses were performed to identify influential clinical and cost-related variables. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to estimate the probabilities of being cost-effective for each strategy. Results. LdT + IP and TDF + IP averted the most infections and HBV-related deaths, and gained the most QALYs. IP and TDF + IP were dominated as they resulted in less or equal QALYs with higher associated costs. LdT + IP had an incremental $2,891 per QALY gained (95% CI [$932–$20,372] compared to LAM + IP (GDP per capita for China in 2013 was $6,800. One-way sensitivity analyses showed that the cost-effectiveness of LdT + IP was only sensitive to the relative risk of HBV transmission comparing LdT + IP with LAM + IP. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses

  14. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  15. [Characteristic situation on prevention of nosocomial infection in the hospital for the severely multi-disabled--experiences in care and treatment of 4 kinds of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Y; Tanaka, H; Yano, Y; Yano, T; Yoshida, K

    1997-12-01

    We experienced Hepatitis A, B, C and fulminant hepatitis due to Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in our hospital for the severely multi-disabled (SMD) who had both severe motor and intellectual disabilities, and some of whom might be further complicated by blindness and/or deafness. In this hospital, 100 SMDs are hospitalized. Case 1: The disabled, 25 year old male, was transmitted Hepatitis A from a nurse. Case 2: The disabled, 60 year old female carrier of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) who has been cared for more than 10 years. Case 3: The disabled, 46 year old male carrier of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) (RNA type 3), has been cared for more than 4 years. Case 4: The disabled, 39 year old male, had a fever of 39 degrees C for 9 days and suddenly died. He was diagnosed as fulminant hepatitis due to HSV-1 by necropsy. The hospitals for SMD are characteristic in prevention of nosocomial infections; 1) The disabled infected is not aware of the fact that he or she is the source of infection and that the other disabled living with him or her are in risk of infection, because of their severe mental condition. 2) All of the disabled need complete or incomplete helps for activities of daily life (ADL), so that the disabled who is the carrier of some pathogen constantly gives risk of infection to staffs, including medical staffs (doctor, nurse and therapist), psychologist and helpers by bloody secretion from wounds, saliva, urine, feces as well as menstrual blood. 3) If a carrier of some pathogen is hospitalized, the staffs should serve under risk of infection involving blood-mediated infectious disease for many years, because SMDs are permitted lifelong stay in the hospitals for SMD, which also play a role of care house or institution, by public expense in Japan. In case of an outbreak of Hepatitis A, nosocomial infection ended in the original case (a nurse), another nurse and a case of the disabled by general treatment and care against communicable diseases of the digestive

  16. Applicability and efficacy of a model for prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection: single center study in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Karaksy, Hanaa M; Mohsen, Lamiaa M; Saleh, Doa'a A; Hamdy, Mona S; Yassin, Noha A; Farouk, Mohamed; Salit, Mohamed E; El-Shabrawi, Mortada H

    2014-12-07

    To identify possible maternal risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) acquisition and assess the efficacy of immunoprophylaxis given to infants born to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) positive mothers. Screening of 2000 pregnant females was carried out using rapid test and confirmed by enzyme immunoassay. A questionnaire consisting of 20 questions about the possible risk factors for acquisition of HBV infection was filled for every pregnant HBsAg positive female in addition to at least 2 pregnant HBsAg negative females for each positive case. Infants of HBsAg positive women were offered passive and active immunoprophylaxis within the 1st 48 h after birth, in addition to 2nd and 3rd doses of HBV vaccine after 1 and 6 mo respectively. Infants were tested for HBsAg and hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb) at six months of age. HBsAg was confirmed positive in 1.2% of tested pregnant women. Risk factors significantly associated with HBV positivity were; history of injections (OR = 5.65), history of seeking medical advice in a clinic (OR = 7.02), history of hospitalization (OR = 6.82), history of surgery (OR = 4) and family history of hepatitis (OR = 3.89) (P < 0.05). Dropout rate was 28% for HBsAg women whose rapid test was not confirmed and could not be reached to provide immunoprophylaxis for thier newborns. Immunoprophylaxis failure was detected in only one newborn (3.7%) who tested positive for HBsAg at 6 mo of age; and vaccine failure (seronegative to HBsAb after 4 doses of the vaccine) was detected in another one (3.7%). The success rate of the immunoprophylaxis regimen was 92.6%. This pilot study shows that a successful national program for prevention of perinatal transmission of HBV needs to be preceded by an awareness campaign to avoid a high dropout rate.

  17. Injection drug use and hepatitis C virus infection in young adult injectors: using evidence to inform comprehensive prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Page, Kimberly; Morris, Meghan D.; Hahn, Judith A.; Maher, Lisa; Prins, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) virus epidemic is ongoing in the United States and globally. Incidence rates remain high, especially in young adult injection drug users. New outbreaks of HCV in the United States among young adults, in predominantly suburban and rural areas, have emerged and may be

  18. A Intervention Study to Improve HBsAg Testing and Preventive Practices for Hepatitis B in an Obstetrics Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Koruk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention in Sanliurfa Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital (SGOH, which is designed to overcome the obstacles encountered in the application of HBsAg testing to all delivering women, the administration of hepatitis B vaccine and Hepatitis B Immunglobulin(HBIG to newborns of HBsAg positive pregnant women. Methods: This is an intervention study, conducted between December 15, 2007 and December 30, 2008. Intervention procedure is composed of four methods; namely, motivation of all parties through academic leadership, implementation of workshops to determine the obstacles, provision of administrative commitment, and training of healthcare personnel. Results: In 2007, a total of 18,709 deliveries were realized in SGOH; HBsAg testing was performed in only 16.5% of the pregnant women and 0.8% of these women were found to be HBsAg positive. It was determined that HBIG was administered to 28.2% of newborns of HBsAg positive mothers and hepatitis B vaccine was given to 71.4% (n=13349 of all newborns. After the intervention, the increase in HBsAg test application status, HBsAg positivity, HIBG administration and hepatitis B vaccination was 6.0, 5.8, 2.0 and 1.2 fold, respectively (P<0.05. Conclusions: In order to reduce the incidence of hepatitis B and maintain patient safety in newborns, HBsAg testing should be included in routine pregnancy screening programs and this approach should be supported by legal arrangements and systematic continuous training activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 287-292

  19. Prevention of de novo hepatitis B in recipients of core antibody-positive livers with lamivudine and other nucleos(t)ides: a 12-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Matthew S; Olsen, Sonja K; Pichardo, Elsa M; Stiles, Jessica B; Rosenthal-Cogan, Lori; Brubaker, William D; Guarrera, James V; Emond, Jean C; Brown, Robert S

    2013-04-15

    Lamivudine (LAM) has been shown to prevent de novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in recipients of hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb)-positive liver transplants (LT) but primarily in small studies with limited follow-up. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of HBcAb+ graft recipients at our institution from October 1999 to August 2008. One hundred nineteen recipients without prior HBV were identified (median age, 54 years; 70% male), of which 62 received LAM. The median follow-up was 2.6 years overall and 5.3 years in the LAM group. Among LAM recipients, 44% were HBV naïve (HBsAb-/HBcAb-) at LT, of which 6% developed HBsAb+ and 3% developed HBcAb+ after LT. Eight percent developed de novo HBV: two recipients became hepatitis B surface antigen positive at 70 and 23 months and three experienced breakthrough with HBV DNA more than 2000 IU at 1 to 9 months after LT. Sixty percent (3 of 5) were HBV naïve. Four (6%) other recipients also had transiently detectable HBV less than 2000 IU, which did not require any changes to their prophylaxis regimen. When compared with recipients who received other nucleos(t)ide analogues, there was no difference in de novo rates: LAM 8% (5 of 62), adefovir 15% (5 of 33), tenofovir 0% (0 of 3), entecavir 0% (0 of 1), and 5% (1 of 20) for those not given prophylaxis (P=0.59). LAM monoprophylaxis was effective in preventing de novo HBV in the vast majority of recipients over long-term follow-up. Adefovir had a higher rate of de novo infections numerically, whereas tenofovir and entecavir had no cases and may be more effective, but this was limited by a small sample size.

  20. 77 FR 45895 - World Hepatitis Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... hepatitis, renew our support for those living with the disease, and recommit to a future free of this tragic... Proclamation Worldwide, one in twelve people is living with viral hepatitis--a disease that threatens the... Americans living with chronic hepatitis do not know they are infected. Hepatitis A and B can be prevented...

  1. Melatonin promotes hepatic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells: clinical implications for the prevention of liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Ah; Noh, Kwantae; Jue, Seong-Suk; Lee, So-Youn; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin's effect on hepatic differentiation of stem cells remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the action of melatonin on hepatic differentiation as well as its related signaling pathways of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and to examine the therapeutic effects of a combination of melatonin and hDPSC transplantation on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced liver fibrosis in mice. In vitro hepatic differentiation was assessed by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and mRNA expression for hepatocyte markers. Liver fibrosis model was established by injecting 0.5 mL/kg CCl4 followed by treatment with melatonin (5 mg/kg, twice a week) and hDPSCs. In vivo therapeutic effects were evaluated by histopathology and by means of liver function tests including measurement of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and ammonia levels. Melatonin promoted hepatic differentiation based on mRNA expression of differentiation markers and PAS-stained glycogen-laden cells. In addition, melatonin increased bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 expression and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, which was blocked by the BMP antagonist noggin. Furthermore, melatonin activated p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in hDPSCs. Melatonin-induced hepatic differentiation was attenuated by inhibitors of BMP, p38, ERK, and NF-κB. Compared to treatment of CCl4 -injured mice with either melatonin or hDPSC transplantation alone, the combination of melatonin and hDPSC significantly suppressed liver fibrosis and restored ALT, AST, and ammonia levels. For the first time, this study demonstrates that melatonin promotes hepatic differentiation of hDPSCs by modulating the BMP, p38, ERK, and NF-κB pathway. Combined treatment of grafted hDPSCs and melatonin could be a viable approach for the treatment of liver cirrhosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A high-fat, ketogenic diet causes hepatic insulin resistance in mice, despite increasing energy expenditure and preventing weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jornayvaz, François R; Jurczak, Michael J; Lee, Hui-Young; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Frederick, David W; Zhang, Dongyang; Zhang, Xian-Man; Samuel, Varman T; Shulman, Gerald I

    2010-11-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diets (KD) have been suggested to be more effective in promoting weight loss than conventional caloric restriction, whereas their effect on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism and the mechanisms by which they may promote weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to explore the role of KD on liver and muscle insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid metabolism, energy expenditure, and food intake. Using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, we studied insulin action in mice fed a KD or regular chow (RC). Body composition was assessed by ¹H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Despite being 15% lighter (P diabetes and the widespread use of KD for the treatment of obesity, these results may have potentially important clinical implications.

  3. Evaluation of a prison outreach clinic for the diagnosis and prevention of hepatitis C: implications for the national strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, C; Guy, J M; Parkes, J; Roderick, P; Rosenberg, W M

    2003-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem recognised by the UK National Strategy that proposes that a care pathway for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment be established in all prisons, integrated within managed clinical networks. A prison sentence provides the opportunity to focus on traditionally hard to reach patients. To evaluate the prevalence of HCV infection in a UK prison cluster and to assess the effectiveness of a prison outreach service for hepatitis C. Male prisoners. A nurse specialist led clinic within a cluster of adult prisons was established, offering health education on hepatitis C, advice on harm minimisation, and HCV testing. Infected prisoners were offered access to a care pathway leading to treatment. Outcome measures were uptake of the service, and diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C. A total of 8.5% of 1618 prisoners accepted testing: 30% had active infection with HCV. Most were ineligible for treatment due to psychiatric illness or did not receive treatment for logistic reasons. Injecting drug use was the major risk factor in all cases. Only 7% of HCV polymerase chain amplification positive inmates received treatment in prison. There is a large pool of HCV infected prisoners at risk of complications, constituting a source of infection during their sentence and after discharge. A prison outreach clinic and care pathway was perceived as effective in delivering health education, reducing the burden on prison and hospital services. It provided an opportunity for intervention but had a limited effect in eradicating HCV in prisoners and it remains unclear how this might be achieved.

  4. Pretransplant interferon prevents hepatitis C virus-associated glomerulonephritis in renal allografts by HCV-RNA clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzado, Josep M; Casanovas-Taltavull, Teresa; Torras, Joan; Baliellas, Carme; Gil-Vernet, Salvador; Grinyó, Josep M

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of pretransplant interferon administration on the occurrence of post-transplant de novo glomerulonephritis in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive renal allografts. From December 1992 to December 2000, 78 HCV-positive patients received a renal allograft in our unit. Fifteen out of 78 received pretransplant interferon for 1 year. Hepatitis C virus was investigated by serology and qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Hepatitis C virus-related de novo glomerulonephritis (membranoproliferative or membranous) was suggested by proteinuria (>1.5 g/24 h) and/or microhematuria and always diagnosed by renal biopsy. Of 15 HCV-positive recipients who received pretransplant interferon, 10 (67%) became HCV-RNA negative at the time of transplantation and only one out of the 15 (6.7%) developed de novo glomerulonephritis (this patient was HCV-RNA positive at transplantation). Among non-interferon-treated allograft recipients, 28.7% had negative HCV-RNA and 12 out of 63 (19%) developed de novo glomerulonephritis (9, membranoproliferative; 3 membranous), all 12 having positive HCV-RNA at transplantation (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, pretransplant interferon may reduce the occurrence of post-transplant HCV-related de novo glomerulonephritis. Our results suggest that the indication for pretransplant interferon should be extended to treat all HCV-RNA positive candidates for renal transplantation.

  5. Red peppers with moderate and severe pungency prevent the memory deficit and hepatic insulin resistance in diabetic rats with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Suna; Moon, Na Rang; Daily, James W; Park, Sunmin

    2015-01-01

    Dementia induced by β-amyloid accumulation impairs peripheral glucose homeostasis, but red pepper extract improves glucose homeostasis. We therefore evaluated whether long-term oral consumption of different red pepper extracts improves cognitive dysfunction and glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetic rats with β-amyloid-induced dementia. Male diabetic rats received hippocampal CA1 infusions of β-amyloid (25-35) (AD) or β-amyloid (35-25, non-plaque forming), at a rate of 3.6 nmol/day for 14 days (Non-AD). AD rats were divided into four dietary groups receiving either 1% lyophilized 70% ethanol extracts of either low, moderate and severe pungency red peppers (AD-LP, AD-MP, and AD-SP) or 1% dextrin (AD-CON) in Western diets (43% energy as fat). The ascending order of control memory deficit measured by passive avoidance test and water maze test. Furthermore, the accumulation of β-amyloid induced glucose intolerance, although serum insulin levels were elevated during the late phase of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All of the red pepper extracts prevented the glucose intolerance in AD rats. Consistent with OGTT results, during euglycemic hyperinulinemic clamp glucose infusion rates were lower in AD-CON than Non-AD-CON with no difference in whole body glucose uptake. Hepatic glucose output at the hyperinsulinemic state was increased in AD-CON. β-amyloid accumulation exacerbated hepatic insulin resistance, but all red pepper extract treatments reversed the insulin resistance in AD rats. The extracts of moderate and severe red peppers were found to prevent the memory deficit and exacerbation of insulin resistance by blocking tau phosphorylation and β-amyloid accumulation in diabetic rats with experimentally induced Alzheimer's-like dementia. These results suggest that red pepper consumption might be an effective intervention for preventing age-related memory deficit.

  6. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid all alcohol. Protect yourself from hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is an infectious liver disease caused by a virus. Untreated, it can lead to cirrhosis. If you have hepatitis C and drink alcohol, you're far more likely ...

  7. Inhibition of citrate cotransporter Slc13a5/mINDY by RNAi improves hepatic insulin sensitivity and prevents diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachs, Sebastian; Winkel, Angelika F; Tang, Hui; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Brunner, Bodo; Jahn-Hofmann, Kerstin; Margerie, Daniel; Ruetten, Hartmut; Schmoll, Dieter; Spranger, Joachim

    2016-11-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a world-wide health concern and risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases. Citrate uptake modifies intracellular hepatic energy metabolism and is controlled by the conserved sodium-dicarboxylate cotransporter solute carrier family 13 member 5 (SLC13A5, mammalian homolog of INDY: mINDY). In Drosophila melanogast er and Caenorhabditis elegans INDY reduction decreased whole-body lipid accumulation. Genetic deletion of Slc13a5 in mice protected from diet-induced adiposity and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that inducible hepatic mINDY inhibition should prevent the development of fatty liver and hepatic insulin resistance. Adult C57BL/6J mice were fed a Western diet (60% kcal from fat, 21% kcal from carbohydrate) ad libitum. Knockdown of mINDY was induced by weekly injection of a chemically modified, liver-selective siRNA for 8 weeks. Mice were metabolically characterized and the effect of mINDY suppression on glucose tolerance as well as insulin sensitivity was assessed with an ipGTT and a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Hepatic lipid accumulation was determined by biochemical measurements and histochemistry. Within the 8 week intervention, hepatic mINDY expression was suppressed by a liver-selective siRNA by over 60%. mINDY knockdown improved hepatic insulin sensitivity (i.e. insulin-induced suppression of endogenous glucose production) of C57BL/6J mice in the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Moreover, the siRNA-mediated mINDY inhibition prevented neutral lipid storage and triglyceride accumulation in the liver, while we found no effect on body weight. We show that inducible mINDY inhibition improved hepatic insulin sensitivity and prevented diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adult C57BL6/J mice. These effects did not depend on changes of body weight or body composition.

  8. Recommendations for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C in special population groups (migrants, intravenous drug users and prison inmates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasio, Piero L; Babudieri, Sergio; Barbarini, Giorgio; Brunetto, Maurizia; Conte, Dario; Dentico, Pietro; Gaeta, Giovanni B; Leonardi, Claudio; Levrero, Massimo; Mazzotta, Francesco; Morrone, Aldo; Nosotti, Lorenzo; Prati, Daniele; Rapicetta, Maria; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Scotto, Gaetano; Starnini, Giulio

    2011-08-01

    The global spread of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), their high chronicity rates and their progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, are major public health problems. Research and intervention programmes for special population groups are needed in order to assess their infection risk and set up suitable prevention and control strategies. Aim of this paper is to give health care professionals information on HBV and HCV infections amongst migrants, drug users and prison inmates. The manuscript is an official Position Paper on behalf of the following Scientific Societies: Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (A.I.S.F.), Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Diseases (S.I.M.I.T.), Italian Federation Department's Operators and Addiction Services (FederSerD), Italian Prison Medicine and Healthcare Society (S.I.M.S.Pe.). The considered population groups, having a high prevalence HBV and HCV infections, require specific interventions. In this context, the expression "special population" refers to specific vulnerable groups at risk of social exclusion, such as migrants, prison inmates, and intravenous drug users. When dealing with special population groups, social, environmental and clinical factors should be considered when selecting candidates for therapy as indicated by national and international guidelines. Copyright © 2010 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevention of hepatitis C virus infection in chimpanzees by hyperimmune serum against the hypervariable region 1 of the envelope 2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farci, P; Shimoda, A; Wong, D; Cabezon, T; De Gioannis, D; Strazzera, A; Shimizu, Y; Shapiro, M; Alter, H J; Purcell, R H

    1996-12-24

    The identification of the neutralization domains of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is essential for the development of an effective vaccine. Here, we show that the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the envelope 2 (E2) protein is a critical neutralization domain of HCV. Neutralization of HCV in vitro was attempted with a rabbit hyperimmune serum raised against a homologous synthetic peptide derived from the HVR1 of the E2 protein, and the residual infectivity was evaluated by inoculation of HCV-seronegative chimpanzees. The source of HCV was plasma obtained from a patient (H) during the acute phase of posttransfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis, which had been titered for infectivity in chimpanzees. The anti-HVR1 antiserum induced protection against homologous HCV infection in chimpanzees, but not against the emergence of neutralization escape mutants that were found to be already present in the complex viral quasispecies of the inoculum. The finding that HVR1 can elicit protective immunity opens new perspectives for the development of effective preventive strategies. However, the identification of the most variable region of HCV as a critical neutralization domain poses a major challenge for the development of a broadly reactive vaccine against HCV.

  10. [Study on the role of autophagy in heme oxygenase 1 preventing hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Sheng; Li, Jintai; Liu, Yi

    2017-03-01

    To identify the role of autopahgy in the protective mechanism of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Forty healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly (random number table) divided into five groups (n = 8 in each group), namely sham group, model group, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) group, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) group and 6-amino-3-methylpurine (3-MA) group. Partial hepatic I/R model was established by clamping the pedicles of left and median lobes for 1 hour and reopening for 6 hours in rats, and the rats in sham group were only received celiotomp without hepatic I/R. In the CoPP group, CoPP (a HO-1 inducer, 5 mg/kg) was administered i.p 24 hours before I/R. In the ZnPP or 3-MA group, besides pretreatment with CoPP, the rats were given ZnPP (a HO-1 inhibitor, 25 mg/kg) or 3-MA (an autophagy inhibitor, 30 mg/kg) i.p 1 hour before I/R. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was determined with automatic biochemistry analyzer. The hepatic pathological scores (PS) were determined under light microscope using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The hepatocyte apoptosis index (AI) was assessed with terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Autophagosomes in liver tissue were counted under electron microscope. The mRNA expressions of HO-1, caspase-3, Beclin-1 and Atg-5 in the liver were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The HO-1 activity was also measured by the generation of bilirubin with the method of double-wave spectrophotometry. Compared with the sham group, the level of serum ALT significantly increased in the I/R group (U/L: 560.3±73.6 vs. 49.1±13.8, P ZnPP group, the activity of HO-1 was much lower than that in the CoPP group, and as a result autophagy was decreased and liver injury was increased. In the 3-MA group, although there was no difference in the activity of HO-1 compared with that in the CoPP group, autophagy was inhibited

  11. Screening for Hepatitis C Infections in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Adults The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Hepatitis ...

  12. 78 FR 46247 - World Hepatitis Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... raise awareness among communities hardest hit by viral hepatitis, organizing campaigns to prevent new... hepatitis, talk to family, friends, and neighbors who may be at risk, and to speak with healthcare providers...

  13. Preventive and curative effects of Cocculus hirsutus (Linn. Diels leaves extract on CCl4 provoked hepatic injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Goodla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the protective or curative potency of an extract from Cocculus hirsutus leaves against CCl4 intoxication via its antioxidant property in rats. Liver enzyme markers (SGOT, SGPT, ALP, LDH, and bilirubin and oxidative stress markers {lipid peroxidation (LPO, enzymatic antioxidants [superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase] and non-enzymatic antioxidants [reduced glutathione, vitamin C and E]} were analyzed by spectrophotometry. Histopathological studies on hepatic tissue were also performed by the method of Hematoxylin and Eosin staining. Rats administrated with 30% CCl4 in olive oil intraperitoneally resulted in significant increase in the levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, LDH, and bilirubin compared to control rats. Significant elevation of hepatic LPO and depletion of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants levels were observed in CCl4 induced rats. When CCl4 induced rats were co-treated with C. hirsutus at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b·wt, all the altered levels of liver marker enzymes and oxidative stress markers were restored to near control values. Histopathological studies provided direct evidence of the hepatoprotective effect of C. hirsutus. In conclusion, extract from C. hirsutus could protect the liver from CCl4-induced oxidative damage, by scavenging the free radicals generated during the metabolism of CCl4. Keywords: Antioxidants, Carbon tetrachloride, Cocculus hirsutus, Hepatoprotective effect, Lipid peroxidation

  14. Sibiriline, a new small chemical inhibitor of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1, prevents immune-dependent hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cann, Fabienne; Delehouzé, Claire; Leverrier-Penna, Sabrina; Filliol, Aveline; Comte, Arnaud; Delalande, Olivier; Desban, Nathalie; Baratte, Blandine; Gallais, Isabelle; Piquet-Pellorce, Claire; Faurez, Florence; Bonnet, Marion; Mettey, Yvette; Goekjian, Peter; Samson, Michel; Vandenabeele, Peter; Bach, Stéphane; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse

    2017-09-01

    Necroptosis is a regulated form of cell death involved in several disease models including in particular liver diseases. Receptor-interacting protein kinases, RIPK1 and RIPK3, are the main serine/threonine kinases driving this cell death pathway. We screened a noncommercial, kinase-focused chemical library which allowed us to identify Sibiriline as a new inhibitor of necroptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD)-deficient Jurkat cells. Moreover, Sib inhibits necroptotic cell death induced by various death ligands in human or mouse cells while not protecting from caspase-dependent apoptosis. By using competition binding assay and recombinant kinase assays, we demonstrated that Sib is a rather specific competitive RIPK1 inhibitor. Molecular docking analysis shows that Sib is trapped closed to human RIPK1 adenosine triphosphate-binding site in a relatively hydrophobic pocket locking RIPK1 in an inactive conformation. In agreement with its RIPK1 inhibitory property, Sib inhibits both TNF-induced RIPK1-dependent necroptosis and RIPK1-dependent apoptosis. Finally, Sib protects mice from concanavalin A-induced hepatitis. These results reveal the small-molecule Sib as a new RIPK1 inhibitor potentially of interest for the treatment of immune-dependent hepatitis. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. Institute of Medicine's Report on Viral Hepatitis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the 2010 report, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C, from the Institute of Medicine.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  16. Gaps in the prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus between recommendations and routine practices in a highly endemic region: a provincial population-based study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is endemic in China; perinatal transmission is the main source of chronic HBV infection. Simultaneous administration of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG and hepatitis B vaccine is highly effective to prevent perinatal transmission of HBV; however, the effectiveness also depends on full adherence to the recommended protocols in daily practice. In the present investigation, we aimed to identify gaps in immunoprophylaxis of perinatal transmission of HBV between recommendations and routine practices in Jiangsu Province, China. Methods Totally 626 children from 6 cities and 8 rural areas across Jiangsu Province, China, born from February 2003 to December 2004, were enrolled; 298 were born to mothers with positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and 328 were born to HBsAg-negative mothers. Immunoprophylactic measures against hepatitis B were retrospectively reviewed for about half of the children by checking medical records or vaccination cards and the vaccine status was validated for most of children. Results Of 298 children born to HBV carrier mothers, 11 (3.7% were HBsAg positive, while none of 328 children born to non-carrier mothers was HBsAg positive (P  Conclusions There are substantial gaps in the prevention of perinatal HBV infection between the recommendations and routine practices in China, which highlights the importance of full adherence to the recommendations to eliminate perinatal HBV infection in the endemic regions.

  17. Genetic prevention of hepatitis C virus-induced liver fibrosis by allele-specific downregulation of MERTK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Marco; Pan, Gang; Nord, Helena; Wallén Arzt, Emelie; Wallerman, Ola; Wadelius, Claes

    2017-07-01

    Infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) can result in the development of liver fibrosis and may eventually progress into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the molecular mechanisms for this process are not fully known. Several genome-wide association studies have been carried out to pinpoint causative variants in HCV-infected patient cohorts, but these variants are usually not the functional ones. The aim of this study was to identify the regulatory single nucleotide polymorphism associated with the risk of HCV-induced liver fibrosis and elucidate its molecular mechanism. We utilized a bioinformatics approach to identify a non-coding regulatory variant, located in an intron of the MERTK gene, based on differential transcription factor binding between the alleles. We validated the results using expression reporter assays and electrophoresis mobility shift assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing indicated that transcription factor(s) bind stronger to the A allele of rs6726639. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays supported these findings and suggested that the transcription factor is interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1). Luciferase report assays showed lower enhancer activity from the A allele and that IRF1 may act as a repressor. Treatment of hepatitis C with interferon-α results in increased IRF1 levels and our data suggest that this leads to an allele-specific downregulation of MERTK mediated by an allelic effect on the regulatory element containing the functional rs6726639. This variant also shows the hallmarks for being the driver of the genome-wide association studies for reduced risk of liver fibrosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease at MERTK. © 2016 The Authors. Hepatology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Hepatology.

  18. Hepatitis C in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is a serious public health problem all over the world. It is caused by a single stranded RNA virus. Most acute infections are subclinical, but in 75% of individuals, infection leads to a chronic hepatitis, which in some cases can progress to cirrhosis and occasionally development of hepatoma. It has wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review article deals with the overview of epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, management and prevention.

  19. [Telbivudine for prevention of perinatal transmission in pregnant women infected with hepatitis B virus in immune-tolerant phase: a study of efficacy and safety of drug withdrawal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Q J; Ding, Y; Li, B J; Bai, H; Zhang, C; Han, C; Fan, Y X; Li, Y W; Dou, X G

    2016-04-01

    To observe the success rate of telbivudine (LdT) for the prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the incidence of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation during LdT treatment and after LdT withdrawal in HBV-infected pregnant woman with high viremia in immune-tolerant phase and receiving LdT treatment at the end of pregnancy, and to evaluate the efficacy of LdT in the prevention of perinatal transmission and the safety for pregnant women. Pregnant women infected with HBV in immune-tolerant phase who had normal ALT levels (≤40 U/L) and high viremia (HBV DNA ≥6 log10 IU/ml) with positive HBeAg were enrolled as subjects. All pregnant women received antiviral treatment with LdT at the end of pregnancy to prevent perinatal transmission of HBV. All infants received standard combined immunoprophylaxis. Failure for prevention of perinatal transmission of HBV was defined as positive HBsAg or HBV DNA in infants 7 months of age (or at one month after the third injection of hepatitis B vaccine). Liver function, HBV DNA, and HBV serological markers were evaluated at baseline, after 1 month of treatment, before childbirth, and 1, 3, and 6 months after drug withdrawal. SPSS 16.0 software was used to analyze the data. Between-group comparison of continuous data was made by t test, and comparison of categorical data was made by chi-square test. One hundred and four pregnant women (treatment group) received oral administration of 600 mg LdT once a day, and 25 pregnant women (observation group) did not receive any antiviral therapy. The success rate for the prevention of perinatal transmission was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the observation group (100% vs 89.47%, χ (2) = 9.862, P = 0.028). There was no significant difference in the incidence of ALT elevation during treatment and within 6 months after drug withdrawal between the treatment group and the observation group (4.81% (5/104) vs 4.00% (1/25), χ (2) = 0.030, P = 1

  20. Murine concanavalin A-induced hepatitis is prevented by interleukin 12 (IL-12) antibody and exacerbated by exogenous IL-12 through an interferon-gamma-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, F; Di Marco, R; Zaccone, P

    2000-01-01

    Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis is a cell-mediated immunoinflammatory condition similar to human autoimmune hepatitis. We investigated the role of interleukin 12 (IL-12) in hepatitis induced in NMRI and C57/BL6 mice by a single injection of ConA. Recombinant murine IL-12 administered 24...

  1. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  2. Evaluation of policies and practices to prevent mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus in China: results from China GAVI project final evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fuqiang; Luo, Huiming; Wang, Fuzhen; Zheng, Hui; Gong, Xiaohong; Chen, Yuansheng; Wu, Zhenhua; Miao, Ning; Kane, Mark; Hennessey, Karen; Hadler, Stephen C; Hutin, Yvan J; Liang, Xiaofeng; Yang, Weizhong

    2013-12-27

    Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT) has remained a leading cause of HBV infection in China, accounting for 40% of total infections. Providing hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) to all infants within 24h of birth (Timely Birth Dose, TBD), and subsequent completion of at least 3 vaccine doses is key to preventing perinatal HBV infection. In 2002, with the financial support of the Global Alliance on Vaccine and Immunization (GAVI) targeted to Western region and 223 poverty-affected counties in Central region, hepatitis B vaccine was provided for free. In 2010, we evaluated the China GAVI project in terms of its activities to prevent perinatal infections. The objectives of the evaluation were to (1) measure achievements in the China GAVI project in terms of TBD coverage, and (2) describe practices for HBsAg screening of pregnant women and HBIG use outside the GAVI China project. We used the methods recommended by WHO to select a cluster sample of health care facilities for the purpose of an injection safety assessment. We stratified China into three regions based on economic criteria, and selected eight counties with a probability proportional to population size in each region. In each selected county, we selected (a) 10 townships at random among the list of townships of the county and (b) the one county level hospital. In each hospital, we abstracted 2002 through 2009 records to collect information regarding birth cohorts, hospitals deliveries, vaccine management, hepatitis B vaccination delivery, HBsAg screening practices and results, and HBIG administration. In addition, in all hospitals, we abstracted records regarding the delivery of TBD. We visited 244 facilities in the three regions, including 24 county hospitals and 220 township hospitals. We reviewed 837,409 birth summary records, 699,249 for infants born at county or township hospitals. Hospital delivery rates increased from 58% in 2002 to 93% in 2009. Surveyed TBD coverage increased from 60% in 2002 to 91% in 2009

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Hepatitis B Vaccination Strategies to Prevent Perinatal Transmission in North Korea: Selective Vaccination vs. Universal Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    To tackle the high prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in North Korea, it is essential that birth doses of HBV vaccines should be administered within 24 hours of birth. As the country fails to provide a Timely Birth Dose (TBD) of HBV vaccine, the efforts of reducing the high prevalence of HBV have been significantly hampered. To examine the cost-effectiveness of vaccination strategies to prevent perinatal transmission of HBV in North Korea, we established a decision tree with a Markov model consisting of selective, universal, and the country's current vaccination program against HBV. The cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from societal and payer's perspectives and evaluated by Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY). The results suggest that introducing the universal vaccination would prevent 1,866 cases of perinatal infections per 100,000 of the birth cohort of 2013. Furthermore, 900 cases of perinatal infections per 100,000 could be additionally averted if switching to the selective vaccination. The current vaccination is a dominated strategy both from the societal and payer's perspective. The Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) between universal and selective vaccination is $267 from the societal perspective and is reported as $273 from the payer's perspective. Based on the assumption that the 2012 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in North Korea, $582.6 was set for cost-effectiveness criteria, the result of this study indicates that selective vaccination may be a highly cost-effective strategy compared to universal vaccination.

  4. Juglone prevents metabolic endotoxemia-induced hepatitis and neuroinflammation via suppressing TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in high-fat diet rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaohui; Nie, Yao; Wu, Jianjun; Huang, Qiang; Cheng, Yuqiang

    2015-07-03

    Juglone as a natural production mainly extracted from green walnut husks of Juglans mandshurica has been defined as the functional composition among a series of compounds. It showed powerful protective effect in various diseases by inhibiting inflammation and tumor cells growth. However, studies on its anti-inflammatory effect based on high-fat diet-induced hepatitis and neuroinflammation are still not available. In this regard, we first investigated whether juglone suppresses high-fat diet-stimulated liver injury, hypothalamus inflammation and underlying mechanisms by which they may recover them. SD rats were orally treated with or without high-fat diet, 0.25 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg juglone for 70 days. Subsequently, blood, hypothalamus and liver tissue were collected for different analysis. Also, the primary astrocytes were isolated and used to analyze the inhibitory effect of juglone in vitro. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines declared that the inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 could be carried by juglone in response to high-fat diet rats. Meanwhile, TLR4 expression and NF-kappa activity also have been confirmed to be the key link in the development of hepatitis and nerve inflammation. The activation was significantly suppressed in treatment group as compared with model. These results indicated that juglone prevents high-fat diet-induced liver injury and nerve inflammation in mice through inhibition of inflammatory cytokine secretion, NF-kappa B activation and endotoxin production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Seroprevalence Study of Hepatitis B and C Virus Infections in a Hospitalized Population in Romania, an Opportunity for a Better National Prevention and Control Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Odette; Molnar, Geza B; Popovici, Florin; Janţă, Denisa; Pistol, Adriana; Azoicăi, Doina

    2016-03-01

    The most recent prevalence data for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Romania came from an ESEN 2 study (2002), and from a Romanian population-based study performed in 2008. Most of the previous studies were regional and performed in specific groups (blood donors, pregnant women, institutionalized people, etc) and had limited representativeness at the national level, both for HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The scarcity of prevalence data for HBV and HCV infection coming from the routine surveillance was also considered. The aim of our study was to obtain overall and age group specific estimates of the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections markers in Romania, in order to recommend evidence-based public health interventions. The main outcome was the proportion of persons with HBV, HCV and HBV+HCV infection markers, overall and by age group and gender. Our seroprevalence study ensured national representativeness for the targeted hospitalized population. A prospective collection of serum samples in hospital laboratories was completed between September and November 2013, using a systematic sampling. The study respected the confidentiality of personal data. We calculated the sample size using EpiInfo7 and used Z test - Two-tailed probability for statistical significance. The overall prevalence data estimated in our study were HBc Ab 28%, HBs Ag 4.2%, HBs Ab regardless of titer 64.1%, HBs Ab in titer of at least 10 mUI/ml and negative HBc Ab 17.5%; HCV Ab 5.6%; HBc Ab and HCV Ab 2.8%, as markers of double infection. The overall prevalence data estimated in our study for HBs Ag (4.2%) and HCV Ab (5.6%) correspond to a medium endemicity based on the WHO criteria. The estimated prevalence of HBV and HCV infection markers in the study population should represent an opportunity for a better national prevention and control strategy.

  6. A very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet prevents the progression of hepatic steatosis caused by hyperglycemia in a juvenile obese mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, T; Morita, N

    2012-11-12

    To investigate whether the improvement in hyperglycemia by dietary control influences hyperglycemia-induced pathologies in tissues of juvenile obese (ob/ob) mice. Five-week-old ob/ob mice were fed a very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) for 7 weeks. The blood glucose levels and body weight were monitored during this period. Biochemical parameters in the serum and tissue pathologies of the mice were analyzed at the end of the 7-week period. The hyperglycemic phenotype of the ob/ob mice was improved by KD feeding for 7 weeks. Surprisingly, we found that KD feeding also drastically reduced the hepatic steatosis phenotype in ob/ob mice, while their obesity phenotype was unaltered. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that several proteins found in the liver of ob/ob mice fed a regular chow diet were undetectable after being fed KD. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) MASCOT search and western blot analysis revealed that the proteins absent from the mice fed KD included fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), which are key enzymes for lipogenesis in the liver. Fatty acid analysis supported the results because the ratio of C18:1, which is a major product of lipogenesis, was reduced by KD feeding. However, C18:2, which cannot be synthesized in mammalian cells but is present in the KD, was found to be a major component in the liver of KD-fed ob/ob mice. Hyperglycemia promotes hepatic steatosis via the lipogenic pathway in the liver of juvenile ob/ob mice. However, the development of steatosis is prevented by feeding KD owing to an improvement in hyperglycemia. We found that the progression of steatosis is reflected by the composition of fatty acids in the total lipids of the liver and serum.

  7. Mutations that permit efficient replication of hepatitis C virus RNA in Huh-7 cells prevent productive replication in chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukh, Jens; Pietschmann, Thomas; Lohmann, Volker; Krieger, Nicole; Faulk, Kristina; Engle, Ronald E.; Govindarajan, Sugantha; Shapiro, Max; St. Claire, Marisa; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2002-01-01

    The development of a subgenomic replicon derived from the hepatitis C virus (HCV) strain Con1 enabled the study of viral RNA replication in Huh-7 cells. The level of replication of replicons, as well as full-length Con1 genomes, increased significantly by a combination of two adaptive mutations in NS3 (E1202G and T1280I) and a single mutation in NS5A (S2197P). However, these cell culture-adaptive mutations influenced in vivo infectivity. After intrahepatic transfection of chimpanzees, the wild-type Con1 genome was infectious and produced viral titers similar to those produced by other infectious HCV clones. Repeated independent transfections with RNA transcripts of a Con1 genome containing the three adaptive mutations failed to achieve active HCV infection. Furthermore, although a chimpanzee transfected with RNA transcripts of a Con1 genome with only the NS5A mutation became infected, this mutation was detected only in virus genomes recovered from serum at day 4; viruses recovered at day 7 had a reversion back to the original Con1 sequence. Our study demonstrates that mutations that are adaptive for replication of HCV in cell culture may be highly attenuating in vivo. PMID:12391335

  8. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  9. Trends in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of travel risk groups toward prevention of hepatitis B: results from the repeated cross-sectional Dutch Schiphol Airport Survey 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genderen, Perry J J; van Thiel, Pieter P A M; Mulder, Paul G H; Overbosch, D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the travellers' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) profile indicated an important educational need among those travelling to risk destinations. In the years 2002-2009 an annually repeated cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted at the Dutch Schiphol Airport with the aim to study trends in KAP of travel risk groups toward prevention of hepatitis B. The frequently encountered risk groups last-minute travellers, solo-travellers, business travellers, travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) and elderly travellers were specifically studied. A total of 3045 respondents were included in the survey. Travellers to destinations with a high risk for hepatitis B had significantly less accurate risk perceptions (knowledge) than travellers to low-risk destinations but no differences were observed in past risk-taking attitude. Protection rates against hepatitis B were significantly higher in travellers to high-risk destinations. There was a positive trend over the years in the proportion of travellers to high-risk destinations seeking travel health advice. In accordance with this, trend analyses also indicated rising protection rates against hepatitis B. No significant trends in protection over time were observed for the travel risk groups. The results of this repeated cross-sectional survey suggest an annual 10% increase in protection rates against hepatitis B in Dutch travellers, both to destinations with a high risk and to destinations with a lower risk of hepatitis B, but these trends in protection rates were not observed for the travel risk groups to high-risk destinations. The KAP profile of last-minute travellers and (to a lesser extent) VFRs showed an increased relative risk in hepatitis B, irrespective of the travel destination, underlining the need for specific targeting of these travel risk groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting alter hepatic lipid droplet proteome and diacylglycerol species and prevent diabetes in NZO mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeier, Christian; Kaiser, Daniel; Heeren, Jörg; Scheja, Ludger; John, Clara; Weise, Christoph; Eravci, Murat; Lagerpusch, Merit; Schulze, Gunnar; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schwenk, Robert Wolfgang; Schürmann, Annette

    2015-05-01

    Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting are known to improve glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in several species including humans. The aim of this study was to unravel potential mechanisms by which these interventions improve insulin sensitivity and protect from type 2 diabetes. Diabetes-susceptible New Zealand Obese mice were either 10% calorie restricted (CR) or fasted every other day (IF), and compared to ad libitum (AL) fed control mice. AL mice showed a diabetes prevalence of 43%, whereas mice under CR and IF were completely protected against hyperglycemia. Proteomic analysis of hepatic lipid droplets revealed significantly higher levels of PSMD9 (co-activator Bridge-1), MIF (macrophage migration inhibitor factor), TCEB2 (transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 2), ACY1 (aminoacylase 1) and FABP5 (fatty acid binding protein 5), and a marked reduction of GSTA3 (glutathione S-transferase alpha 3) in samples of CR and IF mice. In addition, accumulation of diacylglycerols (DAGs) was significantly reduced in livers of IF mice (P=0.045) while CR mice showed a similar tendency (P=0.062). In particular, 9 DAG species were significantly reduced in response to IF, of which DAG-40:4 and DAG-40:7 also showed significant effects after CR. This was associated with a decreased PKCε activation and might explain the improved insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, our data indicate that protection against diabetes upon caloric restriction and intermittent fasting associates with a modulation of lipid droplet protein composition and reduction of intracellular DAG species. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Role of the heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide pathway in the pathogenesis and prevention of hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu-Ming; Yin, Xue-Ying; Duan, Zhi-Jun; Guo, Shi-Bin; Sun, Xiao-Yu

    2013-07-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a severe complication of liver cirrhosis and its pathogenesis has yet to be fully elucidated. Previous studies have demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is important in the induction of liver cirrhosis. The present study aimed to investigate the role of HO-1 in the pathogenesis of HE. Rats were divided into 5 treatment groups; sham, bile duct ligation (BDL), HE, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP). The levels of HO-1 were examined by western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Serum levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), ammonia levels in the plasma and brain, brain water content and portal vein pressure (PVP) were also quantified. Aquaporin-4 expression levels were measured by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR. The results demonstrated that the levels of HO-1 in the brain and the serum levels of COHb were significantly increased in the HE group compared with the BDL group. Brain water content, PVP and ammonia levels in the plasma and brain were increased in the HE and CoPP groups; however, these were reduced following the treatment with ZnPP. The levels of AQP-4 expression and oxidative stress in the brain were reduced following treatment with ZnPP and increased following treatment with CoPP. In conclusion, following the inhibition of HO-1 expression, treatment with ZnPP improved HE due to reducing the expression levels of AQP-4 and oxidative stress. Therefore, ZnPP treatment may represent a novel therapeutic approach for HE.

  12. Hepatic Stellate Cell-Derived Microvesicles Prevent Hepatocytes from Injury Induced by APAP/H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renwei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, previously described for liver-specific mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, appear to contribute to liver regeneration. Microvesicles (MVs are nanoscale membrane fragments, which can regulate target cell function by transferring contents from their parent cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HSC-derived MVs on xenobiotic-induced liver injury. Rat and human hepatocytes, BRL-3A and HL-7702, were used to build hepatocytes injury models by n-acetyl-p-aminophenol n-(APAP or H2O2 treatment. MVs were prepared from human and rat HSCs, LX-2, and HST-T6 and, respectively, added to injured BRL-3A and HL-7702 hepatocytes. MTT assay was utilized to determine cell proliferation. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry and hoechst33258 staining. Western blot was used for analyzing the expression of activated caspase-3. Liver injury indicators, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in culture medium were also assessed. Results showed that (1 HSC-MVs derived from LX-2 and HST-T6 were positive to CD90 and annexin V surface markers; (2 HSC-MVs dose-dependently improved the viability of hepatocytes in both injury models; (3 HSC-MVs dose-dependently inhibited the APAP/H2O2 induced hepatocytes apoptosis and activated caspase-3 expression and leakage of LDH, ALT, and AST. Our results demonstrate that HSC-derived MVs protect hepatocytes from toxicant-induced injury.

  13. Hepatitis C virus treatment as prevention in an extended network of people who inject drugs in the USA: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenev, Alexei; Li, Jianghong; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Basu, Sanjay; Altice, Frederick L

    2018-02-01

    Chronic infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV are highly prevalent in the USA and concentrated in people who inject drugs. Treatment as prevention with highly effective new direct-acting antivirals is a prospective HCV elimination strategy. We used network-based modelling to analyse the effect of this strategy in HCV-infected people who inject drugs in a US city. Five graph models were fit using data from 1574 people who inject drugs in Hartford, CT, USA. We used a degree-corrected stochastic block model, based on goodness-of-fit, to model networks of injection drug users. We simulated transmission of HCV and HIV through this network with varying levels of HCV treatment coverage (0%, 3%, 6%, 12%, or 24%) and varying baseline HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs (30%, 60%, 75%, or 85%). We compared the effectiveness of seven treatment-as-prevention strategies on reducing HCV prevalence over 10 years and 20 years versus no treatment. The strategies consisted of treatment assigned to either a randomly chosen individual who injects drugs or to an individual with the highest number of injection partners. Additional strategies explored the effects of treating either none, half, or all of the injection partners of the selected individual, as well as a strategy based on respondent-driven recruitment into treatment. Our model estimates show that at the highest baseline HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs (85%), expansion of treatment coverage does not substantially reduce HCV prevalence for any treatment-as-prevention strategy. However, when baseline HCV prevalence is 60% or lower, treating more than 120 (12%) individuals per 1000 people who inject drugs per year would probably eliminate HCV within 10 years. On average, assigning treatment randomly to individuals who inject drugs is better than targeting individuals with the most injection partners. Treatment-as-prevention strategies that treat additional network members are among the best performing

  14. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis commonly have other autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, an autoimmune disease in ... 2 can also have any of the above autoimmune disorders. What are the symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis? The ...

  15. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  16. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEPATITIS C & INCARCERATION What is hepatitis? “Hepatitis” means inflammation or swelling of the liver. The liver is an ... of viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. They are all different from each other and ...

  17. Risk factors for hepatitis C seropositivity among young people who inject drugs in New York City: Implications for prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Eckhardt

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection remains a significant problem in the United States, with people who inject drugs (PWID disproportionately afflicted. Over the last decade rates of heroin use have more than doubled, with young persons (18-25 years demonstrating the largest increase.We conducted a cross-sectional study in New York City from 2005 to 2012 among young people who injected illicit drugs, and were age 18 to 35 or had injected drugs for ≤5 years, to examine potentially modifiable factors associated with HCV among young adults who began injecting during the era of syringe services.Among 714 participants, the median age was 24 years; the median duration of drug injection was 5 years; 31% were women; 75% identified as white; 69% reported being homeless; and 48% [95% CI 44-52] had HCV antibodies. Factors associated with HCV included older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.99 [1.52-2.63]; p<0.001, longer duration of injection drug use (AOR, 1.68 [1.39-2.02]; p<0.001,more frequent injection (AOR, 1.26 [1.09-1.45]; p = 0.001, using a used syringe with more individuals (AOR, 1.26 [1.10-1.46]; p = 0.001, less confidence in remaining uninfected (AOR, 1.32 [1.07-1.63]; p<0.001, injecting primarily in public or outdoors spaces (AOR, 1.90 [1.33-2.72]; p<0.001, and arrest for carrying syringes (AOR, 3.17 [1.95-5.17]; p<0.001.Despite the availability of harm reduction services, the seroprevalence of HCV in young PWID in New York City remained high and constant during 2005-2012. Age and several injection behaviors conferred independent risk. Individuals were somewhat aware of their own risk. Public and outdoor injection and arrest for possession of a syringe are risk factors for HCV that can be modified through structural interventions.

  18. Hepatitis Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... others, the virus can cause long-term, chronic liver disease . Hepatitis C is most often spread by contact with infected ... contact with an infected person. Many people with hepatitis C develop chronic liver disease and cirrhosis . A hepatitis panel includes tests for ...

  19. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  20. Prevention of hepatitis C recurrence by bridging sofosbuvir/ribavirin from pre- to post-liver transplant: a real-life strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Maria Francesca; Morelli, Cristina; Romagnoli, Renato; Invernizzi, Federica; Mazzarelli, Chiara; Iemmolo, Rosa Maria; Montalbano, Marzia; Lenci, Ilaria; Bhoori, Sherrie; Pieri, Giulia; Berardi, Sonia; Caraceni, Paolo; Martini, Silvia

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) re-infection following liver transplant (LT) is associated with reduced graft and patient survival. Before transplant, Sofosbuvir/Ribavirin (SOF/R) treatment prevents recurrent HCV in 96% of those patients achieving viral suppression for at least 4 weeks before transplant. We evaluated whether a bridging SOF-regimen from pre- to post-transplant is safe and effective to prevent HCV recurrence in those patients with less than 4 weeks of HCV-RNA undetectability at the time of transplant. From July 2014 SOF/R was given in 233 waitlisted HCV cirrhotics with/without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within an Italian Compassionate Program. One hundred patients were transplanted and 31 patients (31%) treated with SOF/R bridging therapy were studied. Liver transplant indication in bridge subgroup was HCC in 22 and decompensated cirrhosis in 9. HCV-genotype was 1/4 in 18 patients. SOF 400 mg/day and R (median dosage 800 mg/day) were given for a median of 35 days before LT. At transplant time, 19 patients were still HCV-RNA positive (median HCV-RNA 58 IU/mL). One recipient had a virological breakthrough at week 4 post-transplant; one died, on treatment, 1-month post-transplant for sepsis and 29/31 achieved a 12-week sustained virological response (94%). Acute cellular rejection occurred in three recipients. On September 2016, 30 recipients (97%) were alive with a median follow-up of 18 months (range 13-25). In patients with suboptimal virological response at LT, a bridging SOF/R regimen helps avoiding post-transplant graft reinfection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Prospective analysis of tiopronin in prevention of sorafenib and antiviral therapy inducing liver toxicity in advanced hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhua; Qiu, Xinguang; Guo, Wenzhi; Yan, Bing; Zhang, Shuijun

    2015-10-01

    Hepatotoxicity induced by sorafenib and antiviral therapy is a limitation for its continuation treatment for patients with advanced hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This prospective study determined the efficacy of tiopronin in hepatotoxicity prevention of HBV-related HCC treatment. Eighty-two patients (median age, 50 years; 71 % male) of advanced HCC treated with sorafenib and antiviral therapy were included, of whom 40 were given the supplementation of tiopronin. The primary endpoint was liver function which was checked before the treatment and every week during the therapy. Besides, course discontinuations, dose reductions, HBV DNA levels and treatment efficacy were evaluated. Patient characteristics and liver function were comparable (p > 0.05). The proportion of abnormal liver function was significantly lower in tiopronin group than in control group including alanine transaminase (ALT, p = 0.035), aspartate aminotransferase (AST, p = 0.041), total bilirubin (TBIL, p = 0.021) and albumin (ALB, p = 0.001). Rates of course discontinuations (p = 0.024) and dose reductions (p = 0.046) were significantly lower in tiopronin groups, and disease control rate (p = 0.036) was higher. No difference was found in HBV DNA level. Multivariate regression analysis showed that sorafenib (OR 7.837; 95 % CI 3.845-15.333; p = 0.004), antiviral therapy (OR 3.871; 95 % CI 1.572-9.569; p = 0.044) and hepatoprotective drug (OR 3.007; 95 % CI 1.321-6.308; p = 0.046) played important roles in clinical outcome. Tiopronin tends to prevent the HCC patients from the treatment-induced hepatotoxicity, enhance patients' tolerance to sorafenib and antiviral therapy and even improve the cancer treatment efficacy.

  2. COH-SR4 reduces body weight, improves glycemic control and prevents hepatic steatosis in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lester Figarola

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, and is one of the principal causative factors in the development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cancer. COH-SR4 ("SR4" is a novel investigational compound that has anti-cancer and anti-adipogenic properties. In this study, the effects of SR4 on metabolic alterations in high fat diet (HFD-induced obese C57BL/J6 mice were investigated. Oral feeding of SR4 (5 mg/kg body weight. in HFD mice for 6 weeks significantly reduced body weight, prevented hyperlipidemia and improved glycemic control without affecting food intake. These changes were associated with marked decreases in epididymal fat mass, adipocyte hypertrophy, increased plasma adiponectin and reduced leptin levels. SR4 treatment also decreased liver triglycerides, prevented hepatic steatosis, and normalized liver enzymes. Western blots demonstrated increased AMPK activation in liver and adipose tissues of SR4-treated HFD obese mice, while gene analyses by real time PCR showed COH-SR4 significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (Srebf1, acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (Acaca, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg, fatty acid synthase (Fasn, stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr, as well as gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1 and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc in the liver of obese mice. In vitro, SR4 activates AMPK independent of upstream kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1 and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ. Together, these data suggest that SR4, a novel AMPK activator, may be a promising therapeutic compound for treatment of obesity, fatty liver disease, and related metabolic disorders.

  3. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  4. Preventive effect of the flavonoid, quercetin, on hepatic cancer in rats via oxidant/antioxidant activity: molecular and histological evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seufi AlaaEddeen M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma is increasing in many countries. The estimated number of new cases annually is over 500,000, and the yearly incidence comprises between 2.5 and 7% of patients with liver cirrhosis. The incidence varies between different geographic areas, being higher in developing areas; males are predominantly affected, with a 2:3 male/female ratio Methods Experiments were designed to examine the effect of N-Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA as cancer-inducer compound and to confirm the preventive effect of the flavonoid quercetin on hepatocellular carcinoma in rats. Briefly, thirty six male albino rats of Wistar strain were divided into 3 groups: the 1st group was administered NDEA alone (NDEA-treated, the 2nd group was treated simultaneously with NDEA and quercetin (NDEA+Q and the 3rd group was used as control (CON. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR as well as p53-specifi PCR assays were employed to determine genomic difference between treated, and control animals. Histological confirmation as well as oxidant/antioxidant status of the liver tissue was done. Results RAPD analysis of liver samples generated 8 monomorphic bands and 22 polymorphic bands in a total of 30-banded RAPD patterns. Cluster analysis and statistical analyses of RAPD data resulted in grouping control and NDEA+Q samples in the same group with 80% similarity cut-off value. NDEA-treated samples were clustered in a separate group. Specific PCR assay for polymorphism of P53 gene revealed a uniform pattern of allele separation in both control and NDEA+Q samples. Quercetin anticancer effect was exhibited in significant decrease of oxidative stress and significant decrease of antioxidant activity. Histopathological studies showed normal liver histology of the NDEA+Q samples. Meanwhile, several cancer-induced features were clearly observable in NDEA-treated samples. Conclusion This paper demonstrated that

  5. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  6. Prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission in the Netherlands, 2003-2007: Children of Chinese mothers are at increased risk of breakthrough infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahné, Susan; van den Hoek, Anneke; Baayen, Dorothé; van der Sande, Marianne; de Melker, Hester; Boot, Hein

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, different hepatitis B vaccination schedules have been used for children born to HBV-infected mothers. All schedules included a birth dose of hepatitis B immunoglobuline (HBIg). We assessed determinants of perinatal HBV transmission and determinants of anti-HBs titers

  7. Global, regional, and country-level coverage of interventions to prevent and manage HIV and hepatitis C among people who inject drugs: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larney, Sarah; Peacock, Amy; Leung, Janni; Colledge, Samantha; Hickman, Matthew; Vickerman, Peter; Grebely, Jason; Dumchev, Kostyantyn V; Griffiths, Paul; Hines, Lindsey; Cunningham, Evan B; Mattick, Richard P; Lynskey, Michael; Marsden, John; Strang, John; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2017-12-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are a key population affected by the global HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics. HIV and HCV prevention interventions for PWID include needle and syringe programmes (NSP), opioid substitution therapy (OST), HIV counselling and testing, HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART), and condom distribution programmes. We aimed to produce country-level, regional, and global estimates of coverage of NSP, OST, HIV testing, ART, and condom programmes for PWID. We completed searches of peer-reviewed (MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO), internet, and grey literature databases, and disseminated data requests via social media and targeted emails to international experts. Programme and survey data on each of the named interventions were collected. Programme data were used to derive country-level estimates of the coverage of interventions in accordance with indicators defined by WHO, UNAIDS, and the UN Office on Drugs and Crime. Regional and global estimates of NSP, OST, and HIV testing coverage were also calculated. The protocol was registered on PROSPERO, number CRD42017056558. In 2017, of 179 countries with evidence of injecting drug use, some level of NSP services were available in 93 countries, and there were 86 countries with evidence of OST implementation. Data to estimate NSP coverage were available for 57 countries, and for 60 countries to estimate OST coverage. Coverage varied widely between countries, but was most often low according to WHO indicators (200 needle-syringes distributed per PWID and >40 OST recipients per 100 PWID). Coverage of HIV and HCV prevention interventions for PWID remains poor and is likely to be insufficient to effectively prevent HIV and HCV transmission. Scaling up of interventions for PWID remains a crucial priority for halting the HIV and HCV epidemics. Open Society Foundations, The Global Fund, WHO, UNAIDS, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Australian National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of

  8. Modulation of hepatic stellate cells and reversibility of hepatic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu, E-mail: 1293363632@QQ.com [Faculty of Graduate Studies of Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530001, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (China); Deng, Xin, E-mail: Hendly@163.com [Ruikang Hospital Affiliated to Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, 10 East China Road, Nanning 530011, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (China); Liang, Jian, E-mail: lj99669@163.com [Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530001, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (China)

    2017-03-15

    Hepatic fibrosis (HF) is the pathological component of a variety of chronic liver diseases. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the main collagen-producing cells in the liver and their activation promotes HF. If HSC activation and proliferation can be inhibited, HF occurrence and development can theoretically be reduced and even reversed. Over the past ten years, a number of studies have addressed this process, and here we present a review of HSC modulation and HF reversal. - Highlights: • We present a review of the modulation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and reversibility of hepatic fibrosis (HF). • HSC are the foci of HF occurrence and development, HF could be prevented and treated by modulating HSC. • If HSC activation and proliferation can be inhibited, HF could theoretically be inhibited and even reversed. • Prevention or reversal of HSC activation, or promotion of HSC apoptosis, immune elimination, and senescence may prevent, inhibit or reverse HF.

  9. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  10. Minimal hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase-α activity required to sustain survival and prevent hepatocellular adenoma formation in murine glycogen storage disease type Ia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Mok; Kim, Goo-Young; Pan, Chi-Jiunn; Mansfield, Brian C.; Chou, Janice Y.

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia), characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and chronic risk of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA), is caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC) activity. In a previous 70–90 week-study, we showed that a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector-mediated gene transfer that restores more than 3% of wild-type hepatic G6Pase-α activity in G6pc−/− mice corrects hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency with no evidence of HCA. We now examine the minimal hepatic G6Pase-α activity required to confer therapeutic efficacy. We show that rAAV-treated G6pc−/− mice expressing 0.2% of wild-type hepatic G6Pase-α activity suffered from frequent hypoglycemic seizures at age 63–65 weeks but mice expressing 0.5–1.3% of wild-type hepatic G6Pase-α activity (AAV-LL mice) sustain 4–6 h of fast and grow normally to age 75–90 weeks. Despite marked increases in hepatic glycogen accumulation, the AAV-LL mice display no evidence of hepatic abnormalities, hepatic steatosis, or HCA. Interprandial glucose homeostasis is maintained by the G6Pase-α/glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT) complex, and G6PT-mediated microsomal G6P uptake is the rate-limiting step in endogenous glucose production. We show that hepatic G6PT activity is increased in AAV-LL mice. These findings are encouraging for clinical studies of G6Pase-α gene-based therapy for GSD-Ia. PMID:26937391

  11. Minimal hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase-α activity required to sustain survival and prevent hepatocellular adenoma formation in murine glycogen storage disease type Ia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Mok Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia, characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and chronic risk of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA, is caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC activity. In a previous 70–90 week-study, we showed that a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV vector-mediated gene transfer that restores more than 3% of wild-type hepatic G6Pase-α activity in G6pc−/− mice corrects hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency with no evidence of HCA. We now examine the minimal hepatic G6Pase-α activity required to confer therapeutic efficacy. We show that rAAV-treated G6pc−/− mice expressing 0.2% of wild-type hepatic G6Pase-α activity suffered from frequent hypoglycemic seizures at age 63–65 weeks but mice expressing 0.5–1.3% of wild-type hepatic G6Pase-α activity (AAV-LL mice sustain 4–6 h of fast and grow normally to age 75–90 weeks. Despite marked increases in hepatic glycogen accumulation, the AAV-LL mice display no evidence of hepatic abnormalities, hepatic steatosis, or HCA. Interprandial glucose homeostasis is maintained by the G6Pase-α/glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT complex, and G6PT-mediated microsomal G6P uptake is the rate-limiting step in endogenous glucose production. We show that hepatic G6PT activity is increased in AAV-LL mice. These findings are encouraging for clinical studies of G6Pase-α gene-based therapy for GSD-Ia.

  12. Deficiency of NOX1 or NOX4 Prevents Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis in Mice through Inhibition of Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Lan

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX play a key role in liver injury and fibrosis. Previous studies demonstrated that GKT137831, a dual NOX1/4 inhibitor, attenuated liver fibrosis in mice as well as pro-fibrotic genes in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs as well as hepatocyte apoptosis. The effect of NOX1 and NOX4 deficiency in liver fibrosis is unclear, and has never been directly compared. HSCs are the primary myofibroblasts in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Therefore, we aimed to determine the role of NOX1 and NOX4 in liver fibrosis, and investigated whether NOX1 and NOX4 signaling mediates liver fibrosis by regulating HSC activation. Mice were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 to induce liver fibrosis. Deficiency of either NOX1 or NOX4 attenuates liver injury, inflammation, and fibrosis after CCl4 compared to wild-type mice. NOX1 or NOX4 deficiency reduced lipid peroxidation and ROS production in mice with liver fibrosis. NOX1 and NOX4 deficiency are approximately equally effective in preventing liver injury in the mice. The NOX1/4 dual inhibitor GKT137831 suppressed ROS production as well as inflammatory and proliferative genes induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, or sonic hedgehog (Shh in primary mouse HSCs. Furthermore, the mRNAs of proliferative and pro-fibrotic genes were downregulated in NOX1 and NOX4 knock-out activated HSCs (cultured on plastic for 5 days. Finally, NOX1 and NOX4 protein levels were increased in human livers with cirrhosis compared with normal controls. Thus, NOX1 and NOX4 signaling mediates the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, including the direct activation of HSC.

  13. [Private companies: an opportunity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevention and care in Ivory Coast in the wake of HIV/AIDS?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekelynck, A

    2015-02-01

    In the 1990s, defenders of "aids exceptionnalism" have promised that the inequities caused by HIV/AIDS could provide leverage in the care of other health issues later. Fifteen years later, this argument can be rethought at the light of the current context of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Ivory Coast. In fact, in this country, the challenges caused by HBVecho those of HIV/AIDS fifteen years ago: high prevalence (8-10%), ignorance of the disease, and high cost of care. To this end, this article compares the role of private companies in the fights against HIV/AIDS in the 2000s and its role in the fight against HBV today. Although some private firms played a critical role in the promotion of universal access to ART, today, they are one of the few places where HBV screening, vaccination and treatment are offered in the country. HIV/AIDS opened the door for private companies to address other diseases through their health care systems. However, many challenges still need to be met: the absence of qualitative ongoing training for health professionals, illness representations and the costs of treatments, which are all related to the lack of international and national collective action. In Ivory Coast, at the early stage of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, national authorities took up the leadership in the fight against AIDS in West Africa, by developing extraverted strategies (Xth ICASA's organization, Unaids initiative hosting). The exceptional international mobilization and the creation of innovative funding mechanisms [International Therapeutic Solidarity Fund (ITSF), Global Fund (GM), and President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)] have facilitated easy access to ARV. Although 380 million people are infected by chronic HBV in the world, even so, international and national collective actions are fledgling and remained weak. Moreover, private firms have represented leverage for testing, treatment, and the provision of universal access to medication in the context of the HIV

  14. [Prevention of acute enteric infections and viral hepatitis A appearing in connection with a natural disaster in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butaev, T M; Gadzieva, G K; Kulaev, A M; Ambalova, B D

    2003-01-01

    Materials on the work of the sanitary and epidemiological service in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, aimed at the prophylaxis of acute enteric infections and viral hepatitis A under the conditions of the emergency situation caused natural calamities (inundation, high flood), are presented. The competent planning and operative realization of organizational, prophylactic and anti-epidemic measures have made it possible to keep morbidity in acute enteric infections and viral hepatitis A on a sporadic level.

  15. Current status and strategies for viral hepatitis control in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Hyun Sinn; Eun Ju Cho; Ji Hoon Kim; Do Young Kim; Yoon Jun Kim; Moon Seok Choi

    2017-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is one of major global health challenges with increasing disease burden worldwide. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections are major causes of chronic liver diseases. They can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death in significant portion of affected people. Transmission of hepatitis B virus can be blocked by vaccination. Progression of hepatitis B virus-related liver diseases can be prevented by long-term viral suppression with effective drugs. Altho...

  16. Hepatitis A, B, and C: Learn the Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The efficacy of latex condoms in preventing HCV infection is unknown, but their proper use may reduce transmission.) In addition to getting hepatitis A vac- cine, you should also get hepatitis B vaccine. ...

  17. [Hepatic complications in parenteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M J

    1996-01-01

    During parenteral nutrition hepatic complications are seen in about 15% of patients. They are characterized by steatosis, cholestasis and formation of sludge and bile stones. These hepatic complications depend on the duration as well as on the concept and mode of application of parenteral nutrition. They are more frequent after treatment periods of > 1-2 weeks, in response to a carbohydrate rich and low fat parenteral nutrition and in patients with extensive intestinal resection. Clinically, hepatic complications are frequently observed in new-borns and children, patients with inflammatory bowel disease, after ileum resection and in patients with hepatic malignancies. The exact pathophysiology of these phenomena is presently unknown. Enteral instead of parenteral nutrition, meeting the demand of nutrients, increasing fat supply (up to 50% of energy supply), "cyclic" parenteral nutrition and the addition of "semi-essential" nutrients (like L-glutamine, carnitin, cholin) are considered as possible strategies for the prevention and therapy of hepatic complications during parenteral nutrition.

  18. Hepatitis amebiana

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés Mendoza, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Se ha considerado habitualmente la hepatitis amebiana como una inflamación del parénquima hepático causada por localización del parásito mismo en el hígado, distinguiéndose la forma supurada o absceso y el estado presupurativo o hepatitis aguda.

  19. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 간염: 아시아 또는 태평양군도 계 미국인의 숙지 사항 (Korean) Hepatitis B: Mga Tip para sa mga Amerikano ... hepatitis A virus typically spreads through contact with food or water that has been contaminated by an ...

  20. Pediatric knowledge about acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Franca

    Full Text Available Knowledge about hepatotropic viruses is crucial for pediatricians because of the high prevalence of viral hepatitis during childhood. The multiplicity of hepatotropic viruses, the spectrum of acute and chronic infections, and the sequels of viral hepatitis result in a need for physicians to better understand the clinical and epidemiological context of patients with viral hepatitis, as well as the importance of prevention measures for hepatitis. A descriptive cross-sectional study was made of pediatrician's knowledge about viral hepatitis, through questionnaires to 574 pediatricians, with no obligation of identification. The pediatricians were recruited among those who attended a national Congress of Pediatrics in Brasília, Brazil. Among these pediatricians, 50.1% frequently treated cases of hepatitis, and 74.7% indicated that they had knowledge of the existence of five hepatotropic viruses; 14.5% knew about at least four types of hepatitis complications, while only 7.7% and 4.3% were able to correctly diagnose viral hepatitis A and B, respectively. Many (28.4% did not know how to treat the patients adequately. Only 37.5% had already recommended vaccination against hepatitis B. Only 50.2% of the pediatricians had been vaccinated against hepatitis B. We concluded that it is crucial to make pediatricians more knowledgeable about viral hepatitis, through continued education programs, especially emphasizing prevention procedures.

  1. Dietary phytic acid prevents fatty liver by reducing expression of hepatic lipogenic enzymes and modulates gut microflora in rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekita, Ayaka; Okazaki, Yukako; Katayama, Tetsuyuki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of phytic acid (PA) on fatty liver and gut microflora in rats fed a high-sucrose (HSC) diet. Three groups of rats were fed a high-starch (HSR) diet or an HSC diet with or without 1.02% sodium PA for 12 d. We evaluated hepatic weight, total lipids, and triacylglycerol (TG) levels, the activities and expression of hepatic lipogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme 1, and fatty acid synthetase), and fecal microflora. The HSC diet significantly increased hepatic total lipids and TG levels, and the activities and expression of the hepatic lipogenic enzymes compared with the HSR diet. These upregulations were clearly suppressed by dietary PA. Consumption of PA elevated the fecal ratio of Lactobacillus spp. and depressed the ratio of Clostridium cocoides, and suppressed the elevation in the ratio of C. leptum induced by the HSC diet. This work showed that dietary PA ameliorates sucrose-induced fatty liver through reducing the expression of hepatic lipogenesis genes and modulates gut microflora in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 3,5 Diiodo-L-Thyronine (T2 Does Not Prevent Hepatic Steatosis or Insulin Resistance in Fat-Fed Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F Vatner

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone mimetics are alluring potential therapies for diseases like dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and insulin resistance. Though diiodothyronines are thought inactive, pharmacologic treatment with 3,5- Diiodo-L-Thyronine (T2 reportedly reduces hepatic lipid content and improves glucose tolerance in fat-fed male rats. To test this, male Sprague Dawley rats fed a safflower-oil based high-fat diet were treated with T2 (0.25 mg/kg-d or vehicle. Neither 10 nor 30 days of T2 treatment had an effect on weight, adiposity, plasma fatty acids, or hepatic steatosis. Insulin action was quantified in vivo by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. T2 did not alter fasting plasma glucose or insulin concentration. Basal endogenous glucose production (EGP rate was unchanged. During the clamp, there was no difference in insulin stimulated whole body glucose disposal. Insulin suppressed EGP by 60% ± 10 in T2-treated rats as compared with 47% ± 4 suppression in the vehicle group (p = 0.32. This was associated with an improvement in hepatic insulin signaling; insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation was ~2.5 fold greater in the T2-treated group as compared with the vehicle-treated group (p = 0.003. There was no change in expression of genes thought to mediate the effect of T2 on hepatic metabolism, including genes that regulate hepatic lipid oxidation (ppara, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a, genes that regulate hepatic fatty acid synthesis (srebp1c, acetyl coa carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and genes involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (L-pyruvate kinase, glucose 6 phosphatase. Therefore, in contrast with previous reports, in Sprague Dawley rats fed an unsaturated fat diet, T2 administration failed to improve NAFLD or whole body insulin sensitivity. Though there was a modest improvement in hepatic insulin signaling, this was not associated with significant differences in hepatic insulin action. Further study will be

  3. Current status and strategies for viral hepatitis control in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Sinn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is one of major global health challenges with increasing disease burden worldwide. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections are major causes of chronic liver diseases. They can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death in significant portion of affected people. Transmission of hepatitis B virus can be blocked by vaccination. Progression of hepatitis B virus-related liver diseases can be prevented by long-term viral suppression with effective drugs. Although vaccine for hepatitis C virus is currently unavailable, hepatitis C virus infection can be eradicated by oral direct antiviral agents. To eliminate viral hepatitis, World Health Organization (WHO has urged countries to develop national goals and targets through reducing 90% of new infections and providing universal access to key treatment services up to 80%. This can lead to 65% reduction of viral hepatitis-related mortality. Here, we discuss some key features of viral hepatitis, strategies to control viral hepatitis suggested by WHO, and current status and strategies for viral hepatitis control in South Korea. To achieve the goal of viral hepatitis elimination by 2030 in South Korea, an independent 'viral hepatitis sector' in Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC needs to be established to organize and execute comprehensive strategy for the management of viral hepatitis in South Korea.

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2018 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Financial Assistance ALF HE Materials Suggested Reading Webinars Caregivers The Role of a Caregiver Signs and Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? ...

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering to Your Treatment Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My Loved Ones Resources Find ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering to Your Treatment Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance ...

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment ... treatment. Being a fully-informed participant in your medical care is an important factor in staying as ...

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reading Webinars Caregivers The Role of a Caregiver Signs and Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver ... and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stages of Hepatic Encephalopathy? What Triggers or Can Cause HE to Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? ... portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with ...

  14. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American, Haitian, Alaskan Native, Vietnamese, Chinese, Korean, or Filipino. Patients with the following conditions should discuss hepatitis ... Employment Homeless Veterans Women Veterans Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans ...

  15. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organ transplant before 1992. (Improvements in blood-screening technology were made in 1992.) Hepatitis C can’t ... Article >>Allergy Shots: Could They Help Your Allergies?Sports and Exercise at Every AgeRead Article >>Sports and ...

  16. Hepatitis A and B immunity and vaccination in chronic hepatitis B and C patients in a large United States cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkle, Emily; Lu, Mei; Rupp, Lora B; Boscarino, Joseph A; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Schmidt, Mark A; Gordon, Stuart C

    2015-02-15

    Hepatitis A and B vaccines are effective in preventing superinfection and sequelae in patients with chronic hepatitis B or C. We describe immunity and vaccination against hepatitis A and B in chronic hepatitis patients from the US Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study. We identified chronic hepatitis B and C patients with healthcare utilization during 2006-2008 and 12 months of enrollment. We used electronic laboratory records to determine immunity and medical and billing records for vaccination history. Immunity against hepatitis A was defined by positive hepatitis A antibody or documented vaccination. Immunity against hepatitis B was defined as hepatitis B surface antibody level ≥10 mIU/mL or core antibody positive, or by documented vaccination. Among 1635 chronic hepatitis B patients, 978 (59.8%) were immune or vaccinated against hepatitis A, 122 (7.5%) had negative hepatitis A antibody tests, and 535 (32.7%) had no testing or vaccination record. Among 5328 chronic hepatitis C patients, 2998 (56.3%) were immune or vaccinated against hepatitis A, 659 (12.4%) had negative hepatitis A antibody tests, and 1671 (31.4%) had no testing or vaccination record. Additionally, 3150 (59.1%) chronic hepatitis C patients were immune or vaccinated against hepatitis B, 1003 (18.8%) had a negative test result, and 1175 (22.1%) were neither tested for nor vaccinated against hepatitis B. Approximately 40% of chronic hepatitis B and C patients are susceptible to or have no documented immunity or vaccination against hepatitis A or hepatitis B. Clinicians should consider antibody testing and vaccination for this vulnerable population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. What Is Hepatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused by ingestion of contaminated food or water. Hepatitis B, C and D usually occur as a result of ... treatment Hepatitis B treatment Monitoring and evaluation of hepatitis B and C Hepatitis E waterborne outbreaks Development of national viral ...

  18. Hepatitis D (Delta agent)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complications may include: Chronic active hepatitis Acute liver failure ... Landaverde C, Perrillo R. Hepatitis D. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, ... 81. Thio CL, Hawkins C. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis delta ...

  19. Hepatitis B Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working on ... people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See More ...

  20. When Someone Close to You Has Chronic Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis B is very common worldwide, especially in Asia and Africa. Most people with Hepatitis B were infected with the virus at birth or during early childhood. Many of those ... Disease Control and Prevention Division of Viral Hepatitis www.cdc. ...

  1. Reactivation of Hepatitis B Virus in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients in Japan: Efficacy of Nucleos(tide Analogues for Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Nakamoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively reviewed 413 recipients with hematologic malignancies who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT between June 1986 and March 2013. Recipients with antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc and/or to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs were regarded as experiencing previous hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Clinical data of these recipients were reviewed from medical records. We defined ≥1 log IU/mL increase in serum HBV DNA from nadir as HBV reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-positive recipients, and also defined ≥1 log IU/mL increase or re-appearance of HBV DNA and/or HBsAg as HBV reactivation in HBsAg-negative recipients. In 5 HBsAg-positive recipients, 2 recipients initially not administered with nucleos(tide analogues (NUCs experienced HBV reactivation, but finally all 5 were successfully controlled with NUCs. HBV reactivation was observed in 11 (2.7% of 408 HBsAg-negative recipients; 8 of these were treated with NUCs, and fortunately none developed acute liver failure. In 5 (6.0% of 83 anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs-positive recipients, HBV reactivation occurred. None of 157 (0% recipients without HBsAg, anti-HBs or anti-HBc experienced HBV reactivation. In HSCT recipients, HBV reactivation is a common event in HBsAg-positive recipients, or in HBsAg-negative recipients with anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs. Further attention should be paid to HSCT recipients with previous exposure to HBV.

  2. Treatment as Prevention for Hepatitis C (TraP Hep C) - a nationwide elimination programme in Iceland using direct-acting antiviral agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, S; Tyrfingsson, T; Runarsdottir, V; Bergmann, O M; Hansdottir, I; Björnsson, E S; Johannsson, B; Sigurdardottir, B; Fridriksdottir, R H; Löve, A; Hellard, M; Löve, T J; Gudnason, T; Heimisdottir, M; Gottfredsson, M

    2018-03-07

    A nationwide programme for the treatment of all patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) was launched in Iceland in January 2016. By providing universal access to direct-acting antiviral agents to the entire patient population, the two key aims of the project were to (i) offer a cure to patients and thus reduce the long-term sequelae of chronic hepatitis C, and (ii) to reduce domestic incidence of HCV in the population by 80% prior to the WHO goal of HCV elimination by the year 2030. An important part of the programme is that vast majority of cases will be treated within 36 months from the launch of the project, during 2016-2018. Emphasis is placed on early case finding and treatment of patients at high risk for transmitting HCV, that is people who inject drugs (PWID), as well as patients with advanced liver disease. In addition to treatment scale-up, the project also entails intensification of harm reduction efforts, improved access to diagnostic tests, as well as educational campaigns to curtail spread, facilitate early detection and improve linkage to care. With these efforts, Iceland is anticipated to achieve the WHO hepatitis C elimination goals well before 2030. This article describes the background and organization of this project. Clinical trial number: NCT02647879. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  3. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  4. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in patients with chronic viral hepatitis in Konya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özden, Hale T

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis A is among the diseases that can be prevented with vaccination in our time. Acute hepatitis A progresses more severely in individuals with a liver disease. Therefore, patients with a chronic liver disease (because of hepatitis B or hepatitis C) are advised vaccination with the hepatitis A vaccine. This study is aimed to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in patients infected with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus in Konya province of Turkey. A total of 537 patients who had chronic viral hepatitis between January 2011 and December 2014 were included in the study. Serum samples were collected from each patient and tested for anti-HAV using the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The overall seroprevalence of total anti-HAV IgG was 94.2%. The overall prevalence of anti-HAV IgG in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection was 97.5 and 93.6%, respectively. Anti-HAV IgG positivity was 97.4% in cirrhotic patients and 93.9% in noncirrhotic individuals. At the end of the study, being older than 40 years and living in a rural area were found to be independent risk factors for anti-HAV IgG seropositivity. In conclusion, we recommend that patients younger than 40 years and/or those living in cities and having a chronic liver disease should be vaccinated with the hepatitis A vaccine.

  5. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in patients with chronic viral hepatitis in Konya, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Aim Hepatitis A is among the diseases that can be prevented with vaccination in our time. Acute hepatitis A progresses more severely in individuals with a liver disease. Therefore, patients with a chronic liver disease (because of hepatitis B or hepatitis C) are advised vaccination with the hepatitis A vaccine. This study is aimed to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in patients infected with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus in Konya province of Turkey. Methods A total of 537 patients who had chronic viral hepatitis between January 2011 and December 2014 were included in the study. Serum samples were collected from each patient and tested for anti-HAV using the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Results The overall seroprevalence of total anti-HAV IgG was 94.2%. The overall prevalence of anti-HAV IgG in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection was 97.5 and 93.6%, respectively. Anti-HAV IgG positivity was 97.4% in cirrhotic patients and 93.9% in noncirrhotic individuals. Conclusion At the end of the study, being older than 40 years and living in a rural area were found to be independent risk factors for anti-HAV IgG seropositivity. In conclusion, we recommend that patients younger than 40 years and/or those living in cities and having a chronic liver disease should be vaccinated with the hepatitis A vaccine. PMID:26703930

  6. Acute liver failure complicating viral hepatitis A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rui Diniz-Santos

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A is one of the most frequent infectious liver diseases affecting children worldwide. The disease is usually mild and self-limited, and complications are very rare. Nevertheless, hepatitis A can sometimes cause acute liver failure (ALF, a severe, life-threatening condition. Herein is reported a case of a child who presented ALF during a course of hepatitis A. The need for early identification of possible ALF cases among hepatitis A patients, and for effective ways of evaluating such a possibility, are discussed. We also emphasize the importance of prevention measures, especially vaccination.

  7. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... resources M.O.V.E. parents for prevention publications schedules & records support statements vaccine initiative vaccine safety ... Gonna Lose M.O.V.E. newsfeeds PSAs publications infectious disease workshop pediatric hepatitis report someone you ...

  8. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prevention publications schedules & records support statements vaccine initiative vaccine safety about bucking the herd dr. offit's testimony not vaccinating the abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib ...

  9. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kids infect kids links & resources M.O.V.E. parents for prevention publications schedules & records support statements ... media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O.V.E. newsfeeds PSAs publications infectious disease workshop pediatric hepatitis ...

  10. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current news Flu's Gonna Lose hepatitis a & b vaccines im/sq how to do kids infect kids links & resources M.O.V.E. parents for prevention publications schedules & records support statements vaccine ...

  11. Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Directors & Staff Our Accomplishments Annual Reports Our Videos Quick Links Drug Watch Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta ...

  12. Chronic hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection by four diagnostic systems: first generation and second generation. ELlSA, second generation recombinant immunoblot assay and nested polymerase chain reaction analysis. HepatoJogy 1992; 16: 300-305. 14. Van der Poel CL, ... Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Alcoholic hepatitis. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  13. Hepatic haemangioma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    successful usage of transhepatic compression sutures using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pledgets and selective ligation of large feeding vessels from right hepatic artery. Surgical resection may not be technically safe or possible in certain cases due to the massive or diffuse nature of the lesion, proximity to vascular ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. ... reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  15. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 간염: 아시아 또는 태평양군도 계 미국인의 숙지 사항 (Korean) Hepatitis B: Mga Tip para sa mga Amerikano ... by an infected person drinking water or eating food hugging an infected person shaking hands or holding ...

  16. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 간염: 아시아 또는 태평양군도 계 미국인의 숙지 사항 (Korean) Hepatitis B: Mga Tip para sa mga Amerikano ... by an infected person drinking water or eating food hugging an infected person shaking hands or holding ...

  17. Hepatic autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, Peter; Hother-Nielsen, Ole; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increased glycogenolysis, simulated by galactose's conversion to glucose, on the contribution of gluconeogenesis (GNG) to hepatic glucose production (GP) was determined. The conversion of galactose to glucose is by the same pathway as glycogen's conversion to glucose, i.e., glucose 1...

  18. Immunity against the GBV-B hepatitis virus in tamarins can prevent productive infection following rechallenge and is long-lived

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens; Engle, Ronald E; Govindarajan, Sugantha

    2008-01-01

    GB virus-B (GBV-B) is the virus most closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Thus, we have used GBV-B infection of tamarins, which develop acute hepatitis following experimental infection, as a surrogate model to study protective immunity. As challenge virus, we first produced a GBV-B pool from...... an infected tamarin, which was not infected with the related GBV-A viruses. Its infectivity titer was 10(6.6) tamarin 50% infectious doses per ml. Next, two tamarins that were convalescent from recombinant GBV-B infection were re-challenged. In the original infection viremia persisted for 8 and 12 weeks......-challenge. In the other animal, however, only the first re-challenge produced viremia, lasting 1 week. During the primary infection, peak GBV-B titers were about 10(8) genome equivalents/ml in both animals; following re-challenges, peak titers ranged from 10(3) to 10(6) genome equivalents/ml. Analysis of the polyprotein...

  19. Beleid bij acute hepatitis C en bij prikaccidenten met hepatitis-C-viruspositief bloed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooreman, M. P.; Weegink, C.; Reesink, H. W.

    1998-01-01

    Acute hepatitis C is rarely diagnosed, in part because of its usually subclinical course. Infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) has a high chronicity rate, 70-90%. The risk of infection after a needlestick accident with HCV positive blood is 3-10%. There are no efficacious preventive measures

  20. Prevention IS Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-26

    This podcast provides an overview of the Prevention IS Care campaign, which provides HIV prevention tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with patients who are living with HIV.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  1. Early Detection of Viral Hepatitis Can Save Lives - PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    Early detection of viral hepatitis can help prevent liver damage, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  2. AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHepatitis autoimun merupakan penyakit inflamasi hati yang berat dengan penyebab pasti yang tidak diketahui yang mengakibatkan morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Semua usia dan jenis kelamin dapat dikenai dengan insiden tertinggi pada anak perempuan usia prepubertas, meskipun dapat didiagnosis pada usia 6 bulan. Hepatitis autoimun dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 2 bagian berdasarkan adanya antibodi spesifik: Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA dengan anti-actin specificity dan/atau Anti Nuclear Antibody (ANA pada tipe 1 dan Liver-Kidney Microsome antibody (LKM1 dan/atau anti-liver cytosol pada tipe 2. Gambaran histologisnya berupa “interface hepatitis”, dengan infiltrasi sel mononuklear pada saluran portal, berbagai tingkat nekrosis, dan fibrosis yang progresf. Penyakit berjalan secara kronik tetapi keadaan yang berat biasanya menjadi sirosis dan gagal hati.Tipe onset yang paling sering sama dengan hepatitis virus akut dengan gagal hati akut pada beberapa pasien; sekitar sepertiga pasien dengan onset tersembunyi dengan kelemahan dan ikterik progresif ketika 10-15% asimptomatik dan mendadak ditemukan hepatomegali dan/atau peningkatan kadar aminotransferase serum. Adanya predominasi perempuan pada kedua tipe. Pasien LKM1 positif menunjukkan keadaan lebih akut, pada usia yang lebih muda, dan biasanya dengan defisiensi Immunoglobulin A (IgA, dengan durasi gejala sebelum diagnosis, tanda klinis, riwayat penyakit autoimun pada keluarga, adanya kaitan dengan gangguan autoimun, respon pengobatan dan prognosis jangka panjang sama pada kedua tipe.Kortikosteroid yang digunakan secara tunggal atau kombinasi azathioprine merupakan terapi pilihan yang dapat menimbulkan remisi pada lebih dari 90% kasus. Strategi terapi alternatif adalah cyclosporine. Penurunan imunosupresi dikaitkan dengan tingginya relap. Transplantasi hati dianjurkan pada penyakit hati dekom-pensata yang tidak respon dengan pengobatan medis lainnya.Kata kunci : hepatitis Autoimmune

  3. Cooked rice prevents hyperlipidemia in hamsters fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet by the regulation of the expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won Hee; Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2013-07-01

    Rice has many health-beneficial components for ameliorating obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. However, the effect of cooked rice as a useful carbohydrate source has not been investigated yet; so we hypothesized that cooked rice may have hypolipidemic effects. In the present study, we investigated the effect of cooked rice on hyperlipidemia and on the expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism. Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 2 groups and fed a high-fat (15%, wt/wt)/cholesterol (0.5%, wt/wt) diet supplemented with either corn starch (HFD, 54.5% wt/wt) or cooked rice (HFD-CR, 54.5% wt/wt) as the main carbohydrate source for 8 weeks. In the HFD-CR group, the triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the serum and liver were decreased, and the total lipid, total cholesterol, and bile acid levels in the feces were increased, compared with the HFD group. In the cooked-rice group, the messenger RNA and protein levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase were significantly downregulated; and the messenger RNA and protein levels of the low-density lipoprotein receptor and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase were upregulated. Furthermore, the expressions of lipogenic genes such as sterol response element binding protein-1, fatty acid synthase, acetyl CoA carboxylase, and stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 were downregulated, whereas the β-oxidation related genes (carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, acyl CoA oxidase, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α) were upregulated, in the cooked-rice group. Our results suggest that the hypolipidemic effect of cooked rice is partially mediated by the regulation of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism, which results in the suppression of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis and the enhancement of cholesterol excretion and fatty acid β-oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is seen ... This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  5. Hepatitis A seroprevalence among infants aged 12 months in Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Osman Tolga; Yalçin, S Songül; Yurdakök, Kadriye; Ozmert, Elif N

    2011-01-01

    Seroprevalence studies in various age groups contribute to a better understanding of hepatitis A infection and response to hepatitis A immunization. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in 12-month-old infants from Ankara was studied. Among 601 healthy infants, overall hepatitis A seropositivity was found to be 23.5%. There were no gender differences in seropositivity (22.6% for male and 24.5% for female infants). Although vaccination of infants would be an ideal prevention strategy, presence of maternal anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibody interferes with the immune response to hepatitis A vaccine in infants and young children. Therefore, further knowledge about decay of maternal antibody in infants is important in determining the optimal age for vaccination against hepatitis A. There is no recommendation for routine hepatitis A vaccination in Turkey. However, we need more seroprevalence studies in different age groups to decide the appropriate timing/age of vaccination.

  6. [Other viral food poisoning (hepatitis A and E)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kunio

    2012-08-01

    Hepatitis A and E viruses are spread via the fecal-oral route. In the endemic area, restaurant and school outbreaks due to contaminated water or food have been reported. The clinical signs and symptoms in patients with typical hepatitis A and E are similar to those seen with other forms of acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis A tends to be more severe when acquired at older ages. Hepatitis E appears to be relatively severe compared with hepatitis A. Although both hepatitis are self-limited illness, severe hepatits are rarely observed. Hepatitis A and E can be prevented by improved sanitary conditions, handwashing, heating foods appropriately. Avoidance of water and foods from endemic areas is also effective.

  7. Effectiveness of 10-year vaccination (2001–2010) for Hepatitis A in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-lun; Zhu, Xiang-jun; Shan, Ai-lan; Gao, Zhi-gang; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Ya-xing; Liu, Hui; Wu, Wei-shen; Liu, Yong; He, Hai-yan; Xie, Xiao-hua; Xia, Wei-dong; Li, Chao; Xu, Wen-ti; Li, Zhi-yuan; Lin, Hua-Liang; Fu, Wei-ming

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is an effective strategy to prevent and control the transmission of hepatitis A. Hepatitis A immunization program has been taken into effect since 2001 in Tianjin, China. This study evaluated the effectiveness of strategies in the prevention and control of hepatitis A. Data of serological survey, annual hepatitis A incidence, immunization coverage and the positive rate of hepatitis A IgG before and after the immunization program in residents under 15 years old were used to do the analysis. The results indicated that hepatitis A vaccine induced a striking decrease of hepatitis A incidence and a significant increase in the positive rate of anti-HAV IgG among the children younger than 15 years old. Hepatitis A vaccination in children was proved to be effective in the prevention and control of hepatitis A in Tianjin, China. PMID:24503599

  8. Adult Living with Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Directors & Staff Our Accomplishments Annual Reports Our Videos Quick Links Drug Watch Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta ...

  9. Hepatitis B immunization for indigenous adults, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J Kevin; Beard, Frank; Wesselingh, Steve; Cowie, Benjamin; Ward, James; Macartney, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To quantify the disparity in incidence of hepatitis B between indigenous and non-indigenous people in Australia, and to estimate the potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults. Methods Using national data on persons with newly acquired hepatitis B disease notified between 2005 and 2012, we estimated incident infection rates and rate ratios comparing indigenous and non-indigenous people, with adjustments for underreporting. The potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults was projected using a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation model. Findings Of the 54 522 persons with hepatitis B disease notified between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2012, 1953  infections were newly acquired. Acute hepatitis B infection notification rates were significantly higher for indigenous than non-indigenous Australians. The rates per 100 000 population for all ages were 3.6 (156/4 368 511) and 1.1 (1797/168 449 302) for indigenous and non-indigenous people respectively. The rate ratio of age-standardized notifications was 4.0 (95% confidence interval: 3.7–4.3). If 50% of non-immune indigenous adults (20% of all indigenous adults) were vaccinated over a 10-year programme a projected 527–549 new cases of acute hepatitis B would be prevented. Conclusion There continues to be significant health inequity between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians in relation to vaccine-preventable hepatitis B disease. An immunization programme targeting indigenous Australian adults could have considerable impact in terms of cases of acute hepatitis B prevented, with a relatively low number needed to vaccinate to prevent each case. PMID:27821885

  10. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerix-B® ... as a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  11. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A Virus Antibodies among the Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulek, Necla; Ozsoy, Metin; Moroglu, Cigdem; Cagla Sonmezer, Meliha; Temocin, Fatih; Tuncer Ertem, Gunay; Sebnem Erdinc, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) can cause significant pathology in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), however, HAV can be prevented by vaccination. The aim of this study was to determine the implication of vaccination against HAV vaccine in patients with chronic hepatitis B. The seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG antibodies was investigated in the patients with chronic hepatitis B. Anti-HAV IgG antibodies were detected by commercially available ELISA kit. A total of 673 patients (354 males, 319 females with age range of 17-78 years) with chronic hepatitis B were included the study. Hepatitis A virus seropositivity rate was 34% in the patients younger than 20 years, 79% in the age group of 20 to 29 years, and 100% after 35 years of age. Hepatitis A virus vaccination may be recommended for young adult patients with chronic hepatitis B in Turkey. Tulek N, Ozsoy M, Moroglu C, Sonmezer MC, Temocin F, Ertem GT, Erdinc FS. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A Virus Antibodies among the Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B in Turkey. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(2):95-97.

  12. GLP-1 receptor agonism ameliorates hepatic VLDL overproduction and de novo lipogenesis in insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Taher

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Exendin-4 prevents fructose-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic VLDL overproduction in insulin resistance through an indirect mechanism involving altered energy utilization, decreased hepatic lipid synthesis and also requires an intact parasympathetic signaling pathway.

  13. High-Risk Behaviour among Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Patients in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -risk behaviour for hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission among HBV-infected Nigerian adults in order to provide clues for intensifying HBV prevention and control. Methodology: 200 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive patients attending ...

  14. Non-absorbable disaccharides versus placebo/no intervention and lactulose versus lactitol for the prevention and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in people with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Morgan, Marsha Y

    2016-01-01

    .59, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.87; 1487 participants; 24 RCTs; I(2) = 0%; moderate quality evidence) and in the eight RCTs with a low risk of bias (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.97; 705 participants). The Trial Sequential Analysis with the relative risk reduction (RRR) reduced to 30% confirmed the findings when...... including all RCTs, but not when including only RCTs with a low risk of bias or when we reduced the RRR to 22%. Compared with placebo/no intervention, the non-absorbable disaccharides were associated with beneficial effects on hepatic encephalopathy (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.69; 1415 participants; 22 RCTs......; I(2) = 32%; moderate quality evidence). Additional analyses showed that non-absorbable disaccharides can help to reduce serious adverse events associated with the underlying liver disease including liver failure, hepatorenal syndrome, and variceal bleeding (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.60; 1487...

  15. Viral hepatitis in women of reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Zaytsev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Annually in Ukraine, about 17 thousands of newborns are at risk of vertical infection with hepatitis B and C. Identification of infected women at the stage of family planning is the best way to prevent infection in newborns, and therefore it must be performed strictly in accordance with established norms. In case of detection of hepatitis, further tactics depend on the variant of the virus: in case of hepatitis C, pre-pregnancy treatment is preferable. In case of hepatitis B — pregnancy with subsequent simultaneous vaccination of the newborn. Antiviral therapy is possible in women with high viral load to prevent intrauterine infection. Similar tactics should be followed in case of in vitro fertilisation too. The text of the lecture is illustrated by clinical examples. The lecture is intended for infectious disease physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists.

  16. Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... What is the difference between Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C? Hepatitis A , Hepatitis B , and ...

  17. Enhanced antiviral treatment efficacy and uptake in preventing the rising burden of hepatitis C-related liver disease and costs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, William; Razavi, Homie; Estes, Chris; Thompson, Alexander J; Zekry, Amany; Roberts, Stuart K; Dore, Gregory J

    2014-08-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important cause of advanced liver disease and liver-related deaths in Australia. Our aim was to describe the burden of HCV infection and consider treatment strategies to reduce HCV-related morbidity and mortality. Baseline model parameters were based upon literature review and expert consensus with a focus on Australian data. Three treatment scenarios based on anticipated introduction of improved direct-acting antiviral regimens were considered to reduce HCV disease burden. Scenario 1 evaluated the impact of increased treatment efficacy alone (to 80-90% by 2016). Scenario 2 evaluated increased efficacy and increased treatment uptake (2550 to 13,500 by 2018) without treatment restriction, while Scenario 3 considered the same increases with treatment limited to ≥ F3 during 2015-2017. In 2013, there were an estimated 233,490 people with chronic HCV infection: 13,850 with cirrhosis, 590 with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 530 liver-related deaths. If the current HCV treatment setting is unchanged, threefold increases in the number of people with cirrhosis, HCC, and liver disease deaths will be seen by 2030. Scenario 1 resulted in modest impacts on disease burden (4% decrease in HCC, decompensated cirrhosis, and liver deaths) and costs. Scenario 3 had the greatest impact on disease burden (approximately 50% decrease in HCC, decompensated cirrhosis, and liver deaths) and costs, while Scenario 2 had slightly lesser impact. Considerable increases in the burden of HCV-related advanced liver disease and its complications will be seen in Australia under current treatment levels and outcomes. Introduction of improved direct-acting antiviral regimens with enhanced efficacy at current treatment levels will lead to limited impacts on this disease burden. A combination of increased treatment efficacy and greater uptake is required to achieve major reductions in advanced liver disease and related costs. © 2014 Journal of

  18. Evaluation of protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Crocus sativus petals on preventing of gentamicin induced peliosis hepatis and hepatic telangiectasis in rats: short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Omidi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peliosis hepatis is a rare liver disease characterized by blood-filled cavities scattered irregularly throughout the liver. Risk factors for peliosis include chronic illness such as AIDS, tuberculosis, cancer also use of some drugs such as anabolic steroids and azathioprine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the curative properties of crocus sativus petals on induced peliosis hepatis in rats. Thirty two male Wistar rats (weight: 180-220 g were randomly divided into four equal groups: group 1 (healthy group received only IP normal saline, group2 received IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin, group3 IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin+ 40mg/kg crocus sativus petal extract, and group 4 was given IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin+ 40mg/kg crocus sativus petal extract. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized and their blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture for AST and ALT measurement.Then, the livers of the subjects were excised and fixed in formalin. It was found that AST significantly increased in gentamicin group (P<0.05 compared to the healthy group and groups treated by means of crocus sativus petal extract .Moreover, there was no significant differences between the groups administered the extract and those given gentamicin. Histologically,heterogeneous multiple blood-filled cavities were observed in gentamicin group (2 and the treatment groups (3 and 4. The results of the present study show that doses of hydroalcoholic extract of crocus sativus do not effect on peliosis hepatic and telangiectasis due to gentamicin sulfate in rats

  19. [Latest Treatment of Viral Hepatitis--Overcoming Hepatitis C and Reactivation of Hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), discovered as causative viruses of post-transfusion hepatitis, become persistent infections, leading to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For HCV, recent IFN-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies have increased sustained virological response (SVR) rates and reduced adverse events. IFN-based therapies, still the standard of care in Asian countries, are influenced by IL28B genetic variants and the liver fibrosis stage, but the DAA combinations obscure the influence of these factors. These new therapies can eradicate HCV and prevent HCC development. On the other hand, it is difficult to eradicate HBV completely. Although HBV infection can be prevented by vaccination, reactivation of HBV following anti-cancer chemotherapy and immunosuppressive therapy is a well-known complication. HBV reactivation has been reported to be associated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab-containing chemotherapy and TNF-α inhibitor-containing immunosuppressive therapy in HBV-resolved patients. Our prospective observational study revealed that monthly monitoring of HBV DNA was useful for preventing HBV reactivation-related hepatitis among B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients with resolved HBV infection following rituximab-steroid-chemo, suggesting that preemptive therapy guided by serial HBV DNA monitoring should be recommended. Recently, highly sensitive HBsAg detection by Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ may be useful for several clinical applications. The sensitivity of this assay (5 mIU/mL) was approximately 10-fold higher than Abbott ARCHITECT, but still lower than HBV-DNA assays. The convenient HBsAg-HQ may be useful for detecting occult HBV infection and HBV reactivation in relatively low-risk groups except for those receiving rituximab-steroid-chemo. [

  20. Hepatite E Hepatitis E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Paraná

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da hepatite E (VHE é o segundo vírus de transmissão fecal-oral com hepatotropismo confirmado, após o vírus da hepatite A. As grandes epidemias de hepatite das décadas de 50 e 60 na Índia foram causadas pelo VHE. Observaram-se surtos da infecção na África Central, América Latina, Oriente Médio e Repúblicas independentes da ex-União Soviética. O quadro clínico da doença assemelha-se ao de outras hepatites virais. Não há casos descritos de hepatite E crônicas. Cerca de 20% das mulheres que adquirem a doença durante a gravidez desenvolvem formas graves, com insuficiência hepática fulminante. Confirma-se o diagnóstico quando se encontra no soro anticorpos (método de ELISA das classes IgM (fase aguda e/ou IgG (curados. O imunoblot e o PCR-RNA podem ser usados quando necessário. Não há tratamento específico. O uso de imunoglobulina hiperimune tem sido aconselhado por alguns autores. A prevenção se faz pelos cuidados higiênicos e dietéticos habituais. Não há vacina eficaz contra a doença.Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the second most frequent hepatotropic virus transmitted via fecal-oral route, following closely behind hepatitis A virus. The great epidemics of hepatitis described during the 50s and 60s, in India, were caused by this virus. Epidemic bursts have also been described in Central Africa, Latin America, Middle East and in the independent Republics of the ex-Soviet Union. The clinical features of the disease do not differ from those reported for other viral hepatitides. There have been no cases of chronic hepatitis E reported. Around 20% of women infected during pregnancy develop a severe form of hepatitis which courses to liver failure. Diagnosis of hepatitis is confirmed when antibodies (using ELISA of the IgM class (acute phase and/or IgG (infected and cured are found in the serum. Immunoblot and PCR-RNA may be used as necessary. There is no specific treatment for hepatitis E. Hyperimmune serum has

  1. Hepatic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The past several years have seen significant advances in diagnostic and interventional radiology. These advances have been particularly rewarding for the study of liver disease. Improved imaging and therapeutic procedures in oncology have generated changes in treatment protocols and in evaluating the results of therapy for hepatic malignancies. The enriched understanding of the anatomic and hemodynamic aspects of the portal system has greatly benefited patients with portal hypertension. Now physicians are confidently more aggressive in the therapeutic approach to the variceal bleeder, and they have modified their approach to the preservation of portal flow following shunt. All of the diagnostic modalities used to evaluate the liver are represented in this book. In its structure and organization this volume goes beyond a historical overview of imaging to present greater insight into the current state of the art, as well as possible future developments. Each chapter is designed to elucidate the advantages and weaknesses of the various diagnostic modalities

  2. Determinants of HIV, viral hepatitis and STI prevention needs among African migrants in Germany; a cross-sectional survey on knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Hövener, Claudia; Marcus, Ulrich; Koschollek, Carmen; Oudini, Hapsatou; Wiebe, Mara; Ouedraogo, Omer Idrissa; Thorlie, Adama; Bremer, Viviane; Hamouda, Osamah; Dierks, Marie-Luise; An der Heiden, Matthias; Krause, Gérard

    2015-08-06

    Migrants from sub-Saharan Africa (MisSA) are a relevant sub-group for HIV-transmission in Germany. A total of 10-15 % of all newly diagnosed cases are MisSA, and approximately one third acquired HIV in Germany. There is limited information on knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and practices (KABP) regarding sexual health in African communities residing in Germany. From October-December 2013 we conducted a cross-sectional survey on KABP regarding HIV, viral hepatitis (HEP), and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among MisSA in Hamburg as a community-based participatory research project to identify knowledge gaps, sexual risk behavior regarding HIV/HEP/STI, HIV/STI-testing history and attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH). Trained peer researchers recruited participants through outreach. Questionnaires in German, English or French were either administered face-to-face or self-completed. Questions on knowledge about HIV/HEP/STI presented true statements; participants were asked if they knew the information before. To detect differences in sub-groups, unadjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated, and a multivariate analysis for knowledge on HIV/HEP/STI was performed. The final sample included 569 participants of whom 57 % were men. Most participants originated from Western and Central sub-Saharan Africa. Median time living in Germany was 6 years. Overall, 28 % had a university degree and 54 % reported a good level of German language. Over 80 % knew the risks for HIV transmission. A total of 44 % of respondents wrongly assumed that an HIV-diagnosis might lead to deportation and 64 % were not aware of the free and anonymous local HIV/STI-testing service. The proportion of participants with knowledge of presented facts on HEP varied from 40-58 %. The respective proportion on STI was 28-68 % and better among women compared to men (44 % vs. 54 %; OR = 1.45; 95 % CI 1.22-1.74). Men reported more often casual sex partners than women (43 % vs. 23 %; OR = 2.6; 95 % CI 1

  3. Research priorities to achieve universal access to hepatitis C prevention, management and direct-acting antiviral treatment among people who inject drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grebely, Jason; Bruneau, Julie; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2017-01-01

    of HCV infection among current PWID also remains high in many settings. Morbidity and mortality due to liver disease among PWID with HCV infection continues to increase, despite the advent of well-tolerated, simple interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) HCV regimens with cure rates >95......, gaps in research, and develop research priorities. Topics for discussion included the epidemiology of injecting drug use, HCV, and HIV among PWID, HCV prevention, HCV testing, linkage to HCV care and treatment, DAA treatment for HCV infection, and reinfection following successful treatment. This paper...

  4. Challenges in Diagnosis and Treatment of a Cervical Spinal Cord Injury Patient with Melanoma, Adenocarcinoma, and Hepatic and Osteolytic Metastases: Need to Implement Strategies for Prevention and Early Detection of Cancer in Spinal Cord Injury Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A male tetraplegic patient with, who had been taking warfarin, developed haematuria. Ultrasound scan revealed no masses, stones, or hydronephrosis. Urinary bladder had normal configuration with no evidence of masses or organised haematoma. Urine cytology revealed no malignant cells. Four months later, CT urography revealed an irregular mass at the base of urinary bladder. Cystoscopic biopsy revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, which contained goblet cells and pools of mucin showing strongly positive immunostaining for prostatic acid hosphatase and patchy staining for prostate specific antigen. Computed Tomography revealed multiple hypodense hepatic lesions and several osteolytic areas in femoral heads and iliac bone. With a presumptive diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma, leuprorelin acetate 3.75 mg was prescribed. This patient expired a month later. Conclusion. (i Spinal cord injury patient, who passed blood in urine while taking warfarin, requires repeated investigations to look for urinary tract neoplasm. (ii Anti-androgen therapy should be prescribed for 2 weeks prior to administration of gonadorelin analogue to prevent tumour flare causing bone pain, bladder outlet obstruction, uraemia, and cardiovascular risk due to hypercoagulability associated with a rapid increase in tumour burden. (iii Spinal cord physicians should adopt a caring and compassionate approach while managing tetraplegic patients with several co-morbidities, as aggressive diagnostic tests and therapeutic procedures may lead to deterioration in the quality of life.

  5. Global viral hepatitis elimination by the year 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to a report by Stanaway et al.(1 in 2016, the absolute burden and relative rank of viral hepatitis increased between 1990 and 2013. For example, the number of global deaths due to viral hepatitis increased from 0.89 million to 1.45 million, indicating a need for its reduction. In this connection, on 28 May 2016 the 69th World Health Assembly adopted the global health sector strategy on viral hepatitis for the period 2016–2021,(2 as outlined in the report A69/32 of the Secretariat,(3 with the goal of eliminating viral hepatitis B and C by the year 2030. The global health sector strategy (GHSS on viral hepatitis has constructed a roadmap toward the elimination of viral hepatitis B and C, targeting five priority prevention and treatment interventions. Prevention involves universal hepatitis B immunization of infants, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, increased injection safety and blood safety, and increased harm reduction, the implementation of which will contribute toward universal health coverage, which is the target for Goal 3 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In combination with treatment of chronic hepatitis, the goal is to achieve by the year 2030 a reduction in the incidence of viral hepatitis by 90% and mortality by 65%.(3,4

  6. Current status and strategies for hepatitis B control in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ju Cho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is the most common cause of chronic liver diseases in Korea. After the introduction of the universal HBV vaccination program, the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen was markedly reduced, and Korea is now classified as an area of intermediate endemicity for HBV. However, there are still hurdles for elimination of hepatitis B, such as immunoprophylaxis failure against vertical transmission, occurrence of acute hepatitis B among peoples who did not have vaccination at younger age, and rapid increase of immigrant populations from HBV endemic areas. To achieve the World Health Organization goal of viral hepatitis elimination by 2030 in Korea, we suggest comprehensive policies for more effective control of hepatitis B as following: i insurance coverage for antiviral prophylaxis in mothers with high viremia, ii screening for hepatitis B seromarkers and catch-up HBV vaccinations of susceptible persons with hepatitis B, iii establishment of an independent 'viral hepatitis sector' in Centers for Disease Control & Prevention to organize and execute comprehensive strategy for management of viral hepatitis, iv encourage of management of HBV infection in immigrant populations, v national campaign to promote awareness of hepatitis B.

  7. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  8. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Clinical Trials Primary Biliary Cholangitis Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What ...

  9. Combined DTP-HBV-HIB vaccine versus separately administered DTP-HBV and HIB vaccines for primary prevention of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae B (HIB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Edna S; Goldberg, Elad; Hellmann, Sarah; Leibovici, Leonard

    2012-04-18

    Advantages to combining childhood vaccines include reducing the number of visits, injections and patient discomfort, increasing compliance and optimising prevention. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that routine infant immunisation programmes include a vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) type B (HIB) in the combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)-hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination. The effectiveness and safety of the combined vaccine should be carefully and systematically assessed to ensure its acceptability by the community. To compare the effectiveness of combined DTP-HBV-HIB vaccines versus combined DTP-HBV and separate HIB vaccinations. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 4), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (January 1966 to week 1, November 2011), EMBASE (January 1990 to November 2011) and www.clinicaltrials.gov (up to April 2011). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing vaccination with any combined DTP-HBV-HIB vaccine, with or without three types of inactivated polio virus (IPV) or concomitant oral polio vaccine (OPV) in any dose, preparation or time schedule, compared with separate vaccines or placebo, administered to infants up to two years old. Two review authors independently inspected references identified by the searches and evaluated them against the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of included trials. Data for the primary outcome (prevention of disease) were lacking. We performed a meta-analysis to pool the results of 20 studies with 5874 participants in an immunogenicity analysis and 5232 participants in the reactogenicity analysis. There were no data on clinical outcomes for the primary outcome (prevention of disease) and all studies used immunogenicity and reactogenicity (adverse events). The number of vaccine

  10. Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine: The Nigerian Story | Odusanya | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B (HBV) virus in endemic in Nigeria. Infection is acquired mainly in childhood through horizontal transmission. The infection is preventable by vaccination. Universal childhood vaccination against the infection started in Nigeria less than ten years. Hepatitis B vaccine coverage in Nigeria is 41%, though now it has ...

  11. Serological markers of hepatitis B infection in infants presenting for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-12-29

    Dec 29, 2012 ... Abstract Introduction: Hepatitis. B vaccine can prevent perinatal transmission if administered within 24 hours of birth. Nigerian infants are known to present late for their first immunizations and may acquire the virus either verti- cally or horizontally before re- ceipt of the first dose of hepatitis. B immunization.

  12. Serological markers of hepatitis B infection in infants presenting for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Hepatitis B vaccine can prevent perinatal transmission if administered within 24 hours of birth. Nigerian infants are known to present late for their first immunizations and may acquire the virus either vertically or horizontally before receipt of the first dose of hepatitis. B immunization. This study evaluated ...

  13. Long-term protection of hepatitis B vaccination among Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis B Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Objective: to detect the long-term immunogenicity of the vaccine in Egyptian children after five and ten years of vaccination. Methods: Two hundreds healthy children were recruited. They were divided into two ...

  14. Antenatal screening for hepatitis B virus in HIV-infected and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite enormous strides in preventing hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, perinatal transmission still contributes significantly ... The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence was significantly higher (2.1%) among ..... Burnett RJ, Kramvis A, Dochez C, Meheus A. An update after 16 years of hepatitis B vaccination in.

  15. 77 FR 30293 - Recommendations for the Identification of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Chronic Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Chronic Infection AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... an email to [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Hepatitis C virus infection is a contagious... illness. It results from infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is spread primarily through...

  16. Immunogenicity, effectiveness and safety of combined hepatitis A and B vaccine: a systematic literature review.

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Marina; Bunge, Eveline M.; Marano, Cinzia; De Ridder, Marc; De Moerlooze, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis A and B are two of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccination for Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is recommended for those at risk of contracting HAV and/or HBV through their occupation, travel or lifestyle.

  17. Clinical And Epidemiological Aspects Of Hepatitis B Virus And Hepatitis C Virus In Fortaleza-Ceara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizelly Castelo Branco Brito

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Viral hepatitis is among the main problems that affect public health globally. The knowledge of the clinical and epidemiological situation of hepatitis B and hepatitis C is necessary for the establishment of prevention and control strategies together with individuals and communities in vulnerable situations. Objective: To investigate the clinical and epidemiological aspects of the population affected by hepatitis B and hepatitis C from 2007 to 2014, in Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil. Methodology: Descriptive, retrospective study involving data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System, with analysis of gender, age, race, illicit drug use, sex partnerships, tattoo/piercing, transfusion, dialysis and transplantation. Chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis of the variables. Results: It was reported 779 cases of hepatitis B and 756 of hepatitis C. Regarding the HBV, 69.7% were male, 77.5% of brown color, and a median age of 36 years. Regarding risk factors, there was highlight for sexual practice and number of sex partners (p = 0.001, blood transfusion (p = 0.011 and use of tattoo/piercing (p = 0.011. As for HCV, 57.7% were male and the mean age was 46 years. As for risk factors, the injecting drug use (p = 0.001, the presence of three or more partners (p = 0.001 and the use of tattoo/piercing (p = 0.021 stood out. Regardless of gender, age or race and drug use, transfusions and age over 40 years increased the risk for hepatitis. There were still high percentages of missing data in several variables. Conclusion: This study contributes to alert the Brazilian health authorities on the importance of these infections and the need to expand and strengthen current health policies, and allows reflection on control strategies for hepatitis. Keywords: Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; Risk factors.

  18. Hepatitis C (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may cause jaundice, fever and cirrhosis. Persons who are most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs ...

  19. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  20. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  1. Exacerbation of hepatitis in hepatitis B carriers following chemotherapy for haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G C; Tan, P; Goh, Y T; Ng, H S; Chong, R; Lee, L H

    1996-07-01

    We describe nine asymptomatic chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus, four males and five females, with a mean age of forty-six years and all were Chinese, who developed exacerbation of hepatitis following chemotherapy for haematological malignancies. Seven patients had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of whom three were treated with MACOP-B, two with BCEPP, one with PROMACE-CYTABOM and one with CHOP. Two patients had acute myeloid leukaemia and were treated with daunorubicin and cytosine arabinoside. Exacerbation of hepatitis occurred between one to four weeks following the last course of chemotherapy in eight patients. Two patients developed exacerbation of hepatitis when the dosage of prednisolone was reduced after they had ten weeks of high dose prednisolone. The outcome was fatal in six patients; all of whom developed hepatic encephalopathy. In four of these patients, alanine transaminase levels exceeded 1000 iu/l. Cytotoxic and immunosuppressive therapy permit enhanced viral replication. Withdrawal of the drugs results in partial restoration of immunocompetence and leads to rapid destruction of hepatocytes with consequent hepatic necrosis. Hence, patients who are hepatitis B virus carriers undergoing chemotherapy should be closely monitored. The fatal outcome of reactivation of chronic hepatitis B virus warrants prospective trials addressing preventive measures.

  2. Aberrant hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Novelline, R.A.; Athanasoulis, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    In a patient undergoing selective hepatic arteriography for suspected liver trauma, a nonopacified area of the liver, initially thought to represent a hepatic hematoma, was later discovered to be due to the presence of an accessory right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. This case illustrates the need for a search for aberrant vasculature whenever a liver hematoma is suspected on the basis of a selective hepatic arteriogram. (orig.) [de

  3. Hepatitis in Malaysia: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihan, Ruksana

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia is multiethnic, with a population of 31,127,247 comprising a mixture of Malays (50.1%), Chinese (22.6%), Indians (6.7%), Aborigines (11.8%), others (0.7%), and noncitizens (8.2%). Like other countries in the region, viral hepatitis is an important public health problem in Malaysia. The 3 most common causes for hepatitis in Malaysia are hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis A has been a reportable disease in Malaysia since 1988. Due to the introduction of government control programs, the national incidence rate has dropped steadily. It is now estimated that 50% of Malaysians less than 30 years of age do not have antibodies to hepatitis A and are therefore susceptible to the disease, which can be prevented by reinforcing the hygiene status of the general population. Malaysia is a country of medium seroprevalence for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) in the general population (1.5-9.8%). The major route of transmission is from infected mother to fetus. There are an estimated 1 million people chronically infected with hepatitis B in Malaysia. Approximately 75% of all viral hepatitis cases are due to hepatitis B infection, with a male-to-female ratio of 2:1. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) accounts for more than 80% of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases seen in Malaysia and HCC is the 3rd most common malignant neoplasm and among the 10 leading causes of death. Most common genotypes are B and C. Incidence rates among Chinese, Malays, and Indians are 36, 26, and 15% respectively. The hepatitis B vaccination program for children was introduced in 1989, which successfully managed to reduce the seroprevalence of infection among Malaysians to 0.01% (graph 4, 2014). But the disease burden will still remain high for some time as the infected people are getting older and living longer. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a growing problem in Malaysia. An estimated 453,700 people were living with HCV infection in Malaysia in 2009 (2.5% of the population

  4. Public Knowledge about Hepatitis B-Related Issues in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Chrusch

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B infection is endemic in many parts of the world, including Korea. Basic knowledge of the hepatitis B virus by the public is a prerequisite for the development of a successful vaccination program. A survey was conducted in rural Korea to examine public knowledge of hepatitis B etiology, symptoms, transmission, risk factors and prevention. It was found that knowledge independently correlated with education and female sex, but that overall knowledge of hepatitis B was poor. The preferred information sources in order of preference were physicians, television and public health nurses. This information may be useful in designing public health education and vaccination programs in developing populations.

  5. [Combined treatment including ozonotherapy of patients with viral hepatitis ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshev, A L; Filimonov, R M; Karasev, A V; Neronov, V A; Maksimov, V A

    2008-01-01

    Patients with viral hepatitis have disturbances of biliary tract motor function with the tendency to hypertonus of Oddi's sphincter, changes of physic-colloid properties of bile with increase in density of gall and hepatic bile, pH shift to acid side, microlites formation, disorders in biochemical composition of bile. More than 80% patients have biliar insufficiency. According to our data, with the purpose to correct of disturbances of hepatic exocrine function in patients with viral hepatitis and to prevent stone formation, it is reasonable to use together with antiviral therapy also intravenous injection of ozonated physiological solution and preparations of ursodeoxycholic acid.

  6. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  7. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in the developing world. It is a waterborne virus that can cause epidemics in the face of overcrowding and poor sanitation. Although the hepatitis illness is usually self-limiting, it has a high mortality in pregnant women and can become a ...

  8. Hepatitis C in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    where none of the thirty-eight patients presenting with acute self-limiting sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis tested positive for hepatitis C virus antibody.(Khuroo MS 1993) However subsequent reports have found that HCV is indeed a minor player in the wide spectrum of acute hepatitis. A study from. Delhi studied 32 patients ...

  9. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... television star Larry Hagman was diagnosed with advanced hepatitis C liver disease. He received a life-saving liver transplant in 1995 and has gone on to advocate for organ donation. Photo: AP Photo ... singer Natalie Cole was diagnosed with hepatitis C in early 2008. She is currently undergoing dialysis ...

  10. Hepatitis viruses: live and let die.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzer, K; Sprinzl, M F; Galle, Peter R

    2007-04-01

    Viral hepatitis is a diffuse inflammatory reaction of the liver caused by hepatotropic viruses. Among the hepatitis viruses, only hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus are able to persist in the host and cause chronic hepatitis. In the course of persistent infection, inflammation forms the pathogenetic basis of chronic hepatitis that can lead to nodular fibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis and, eventually, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Of the different antiviral defense systems employed by the host, apoptosis significantly contributes to the prevention of viral replication, dissemination, and persistence. Pathomorphologic studies have shown acidophilic bodies and hepatocyte dropout, features that are compatible with apoptosis. The number of hepatocytes showing features of apoptosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C was found to be higher than in healthy subjects, indicating that apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases. There are various data suggesting that hepatitis B and C viral proteins may modulate apoptosis. Vice versa, mechanisms of apoptosis inhibition might represent central survival strategies employed by the virus which, in the end, may contribute to HCC development. While the expression and retention of viral proteins in hepatocytes may influence the severity and progression of liver disease, the mechanisms of liver injury in viral hepatitis are defined to be due not only to the direct cytopathic effects of viruses, but also to the host immune response to viral proteins expressed by infected hepatocytes. However, the exact role of these observations in relation to pathogenesis remains to be established. The mechanism and systems are complex. This report aims to provide an overview and intends to cite only a small number of pertinent references.

  11. Hepatitis A: Old and New

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Jennifer A.

    2001-01-01

    The hepatitis A virus (HAV), a picornavirus, is a common cause of hepatitis worldwide. Spread of infection is generally person to person or by oral intake after fecal contamination of skin or mucous membranes; less commonly, there is fecal contamination of food or water. Hepatitis A is endemic in developing countries, and most residents are exposed in childhood. In contrast, the adult population in developed countries demonstrates falling rates of exposure with improvements in hygiene and sanitation. The export of food that cannot be sterilized, from countries of high endemicity to areas with low rates of infection, is a potentially important source of infection. After ingestion and uptake from the gastrointestinal tract, the virus replicates in the liver and is excreted into the bile. Cellular immune responses to the virus lead to destruction of infected hepatocytes with consequent development of symptoms and signs of disease. Humoral immune responses are the basis for diagnostic serologic assays. Acute HAV infection is clinically indistinguishable from other causes of acute viral hepatitis. In young children the disease is often asymptomatic, whereas in older children and adults there may be a range of clinical manifestations from mild, anicteric infection to fulminant hepatic failure. Clinical variants include prolonged, relapsing, and cholestatic forms. Management of the acute illness is supportive, and complete recovery without sequelae is the usual outcome. Research efforts during World War II led to the development of passive immunoprophylaxis. Pooled immune serum globulin is efficacious in the prevention and attenuation of disease in exposed individuals. More recently, active immunoprophylaxis by vaccination has been accomplished. Future eradication of this disease can now be contemplated. PMID:11148002

  12. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  13. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  14. Health Inequities and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, TB, and STDs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-15

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), discusses health inequities in the United States and how NCHHSTP research, policies, and programs can address them.  Created: 9/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 9/15/2010.

  15. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in acute viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galský, J; Bansky, G; Holubová, T; Kõnig, J

    1999-04-01

    In previously published studies ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) showed beneficial effect on the course of chronic hepatitis. We investigated the effect of UDCA on the course of acute viral hepatitis in a prospective double-blind study. Seventy-eight consecutive patients were randomly assigned either to the UDCA group or to placebo. At 12 months of follow-up 76 patients were available for the final assessment. The analysis of all cases and of the patients with hepatitis B (n = 59) showed a comparable rate of decline of the alanine aminotransferase and other liver function tests in the treatment group and in the placebo group. However, the elevation of alanine aminotransferase persisted more frequently in the placebo group (all cases, p = 0.05; hepatitis B group, p = 0.03). Persistence of the hepatitis B virus infection, measured by the presence of hepatitis B early antigen and hepatitis B virus DNA (polymerase chain reaction and hybridization) at 12 months of follow-up, was observed in I of 33 patients in the UDCA group and in 6 of 25 patients in the placebo group (p = 0.02). Gallstones detected by entry ultrasound dissolved in four of eight cases in the UDCA group and in none of six in the placebo group. We conclude that UDCA has a beneficial effect on the course of the acute viral hepatitis. It may enhance the clearance of the hepatitis B virus and thus prevent the development of chronic hepatitis.

  16. Hepatitis A and B vaccination--the rate of uptake and course completion in patients with hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Trinity; Kwan, Kellie; Mak, Donna

    2010-10-01

    Western Australian general practitioners may order Department of Health funded hepatitis A and B vaccines for patients newly notified with hepatitis C to prevent complications associated with co-infections. The aim of this study was to determine vaccination uptake of hepatitis C patients through this program. We reviewed hepatitis C notifications and hepatitis A and B vaccine orders received in 2007 and 2008 to determine the rate of vaccine uptake and course completion. Vaccination orders for initial doses were received for 37% (448/1209) of patients. Vaccination uptake was positively associated with age and non- Aboriginality. Final vaccination doses were ordered for 30% of patients for whom an initial order had been received. Uptake of hepatitis A and B vaccination was higher than that of similar populations. However, vaccination course completion was low. General practitioners need to emphasise to their patients the importance of completing a vaccine course.

  17. [Prevalence for seropositivity for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in blood donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-López, María Rebeca F; Zavala-Méndez, Celia; Arenas-Esqueda, Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Despite utilizing different actions to render blood safe for transfusions, we continue to have the risk of transmitting some viral infections. For this reason, it is important to determine prevalence of infections due to HIV and hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in blood donors. Previous studies from Mexico indicate that HIV prevalence is 0.01 to 0.13%, while it is 0.11 to 1.22% for hepatitis B, and for hepatitis C, prevalence is 0.47 to 1.47%. We are checking the results of the screening tests (ELISA 3rd generation and chemiluminescent immunoassays) from blood donors studied at the Central Blood Bank (Banco Central de Sangre) at the Mexican Institute of Social Security's (IMSS) Twentieth First Century National Medical Center in Mexico City from 1995 to 2002. Reactive results were studied by confirmatory tests, Western Blot for HIV, AgHBs neutralization test for hepatitis B, and RIBA-HCV3.0 for hepatitis C. Reactive results from 513,062 blood donors confirmed for HV were 0.07%, reactive results and confirmation of hepatitis B from 511,733 blood donors were 0.13%, and reactive results and confirmation of hepatitis C from 511,115 blood donors were 0.31%. Rates obtained are low when compared with results of previous studies in Mexico for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. It may be possible than these low rates indicate the positive impact obtained from preventive actions, better strategies of detection of blood donors with high risk, and the advantage of working with a fully automated test system with state-of-the-art technology.

  18. Autoimmune hepatitis : Pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, AP

    Background: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic necro-inflammatory disease of the liver. Early recognition is important in order to prevent the development of cirrosis. This review discusses recent developments in the fields of diagnosis, pathophysiology and management of AIH. Methods: Relevant

  19. Hepatitis C hos børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Vibeke Brix; Nordly, Sannie Brit; Fischler, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection has a prevalence of 2-3% worldwide. The vertical transmission rate is approximately 5%. There is no evidence to recommend abstinence from breastfeeding or elective C-section to prevent transmission. In children, the natural history of HCV infection is typically...

  20. Alcoholic hepatitis: appropriate indication for liver transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneekloth, Terry D; Niazi, Shehzad K; Simonetto, Douglas A

    2017-12-01

    The majority of liver transplantation centers have required patients with alcohol-induced liver disease to demonstrate a period of abstinence (generally 6 months' duration) to qualify for transplant listing. This requirement has excluded patients with alcoholic hepatitis from transplant consideration. Since 2011, several studies have examined the outcomes of patients undergoing liver transplantation with brief abstinence as a lifesaving intervention for alcoholic hepatitis. This review includes each of the recent studies and discusses their implications for general transplant practice. A Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System search revealed five published studies - three prospective and two retrospective - pertaining to liver transplantation for alcoholic hepatitis. Among patients with medication-nonresponsive alcoholic hepatitis, those who underwent transplantation had superior survival. Liver recipients with alcoholic hepatitis had comparable survival to those with 6 or more months of abstinence. Their relapse rates were not statistically different in the short term over those transplanted with longer abstinence, although some patients in each prospective cohort relapsed to drinking despite narrow inclusion criteria and extensive pretransplant staff reviews and posttransplant surveillance. Liver transplantation is a reasonable treatment consideration for highly selective cases of alcoholic hepatitis. Further research is needed to refine inclusion criteria, address posttransplant relapse prevention interventions, and monitor long-term outcomes.

  1. Frequency of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in multi - transfused beta thalassemia major patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.M.; Hassan, S.; Aziz, S.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency of hepatitis B and C virus infection among children with beta thalassemia major registered at Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Children attending Thalassemia Centre Military Hospital Rawalpindi for regular blood transfusion were registered. They belonged to different ethnic groups and came from different parts of the country. Their demographic data was recorded, detailed history taken and physical examination was carried out. Their serum samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen and anti HCV antibody assay with third generation commercial ELISA method. During the study; 141 patients of beta thalassemia major were screened. Out of them 50 patients (35.5% ,95% confidence interval 27.8-43.5)w ere found hepatitis C virus antibody positive and 1 patient (0.7 %) hepatitis B surface antigen positive. One patient (0.7%) had both hepatitis B and C virus infection. Mean age of hepatitis C infected patients was 10.4+3.85y ears (range 2-16 years). Mean age of uninfected patients was 6.1 + 3.59 years. (p value 0.000) In addition, the results indicate that higher prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly associated with longer duration of transfusion (p value <0.003). In spite of the fact that screened blood is used for transfusions, still a large number of patients have been found infected with hepatitis C. Therefore more accurate techniques are required for screening of blood to prevent transfusion associated transmission. (author)

  2. Hepatitis B virus genotyping in chronic hepatitis B patients in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Morad Asaad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of hepatitis B virus genotypes in Saudi Arabia is largely unknown. To the best of our knowledge there are no data available about HBV genotypes in southwestern region of the country. This study aimed to determine the epidemiologic distribution of hepatitis B virus genotypes in chronic hepatitis B patients in southwestern region, and to verify possible correlations between these genotypes and the clinical symptoms. A total of 160 patients with chronic hepatitis B infection were enrolled in this study. Sera were tested for liver function tests, hepatitis B virus markers and DNA load by standard procedures. HBV genotyping was performed by 2-tube nested PCR for determination of six genotypes (A–F. Genotype D was the most common, found in 135 (84.4% patients, followed by A (18; 11.3% and E (7; 4.3%. The rate of HBeAg positivity in genotype D patients was significantly lower compared with that in genotype A and E patients (p = 0.01. There was no significant association between HBV genotypes and age, gender, liver function tests, or HBV DNA load. Genotypes D and E were predominant in chronic hepatitis B patients in southwestern Saudi Arabia. Awareness of hepatitis B virus serologic and genotypic patterns might help in the formulation of management plans, predicting clinical outcomes and updating prevention strategies.

  3. Hepatitis viruses and hepatocellular carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis viruses and hepatocellular carcinoma. Michael C. Kew. Of the hepatitis viruses that have been identified and their pathological consequences characterised, three - hepatitis. B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis D virus. (HDV) - have been implicated as risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ...

  4. Modulation of hepatic steatosis by dietary fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-02-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) describes a range of conditions caused by fat deposition within liver cells. Liver fat content reflects the equilibrium between several metabolic pathways involved in triglyceride synthesis and disposal, such as lipolysis in adipose tissue and de novo lipogenesis, triglyceride esterification, fatty acid oxidation and very-low-density lipoprotein synthesis/secretion in hepatic tissue. In particular, it has been demonstrated that hepatic de novo lipogenesis plays a significant role in NAFLD pathogenesis. It is widely known that the fatty acid composition of the diet influences hepatic lipogenesis along with other metabolic pathways. Therefore, dietary fat may not only be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis, but may also prevent and/or reverse hepatic fat accumulation. In this review, major data from the literature about the role of some dietary fats as a potential cause of hepatic fat accumulation or as a potential treatment for NAFLD are described. Moreover, biochemical mechanisms responsible for an increase or decrease in hepatic lipid content are critically analyzed. It is noteworthy that both quantitative and qualitative aspects of dietary fat influence triglyceride deposition in the liver. A high-fat diet or the dietary administration of conjugated linoleic acids induced hepatic steatosis. In contrast, supplementation of the diet with krill oil or pine nut oil helped in the prevention and/or in the treatment of steatotic liver. Quite interesting is the "case" of olive oil, since several studies have often provided different and/or conflicting results in animal models.

  5. Hepatitis isquémica Ischemic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amuchástegui (h

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis isquémica es una complicación sumamente infrecuente de cirugía cardiovascular. Las biopsias muestran necrosis centrolobulillar. El término de "hepatitis" fue propuesto debido al aumento de transaminasas similar a aquellas de origen infeccioso, e "isquémica" por falla en la perfusión hepática. Posteriormente se definió el término de hepatitis isquémica como cuadro de elevación aguda y reversible (dentro de las 72 horas de transaminasas de hasta 20 veces el valor normal, asociado a trastornos en la perfusión hepática, luego de haber excluido otras causas de hepatitis aguda o daño hepatocelular. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 53 años que consulta por dolor epigástrico de 12 h de evolución sin fiebre, náuseas ni vómitos, resistente a la medicación. Tenía antecedentes inmediatos de reemplazo de válvula aórtica, y estaba anticoagulado. Evolucionó con shock y fallo multiorgánico. El examen evidenció marcada ictericia y signos de taponamiento pericárdico, asociado a un aumento considerable de enzimas hepáticas. Un ecocardiograma informó signos de taponamiento cardíaco y ausencia de disección aórtica. Se decidió pericardiocentesis, extrayéndose 970 cc. de líquido sanguinolento, y hemodiálisis, con notable mejoría de su estado hemodinámico. Los valores enzimáticos disminuyeron. Los marcadores virales fueron negativos.Ischemic hepatitis is an uncommon cardiovascular surgery complication. Hepatic biopsies show centrolobulillar necrosis. The term "hepatitis" was proposed because of a raise in hepatic enzymes similar with infectious disease, and "ischemic" because of failure in hepatic perfusion. Ischemic hepatitis was then defined as an acute and reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes (within 72 h, associated with disturbance in hepatic perfusion after excluding other causes of acute hepatitis. A 53 year-old male presented complaining of a 12 h epigastric pain, without nausea or vomiting, resistant

  6. Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEPATITIS C Information on Testing & Diagnosis What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a serious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C has been called a silent ...

  7. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Directors & Staff Our Accomplishments Annual Reports Our Videos Quick Links Drug Watch Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta ...

  8. Implementation of Hepatitis Information Management System in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Safdari; Jebraeil, Farzi; Akbar, Nasiri Ali; Marjan, Ghazisaeedi; Reza, Taghavi Mohammad; Mehdi, Afshari; Mahlagha, Sargolzaee; Farhad, Taji

    2015-11-17

    Nowadays, hepatitis is of the most important health priorities around the world, where information plays a very significant role in specialized diseases prevention planning, and policy- and decision-making processes. Thus, this study addressed challenges of hepatitis information management and investigated the outcomes of establishing a hepatitis information management system to overcome such challenges. To this end, this research intended to study the implementation of an Electronic hepatitis information management system. This is an applied-developmental study with following specifications and procedures: preparation of study proposal and design, justification of the design's stakeholders, approval of the design by the Postgraduate Education Council of Faculty, determination of pilot hepatitis control center, software development, deciding on control, prevention, and treatment centers, and finally development of a network-based system for collecting and managing hepatitis information. Results indicated that the inconsistency and lack of integrity of data, as well as the lack of communication between related units prevented timely information register of viral hepatic patients and services that are provided to them. This inhibited the possibility of considering a follow-up process. However, the implementation of this system and involvement of relevant units greatly solved these problems. Results show that the implementation of an electronic system for the management of hepatitis control, prevention, and treatment is a regional and national requirement; since, this system with its empowered infrastructure is capable in providing desired services to all laboratories, counseling and health centers, specialized clinics, and physicians connected to the hepatitis network. This enables them to follow up and monitor patients' conditions. That mentioned system paves the way for the analysis of gathered information, managers' and specialists' access in different regions to

  9. Hepatitis Infection in the Treatment of Opioid Dependence and Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Kresina

    2008-01-01

    infection. Successful pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction stabilizes patients and improves patient compliance to care and treatment regimens as well as promotes good patient outcomes. Implementation and integration of effective hepatitis prevention programs, care programs, and treatment regimens in concert with the pharmacological therapy of opioid addiction can reduce the public health burdens of hepatitis and injection drug use.

  10. Addressing cultural diversity: the hepatitis B clinical specialist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jack; Smith, Elizabeth; Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Richmond, Jacqueline; Lucke, Jayne

    2017-08-31

    Hepatitis B is a viral infection primarily affecting people from culturally diverse communities in Australia. While vaccination prevents infection, there is increasing mortality resulting from liver damage associated with chronic infection. Deficits in the national policy and clinical response to hepatitis B result in a low diagnosis rate, inadequate testing and diagnosis processes, and poor access to hepatitis B treatment services. While research identifies inadequate hepatitis B knowledge among people with the virus and primary health care workers, this project sought to identify how specialist clinicians in Australia negotiate cultural diversity, and provide often complex clinical information to people with hepatitis B. A vignette was developed and presented to thirteen viral hepatitis specialist clinicians prior to an electronically recorded interview. Recruitment continued until saturation of themes was reached. Data were thematically coded into themes outlined in the interview schedule. Ethical approval for the research was provided by the La Trobe University Human Research Ethics Committee. Key messages provided to patients with hepatitis B by clinical specialists were identified. These messages were not consistently provided to all patients with hepatitis B, but were determined on perceptions of patient knowledge, age and highest educational level. While the vignette stated that English was not an issue for the patient, most specialists identified the need for an interpreter. Combating stigma related to hepatitis B was seen as important by the specialists and this was done through normalising the virus. Having an awareness of different cultural understandings about hepatitis B specifically, and health and well-being generally, was noted as a communication strategy. Key core competencies need to be developed to deliver educational messages to people with hepatitis B within clinical encounters. The provision of adequate resources to specialist clinics will

  11. The Effect of Hepatic Stimulatory Substance, Isolated from Regenerating Hepatic Cytosol, and 50,000 and 300,000 Subfractions in Enhancing Survival in Experimental Acute Hepatic Failure in Rats Treated with D-Galactosamine

    OpenAIRE

    Francavilla, Antonio; DiLeo, Alfredo; Polimeno, Lorenzo; Gavaler, Judith; Pellicci, Riccardo; Todo, Satoro; Kam, Igal; Prelich, John; Makowka, Leonard; Starzl, Thomas E.

    1986-01-01

    Galactosamine induces a dose-dependent hepatic injury in rats and many other animals. The toxicity of D-galactosamine appears to be a consequence of the loss of hepatic UTP. It has previously been reported that regenerating liver cytosol is able to prevent, at least in part, the lethal effect of this substance by stimulating hepatic regeneration. Recently, we have separated a fraction using alcohol precipitation (80%) from regenerating liver cytosol and from weanling rat liver cytosol prepare...

  12. [Analysis on the adverse events following immunization of 10 infants death after hepatitis B vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Zhen; Cui, Fu-Qiang; Liu, Da-Wei

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the safety of Hepatitis B vaccine by analyzing the 10 infants death after Hepatitis B vaccination. Collect the reporting data from the public health emergencies report system of China Disease Prevention and Control System. In the 10 death cases after hepatitis B vaccination, 2 cases would be acute anaphylactic shock caused by the vaccination, and the other 8 death cases were not related to vaccination. The hepatitis B vaccine of China were safety, there were very few death cases of allergic reactions following hepatitis B vaccination. We should standardize the vaccination in order to reduce the adverse events following immunization.

  13. hy viral hepatitis?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    randomized, controlled trial of interferon alfa-2b alone and after prednisone withdrawal for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. The Hepatitis Interventional. Therapy Group. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 295-301. 14. Ncayiyana DJ. Coming to grips with the future of health care - the ANC National. Health Plan. 5 Air Med J 1994; ...

  14. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  15. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out.

  16. Hepatitis E og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannheimer, Ebba Elisabeth; Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Katzenstein, Terese Lea

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among pregnant women is severe, often leading to fulminant hepatic failure and death, with mortality rates up to 15-25%. Studies suggest that differences in genotypes/subgenotypes, hormonal and immunological changes during pregnancy may contribute to the severe...

  17. Selective hepatitis B virus vaccination has reduced hepatitis B virus transmission in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahné, Susan; van Houdt, Robin; Koedijk, Femke; van Ballegooijen, Marijn; Cremer, Jeroen; Bruisten, Sylvia; Coutinho, Roel; Boot, Hein

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, a selective hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination programme started in 2002 for men having sex with men, drug users, commercial sex workers and heterosexuals with frequent partner changes. We assessed the programme's effectiveness to guide policy on HBV prevention. We analysed

  18. Seasonality of hepatitis: a review update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Auda

    2015-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that has been reported to be present throughout the year, but some particular months are associated with higher incidences. The primary objective was to review and report on the current knowledge and evidence that existed on seasonality of different type of acute viral hepatitis worldwide in order to develop recommendations for future research, prevention and control. A systematic literature review was performed to identify all the primary reports and studies published during 1970-2013 on acute hepatitis A, B, C and E (AHA, AHB, AHC and AHE) in human subjects by searching PubMed, reference lists of major articles and correspondence with scientific experts. For each report or study included, the following information was extracted (as applicable to study): Location (country and setting), study population (number of cases, patients), seasonal or monthly rate and study duration. There is no definite and consistent seasonal pattern has been observed on AHA; AHB; AHE and AHC, although evidence points towards spring and summer peak for hepatitis A, B, C and E. Multiple source of transmission such as; summer travel to an endemic area, swimming habits of the population in hot months, increase sexual contact, tattoo, poor hygiene and environmental sanitation and food habits (feco-oral transmission of viral hepatitis) probably exists and should be further investigated through analytical and epidemiological.

  19. Seasonality of hepatitis: A review update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auda Fares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Viral hepatitis is an infection that has been reported to be present throughout the year, but some particular months are associated with higher incidences. The primary objective was to review and report on the current knowledge and evidence that existed on seasonality of different type of acute viral hepatitis worldwide in order to develop recommendations for future research, prevention and control. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature review was performed to identify all the primary reports and studies published during 1970-2013 on acute hepatitis A, B, C and E (AHA, AHB, AHC and AHE in human subjects by searching PubMed, reference lists of major articles and correspondence with scientific experts. For each report or study included, the following information was extracted (as applicable to study: Location (country and setting, study population (number of cases, patients, seasonal or monthly rate and study duration. Results: There is no definite and consistent seasonal pattern has been observed on AHA; AHB; AHE and AHC, although evidence points towards spring and summer peak for hepatitis A, B, C and E. Multiple source of transmission such as; summer travel to an endemic area, swimming habits of the population in hot months, increase sexual contact, tattoo, poor hygiene and environmental sanitation and food habits (feco-oral transmission of viral hepatitis probably exists and should be further investigated through analytical and epidemiological.

  20. Inhibition of SIRT2 suppresses hepatic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Maribel; Shang, Na; Ding, Xianzhong; Yong, Sherri; Cotler, Scott J; Denning, Mitchell F; Shimamura, Takashi; Breslin, Peter; Lüscher, Bernhard; Qiu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Liver fibrosis can progress to cirrhosis and result in serious complications of liver disease. The pathogenesis of liver fibrosis involves the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the underlying mechanisms of which are not fully known. Emerging evidence suggests that the classic histone deacetylases play a role in liver fibrosis, but the role of another subfamily of histone deacetylases, the sirtuins, in the development of hepatic fibrosis remains unknown. In this study, we found that blocking the activity of sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) by using inhibitors or shRNAs significantly suppressed fibrogenic gene expression in HSCs. We further demonstrated that inhibition of SIRT2 results in the degradation of c-MYC, which is important for HSC activation. In addition, we discovered that inhibition of SIRT2 suppresses the phosphorylation of ERK, which is critical for the stabilization of c-MYC. Moreover, we found that Sirt2 deficiency attenuates the hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and thioacetamide (TAA). Furthermore, we showed that SIRT2, p-ERK, and c-MYC proteins are all overexpressed in human hepatic fibrotic tissues. These data suggest a critical role for the SIRT2/ERK/c-MYC axis in promoting hepatic fibrogenesis. Inhibition of the SIRT2/ERK/c-MYC axis represents a novel strategy to prevent and to potentially treat liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Chronic viral hepatitis C in pediatric age group; assessment of viral activity and hepatic fibrosis by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion weighted imaging in asymptomatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Mansour Galal

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Early diagnosis of asymptomatic chronic hepatitis C is essential to prevent or delay end stage chronic parenchymal liver disease. 1H MRS may be a potential noninvasive helpful diagnostic tool in the assessment of staging and fibrosis of asymptomatic chronic hepatitis C. The increase in metabolites were correlated with histopathological changes. DW-MRI can be considered as an effective predictor in the assessment of activity in chronic hepatitis C.

  2. Prevention of the HBsAg carrier state in newborn infants of mothers who are chronic carriers of HBsAg and HBeAg by administration of hepatitis-B vaccine and hepatitis-B immunoglobulin. Double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, V. C.; Ip, H. M.; Reesink, H. W.; Lelie, P. N.; Reerink-Brongers, E. E.; Yeung, C. Y.; Ma, H. K.

    1984-01-01

    Newborn infants of Chinese HBeAg-carrier mothers in Hong Kong were randomly assigned to one of four study groups. Group I was treated with 3 micrograms heat-inactivated hepatitis B (HB) vaccine at birth and at 1, 2, and 6 months thereafter, in conjunction with seven monthly HBIg injections; group II

  3. Stopping the Silent Killer: Hepatitis B Among Asian Americans

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast discusses an underappreciated health threat to many Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States: chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus. Dr. John Ward, director of CDC's Division of Viral Hepatitis, and Dr. Sam So, founder of the Asian Liver Center at Stanford University, address the importance of testing, vaccination, and care to prevent serious health consequences from this "silent" disease.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), Division of Viral Hepatitis (DVH) and Office of Dispute Resolution and Equal Employment Opportunity, Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 5/1/2008.

  4. Hepatitis C virus infection among transmission-prone medical personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, H. L.; Appelman, P.; Frijstein, G.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected physicians have been reported to infect some of their patients during exposure-prone procedures (EPPs). There is no European consensus on the policy for the prevention of this transmission. To help define an appropriate preventive policy, we determined the prevalence

  5. Awareness of women regarding hepatitis B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, G.; Haider, A.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis B is the major health problem globally casting an enormous burden on health care system and major source of patient's misery. It is also an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and is likely to remain a serious health problem resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality for several decades to come. Objective of the study was to determine the level of awareness regarding hepatitis B among women attending obstetric and gynaecology clinic at Isra university Hospital. It was descriptive study and conducted in Obstetric and Gynaecology, Outpatient Department of Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad, Sindh from 2nd January to 3rd June 2008. Total 121 women of 20-50 years were gathered by sample of convenience. Information was collected on pre designed questionnaire containing questions regarding basic knowledge of disease, its causative organism, route of transmission and its prevention. Informed consent was taken. All the data was analyzed by computer software Programme of Social Sciences (SPSS version 11.0). Out of 121 women, 82 (67.76%) women correctly responded that virus is a cause of hepatitis. When they were asked about the organs affected by hepatitis B infection, 91 (75.20%) correctly mentioned liver, while 30 (24.79%) gave incorrect answer. Regarding mode of transmission of HBV 41 (33.88%) mentioned infected blood transfusion, 49 (40.49%) contaminated needles, 46(38.0%) un-sterilised instruments, 21 (17.35%) from mother to child and only 23 (19.0%) mentioned sexual intercourse. Only 51 (42.14%) women knew that vaccine is available for prevention. This study found that the knowledge about hepatitis B virus among women is inadequate and there are certain misconceptions regarding its mode of transmission through sharing room, touching etc which needs to be clarified. Majority of women don't know that HBV infection can be prevented by using condoms. (author)

  6. Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection in Libya: results from a national population based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Mohamed A; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah

    2014-01-09

    Libya is one of the largest countries in Africa and has the longest coast in the Mediterranean basin facing southern Europe. High rates of prevalence of viral hepatitis have been observed in various regions in Africa, but the prevalence in Libya is not well documented. We report on a large-scale nationwide study that evaluated the epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Libya and assessed the risk factors involved. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 on 65,761 individuals all over Libya. The country was divided into 12 regions according to the population density and sampling within each region was carried out under the supervision of the National Centre for Prevention of Infectious Diseases. Serum samples were collected from both males and females of all ages in both urban and rural areas and tested for HBsAg for hepatitis B and anti-HCV antibody for hepatitis C. Prevalence rates were determined in regions and in different groups and correlated with different demographic and risk factors involved in the spread of these viruses. The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses varied regionally across the country. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B was 2.2% (95% CI 2.1%-2.3%) and was higher among males than females (1.4:1.0). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence was 1.2% (95% CI 1.1-1.3) and it increased gradually after the age of 30 years (0.7-0.9% for hepatitis, particularly for HCV. Hospital admission, surgical operation, blood transfusion, and intravenous drug use were the main risk factors, and they were associated independently with a higher prevalence rate of viral hepatitis. Libya may be considered an area of low-intermediate endemicity for hepatitis B virus infection, with lower rates in young age groups, and an area of low endemicity for hepatitis C. The prevalence of hepatitis B and C across Libya is not homogeneous, with indications of the effect of the higher rates in some neighbouring countries. Libya should adopt full coverage

  7. Glucocorticosteroids for viral hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection.......Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection....

  8. LONG-TERM CONSEQUENCES OF HEPATITIS A IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Uchaikin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various embodiments of lingering forms of hepatitis A, for the aggravation still cause differential diagnostic difficulties and mistakes. Continuing to the present heavy and cholestasis form of hepatitis A in children, fulminant form of adolescents, adults and pregnant women let to suggest this issue to be relevance. The task of vaccine prevention of hepatitis A in the National Immunization ScheduleRussiakeeping up to be relevance and perspective. Numerous studies have shown that the French vaccine AVAXIM 80 showed good immunogenicity and safety vaccinate in children.

  9. Influences of obesity on the immunogenicity of Hepatitis B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Guo, Zhirong; Dong, Chen

    2017-05-04

    Hepatitis B vaccine is regarded as the most effective method for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, several factors such as age, body mass index and immunocompetent state have been reported to be associated with reduced immunization responses. The present commentary was aimed to discuss the influences of obesity on the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccines. Available peer-reviewed literatures, practice guidelines, and statistics published on hepatitis B vaccine in obesity between 1973 and 2015. Obesity was significantly associated with non-response to hepatitis B vaccine immunization. The risk of nonresponsiveness of hepatitis B vaccine among obese people increased with BMI. Moreover, the obesity might lead to an increased risk of HBV vaccine-escape mutations. The mechanism responsible for decreased immunization responses in obesity included leptin-induced systemic and B cell intrinsic inflammation, impaired T cell responses and lymphocyte division and proliferation. Therefore, more studies should be performed to analyze the influences of obesity on the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccines to improve the immunoprotecive effect of hepatitis B vaccines in future.

  10. Imaging of gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hodnett, Philip A

    2012-02-03

    Imaging of the abdomen for suspected gastrointestinal and hepatic disease during pregnancy is assuming greater importance. Like clinical evaluation, imaging of the abdomen and pelvis is challenging but is vitally important to prevent delayed diagnosis or unnecessary interventions. Also choice of imaging modality is influenced by factors which could impact on fetal safety such as the use of ionising radiation and magnetic resonance imaging. This article discusses important issues in imaging of gastrointestinal and hepatic disease in pregnancy and the puerperium.

  11. Changing Epidemiological Characteristics of Hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province, China: Increased Susceptibility in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhifang; Chen, Yaping; Xie, Shuyun; Lv, Huakun

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A is a common acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Annually, it affects 1.4 million people worldwide. Between 1991 and 1994, HAV infections were highly endemic in Zhejiang Province (China), with 78,720 reported HAV infections per year. Hepatitis A vaccine came on the market in 1995 and was implemented for voluntary immunization. Since 2008, hepatitis A vaccine has been integrated into the national childhood routine immunization program. Objective To understand the current epidemiological profile of hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province since hepatitis A vaccine has been available for nearly two decades. Methods This study used the 2005–2014 National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System data to evaluate the incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases in Zhejiang Province. Results The overall trend of incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases significantly decreased from 2005 to 2014 (Phepatitis A vaccine seemed to be effective in decreasing notified hepatitis A incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years. Those aged ≥20 years were observed to be the most susceptible population. The vast majority of hepatitis A cases were notified among Laborers. Therefore, we strongly suggest that future preventive and control measures should focus more on adults, particularly Laborers, in addition to the current childhood hepatitis A vaccination programme. PMID:27093614

  12. Feline Hepatic Lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtolina, Chiara; Favier, Robert P

    2017-05-01

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common and potentially fatal liver disorder. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms of FHL remain elusive, there is an imbalance between the influx of fatty acids from peripheral fat stores into the liver, de novo liposynthesis, and the rate of hepatic oxidation and dispersal of hepatic TAG via excretion of very-low density lipoproteins. The diagnosis of FHL is based on anamnestic, clinical, and clinicopathologic findings, associated with diagnostic imaging of the liver, and cytology, or histological examination of liver biopsies. Fluid therapy, electrolyte correction and adequate early nutrition are essential components of the therapy for FHL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Because of its frequency and grave prognosis, preventing hepatocellular carcinoma is an urgent priority. Prevention should be possible because environmental carcinogens-chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections, dietary exposure to aflatoxins, and iron overload-cause the great majority of these tumors. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection accounts for 55% of global hepatocellular carcinomas and 80% of those in the high-incidence Asia Pacific and sub-Saharan African regions. In these regions the infection that becomes chronic is predominantly acquired very early in life. A safe and effective vaccine against this virus is available and its universal inclusion in the immunization of infants has already resulted in a marked reduction of chronic infection and a 70% decrease in the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in those immunized. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in industrialized countries. The infection is mainly acquired in adulthood and, until a vaccine becomes available, prevention will consist mainly of identifying, counselling, and treating chronically infected individuals, preventing spread of the virus by the use of safe injection practices (particularly in intravenous drug abusers), and screening all donated blood for the presence of the virus. 4.5 billion of the world.s population are exposed to dietary aflatoxins. Prevention involves treating susceptible crops to prevent fungal contamination, and handling the foodstuffs in such a way as to prevent contamination during storage. Iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis can be prevented by repeated venesection and in African dietary iron overload by fermenting the home-brewed beer in iron-free containers.

  14. Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination TB Facts: You Can Prevent TB What ...

  15. Imaging of hepatic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, D.J.; Hanbidge, A.E.; O'Malley, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented

  16. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  17. HIV and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis C Last Reviewed: July 25, 2017 ...

  18. HIV and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis B Last Reviewed: July 24, 2017 ...

  19. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parts of the world, such as parts of sub-Saharan Africa, blood donors may not be screened for HCV. ... D. Global burden of hepatitis C: considerations for healthcare providers in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. ...

  20. Hepatitis A -- children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 599. Jensen MK, William F. Balistreri WF. Viral hepatitis. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW III, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 358. ...

  1. Hepatitis B -- children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016. Jensen MK, William F, Balistreri WF. Viral hepatitis. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW III, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 358. ...

  2. Hepatitis C -- children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 69. Jensen MK, William F. Balistreri WF. Viral hepatitis. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW III, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 358. ...

  3. Hepatitis C Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection and Further Actions. PDF available for download at http://www.cdc.gov/ ...

  4. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traveler Registration During Trip After Your Trip CDC-TV Videos Resources For Clinicians In-Clinic Quick Links ... if concentration is ≥10 mIU/mL after vaccine series completion; passive transfer after hepatitis B immune globulin ...

  5. Hepatitis A FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water kills hepatitis A virus that enters the water supply. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) routinely monitors natural bodies of water used for recreation for fecal contamination so there is no need for monitoring for ...

  6. outbreak of hepatitis 'E' in risalpur garrison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, T.B.; Tariq, W.U.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus is an RNA virus. It results in epidemics/outbreaks in geographical areas lacking clean water and sanitation. It is excreted in stools and is enterically transmitted (faeco-oral route). The clinical picture resembles other acute hepatitis and diagnosis is clinched by detecting anti-HEV IgM in infected individuals. It is a self-limiting disease and does not progress to chronicity. There is no vaccine available so far, to confer immunity against HEV infection. HEV is endemic in many parts of the world and has resulted in many epidemics / outbreaks worldwide. It is also endemic in Pakistan and epidemics / outbreaks have generally been under reported. To establish the cause of outbreak Blood samples of the patients (n=195), admitted in isolation ward were collected aseptically for routine baseline investigations and hepatitis screening. Separate blood samples were sent to Armed Forces Institute of pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi for detection of antibodies to hepatitis E virus (Anti HEV IgM). Water samples collected during the outbreak were tested by multiple tube technique. MPN (Most Probable Number) method was used to determine faecal coliform bacteria per 100 ml of water sample. All the patients (n=195) on admission had raised ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) levels along with hyperbilirubinemia, 37% had raised TLC with polymorphonuclear response. None had HBsAg (Hepatitis B surface antign) or anti-HCV (antibodies to hepatitis C virus), 23% had prolonged PT (Prothrombin Time). Samples despatched to AFIP Rawalpindi confirmed the presence of anti-HEV IgM. Follow up analysis revealed many fold increase in ALT levels. Average stay in the Hospital was 23.6 days per patient. All the water samples were declared unfit for drinking due to high coliform count. At present, no vaccine is available to protect against HEV infection. Mainstay for prevention and occurrence is to formulate cost-effective strategies for improvement of self/environmental hygiene and

  7. Hepatitis B Markers in Isfahan, Central Iran: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Peyman Adibi; Ziba Farajzadegan; Parisa Shoaei; Abbas Ali Javadi; Behrooz Ataei; Nazila Kassaian; Zary Nokhodian

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims: Hepatitis B is the most frequent cause of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in Iran. To establish better preventive strategies, updating data on prevalence rates are needed. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Isfahan province, Central Iran, in 2006.Methods: In a cross-sectional study in 2006, 816 subjects over 6 years old were selected through a systematic multi-stage cluster sampling from 32 urban and 9 rural areas of Isf...

  8. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Masotti; M. O. Lima; A. M. Cruz; G. D. Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by ja...

  9. CT in hepatic abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hiromura, Tadao; Saitoh, Hiroya; Choji, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Shinohara, Masahiro; Irie, Goroh; Nojima, Takayuki; Morita, Yuzuru.

    1987-01-01

    Fifteen CT pictures from 10 cases of hepatic abscess were reviewed. Rim enhancement was noted only in 2. On the other hand, ill defined low density surrounding central cystic structure was demonstrated in 11. Following contrast injection, this ill defined low density becomes isodense to the normal liver. Histologically, the ill defined low density was granulation tissue composed of neutrophils, lymphocytes and Macrophages. We emphasized the importance of the recognition of the granulation tissue surraounding a cyst of hepatic abscess. (author)

  10. Hepatitis C pada Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi virus hepatitis C saat ini masih merupakan persoalan yang serius. Penularan infeksi HCV pada anak yang utama adalah melalui transfusi darah atau produk darah yang saat ini bertanggung jawab menyebabkan kasus hepatitis C kronis. Selain itu infeksi HCV pada anak dapat disebabkan oleh transmisi perinatal (vertikal. Infeksi HCV akut dapat berakhir dengan sirosis dan karsinoma hepatoselular setelah dekade ketiga (sekitar 20%, karena progresivitas infeksi HCV lebih lambat dari infeksi hepatitis B virus. Pada umumnya infeksi HCV bersifat asimptomatik termasuk pada anak. Karena tidak ada gejala yang jelas pada infeksi HCV tersebut maka diagnosis infeksi HCV hanya dapat ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan awal laboratorium dan uji serologi, dan bila perlu dengan uji molekuler pada pasien dengan risiko tinggi. Kebijakan kuratif khusus terhadap HCV adalah terapi antivirus berupa interferon dan ribavirin yang diberikan bila diagnosis HCV sudah ditegakkanKata kunci: Hepatitis C, diagnosis and management problem, childrenAbstractHepatitis C virus infection is still a serious problem. Transmission of HCV infection in children is a major blood transfusion or blood products that are currently responsible for causing chronic hepatitis C cases. Additionally HCV infection in children can be caused by perinatal transmission (vertical. Acute HCV infection may end up with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma after the third decade (around 20%, due to a slower progression of HCV infection of hepatitis B virus infection. In most cases of HCV infection are asymptomatic, including in children. Since there are no obvious symptoms in the diagnosis of HCV infection HCV infection can only be confirmed by laboratory examinations and serologic testing early, and if necessary with molecular testing in patients at high risk. Curative policy is specific to HCV antiviral therapy such as interferon and ribavirin are given when the diagnosis of HCV has been establishedKeywords:Hepatitis

  11. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Stinton, Laura M; Jayakumar, Saumya

    2013-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the earliest form of hepatic encephalopathy and can affect up to 80% of cirrhotic patients. By definition, it has no obvious clinical manifestation and is characterized by neurocognitive impairment in attention, vigilance and integrative function. Although often not considered to be clinically relevant and, therefore, not diagnosed or treated, MHE has been shown to affect daily functioning, quality of life, driving and overall mortality. The diagnosis o...

  12. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masotti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by jaundice and varying degrees of dehydration, diarrhea and vomiting episodes may occur. A worsening of the disease shows signs of hepatic encephalopathy, drooling and retroflexion of the neck. In clinical examination can be observed depression, lethargy and hepatomegaly. The definitive diagnosis of the disease can be performed by fine needle aspiration biopsy guided by ultrasound and cytology or biopsy. The treatment of hepatic lipidosis is based on stabilizing the patient by supplying water and electrolyte losses and provide adequate nutritional support. The diet is usually provided through feeding tubes for a period ranging from 4 to 6 weeks may occur depending on the patient's condition. The prognosis for cats with hepatic lipidosis is favored in cases of identification followed by intensive treatment of underlying causes and for patients receiving therapy necessary in cases of idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  13. [Prophylactic effect of curcumin on hepatic fibrosis and its relationship with activated hepatic stellate cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ya-jun; Shu, Jian-chang; Lü, Xia; Fang, Li; Sheng, Yan

    2006-05-01

    To observe the prophylactic effect of curcumin on hepatic fibrosis and the number, location, apoptosis of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in the livers and to discuss the relationship between the prophylactic effects and activated HSC. A rat model of hepatic fibrosis was established by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride. Curcumin doses of 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg per 100 gram per 100g of body weight were given to three groups of the model rats. No curcumin was given to one group of the model rats and it served as the control. After eight weeks, all rats were sacrificed and their left liver lobes were examined histopathologically with H.E and Masson stainings. Grades of hepatic fibrosis were evaluated according to the SSS system. Activated HSC was detected by the alpha-SMA immunohistochemistry staining. HSC apoptosis was detected by double-stainings of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and desmin immunohistochemistry staining. Degrees (SSS system scores) of hepatic fibrosis in the curcumin groups were all less severe in comparison with those of the control group. Activated HSCs in the livers of the rats of the control group increased significantly compared with that of the treatment groups, and also fewer apoptotic HSCs were detected in the control group. On the contrary, fewer activated HSCs and more apoptotic HSCs were detected in the curcumin groups compared with those of the control group. The degrees of the effects were curcumin dose-dependent. Curcumin can prevent hepatic fibrosis. It can inhibit activation and proliferation of HSCs and induce HSCs apoptosis, which may be the mechanism(s) contributing to the prophylactic effects of curcumin on hepatic fibrosis.

  14. Population-based study on the seroprevalence of hepatitis A, B, and C virus infection in Amsterdam, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaten, G G G; Sonder, G J B; Dukers, N H T M; Coutinho, R A; Van den Hoek, J A R

    2007-12-01

    In order to enhance screening and preventive strategies, this study investigated the seroprevalence of hepatitis A, B, and C in the general adult urban population and in subgroups. In 2004, sera from 1,364 adult residents of Amsterdam were tested for viral markers. Sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a standardized questionnaire. For hepatitis A, 57.0% was immune. Of first-generation immigrants from Turkey and Morocco, 100% was immune. Of all Western persons and second-generation non-Western immigrants, approximately half was still susceptible. For hepatitis B, 9.9% had antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and 0.4% had hepatitis B surface antigen. Anti-HBc seroprevalences were highest among first-generation immigrants from Surinam, Morocco, and Turkey, and correlated with age at the time of immigration, and among men with a sexual preference for men. Seroprevalence among second-generation immigrants was comparable to Western persons. The seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies was 0.6%. In conclusion, a country with overall low endemicity for viral hepatitis can show higher endemicity in urban regions, indicating the need for differentiated regional studies and prevention strategies. More prevention efforts in cities like Amsterdam are warranted, particularly for hepatitis A and B among second-generation immigrants, for hepatitis B among men with a sexual preference for men, and for hepatitis C. Active case finding strategies are needed for both hepatitis B and C. (c) Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Hepatic manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hugh James FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Different hepatic and biliary tract disorders may occur with celiac disease. Some have been hypothesized to share genetic or immunopathogenetic factors, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Other hepatic changes in celiac disease may occur with malnutrition resulting from impaired nutrient absorption, including hepatic steatosis. In addition, celiac disease may be associated with rare hepatic complications, such as hepatic T-cell lymphoma.Keywords: celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, fatty liver, gluten-free diet

  16. Retraction RETRACTION of "Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogues in preventing vertical transmission of the hepatitis B virus from father to infant", by L.-H. Cao, P.-L. Zhao, Z.-M. Liu, S.-C. Sun, D.-B. Xu, J.-D. Zhang and Z.-H. Shao - Genet. Mol. Res. 14 (4): 15539-15546 (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L-H; Zhao, P-L; Liu, Z-M; Sun, S-C; Xu, D-B; Zhang, J-D; Shao, Z-H

    2016-10-07

    The retracted article is: Cao L-H, Zhao P-L, Liu Z-M, Sun S-C, et al. (2015). Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogues in preventing vertical transmission of the hepatitis B virus from father to infant. Genet. Mol. Res. 14: 15539-15546. The article published in Genetics and Molecular Research 14 (4): 15539-15546 (2015) is a very good paper, but it appears that the authors' group submitted this manuscript to multiple journals, which is ethical misconduct. This manuscript (similar language and identical data) was published in the Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine Journal prior to being submitted to GMR. There are parts copied from "Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogs on blocking father-to-infant vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus", by Li-Hau Cao, Pei-Li Zhao, Zhi-Min Liu, Shao-Chun Sun, et al. Exp. Ther. Med. 9 (6): 2251-2256 (2015) - DOI: 10.3892/etm.2015.2379. The GMR editorial staff was alerted and after a thorough investigation, there is strong reason to believe that the peer review process was failure. Also, after review and contacting the authors, the editors of Genetics and Molecular Research decided to retract this article in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The authors and their institutions were advised of this serious breach of ethics.

  17. Control of a community hepatitis A outbreak using hepatitis A vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, D J; Millership, S

    1999-09-01

    In an outbreak of hepatitis A infection among children attending a village primary school hygiene measures and prophylaxis of household contacts of initial cases with human normal immunoglobulin did not prevent spread. Over two months 16 pupils and two household contacts were infected, and seven children aged 6 to 10 years were jaundiced. Testing for salivary IgG and IgM among staff and pupils and their household contacts identified asymptomatic cases. Hepatitis A vaccine was offered to staff and pupils. Coverage was 78%. If those with previous infection are included 81% were protected. Two cases arose in the seven days after the vaccination campaign. No further cases were identified in the following 30 weeks. Our experiences illustrate a lack of public and professional awareness of the seriousness of hepatitis A in adults, and suggest that hepatitis. A vaccine alone is a useful outbreak control measure. Salivary antibody testing showed that only a quarter of those over 40 years of age (17/69) were immune to hepatitis A.

  18. Hepatitis C performance measure on hepatitis A and B vaccination: missed opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Bridget; Hasson, Noelle K; Cheung, Ramsey

    2009-08-01

    Prevention of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) through vaccination is endorsed by all major professional societies. This study was conducted to determine adherence to the recently adopted physician performance measure on HAV and HBV vaccination. This was a retrospective study. Hepatitis A and B serology data and immunization records between 2000 and 2007 from CHC patients with detectable hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA were analyzed. A total of 2,968 CHC patients were included in the study. Of these, 2,143 patients (72%) were tested for susceptibility to HAV, of which 53% had immunity. Of the non-immune patients, 746 (74%) were vaccinated as well as an additional 218 without prior testing. For HBV, 2,303 patients (78%) were tested for immunity and 782 (34%) were immune. Of the susceptible patients, 1,086 (71%) were vaccinated as well as an additional 197 patients without prior testing. The overall vaccination performance measure adherence rate was 71% for HAV, 70% for HBV, and 62% for both HAV and HBV. Random review of 176 charts found the major reasons for non-adherence were missed opportunity (41%), change of health care system (31%), and documented vaccination outside our health care system (22%). Our study found a high and improved adherence to the recommendations, but missed opportunity was still the main reason of non-adherence. This study also supported the strategy of selective vaccination in the veteran population.

  19. Hepatic encephalopathy associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillitteri, C A; Craig, L E

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy has been listed as a differential for llamas displaying neurologic signs, but it has not been histopathologically described. This report details the neurologic histopathologic findings associated with 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis with concurrent neurologic signs and compares them to 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis in the absence of neurologic signs and 3 cases without hepatic lipidosis. Brain from all 3 llamas displaying neurologic signs contained Alzheimer type II cells, which were not detected in either subset of llamas without neurologic signs. Astrocytic immunohistochemical staining intensity for glial fibrillary acid protein was decreased in llamas with neurologic signs as compared to 2 of 3 llamas with hepatic lipidosis and without neurologic signs and to 2 of 3 llamas without hepatic lipidosis. Immunohistochemical staining for S100 did not vary between groups. These findings suggest that hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas.

  20. Identifiable risk factors in hepatitis b and c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, F.U.; Pervez, A.; Rafiq, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Both hepatitis B and C are common infections affecting masses and are leading causes of Chronic Liver Disease in Pakistan as well as worldwide. In majority of cases both viral diseases spread by factors that are preventable. The present study is conducted to determine the identifiable risk factors in patients admitted with Chronic Hepatitis B and C. Methods: An observational study was carried out for a period of 6 months. All age groups and both sexes were included. The patients were interviewed and the identifiable risk factors were looked for. The standard methods for detection of Hepatitis B and C were used. Results: One-hundred and ten patients were studied from January to July 2009. Sixty-five patients had Hepatitis C, 35 had Hepatitis B, and 10 had both Hepatitis B and C. Ninety-three patients had a history of injections and transfusions etc., and 38 had surgical scars. Tattoos were present in 42 patients and nose and/or ear piercing marks were present in 28 patients. The number of risk factors increased in co-infection. Conclusion: There is a role of unhygienic health delivery practices, lack of awareness and resources for standard screening protocol for spread of Hepatitis B and C. (author)

  1. Arginase Inhibition Ameliorates Hepatic Metabolic Abnormalities in Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jiyoung; Do, Hyun Ju; Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether arginase inhibition influences hepatic metabolic pathways and whole body adiposity in diet-induced obesity. Methods and Results After obesity induction by a high fat diet (HFD), mice were fed either the HFD or the HFD with an arginase inhibitor, Nω-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA). Nor-NOHA significantly prevented HFD-induced increases in body, liver, and visceral fat tissue weight, and ameliorated abnormal lipid profiles. Furthermore, nor-NOHA treatment reduced lipid accumulation in oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro. Arginase inhibition increased hepatic nitric oxide (NO) in HFD-fed mice and HepG2 cells, and reversed the elevated mRNA expression of hepatic genes in lipid metabolism. Expression of phosphorylated 5′ AMPK-activated protein kinase α was increased by arginase inhibition in the mouse livers and HepG2 cells. Conclusions Arginase inhibition ameliorated obesity-induced hepatic lipid abnormalities and whole body adiposity, possibly as a result of increased hepatic NO production and subsequent activation of metabolic pathways involved in hepatic triglyceride metabolism and mitochondrial function. PMID:25057910

  2. An overview of Hepatitis A at Tygerberg Children\\'s Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Hepatitis A is a vaccine-preventable infection, common in children in the Western Cape. Objectives. To describe childhood hepatitis A morbidity and mortality at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, a level two and three referral hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa. Methods. Serological tests with positive ...

  3. Recente ontwikkelingen in de behandeling van chronische hepatitis B en C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chamuleau, R. A. F. M.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B and C are life-threatening diseases, treated with variable success. Peginterferon-alpha is one of the standard therapies for chronic hepatitis B as well as C. To prevent the development of resistant viruses, combination treatment is preferable to monotherapy. Therefore, in

  4. Risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B: Assessment and modification with current antiviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Papatheodoridis (G.); H.L.-Y. Chan (Henry Lik-Yuen); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry); P. Lampertico (Pietro)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), the ultimate goal is preventing hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently published studies show that in CHB patients treated with the currently recommended first-line nucleos(t)ide

  5. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to

  6. Safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of rifaximin for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimer, Nina; Krag, Aleksander; Gluud, Lise L

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a complex disease entity ranging from mild cognitive dysfunction to deep coma. Traditionally, treatment has focused on a reduction of ammonia through a reduced production, absorption, or clearance. Rifaximin is a nonabsorbable antibiotic, which reduces the production of ...... and safety of long-term treatment with rifaximin and evaluate effects of combination therapy with lactulose and branched-chain amino acids for patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy....... of ammonia by gut bacteria and, to some extent, other toxic derivatives from the gut. Clinical trials show that these effects improve episodes of hepatic encephalopathy. A large randomized trial found that rifaximin prevents recurrent episodes of hepatic encephalopathy. Most patients were treated...

  7. Celiac Artery Stenting to Facilitate Hepatic Yttrium-90 Radioembolization Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy R. Chamarthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioembolization offers a novel way to treat the nonresectable, liver predominant hepatic malignancies with better tumor response and overall progression-free survival rates. Transarterial catheter-based radioembolization procedure involves the hepatic arterial administration of glass- or resin-based beta emitting Yttirum-90 microspheres. Safe delivery of the tumoricidal radiation dose requires careful angiogram planning and coil embolization to quantify lung shunting and prevent systemic toxicity, respectively. Diagnostic pretreatment angiogram also serves to identify the hepatic arterial variant anatomy and other coexisting pathologies that might require a different or alternative approach. We describe a complex case of celiac artery stenosis with tortuous pancreaticoduodenal arterial arcade precluding access to the right hepatic artery for performing radioembolization. Celiac artery stenting of the stenosis was performed to facilitate subsequent safe and successful Yttrium-90 microsphere radioembolization.

  8. Viral hepatitis A, B, and C: grown-up issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, Umid M; Hu, Dale J

    2010-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is a major global health problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although there are five major and distinct human hepatitis viruses characterized to date--referred to as hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E, respectively--only hepatitis A, B, and C are epidemiologically and clinically relevant for adolescents in North America. The clinical presentation of acute infection with each of these viruses is similar; thus, diagnosis depends on the use of specific serologic markers and viral nucleic acids. This review provides data on the epidemiology, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of each of these three viral infections, along with points that are important or unique to adolescent patients.

  9. [Vaccines against hepatitis A and B in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, M Teresa

    2009-06-01

    The mode of transmission and epidemiological approach for hepatitis A and B are different. However, both are preventable with vaccines whose efficacy and long lasting protection has been demonstrated. This review describes the secular tendency of both infections in Chile, their risk factors that have contributed to their persistence in the country and the interventions that have been carried out to reduce the disease burden. Although the vaccine for hepatitis B was incorporated to the immunization program in 2005, the vaccine for hepatitis A persists in the list of interventions that must be assumed with priority by the Ministry of Health. If Chilean health authorities pretend to reach the enteric disease indicators of developed countries, they must accelerate the epidemiological transition towards the elimination of hepatitis A.

  10. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus infections among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection are common in Nigeria; where they are a major cause of both acute and chronic liver disease, as well as hepatocellular cancer. Persons at risk of acquisition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are also at risk of acquisition of infection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and ...

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undertaking blood transfusion, tattooing and sharing of needles were associated with hepatitis C infection (P=0.001). HBV was not associated with any of the risk factors (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggest a high prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C among pregnant women; blood transfusion, tattooing and ...

  12. Hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity and knowledge of Hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Despite its staggering toll on health, diseases arising from hepatitis are largely unknown, unappreciated, undiagnosed and untreated. Many Nigerians are unaware of their hepatitis B status and often present late to hospital with advanced chronic liver disease. The objectives were to determine the hepatitis B ...

  13. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  14. Nitazoxanide for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Kristiana; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. The estimated number of chronically infected people with hepatitis C virus worldwide is about 150 million people. Every year, another three to four million people acquire the infection. Chronic hepatitis C......) and ribavirin was the approved standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. In 2011, first-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been licensed, for use in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin for treating hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Nitazoxanide is another antiviral drug with broad...... antiviral activity and may have potential as an effective alternative, or an addition to standard treatment for the treatment of the hepatitis C virus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nitazoxanide in people with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane...

  15. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the ACIP recommended that all children and adolescents be vaccinated for hepatitis B. Estimates of vaccine coverage among infants and children are now over 90%. What should diabetes educators tell their patients about hepatitis B? Diabetes ...

  16. Current activities and future directions of comprehensive hepatitis control measures in Japan: The supportive role of the Hepatitis Information Center in building a solid foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Noriko; Isoda, Hiroshi; Ono, Toshiki; Kanto, Tatsuya

    2017-05-01

    In Japan, hepatitis B or C virus infection has been a major health issue. For the prevention of liver-related deaths, multifaceted strategies have been taken against hepatitis virus. In fiscal year (FY) 2002, nationwide screening for hepatitis was started as a part of health examinations provided by municipal governments. From FY2007, the hepatitis treatment network has been strengthened by the nationwide establishment of regional government-based hepatitis treatment systems, comprising linked regional core centers, specialized institutions for hepatitis treatment, primary care physicians, and regional governments. Special subsidy program for patients with viral hepatitis was started at FY2008. The range of coverage has been expanding from patients treated with interferon to those on nucleotide analogs or interferon-free therapies, including drug prices and examination expenses. The Basic Act on Hepatitis Measures was established in 2009. The Basic Guidelines for Promotion of Control Measures for hepatitis was issued in 2011, comprising nine principles in order to promote measures for hepatitis B and C. The Hepatitis Information Center was established in 2008. Its mission is to provide up-to-date hepatitis-related information, supporting collaboration between regional core centers, and training medical personnel. The revision of the above-mentioned Basic Guidelines in 2016 set the target as the reduction of patients progressing to cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. Achieving this goal definitely requires active collaboration among the national and local governments, regional core centers, and the Hepatitis Information Center, and participation by medical personnel, patients, and people with awareness. © 2017 The Authors Hepatology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Hepatology.

  17. [Hepatitis E virus: Blood transfusion implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallian, P; Piquet, Y; Assal, A; Djoudi, R; Chiaroni, J; Izopet, J; Tiberghien, P

    2014-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped RNA virus transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Autochthonous hepatitis E occurring in developed countries is caused by genotypes 3 and 4 and is a zoonotic infection. Humans are infected mostly after ingestion of undercooked meat from infected animals. Most HEV 3 and 4 infections are clinically inapparent. However, genotype 3 (HEV 3) can lead to chronic hepatitis in immuno-compromised patients such as organ-transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. In Europe, HEV 3 is implicated in transfusion-transmitted HEV infection. In France, as observed in several European countries, prevalence of HEV RNA and specific IgG antibodies are high indicating that viral circulation is important. The systematic HEV NAT screening of blood donations used for preparation of solvent detergent plasma indicate that 1 to 2218 donation is infected by HEV RNA. The need or implementation's impacts of safety measures to prevent HEV transmission by blood transfusion are under reflexion by French's health authorities. The HEV NAT screening is the only available tool of prevention. Alternative strategies are under investigation including individual or mini pool NAT testing all or part of blood donations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Hepatic artery aneurysms (HAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosratini, H.

    2004-01-01

    The hepatic artery aneurysms are rare, especially in interahepatic branches, The frequency consists of 75-80% extrahepatic and 20-25% intrahepatic. Catheterization is achieved usually from common femoral artery, other methods implemented in the case of unsuccessful catheterization from femoral artery, are translumbar and brachial catheterization. The study consist of 565 patients that were referred to the angiography ward, During seven years of assessment, five cases of hepatic artery aneurysm were found; this is a rare condition reported in the English literature. In the literature as well as in this case report the hepatic artery aneurysms are rare. In reported series the extrahepatic artery aneurysms are found more often than in the intrahepatic artery aneurysm but in this case report intrahepatic artery aneurysms are more than extrahepatic one. (author)

  19. [Hepatitis E as zoonosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) the causative agent of hepatitis E, is a non-enveloped RNA virus. HEV is transmitted through oral consumption of contaminated food and water According to the currently knowledge now be considered as zoonosis. The main reservoir of HEV are pigs, boars and deer. For the first time HEV was isolated from animals (pigs) in 1997 in the U.S. Genetic analysis of strains isolated from pigs showed high similarity to strains HEV isolated from humans. This was the first evidence showing that HEV is a zoonosis. Further studies have shown that occupational groups e.g. veterinarians, swine breeders with close contact to pigs have an increased risk for HEV infections. The additional evidence supported the zoonotic potential of HEV were reports of acute hepatitis E after the consumption of undercooked meat from deer and wild boar. Infection of HEV in the domestic pig and wild boar population in Europe is widespread.

  20. Accessory hepatic vein: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Rho, Tack Soo; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the MR appearance of the accessory hepatic veins. The study included 87 consecutive patients for whom abdominal MR images were obtained. The subjects who had liver lesion or hepatic vascular abnormalities were excluded. Couinaud classified accessory hepatic veins into inferior and middle right hepatic veins. Our major interests were evaluation of the incidence, morphology, and location of the accessory hepatic vein. Inferior right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 43 out of 87 patients (49%). The morphology was linear in 35 patients (80.5%), and V-shaped in 8 patients (19.5%). In 40 patients (93%), the inferior right hepatic vein was located in the posteroinferior aspect of the right lobe. Middle right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 7 out of 87 patients (8%). All were single linear in morphology, combined with the inferior right hepatic vein, and located between the right hepatic vein and inferior right hepatic vein. The accessory hepatic vein was demonstrated in 49% among the Korean adult population, and was located in posteroinferior portion of the liver, in 93%

  1. Canine Copper-Associated Hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, Karen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412424428; Fieten, Hille|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314112596

    2017-01-01

    Copper-associated hepatitis is recognized with increasing frequency in dogs. The disease is characterized by centrolobular hepatic copper accumulation, leading to hepatitis and eventually cirrhosis. The only way to establish the diagnosis is by histologic assessment of copper distribution and copper

  2. Recent Advances in the Assessment of Hepatic Steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Didenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a review of scientific works on the issue of hepatic steatosis verification. Nowadays, the problem of timely detection and treatment of chronic diffuse liver diseases, in the pathogenesis of which fibrosis and hepatic steatosis play key role, becomes more and more important. It is recognized that hepatic steatosis is characterized by the accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes exceeding 5 % of the liver mass. In recent years, special attention is paid to the methods for verification of hepatic steatosis, which can be divided into invasive, minimally invasive and non-invasive. Invasive methods are still relevant, they include liver core needle biopsy — the gold standard. Minimally invasive methods for hepatic steatosis verification are based on the biochemical study of venous blood. Minimally invasive methods can be conditionally divided into routine — triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins etc., and calculated coefficients: SteatoTest and others. Their results are calculated on the basis of several indicators. Non-invasive methods of verification include: ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, elastometry with CAP™function (Fibroscan, model 502. In our opinion, for verification of hepatic steatosis, it is promising to use the ultrasound with the option of measuring the parameters of arterial stiffness in the WТrack mode. Among the non-invasive methods of hepatic steatosis verification, liver elastometry using FibroScan-502-touch device with CAP™ function made a breakthrough in some specific sense. Opening possibilities for early detection of hepatic steatosis enable to place on timely preventive and therapeutic measures and to create the conditions for stopping the progression, and possibly for the regression of hepatic steatosis.

  3. Themenheft 15 "Hepatitis C"

    OpenAIRE

    Schreier, Eckart; Radun, Doris; Neuhauser, Hannelore; Stark, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Die Hepatitis C, die durch ein auf dem Blutweg übertragenes Virus verursacht wird, hat weltweit eine große medizinische, epidemiologische und gesundheitsökonomische Bedeutung. Die Infektion mit dem Hepatitis-C-Virus (HCV) verläuft in 60 bis 80 Prozent der Fälle chronisch und kann zu schwerwiegenden Folgeerkrankungen wie Leberzirrhose und Leberzellkarzinom führen. In Deutschland leben schätzungsweise 400.000 bis 500.000 Menschen mit einer chronischen HCV-Infektion.

  4. Hepatitis viral aguda

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés; René F. Espinosa Álvarez

    1998-01-01

    Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, ...

  5. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    on accumulating data. Furthermore, four of the five trials were judged to have a high risk of bias, thus risking an overestimated intervention effect. Meta-analysis showed that pentoxifylline reduced the hepatic-related mortality due to hepatorenal syndrome (RR 0.40; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.71), but trial sequential......-cause mortality and mortality due to hepatorenal syndrome, and conversely, an increase in serious and non-serious adverse events. However, the evidence is not firm; no conclusions can be drawn regarding whether pentoxifylline has a positive, negative, or neutral effect on participants with alcoholic hepatitis....

  6. Hepatic tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschaeppeler, H.

    1993-01-01

    In the evaluation of a hepatic mass lesion, imaging techniques are of considerable importance, though the final diagnosis is established by histopathological examination. Radical surgery is still the best treatment for a primary malignant hepatic neoplasm and the surgeon should supplied in advance with all the information needed for planning the operation. Sonography is now the first diagnostic procedure performed, quite often followed by MRI as the only supplementary modality. Scintigraphy and angiography have been largely superseded; they are performed in carefully selected individual cases. CT is an alternative to MRI. (orig.) [de

  7. Hepatitis viral C

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro A. Poma

    2011-01-01

    El virus de la hepatitis C se trasmite por contacto directo con la sangre de la persona infectada. La mayoría de los pacientes no presenta síntomas en la fase aguda o crónica de la hepatitis. Dos a tres décadas después, algunos pacientes progresan a la cirrosis compensada, que también es asintomática. En un examen de sangre, los anticuerpos se presentan como una sorpresa, porque no se les relaciona con un episodio de contagio. Un embarazo ocasiona la posibilidad de efectos negativos de la inf...

  8. Hepatitis B vaccination awareness and biological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, A; Borella Venturini, M; Paruzzolo, P; Maso, S

    2002-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus is a possible risk in persons exposed to biological risk at work. Vaccination is the only prevention against infection. A population of 1,408 employees of the University of Padua was investigated to define the immunological status for HBV and degree of awareness to hepatitis B vaccination. The subjects were subdivided according to sex, age ( 40 years old), level of education (college graduates or lower), and the extent of biological risk (no risk, low or high risk). Clinical history questionnaires were used and measurement of hepatitis B markers was carried out. The results showed that only 30.5% of the subjects had been vaccinated; among these, 90.2% showed a measurable level of anti-HBs antibodies, 8.2% showed anti-HBs antibodies lower than 10 IU/L, and 1.6% showed positive markers of previous infection. However, among non-vaccinated subjects 13.4% were positive for previous infection; in all subjects, prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection was 9.8%. The awareness to hepatitis B vaccination was altogether very low (30.5%), but females (44.2%), subjects less than 40 years of age (43.5%), college graduates (34.1%), and high risk exposed personnel (57.7%) were more likely to comply compared to male subjects (odds ratio 2.53), subjects more than 40 years of age (odds ratio 3.57), non-college graduates (odds ratio 1.65), or low risk exposed (odds ratio 13.42). The variables considered appeared to influence awareness to vaccination. Owing to low awareness, an information campaign was started and 90% of the invited subjects were immunized.

  9. Hepatitis C: Lo que debe saber (Hepatitis C: What You Need to Know)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-07

    Este podcast está basado en el informe Vital Signs de los CDC de mayo del 2013. Trata sobre la hepatitis C, una infección viral grave, y la necesidad de que todas las personas nacidas entre 1945 y 1964 se hagan una prueba de detección.  Created: 5/7/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/7/2013.

  10. A comparison of risk factors for hepatitis C among young and older adult prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooren, Kate; Kinner, Stuart A; Hellard, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Internationally, the prevalence of hepatitis C infection is higher among prisoners when compared to the general population, particularly among people who inject drugs. This study estimates the prevalence of, and compares the risk factors for, hepatitis C in young (prisoners with a history of injection drug use. Participants were 677 sentenced prisoners in Queensland, Australia, with a lifetime history of injection drug use, recruited in the 6 weeks prior to release from custody. The prevalence of hepatitis C exposure was significantly lower in young prisoners than in older prisoners (20.7% vs. 29.4%, p = .03). Risk factors for hepatitis C varied between young and older prisoners. Young people who inject drugs and who have had shorter time at risk of hepatitis C exposure are an important target group for hepatitis C prevention efforts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Treatment for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection - Danish national guidelines 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Peer Brehm; Clausen, Mette Rye; Krarup, Henrik; Laursen, Alex Lund; Schlichting, Poul; Weis, Nina

    2012-06-01

    The Danish Society of Infectious Diseases and Danish Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology set up a committee in 2007 to produce national guidelines for treatment of viral hepatitis B and C. The 2011 version of the guidelines have been endorsed by the scientific societies and are presented below. Annual updates will be available at the websites of the societies. As this present English version has been written six months after the Danish 2011 version, it contains minor changes that will be integrated in the Danish 2012 version, available at the end this year. Viral hepatitis is not common in Denmark. The prevalence has not been determined by national surveys, but it is estimated that 10,000-15,000 patients are chronically infected with hepatitis B and 15,000-20,000 with chronic hepatitis C. The majority of patients with HBV infection in Denmark are emigrants from high endemic countries, probably infected at birth or early childhood in their country of origin, while the majority of patients with HCV infection have been infected by drug use. For both groups it is estimated that only half of the patients have been diagnosed, of whom only 20% attends specialized care for their chronic viral hepatitis. According to the Danish National Board of Health, patients with chronic viral hepatitis should be followed with regular intervals, at clinics specialized in either infectious diseases or gastroenterology/hepatology. The primary aim is to identify patients with significant liver disease to initiate treatment in order to prevent development of cirrhosis and death. This is primarily done by liver biopsy, but screening for fibrosis with non-invasive methods such as elastography may be sufficient in some patients. Patients with established cirrhosis should enter screening programs for complications such as esophageal varices and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  12. Viral Hepatitis Among Somali Immigrants in Minnesota: Association of Hepatitis C With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Abdirashid M.; Sandhu, Dalbir S.; Kaiya, Joseph K.; Oseini, Abdul M.; Yang, Ju Dong; Chaiteerakij, Roongruedee; Mettler, Teresa A.; Giama, Nasra H.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Therneau, Terry M.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Knutson, Keith L.; Roberts, Lewis R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the frequencies of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and their associations with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in immigrant Somalis seen at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. Patients and Methods We determined the frequencies of HBV and HCV infection and HCC in immigrant Somalis seen at Mayo Clinic from July 1, 1996, through October 31, 2009. Non-Somali Olmsted County residents served as controls. Results For Somali males and females, age-adjusted proportions (per 1000 population) were 209 and 123 for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), 644 and 541 for hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb), and 99 and 66 for anti-HCV. The comparative proportions in non-Somalis were 20 and 9 for HBsAg, 126 and 97 for HBcAb, and 32 and 17 for anti-HCV. Hepatitis C virus RNA confirmed that 68 of 73 Somalis (93.2%) and 261 of 282 non-Somalis (92.6%) with positive anti-HCV test results had active HCV infection. Of 30 Somali patients with HCC, 22 (73.3%) tested anti-HCV positive (odds ratio [OR], 31.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.0-75.5; PHBcAb positive (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 0.8-4.2; P=.16). Viral hepatitis was diagnosed coincident with HCC in 9 of 20 patients (45.0%) with HCV-associated HCCs. Only 4 of 24 cases of HCC (16.7%) were detected during surveillance. Conclusion Both HBV and HCV occurred frequently in this sample of Somali immigrants. However, HCV was the major risk factor for HCC. Screening Somali immigrants for HCV infection may enhance the prevention, early detection, and optimal treatment of HCC. PMID:22212964

  13. Hepatitis A infection in recent international adoptees and their contacts in Minnesota, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Kristin; Sutherland, Wendy; Ehresmann, Kristen; Lynfield, Ruth

    2011-08-01

    The goal of this study was to describe hepatitis A-infected adoptees and the risk of transmission to their contacts. This was a retrospective review of adoptee-associated cases of hepatitis A and hepatitis A-infected adoptees identified in Minnesota from 2007 through 2009. From 2007 through 2009 in Minnesota, 10 cases of hepatitis A, including 1 fulminant case, were associated with international adoptees. Eight cases were direct contacts of a hepatitis A-infected adoptee, and 2 other cases secondary contacts of an adoptee. During the same period, hepatitis A infection was identified in 21 recently arrived foreign-born adoptees; all were younger than 60 months of age, and only 6 were symptomatic. Clinicians should be aware that transmission of hepatitis A may occur among both direct and secondary contacts of young children recently adopted from hepatitis A-endemic areas and that infected young children may be asymptomatic. Household members and other close contacts of international adoptees should be counseled about hepatitis A prevention, including vaccination. In addition, screening for hepatitis A should be considered for recently arrived adoptees from endemic areas.

  14. Mobilising a global response to hepatitis: Lessons learned from the HIV movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taaffe, Jessica; Wilson, David

    2018-04-01

    Hepatitis caused by hepatitis B and C virus is increasingly becoming a significant global health threat, with widespread prevalence that may have severe disease and economic impacts in the future. Yet, preventative measures are not implemented universally and high costs of medicines limits treatment efforts. The global response to HIV/AIDS faced similar issues, but overcame them through a global movement that brought attention to the crisis and ultimately resulted in the creation and implementation of and access to better tools for HIV prevention and treatment. This also included effective policies and programmes behind and supporting the movement. Such could be done for hepatitis, specifically using lessons from the HIV response. Here, we will discuss the current and potentially severe future burden of hepatitis globally, the challenges in addressing this epidemic, and how principles applied from the global HIV response can facilitate a successful and similar hepatitis movement.

  15. Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE, the neuropsychiatric presentation of liver disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Reduction of plasma ammonia remains the central therapeutic strategy, but there is a need for newer novel therapies. We discuss current evidence supporting the use of interventions for both the general management of chronic HE and that necessary for more acute and advanced disease.

  16. Hepatitis E: Epidemiological forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In these endemic countries, the disease takes two major epidemiological forms. The form that was recognized first was occurrence of large outbreaks affecting several hundred to several thousand cases of acute hepatitis, usually over a short period of a few weeks. However, it was soon realized that the viral agent was also ...

  17. Hepatitis C in Hemophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthouwer, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hemophilia. In our study with a follow-up of 35 years, we found that the risk for end-stage liver disease (liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver-related death) was 12% for HIV negative, and 35% for HIV coinfected

  18. Hepatitis C: What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-07

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. It discusses hepatitis C, a serious viral infection, and the need for everyone born from 1945 through 1965 to get tested.  Created: 5/7/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/7/2013.

  19. Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection among Pregnant Women in South-South, Nigeria. ... Concerted efforts need to be made towards reducing the seroprevalence through awareness campaigns, testing for the virus as well as development of vaccine among other preventive measures.

  20. Hepatitis b vaccination uptake among a cohort of nigerian surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Transmission of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) from patients to health care personnel (HCP) can occur following occupational exposures. Vaccination is effective in disease prevention. The study aimed to determine the level of uptake of HBV vaccine among a cohort of Nigerian surgical residents.

  1. Hepatitis B And C among Governmental Health Providers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that, the prevalence of HbsAg was 2.8% among health workers and 1.3% for anti-HCV. ... The results confirmed that hepatitis B vaccination was able to prevent the most threatening consequences of HBV infection, as the rate of infection among non-vaccinated health workers was approximately greater ...

  2. Prospects and progress of DNA vaccines for treating hepatitis B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Margaret; Jagya, Neetu; Bansal, Ruchi; Frelin, Lars; Sällberg, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a global cause of liver disease. The preventive HBV vaccine has effectively reduced the disease burden. However, an estimated 340 million chronic HBV cases are in need of treatment. Current standard therapy for chronic HBV blocks reversed transcription. As this therapy

  3. Metabolomic biomarkers correlating with hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhasly, Sandro; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Baumann, Sven; von Bergen, Martin; Luch, Andreas; Jungnickel, Harald; Potratz, Sarah; Gerspach, Christian

    2014-06-02

    Hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver disease is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that compromises animal performance and, hence, causes heavy economic losses worldwide. This syndrome, occurring during the critical transition from gestation to early lactation, leads to an impaired health status, decreased milk yield, reduced fertility and shortened lifetime. Because the prevailing clinical chemistry parameters indicate advanced liver damage independently of the underlying disease, currently, hepatic lipidosis can only be ascertained by liver biopsy. We hypothesized that the condition of fatty liver disease may be accompanied by an altered profile of endogenous metabolites in the blood of affected animals. To identify potential small-molecule biomarkers as a novel diagnostic alternative, the serum samples of diseased dairy cows were subjected to a targeted metabolomics screen by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. A subsequent multivariate test involving principal component and linear discriminant analyses yielded 29 metabolites (amino acids, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelines) that, in conjunction, were able to distinguish between dairy cows with no hepatic lipidosis and those displaying different stages of the disorder. This proof-of-concept study indicates that metabolomic profiles, including both amino acids and lipids, distinguish hepatic lipidosis from other peripartal disorders and, hence, provide a promising new tool for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis. By generating insights into the molecular pathogenesis of hepatic lipidosis, metabolomics studies may also facilitate the prevention of this syndrome.

  4. Molecular Mechanisms to Control Post-Transplantation Hepatitis B Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Takaki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B often progresses to decompensated liver cirrhosis requiring orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. Although newer nucleos(tide analogues result in >90% viral and hepatitis activity control, severely decompensated patients still need OLT because of drug-resistant virus, acute exacerbation, or hepatocellular carcinoma. Acute hepatitis B is also an indication for OLT, because it can progress to fatal acute liver failure. After OLT, the hepatitis B recurrence rate is >80% without prevention, while >90% of transplant recipients are clinically controlled with combined hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG and nucleos(tide analogue treatment. However, long-term HBIG administration is associated with several unresolved issues, including limited availability and extremely high cost; therefore, several treatment protocols with low-dose HBIG, combined with nucleos(tide analogues, have been investigated. Another approach is to induce self-producing anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV antibodies using an HBV envelope (HBs antigen vaccine. Patients who are not HBV carriers, such as those with acutely infected liver failure, are good candidates for vaccination. For chronic HBV carrier liver cirrhosis patients, a successful vaccine response can only be achieved in selected patients, such as those treated with experimentally reduced immunosuppression protocols. The present protocol for post-OLT HBV control and the future prospects of newer treatment strategies are reviewed.

  5. 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D3 prevents activation of hepatic stellate cells in vitro and ameliorates inflammatory liver damage but not fibrosis in the Abcb4−/− model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, Florian P.; Hohenester, Simon; Nagel, Jutta M.; Wimmer, Ralf; Artmann, Renate; Wottke, Lena; Makeschin, Marie-Christine; Mayr, Doris; Rust, Christian; Trauner, Michael; Denk, Gerald U.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Purpose of the study: Vitamin D 3 -deficiency is common in patients with chronic liver-disease and may promote disease progression. Vitamin D 3 -administration has thus been proposed as a therapeutic approach. Vitamin D 3 has immunomodulatory effects and may modulate autoimmune liver-disease such as primary sclerosing cholangitis. Although various mechanisms of action have been proposed, experimental evidence is limited. Here we test the hypothesis that active 1,25-(OH) 2 -vitamin D 3 inhibits activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in vitro and modulates liver-injury in vivo. Methods: Proliferation and activation of primary murine HSC were assessed by BrdU- and PicoGreen ® -assays, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence-microscopy, quantitative-PCR, and zymography following calcitriol-treatment. Wild-type and ATP-binding cassette transporter b4 −/− (Abcb4 −/− )-mice received calcitriol for 4 weeks. Liver-damage, inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed by serum liver-tests, Sirius-red staining, quantitative-PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and hydroxyproline quantification. Results: In vitro, calcitriol inhibited activation and proliferation of murine HSC as shown by reduced α-smooth muscle actin and platelet-derived growth factor-receptor-β-protein-levels, BrdU and PicoGreen®-assays. Furthermore, mRNA-levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 13 were profoundly increased. In vivo, calcitriol ameliorated inflammatory liver-injury reflected by reduced levels of alanine aminotransferase in Abcb4 −/− -mice. In accordance, their livers had lower mRNA-levels of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-receptor 1 and a lower count of portal CD11b positive cells. In contrast, no effect on overall fibrosis was observed. Conclusion: Calcitriol inhibits activation and proliferation of HSCs in vitro. In Abcb4 −/− -mice, administration of calcitriol ameliorates inflammatory liver-damage but has no effect on biliary fibrosis after 4 weeks

  6. 1,25-(OH){sub 2}-vitamin D{sub 3} prevents activation of hepatic stellate cells in vitro and ameliorates inflammatory liver damage but not fibrosis in the Abcb4{sup −/−} model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Florian P., E-mail: florian.reiter@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Medicine II, Liver Center Munich, University of Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Hohenester, Simon; Nagel, Jutta M.; Wimmer, Ralf; Artmann, Renate; Wottke, Lena [Department of Medicine II, Liver Center Munich, University of Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Makeschin, Marie-Christine; Mayr, Doris [Institute of Pathology, University of Munich, Thalkirchner Str. 36, D-80337 Munich (Germany); Rust, Christian [Department of Medicine I, Krankenhaus Barmherzige Brüder, Romanstr. 93, D-80639 Munich (Germany); Trauner, Michael [Hans Popper Laboratory of Molecular Hepatology, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Denk, Gerald U. [Department of Medicine II, Liver Center Munich, University of Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, D-81377 Munich (Germany)

    2015-04-03

    Background/Purpose of the study: Vitamin D{sub 3}-deficiency is common in patients with chronic liver-disease and may promote disease progression. Vitamin D{sub 3}-administration has thus been proposed as a therapeutic approach. Vitamin D{sub 3} has immunomodulatory effects and may modulate autoimmune liver-disease such as primary sclerosing cholangitis. Although various mechanisms of action have been proposed, experimental evidence is limited. Here we test the hypothesis that active 1,25-(OH){sub 2}-vitamin D{sub 3} inhibits activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in vitro and modulates liver-injury in vivo. Methods: Proliferation and activation of primary murine HSC were assessed by BrdU- and PicoGreen{sup ®}-assays, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence-microscopy, quantitative-PCR, and zymography following calcitriol-treatment. Wild-type and ATP-binding cassette transporter b4{sup −/−} (Abcb4{sup −/−})-mice received calcitriol for 4 weeks. Liver-damage, inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed by serum liver-tests, Sirius-red staining, quantitative-PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and hydroxyproline quantification. Results: In vitro, calcitriol inhibited activation and proliferation of murine HSC as shown by reduced α-smooth muscle actin and platelet-derived growth factor-receptor-β-protein-levels, BrdU and PicoGreen®-assays. Furthermore, mRNA-levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 13 were profoundly increased. In vivo, calcitriol ameliorated inflammatory liver-injury reflected by reduced levels of alanine aminotransferase in Abcb4{sup −/−}-mice. In accordance, their livers had lower mRNA-levels of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-receptor 1 and a lower count of portal CD11b positive cells. In contrast, no effect on overall fibrosis was observed. Conclusion: Calcitriol inhibits activation and proliferation of HSCs in vitro. In Abcb4{sup −/−}-mice, administration of calcitriol ameliorates inflammatory liver-damage but has

  7. Hepatitis A Surveillance and Vaccine Use in China From 1990 Through 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fuqiang; Hadler, Stephen C; Zheng, Hui; Wang, Fuzhen; Zhenhua, Wu; Yuansheng, Hu; Gong, Xiaohong; Chen, Yuansheng; Liang, Xiaofeng

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A vaccines have been highly effective in preventing hepatitis A. To investigate the epidemiology of hepatitis A in China after hepatitis A vaccine became available, we reviewed reported cases of hepatitis A and the use of hepatitis A vaccine in China during the period from 1990 through 2007. Methods Data from the National Notifiable Disease Reporting System from 1990 to 2007 and the Emergency Events Reporting System from 2004 to 2007 were reviewed and epidemiologic characteristics analyzed. Hepatitis A vaccine distribution between 1992 and 2007 was also reviewed. Results The incidence of hepatitis A has declined by 90% since 1990, from 56 to 5.9 per 105/year. Declines in age-specific incidence were seen in all age groups, most dramatically among children younger than 10 years. Disease incidence still varies substantially: poorer western provinces have had the highest incidences since 2000. In high-incidence provinces, children younger than 10 years continue to have a high disease incidence. Only 50% of cases were laboratory-confirmed, and only 3% occurred in reported local outbreaks. Over 156 million doses of hepatitis A vaccine have been distributed since 1992, and use has continued to increase since 2003. Conclusions Incidence of hepatitis A has decreased in all age groups, likely due to changing socioeconomic conditions and increasing hepatitis A vaccine use. Nevertheless, western populations remain at high risk, with transmission predominantly occurring among children. The epidemiology of hepatitis A transmission is not well understood. Improved surveillance with better laboratory confirmation is needed to monitor the impact of universal hepatitis A vaccination of young children; this strategy began to be implemented in 2008. PMID:19561383

  8. The Economic Burden of Hepatitis A, B, and C in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Changwoo; Choi, Hyung-Yun; Shim, Jae-Jun; Park, So-Youn; Lee, Kyung Suk; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Oh, In-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis in South Korea is relatively high compared to that in other high-income countries. For this reason, viral hepatitis infection not only affects the population's health, but also impacts national healthcare costs. This study was performed in order to estimate the individual economic costs of the hepatitis A, B, and C viruses as well as to determine, using nationally representative data, the trends in South Korea with respect to these viruses during the 2008-2011 period. The study found that the prevalence of hepatitis A had decreased, but those of hepatitis B and C had increased overall. The mortality rate of hepatitis C was higher than that of the other two types. The mortality rate of hepatitis B had changed little, whereas that of hepatitis C had risen. The total cost of hepatitis A had decreased, from US $62.2 million to US $45.7 million, although a notable exception occurred in 2009, when the cost was US $126.6 million. Conversely, the total cost of hepatitis B had increased rapidly during the same period, from US $501.4 million to US $607.8 million. Finally, the total cost of hepatitis C had also increased from US $63.9 million to US $90.7 million. The direct costs of hepatitis A, B, and C were estimated to account for approximately 35.5%, 46.6%, and 58.0% of the total, respectively. These findings demonstrate the economic burden associated with hepatitis A, B, and C, and demonstrate the need to establish an effective prevention and management policy for future planning in South Korea.

  9. SEROPREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B, HEPATITIS C, SYPHILIS AND HIV IN PREGNANT WOMEN IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, GUJARAT, INDIA

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    Swati Dhirajlal Jethava

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study was conducted to assess the extent of seropositivity of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis and HIV in pregnant women at tertiary care hospitals in Gujarat from December 2015 to June 2016 and to re-evaluate the need for routine antenatal care screening for these infections among obstetric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients were enrolled for study after taking informed consent. All samples were tested to detect HbsAg by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA, anti-HCV by ELISA, samples were also tested for antibodies to Treponema pallidum by Rapid Plasma Regain (RPR, samples were tested for antibodies to HIV by three different methods as per strategy III of the National AIDS Control Organisation by using different systems of testing to establish a diagnosis of HIV. RESULTS Total 1000 samples were tested. Out of this, seropositivity of hepatitis B was (0.6%, hepatitis C was (0.2%, syphilis was (0.0% and HIV was 0.1%. Out of the 1000 samples, no coinfection was found between hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis or HIV. CONCLUSION This study can help the health professionals to efficiently treat antenatal patients. Early diagnosis of disease in antenatal period is helpful for proper management and initiation of treatment to prevent transmission to newborn.

  10. Clinical course and consequences of hepatitis B infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczyk, J

    2000-02-18

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small enveloped virus containing partially double-stranded DNA. The DNA and HBV-specific DNA polymerase are surrounded by the HBV core antigen (HBcAg), which in turn is surrounded by a lipoprotein envelope containing the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Serum of HBV-infected patients contains complete virus particles, as well as non-infectious spherical or filamentous HBsAg particles. Acute hepatitis is characterized by the appearance of serum HBV markers, including HBsAg and IgM anti-HBc, which then disappear during convalescence. Persistence of HBsAg for more than 6 months indicates a carrier state. Chronic hepatitis develops in 90% of newborns who become infected, compared with 29-40% of children infected and 5-10% of adults infected. The immune status of the infected person also influences the development of chronic hepatitis. Chronic HBV infection can be diagnosed by serology (identification of HBsAg and HBV DNA), biochemistry (elevated aminotransferase levels) and liver biopsy. The last is important to assess the severity of disease, its stage and prognosis, and to exclude other hepatic diseases. The outcome of chronic HBV infection varies between individuals, with estimated 5-year survivals of 97% for chronic persistent hepatitis, 86% for chronic active hepatitis, and 55% for chronic active hepatitis with cirrhosis. Treatment with interferon alpha is effective in up to 40% of cases, but in view of the very large number of infected people worldwide, vaccination to prevent spread of the disease is a more cost-effective option.

  11. Antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2004-03-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a well-recognized risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is becoming a more prevalent clinical problem, especially in HBV-endemic areas. It is estimated that 1.25 million people in the United States and more than 300 million people worldwide are chronically infected with HBV. Despite the introduction of universal vaccination against hepatitis B in over 100 countries, persistent HBV infection is still a serious problem worldwide, causing an estimated annual death rate of one million. It may take several decades until the effect of vaccination will be translated into reduced transmission and morbidity. Meanwhile, patients with persistent HBV infection require better antiviral therapeutic modalities than are currently available. It is well accepted that antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B is effective to improve prognosis of patients with HBV by preventing development of hepatitis state and HCC. The therapeutic endpoints for hepatitis B treatment are: 1) sustained suppression of HBV replication, as indicated by HBsAg and HBeAg loss, 2) decrease of serum HBV DNA of an undetectable level by a non-PCR method, 3) remission of disease, as shown by normalization of ALT, 4) improvement in liver histology, and 5) reduction of the acute exacerbation, cirrhosis, and HCC. In the present, the antiviral treatment of hepatitis B consists of either interferon alpha or oral lamivudine alone or in combination with existing therapy. Each major antiviral drug of interferon alpha and lamivudine has pros and cons, and effect of combination therapy of both drugs is also still limited. More powerful and safe new antiviral therapies are required to achieve final goal of these therapeutic endpoints. Management of chronic hepatitis B requires significant knowledge of approved pharmacotherapeutic agents and their limitations. Therapeutic options for managing hepatitis infection after liver transplantation (LT

  12. Hepatitis B vaccination coverage and the determinants of vaccination among health care workers in selected health facilities in Lusaka district, Zambia: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Mungandi, Namwaka; Makasa, Mpundu; Musonda, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B is a viral infection of the liver and causes both acute and chronic disease. It is transmitted through contact with an infected person’s bodily fluids. It is an occupational hazard for healthcare workers and can be prevented by the administration of a vaccine. It is recommended that healthcare workers be vaccinated against vaccine preventable diseases including hepatitis B. The study objective was to determine the prevalence and determinants of hepatitis B vaccination a...

  13. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the same ways. Hepatitis D is a serious health problem because it occurs in those with hepatitis B, increasing the severity of symptoms associated with hepatitis B. Hepatitis E: Similar to hepatitis A, hepatitis E is prevalent in countries with poor sanitation. It is rare in North America and ...

  14. Mechanisms of viral hepatitis induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Yasunari; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2003-09-01

    Among seven human hepatitis viruses (A to E, G and TT virus), hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses are able to persist in the host for years and principally contribute to the establishment of chronic hepatitis. During the course of persistent infection, continuous intrahepatic inflammation maintains a cycle of liver cell destruction and regeneration that often terminates in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While the expression and retention of viral proteins in hepatocytes may influence the severity and progression of liver disease, the mechanisms of liver injury in viral hepatistis are defined to be due not to the direct cytopathic effects of viruses, but to the host immune response to viral proteins expressed by infected hepatocytes. In the process of liver injury, hepatocellular death (apoptosis) induced by the proapoptotic molecules of T cells activated following antigen recognition triggers a cascade of antigen nonspecific effector systems and causes necroinflammatory disease. Accordingly, the regulation of the immune response, e.g., via the cell death pathways, in chronically infected patients should prevent the development of HCC.

  15. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Kuo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old Taiwanese man presented with dark urine for 5 days before admission to hospital and with fever on the 2nd day of admission to hospital. Laboratory studies showed acute hepatitis with hyperbilirubinemia. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection was diagnosed. The fever subsided after treatment with ceftriaxone and cefepime. His serum bilirubin reached its peak value on the 3rd week after admission to hospital and then gradually returned to the normal range. To the best of our knowledge, acute hepatitis E coinfection with nontyphoidal salmonella has not been reported previously.

  16. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad shavakhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cases (79.6% men and 20.4% women were analyzed for s, x and core genes via a nested polymerase chain reaction technique.
    • RESULTS: HBV DNA was detectable in serum of 20 patients (19.4%. No significant difference in age, sex and route of transmission were seen in HBV DNA positive and negative patients. In HBV DNA positive and negative groups, mean of AST was 73, 47 (p < 0.05 and mean of ALT was 76 and 36 respectively (p < 0.05.
    • CONCLUSION: Occult hepatitis B was observed in a considerable number of hepatitis C patients in Tehran. It was associated with elevation in liver enzyme but was not related to route of transmission.
    • KEY WORD: Occult hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cirrhosis.

  17. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Secondary to Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle T. Abegunde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options.

  18. Hepatitis viral aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, and the complementary examinations with special emphasis on the viral markers and the positive diagnosis were also considered

  19. Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Stinton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE is the earliest form of hepatic encephalopathy and can affect up to 80% of cirrhotic patients. By definition, it has no obvious clinical manifestation and is characterized by neurocognitive impairment in attention, vigilance and integrative function. Although often not considered to be clinically relevant and, therefore, not diagnosed or treated, MHE has been shown to affect daily functioning, quality of life, driving and overall mortality. The diagnosis of MHE has traditionally been achieved through neuropsychological examination, psychometric tests or the newer critical flicker frequency test. A new smartphone application (EncephalApp Stroop Test may serve to function as a screening tool for patients requiring further testing. In addition to physician reporting and driving restrictions, medical treatment for MHE includes non-absorbable disaccharides (eg, lactulose, probiotics or rifaximin. Liver transplantation may not result in reversal of the cognitive deficits associated with MHE.

  20. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, Laura M; Jayakumar, Saumya

    2013-10-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the earliest form of hepatic encephalopathy and can affect up to 80% of cirrhotic patients. By definition, it has no obvious clinical manifestation and is characterized by neurocognitive impairment in attention, vigilance and integrative function. Although often not considered to be clinically relevant and, therefore, not diagnosed or treated, MHE has been shown to affect daily functioning, quality of life, driving and overall mortality. The diagnosis of MHE has traditionally been achieved through neuropsychological examination, psychometric tests or the newer critical flicker frequency test. A new smartphone application (EncephalApp Stroop Test) may serve to function as a screening tool for patients requiring further testing. In addition to physician reporting and driving restrictions, medical treatment for MHE includes non-absorbable disaccharides (eg, lactulose), probiotics or rifaximin. Liver transplantation may not result in reversal of the cognitive deficits associated with MHE.

  1. Hepatitis C in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parda, Natalia; Henszel, Lukasz; Stępień, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    prevent life and health-threatening sequelae of hepatitis C.

  2. Curcumin attenuated paracetamol overdose induced hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somanawat, Kanjana; Thong-Ngam, Duangporn; Klaikeaw, Naruemon

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether curcumin could attenuate hepatitis in mice with paracetamol overdose. METHODS: Male mice were divided into four groups. Group 1 (control, n = 8); was fed with distilled water; Group 2 [N-acetyl-P-aminophenol (APAP), n = 8]; was fed with a single dose of 400 mg/kg APAP dissolved in distilled water; Group 3 [APAP + curcumin (CUR) 200, n = 8], was fed with a single dose of 400 mg/kg APAP and 200 mg/kg CUR; Group 4 (APAP + CUR 600, n = 8), was fed with a single dose of 400 mg/kg APAP and 600 mg/kg CUR. Twenty-four hours later, the liver was removed to examine hepatic glutathione (GSH), hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), and histopathologically. Then whole blood was withdrawn from heart to determine transaminase (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) and inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18] levels by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Serum transaminase, hepatic MDA, and inflammatory cytokines increased significantly in the APAP compared with the control group. Curcumin supplementation in APAP + CUR 200 and APAP + CUR 600 groups significantly decreased these parameters compared with the APAP group. The level of GSH decreased significantly in the APAP compared with the control group. Curcumin supplementation in APAP + CUR 200 and APAP + CUR 600 groups significantly increased these parameters compared with the APAP group. The histological appearance of the liver in the control group showed normal. In the APAP-treated group, the liver showed extensive hemorrhagic hepatic necrosis at all zones. Curcumin supplementation in APAP + CUR 200 and APAP + CUR 600 groups, caused the liver histopathology to improve. In the APAP + CUR 200 group, the liver showed focal necrosis and but the normal architecture was well preserved in APAP + CUR 600 group. CONCLUSION: APAP overdose can cause liver injury. Results indicate that curcumin prevents APAP-induced hepatitis through the improvement of

  3. Primary hepatic sarcomas: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ri-Sheng; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Biao; Wang, Liu-Hong [Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Xiu-Fang [Zhejiang Medical College, Teaching and Research Group of Radiology, Hangzhou (China)

    2008-10-15

    Primary hepatic sarcomas are rare tumors that are difficult to diagnose clinically. Different primary hepatic sarcomas may have different clinical, morphologic, and radiological features. In this pictorial review, we summarized computed tomography (CT) findings of some relatively common types of hepatic sarcomas, including angiosarcoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE), liposarcoma, undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma (UES), leiomyosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), and carcinosarcoma (including cystadenocarcinosarcoma). To our knowledge, hepatic cystadenocarcinosarcoma has not been described in the English literature. The CT findings in our case are similar to that of cystadenocarcinoma, a huge, multilocular cystic mass with a large mural nodule and solid portion. The advent of CT has allowed earlier detection of primary hepatic sarcomas as well as more accurate diagnosis and characterization. In addition, we briefly discuss the MRI findings and diagnostic value of primary hepatic sarcomas. (orig.)

  4. Duplication of hepatic artery

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Muhammad; Rufai Amin

    2001-01-01

    Background: The hepatic arterial anatomy is aberrant in almost 33-41% of individuals. The variant arterial anatomy recognized during routine cadaveric dissection offers great learning potential. Such findings provide an alternative perspective to view common morphology and its structural and functional importance. These impart the concept of patient individuality and subsequent individualization of medical and surgical therapies. Adequate knowledge of normal and abnormal arterial anat...

  5. Radioembolization of hepatic tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 (90Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This ...

  6. Cytomegalovirus hepatitis and myopericarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiaurre, Leire; Zapata, Eva; Bujanda, Luis; Castillo, María; Oyarzabal, Igor; Gutiérrez-Stampa, Maria A; Cosme, Angel

    2007-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in inmunocompetent hosts generally is asymptomatic or may present as a mononucleosis syndrome but rarely can lead to severe organ complications. We report a case of simultaneous hepatic and pericardic CMV infection in a 36-year old immunocompetent man. He was admitted to coronary unit with fever, chest pain radiated to shoulders, changes on electrocardiogram with diffuse ST elevation and modest laboratory elevations in the MB fraction of creatine kinase (CK-MB) of 33.77 μg/L (0.1-6.73), serum cardiac troponin T of 0.904 ng/mL (0-0.4), creatine kinase of 454 U/L (20-195) and myoglobin of 480.4 μg/L (28-72). Routine laboratory test detected an elevation of aminotransferase level: alanine aminotransferase 1445 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase 601 U/L. We ruled out other causes of hepatitis with normal results except IgM CMV. The patient was diagnosed with myopericarditis and hepatitis caused by cytomegalovirus and started symptomatic treatment with salicylic acid. In few days the laboratory findings became normal and the patient was discharged. PMID:17278238

  7. Hepatitis viral C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Poma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la hepatitis C se trasmite por contacto directo con la sangre de la persona infectada. La mayoría de los pacientes no presenta síntomas en la fase aguda o crónica de la hepatitis. Dos a tres décadas después, algunos pacientes progresan a la cirrosis compensada, que también es asintomática. En un examen de sangre, los anticuerpos se presentan como una sorpresa, porque no se les relaciona con un episodio de contagio. Un embarazo ocasiona la posibilidad de efectos negativos de la infección en la madre o el niño. El tratamiento actual no ofrece la certeza de cura, dependiendo del genotipo viral, y presenta efectos adversos que pueden ser severos. La cirrosis descompensada causa la mayoría de muertes relacionadas con esta infección; algunos de estos pacientes desarrollan carcinoma hepatocelular. La reproducción viral causa partículas virales diferentes del virus original, característica que ha impedido el desarrollo de una vacuna. Actualmente, la prevención consiste en evitar el contacto con sangre infectada. Este artículo revisa la infección con el virus de la hepatitis C, incluyendo los últimos progresos en tratamiento. Es necesario educar a la comunidad acerca de los efectos de este virus en la salud pública.

  8. Auto immune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerven, Nicole Mf; de Boer, Ynto S; Mulder, Chris Jj; van Nieuwkerk, Carin Mj; Bouma, Gerd

    2016-05-21

    To provide an update of the latest trends in epidemiology, clinical course, diagnostics, complications and treatment of auto immune hepatitis (AIH). A search of the MEDLINE database was performed using the search terms: "auto immune hepatitis", "clinical presentation", "symptoms", "signs", "diagnosis", "auto antibodies", "laboratory values", "serology", "histopathology", "histology", "genetics", "HLA genes", "non-HLA genes", "environment", "epidemiology", "prevalence", "incidence", "demographics", "complications", "HCC", "PBC", "PSC", "corticosteroid", "therapy", "treatment", "alternative treatment". English-language full-text articles and abstracts were considered. Articles included reviews, meta-analysis, prospective retrospective studies. No publication date restrictions were applied. AIH is an immune meditated progressive inflammatory liver disease that predominantly affects middle-aged females but may affect people of all ages. The clinical spectrum of AIH is wide, ranging from absent or mild symptoms to fulminant hepatic failure. The aetiology of AIH is still unknown, but is believed to occur as the consequence of an aberrant immune response towards an un-known trigger in a genetically susceptible host. In the absence of a gold standard, diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical, biochemical and histopathological criteria. Immunosuppressive treatment has been the cornerstone of treatment since the earliest description of the disease in 1950 by Waldenström. Such treatment is often successful at inducing remission and generally leads to normal life expectancy. Nevertheless, there remain significant areas of unmet aetiological a clinical needs including fundamental insight in disease pathogenesis, optimal therapy, duration of treatment and treatment alternatives in those patients unresponsive to standard treatment regimens.

  9. imaging features of hepatic angiomyolipomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, S.C.S.; Peh, W.C.G.; Muttarak, M.; Cheung, H.S.; Ng, I.O.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: We review the imaging appearances of hepatic angiomyolipomas in patients with and without tuberous sclerosis. Sporadic hepatic angiomyolipomas have a varied appearance because of the inconstant proportion of fat, making confident imaging diagnosis difficult and necessitating biopsy in many cases. In patients with tuberous sclerosis, hepatic angiomyolipomas have a more consistent imaging appearance and, together with other features of the syndrome, can be more easily diagnosed. Preoperative diagnosis helps obviate unnecessary surgery.

  10. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Programs Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on ... demographic characteristics and laboratory tests – Enhanced Viral Hepatitis Surveillance Sites*, 2014 Category MA No. % MI No. % NYS† ...

  11. Insulin Regulates Hepatic Triglyceride Secretion and Lipid Content via Signaling in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Thomas; Lindtner, Claudia; O'Hare, James; Hackl, Martina; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Freudenthaler, Angelika; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Tödter, Klaus; Heeren, Joerg; Krššák, Martin; Scheja, Ludger; Fürnsinn, Clemens; Buettner, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Hepatic steatosis is common in obesity and insulin resistance and results from a net retention of lipids in the liver. A key mechanism to prevent steatosis is to increase secretion of triglycerides (TG) packaged as VLDLs. Insulin controls nutrient partitioning via signaling through its cognate receptor in peripheral target organs such as liver, muscle, and adipose tissue and via signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) to orchestrate organ cross talk. While hepatic insulin signaling is known to suppress VLDL production from the liver, it is unknown whether brain insulin signaling independently regulates hepatic VLDL secretion. Here, we show that in conscious, unrestrained male Sprague Dawley rats the infusion of insulin into the third ventricle acutely increased hepatic TG secretion. Chronic infusion of insulin into the CNS via osmotic minipumps reduced the hepatic lipid content as assessed by noninvasive (1)H-MRS and lipid profiling independent of changes in hepatic de novo lipogenesis and food intake. In mice that lack the insulin receptor in the brain, hepatic TG secretion was reduced compared with wild-type littermate controls. These studies identify brain insulin as an important permissive factor in hepatic VLDL secretion that protects against hepatic steatosis. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  12. Frequency of hepatitis 'C' in Buner, NWFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, N.; Jan, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the frequency of hepatitis C in District Buner. Patients and Methods: A total of 16,400 patients of age between (15-70 years), who attended the outpatients department of Medical Unit at DHO, Daggar with non-specific symptoms of dyspepsia, heart burn, bloating, generalized body aches and pain in right hypochondrium were screened for anti-HCV anti-bodies by 3rd generation ELISA. PCR and abdominal ultrasound was also done. Standard treatment was also given. Risk factors were evaluated. Population of district was region wise divided into sectors A-D and then into subsectors. Results: Out of 16,400 patients, 751 were found positive for anti-HCV antibodies (4.57%). The mean age of the patients was 37 years. The youngest was 15 years while the oldest was 65 years. The frequency of hepatitis C was higher among the male, 409/751 (54.46%) as compared to female, 342/751 (45.53%). Hundred percent (751/751) had history of injections, 52/751 (6.92 %) had major surgery, 8/751 (1.06%) had blood transfusion, 73/751 (9.72%) had dental procedure, 3/751 (0.39%) had tattooing and 332/751 (44.20%) had shaving by community barbers. The highest prevalence of hepatitis C was found in sector A 1 (9.7%) and the lowest in sector D3 (0.5%). Conclusion: Hepatitis C is a common health problem in District Buner, and needs proper attention to alleviate the suffering of the people. It is essential to assess the magnitude of the problem, which will help us in understanding the dynamic of its transmission for control and prevention. (author)

  13. IS IT NECESSARY TO VACCINATE CHILDREN AGAINST HEPATITIS A ROUTINELY IN PRESENT TIME? THE EVALUATION OF RESULTS OF SUCH STRATEGY OF HEPATITIS A VACCINE PROPHYLAXIS IN SELECTED REGIONS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shakhgildian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Data about efficacy of conducting of routine vaccination of children against Hepatitis A are presented in the article. The results of realization such strategy of vaccine prevention of Hepatitis A in selected regions of Russian Federation are evaluated. The perspectives of using this experience in other regions of the country is discussed.

  14. Type B Hepatitis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabarestani

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B surface antigen CHBsAg was found in 1% of controls, 2.1% of professional blood donors, 2.0% of leprosy patients and 76.1% of acute hepatitis in Tehran and Mashhad, Iran. All HBsAg positive samples also possessed antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen and all were subtype ayw. Type B hepatitis and the HBsAg state aloe frequent in Iran, but most must be accounted for by u nonparenter- al" or "rnapparent'' parenteral exposure.

  15. Interferon prophylaxis of hepatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiosu, R; Dimitriu, L; Dragomir, P; Eremia, L

    1999-01-01

    The present article reveals the importance of hepatic carcinoma among the other diseases in digestive oncology, and also the importance of a correct designation of these cases. Epidemiology and actual hypothesis on the mechanisms of oncogenesis are discussed. There are reviewed some studies in the literature concerning infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, coinfection (B and C viruses, B and D viruses), the role of interferon prophylaxis in such cases. Also there is present a statistics on chronic viral hepatits, cirrhosis of viral etiology and hepatic carcinoma, diagnosed in patients in "N.Gh.Lupu" Hospital, over two decades.

  16. Soy compared with milk protein in a western diet changes fecal microbiota and decreases hepatic steatosis in obese OLETF rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy protein is effective at preventing hepatic steatosis; however, the mechanisms are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that soy versus dairy protein-based diet would alter microbiota and attenuate hepatic steatosis in hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Male OLETF ...

  17. Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The epidemiology of viral hepatitis and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy is of great importance for health planners and program managers. However, few published data on viral hepatitis and HIV are available in Sudan especially during pregnancy. Objectives: The current study was ...

  18. HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Kapembwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART. Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of 323 enrolled patients, 32 (9.9%; 95% CI=6.7-13.2% were HBsAg positive, while 4 (1.2%; 95% CI=0.03-2.4% were HCV Ab positive. Patients with hepatitis B coinfection were more likely to be 200 IU/L was uncommon and did not differ between the two groups (3.4% vs. 2.3%; P=0.5. We were unable to determine predictors of hepatitis C infection due to the low prevalence of disease. Conclusions: HIV and hepatitis B coinfection was common among patients initiating ART at this tertiary care facility. Routine screening for hepatitis B should be considered for HIV-infected persons in southern Africa.

  19. Prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV are common blood-borne infections unevenly distributed across regions in Nigeria. Few population-based prevalence studies have been done in Nigeria. Objective. To determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV and risk factors for infection with ...

  20. Attitudes and Awareness Regarding Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and even death.[1] In South‑East Asian Region, there are estimated 80 million hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers (about. 6% of the total population).[2] India has the ... duly filled by 255 participants including, 100 dental, 100 medical, and 55 nursing interns. ... interns, and nursing interns regarding hepatitis B and C and.

  1. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C viruses (HCV) are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. They are also among the commonest transfusiontransmissible infectious agents. Students of higher institutions are often used as voluntary unpaid donors by many ...

  2. Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV-1 Coinfection in Two Informal Urban Settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glennah Kerubo

    and HCV coinfection are uncommon in Korogocho and Viwandani. This clearly indicates the need for HIV-1 control programmes and hepatitis B virus vaccination to be promoted through public awareness as preventive strategy.

  3. Current status of liver diseases in Korea: hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, So Young

    2009-12-01

    The seroprevalence of anti-HAV (hepatitis A virus) has been decreasing in Korea. The decrease in HAV infection in young adults has resulted in the reduction of individuals with protective antibody and an increase in hepatitis A in the adult population. The increase in HAV infection in adults will have an impact on the magnitude and severity of the disease. In Korea, symptomatic hepatitis A has been gradually increasing since the mid-1990s, with a tendency toward an increase in mean age and disease severity. The endemic genotype of HAV in Korea has been changing from genotype IA alone to a mixture of genotype IA and IIIA. Therefore, preventive measures including universal vaccination in infants and active immunization of the adult population should be considered.

  4. [Current possibilities in the therapy of hepatic encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, P J; Bansky, G

    1990-04-14

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with acute or chronic liver disease. It is generally considered a metabolic and potentially reversible syndrome. An important component of HE is increased neuro-inhibition caused by reduced hepatic metabolism of gut-derived nitrogenous substances and by activation of the postsynaptic GABAA-receptor complex in the central nervous system. Effective conventional therapy of HE includes prevention of precipitating factors, restriction of dietary protein an administration of lactulose (or lactitol) and possibly also of antibiotics. In addition, animal studies and uncontrolled clinical studies indicate that the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil effectively diminishes the increased neuroinhibition in certain patients with HE. However, these favourable flumazenil effects must be confirmed in larger randomized and placebo-controlled multicenter studies before flumazenil can be regarded as a useful new addition to current management of patients with acute or chronic hepatic encephalopathy.

  5. Effect of a p38 MAPK inhibitor on FFA-induced hepatic insulin resistance in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S; Yu, W Q; Moore, J; Mori, Y; Tsiani, E; Giacca, A

    2016-05-02

    The mechanisms whereby prolonged plasma free fatty acids elevation, as found in obesity, causes hepatic insulin resistance are not fully clarified. We herein investigated whether inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) prevented hepatic insulin resistance following prolonged lipid infusion. Chronically cannulated rats were subdivided into one of four intravenous (i.v.) treatments that lasted 48 h: Saline (5.5 μl min(-1)), Intralipid plus heparin (IH, 20% Intralipid+20 U ml(-1) heparin; 5.5 μl min(-1)), IH+p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB239063) and SB239063 alone. During the last 2 h of treatment, a hyperinsulinemic (5 mU kg(-1) min(-1)) euglycemic clamp together with [3-(3)H] glucose methodology was carried out to distinguish hepatic from peripheral insulin sensitivity. We found that SB239063 prevented IH-induced hepatic insulin resistance, but not peripheral insulin resistance. SB239063 also prevented IH-induced phosphorylation of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2), a marker of p38 MAPK activity, in the liver. Moreover, in another lipid infusion model in mice, SB239063 prevented hepatic but not peripheral insulin resistance caused by 48 h combined ethyloleate plus ethylpalmitate infusion. Our results suggest that inhibition of p38 MAPK may be a useful strategy in alleviating hepatic insulin resistance in obesity-associated disorders.

  6. Probiotics in management of hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Barjesh Chander; Singh, Jatinderpal

    2016-12-01

    Gut microflora leads to production of ammonia and endotoxins which play important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). There is relationship between HE and absorption of nitrogenous substances from the intestines. Probiotics play a role in treatment of HE by causing alterations in gut flora by decreasing the counts of pathogen bacteria, intestinal mucosal acidification, decrease in production and absorption of ammonia, alterations in permeability of gut, decreased endotoxin levels and changes in production of short chain fatty acids. Role of gut microbiota using prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics have been evaluated in the management of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), overt HE and prevention of HE. Many studies have shown efficacy of probiotics in reduction of blood ammonia levels, treatment of MHE and prevention of HE. However these trials have problems like inclusion of small number of patients, short treatment durations, variability in HE/MHE related outcomes utilized and high bias risk, errors of systematic and random types. Systematic reviews also have shown different results with one systematic review showing clinical benefits whereas another concluded that probiotics do not have any role in treatment of MHE or HE. Also practical questions on optimal dose, ideal combination of organisms, and duration of treatment and persistence of benefits on long term follow-up are still to be clarified. At present, there are no recommendations for use of probiotics in patients with HE.

  7. Towards the Elimination of Hepatitis C in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Sammy; Le, Long; Saggi, Satvir; Sundaram, Vinay; Tong, Myron

    2017-11-27

    The emergence of effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents has reignited discussion over hepatitis C elimination potential in the United States. Eliminating hepatitis C will require a critical examination regarding technical feasibility, economic considerations, and social/political attention. Tremendous advancement has been made in recent years with the availability of sensitive diagnostic tests and highly effective DAAs capable of achieving sustained viral response (SVR) in more than 95% of patients. Eliminating hepatitis C requires escalating existing surveillance networks to identify and respond to new epidemics. Basic prevention strategies such as community based outreach and education, testing and counseling, clean syringe and needle exchange programs, safe injection sites, opioid substitution therapies, and mental health services must be scaled up and adapted to target high risk groups. Although costs of DAAs have raised budget concerns for hepatitis C elimination, studies have shown that eliminating hepatitis C will produce a savings of up to 6.5 billion USD annually along with other intangible benefits such as work productivity and quality of life. Simulation economic models and meta-analyses suggest that all adults should be screened for hepatitis C, but special efforts must focus on high risk populations. There is growing recognition that social and political factors are at least as important as technical feasibility and economic considerations. Due to lack of promotion and public awareness, HCV elimination efforts continue to receive inadequate funding. Social stigma continues to impede meaningful policy changes. Eliminating hepatitis C from the U.S. is possible but it will require a sustained national commitment and strong political leadership. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. Effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination as post-exposure prophylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrón, Ignasi; Planas, Caritat; Manzanares-Laya, Sandra; Martínez, Ana; Sala, Maria Rosa; Minguell, Sofia; Jané, Mireia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis A (HA) has been a vaccine-preventable disease since 1995. In Catalonia, a universal combined hepatitis A+B vaccination program of preadolescents was initiated at the end of 1998. However, outbreaks are reported each year and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine or immunoglobulin (IG) is recommended to avoid cases. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of HAV vaccine and IG in preventing hepatitis A cases in susceptible exposed people. A retrospective cohort study of contacts of HA cases involved in outbreaks reported in Catalonia between January 2006 and December 2012 was made. The rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of HA in susceptible contacts receiving HAV or IG versus those without PEP were calculated. There were 3550 exposed persons in the outbreaks studied: 2381 received one dose of HAV vaccine (Hepatitis A or hepatitis A+B), 190 received IG, and 611 received no PEP. 368 exposed subjects received one dose of HAV vaccine and IG simultaneously and were excluded from the study. The effectiveness of PEP was 97.6% (95% CI 96.2–98.6) for HAV vaccine and 98.3% (95% CI 91.3–99.9) for IG; the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.36). The elevated effectiveness of HAV vaccination for PEP in HA outbreaks, similar to that of IG, and the long-term protection of active immunization, supports the preferential use of vaccination to avoid secondary cases. PMID:27925847

  9. Seroepidemiological study of hepatitis B virus markers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Tomoko; Ishii, Koji; Mizokami, Masashi; Sugiyama, Masaya; Wakita, Takaji

    2015-11-09

    In Japan, since 1986, selective vaccination has been implemented as a hepatitis B prevention strategy. The target of vaccination is the infant born to a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mother. The current Japanese hepatitis B prevention strategy focuses on reducing the number of HBV carriers but overlooks the risk to susceptible populations. We conducted a nationwide HBV seroepidemiological study to explore the next hepatitis B control strategy. We used sera derived from healthy individuals collected nationwide from 2005 through 2011 to investigate the HBsAg seroprevalence among children aged 4-9 years and 10-15 years (3000 samples) and hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) seroprevalence among people 10-39 years of age (600 samples). Among sera from 3000 children, 5 (0.17%) specimens were HBsAg-positive. There was no significant difference in HBsAg prevalence between age groups. Among 600 samples, 15 (2.5%) were HBcAb-positive. Out of 15 samples, 4 were from teenagers. Both HBsAg- and HBcAb-positive sera were found mainly in the Southern area of Japan. The prevalence of HBsAg among children was 0.17% in the present study. This is higher than the prevalence reported in previous studies performed in the local area or in blood donors. The prevalence of HBcAb is also higher than we estimated. One of the reasons for this discrepancy from previous studies may be due to the small sample size and the impact of HBV high-endemic areas included in the present nationwide study. Nevertheless, our findings revealed that the opportunities for acquiring HBV infection in the susceptible population were more frequent than we thought, especially in some localities. Hepatitis B vaccination should be introduced into the routine child immunization program for susceptible populations, and the selective vaccination program should be continued for high-risk children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  11. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    The Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions received 1100 reports of suspected drug-induced hepatic injury during the decade 1978-1987. The causal relationship between drug and hepatic injury was classified as definite in 57 (5.2%) reports, probable in 989 (89.9%) reports, possible in 50 (4...

  12. Blood transfusion and hepatitis viruses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    virus in blood donors: investigation of type-specific differences in serologic reactivity and rate of alanine aminotransferase abnormalities. Transfusion 1993;. 33: 7-13. 45. McFarlane IG, Smith HM, Johnson PJ, Bray GP, Vergani 0, Williams R. Hepatitis. C virus antibodies in chronic active hepatitis: pathogenetic factor or false-.

  13. Hepatitis B and skin: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and its complications have become a global health problem. The spectrum of HBV infection ranges from asymptomatic carrier state to chronic hepatitis. It is usually preceded by constitutional symptoms. It has a wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review includes the pathogenesis along with the pathophysiology with their clinical significance and overview of the treatment.

  14. Complex therapy for hepatic trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diagnosed with the aid of B-Mode ultrasonography,. CT scan and MRI. Hepatic injury grade3. The liver injuries were classified based on the hepatic trauma criteria shown in table 1. Seven patients with. Grades 1 (4 cases) and Grade I1 (3 cases) were treated conservatively. The main surgical procedures for Grade I and I1.

  15. Hepatitis B vaccination in travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonder, Gerard J. B.

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of travelers travel to hepatitis B-endemic countries. In travel medicine, vaccinations should be advised according to risks. The actual incidence of hepatitis B infection in short-term tourists is very low and probably not higher than it is for people who do not travel. There is

  16. Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for more information about IG and hepatitis A vac- cine and in which situations vaccine and/or IG is the best choice). Can a person be infected with hepatitis A virus more than once? No. Once a person recovers from the infection, he or she develops life-long protection from ...

  17. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  18. Burden of pediatric hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shabrawi, Mortada Hassan; Kamal, Naglaa Mohamed

    2013-11-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health burden infecting 170-210 million people worldwide. Additional 3-4 millions are newly-infected annually. Prevalence of pediatric infection varies from 0.05%-0.36% in the United States and Europe; up to 1.8%-5.8% in some developing countries. The highest prevalence occurs in Egypt, sub-Saharan Africa, Amazon basin and Mongolia. HCV has been present in some populations for several centuries, notably genotypes 1 and 2 in West Africa. Parenteral anti-schistosomal therapy practiced in the 1960s until the early 1980s had spread HCV infection throughout Egypt. Parenteral acquisition of HCV remains a major route for infection among Egyptian children. Insufficient screening of transfusions, unsterilized injection equipment and re-used needles and syringes continue to be major routes of HCV transmission in developing countries, whereas vertical transmission and adolescent high-risk behaviors (e.g., injection drug abuse) are the major routes in developed countries. The risk of vertical transmission from an infected mother to her unborn/newborn infant is approximately 5%. Early stages of HCV infection in children do not lead to marked impairment in the quality of life nor to cognitive, behavioral or emotional dysfunction; however, caregiver stress and family system strain may occur. HCV slowly progresses to serious complications as cirrhosis (1%-2%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) especially in the presence of risk factors as hemolytic anemias, obesity, treated malignancy, and concomitant human immune deficiency and/or hepatitis B virus co-infection. HCV vaccine remains elusive to date. Understanding the immune mechanisms in patients who successfully cleared the infection is essential for vaccine development. The pediatric standard of care treatment consists of pegylated interferon-α 2a or b plus ribavirin for 24-48 wk. The new oral direct acting antivirals, approved for adults, need further evaluation in children. Sustained

  19. Hepatic tumors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, J T

    2001-02-01

    Although they account for only 1% to 4% of solid tumors in children, hepatic tumors and pseudotumors offer a diagnostic challenge to the clinician seeing only an occasional case. Metastatic lesions such as neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor, and lymphoma are the most common neoplasm seen in the liver, but 10 distinct primary tumors and pseudotumors of the liver occur with some regularity, and a few others may be seen rarely, including leiomyosarcoma, rhabdoid tumor, and endodermal sinus tumor. Five of these neoplasms--hepatoblastoma, infantile hemangio-endothelioma, mesenchymal hamartoma, undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma, and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the biliary tree--occur only in children and are the major focus of the article.

  20. Right hepatic artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Astrid Del Pilar Ardila; Loures, Paulo; Calle, Juan Cristóbal Ospina; Cunha, Beatriz; Córdoba, Juan Camilo

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of an aneurysm of the right hepatic artery and its multidisciplinary management by general surgery, endoscopy and radiology services. Being a case of extremely low incidence, it is important to show its diagnostic and therapeutic approach. RESUMO Relatamos um caso de aneurisma da artéria hepática direita conduzido de forma multidisciplinar pelos Serviços de Cirurgia Geral, Endoscopia e Radiologia. Em se tratando de caso de incidência baixíssima, é importante mostrar o enfoque diagnóstico e terapêutico usado em seu manejo.

  1. HEPATITIS ALOINMUNE FETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez C., Dr.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis aloinmune fetal, conocida anteriormente como hemocromatosis neonatal, ha demostrado en los últimos años ser una enfermedad completamente distinta a la hemocromatosis del adulto, tanto en su etiología como en su la fisiopatología. Este conocimiento abre nuevas perspectivas tanto en la prevención de la enfermedad en futuros embarazos, así como en el tratamiento con inmunoglobulina endovenosa en la madre durante el embarazo y eventualmente el tratamiento postnatal, en el que el trasplante de hígado juega un rol primordial.

  2. Auto immune hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    van Gerven, Nicole MF; de Boer, Ynto S; Mulder, Chris JJ; van Nieuwkerk, Carin MJ; Bouma, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    To provide an update of the latest trends in epidemiology, clinical course, diagnostics, complications and treatment of auto immune hepatitis (AIH). A search of the MEDLINE database was performed using the search terms: “auto immune hepatitis”, “clinical presentation”, “symptoms”, “signs”, “diagnosis”, “auto antibodies”, “laboratory values”, “serology”, “histopathology”, “histology”, “genetics”, “HLA genes”, “non-HLA genes”, “environment”, “epidemiology”, “prevalence”, “incidence”, “demograph...

  3. Managing hepatitis C in liver transplant patients with recurrent infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Zimmermann

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tim Zimmermann1, Gerd Otto2, Marcus Schuchmann11Department of Internal Medicine, 2Transplantation Surgery, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV reinfection after liver transplantation (LT and recurrent hepatitis C often lead to recurrent cirrhosis (RC. RC is one of the most frequent complications resulting in organ failure and early death after LT in HCV-positive patients with reported 5-year rates from 20% to 40%. As HCV-cirrhosis is one of the leading indications for LT, the therapeutic management is a central issue. To date, the best available therapy is a combination of pegylated interferon + ribavirin in patients with established recurrent hepatitis C proven by liver biopsy. Although increasing experience in using interferon therapy after LT has suggested better response rates, treatment is limited by a poor tolerability and high rates of severe side effects, necessitating lower doses or withdrawal of therapy. The extent to which dose reductions and the concomitant administration of growth factors affect virological response or prevent complications is still to be determined. Prospective clinical trials are mandatory to identify the best time point and schedule of antiviral treatment in transplant patients. Currently, therapeutic options need to be discussed for each individual patient. Therefore therapy should be carried out only in transplant centers with experience in managing hepatitis C after LT.Keywords: hepatitis C, liver transplantation, recurrent infection, treatment

  4. Current topics in autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Luigi; Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Pappas, Giorgios; Cassani, Fabio; Lenzi, Marco

    2010-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic liver disease of unknown aetiology characterized by interface hepatitis, hypergammaglobulinaemia and circulating autoantibodies. In the last decade a number of advancements have been made in the field of clinical and basic research: the simplified diagnostic criteria, the complete response defined as normalization of transaminase levels, the molecular identification of the antigenic targets of anti-liver cytosol antibody type 1 and anti-soluble liver antigen, the detection of anti-actin antibodies, the description of de novo autoimmune hepatitis after liver transplantation for non-autoimmune liver diseases, the characterization of autoimmune hepatitis with overlapping features of primary biliary cirrhosis or primary sclerosing cholangitis, the preliminary experience with novel treatment strategies based on cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil and budesonide, the role played by "impaired" regulatory T cells and the development of novel animal models of autoimmune hepatitis. Copyright © 2010 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of routine childhood vaccination for hepatitis A in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, David B; Hicks, Katherine A; Wirth, Kathleen E; Billah, Kaafee; Finelli, Lyn; Fiore, Anthony E; Hoerger, Thomas J; Bell, Beth P; Armstrong, Gregory L

    2007-01-01

    Economic analysis is an important component in formulating national policy. We evaluated the economic impact of hepatitis A vaccination of all US children ages 12 to 23 months as compared with no vaccination and with current implementation of the preexisting (issued in 1999), regional policy. We developed a Markov model of hepatitis A that followed a single cohort from birth in 2005 through death or age 95 years. From the societal perspective, the model compared the outcomes that resulted from routine vaccination at age 1 year to 2 scenarios: no hepatitis A vaccination and hepatitis A vaccination at levels observed in 2003 under the preexisting policy. We evaluated the economic impact of vaccination nationwide, in areas where vaccination was already recommended, and in areas where no previous recommendation existed. Without childhood vaccination, the approximately 4 million children in the 2005 birth cohort would be expected over their lifetimes to have 199,000 hepatitis A virus infections, including 74,000 cases of acute hepatitis A and 82 deaths, resulting in 134 million dollars in hepatitis A-related medical costs and productivity losses. Compared with no vaccination, routine vaccination at age 1 year would prevent 172,000 infections, at a cost of 28,000 dollars per quality-adjusted life year saved. Compared with maintaining the levels of hepatitis A vaccination under the preexisting regional policy, routine vaccination at age 1 year would prevent an additional 112,000 infections, at a cost of 45,000 dollars per quality-adjusted life year saved. The cost-effectiveness of nationwide hepatitis A vaccination compared with no vaccination, and the incremental cost-effectiveness of this recommendation compared with preexisting recommendations, is similar to that of other accepted public health interventions. In October 2005, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended extending hepatitis A immunization to all US children ages 12 to 23 months.

  6. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    De Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring.

  7. Effect of gender and age on the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding hepatitis B and C and vaccination status of hepatitis B among medical students of Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.; Ahmed, S.M.; Khalid, M.M.; Siddiqui, S.H.; Merchant, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the vaccination status for hepatitis B and knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding hepatitis B and C among medical students of Karachi and to evaluate the effects of gender and age on the responses, regarding vaccination and KAP for Hepatitis B and C. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 7 medical colleges/ universities of Karachi. Convenient sampling was used to collect the information. Questionnaire regarding awareness about prevention, transmission, diagnosis, treatment and vaccination availability for hepatitis B and C was completed from each individual. In addition, vaccination status of hepatitis B and the awareness of students regarding post exposure prophylaxis was also documented. One thousand five hundred and nine students participated in this study. Results: The mean age of medical students (1509) was 20.35 +- 1.72 years. Female participants were 1075 (71.2%) and 937 62.1%) of the respondents were studying in public institutions. Eighty five percent of the respondents indicated that they were aware of availability of a vaccine for hepatitis B. Only 57.1% medical students showed excellent knowledge regarding the route of spread of hepatitis B and C. Students showing good knowledge of treatment procedures for hepatitis B and C were 48.2%. Half of the respondents (49.8%) showed good knowledge regarding spread of hepatitis by dental procedures. Seventy six percent of participating medical students did not have any knowledge about the post exposure prophylaxis for hepatitis B and C. Seventy four percent indicated that the hepatitis patients should not be isolated. Seventy nine percent of the students reported that they were vaccinated for hepatitis B and 70.6% of them were completely vaccinated (3 doses). About half of the respondents (49.4%) indicated that they were screened for hepatitis B and only 27.1% were screened for hepatitis C. Half of the students reported that they have had needle pricks in their

  8. Emerging Trends in Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasi, Cristina; Silvestri, Caterina; Voller, Fabio

    2017-09-28

    Although a vaccine against hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been available since 1982, the prevalence of adults with chronic HBV infection in sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia is still estimated at 5-10%. A high rate of chronic infections is also found in the Amazon and the southern parts of eastern and central Europe. In the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent, the prevalence is 2-5%. Less than 1% of the population of Western Europe and North America is chronically infected. Given the high prevalence of infections (such as hepatitis) among inmates, prison is considered a reservoir for facilitating such infections. Based on these premises, this current review examines and discusses emerging trends in the epidemiology of HBV infection, with particular attention to HBV infection in prison. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence in prisoners in west and central Africa is very high (23.5%). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has highlighted the importance of HBV blood screening and subsequent anti-HBV vaccination in the prison population. The vaccination was recommended for all inmates, representing an opportunity to prevent HBV infection in a high-risk population. In these subjects, an accelerated hepatitis B immunisation schedule may result in rapid seroconversion for early short-term protection. Therefore, it is necessary to seek collaboration among public health officials, clinicians and correctional authorities to implement a vaccination programme.

  9. Initiation & completion rates of hepatitis A vaccination among US pediatric populations born between 2005 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Thomas; Zhang, Dongmu; Borse, Nagesh N; Walter, Emmanuel B

    2015-11-27

    To estimate hepatitis A vaccine series initiation and completion rates, assess time to vaccination, identify missed opportunities for the hepatitis A vaccine series, and examine factors associated with hepatitis A vaccine series initiation and completion. We conducted a retrospective, observational study using three healthcare claims databases separately. The study population was comprised of children born between years 2005 and 2009 that were continuously enrolled for at least three and a half years from the date of birth. Every child was followed from date of birth for three and a half years for hepatitis A vaccination. There were 93,735 eligible children from Clinformatics Data Mart, 202,513 from MarketScan Commercial, and 207,545 from MarketScan Medicaid. The overall hepatitis A vaccine series initiation rate was 63.8-79.4% and completion rate was 45.1-66.8% across the three databases. About 62.8-90.1% of the children who never initiated hepatitis A vaccine had at least one well visit from 1 year to three and a half years old. Children were more likely to initiate and complete the hepatitis A vaccine series if they were from more recent birth cohorts, from states with a hepatitis A vaccination recommendation prior to the ACIP universal recommendation, from states with daycare/school entry requirements, were enrolled in an HMO health plan, had pediatricians as primary providers, had more doctor's office/well visits and received MMR/Varicella vaccines. In this study, approximately one in every three to five children remained unvaccinated against hepatitis A. Although the hepatitis A vaccine series initiation and completion improved from 2005 to 2009, vaccine coverage has stabilized in recent years. It is important for providers to identify every opportunity for hepatitis A vaccination and to assure that children get protection from this vaccine-preventable disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Viral hepatitis in female sex workers using the Respondent-Driven Sampling

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    Marcos André de Matos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus and C virus infections and their genotypes and analyze the risk factors for the markers of exposure to hepatitis B virus in female sex workers in a region of intense sex trade. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study performed with four hundred and two female sex workers in Goiânia, Brazil. Data have been collected using the Respondent-Driven Sampling. The women have been interviewed and tested for markers of hepatitis B and C viruses. Positive samples have been genotyped. The data have been analyzed using the Respondent-Driven Sampling Analysis Tool, version 5.3, and Stata 11.0. RESULTS The adjusted prevalence for hepatitis B virus and C virus were 17.1% (95%CI 11.6–23.4 and 0.7% (95%CI 0.1–1.5, respectively. Only 28% (95%CI 21.1–36.4 of the participants had serological evidence of vaccination against hepatitis B virus. Being older (> 40 years, being single, having a history of blood transfusion and use of cocaine, and ignoring the symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were associated with positivity for hepatitis B virus (p < 0.05. We have detected the subgenotype A1 of hepatitis B virus (n = 3 and the subtypes of hepatitis C virus 1a (n = 3 and 1b (n = 1. CONCLUSIONS We can observe a low prevalence of infection of hepatitis B and C viruses in the studied population. However, the findings of the analysis of the risk factors show the need for more investment in prevention programs for sexual and drug-related behavior, as well as more efforts to vaccinate this population against hepatitis B. The genotypes of the hepatitis B virus and C virus identified are consistent with those circulating in Brazil.

  11. An investigation of an outbreak of viral hepatitis B in Modasa town, Gujarat, India

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    Disha A Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most outbreaks of viral hepatitis in India are caused by hepatitis E. Recently in the year 2009, Modasa town of Sabarkantha district in Gujarat witnessed the outbreak of hepatitis B. Purpose: An attempt was made to study the outbreak clinically and serologically, to estimate the seropositivity of hepatitis B Virus among the cases and their contacts and to know the seroprevalence of hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg and IgM antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (IgM HBcAb out of all the Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg positive ones. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and fifty-six (856 cases and 1145 contacts were evaluated for hepatitis B markers namely HBsAg, HBeAg and IgM HBcAb by enzyme-linked immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA test. Results: This outbreak of viral hepatitis B in Modasa, Gujarat was most likely due to unsafe injection practices. Evidence in support of this was collected by Government authorities. Most of the patients and approximately 40% of the surveyed population gave history of injections in last 1.5-6 months. Total 664/856 (77.57% cases and 20/1145 (1.75% contacts were found to be positive for HBsAg. 53.41% of the positive cases and 52.93% of the positive contacts were HBeAg-positive and thus in a highly infectious stage. Conclusions: Inadequately sterilized needles and syringes are an important cause of transmission of hepatitis B in India. Our data reflects the high positivity rate of a hepatitis B outbreak due to such unethical practices. There is a need to strengthen the routine surveillance system, and to organise a health education campaign targeting all health care workers including private practitioners, especially those working in rural areas, as well as the public at large, to take all possible measures to prevent this often fatal infection.

  12. Hepatitis B in sub-Saharan Africa: strategies to achieve the 2030 elimination targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, C Wendy; Afihene, Mary; Ally, Reidwaan; Apica, Betty; Awuku, Yaw; Cunha, Lina; Dusheiko, Geoffrey; Gogela, Neliswa; Kassianides, Chris; Kew, Michael; Lam, Philip; Lesi, Olufunmilayo; Lohouès-Kouacou, Marie-Jeanne; Mbaye, Papa Saliou; Musabeyezu, Emmanuel; Musau, Betty; Ojo, Olusegun; Rwegasha, John; Scholz, Barbara; Shewaye, Abate B; Tzeuton, Christian; Sonderup, Mark W

    2017-12-01

    The WHO global health sector strategy on viral hepatitis, created in May, 2016, aims to achieve a 90% reduction in new cases of chronic hepatitis B and C and a 65% reduction in mortality due to hepatitis B and C by 2030. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, and despite the introduction of universal hepatitis B vaccination and effective antiviral therapy, the estimated overall seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen remains high at 6·1% (95% uncertainty interval 4·6-8·5). In this Series paper, we have reviewed the literature to examine the epidemiology, burden of liver disease, and elimination strategies of hepatitis B in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reflects a supranational perspective of sub-Saharan Africa, and recommends several priority elimination strategies that address the need both to prevent new infections and to diagnose and treat chronic infections. The key to achieving these elimination goals in sub-Saharan Africa is the effective prevention of new infections via universal implementation of the HBV birth-dose vaccine, full vaccine coverage, access to affordable diagnostics to identify HBV-infected individuals, and to enable linkage to care and antiviral therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis A in Serbian areas of Kosovo and Metohia

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    Stevanović Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A is an acute viral disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV .In many areas of the world represents a significant epidemiological problem, and the infection is usually transmitted by contact, rarely contaminated water and food. The main objective of the study was to identify the most important epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis A in Serbian areas of Kosovo and Metohija. We used the data of reporting of infectious diseases, reports on infectious diseases (seven-day, month, year of the Department of Public Health Pristina in Kosovska Mitrovica. In our research we used epidemiological Studies of cross-section (cross-sectional. Between 2003-2015. in Kosovo and Metohija (Serbian middle registered 223 cases of hepatitis A. The average incidence in the reporting period was 11.03 / 10,0000. Analysis of age distribution revealed that the most common incidence in people aged 15-19 years, and the rarest people aged 50-59 years. Hepatitis A occurs throughout the year, showing seasonal variations. Trend of incidence shows a negative trend with a reduction in the number of cases in the territory of Kosovo and Metohija. Based on the results of our study we can conclude that hepatitis A is an important public health and socioeconomic problem. In order to prevent hepatitis A, it is important to continue to improve hygiene and sanitary conditions of life as the best general preventive measures.

  14. Viral hepatitis in Latin America and the Caribbean: a public health challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Díez-Padrisa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis (VH is an emergent concern in public health agendas worldwide. More than one million people die annually from hepatitis and 57% and 78% of global cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma cases, respectively, are caused by VH. The burden of disease caused by hepatitis in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC is high. Data on hepatitis has been collected in several countries, but more accurate and comparable studies are needed. Hepatitis B vaccination and screening of donated blood are routine practices in the region. However, integrated policies covering prevention and control of disease caused by all types of hepatitis viruses are scarce. Existing preventive measures need to be reinforced. Attention must be paid to at-risk populations, awareness campaigns, and water and food safety. Affordable access to diagnosis and treatment, population screening, referral to health services and monitoring of positive cases are among the main challenges currently posed by VH in LAC. The World Health Organization framework and Pan American Health Organization regional strategy, defined in response to resolution WHA63.18 of the World Health Assembly, may help to overcome these difficulties. Successful experiences in the fight against hepatitis in some LAC countries may also provide very interesting solutions for the region.

  15. Serological survey of viral hepatitis A, B, and C at Thai Central Region and Bangkok: a population base study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasuwan, Winai; Sonji, Areeua; Tiengrim, Surapee; Techasathit, Wichai; Suwanagool, Surapol

    2004-06-01

    Hepatitis A, B, and C are important viral hepatitis infections in the Thai population. Hepatitis B vaccination was included in the Thai Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) 10 years ago. In addition, the seroprevalence of hepatitis A has significantly changed in the last two decades. This study was done to evaluate current risk groups for hepatitis A and B infections and identify the magnitude of hepatitis C infection in the general population of Bangkok and six provinces in the Central Region of Thailand, during the period October 2000 to January 2002. This study revealed that the prevalence of anti-HAV in people younger than 25 years was low but very high in people older than 25 years. The prevalence of anti-HAV was 1.95% in Bangkok and 12.7% in other provinces in people younger than 25 years (phepatitis A vaccination. Approximately 80% of people who are not covered by hepatitis B vaccination from EPI are at risk of hepatitis B infection and its complications. This group of people should receive hepatitis B vaccination. For hepatitis C, the prevalence is lower than 2% across age groups and areas. Therefore, current good primary prevention via blood donor screening and health education must be maintained.

  16. Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors for the Development of Postoperative Hepatic Steatosis After Total Pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Tatsuo; Ishida, Masaharu; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Sakata, Naoaki; Yoshimatsu, Gumpei; Naitoh, Takeshi; Katayose, Yu; Egawa, Shinichi; Unno, Michiaki

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of hepatic steatosis after pancreatectomy is known to be associated with the remnant pancreatic function. However, other risk factors for hepatic steatosis after pancreatectomy remain unknown. The aims of this study were to identify other risk factors in addition to the remnant pancreatic function and elucidate the relationship between postoperative hepatic steatosis and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in totally pancreatomized patients. Forty-three patients who underwent total pancreatectomy were analyzed. Hepatic steatosis was defined as the attenuation of unenhanced computed tomography values. Clinical findings and laboratory data were compared between patients with and without hepatic steatosis. Sixteen (37.2%) patients developed hepatic steatosis after total pancreatectomy, with marked declines in the Controlling Nutritional Status score and body mass index. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the attenuation of computed tomography values was correlated with female sex (P = 0.002), early postoperative serum albumin levels (P = 0.003), and pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy with high-dose pancrelipase (P = 0.032). Postoperative hepatic steatosis after pancreatectomy is associated with sex, malnutrition, and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. High-dose pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy may have preventive effects on hepatic steatosis occurring after pancreatectomy.

  17. Serological survey of hepatitis B immunity in healthcare workers in Catalonia (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez, A.; Urbiztondo, L.; Bayas, J. M.; Borrás, E.; Broner, S.; Campins, M.; Costa, J.; Esteve, M.

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCW) are exposed to preventable infectious diseases, notably hepatitis B (HB). The aim of this study was to determine the immunity of HCW against hepatitis B. We made a seroprevalence study using a self-administered survey and obtained blood samples. Antibodies against the HB surface antigen (anti-HBs) and against the HB core antigen (anti-HBc) were studied. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The adjusted OR were calculated using logisti...

  18. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in health care workers in abbottabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, J.; Gul, N.; Adeel, M.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) are hepatotropic viruses causing viral hepatitis, chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Modes of infection are more or less similar. HBV is vaccine preventable while HCV is not. They are prevalent in different parts of the world including Pakistan. The rate of prevalence varies from region to region and among different population segments. The present study was planned to see the prevalence of HBV and HVC among health care workers in various hospitals of Abbottabad. The study was conducted at the District Headquarter Teaching Hospital Abbottabad over a period of one year on 125 health care workers of different categories and either sex. Brief history was taken from each individual and physical examination was performed. Blood samples were taken for HBV and HC serology. Positive sera were confirmed by 3rd generation ELISA. As much as 8% individuals were positive for HBV or HCV. HBV alone was seen in 3 out of 10 (30%) individuals. HCV alone was also found in 3 out of 10 (30%) individuals. HBV and HCV co-infection was seen in 4 out of 10 (40%) individuals. Dental procedures, needle prick and surgical procedures were found the common risk factors. Blood transfusion was known in 2 out of 10 (20%) individuals. Family history of hepatitis was not positive in any individual. Results of the present study differ from those of the previous studies conducted on health care workers in Pakistan. (author)

  19. Excellent response rate to a double dose of the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine in previous nonresponders to hepatitis B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardell, Kristina; Akerlind, Britt; Sällberg, Matti; Frydén, Aril

    2008-08-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine has been shown to be highly efficient in preventing hepatitis B. However, 5%-10% of individuals fail to develop protective levels (>or=10 mIU/mL) of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and are considered to be nonresponders. A total of 48 nonresponders and 20 subjects naive to the HBV vaccine received a double dose of combined hepatitis A and B vaccine (Twinrix) at 0, 1, and 6 months. The levels of anti-HBs and antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) were determined before vaccination and 1 month after each dose. Among 44 nonresponders, protective anti-HBs levels were found in 26 (59%) after the first dose and in 42 (95%) after the third dose. Among the control subjects, the corresponding figures were 10% and 100%, respectively. All subjects seroconverted to anti-HAV. The titers of both anti-HBs and anti-HAV were lower in the previously nonresponsive subjects (Phepatitis B vaccine regimen with a double dose of the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine was highly effective. This is most likely explained by the increased dose, a positive bystander effect conferred by the hepatitis A vaccine, or both.

  20. Supplementation with antioxidant-rich extra virgin olive oil prevents hepatic oxidative stress and reduction of desaturation capacity in mice fed a high-fat diet: Effects on fatty acid composition in liver and extrahepatic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Angel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Marambio, Macarena; Espinosa, Alejandra; Mayer, Susana; Romero, Nalda; Barrera M Sc, Cynthia; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in mice on the reduction of desaturase and antioxidant enzymatic activities in liver, concomitantly with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) profiles in liver and extrahepatic tissues induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male mice C57 BL/6 J were fed with a control diet (CD; 10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or an HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 wk. Animals were supplemented with 100 mg/d EVOO with different antioxidant contents (EVOO I, II, and III). After the intervention, blood and several tissues were analyzed. Dietary supplementation with EVOO with the highest antioxidant content and antioxidant capacity (EVOO III) significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and the plasmatic metabolic alterations caused by HFD and produced a normalization of oxidative stress-related parameters, desaturase activities, and LCPUFA content in tissues. Data suggest that dietary supplementation with EVOO III may prevent oxidative stress and reduction of biosynthesis and accretion of ω-3 LCPUFA in the liver of HFD-fed mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors: a sub-analysis of data from the 2013 WHO viral hepatitis policy report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sperle, Ida; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Gore, Charles; Cebolla, Beatriz; Spina, Alexander

    2017-07-26

    As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS). WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI), health expenditure and physician density. This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have a national strategy and/or policy/guidelines for preventing infection in healthcare settings if they were in the higher binary categories for income level, HDI, health expenditure and physician density. In multivariable analyses, the only significant finding was a positive association between having routine surveillance and being in the higher binary HDI category (adjusted odds ratio 26; 95% confidence interval 2.0-340). Countries with differing socioeconomic status indicators did not appear to differ greatly regarding the existence of key national policies and programmes. A more nuanced understanding of the multifaceted interactions of socioeconomic factors, health policy, service delivery and health outcomes is needed to support country-level efforts to eliminate viral hepatitis.

  2. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors: a sub-analysis of data from the 2013 WHO viral hepatitis policy report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey V Lazarus

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS. Methods WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI, health expenditure and physician density. Results This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have a national strategy and/or policy/guidelines for preventing infection in healthcare settings if they were in the higher binary categories for income level, HDI, health expenditure and physician density. In multivariable analyses, the only significant finding was a positive association between having routine surveillance and being in the higher binary HDI category (adjusted odds ratio 26; 95% confidence interval 2.0–340. Conclusion Countries with differing socioeconomic status indicators did not appear to differ greatly regarding the existence of key national policies and programmes. A more nuanced understanding of the multifaceted interactions of socioeconomic factors, health policy, service delivery and health outcomes is needed to support country-level efforts to eliminate viral hepatitis.

  3. Failure to incriminate hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hepatitis E viruses in the aetiology of fulminant non-A non-B hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mutimer, D; Shaw, J; Neuberger, J; Skidmore, S; Martin, B; Hubscher, S; McMaster, P; Elias, E

    1995-01-01

    Sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis is the most common indication for liver transplantation in patients presenting with fulminant and subacute liver failure. This study used serological, histological, and molecular biological techniques to examine specimens from 23 consecutive patients transplanted for sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis. No evidence was found of hepatitis C virus, hepatitis E virus, or 'cryptic' hepatitis B virus infection.

  4. Asthenia in Children with Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Lembryk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article results of own researches concerning peculiarities of the course of asthenic syndrome in school-aged children with chronic hepatitis B, C and mixed forms are provided. It is established that chronic hepatitis C as well as a mixed hepatitis are accompanied by more evident symptoms of deadaptation and somatogenic asthenia than hepatitis B in which psychogenic manifestations prevailed. The degree of endogenous intoxication was also higher at hepatitis C.

  5. Hepatitis Viruses and Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kew, Michael C.

    1997-01-01

    Two hepatotropic viruses, hepatitis B and C viruses, are known to cause hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex, stepwise process that evolves over several to many years and precisely how hepatitis viruses contribute to malignant transformation of hepatocytes is uncertain. Hepatitis B vrus is integrated into cellular DNA in the great majority of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinomas, whereas replicative intermediates of hepatitis C virus do not inse...

  6. Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Correlation Between IgM Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen, Hepatitis B e Antigen, and Hepatitis B DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Mdicine and ni)giene HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION AND HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA: CORRELATION BETWEEN IgM ANTIBODY TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN, HEPATITIS B e...ANTIGEN, AND HEPATITIS B DNA MARIA H. SJOGREN.* GEOFFREY M. DUSHEIKO. MICHAEL C. KEW, AND ERNEST SONG *Depart,ent of Virus Diseases, valter Reed Arny...Johannesburg, South Africa Abstract. Sera from 102 black patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) and hepatitis B surface antigenemia

  7. Hepatitis C and cutaneous alterations

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    Letícia Rita Fachinelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While most of those infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV are asymptomatic or only develop liver manifestations, a significant percentage evolves with autoimmune and lymphoproliferative disorders, resulting in a clinical condition called HCV syndrome. This work involving case studies of six patients with hepatitis C and varied skin manifestation aimed to report skin lesions occurring with HCV infection and its treatment. Skin manifestations in hepatitis C have been based on epidemiological studies. This justifies the need for studies that correlate HCV infection and its treatment with skin manifestations.

  8. Phenylbutyric acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrogenesis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian-Qing [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Second Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230601 (China); Chen, Xi [First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Zhang, Cheng [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Tao, Li [First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Qian [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Xu, Yuan-Bao [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Wang, Hua [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Li, Jun, E-mail: lijun@ahmu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Xu, De-Xiang, E-mail: xudex@126.com [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China)

    2013-01-15

    A recent report showed that the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated in the pathogenesis of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatic fibrosis. Phenylbutyric acid (PBA) is a well-known chemical chaperone that inhibits endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PBA on CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. All mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with CCl{sub 4} (0.15 ml/kg BW, twice per week) for 8 weeks. In CCl{sub 4} + PBA group, mice were i.p. injected with PBA (150 mg/kg, twice per day) from the beginning of CCl{sub 4} injection to the end. As expected, PBA significantly attenuated CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR activation. Although PBA alleviated, only to a less extent, hepatic necrosis, it obviously inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Moreover, PBA inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 translocation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Interestingly, CCl{sub 4}-induced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker for the initiation phase of HSC activation, was significantly attenuated in mice pretreated with PBA. Correspondingly, CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic collagen (Col)1α1 and Col1α2, markers for the perpetuation phase of HSC activation, were inhibited in PBA-treated mice. Importantly, CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis, as determined using Sirius red staining, was obviously attenuated by PBA. In conclusion, PBA prevents CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis through inhibiting hepatic inflammatory response and HSC activation. Highlights: ► CCl{sub 4} induces hepatic ER stress, inflammation, HSC activation and hepatic fibrosis. ► PBA alleviates CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR signaling activation. ► PBA inhibits CCl{sub 4}-induced

  9. Attitudes and Awareness Regarding Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    55.3% and 87.3% for hepatitis C.[5,6] It has been estimated that 14.4% and 1.4% of hospital workers are infected with HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), respectively.[7]. Physicians, dentists, nurses, laboratory staff, and chair side assistants are at high‑risk of acquiring infection via the contact with blood (and other body fluids) ...

  10. Hepatitis B virus e antigen induces activation of rat hepatic stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zan, Yanlu [Center for Molecular Virology, CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yuxia, E-mail: yzhang@wehi.edu.au [Center for Molecular Virology, CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Tien, Po, E-mail: tienpo@sun.im.ac.cn [Center for Molecular Virology, CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •HBeAg expression in HSCs induced production of ECM protein and liver fibrotic markers. •The activation and proliferation of HSCs were mediated by TGF-β. •HBeAg protein purified from cell medium directly activated HSCs. -- Abstract: Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a major cause of hepatic fibrosis, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) is an accessory protein of HBV, not required for viral replication but important for natural infection in vivo. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major producers of excessive extracellular matrix during liver fibrogenesis. Therefore, we examined the influence of HBeAg on HSCs. The rat HSC line HSC-T6 was transfected with HBeAg plasmids, and expression of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. The proliferation of HSCs was determined by MTS analysis. HBeAg transduction induced up-regulation of these fibrogenic genes and proliferation of HSCs. We found that HBeAg induced TGF-β secretion in HSCs, and the activation of HSCs was prevented by a neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody. Depletion and addition of HBeAg protein in conditioned medium from HSC-T6 cells transduced with HBeAg indicated that HBeAg directly induced the activation and proliferation of rat primary HSCs. Taken together, HBeAg induces the activation and proliferation of HSCs, mainly mediated by TGF-β, and HBeAg protein purified from cell medium can directly activate HSCs.

  11. Hepatitis B virus e antigen induces activation of rat hepatic stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zan, Yanlu; Zhang, Yuxia; Tien, Po

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •HBeAg expression in HSCs induced production of ECM protein and liver fibrotic markers. •The activation and proliferation of HSCs were mediated by TGF-β. •HBeAg protein purified from cell medium directly activated HSCs. -- Abstract: Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a major cause of hepatic fibrosis, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) is an accessory protein of HBV, not required for viral replication but important for natural infection in vivo. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major producers of excessive extracellular matrix during liver fibrogenesis. Therefore, we examined the influence of HBeAg on HSCs. The rat HSC line HSC-T6 was transfected with HBeAg plasmids, and expression of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. The proliferation of HSCs was determined by MTS analysis. HBeAg transduction induced up-regulation of these fibrogenic genes and proliferation of HSCs. We found that HBeAg induced TGF-β secretion in HSCs, and the activation of HSCs was prevented by a neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody. Depletion and addition of HBeAg protein in conditioned medium from HSC-T6 cells transduced with HBeAg indicated that HBeAg directly induced the activation and proliferation of rat primary HSCs. Taken together, HBeAg induces the activation and proliferation of HSCs, mainly mediated by TGF-β, and HBeAg protein purified from cell medium can directly activate HSCs

  12. Physician Knowledge and Attitudes About Hepatitis A and Current Practices Regarding Hepatitis A Vaccination Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Noele P; Allison, Mandy A; Lindley, Megan C; Brtnikova, Michaela; Crane, Lori A; Beaty, Brenda L; Hurley, Laura P; Kempe, Allison

    2017-07-01

    To assess physicians': 1) knowledge and attitudes about hepatitis A disease and hepatitis A (HepA) vaccine, 2) child care and school HepA vaccine mandates, 3) practices related to HepA vaccine delivery, 4) factors associated with strongly recommending HepA vaccine to all 1- to 2-year-olds, and 5) feasibility of implementing HepA catch-up vaccination at health maintenance visits. A national survey was conducted among representative networks of pediatricians and family medicine physicians (FMs) from March to June, 2014 via e-mail or mail on the basis of provider preference. Response rates were 81% (356 of 440) among pediatricians and 75% (348 of 464) among FMs. Less than 50% correctly identified that hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is usually asymptomatic in young children and that morbidity from HAV disease increases with age. Ninety-two percent of pediatricians and 59% of FMs strongly recommend HepA vaccine for all 1- to 2-year-olds. In addition to practice specialty, belief that HepA vaccine is required for kindergarten enrollment was the most robust predictor of strong physician recommendation. Gaps in knowledge regarding HAV infection and hepatitis A recommendations and lack of a strong recommendation for routine HepA vaccination of young children among FMs likely contribute to suboptimal coverage. Closing knowledge gaps and addressing barriers that prevent all physicians from strongly recommending HepA vaccine to 1- to 2-year-olds could help increase HepA vaccine coverage and ultimately improve population protection against HAV infection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Markers of hepatic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballería, Llorenç; Torán, Pere; Caballería, Joan

    2017-10-18

    Chronic liver diseases constitute a major health problem. Chronic liver inflammation, defined by the degree of hepatic fibrosis, is asymptomatic in a significant percentage of patients; hence, the disease often remains undiagnosed until it has reached very advanced phases and, frequently, when the damage is irreversible. Ideally, patients should be screened during the initial phases of chronic inflammation, thus allowing for the effective management of the natural evolution of the disease by stopping or delaying its course. Standard diagnostic methods (transaminase determination or abdominal ultrasonography) do not allow for the early diagnosis of the degree of fibrosis. A liver biopsy is the invasive method of choice to screen for fibrosis, however, due to its limitations, non-invasive diagnostic methods such as elastography or serological markers are increasingly used as a good alternative for the early diagnosis of the degree of fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalencia de hepatitis B, hepatitis C y sífilis en trabajadoras sexuales de Venezuela Prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis in female sex workers in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I Camejo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: En Venezuela las trabajadoras sexuales reciben un control sanitario para la sífilis y el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH. Sin embargo, otras importantes infecciones de transmisión sexual no son evaluadas. Así, se realizó este estudio con el objetivo de determinar el nivel socio-cultural de un grupo de trabajadores sexuales y su relación con la sero-presencia de marcadores de Hepatitis C y Hepatitis B, en adición a la evaluación de rutina. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron 212 trabajadoras sexuales, que acudieron al control sanitario en el servicio de infecciones de transmisión sexual, de la ciudad de Los Teques, Venezuela. Fueron entrevistadas en cuanto a edad, nivel educativo, uso de anticonceptivos y del condón. Se les tomó una muestra de sangre para determinar sífilis, antígeno de superficie de hepatitis B (HBsAg y la presencia de anticuerpos contra el core de hepatitis B (anti-HBc, virus de hepatitis C (anti-HC y VIH. Los datos fueron evaluados estadísticamente por Chi-cuadrado y correlación de Pearson. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia fue de 2,4% para sífilis, 0,5% para anti-HC, 3,8% para HBsAg y 13,8% para anti-HBc. Un aumento en la prevalencia de marcadores de hepatitis B se correlacionó con un bajo nivel educativo (pOBJECTIVE: In Venezuela, female sex workers are submitted to a preventive control of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. However, other very important sexually transmitted infections are not evaluated. A study was carried out to identify the sociocultural background of a group of sex workers and its association with the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C markers, in addition to routine evaluation. METHOD: A total of 212 female sex workers who attended the control center of sexually transmitted infections (STI in the city of Los Teques, Venezuela, were evaluated. Women were asked their age, educational background, use of contraceptive methods and condoms. Blood was drawn to determine the prevalence

  15. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener Abdulbari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10. A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006. Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%, hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  16. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    .5%) reports and unclassifiable in four (0.4%) reports. Hepatic injuries accounted for 5.9% of all adverse drug reactions reported, and 14.7% of the lethal adverse drug reactions. A total of 47.2% were classified as acute cytotoxic, 16.2% as acute cholestatic and 26.9% as abnormal hepatic function. In 52 (4.......7%) cases the hepatic injury was lethal; only 14 (1.3%) cases were chronic. Halothane accounted for 25% of the cases. The incidence of halothane-induced hepatic injury is decreasing, and only one lethal case has been reported since 1981. Next to halothane, sulfasalazine was the drug most often suspected...

  17. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health in a person with hepatitis C. A balanced diet can lead to better liver functioning and lowered ... exercise routine and start eating a healthy, well-balanced diet. Always talk to your doctor before starting a ...

  18. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file Zip Archive ...

  19. Characterizing hepatitis B stigma in Chinese immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, S J; Cotler, S; Xie, H; Luc, B J; Layden, T J; Wong, S S

    2012-02-01

    Health-related stigma is a cause of stress, alienation and discrimination that can serve as a barrier to prevention and care for infectious diseases such as HIV. Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related stigma is common in Asian immigrants, but has not been formally evaluated. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the first HBV stigma instrument and to begin to evaluate HBV stigma in Chinese immigrants. The HBV stigma instrument was developed based on constructs from validated HIV stigma scales and organized into five domains. A written survey was compiled to include demographic data, HBV knowledge questions and stigma items. The survey was pilot tested in English and Chinese and then finalized. Data were obtained from 201 patients seen in an urban Chinatown Internal Medicine practice. The stigma items showed a high degree of reliability when assessed in aggregate (α = 0.85) as well as within individual domains. Stigma was greatest in the Fear of Contagion domain. Knowledge questions showed a corresponding deficit in understanding of modes of HBV transmission. An inverse relationship between stigma scores and familiarity with HBV provided evidence of construct validity. In multivariable analysis, having a family member with HBV and higher HBV knowledge subset scores were associated with lower degrees of stigma. In conclusion, the hepatitis B stigma instrument showed reliability and construct validity. The relationship identified between familiarity and knowledge regarding HBV with lower stigma scores provides the basis for the development of interventions to reduce HBV stigma. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Hepatitis B virus infection in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, C S

    2012-02-01

    Recent increases in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection prompted us to characterize HBV-infected children in Ireland and to audit management, by reviewing prospectively gathered data. Of 46 children (29 [63%] male), median age at presentation was 8.1 years (range 0.6-17.6), monitoring duration was 22.5 months (range 1-101), 23\\/46 (50%) were European (including 9 [19.6%] Irish), 15 (32.6%) African and 9 (19.6%) Asian. Acquisition was vertical (25\\/46 [54.3%]), horizontal (5\\/46 [10.9%]), unknown (16\\/46 [34.8%]). HBV-DNA was >100,000,000 cpm in 20\\/32 (62.5%) with chronic infection. Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) was detected in 32\\/44 (72.7%). We estimate that universal neonatal vaccination (UNV-HBV) could have prevented 22% of cases, and could limit further horizontal HBV spread. This supports the recent introduction of UNV-HBV.