WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevent equipment damage

  1. A preventive maintenance model for leased equipment subject to internal degradation and external shock damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiaojun; Wu, Changjie; Li, Yanting; Xi, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    A periodic preventive maintenance modeling method is proposed for leased equipment with continuous internal degradation and stochastic external shock damage considered simultaneously, which can facilitate the equipment lessor to optimize the maintenance schedule for the same kind of equipment rented by different lessees. A novel interactive mechanism between the continuous internal degradation and the stochastic external shock damage is established on the hazard rate of the equipment with integrating the imperfect effect of maintenance. Two improvement factors are defined for the modeling of imperfect maintenance. The number of failures resulting from internal degradation and from external shocks are both mathematically deduced based on this interactive mechanism. The optimal preventive maintenance scheme is obtained by minimizing the cumulative maintenance cost throughout the lease period. Numerical example shows that the proposed preventive maintenance model not only can reflect the reliability status of the equipment but also can clearly distinguish between the impact from internal degradation and that from external shocks. - Highlights: • We propose an imperfect periodic preventive maintenance model for leased equipment. • It can distinguish between the impact from internal degradation and that from external shocks. • An internal–external interactive mechanism is proposed. • Two improvement factors are introduced into the modeling of imperfect maintenance. • The model is helpful for the PM scheduling of the same equipment rented by different lessees.

  2. Damage limits of accelerator equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Rosell, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    Beam losses occur in particle accelerators for various reasons. The effect of lost particles on accelerator equipment becomes more severe with the increasing energies and intensities. The present study is focused on the damage potential of the proton beam as a function of particle energy and beam size. Injection and extraction energies of different accelerators at CERN were considered.

  3. Fire prevention and protection for trackless equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, A.J.

    1988-10-01

    With the increased use of trackless diesel and electrical equipment underground, the fire danger associated with this equipment has increased. The need for adequate fire prevention and protection on all aspects of trackless mechanised mining must be taken into consideration. This paper describes briefly the causes of fires on trackless equipment and the precautions taken to reduce the risk of ignition. 1 tab.

  4. Damage caused to houses and equipment by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delort, F.; Guerrini, C.

    1969-01-01

    A description is given of the damaged caused to various structures, buildings, houses, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment by underground nuclear explosions in granite. For each type of equipment or building are given the limiting distances for a given degree of damage. These distances have been related to a parameter characterizing the movement of the medium; it is thus possible to generalize the results obtained in granite, for different media. The problem of estimating the damage caused at a greater distance from the explosion is considered. (authors) [fr

  5. 46 CFR 184.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. 184.702 Section 184.702 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. A vessel must comply with the applicable design, equipment...

  6. 46 CFR 121.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. 121.702 Section 121.702 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.702 Pollution prevention equipment and...

  7. Preventing thefts and wilful damage

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2011-01-01

    The best means of preventing crime is to make it difficult to commit. As the summer holidays begin, in everybody’s interest we advise the following precautions: 1. MONEY, VALUABLES & KEYS Never leave money or objects of value unattended in offices or changing rooms, even locked. Keys and spares must always be taken away or kept in a safe place. Supposedly “safe” hiding places such as drawers, even locked, metal boxes and flower pots, are well known to burglars and should be avoided. Change lock codes regularly. 2. DOORS & WINDOWS Offices, workshops and meeting-rooms, etc. should be locked when vacated. Care should also be taken that windows are properly shut, especially if they are easily accessible from the outside. 3. VANDALISM If you witness an act of vandalism of public or private property, please report all the facts and your observations immediately to the CERN Fire Brigade (74444). 4. REPORTING INCIDENTS Every misdemeanour solved increases the chances of others be...

  8. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance, lease rentals, joint facility rents, other rents, depreciation, joint facility, repairs billed to others... maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other...

  9. 7 CFR 3015.170 - Damage, loss, or theft of equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage, loss, or theft of equipment. 3015.170 Section... Damage, loss, or theft of equipment. (a) Applicability. This section applies to equipment with a unit... damage, loss, or theft, the recipient does not have a control system in effect as required by § 3015.169...

  10. MODELS CONCERNING PREVENTIVE VERIFICATION OF TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÂRLAN M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents three operative models whose purpose is to improve the practice of preventive maintenance to a wide range of technical installations. Although the calculation criteria are different, the goal is the same: to determine the optimum time between two consecutive preventive interventions. The optimum criteria of these models are: - the maximum share of technical entity operating probabilities, in the case of the Ackoff - Sasieni [1] method; -the optimum time interval for preventive verification depending on the preventive-corrective maintenance costs imposed by the deciding factor, for the AsturioBaldin [2] model; - the minimum number of renewals – preventive and/or corrective maintenance operations [3

  11. Comprehensive framework for preventive maintenance priority of medical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Neven; Balestra, Gabriella

    2015-08-01

    Throughout the medical equipment life cycle, preventive maintenance is considered one of the most important stages that should be managed properly. However, the need for better management and control by giving a reasonable prioritization for preventive maintenance becomes essential. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive framework for preventive maintenance priority of medical equipment using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Fuzzy Logic (FL). The quality function deployment is proposed in order to identify the most important criteria that could impact preventive maintenance priority decision; meanwhile the role of the fuzzy logic is to generate a priority index of the list of equipment considering those criteria. The model validation was carried out on 140 pieces of medical equipment belonging to two hospitals. In application, we propose to classify the priority index into five classes. The results indicate that the strong correlation existence between risk-based criteria and preventive maintenance priority decision.

  12. 49 CFR 1242.49 - Equipment damaged (account XX-27-48).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment damaged (account XX-27-48). 1242.49...-Equipment § 1242.49 Equipment damaged (account XX-27-48). Separate common expenses according to distribution... equipment and work and other non-revenue equipment accounts (accounts XX-27-40, XX-27-45, XX-27-46, and XX...

  13. Fleet equipment performance measurement preventive maintenance model : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The concept of preventive maintenance is very important in the effective management and deployment of : vehicle fleets. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and offroad : equipment. Newer engines and vehicl...

  14. Preventive Rad/Nuc Detection Equipment Categorization for Consequence Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, B. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Musolino, S. V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Klemic, G. [US Dept. of Homeland Security National Security Technology Lab., New York, NY (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The overall objective of this project is to research, evaluate, and test first responder preventive radiological/nuclear detection equipment (PRND) to provide state and local agencies with guidance on how to best use this equipment for response after a radiological/nuclear release or detonation. While the equipment being tested in this effort has been specifically designed for detection and interdiction operations, the fleet of PRND equipment can help fill critical needs for radiological instrumentation should a consequence management response take place. This effort will provide scientific guidance on the best way to deploy and operate this class of equipment for consequence management missions. With the support of the US Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO), PRND equipment has been placed into service at federal, state, and local agencies throughout the nation. If the equipment capability and limitations are taken into account, this large inventory can be repurposed to support the emergency response in the aftermath of a radiological of nuclear event. This report evaluates PRND equipment to define key categories of equipment and the types of missions they can be used for. This is important because there are over 100 different types of PRND equipment, often with significantly different capabilities with respect to the consequence management mission. The current DNDO draft NIMS PRND equipment types were used as a foundation and expanded, when necessary, to address key characteristics important for the consequence mission. Table 1 provides a summary of the PRND instrument categories developed for this effort. Also included on the table are some common response mission detection equipment categories that will be used for capability comparisons.

  15. Equipment reliability process improvement and preventive maintenance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darragi, M.; Georges, A.; Vaillancourt, R.; Komljenovic, D.; Croteau, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Gentilly-2 Nuclear Power Plant wants to optimize its preventive maintenance program through an Integrated Equipment Reliability Process. All equipment reliability related activities should be reviewed and optimized in a systematic approach especially for aging plants such as G2. This new approach has to be founded on best practices methods with the purpose of the rationalization of the preventive maintenance program and the performance monitoring of on-site systems, structures and components (SSC). A rational preventive maintenance strategy is based on optimized task scopes and frequencies depending on their applicability, critical effects on system safety and plant availability as well as cost-effectiveness. Preventive maintenance strategy efficiency is systematically monitored through degradation indicators. (author)

  16. Under Lock and Key: Preventing Campus Theft of Electronic Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J. Phil

    1996-01-01

    A discussion of computer theft prevention on college campuses looks at a variety of elements in electronic equipment security, including the extent of the problem, physical antitheft products, computerized access, control of key access, alarm systems, competent security personnel, lighting, use of layers of protection, and increasing…

  17. Investigation of potential fire-related damage to safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanless, J.

    1985-11-01

    Based on a review of vendor information, fire damage reports, equipment qualification and hydrogen burn test results, and material properties, thirty-three types of equipment found in nuclear power plants were ranked in terms of their potential sensitivity to fire environments. The ranking considered both the functional requirements and damage proneness of each component. A further review of the seven top-ranked components was performed, considering the relative prevalence and potential safety significance of each. From this, relays and hand switches dominate as first choices for fire damage testing with logic equipment, power supplies, transmitters, and motor control centers as future candidates

  18. Seismic qualification of non-safety class equipment whose failure would damage safety class equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaSalle, F.R.

    1991-01-01

    Both Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 50, and US Department of Energy Order 6340.1A have requirements to assess the interaction of non-safety and safety class structures and equipment during a seismic event to maintain the safety function. At the Hanford Site, a cost effective program has been developed to perform the evaluation of non-safety class equipment. Seismic qualification is performed by analysis, test, or upgrading of the equipment to ensure the integrity of safety class structures and equipment. This paper gives a brief overview and synopsis that address design analysis guidelines including applied loading, damping values, component anchorage, allowable loads, and stresses. Test qualification of equipment and walkdown acceptance criteria for heating ampersand ventilation (H ampersand V) ducting, conduit, cable tray, missile zone of influence, as well as energy criteria are presented

  19. Vendor-based laser damage metrology equipment supporting the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J. H; Jennings, R. T.; Kimmons, J. F.; Kozlowski, M. R.; Mouser, R. P.; Schwatz, S.; Stolz, C. J.; Weinzapfel, C. L.

    1998-01-01

    A sizable laser damage metrology effort is required as part of optics production and installation for the 192 beam National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser. The large quantities, high damage thresholds, and large apertures of polished and coated optics necessitates vendor-based metrology equipment to assure component quality during production. This equipment must be optimized to provide the required information as rapidly as possible with limited operator experience. The damage metrology tools include: (1) platinum inclusion damage test systems for laser amplifier slabs, (2) laser conditioning stations for mirrors and polarizers, and (3) mapping and damage testing stations for UV transmissive optics. Each system includes a commercial Nd:YAG laser, a translation stage for the optics, and diagnostics to evaluate damage. The scanning parameters, optical layout, and diagnostics vary with the test fluences required and the damage morphologies expected. This paper describes the technical objectives and milestones involved in fulfilling these metrology requirements

  20. Vitamin C for DNA damage prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sram, Radim J.; Binkova, Blanka; Rossner, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    The ability of vitamin C to affect genetic damage was reviewed in human studies that used molecular epidemiology methods, including analysis of DNA adducts, DNA strand breakage (using the Comet assay), oxidative damage measured as levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei, and the induction of DNA repair proteins. The protective effect of vitamin C was observed at plasma levels > 50 μmol/l. Vitamin C supplementation decreased the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in groups with insufficient dietary intake who were occupationally exposed to mutagens, and also decreased the sensitivity to mutagens as assessed using the bleomycin assay. High vitamin C levels in plasma decreased the frequency of genomic translocations in groups exposed to ionizing radiation or c-PAHs in polluted air. The frequency of micronuclei was decreased by vitamin C supplementation in smokers challenged with γ-irradiation, and higher vitamin C levels in plasma counteracted the damage induced by air pollution. The prevalence of DNA adducts inversely correlated with vitamin C levels in groups environmentally exposed to high concentrations of c-PAHs. Increased vitamin C levels decreased DNA strand breakage induced by air pollution. Oxidative damage (8-oxodG levels) was decreased by vitamin C supplementation in groups with plasma levels > 50 μmol/l exposed to PM2.5 and c-PAHs. Modulation of DNA repair by vitamin C supplementation was observed both in poorly nourished subjects and in groups with vitamin C plasma levels > 50 μmol/l exposed to higher concentrations of c-PAHs. It is possible that the impact of vitamin C on DNA damage depends both on background values of vitamin C in the individual as well as on the level of exposure to xenobiotics or oxidative stress.

  1. Vitamin C for DNA damage prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sram, Radim J., E-mail: sram@biomed.cas.cz [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 14220 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Binkova, Blanka; Rossner, Pavel [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 14220 Prague 4 (Czech Republic)

    2012-05-01

    The ability of vitamin C to affect genetic damage was reviewed in human studies that used molecular epidemiology methods, including analysis of DNA adducts, DNA strand breakage (using the Comet assay), oxidative damage measured as levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroxy-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei, and the induction of DNA repair proteins. The protective effect of vitamin C was observed at plasma levels > 50 {mu}mol/l. Vitamin C supplementation decreased the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in groups with insufficient dietary intake who were occupationally exposed to mutagens, and also decreased the sensitivity to mutagens as assessed using the bleomycin assay. High vitamin C levels in plasma decreased the frequency of genomic translocations in groups exposed to ionizing radiation or c-PAHs in polluted air. The frequency of micronuclei was decreased by vitamin C supplementation in smokers challenged with {gamma}-irradiation, and higher vitamin C levels in plasma counteracted the damage induced by air pollution. The prevalence of DNA adducts inversely correlated with vitamin C levels in groups environmentally exposed to high concentrations of c-PAHs. Increased vitamin C levels decreased DNA strand breakage induced by air pollution. Oxidative damage (8-oxodG levels) was decreased by vitamin C supplementation in groups with plasma levels > 50 {mu}mol/l exposed to PM2.5 and c-PAHs. Modulation of DNA repair by vitamin C supplementation was observed both in poorly nourished subjects and in groups with vitamin C plasma levels > 50 {mu}mol/l exposed to higher concentrations of c-PAHs. It is possible that the impact of vitamin C on DNA damage depends both on background values of vitamin C in the individual as well as on the level of exposure to xenobiotics or oxidative stress.

  2. Prevention of Noise Damage to Cochlear Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Assessment of synapse regeneration : Twelve week old CBA/CaJ mice are exposed to a moderate noise that destroys synapses on inner hair cells (IHCs) but spares...result of excitotoxic trauma to cochlear synapses due to glutamate released from the hair cells . Excitotoxic trauma damages the postsynaptic cell by...components ............................................. 12 d) Quantitative analysis of effects of neurotrophic factors on synapse regeneration in vitro

  3. Preventing Ultraviolet Light-Induced Damage: The Benefits of Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Cheng-Wai

    2007-01-01

    Extracts of fruit peels contain antioxidants that protect the bacterium "Escherichia coli" against damage induced by ultraviolet light. Antioxidants neutralise free radicals, thus preventing oxidative damage to cells and deoxyribonucleic acid. A high survival rate of UV-exposed cells was observed when grapefruit or grape peel extract was…

  4. Damages of industrial equipments in the 1995 Hyougoken-Nanbu Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsubo, Takuzo

    1997-01-01

    Hanshin-Awaji area has a population of approximately 3 million and many industries, including heavy industry, harbor facilities and international trading companies. The 1995 Hyougoken-Nanbu Earthquake occurred just in this area which is 25kmx2km oblong containing Kobe city. About 5,500 people were killed and 250,000 people lost their houses. Japan society of mechanical engineers organized the investigative committee of earthquake disaster of industrial equipments after the earthquake in order to investigate the disaster damages of industrial equipments and to give data for a design manual for mechanical equipments against earthquake excitation. This is an investigation report of the disaster damages of industrial machine equipments. Damages to machine equipment of industries in the high intensity region of the earthquake are illustrated. The mechanisms of the damages and measures against earthquake and safety of nuclear power plant design are discussed. Then it is known that the design of nuclear power plant is different from the general industrial facilities and the damage which was suffered in the general industrial facilities does not occur in the nuclear power plant. (J.P.N.)

  5. Damages of industrial equipments in the 1995 Hyougoken-Nanbu Earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwatsubo, Takuzo [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    Hanshin-Awaji area has a population of approximately 3 million and many industries, including heavy industry, harbor facilities and international trading companies. The 1995 Hyougoken-Nanbu Earthquake occurred just in this area which is 25kmx2km oblong containing Kobe city. About 5,500 people were killed and 250,000 people lost their houses. Japan society of mechanical engineers organized the investigative committee of earthquake disaster of industrial equipments after the earthquake in order to investigate the disaster damages of industrial equipments and to give data for a design manual for mechanical equipments against earthquake excitation. This is an investigation report of the disaster damages of industrial machine equipments. Damages to machine equipment of industries in the high intensity region of the earthquake are illustrated. The mechanisms of the damages and measures against earthquake and safety of nuclear power plant design are discussed. Then it is known that the design of nuclear power plant is different from the general industrial facilities and the damage which was suffered in the general industrial facilities does not occur in the nuclear power plant. (J.P.N.)

  6. 30 CFR 250.806 - Safety and pollution prevention equipment quality assurance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and pollution prevention equipment... Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.806 Safety and pollution prevention equipment quality assurance... install only certified safety and pollution prevention equipment (SPPE) in wells located on the OCS. SPPE...

  7. Ultraviolet radiation, sun damage and preventing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, B.; Christensen, T.; Nilsen, L.T.; Hannevik, M.

    2013-01-01

    The report focuses on the large impact of health damages due to excessive UV exposure from natural sun. The first part of the report gives background information on factors significantly affecting the intensity of UV radiation. The second part gives an overview of health effects related to UV exposure, with recommendations on how to avoid excessive UV exposure and still enjoy the positive sides of outdoor activity. The report is intended to contribute to informational activities about sun exposure as recommended by the World Health Organisation and the World Meteorology Organisation. (Author)

  8. Damage preventing measures for wind turbines. Phase 1- Reliability data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Eriksson, Emil; Dahlberg, Magnus

    2010-08-15

    The state of existing reliability and failure data in the public sources has been investigated. The prime goal has been to evaluate the data's usefulness for developing damage preventing measures. Some publicly available databases exist, and the data has been presented in several papers in the literature. The results from the investigation can seem quite negative. Detailed data are lacking and the level of detailed reporting has even been decreasing in recent years. Information on the impact of load condition on failures, which is an important question, are lacking throughout in the statistics. Some components dominate the failure statistics. These are for example the gearboxes, where failures lead to long down times. Failures of the electrical system lead to considerably shorter down times but the failure rate is much higher. Severe rotor failures seem to be rare, but they occur and the consequences can be dramatic. Operators and insurance companies are demanding improved insight in damage collection, maintenance and overall damage preventing measures. Closer cooperation with these parties could be a fruitful way of gathering more useful data. Improvements for future databases are suggested. A structure for damage collection is proposed. Comparing experience of damage preventing measures from other industries, knowledge about the nature of the damage mechanism and current practice in the wind industry will be an important tool in the evaluation of different damage preventing measures. This will be done in the following phases of this project

  9. Oral damages in radiotherapy: dentistry prevention and treating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caielli, Cibelle; Martha, Patricia M.; Dib, Luciano L.

    1995-01-01

    The authors show the importance of the multidisciplinary participation in treatment of oncologic patients about the prevention and treatment of oral damage induced by head and neck irradiation. The main secondary effects are: xerostomy, mucositis, irradiation caries and osteoradionecrosis. The dentistry has to perform preventively to avoid the appearance of this sequel or reduce its effects. (author)

  10. Metallographic examination of fire damages in electronic equipment; Metallographische Untersuchung von Brandschaeden in der Elektronik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Katja; Puls, Sebastian [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Siliziumtechnologie, Itzehoe (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Defects in electronic components and defects caused by electronic components are a frequent cause of fire damage. 35 % of examined cases of fire damage are found to be caused by electrical equipment or by the handling of electricity. Fire damage caused by electronic elements and in electronic assemblies may have a multitude of causes. Minor damages occurring during the manufacture of electronic components and assemblies can lead to operational disruptions in electronic devices and to life-threatening situations. In order to reconstruct a fire damage, a complex failure analysis and comprehensive knowledge of the principle of operation of the devices is required. Metallographic target preparation serves to detect and describe faults. Some damage patterns taken from practice are presented and analyzed here.

  11. Data analysis on reducing damage on equipment's available in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasif Mohamad; Saipo Bahari Abdul Ratan; Ahmad Firdaus Che Hassan; Mazlipah Mohamed Ramlan; Mohd Hazri Mohd Salleh; Ghazali Bachok

    2010-01-01

    Technical Support Division (BST) in the underlying unit of Instrumentation and Automation Center (PIA), has been entrusted to carry out repair work on the equipment's available at Nuclear Malaysia as well as help rehabilitate and provide advisory services to foreign companies in need of our services. These data taken to determine the cause of damage to seek a solution to reduce damage in future. Tools do get involved are autoclave, Water Distiller, Barometer, Vaccum Pump and Chiller and Freezer. (author)

  12. Preventing thefts and damage to property

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The best means of preventing crime is to make it difficult to commit. As the summer holidays begin, in everybody's interest we advise the following precautions.   1. Money, valuables and keys Never leave money or objects of value unattended in offices or changing rooms, even if they are locked. Keys and spares must always be taken away or kept in a safe place. Supposedly "safe" hiding places such as drawers, even locked ones, metal boxes and flower pots, are well known to burglars and should be avoided. Change lock codes regularly. 2. Doors and windows Offices, workshops and meeting rooms, etc. should be locked when vacated. Care should also be taken that windows are properly shut, especially if they are easily accessible from the outside. 3. Vandalism If you witness an act of vandalism of public or private property, please report all the facts and your observations immediately to the CERN Fire Brigade (74444). 4. Reporting incidents Every misdemeanour solved increase...

  13. Vibration analysis and vibration damage assessment in nuclear and process equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, M.J.; Taylor, C.E.; Fisher, N.J.; Yetisir, M.; Smith, B.A.W.

    1997-01-01

    Component failures due to excessive flow-induced vibration are still affecting the performance and reliability of process and nuclear components. The purpose of this paper is to discuss flow-induced vibration analysis and vibration damage prediction. Vibration excitation mechanisms are described with particular emphasis on fluid elastic instability. The dynamic characteristics of process and power equipment are explained. The statistical nature of some parameters, in particular support conditions, is discussed. The prediction of fretting-wear damage is approached from several points-of-view. An energy approach to formulate fretting-wear damage is proposed. (author)

  14. Preventing thefts and damage to property

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Discouraging thieves is the best way of protecting your property. On the eve of CERN's annual end-of-year closure, in your own interest, that of your colleagues and that of the Organization, we would strongly advise you to take the following precautions: MONEY, VALUABLES & KEYS: Do not leave money or valuables in your office or your lockers. Keys and spare keys must be taken away or kept in a safe place (please avoid supposedly 'safe hiding places' such as drawers, even if they are locked, metal boxes and flowers pots, all of which are well-known to burglars). Change lock codes regularly. Be careful if you have to leave your keys with a third party and make sure that they do not pass them on to anyone else. DOORS & WINDOWS: Lock office, workshop and meeting-room doors, etc. when you leave. Also make sure windows are properly shut, especially if they are easily accessible from outside. REPORTING INCIDENTS: Each theft solved could prevent another from be...

  15. PREVENTING THEFTS AND DAMAGE TO PROPERTY

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Discouraging thieves is the best way of protecting your property. On the eve of CERN's annual end-of-year closure, in your own interest, that of your colleagues and that of the Organization, we would strongly advise you to take the following precautions: MONEY, VALUABLES & KEYS: Do not leave money or valuables in your office or your lockers. Keys and spare keys must be taken away or kept in a safe place (please avoid supposedly 'safe hiding places' such as drawers, even if they are locked, metal boxes and flowers pots, all of which are well-known to burglars). Change lock codes regularly. Be careful if you have to leave your keys with a third party and make sure that they do not pass them on to anyone else. DOORS & WINDOWS: Lock office, workshop and meeting-room doors, etc. when you leave. Also make sure windows are properly shut, especially if they are easily accessible from outside. REPORTING INCIDENTS: Each theft solved could prevent another from being perpetrated. Please report thef...

  16. Methodology for the assessment of possible damages in low voltage equipment due to lightning surges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Nelson M.; Kagan, Nelson [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: matsuonm@usp.br, nelsonk@pea.usp.br; Domingues, Ivo T. [AES Eletropaulo, SP (Brazil); Jesus, Nelson C. de [AES Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marcelo H.I. da [Grupo Rede, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Takauti, Edson H. [Bandeirante, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This paper deals with the development of a methodology to assess the possibility of equipment damages in low voltage customers due to lightning surges. The main objective is to incorporate this methodology in a computation system that supports distribution companies to determine the possible causes of equipment damages claimed by customers and to decide whether the claims are to be reimbursed or not. The proposed methodology determines whether a specific customer could be affected by a lightning strike according to his/her location and to the lightning main parameters, by using data from a lightning detection system and from the specific equipment surge withstand capability. A specific study using ATP (Alternative Transients Program) was carried out to assess the propagation of lightning surges in electric power distribution systems and their impact over low voltage customers. On the other hand, the withstand capability of the main household appliances was determined by a series of tests carried out in the University's power quality laboratory. The paper details the modeling used for simulation, such as network configuration, grounding points, and modelling of insulator flashover, distribution transformer, low voltage loads. It also presents some results regarding the evaluation of over voltages in low voltage customers installations. A practical method is proposed for assessing the possibility of equipment damage and describes how the existing uncertainties were handled. Also, some issues regarding the withstand capability of electric household appliances to lightning surges are discussed and some results of the laboratory tests are presented. (author)

  17. 77 FR 19799 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... noted ``when the oil pipeline industry developed the survey for its voluntary spill reporting system...) [cir] The American Public Gas Association (APGA) [cir] The Association of Oil Pipelines (AOPL) [cir... the contrary, all 50 states in the United States have a law designed to prevent excavation damage to...

  18. Techniques for preventing damage to high power laser components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowers, I.F.; Patton, H.G.; Jones, W.A.; Wentworth, D.E.

    1977-09-01

    Techniques for preventing damage to components of the LASL Shiva high power laser system were briefly presented. Optical element damage in the disk amplifier from the combined fluence of the primary laser beam and the Xenon flash lamps that pump the cavity was discussed. Assembly and cleaning techniques were described which have improved optical element life by minimizing particulate and optically absorbing film contamination on assembled amplifier structures. A Class-100 vertical flaw clean room used for assembly and inspection of laser components was also described. The life of a disk amplifier was extended from less than 50 shots to 500 shots through application of these assembly and cleaning techniques

  19. Diagnostics of heavy mining equipment during the scheduled preventive maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drygin, M. Yu; Kuryshkin, N. P.

    2018-01-01

    Intensification of production, economic globalization and dramatic downgrade of the workers’ professional skills lead to unacceptable technical state of heavy mining equipment. Equipment maintenance outage reaches 84 % of the total downtime, of which emergency maintenance takes up to 36 % of time, that excesses 429 hours per year fr one excavator. It is shown that yearly diagnostics using methods of non-destructive check allows to reduce emergency downtime by 47 %, and 55 % of revealed defects can be eliminated without breaking the technological cycle of the equipment.

  20. Prevention of damage and 'residual risk' in nuclear power laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greipl, C.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of prevention of damage within the framework of nuclear power laws includes averting danger for the protection of third parties and preventing risks for the partial protection of third parties with the proviso that still a desire to use the concept 'residual risk' in addition, it should be limited, on the grounds of what can be reasonably expected, to those risks which cannot be reduced any further by the government, i.e. to risks which the public in general and third parties ('actually') must accept. In the future, questions regarding safety systems should be taken into account exclusively withing the context of 'what is necessary for protection against damage in keeping with the latest developments in science and technology' and not at the discretion of the law in denying permission according to Article 7 Paragraph 2 Atomic Energy Law. (orig.) [de

  1. Equipment for testing a group of nuclear reactor fuel elements for damage to the cans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohm, F.

    1977-01-01

    Equipment is described for use in sodium cooled nuclear reactors, with which the fuel elements consisting of bundles of fuel and fertile rods can be examined for damage to the cans. Fission poducts occurring in the liquid coolant act as indicators. The coolant is sucked via pipelines which penetrate into the elements into a collecting container, and a special pipeline is available for every element of a group, where the highest points of individual pipelines at different hydrostatic heads are taken to the collecting container. This permits the checking of one line at a time due to pressure changes. (UWI) [de

  2. Research on Modularized Design and Allocation of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control Equipment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Yun-Dou; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Gao, Shu-Tian; Guo, Li-Jun; Sun, Li-Na

    2017-06-01

    For the prevention and control of newly emergent or sudden infectious diseases, we built an on-site, modularized prevention and control system and tested the equipment by using the clustering analysis method. On the basis of this system, we propose a modular equipment allocation method and 4 applications of this method for different types of infectious disease prevention and control. This will help to improve the efficiency and productivity of anti-epidemic emergency forces and will provide strong technical support for implementing more universal and serialized equipment in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:375-382).

  3. Job Aids for Using Preventive Radiological/Nuclear Detection Equipment for Consequence Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, Brooke R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haynes, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wood-Zika, Annmarie R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Klemic, Gladys [US Department of Homeland Security National Urban

    2017-10-02

    The overall objective of this project is to research, evaluate, and test first responder preventive radiological/nuclear detection equipment (PRND) to provide state and local agencies with guidance on how to best use this equipment for response after a radiological/nuclear release or detonation.

  4. Bee products prevent agrichemical-induced oxidative damage in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Ferreira

    Full Text Available In southern South America and other parts of the world, aquaculture is an activity that complements agriculture. Small amounts of agrichemicals can reach aquaculture ponds, which results in numerous problems caused by oxidative stress in non-target organisms. Substances that can prevent or reverse agrichemical-induced oxidative damage may be used to combat these effects. This study includes four experiments. In each experiment, 96 mixed-sex, 6-month-old Rhamdia quelen (118±15 g were distributed into eight experimental groups: a control group that was not exposed to contaminated water, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products plus tebuconazole (TEB; Folicur 200 CE™ and a group that was exposed to 0.88 mg L(-1 of TEB alone (corresponding to 16.6% of the 96-h LC50. We show that waterborne bee products, including royal jelly (RJ, honey (H, bee pollen (BP and propolis (P, reversed the oxidative damage caused by exposure to TEB. These effects were likely caused by the high polyphenol contents of these bee-derived compounds. The most likely mechanism of action for the protective effects of bee products against tissue oxidation and the resultant damage is that the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione-S-transferase (GST are increased.

  5. Bee products prevent agrichemical-induced oxidative damage in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Daiane; Rocha, Helio Carlos; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Loro, Vania Lucia; Marqueze, Alessandra; Koakoski, Gessi; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Gusso, Darlan; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2013-01-01

    In southern South America and other parts of the world, aquaculture is an activity that complements agriculture. Small amounts of agrichemicals can reach aquaculture ponds, which results in numerous problems caused by oxidative stress in non-target organisms. Substances that can prevent or reverse agrichemical-induced oxidative damage may be used to combat these effects. This study includes four experiments. In each experiment, 96 mixed-sex, 6-month-old Rhamdia quelen (118±15 g) were distributed into eight experimental groups: a control group that was not exposed to contaminated water, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products plus tebuconazole (TEB; Folicur 200 CE™) and a group that was exposed to 0.88 mg L(-1) of TEB alone (corresponding to 16.6% of the 96-h LC50). We show that waterborne bee products, including royal jelly (RJ), honey (H), bee pollen (BP) and propolis (P), reversed the oxidative damage caused by exposure to TEB. These effects were likely caused by the high polyphenol contents of these bee-derived compounds. The most likely mechanism of action for the protective effects of bee products against tissue oxidation and the resultant damage is that the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) are increased.

  6. Preventing infection from reusable medical equipment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Tony

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO had eight sets of conflicting recommendations for decontaminating medical equipment. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies to assist WHO in reconciling the various guidelines. This paper summarises the methods developed and illustrates the results for three procedures – alcohol, bleach and povidone iodine. Methods We developed a Medline search strategy and applied inclusion criteria specifying the decontamination procedures of interest and an outcome of microbial destruction for a set of marker organisms. We developed protocols to assess the quality of studies and categorised them according to the reliability of the methods used. Through an iterative process we identified best practice for the decontamination methods and key additional factors required to ensure their effectiveness. We identified 88 published papers for inclusion, describing 135 separate studies of decontamination. Results For disinfection with alcohol, best practice was identified from 23 studies as an exposure to 70–80% ethanol or isopropanol for at least 5 minutes. Bleach was effective for sterilization at a concentration of 5000 ppm for 5 minutes and for disinfection at 1000 ppm for 10 minutes (33 studies. Povidone iodine was only partially effective for disinfection at a concentration of 1% for 15 minutes (15 studies. Conclusions Our findings provide an evidence base for WHO guidelines on decontaminating medical equipment. The results support the recommended use of bleach and show that alcohol could be used more widely than current guidelines suggest, provided best practice is followed. The effectiveness of povidone iodine is uncertain.

  7. Can ebselen prevent cisplatin-induced ovarian damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyman, Zeynep; Uzun, Hafize; Bayindir, Nihan; Esrefoglu, Mukaddes; Boran, Birtan

    2018-06-01

    The occurrence of ovarian damage is a major shortcoming in treating tumors with cisplatin (CP). The present study investigates the beneficial effects of ebselen-a seleno-organic compound with antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties-vis-à-vis CP-induced ovarian damage. Twenty-eight adult female rats were divided into four study groups. Group 1 received no treatment. The rats in Groups 2, 3, and 4 were intraperitoneally administered CP (2 mg/kg/day) twice per week, for 5 weeks. Those in Group 2 received 0.3 ml saline (0.9% NaCl) intraperitoneally 60 min before each CP treatment, while those in Group 3 received 0.2 ml dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 0.3 ml saline intraperitoneally 60 min before each CP treatment. The rats in Group 4 were pretreated with an intraperitoneal injection of 15 mg/kg/day ebselen 60 min before each CP treatment. Ovarian tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), total nitric oxide (NOx), glutathione (GSH), Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), and catalase levels, as well as histopathological damage scores (HDSs) and serum antimullerian hormone (AMH) levels, were assessed. Cu/Zn-SOD and GSH levels were significantly higher, and MDA and NOx levels significantly lower, in Group 4 than in Groups 2 and 3. Pretreatment with ebselen significantly improved serum AMH levels, relative to Groups 2 and 3. Additionally, HDS values were significantly lower in Group 4 than in Groups 2 and 3. Our results from using an experimental rat model of CP chemotherapy suggest that ebselen use may ameliorate ovarian damage by preventing oxidative injury.

  8. Preventive maintenance prioritization index of medical equipment using quality function deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Neven; Sharawi, Amr A; Elwahed, Manal Abd; Petti, Alberto; Puppato, Daniele; Balestra, Gabriella

    2015-05-01

    Preventive maintenance is a core function of clinical engineering, and it is essential to guarantee the correct functioning of the equipment. The management and control of maintenance activities are equally important to perform maintenance. As the variety of medical equipment increases, accordingly the size of maintenance activities increases, the need for better management and control become essential. This paper aims to develop a new model for preventive maintenance priority of medical equipment using quality function deployment as a new concept in maintenance of medical equipment. We developed a three-domain framework model consisting of requirement, function, and concept. The requirement domain is the house of quality matrix. The second domain is the design matrix. Finally, the concept domain generates a prioritization index for preventive maintenance considering the weights of critical criteria. According to the final scores of those criteria, the prioritization action of medical equipment is carried out. Our model proposes five levels of priority for preventive maintenance. The model was tested on 200 pieces of medical equipment belonging to 17 different departments of two hospitals in Piedmont province, Italy. The dataset includes 70 different types of equipment. The results show a high correlation between risk-based criteria and the prioritization list.

  9. Damage caused to houses and equipment by underground nuclear explosions; Degats dus aux explosions nucleaires souterraines sur les habitations et les equipements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delort, F; Guerrini, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of the damaged caused to various structures, buildings, houses, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment by underground nuclear explosions in granite. For each type of equipment or building are given the limiting distances for a given degree of damage. These distances have been related to a parameter characterizing the movement of the medium; it is thus possible to generalize the results obtained in granite, for different media. The problem of estimating the damage caused at a greater distance from the explosion is considered. (authors) [French] Les degats sur diverses structures, constructions, habitations, equipements mecaniques et materiels electriques provoques par des explosions nucleaires souterraines dans le granite sont decrits. On a indique pour chaque type de materiel ou de construction, les distances limites correspondant a un degre de gravite de dommage observe. Ces distances ont ete reliees a un parametre caracterisant le mouvement du milieu, permettant ainsi de generaliser les resultats obtenus dans le granite, a differents milieux. Le probleme de la prevision des degats en zone lointaine a ete aborde. (auteurs)

  10. Protective equipment and the prevention of concussion - what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rodolfo R

    2011-01-01

    The complex nature of the evaluation and management of concussion lends to controversy, and the immediate and long-term implications still are being investigated. Various types of protective equipment have been used as a means to prevent concussions, and protective equipment is being used more frequently in different sports. Recent investigations have suggested that a protective, but not preventive, effect may be afforded by mouthguard use in rugby players, headgear use in soccer players, and customized mandibular orthotic use in football players. The use of faceshields has not shown a proven benefit in preventing the incidence of sport-related concussion in ice hockey or field hockey participants. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of protective equipment in the prevention of sport-related concussion.

  11. Venous damage prevention by defibrotide in vinorelbine-treated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mare, M; Maisano, R; Caristi, N; Adamo, V; Altavilla, G; Carboni, R; Munaò, S; La Torre, F

    2003-09-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence of venous toxicity induced by vinorelbine administration in patients who received a preventive therapy with defibrotide. From July 1996 to July 2002 we treated 203 patients with vinorelbine, 51 with vinorelbine alone and 152 with vinorelbine in combination with other drugs via peripheral vein infusion. Of the 203 patients, 123 were male and 80 female with a median age of 67 years (range 18 to 82 years), and 118 were chemotherapy-naive. Defibrotide was delivered i.v. at a dose of 400 mg in 250 ml normal saline. After infusion of 125 ml over about 15 min, vinorelbine mixed with 10 ml normal saline was delivered as quick brief repeated pulses over 5 min through the plastic tube, followed by infusion of the remaining defibrotide. The specific Rittenberg scale was used to assess venous irritation episodes. Among a total of 1336 vinorelbine infusions, with a median of five infusions per patient, the incidence of venous irritation episodes graded according to Rittenberg scale was 1.1% (15), of which 0.6% (8) were grade 2 and 0.5% (7) grade 1. Globally, 15 patients (7.3%) developed venous toxicity after a median of 3 infusions (range 1-14), but no patient had more than one event. Our findings support the use of defibrotide as an effective, safe and low-cost means for preventing vinorelbine-related venous damage.

  12. Benefits of invasion prevention: Effect of time lags, spread rates, and damage persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca S. Epanchin-Niell; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying economic damages caused by invasive species is crucial for cost-benefit analyses of biosecurity measures. Most studies focus on short-term damage estimates, but evaluating exclusion or prevention measures requires estimates of total anticipated damages from the time of establishment onward. The magnitude of such damages critically depends on the timing of...

  13. Mission Analysis for Using Preventive Radiological/Nuclear Detection Equipment for Consequence Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, Brooke R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wood-Zika, Annmarie R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haynes, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Klemic, Gladys A. [US Dept. of Homeland Security National Urban Security Technology Lab., Manhattan, NY (United States); Musolino, Stephen V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The overall objective of this project is to research, evaluate, and test first responder preventive radiological/nuclear detection (PRND) equipment to provide state and local agencies with scientific guidance on how to effectively use this equipment for response after a radiological/nuclear release or detonation. While the equipment being tested in this effort has been specifically designed by technology manufacturers and purchased by responders for preventive detection and source interdiction operations, the fleet of PRND equipment can help fill critical needs for radiological instrumentation should a consequence management (CM) response take place, as it is currently the most widely available and fielded radiological instrumentation by state and local agencies. This effort will provide scientific guidance on the most effective way to utilize this class of equipment for consequence management missions. Gaining a better understanding of how PRND equipment can operate and perform for these missions will allow for recommendations on the tactical approach responders can use for consequence management operations. PRND equipment has been placed into service by federal, state, and local agencies throughout the nation. If the equipment capability and limitations are taken into account, this large inventory can be leveraged to support the emergency response in the aftermath of a radiological or nuclear event. With several hundred makes and models of PRND equipment, often with significantly different detection capabilities that do not align with their nominal PRND equipment type, development of a streamlined categorization scheme with respect to consequence management missions was the first step to identifying safe and effective uses of PRND equipment for radiological/nuclear incident response.

  14. Seismic resistance of equipment and building service systems: review of earthquake damage design requirements, and research applications in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjei, R.E.; Chakravartula, B.C.; Yanev, P.I.

    1979-01-01

    The history of earthquake damage and the resulting code design requirements for earthquake hazard mitigation for equipment in the USA is reviewed. Earthquake damage to essential service systems is summarized; observations for the 1964 Alaska and the 1971 San Fernando, California, earthquakes are stressed, and information from other events is included. USA building codes that reflect lessons learned from these earthquakes are discussed; brief summaries of widely used codes are presented. In conclusion there is a discussion of the desirability of adapting advanced technological concepts from the nuclear industry to equipment in conventional structures. (author)

  15. NFC based Equipment Qualification Management (NEQM) system preventing counterfeit and fraudulent item

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.K., E-mail: ckchang@kings.ac.kr [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K.J., E-mail: klee@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Qualification of equipment essential to safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) ensures its capability to perform designated safety functions on demand under postulated service conditions. However, a number of incidents identified by the NRC since 1980s catalysed the US nuclear industry to adopt standard precautions to guard against counterfeit items. The purpose of this paper is to suggest the NFC (Near Field Communication) based equipment qualification management system preventing counterfeit and fraudulent items. The NEQM (NFC based Equipment Qualification Management) system work with the support of legacy systems such as PMS (Procurement Management System) and FMS (Facility management System). (author)

  16. NFC based Equipment Qualification Management (NEQM) system preventing counterfeit and fraudulent item

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.K.; Lee, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Qualification of equipment essential to safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) ensures its capability to perform designated safety functions on demand under postulated service conditions. However, a number of incidents identified by the NRC since 1980s catalysed the US nuclear industry to adopt standard precautions to guard against counterfeit items. The purpose of this paper is to suggest the NFC (Near Field Communication) based equipment qualification management system preventing counterfeit and fraudulent items. The NEQM (NFC based Equipment Qualification Management) system work with the support of legacy systems such as PMS (Procurement Management System) and FMS (Facility management System). (author)

  17. 75 FR 49870 - Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage to or Failure of Network Equipment or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Chapter I [PS Docket No. 10-92; DA 10-1357] Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage to or Failure of Network Equipment or Severe Overload AGENCY... with rubber bands or fasteners. Any envelopes must be disposed of before entering the building...

  18. Effect of training and lifting equipment for preventing back pain in lifting and handling: systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martimo, Kari-Pekka; Verbeek, Jos; Karppinen, Jaro; Furlan, Andrea D.; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Jauhiainen, Merja; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether advice and training on working techniques and lifting equipment prevent back pain in jobs that involve heavy lifting. Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, Cochrane Back Group's specialised register, CINAHL, Nioshtic, CISdoc, Science Citation Index, and PsychLIT were searched up to

  19. Potentially damaging failure modes of high- and medium-voltage electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoy, H.C.

    1983-07-01

    The electrical equipment failures of both nuclear and nonnuclear public utilities were reviewed. Those failures that could pose an additional problem to surrounding and connected equipment were defined. The literature was searched; utilities, repair shops, and large electrical equipment users were contacted for failure information. The data were reviewed in detail, and failure modes were determined. Sample cascade failures are discussed. The failure rate of electrical equipment in utilities is historically quite low. Nuclear plants record too few failures to be statistically valid, but failures that have been recorded show that good design usually restricts the failure to a single piece of equipment

  20. Potentially damaging failure modes of high- and medium-voltage electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoy, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    The high- and medium-voltage electrical equipment failures of both nuclear and nonnuclear electric utilities have been reviewed for possible disruptive failure modes that would be of special concern in a nuclear power plant. The resulting emphasis was on the electrical faults of transformers, switchgear (circuit breakers), lightning (surge) arrestors, high-voltage cabling and buswork, control boards, and other electrical equipment that, through failure, can be the initiating event that may expand the original fault to nearby or associated equipment. Many failures of such equipment were found and documented, although the failure rate of electrical equipment in utilities is historically quite low. Nuclear plants record too few failures to be statistically valid, but failures that have been recorded show that good design usually restricts the failure to a single piece of equipment. Conclusions and recommendations pertaining to the design, maintenance, and operation of the affected electrical equipment are presented

  1. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  2. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  3. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  4. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  5. IRRIGATION STATION EQUIPMENT FOR PREVENTING THE USE OF LOW WATER QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Nicolescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Romania the economically efficient irrigated area is estimated at 3.5 million hectares. On national scale there is nointegrated approach for monitoring the quantity and quality of the irrigation water, using adequate equipment at thepumping station. On international scale, in many countries the pumping stations are provided with equipment formonitoring, on real time, the quality or the pumped water and for warning about critical situations (emergencies.This paper describes a technical solution consisting of equipment which monitors the following parameters of waterpumped in irrigation systems: turbidity, pH, CE at 25 o C, Na+, Cl-. The lapse of time for monitoring is of 10 to 60 min.The main components are the following: the sampling pump (submersible the monitoring board, the repression pipe ofthe analyzed water. Warnings are made about values exceeding the programmed level for each monitored parameter,about the fact that the pump and agitator do not work or about any other source of damage.The technical solution and equipment were tested at a pumping station which uses water from Danube, in most casesmixed with water originating from drainage. Results showed a reduction of the total content of soluble salts from soiland of their negative impact upon the crops, a reduction of the degree of river alluvial deposits within the irrigationsystem and reduction of the energetic consumption required for pumping.

  6. Refinement of Foam Backfill Technology for Expedient Airfield Damage Repair; Phase 2: Development of Prototype Foam Dispensing Equipment and Improved Tactics, Techniques and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ER D C TR -1 7- 14 U.S. Air Force Rapid Airfield Damage Repair Modernization Program Refinement of Foam Backfill Technology for...Backfill Technology for Expedient Airfield Damage Repair Phase II: Development of Prototype Foam Dispensing Equipment and Improved Tactics...procedures (TTPs) for rapid airfield damage repair (RADR) using foam backfill technology . Three different prototype foam dispensing systems were

  7. Converting Hangar High Expansion Foam Systems to Prevent Cockpit Damage: Full-Scale Validation Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AFCEC-CO-TY-TR-2018-0001 CONVERTING HANGAR HIGH EXPANSION FOAM SYSTEMS TO PREVENT COCKPIT DAMAGE: FULL-SCALE VALIDATION TESTS Gerard G...manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation , or approval by the United States Air Force. The views and...09-2017 Final Test Report May 2017 Converting Hangar High Expansion Foam Systems to Prevent Cockpit Damage: Full-Scale Validation Tests N00173-15-D

  8. Design retrofit to prevent damage due to heat transport pump operation under conditions of significant void

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general review of certain key design areas which address the safety concerns of HT pump operation under conditions of significant void. To illustrate the challenges confronting designers and analysts, some of the highlights during the design of a protective system to prevent damage to HT piping and pump supports at Bruce NGS 'A' are outlined. The effects of this protective system on reactor safety are also discussed. HI pump operation under conditions of significant void offers a major challenge to designers and analysts to ensure that pump induced vibration and its effects on pump and piping are addressed. For an in-service station the search for a practical solution is often limited by existing. station equipment design and Layout. The diversity of design verification process requires a major commitment of engineering resources to ensure all. safety aspects meet the requirements of regulatory body. Work currently undertaken at Ontario Hydro Research Pump Test Complex on two-phase flow in pumps and piping may provide better prediction of vibration characteristics so that inherent conservativeness in fatigue Life prediction of HI system components can be reduced

  9. Design retrofit to prevent damage due to heat transport pump operation under conditions of significant void

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, K F [Bruce Engineering Department, In-Service Nuclear Projects, Ontario Hydro, North York, ON (Canada)

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general review of certain key design areas which address the safety concerns of HT pump operation under conditions of significant void. To illustrate the challenges confronting designers and analysts, some of the highlights during the design of a protective system to prevent damage to HT piping and pump supports at Bruce NGS 'A' are outlined. The effects of this protective system on reactor safety are also discussed. HI pump operation under conditions of significant void offers a major challenge to designers and analysts to ensure that pump induced vibration and its effects on pump and piping are addressed. For an in-service station the search for a practical solution is often limited by existing. station equipment design and Layout. The diversity of design verification process requires a major commitment of engineering resources to ensure all. safety aspects meet the requirements of regulatory body. Work currently undertaken at Ontario Hydro Research Pump Test Complex on two-phase flow in pumps and piping may provide better prediction of vibration characteristics so that inherent conservativeness in fatigue Life prediction of HI system components can be reduced.

  10. Constructive and manufactured proceedings for prevention of corrosion damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    A summary is given from the 12th design Symposium of the Dechema held at Frankfurt/M November 19/20 1981. The following topics are discussed: - Proceedings from the view of the types of corrosion; - Proceedings from the view of the state of fabrication and operation; - Corrosion preventive proceedings from the view of the applications. (RDE)

  11. The aging of equipment in service: Preventive measures taken in the design of the EPR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefrancois, A.

    2009-01-01

    The design of a new Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) has to take into account past experience, and in particular the lessons drawn from aging of components already in operation. The benefit of this process for tong term operation can be exceptionally high in the case of an evolutionary design such as that of the EPR TM reactor, for which the materials and the manufacturing conditions are the result of a very Long term optimization. Aging of materials in operation encompasses several damages, from the embrittlement caused by irradiation or thermal aging to the generation of cracks by fatigue or corrosion. These damages are known and characterized through international field experience and through a Cot of Laboratory studies performed worldwide, in France mainly by EDF, Cea and AREVA NP. Even if some damage mechanisms are not fully understood, good practice rules or empirical models were developed in order to give accurate predictions of damage kinetics and consequences. All this experience was taken into account during the design phase of the EPR TM project to define mate-rials and/or service conditions allowing to prevent or to minimize aging. (author)

  12. Preventing Health Damaging Behaviors in Male and Female Army Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    contraceptive methods among male and female adolescent and young adult soldiers in training.” This abstract focused on factors associated with... contraceptive methods among male and female adolescent and young adult soldiers in training Stephanie Adrianse, MD1, Lance M. Pollack, Ph.D2, Cherrie B...keywords: unintended pregnancy, prevention, contraceptive use, adolescents /young adults, psychosocial factors Purpose: Over 50% of pregnancies among

  13. Features of risks, damage claims processing and damage prevention overseas. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splittgerber, E

    1981-01-01

    In opening up new raw material resources in remote locations and in the erection of industrial installations in overseas countries, manufacturers are often confronted with additional, unusual and hitherto unknown risks which can have considerable influence upon the orderly and timely execution of their projects. In Part I, various risk factors are considered from the experiences of Allianz as technical insurer in foreign damages connected with plant, civil and installation work insurance. The influence of climatic conditions upon damage events is illustrated with examples and the effects of storm, sand storm, flooding and earthquake discussed using a world map of natural dangers. The customs of people from culturally different nations and races, dictated as they often are by religion, must be taken into account by site managers and other staff on the building sites. The necessity for improvisations on building sites far from home and the limits of such improvisations are also discussed.

  14. Analysis of NPP pipes and equipment damage in life time prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, V.V.; Zheltukhin, K.K.

    2008-01-01

    Paper describes a procedure to calculate the probability of pipes and equipment failure taking account of both the service records of the structures under various conditions and their aging. The parameters characterizing applied loads, failures, as well as metal strength, mechanical and thermal properties serve as the arbitrary values used in the described procedure. Paper presents an example of the probability calculation of failure of the RBMK emergency feed pump recirculation pipes when their service life is prolonged [ru

  15. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 21 -- HVAC, air handling equipment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-12-01

    US nuclear plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This report provides an overview of the PM Basis project and describes use of the PM Basis database. Volume 21 of the report provides a program of PM tasks suitable for application to HVAC-Air Handling Equipment. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  16. MIC damage in a water coolant header for remote process equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    Stainless steel water piping used to supply coolant for remote chemical separations equipment developed leaks during low flow conditions resulting from an extended interruption of operations. All the leaks occurred at welds in the bottom zone of the pipe, which was blanketed with silt deposits from the unfiltered well water used for cooling. Ultrasonic, radiographic, and metallographic examinations of leak sites revealed worm hole pitting adjacent to the welds. Seepage at the penetrations was strongly acidic and resulted in corrosion on the external pipe surfaces beneath brown crusty deposits which had developed. Analyses of the water and deposits suggest a strong propensity toward microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) and fouling

  17. MIC damage in a water coolant header for remote process equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    Stainless steel water piping, used to supply coolant for remote chemical separations equipment, developed several leaks during low flow conditions, the result of an extended interruption of operations. All the leaks occurred at welds in the bottom of the pipe, which was blanketed with silt deposits from unfiltered well water used for cooling. Ultrasonic, radiographic, and metallographic examinations of the leak sites revealed worm-hole pitting adjacent to the welds. Seepage at the penetrations was strongly acidic and corroded the external pipe surfaces. Analyses of the water and deposits suggested microbiologically influenced corrosion and fouling

  18. Loosening and damage mechanism of thread-joined structures in nuclear power equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hui

    1999-01-01

    The author proposes a loosening mechanism of thread-joined structures under vibrate environments in the nuclear power equipment and structures, which is on the base of the macro and imperceptible-mechanics analysis. It has answered the problems on the seizing, the adhesive wearing, the generation of cracks, the thread-tooth fracture. So it has a conclusion that the loosening of thread-joined structures is essential trend, in other words, the locking property of thread-pair is failure under vibrate environments

  19. Manual on the Fatigue of Structures. II. Causes and Prevention of Damage. 7. Mechanical Surface Damage,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    AO-A103 «29 ADVISORY 6R0UP FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT—ETC F/O 20/11 MANUAL ON THE FATIfUE OF STRUCTURES. IX. CAUSES AND PREVENTION —ETC... stresses . In the case of 99.999% pure aluminium Vyas and Preece240 investigated the changes in the surface finish of the metal under the electron...during the erosion process. In the case of annealed nickel and of electrolytically polished test specimens cavitation- stressed in distilled water at 25°C

  20. The Effects of Mitigation Measures on Flood Damage Prevention in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol-Hee Son

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the characteristics of flood damages and the effects of structural and non-structural flood damage mitigation measures in Korea. First, a theoretical discussion of the structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages was used to select the variables and devise the hypotheses. An analysis was conducted using the Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving-Average (ARIMA time series methodology, Korean socioeconomic data, and damage characteristics of major flood events. The effects of flood damage mitigation measures on the extent of flood damages were assessed using an intervention time series model. The major findings were that the intervention effects of structural and non-structural measures were statistically significant from 1958 to 2013 (a period of 55 years and that while the former were ineffective at mitigating flood damages, the latter were successful in doing so. Based on the above findings, policy suggestions for future flood damage mitigation measures in Korea were offered. For structural measures, the government should manage its existing facilities, recover ecosystems of damaged rivers, and devise mitigation measures for urban areas. For non-structural measures, the government should enhance its flood forecasting capacity, revise laws related to flood control and prevention, and update and rationalize land-use plans.

  1. A study on the effectiveness of a preventive equipment against the fault due to magpies in overhead distribution line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.M.; Lee, B.S.; Lee, J.B. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This study examines the applicability of a preventive equipment (liquid grass) to the field. The preventive equipment mass produced already is to prevent the fault due to birds-magpies, and is known for the excellent performance within magpies' living quarters. To assess the practicality of the production, it was mounted on the poles on which the magpie can build a nest with ease, thus the durability, emitting effect of a foul odor and evading temper of magpies were assessed. (author). 16 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Two familial ALS proteins function in prevention/repair of transcription-associated DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah J; Mordes, Daniel A; Cameron, Lisa A; Neuberg, Donna S; Landini, Serena; Eggan, Kevin; Livingston, David M

    2016-11-29

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron dysfunction disease that leads to paralysis and death. There is currently no established molecular pathogenesis pathway. Multiple proteins involved in RNA processing are linked to ALS, including FUS and TDP43, and we propose a disease mechanism in which loss of function of at least one of these proteins leads to an accumulation of transcription-associated DNA damage contributing to motor neuron cell death and progressive neurological symptoms. In support of this hypothesis, we find that FUS or TDP43 depletion leads to increased sensitivity to a transcription-arresting agent due to increased DNA damage. Thus, these proteins normally contribute to the prevention or repair of transcription-associated DNA damage. In addition, both FUS and TDP43 colocalize with active RNA polymerase II at sites of DNA damage along with the DNA damage repair protein, BRCA1, and FUS and TDP43 participate in the prevention or repair of R loop-associated DNA damage, a manifestation of aberrant transcription and/or RNA processing. Gaining a better understanding of the role(s) that FUS and TDP43 play in transcription-associated DNA damage could shed light on the mechanisms underlying ALS pathogenesis.

  3. Automated processing of forensic casework samples using robotic workstations equipped with nondisposable tips: contamination prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frégeau, Chantal J; Lett, C Marc; Elliott, Jim; Yensen, Craig; Fourney, Ron M

    2008-05-01

    An automated process has been developed for the analysis of forensic casework samples using TECAN Genesis RSP 150/8 or Freedom EVO liquid handling workstations equipped exclusively with nondisposable tips. Robot tip cleaning routines have been incorporated strategically within the DNA extraction process as well as at the end of each session. Alternative options were examined for cleaning the tips and different strategies were employed to verify cross-contamination. A 2% sodium hypochlorite wash (1/5th dilution of the 10.8% commercial bleach stock) proved to be the best overall approach for preventing cross-contamination of samples processed using our automated protocol. The bleach wash steps do not adversely impact the short tandem repeat (STR) profiles developed from DNA extracted robotically and allow for major cost savings through the implementation of fixed tips. We have demonstrated that robotic workstations equipped with fixed pipette tips can be used with confidence with properly designed tip washing routines to process casework samples using an adapted magnetic bead extraction protocol.

  4. Development of Radioactive Substance Contamination Diffusion Preventive Equipment for a Hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Kim, Do Sik; Baik, Seung Je; Yoo, Byung Ok; Kim, Ki Ha; Lee, Eun Pyo; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ryu, Woo Seok

    2009-01-01

    The hot cell of irradiated materials examination facility (IMEF), which has been operating since 1996, is generally contaminated by the radioactive nuclides of irradiated nuclear fuels and structural steels like Cs-137, Co-60, Co-134 and Ru-106. Especially Cs-137 is a main contaminated radioactive isotope which is easily moved here and there due to air flow in the hot cell, water-soluble, extremely toxic, and has a half-life of 30.23 years. To repair or fix the abnormal function of test apparatus installed in the hot cell, the maintenance door, so called a rear door and located at an intervention area, is opened to enter the hot cell inside. In a moment of opening the maintenance door, dirty air diffusion from the hot cell to an intervention area could be occurred in spite of increasing the rpm of exhaust fan to maintain much low under pressure, but an adjacent area to a maintenance door, i.e. intervention area, is very severely contaminated due to the unpredictable air flow. In this paper, the development of the radioactive substance contamination diffusion preventive equipment for a hot cell is studied to prevent dirty and toxic gaseous radioactive nuclides diffusion from a hot cell and installed at an intervention area of IMEF

  5. Prevention of Severe Hypoglycemia-Induced Brain Damage and Cognitive Impairment with Verapamil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David A; Michael, Trevin; Vieira de Abreu, Adriana; Agrawal, Rahul; Bortolato, Marco; Fisher, Simon J

    2018-05-03

    People with insulin-treated diabetes are uniquely at risk for severe hypoglycemia-induced brain damage. Since calcium influx may mediate brain damage, we tested the hypothesis that the calcium channel blocker, verapamil, would significantly reduce brain damage and cognitive impairment caused by severe hypoglycemia. Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of three treatments; 1) control hyperinsulinemic (200 mU.kg -1 min -1 ) euglycemic (80-100mg/dl) clamps (n=14), 2) hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic (10-15mg/dl) clamps (n=16), or 3) hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamps followed by a single treatment with verapamil (20mg/kg) (n=11). As compared to euglycemic controls, hypoglycemia markedly increased dead/dying neurons in the hippocampus and cortex, by 16-fold and 14-fold, respectively. Verapamil treatment strikingly decreased hypoglycemia-induced hippocampal and cortical damage, by 87% and 94%, respectively. Morris Water Maze probe trial results demonstrated that hypoglycemia induced a retention, but not encoding, memory deficit (noted by both abolished target quadrant preference and reduced target quadrant time). Verapamil treatment significantly rescued spatial memory as noted by restoration of target quadrant preference and target quadrant time. In summary, a one-time treatment with verapamil following severe hypoglycemia prevented neural damage and memory impairment caused by severe hypoglycemia. For people with insulin treated diabetes, verapamil may be a useful drug to prevent hypoglycemia-induced brain damage. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  6. Preventive measures against concrete damage to ASR in the Netherlands current state-of-affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, W.M.M.; Larbi, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In CUR-Recommendation 38, various vital measures that need to be taken during design of new concrete-mixtures in order to prevent damage due to ASR in the concrete have been outlined. The most important of these measures are: - the use of blast furnace slag cement (with a high slag content: ≥50% by

  7. Expected damage to accelerator equipment due to the impact of the full LHC beam: beam instrumentation, experiments and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Burkart, Florian

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the biggest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world, designed to collide two proton beams with particle momentum of 7 TeV/c each. The stored energy of 362MJ in each beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper or to evaporate about 300 liter of water. An accidental release of even a small fraction of the beam energy can cause severe damage to accelerator equipment. Reliable machine protection systems are necessary to safely operate the accelerator complex. To design a machine protection system, it is essential to know the damage potential of the stored beam and the consequences in case of a failure. One (catastrophic) failure would be, if the entire beam is lost in the aperture due to a problem with the beam dumping system. This thesis presents the simulation studies, results of a benchmarking experiment, and detailed target investigation, for this failure case. In the experiment, solid copper cylinders were irradiated with the 440GeV proton beam delivered by the ...

  8. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of cigarette smoke-induced lung damage and prevention by vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Siddhartha

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoke-induced cellular and molecular mechanisms of lung injury are not clear. Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture containing long-lived radicals, including p-benzosemiquinone that causes oxidative damage. Earlier we had reported that oxidative protein damage is an initial event in smoke-induced lung injury. Considering that p-benzosemiquinone may be a causative factor of lung injury, we have isolated p-benzosemiquinone and compared its pathophysiological effects with cigarette smoke. Since vitamin C is a strong antioxidant, we have also determined the modulatory effect of vitamin C for preventing the pathophysiological events. Methods Vitamin C-restricted guinea pigs were exposed to cigarette smoke (5 cigarettes/day; 2 puffs/cigarette for 21 days with and without supplementation of 15 mg vitamin C/guinea pig/day. Oxidative damage, apoptosis and lung injury were assessed in vitro, ex vivo in A549 cells as well as in vivo in guinea pigs. Inflammation was measured by neutrophilia in BALF. p-Benzosemiquinone was isolated from freshly prepared aqueous extract of cigarette smoke and characterized by various physico-chemical methods, including mass, NMR and ESR spectroscopy. p-Benzosemiquinone-induced lung damage was examined by intratracheal instillation in guinea pigs. Lung damage was measured by increased air spaces, as evidenced by histology and morphometric analysis. Oxidative protein damage, MMPs, VEGF and VEGFR2 were measured by western blot analysis, and formation of Michael adducts using MALDI-TOF-MS. Apoptosis was evidenced by TUNEL assay, activation of caspase 3, degradation of PARP and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio using immunoblot analysis and confocal microscopy. Results Exposure of guinea pigs to cigarette smoke resulted in progressive protein damage, inflammation, apoptosis and lung injury up to 21 days of the experimental period. Administration of 15 mg of vitamin C/guinea pig/day prevented all these

  9. Prevention of MSDs and psychological stress at computer-equipped workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Reinhold

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The human body responds to stress-factors through four systems - central nervous, autonomic nervous, endocrine and immune - which are constantly interacting as a complex network. The main stress-factor at the computer-equipped workplaces is a poorly designed workplace, specifically the positioning of equipment on and around the workstation. The number of occupational diseases among office workers is the specific indicator of influencing of existing hazards and risk factors on the worker in the work environment. Objective: To find out the health disturbances and to make the suggestions for health promotion for computer workers. Methods: Over 400 computer workers' working conditions were measured with subsequent measuring equipment; the fatigue of muscles was measured with myometer; the investigation of the workers' opinion on working conditions based on Nordic, Work ability index (WAI and Kiva questionnaire was carried out. The workers were divided into different groups by the age (A: under 40 years and B: over 40 years. This paper investigates the satisfaction of computer workers with their working conditions. Results: According to the results of Nordic and WAI questionnaires, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs were observed by 53.6%; the cardiovascular disturbances by 20.4% and visual disturbances by 16.7% of the respondents in group A (under 40 years. In group B, MSDs were observed by 50.1%; cardiovascular disorders by 45.7% and visual disturbances by 23.2% of the respondents (over 40 years. Muscle and joint complaints were reported only by 19.7% of workers. The majority of the respondents declared the existence of two or more local pain points. Neck, shoulder, wrist and back pain were registered as the main complaints. Conclusions: The results of measurements of physical workplaces revealed that in some offices there are deficiencies in lighting, problems with stuffy air (high CO2 value and low relative humidity value on cold

  10. Micronutrient special issue: Coenzyme Q10 requirements for DNA damage prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, Constance; Döring, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) is an essential component for electron transport in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and serves as cofactor in several biological processes. The reduced form of CoQ 10 (ubiquinol, Q 10 H 2 ) is an effective antioxidant in biological membranes. During the last years, particular interest has been grown on molecular effects of CoQ 10 supplementation on mechanisms related to DNA damage prevention. This review describes recent advances in our understanding about the impact of CoQ 10 on genomic stability in cells, animals and humans. With regard to several in vitro and in vivo studies, CoQ 10 provides protective effects on several markers of oxidative DNA damage and genomic stability. In comparison to the number of studies reporting preventive effects of CoQ 10 on oxidative stress biomarkers, CoQ 10 intervention studies in humans with a direct focus on markers of DNA damage are limited. Thus, more well-designed studies in healthy and disease populations with long-term follow up results are needed to substantiate the reported beneficial effects of CoQ 10 on prevention of DNA damage.

  11. Micronutrient special issue: Coenzyme Q{sub 10} requirements for DNA damage prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelzer, Constance, E-mail: schmelzer@fbn-dummerstorf.de [Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Nutritional Physiology, Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, 18196 Dummerstorf (Germany); Doering, Frank [University of Kiel, Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, Molecular Prevention, Heinrich-Hecht-Platz 10, 24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    Coenzyme Q{sub 10} (CoQ{sub 10}) is an essential component for electron transport in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and serves as cofactor in several biological processes. The reduced form of CoQ{sub 10} (ubiquinol, Q{sub 10}H{sub 2}) is an effective antioxidant in biological membranes. During the last years, particular interest has been grown on molecular effects of CoQ{sub 10} supplementation on mechanisms related to DNA damage prevention. This review describes recent advances in our understanding about the impact of CoQ{sub 10} on genomic stability in cells, animals and humans. With regard to several in vitro and in vivo studies, CoQ{sub 10} provides protective effects on several markers of oxidative DNA damage and genomic stability. In comparison to the number of studies reporting preventive effects of CoQ{sub 10} on oxidative stress biomarkers, CoQ{sub 10} intervention studies in humans with a direct focus on markers of DNA damage are limited. Thus, more well-designed studies in healthy and disease populations with long-term follow up results are needed to substantiate the reported beneficial effects of CoQ{sub 10} on prevention of DNA damage.

  12. Accident prevention and security measures to prevent intentional harm and damage through nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, D.

    1984-01-01

    The author explains the authorities' duty to provide for protection against intentional damage or physical harm through the use of nuclear energy. It belongs to the competence of the various authorities to define ways and means to afford protection, and to establish an appropriate network of provisions. There are provisions belonging to criminal law, those concerning liability and indemnity, and security regulations incorporated in the law on licensing and supervision. The author presents a detailed account of the law applicable and discusses the conflict of interests between governmental duties and intentions and the civil rights of the individual affected by the provisions. (HSCH) [de

  13. Which is the most preventive measure against tail damage in finisher pigs: tail docking, straw provision or lowered stocking density?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2018-01-01

    One challenge of intensive pig production is tail damage caused by tail biting, and farmers often decrease the prevalence of tail damage through tail docking. However, tail docking is not an optimal preventive measure against tail damage and thus, it would be preferable to replace it. The aim of ...

  14. Development of hybrid organic-inorganic optical coatings to prevent laser damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compoint, Francois

    2015-01-01

    The optical devices (lents, mirrors, portholes...) that are set on the chains of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) may be damaged by the high energy laser beam especially around the UV wavelength of 351 nm. The damages are micronic craters on the rear of the optics that grows exponentially after each laser shots. The study aims at developing some optical thin coatings on the rear of the optical substrates to prevent the growth of the damage by amortizing the laser shock wave, self-healing the craters that has appeared, or repairing the laser hole after the damage occurs. The thin coatings have been prepared by a sol-gel method by using silica precursor and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer. The two species reacted together to get a hybrid organic-inorganic Ormosil (organically modified silica) material, by creating a silica network linked to the PDMS species with covalent and hydrogen bounds. The thin layers are obtained from the sol-gel solution by using a dip and spin coating method. The coatings have an excellent optical transmission around the UV (351 nm) wavelength. They also have some self-healing properties by using mechanical (viscoelastic) mechanism and chemical reversible hydrogen bounds action in the materials. The silica-PDMS coatings prove to be resistant to the laser beam at 351 nm, despite some optimizations that still need to be done to reach the sought laser damage threshold. (author) [fr

  15. Ethnic and sex differences in ownership of preventive health equipment among rural older adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ronny A; Arcury, Thomas A; Stafford, Jeanette M; Golden, Shannon L; Snively, Beverly M; Quandt, Sara A

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes self-management is important for achieving successful health outcomes. Different levels of self-management have been reported among various populations, though little is known about ownership of equipment that can enhance accomplishment of these tasks. This study examined diabetes self-management equipment ownership among rural older adults. Participants included African American, American Indian, and white men and women 65 years of age and older. Data included equipment ownership overall and by ethnicity and sex across diabetes self-management domains (glucose monitoring, foot care, medication adherence, exercise, and diet). Associations between equipment ownership and demographic and health characteristics were assessed using logistic regression. Equipment ownership ranged from 85.0% for blood glucose meters to less than 11% for special socks, modified dishes, and various forms of home exercise equipment. Equipment ownership was associated with ethnicity, living arrangements, mobility, poverty status, and formal education. Rural older adults with diabetes are at risk because they lack equipment to perform some self-management tasks. Providers should be sensitive to and assist patients in overcoming this barrier.

  16. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Ellekilde Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophosphate...... exposure among farmers. METHODS: In a crossover study, 45 male farmers from Chitwan, Nepal, were randomly allocated to work as usual applying organophosphate pesticides wearing Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment or Daily Practice Clothing. For seven days before each experiment, each farmer.......08;0.06]. Wearing the Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment versus Daily Practice Clothing gave the following results, respectively: comfort 75.6% versus 100%, sense of heat 64.4% versus 31.3%, other problems 44.4% versus 33.3%, likeability 95.6% versus 77.8%. CONCLUSION: We cannot support the expectation...

  17. Pathophysiogenesis of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Is Prevention of Damage Antiepileptogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curia, G.; Lucchi, C.; Vinet, J.; Gualtieri, F.; Marinelli, C.; Torsello, A.; Costantino, L.; Biagini*,, G.

    2014-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is frequently associated with hippocampal sclerosis, possibly caused by a primary brain injury that occurred a long time before the appearance of neurological symptoms. This type of epilepsy is characterized by refractoriness to drug treatment, so to require surgical resection of mesial temporal regions involved in seizure onset. Even this last therapeutic approach may fail in giving relief to patients. Although prevention of hippocampal damage and epileptogenesis after a primary event could be a key innovative approach to TLE, the lack of clear data on the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to TLE does not allow any rational therapy. Here we address the current knowledge on mechanisms supposed to be involved in epileptogenesis, as well as on the possible innovative treatments that may lead to a preventive approach. Besides loss of principal neurons and of specific interneurons, network rearrangement caused by axonal sprouting and neurogenesis are well known phenomena that are integrated by changes in receptor and channel functioning and modifications in other cellular components. In particular, a growing body of evidence from the study of animal models suggests that disruption of vascular and astrocytic components of the blood-brain barrier takes place in injured brain regions such as the hippocampus and piriform cortex. These events may be counteracted by drugs able to prevent damage to the vascular component, as in the case of the growth hormone secretagogue ghrelin and its analogues. A thoroughly investigation on these new pharmacological tools may lead to design effective preventive therapies. PMID:24251566

  18. SIRT3 mediates decrease of oxidative damage and prevention of ageing in porcine fetal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoxian; Wang, Liangliang; Zhao, Binggong; Chen, Yangyang; Li, Jiaqi

    2017-05-15

    Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a mitochondria-specific protein required for the deacetylation of metabolic enzymes and the action of oxidative phosphorylation by acting as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + )-dependent deacetylase. SIRT3 increases oxidative stress resistance and prevents mitochondrial decay associated with ageing in response to caloric restriction. However, the effects of SIRT3 on oxidative damage and ageing are not well understood. We investigated the physiological functions of porcine SIRT3 on the damage and ageing in porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs). Overexpression and knockdown of SIRT3 were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. All cells were treated with three different stress reagents 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), methanesulfonic acid methylester (MMS), and tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP), respectively, and then examined by flow cytometry following JC-1 (5, 5', 6, 6'-tetrachloro-1, 1', 3, 3'-tetraethylbenzimidazol-carbocyanine iodide) staining. SIRT3 overexpression enhanced the ability of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) to reduce cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further decreased the damage to the membranes and the organelles of the cells, especially to mitochondria. It inhibited the initial decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, and prevented the decrease of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and activity of Nampt. In contrast, SIRT3 knockdown reduced the ability of SOD2 to increase cellular ROS which was directly correlated with stress-induced oxidative damage and ageing in PFFs. Our findings identify one function of SIRT3 in PFFs was to dampen cytotoxicity, and, therefore, to decrease oxidative damage and attenuate ageing possibly by enhancing the activity of SOD2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu; Boyer, Arthur; Liu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  20. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States); Boyer, Arthur [Department of Radiology, Scott and White Hospital, Temple, Texas (United States); Liu, Fei, E-mail: fliu@medicine.tamhsc.edu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  1. Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C. Gupta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on > 95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17B;-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 u(microM than that for 8-oxodG (100 u(microM. In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6 were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm and dehydrated berries (5% w/w with varying ellagic acid contents -- blueberry (low, strawberry (medium and red raspberry (high, for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%. However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001 and 48% (p < 0.01, respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3-8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA, DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5 and DNA ligase III (DNL3. These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair.

  2. Benfotiamine exhibits direct antioxidative capacity and prevents induction of DNA damage in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Ursula; Stopper, Helga; Heidland, August; Schupp, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Complications in diabetes mellitus are partially mediated by enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species. Among the factors involved in reactive oxygen species formation, advanced glycation end products play a key role. Owing to a reduced activity of the enzyme transketolase, which requires diphosphorylated thiamine (vitamin B(1)) as cofactor, an accumulation of those deleterious glucose metabolites especially in diabetic patients can be observed. Benfotiamine, a lipophilic thiamine diphosphate prodrug, prevented early renal and retinal changes in animal studies, and reduced neuropathic pain in clinical studies. Several mechanisms for these activities have been described. We investigated for the first time direct antioxidant abilities of benfotiamine. Additionally, a potential DNA protective effect of benfotiamine was analysed. Oxidative stress was detected by flow cytometry, antioxidative capacity was measured with the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay, two endpoints for genomic damage were assessed: the comet assay and the micronucleus test, and the expression and activity of transketolase was quantified. Benfotiamine prevented oxidative stress induced by the mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (NQO), the uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate, and the peptide hormone angiotensin II in three different kidney cell lines. Cell-free experiments showed a direct antioxidant effect of benfotiamine, which might account for the protective effect. Oxidative DNA damage, induced by angiotensin II, was completely prevented by benfotiamine. Incubation with benfotiamine increased transketolase expression and activity in the cells. Benfotiamine shows a direct antioxidant action. This effect of benfotiamine may be involved in the improvement of diabetic late complications, including peripheral neuropathy.

  3. IAEA Regional Workshop on Development and Validation of EOP/AMG for Effective Prevention/Mitigation of Severe Core Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Materials of the IAEA Regional Workshop contain 24 presented lectures. Authors deal with development and validation of emergency operating procedures as well as with accident management guidelines (EOP/AMG) for effective prevention and mitigation of severe core damage

  4. Prevention of dopaminergic neurotoxicity by targeting nitric oxide and peroxynitrite: implications for the prevention of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, S Z; Islam, F; Itzhak, Y; Slikker, W; Ali, S F

    2000-09-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a neurotoxic psychostimulant that produces catecholaminergic brain damage by producing oxidative stress and free radical generation. The role of oxygen and nitrogen radicals is well documented as a cause of METH-induced neurotoxic damage. In this study, we have obtained evidence that METH-induced neurotoxicity is the resultant of interaction between oxygen and nitrogen radicals, and it is mediated by the production of peroxynitrite. We have also assessed the effects of inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) as well as scavenger of nitric oxide and a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst. Significant protective effects were observed with the inhibitor of nNOS, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), as well as by the selective peroxynitrite scavenger or decomposition catalyst, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinato iron III (FeTPPS). However, the use of a nitric oxide scavenger, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO), did not provide any significant protection against METH-induced hyperthermia or peroxynitrite generation and the resulting dopaminergic neurotoxicity. In particular, treatment with FeTPPS completely prevented METH-induced hyperthermia, peroxynitrite production, and METH-induced dopaminergic depletion. Together, these data demonstrate that METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is mediated by the generation of peroxynitrite, which can be selectively protected by nNOS inhibitors or peroxynitrite scavenger or decomposition catalysts.

  5. Preventive measures against concrete damage to ASR in the Netherlands current state-of-affairs

    OpenAIRE

    Heijnen, W.M.M.; Larbi, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In CUR-Recommendation 38, various vital measures that need to be taken during design of new concrete-mixtures in order to prevent damage due to ASR in the concrete have been outlined. The most important of these measures are: - the use of blast furnace slag cement (with a high slag content: ≥50% by mass of cement as slag); - or the use of portland fly ash cement (containing at least 25% by mass of cement as fly ash). If one of these cement types is used, then the potential reactivity of the a...

  6. Epicardial Ablation: Prevention of Phrenic Nerve Damage by Pericardial Injection of Saline and the Use of a Steerable Sheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kars Neven, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the close proximity of the phrenic nerve to the pericardium, phrenic nerve damage caused by epicardial ablation can easily occur. We report two cases of epicardial VT ablation where pericardial injection of saline, combined with the use of a steerable sheath, successfully prevents the phrenic nerve from being damaged.

  7. Fucoidan Extracted from Fucus evanescens Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Damage in a Mouse Model of Endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Kuznetsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important problem of treating patients with endotoxemia is to find drugs to reduce the negative effects of endotoxin on the organism. We tested fucoidan (sulfated polysaccharide from the brown alga Fucus evanescens as a potential drug in a mouse model of endotoxemia inducted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The survival time of mice injected with LPS increased under fucoidan treatment compared with the group of mice injected with LPS only. The preventive administration of fucoidan to mice with endotoxemia resulted in inhibition of increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-6, as well as decreasing of the processes of hypercoagulability. The parenteral or per os administration of fucoidan resulted in decreasing the degree of microcirculatory disorders and secondary dystrophic-destructive changes in parenchymal organs of mice with endotoxemia. Taken together, these results demonstrate that fucoidan prevents endotoxin-induced damage in a mouse model of endotoxemia and increases the mice’s resistance to LPS.

  8. Benfotiamine blocks three major pathways of hyperglycemic damage and prevents experimental diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, Hans-Peter; Du, Xueliang; Edelstein, Diane; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Takeshi; Ju, Qida; Lin, Jihong; Bierhaus, Angelika; Nawroth, Peter; Hannak, Dieter; Neumaier, Michael; Bergfeld, Regine; Giardino, Ida; Brownlee, Michael

    2003-03-01

    Three of the major biochemical pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia induced vascular damage (the hexosamine pathway, the advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation pathway and the diacylglycerol (DAG)-protein kinase C (PKC) pathway) are activated by increased availability of the glycolytic metabolites glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate. We have discovered that the lipid-soluble thiamine derivative benfotiamine can inhibit these three pathways, as well as hyperglycemia-associated NF-kappaB activation, by activating the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme transketolase, which converts glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate into pentose-5-phosphates and other sugars. In retinas of diabetic animals, benfotiamine treatment inhibited these three pathways and NF-kappaB activation by activating transketolase, and also prevented experimental diabetic retinopathy. The ability of benfotiamine to inhibit three major pathways simultaneously might be clinically useful in preventing the development and progression of diabetic complications.

  9. Long-term preventive maintenance of instrumentation control equipment for PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugitani, S.; Nanba, M.

    2006-01-01

    Since the PWR plants in Japan have been operated more than 30 years, main instrumentation control equipment of analog systems has been renewed to digital control systems. Renewal works had to be done in short period within periodical inspection term and for several facilities. The Mitsubishi LTD group had been provided with these market needs by its digital control system (MELTAC-NplusR 3) applicable to main instrumentation control equipment for primary and secondary systems and had already finished the renewal for practical plants. (T. Tanaka)

  10. [Urinary incontinence and other pelvic floor damages: ethilogy and prevention strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amóstegui Azcúe, J M; Ferri Morales, A; Lillo De La Quintana, C; Serra Llosa, M L

    2004-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, as well as additional pelvic floor damage, such as third and fourth degree muscular lacerations, as well as fecal incontinence, genital prolapse or dyspareunia, result from obstetric trauma, and are generally linked to the first delivery. The purpose of this study is to analyze, from a physiotherapeutic point of view, and therefore from the perspective of muscular physiology and biomechanics, why this damage occurs, while studying the birth process and the way it is currently performed in most hospitals in our country. Analysis of the birth process and, in short, of the different types of positions used for the first and second stage of labor, as well as of the care provided for women in the puerperium, leads us to propose a global prevention strategy to be carried out in three stages: --Ante-natal prevention: specific preparation of the pelvic floor and abdominal musculature during pregnancy, using massage techniques and manual stretching of the perineum. In addition, the pregnant woman learns these positions and methods of pushing, which makes the first and second stage of labour easier. An osteopathic treatment of the pelvis joints is performed in order to facilitate their mobility or to liberate blockades, if they exist. --Prevention during labour: During this stage, physiology is respected and manual, position-based and breathing techniques are implemented in order to enhance the protection of the baby and of the pelvic floor. --Postpartum prevention: The action is focused on the pelvic floor, through diaphragmatic and abdominal exercises or postures and, if necessary, osteopathic treatment in the early puerperium, in order to facilitate the correct involution of all soft tissues and the pelvic joints involved in labor. Early specific physiotherapeutic treatment will be proposed for women with functional pathology six weeks after delivery.

  11. Dealing with flood damages: will prevention, mitigation, and ex post compensation provide for a resilient triangle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Suykens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a wealth of literature on the design of ex post compensation mechanisms for natural disasters. However, more research needs to be done on the manner in which these mechanisms could steer citizens toward adopting individual-level preventive and protection measures in the face of flood risks. We have provided a comparative legal analysis of the financial compensation mechanisms following floods, be it through insurance, public funds, or a combination of both, with an empirical focus on Belgium, the Netherlands, England, and France. Similarities and differences between the methods in which these compensation mechanisms for flood damages enhance resilience were analyzed. The comparative analysis especially focused on the link between the recovery strategy on the one hand and prevention and mitigation strategies on the other. There is great potential within the recovery strategy for promoting preventive action, for example in terms of discouraging citizens from living in high-risk areas, or encouraging the uptake of mitigation measures, such as adaptive building. However, this large potential has yet to be realized, in part because of insufficient consideration and promotion of these connections within existing legal frameworks. We have made recommendations about how the linkages between strategies can be further improved. These recommendations relate to, among others, the promotion of resilient reinstatement through recovery mechanisms and the removal of legal barriers preventing the establishment of link-inducing measures.

  12. Prevention of DNA damage and anticarcinogenic activity of Activia® in a preclinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limeiras, S M A; Ogo, F M; Genez, L A L; Carreira, C M; Oliveira, E J T; Pessatto, L R; Neves, S C; Pesarini, J R; Schweich, L C; Silva, R A; Cantero, W B; Antoniolli-Silva, A C M B; Oliveira, R J

    2017-03-22

    Colorectal cancer is a global public health issue. Studies have pointed to the protective effect of probiotics on colorectal carcinogenesis. Activia ® is a lacto probiotic product that is widely consumed all over the world and its beneficial properties are related, mainly, to the lineage of traditional yoghurt bacteria combined with a specific bacillus, DanRegularis, which gives the product a proven capacity to intestinal regulation in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic proprieties of the Activia product, in response to damage caused by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in Swiss mice. Activia does not have shown antigenotoxic activity. However, the percent of DNA damage reduction, evaluated by the antimutagenicity assay, ranged from 69.23 to 96.15% indicating effective chemopreventive action. Activia reduced up to 79.82% the induction of aberrant crypt foci by DMH. Facing the results, it is inferred that Activia facilitates the weight loss, prevents DNA damage and pre-cancerous lesions in the intestinal mucosa.

  13. A single-dose live-attenuated vaccine prevents Zika virus pregnancy transmission and testis damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chao; Muruato, Antonio E; Jagger, Brett W; Richner, Justin; Nunes, Bruno T D; Medeiros, Daniele B A; Xie, Xuping; Nunes, Jannyce G C; Morabito, Kaitlyn M; Kong, Wing-Pui; Pierson, Theodore C; Barrett, Alan D; Weaver, Scott C; Rossi, Shannan L; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Graham, Barney S; Diamond, Michael S; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2017-09-22

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital abnormities or fetal demise. The persistence of Zika virus in the male reproductive system poses a risk of sexual transmission. Here we demonstrate that live-attenuated Zika virus vaccine candidates containing deletions in the 3' untranslated region of the Zika virus genome (ZIKV-3'UTR-LAV) prevent viral transmission during pregnancy and testis damage in mice, as well as infection of nonhuman primates. After a single-dose vaccination, pregnant mice challenged with Zika virus at embryonic day 6 and evaluated at embryonic day 13 show markedly diminished levels of viral RNA in maternal, placental, and fetal tissues. Vaccinated male mice challenged with Zika virus were protected against testis infection, injury, and oligospermia. A single immunization of rhesus macaques elicited a rapid and robust antibody response, conferring complete protection upon challenge. Furthermore, the ZIKV-3'UTR-LAV vaccine candidates have a desirable safety profile. These results suggest that further development of ZIKV-3'UTR-LAV is warranted for humans.Zika virus infection can result in congenital disorders and cause disease in adults, and there is currently no approved vaccine. Here Shan et al. show that a single dose of a live-attenuated Zika vaccine prevents infection, testis damage and transmission to the fetus during pregnancy in different animal models.

  14. Identification of minute damage in composite bridge structures equipped with fiber optic sensors using the location of neutral axis and finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Glisic, Branko

    2016-04-01

    By definition, the neutral axis of a loaded composite beam structure is the curve along which the section experiences zero bending strain. When no axial loading is present, the location of the neutral axis passes through the centroid of stiffness of the beam cross-section. In the presence of damage, the centroid of stiffness, as well as the neutral axis, shift from the healthy position. The concept of neutral axis can be widely applied to all beam-like structures. According to literature, a change in location of the neutral axis can be associated with damage in the corresponding cross-section. In this paper, the movement of neutral axis near locations of minute damage in a composite bridge structure was studied using finite element analysis and experimental results. The finite element model was developed based on a physical scale model of a composite simply-supported structure with controlled minute damage in the reinforced concrete deck. The structure was equipped with long-gauge fiber optic strain and temperature sensors at a healthy reference location as well as two locations of damage. A total of 12 strain sensors were installed during construction and used to monitor the structure during various loading events. This paper aims to explain previous experimental results which showed that the observed positions of neutral axis near damage locations were higher than the predicted healthy locations in some loading events. Analysis has shown that finite element analysis has potential to simulate and explain the physical behavior of the test structure.

  15. Pathophysiology of repetitive head injury in sports. Prevention against catastrophic brain damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Tatsuro; Kawamata, Tatsuro; Katayama, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    The most common head injury in sports is concussion and experiencing multiple concussions in a short period of time sometimes can cause severe brain damage. In this paper, we investigate severe brain damage due to repeated head injury in sports and discuss the pathophysiology of repeated sports injury. The majority of these severe cases are usually male adolescents or young adults that suffer a second head injury before they have recovered from the first head injury. All cases that could be confirmed by brain CT scan after the second injury revealed brain swelling associated with a thin subdural hematoma. We suggested that the existence of subdural hematoma is one of the major causes of brain swelling after repeated head injury in sports. Since repeated concussions occurring within a short period may have a risk for severe brain damage, the diagnosis for initial cerebral concussion should be done appropriately. To prevent catastrophic brain damage, the player who suffered from concussion should not engage in any sports before recovery. The american Academy of Neurology and Colorado Medical Society set a guideline to return to play after cerebral concussion. An international conference on concussion in sports was held at Prague in 2004. The summary and agreement of this meeting was published and the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) was introduced to treat sports-related concussion. In addition, a number of computerized cognitive assessment tests and test batteries have been developed to allow athletes to return to play. It is important that coaches, as well as players and trainers, understand the medical issues involved in concussion. (author)

  16. Solar radiation induced skin damage: review of protective and preventive options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, Alena; Vostálová, Jitka

    2010-12-01

    Solar energy has a number of short- and long-term detrimental effects on skin that can result in several skin disorders. The aim of this review is to summarise current knowledge on endogenous systems within the skin for protection from solar radiation and present research findings to date, on the exogenous options for such skin photoprotection. Endogenous systems for protection from solar radiation include melanin synthesis, epidermal thickening and an antioxidant network. Existing lesions are eliminated via repair mechanisms. Cells with irreparable damage undergo apoptosis. Excessive and chronic sun exposure however can overwhelm these mechanisms leading to photoaging and the development of cutaneous malignancies. Therefore exogenous means are a necessity. Exogenous protection includes sun avoidance, use of photoprotective clothing and sufficient application of broad-spectrum sunscreens as presently the best way to protect the skin. However other strategies that may enhance currently used means of protection are being investigated. These are often based on the endogenous protective response to solar light such as compounds that stimulate pigmentation, antioxidant enzymes, DNA repair enzymes, non-enzymatic antioxidants. More research is needed to confirm the effectiveness of new alternatives to photoprotection such as use of DNA repair and antioxidant enzymes and plant polyphenols and to find an efficient way for their delivery to the skin. New approaches to the prevention of skin damage are important especially for specific groups of people such as (young) children, photosensitive people and patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Changes in public awareness on the subject too must be made.

  17. Ultraviolet Radiation, Aging and the Skin: Prevention of Damage by Topical cAMP Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Amaro-Ortiz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Being the largest and most visible organ of the body and heavily influenced by environmental factors, skin is ideal to study the long-term effects of aging. Throughout our lifetime, we accumulate damage generated by UV radiation. UV causes inflammation, immune changes, physical changes, impaired wound healing and DNA damage that promotes cellular senescence and carcinogenesis. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and among the malignancies of highest increasing incidence over the last several decades. Melanoma incidence is directly related to age, with highest rates in individuals over the age of 55 years, making it a clear age-related disease. In this review, we will focus on UV-induced carcinogenesis and photo aging along with natural protective mechanisms that reduce amount of “realized” solar radiation dose and UV-induced injury. We will focus on the theoretical use of forskolin, a plant-derived pharmacologically active compound to protect the skin against UV injury and prevent aging symptoms by up-regulating melanin production. We will discuss its use as a topically-applied root-derived formulation of the Plectranthus barbatus (Coleus forskolii plant that grows naturally in Asia and that has long been used in various Aryuvedic teas and therapeutic preparations.

  18. Precautionary measures to prevent damage, as defined in the Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marburger, P.

    1983-01-01

    The requirement to take every 'precaution which is necessary in the light of existing scientific knowledge and technology to prevent damage' (section 7, sub-section (2), no. 3 Atomic Energy Act) is not restricted to conventional (preventive) measures but is to be understood as a duty to actively provide for appropriate protection from conceivable damage. Below the level of legally binding laws and regulations, there is the level of scientific-technical codes and standards, which are of great significance to the licensing procedure under atomic energy law. As these codes and standards do not form part of the law but nevertheless represent the essence of scientific knowledge needed to fulfill the duty defined by the law, they are gaining full impact only through the licensing procedure, thus being transformed into concrete legal requirements. Hence one can say that the legal situation in atomic energy law relating to the licensing requirements as laid down in section 7, sub-section (2), no. 3 is presently characterised by a regulatory deficit. This regulatory deficit cannot be overcome by the means and tools offered by the current law. One possibility to fill the gap is to give a legally binding status to the safety guides defined by the deterministic safety concept, by listing the conceivable accidents to be mastered. This recommendable procedure could lead to an ordinance on the safety of nuclear installations. Such an ordinance could be kept abreast with technical progress and scientific knowledge by creating a referring legal instrument, pointing to, e.g., the KTA Safety Guide. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Damage on sliding bearings of internal combustion engines. Damage patterns, causes, prevention; Schaeden an Gleitlagern von Verbrennungsmotoren. Erscheinungsbilder, Ursachen, Vermeidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ederer, U.G. [Miba Gleitlager GmbH, Laakrichen (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    Bearing failures are consequences of system deficiencies which cause an inadequate function of the hydrodynamic action and, thereby, too high a friction, at least locally. The bearing overheats, what ultimately leads to its destruction and that of adjacent components. These 'consequential damages' are frequently severe. We identify, therefore, early stages of malfunction, already as 'bearing damage'. In this condition, a diagnosis and remedial measures to avoid total destruction are possible. Typical bearing conditions, possible causes and remedies are described herein. (orig.)

  20. EQUIPping High School Students. Effects of a universal prevention program on antisocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, F.

    2010-01-01

    Aggression and delinquency among youth form a major social concern, since adolescent externalizing problem behavior is associated with immediate and lasting problems throughout life. In response, there has been a surge of research investigating preventive strategies aiming to reduce these problem

  1. Development of preventive maintenance technology and advanced service equipment for operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Kazuhiro; Sumikawa, Masaharu; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Arakawa, Tadao; Hasegawa, Kunio; Kato, Kanji.

    1990-01-01

    Hitachi Ltd. as a manufacturer of nuclear power plants has carried out the consistent general preventive maintenance activities from the planning of the plants and the design of maintainability in the construction phase to the planning and working of preventive maintenance in the operation and maintenance phase, and exerted efforts to heighten the capacity ratio and reliability of the plants. For the purpose, the steady activities of reliability improvement have been carried out throughout the whole company, and the rationalization of the planning and management of the preventive maintenance with a computer and the development of the robots to which Al is applied have been promoted. As the technology of upgrading the facilities, boron racks, the control rods having long life and so on were developed, and their practical use is advanced. Moreover for the future, the development of the diagnostic technology on material deterioration using superconductive quantum interference devices (SQUID) is in progress. The preventive maintenance activities in Hitachi Ltd., the technical development for the purpose and the upgrading of the plant facilities are reported. (K.I.)

  2. 75 FR 26180 - Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage To or Failure of Network Equipment or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Chapter I [PS Docket No. 10-92; FCC 10-62] Effects on... the National Broadband Plan, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission or FCC) adopted this... networks and to explore potential measures to reduce network vulnerability to failures in network equipment...

  3. Further Highlighting on the Prevention of Oxidative Damage by Polyphenol-Rich Wine Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salucci, Sara; Burattini, Sabrina; Giordano, Francesco Maria; Lucarini, Simone; Diamantini, Giuseppe; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2017-04-01

    Wine contains various polyphenols such as flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins. These molecules are responsible for the quality of wines, influencing their astringency, bitterness, and color and they are considered to have antioxidant activity. Polyphenols, extracted from grapes during the processes of vinification, could protect the body cells against reactive oxygen species level increase and could be useful to rescue several pathologies where oxidative stress represents the main cause. For that, in this study, red and white wine, provided by an Italian vinery (Marche region), have been analyzed. Chromatographic and morphofunctional analyses have been carried out for polyphenol extraction and to evaluate their protective effect on human myeloid U937 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Both types of wines contained a mix of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties and their content decreased, as expected, in white wine. Ultrastructural observations evidenced that wines, in particular red wine, strongly prevent mitochondrial damage and apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, the considered extracts show a relevant polyphenol content with strong antioxidant properties and abilities to prevent apoptosis. These findings suggest, for these compounds, a potential role in all pathological conditions where the body antioxidant system is overwhelmed.

  4. Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Holly T; OʼBrien, Melissa; McDougall, Jason J

    2017-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial joint disease, which includes joint degeneration, intermittent inflammation, and peripheral neuropathy. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a noneuphoria producing constituent of cannabis that has the potential to relieve pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether CBD is anti-nociceptive in OA, and whether inhibition of inflammation by CBD could prevent the development of OA pain and joint neuropathy. Osteoarthritis was induced in male Wistar rats (150-175 g) by intra-articular injection of sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA; 3 mg). On day 14 (end-stage OA), joint afferent mechanosensitivity was assessed using in vivo electrophysiology, whereas pain behaviour was measured by von Frey hair algesiometry and dynamic incapacitance. To investigate acute joint inflammation, blood flow and leukocyte trafficking were measured on day 1 after MIA. Joint nerve myelination was calculated by G-ratio analysis. The therapeutic and prophylactic effects of peripheral CBD (100-300 μg) were assessed. In end-stage OA, CBD dose-dependently decreased joint afferent firing rate, and increased withdrawal threshold and weight bearing (P < 0.0001; n = 8). Acute, transient joint inflammation was reduced by local CBD treatment (P < 0.0001; n = 6). Prophylactic administration of CBD prevented the development of MIA-induced joint pain at later time points (P < 0.0001; n = 8), and was also found to be neuroprotective (P < 0.05; n = 6-8). The data presented here indicate that local administration of CBD blocked OA pain. Prophylactic CBD treatment prevented the later development of pain and nerve damage in these OA joints. These findings suggest that CBD may be a safe, useful therapeutic for treating OA joint neuropathic pain.

  5. Is protective equipment useful in preventing concussion? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, B W; Hamilton, G M; Meeuwisse, W H; McCrory, P; Dvorak, J

    2009-05-01

    To determine if there is evidence that equipment use reduces sport concussion risk and/or severity. 12 electronic databases were searched using a combination of Medical Subject Headings and text words to identify relevant articles. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to select studies for review. Data extracted included design, study population, exposure/outcome measures and results. The quality of evidence was assessed based on epidemiologic criteria regarding internal and external validity (ie, strength of design, sample size/power calculation, selection bias, misclassification bias, control of potential confounding and effect modification). In total, 51 studies were selected for review. A comparison between studies was difficult due to the variability in research designs, definition of concussion, mouthguard/helmet/headgear/face shield types, measurements used to assess exposure and outcomes, and variety of sports assessed. The majority of studies were observational, with 23 analytical epidemiologic designs related to the subject area. Selection bias was a concern in the reviewed studies, as was the lack of measurement and control for potentially confounding variables. There is evidence that helmet use reduces head injury risk in skiing, snowboarding and bicycling, but the effect on concussion risk is inconclusive. No strong evidence exists for the use of mouthguards or face shields to reduce concussion risk. Evidence is provided to suggest that full facial protection in ice hockey may reduce concussion severity, as measured by time loss from competition.

  6. Methodology and measures for preventing unacceptable flow-accelerated corrosion thinning of pipelines and equipment of NPP power generating units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Lovchev, V. N.; Gutsev, D. F.

    2016-10-01

    Problems of metal flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) in the pipelines and equipment of the condensate- feeding and wet-steam paths of NPP power-generating units (PGU) are examined. Goals, objectives, and main principles of the methodology for the implementation of an integrated program of AO Concern Rosenergoatom for the prevention of unacceptable FAC thinning and for increasing operational flow-accelerated corrosion resistance of NPP EaP are worded (further the Program). A role is determined and potentialities are shown for the use of Russian software packages in the evaluation and prediction of FAC rate upon solving practical problems for the timely detection of unacceptable FAC thinning in the elements of pipelines and equipment (EaP) of the secondary circuit of NPP PGU. Information is given concerning the structure, properties, and functions of the software systems for plant personnel support in the monitoring and planning of the inservice inspection of FAC thinning elements of pipelines and equipment of the secondary circuit of NPP PGUs, which are created and implemented at some Russian NPPs equipped with VVER-1000, VVER-440, and BN-600 reactors. It is noted that one of the most important practical results of software packages for supporting NPP personnel concerning the issue of flow-accelerated corrosion consists in revealing elements under a hazard of intense local FAC thinning. Examples are given for successful practice at some Russian NPP concerning the use of software systems for supporting the personnel in early detection of secondary-circuit pipeline elements with FAC thinning close to an unacceptable level. Intermediate results of working on the Program are presented and new tasks set in 2012 as a part of the updated program are denoted. The prospects of the developed methods and tools in the scope of the Program measures at the stages of design and construction of NPP PGU are discussed. The main directions of the work on solving the problems of flow

  7. Camptosorus sibiricus rupr aqueous extract prevents lung tumorigenesis via dual effects against ROS and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shugui; Ou, Rilan; Wang, Wensheng; Ji, Liyan; Gao, Hui; Zhu, Yuanfeng; Liu, Xiaomin; Zheng, Hongming; Liu, Zhongqiu; Wu, Peng; Lu, Linlin

    2018-06-28

    Camptosorus sibiricus Rupr (CSR) is a widely used herbal medicine with antivasculitis, antitrauma, and antitumor effects. However, the effect of CSR aqueous extract on B[a]P-initiated tumorigenesis and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Moreover, the compounds in CSR aqueous extract need to be identified and structurally characterized. We aim to investigate the chemopreventive effect of CSR and the underlying molecular mechanism. A B[a]P-stimulated normal cell model (BEAS.2B) and lung adenocarcinoma animal model were established on A/J mice. In B[a]P-treated BEAS.2B cells, the protective effects of CSR aqueous extract on B[a]P-induced DNA damage and ROS production were evaluated through flow cytometry, Western blot, real-time quantitative PCR, single-cell gel electrophoresis, and immunofluorescence. Moreover, a model of B[a]P-initiated lung adenocarcinoma was established on A/J mice to determine the chemopreventive effect of CSR in vivo. The underlying mechanism was analyzed via immunohistochemistry and microscopy. Furthermore, the new compounds in CSR aqueous extract were isolated and structurally characterized using IR, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. CSR effectively suppressed ROS production by re-activating Nrf2-mediated reductases HO-1 and NQO-1. Simultaneously, CSR attenuated the DNA damage of BEAS.2B cells in the presence of B[a]P. Moreover, CSR at 1.5 and 3 g/kg significantly suppressed tumorigenesis with tumor inhibition ratios of 36.65% and 65.80%, respectively. The tumor volume, tumor size, and multiplicity of B[a]P-induced lung adenocarcinoma were effectively decreased by CSR in vivo. After extracting and identifying the compounds in CSR aqueous extract, three new triterpene saponins were isolated and characterized structurally. CSR aqueous extract prevents lung tumorigenesis by exerting dual effects against ROS and DNA damage, suggesting that CSR is a novel and effective agent for B[a]P-induced carcinogenesis. Moreover, by isolating

  8. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM...

  9. Measures to prevent concrete damage due to alkali-silica reaction in the Netherlands: Current state-of-affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, W.M.M.; Larbi, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In CUR-Recommendation 38, various vital measures that need to be taken during design of new concrete-mixtures in order to prevent damage due to ASR in the concrete have been outlined. The most important of these measures are: • the use of blast furnace slag cement (with a high slag content: 50 % by

  10. SUMO E3 ligase Mms21 prevents spontaneous DNA damage induced genome rearrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Liang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mms21, a subunit of the Smc5/6 complex, possesses an E3 ligase activity for the Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO. Here we show that the mms21-CH mutation, which inactivates Mms21 ligase activity, causes increased accumulation of gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs selected in the dGCR assay. These dGCRs are formed by non-allelic homologous recombination between divergent DNA sequences mediated by Rad52-, Rrm3- and Pol32-dependent break-induced replication. Combining mms21-CH with sgs1Δ caused a synergistic increase in GCRs rates, indicating the distinct roles of Mms21 and Sgs1 in suppressing GCRs. The mms21-CH mutation also caused increased rates of accumulating uGCRs mediated by breakpoints in unique sequences as revealed by whole genome sequencing. Consistent with the accumulation of endogenous DNA lesions, mms21-CH mutants accumulate increased levels of spontaneous Rad52 and Ddc2 foci and had a hyper-activated DNA damage checkpoint. Together, these findings support that Mms21 prevents the accumulation of spontaneous DNA lesions that cause diverse GCRs.

  11. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting

  12. In Barrett's esophagus patients and Barrett's cell lines, ursodeoxycholic acid increases antioxidant expression and prevents DNA damage by bile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sui; Huo, Xiaofang; Rezaei, Davood; Zhang, Qiuyang; Zhang, Xi; Yu, Chunhua; Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Cheng, Edaire; Pham, Thai H; Wang, David H; Chen, Minhu; Souza, Rhonda F; Spechler, Stuart Jon

    2014-07-15

    Hydrophobic bile acids like deoxycholic acid (DCA), which cause oxidative DNA damage and activate NF-κB in Barrett's metaplasia, might contribute to carcinogenesis in Barrett's esophagus. We have explored mechanisms whereby ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, a hydrophilic bile acid) protects against DCA-induced injury in vivo in patients and in vitro using nonneoplastic, telomerase-immortalized Barrett's cell lines. We took biopsies of Barrett's esophagus from 21 patients before and after esophageal perfusion with DCA (250 μM) at baseline and after 8 wk of oral UDCA treatment. DNA damage was assessed by phospho-H2AX expression, neutral CometAssay, and phospho-H2AX nuclear foci formation. Quantitative PCR was performed for antioxidants including catalase and GPX1. Nrf2, catalase, and GPX1 were knocked down with siRNAs. Reporter assays were performed using a plasmid construct containing antioxidant responsive element. In patients, baseline esophageal perfusion with DCA significantly increased phospho-H2AX and phospho-p65 in Barrett's metaplasia. Oral UDCA increased GPX1 and catalase levels in Barrett's metaplasia and prevented DCA perfusion from inducing DNA damage and NF-κB activation. In cells, DCA-induced DNA damage and NF-κB activation was prevented by 24-h pretreatment with UDCA, but not by mixing UDCA with DCA. UDCA activated Nrf2 signaling to increase GPX1 and catalase expression, and protective effects of UDCA pretreatment were blocked by siRNA knockdown of these antioxidants. UDCA increases expression of antioxidants that prevent toxic bile acids from causing DNA damage and NF-κB activation in Barrett's metaplasia. Elucidation of this molecular pathway for UDCA protection provides rationale for clinical trials on UDCA for chemoprevention in Barrett's esophagus. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Preventive Effect of the Korean Traditional Health Drink (Taemyeongcheong) on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Damage in ICR Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Ruo-Kun; Song, Jia-Le; Lim, Yaung-Iee; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the preventive effect of taemyeongcheong (TMC, a Korean traditional health drink) on acetaminophen (APAP, 800 mg/kg BW)-induced hepatic damage in ICR mice. TMC is prepared from Saururus chinensis, Taraxacum officinale, Zingiber officinale, Cirsium setidens, Salicornia herbacea, and Glycyrrhizae. A high dose of TMC (500 mg/kg BW) was found to decrease APAP-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphata...

  14. Non-erythroid alpha spectrin prevents telomere dysfunction after DNA interstrand cross-link damage

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Pan; Herbig, Utz; Coffman, Frederick; Lambert, Muriel W.

    2013-01-01

    Telomere integrity is critical for telomere function and genomic stability. We previously demonstrated that non-erythroid ?-spectrin (?IISp) is present in mammalian cell nuclei where it is important in repair of DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) and chromosome stability. We now demonstrate that ?IISp is also important for telomere maintenance after ICL damage. It localizes to telomeres in S phase after ICL damage where it has enhanced association with TRF1 and TRF2 and is required for recrui...

  15. Elaboration and installation of technology of on-line diagnostics of important equipment damage as a procedure of NPP lifetime management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakirov, M.; Povarov, V.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to conventional approaches used for diagnostics (i.e. when inspection results are used as data for numerical calculative strength analysis) the specific feature of the new proposed approach consists in a fact that the approach is based on application of the 'inverse problem' principle. As regards to implementation of the proposed new approach, first of all a detailed numerical calculative finite-element model of the monitored equipment must be developed. Results of preliminary calculations allow to make reasonable selection of definite installation places and types of control sensors intended for more effective and precise work of the calculative model. As a rule, the control sensors are high-temperature strain gauges, temperature probes, pressure, acceleration and displacement sensors, as well as acoustic-emission and ultrasonic sensors used for monitoring of actual defectiveness kinetics in the zone of potential damaging. All the sensors work in the on-line mode during several years of operation, the optimal frequency of data records is selected, all recorded data after prompt processing are transferred to the finite-element calculative modulus for strength calculations of a monitored zone. Software for strength calculation must be based on an individual calculative code, since it should also work in the on-line mode. Comprehensible strength analysis in conjunction with obtained results of defectiveness kinetics monitoring allow not only to foresee the most unfavorable scenario resulting to damaging, but also to have a possibility for prompt analysis and elaboration of compensating measures allowing to reduce operational loadings. In the report the results of development and practical application of the new approach at NPPs and corresponding technology are presented. (author)

  16. Endocrine intervention during irradiation does not prevent damage to the thyroid gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, H. M.; van Dijk, J. E.; Rodermond, H.; Vansenne, F.; Endert, E.; de Vijlder, J. J. M.; Haveman, J.; Vulsma, T.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation to the head-neck region may damage the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism or thyroid carcinoma. Outcomes of radiation protection by lowering plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) have thus far been ambiguous. Our aim was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of inhibiting the

  17. Preventive Effect of the Korean Traditional Health Drink (Taemyeongcheong) on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Damage in ICR Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ruo-Kun; Song, Jia-Le; Lim, Yaung-Iee; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-03-01

    This study was to investigate the preventive effect of taemyeongcheong (TMC, a Korean traditional health drink) on acetaminophen (APAP, 800 mg/kg BW)-induced hepatic damage in ICR mice. TMC is prepared from Saururus chinensis, Taraxacum officinale, Zingiber officinale, Cirsium setidens, Salicornia herbacea, and Glycyrrhizae. A high dose of TMC (500 mg/kg BW) was found to decrease APAP-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase. TMC pretreatment also increased the hepatic levels of hepatic catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione, and reduced serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 in mice administered APAP (Phepatic mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and iNOS by 87%, 84%, 89%, 85%, and 88%, respectively, in mice treated with APAP (Phepatic damage.

  18. A study of foreign object damage (FOD) and prevention method at the airport and aircraft maintenance area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, R.; Ismail, N.; Mustapa, S.

    2016-10-01

    Foreign object damage (FOD) is common risk for aviation industry since long time ago and it has contributed to many terrible incidents and fatalities. The cost of FOD cases every year is very high, which is around RM 1.2 billion. Therefore, a proper technique and strategy has to be taken by the designated organizations including airlines to further eliminate the FOD occurrences. It is not easy to control FOD due to some circumstances such as inappropriate working behaviour, poor working environment, insufficient technology and also disorganized housekeeping system. The main purpose of this research is to discuss and explain further about FOD and the techniques to prevent FOD. FOD is a universal concern in aviation industry and it is one of the reasons that contribute to aircraft failure and unwanted damages such as fatalities and causalities. Throughout this research, many information related to FOD problems and their impact on aviation industry are gathered and presented.

  19. Targeted Delivery of Neutralizing Anti-C5 Antibody to Renal Endothelium Prevents Complement-Dependent Tissue Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Durigutto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complement activation is largely implicated in the pathogenesis of several clinical conditions and its therapeutic neutralization has proven effective in preventing tissue and organ damage. A problem that still needs to be solved in the therapeutic control of complement-mediated diseases is how to avoid side effects associated with chronic neutralization of the complement system, in particular, the increased risk of infections. We addressed this issue developing a strategy based on the preferential delivery of a C5 complement inhibitor to the organ involved in the pathologic process. To this end, we generated Ergidina, a neutralizing recombinant anti-C5 human antibody coupled with a cyclic-RGD peptide, with a distinctive homing property for ischemic endothelial cells and effective in controlling tissue damage in a rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI. As a result of its preferential localization on renal endothelium, the molecule induced complete inhibition of complement activation at tissue level, and local protection from complement-mediated tissue damage without affecting circulating C5. The ex vivo binding of Ergidina to surgically removed kidney exposed to cold ischemia supports its therapeutic use to prevent posttransplant IRI leading to delay of graft function. Moreover, the finding that the ex vivo binding of Ergidina was not restricted to the kidney, but was also seen on ischemic heart, suggests that this RGD-targeted anti-C5 antibody may represent a useful tool to treat organs prior to transplantation. Based on this evidence, we propose preliminary data showing that Ergidina is a novel targeted drug to prevent complement activation on the endothelium of ischemic kidney.

  20. Ganoderma extract prevents albumin-induced oxidative damage and chemokines synthesis in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kar Neng; Chan, Loretta Y Y; Tang, Sydney C W; Leung, Joseph C K

    2006-05-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Ganoderma or lingzhi) is widely used as an alternative medicine remedy to promote health and longevity. Recent studies have indicated that components extracted from Ganoderma have a wide range of pharmacological actions including suppressing inflammation and scavenging free radicals. We recently reported that tubular secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) induced by albumin is important in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial injury in the proteinuric state. In this study, we explored the protective effect of Ganoderma extract (LZ) on albumin-induced kidney epithelial injury. Growth arrested human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) were incubated with 0.625 to 10 mg/ml human serum albumin (HSA) for up to 72 h. HSA induced DNA damage and apoptosis in PTEC in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Co-incubation of PTEC with 4-64 microg/ml LZ significantly reduced the oxidative damage and cytotoxic effect of HSA in a dose-dependent manner (PGanoderma (16 microg/ml). To explore the components of LZ that exhibited most protective effect in HSA-induced PTEC damages, LZ was further separated into two sub-fractions, LZF1 (MW effective in reducing sICAM-1 released from HSA-activated PTEC whereas the high molecular weight LZ (unfractionated LZ) was more effective in diminishing IL-8 production. Our results suggest that Ganoderma significantly reduces oxidative damages and apoptosis in PTEC induced by HSA. The differential reduction of IL-8 or sICAM-1 released from HSA-activated PTEC by different components of the LZ implicates that components of Ganoderma with different molecular weights could play different roles and operate different mechanisms in preventing HSA-induced PTEC damage.

  1. Failure of Stainless Steel Welds Due to Microstructural Damage Prevented by In Situ Metallography

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez,Juan Manuel Salgado; Alvarado,María Inés; Hernandez,Hector Vergara; Quiroz,José Trinidad Perez; Olmos,Luis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In stainless steels, microstructural damage is caused by precipitation of chromium carbides or sigma phase. These microconstituents are detrimental in stainless steel welds because they lead to weld decay. Nevertheless, they are prone to appear in the heat affected zone (HAZ) microstructure of stainless steel welds. This is particularly important for repairs of industrial components made of austenitic stainless steel. Non-destructive metallography can be applied in welding repairs of...

  2. Piezosurgery prevents brain tissue damage: an experimental study on a new rat model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, G.; Foltán, R.; Burian, M.; Horká, E.; Adámek, S.; Hejčl, Aleš; Hanzelka, T.; Šedý, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 8 (2011), s. 840-844 ISSN 0901-5027 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GAP304/10/0320 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538 Program:1M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : piezosurgery * brain * tissue damage Subject RIV: FJ - Surgery incl. Transplants; FH - Neurology (UEM-P) Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2011

  3. Evaluation of satellite technology for pipeline route surveillance and the prevention of third party interference damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil [Penspen Integrity, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.palmer-jones@penspen.com; p.hopkins@penspen.com; Fraser, Andy [Integrated Statistical Solutions (United States)]. E-mail: andy@issquared.co.uk; Dezobry, Jerome [Gas de France, Paris (France)]. E-mail: jerome.dezobry@gazdefrance.com; Merrienboer, Hugo Van [Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: H.A.M.van.Merrienboer@gasunie.nl

    2003-07-01

    The damage caused by Third Party Interference (TPI) is one of the major causes of pipeline failures. Consequently, new technologies for identifying activities that may cause damage to our pipelines are constantly being developed. A recently completed project sponsored by a number of pipeline operators has investigated the use of high-resolution satellites for the integrity management of onshore transmission pipelines. The sponsors were BG Technology (on behalf of Transco), Dansk Olie NatureGas, Gasunie, BP, Gaz de France, Distrigas, and the Health and Safety Executive. The project started with a general review of the satellite technologies available and their potential. The study was then focussed on the identification of activities that might result in damage to the pipeline and the potential of high-resolution optical satellites in identifying hazardous activities. A key element of the study was a comparison with existing surveillance systems, which generally involve regular aerial patrols of the pipeline route. To achieve this a survey was carried out to try and evaluate the costs and benefits of existing systems. In addition a simple model for analysing the cost benefit of pipeline surveillance was constructed, and a functional specification for a surveillance system drafted. Finally the performance of the IKONOS 2 high-resolution satellite system was tested in a controlled experiment using targets placed along a pipeline route. The results of this test were compared with a similar test of helicopter-based surveillance carried out by one of the sponsors. (author)

  4. Preventing Electromagnetic Pulse Irradiation Damage on Testis Using Selenium-rich Cordyceps Fungi. A Preclinical Study in Young Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xia; Wang, Yafeng; Lang, Haiyang; Lin, Yanyun; Guo, Qiyan; Yang, Mingjuan; Guo, Juan; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Junye; Liu, Yaning; Zeng, Lihua; Guo, Guozhen

    2017-02-01

    Networked 21st century society, globalization, and communications technologies are paralleled by the rise of electromagnetic energy intensity in our environments and the growing pressure of the environtome on human biology and health. The latter is the entire complement of environmental factors, including the electromagnetic energy and the technologies that generate them, enacting on the digital citizen in the new century. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) irradiation might have serious damaging effects not only on electronic equipment but also in the whole organism and reproductive health, through nonthermal effects and oxidative stress. We sought to determine whether EMP exposure (1) induces biological damage on reproductive health and (2) the extent to which selenium-rich Cordyceps fungi (daily coadministration) offer protection on the testicles and spermatozoa. In a preclinical randomized study, 3-week-old male BALB/c mice were repeatedly exposed to EMP (peak intensity 200 kV/m, pulse edge 3.5 ns, pulse width 15 ns, 0.1 Hz, and 400 pulses/day) 5 days per week for four consecutive weeks, with or without coadministration of daily selenium-rich Cordyceps fungi (100 mg/kg). Testicular index and spermatozoa formation were measured at baseline and 1, 7, 14, 28, and 60 day time points after EMP exposure. The group without Cordyceps cotreatment displayed decreased spermatozoa formation, shrunk seminiferous tubule diameters, and diminished antioxidative capacity at 28 and 60 days after exposure (p digital citizenship.

  5. Activated protein C and its potential applications in prevention of islet β-cell damage and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Meilang; Jackson, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is derived from its precursor, protein C (PC). Originally thought to be synthesized exclusively by the liver, recent reports have shown that PC is also produced by many other cells including pancreatic islet β cells. APC functions as a physiological anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and barrier-stabilizing properties. APC exerts its protective effects via an intriguing mechanism requiring combinations of endothelial PC receptor, protease-activated receptors, epidermal growth factor receptor, Tie2 or CD11b, depending on cell types. Diabetes is a chronic condition resulted from the body's inability to produce and/or properly use insulin. The prevalence of diabetes has risen dramatically and has become one of the major causes of premature mortality and morbidity worldwide. Diabetes prevention is an ideal approach to reduce this burden. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the major forms of diabetes mellitus, and both are characterized by an autoimmune response, intraislet inflammation, β-cell apoptosis, and progressive β-cell loss. Protecting β-cell from damage is critical in both prevention and treatment of diabetes. Recent in vitro and animal studies show that APC's strong anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties are beneficial in preventing β-cell destruction and diabetes in the NOD mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Future preventive and therapeutic uses of APC in diabetes look very promising. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Carnitine prevents the early mitochondrial damage induced by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) in L1210 leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikula, P; Ruohola, H; Alhonen-Hongisto, L; Jänne, J

    1985-06-01

    We previously found that the anti-cancer drug methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (mitoguazone) depresses carnitine-dependent oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in cultured mouse leukaemia cells [Nikula, Alhonen-Hongisto, Seppänen & Jänne (1984) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 120, 9-14]. We have now investigated whether carnitine also influences the development of the well-known mitochondrial damage produced by the drug in L1210 leukaemia cells. Palmitate oxidation was distinctly inhibited in tumour cells exposed to 5 microM-methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) for only 7 h. Electron-microscopic examination of the drug-exposed cells revealed that more than half of the mitochondria were severely damaged. Similar exposure of the leukaemia cells to the drug in the presence of carnitine not only abolished the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation but almost completely prevented the drug-induced mitochondrial damage. The protection provided by carnitine appeared to depend on the intracellular concentration of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), since the mitochondria-sparing effect disappeared at higher drug concentrations.

  7. Grape juice concentrate prevents oxidative DNA damage in peripheral blood cells of rats subjected to a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Odair; Gollücke, Andréa Pittelli Boiago; de Moraes, Bárbara Bueno; Pasquini, Gabriela; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos; Riccio, Maria Francesca; Ihara, Silvia Saiuli Miki; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2011-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether subchronic treatment with grape juice concentrate is able to protect liver and peripheral blood cells against cholesterol-induced injury in rats. The effects of the grape juice concentrate treatment on histopathological changes, immunohistochemistry for cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), and basal and oxidative DNA damage induced by H2O2 using a single-cell gel (comet) assay were evaluated. Male Wistar rats (n 18) were divided into three groups: group 1--negative control; group 2--cholesterol at 1 % (w/w) in their diet, treated for 5 weeks; group 3--cholesterol at 1 % in their chow, treated for 5 weeks, and grape juice concentrate at 222 mg/d in their drinking-water in the final week only. The results indicated that the treatment with grape juice concentrate did not show remarkable differences regarding liver tissue in group 3 compared with group 2. However, grape juice concentrate was able to decrease oxidative DNA damage induced by H2O2 in peripheral blood cells, as depicted by the tail moment results. COX-2 expression in the liver did not show statistically significant differences (P>0·05) between groups. Taken together, the present results suggest that the administration of subchronic grape juice concentrate prevents oxidative DNA damage in peripheral blood cells.

  8. Prevention of CCl4-induced liver damage by ginger, garlic and vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick-Iwuanyanwu, K C; Wegwu, M O; Ayalogu, E O

    2007-02-15

    The hepatoprotective effects of garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and vitamin E pre-treatment against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in male wistar albino rats were investigated. Carbon tetrachloride (0.5 mL kg(-1) body weight) was administered after 28 days of feeding animals with diets containing ginger, garlic, vitamin E and various mixtures of ginger and garlic. Serum alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels, 24 h after CCl4 administration, decreased significantly (p hepatic cells decreased remarkably in pre-treated rats.

  9. Ultraviolet radiation, sun damage and preventing; Ultrafiolett straaling, solskader og forebygging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, B.; Christensen, T.; Nilsen, L.T.; Hannevik, M.

    2013-03-01

    The report focuses on the large impact of health damages due to excessive UV exposure from natural sun. The first part of the report gives background information on factors significantly affecting the intensity of UV radiation. The second part gives an overview of health effects related to UV exposure, with recommendations on how to avoid excessive UV exposure and still enjoy the positive sides of outdoor activity. The report is intended to contribute to informational activities about sun exposure as recommended by the World Health Organisation and the World Meteorology Organisation. (Author)

  10. Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor, Allopurinol, Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Myocardial Damage in Isoproterenol Induced Aged Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the preventive effect of allopurinol on isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction in aged rats. Twelve- to fourteen-month-old male Long Evans rats were divided into three groups: control, ISO, and ISO + allopurinol. At the end of the study, all rats were sacrificed for blood and organ sample collection to evaluate biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers analyses. Histopathological examinations were also conducted to assess inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis in heart and kidneys. Our investigation revealed that the levels of oxidative stress markers were significantly increased while the level of cellular antioxidants, catalase activity, and glutathione concentration in ISO induced rats decreased. Treatment with allopurinol to ISO induced rats prevented the elevated activities of AST, ALT, and ALP enzymes, and the levels of lipid peroxidation products and increased reduced glutathione concentration. ISO induced rats also showed massive inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in heart and kidneys. Furthermore, allopurinol treatment prevented the inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in ISO induced rats. In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that allopurinol treatment is capable of protecting heart of ISO induced myocardial infarction in rats probably by preventing oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis.

  11. Failure of Stainless Steel Welds Due to Microstructural Damage Prevented by In Situ Metallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Salgado Lopez

    Full Text Available Abstract In stainless steels, microstructural damage is caused by precipitation of chromium carbides or sigma phase. These microconstituents are detrimental in stainless steel welds because they lead to weld decay. Nevertheless, they are prone to appear in the heat affected zone (HAZ microstructure of stainless steel welds. This is particularly important for repairs of industrial components made of austenitic stainless steel. Non-destructive metallography can be applied in welding repairs of AISI 304 stainless steel components where it is difficult to ensure that no detrimental phase is present in the HAZ microstructure. The need of microstructural inspection in repairs of AISI 304 is caused because it is not possible to manufacture coupons for destructive metallography, with which the microstructure can be analyzed. In this work, it is proposed to apply in situ metallography as non-destructive testing in order to identify microstructural damage in the microstructure of AISI 304 stainless steel welds. The results of this study showed that the external surface micrographs of the weldment are representative of HAZ microstructure of the stainless steel component; because they show the presence of precipitated metallic carbides in the grain boundaries or sigma phase in the microstructure of the HAZ.

  12. Gymnemagenin-a triterpene saponin prevents γ-radiation induced cellular DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Arun, Lilly Baptista; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Hari, Shanmugasundaram

    2014-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre an ethno-medicinally important plant was investigated for its protecting activity against radiation induced DNA damage. The major bioactive component present in Gymnema sylvestre such as gymnemic acid and gymnemagenin a triterpene saponin, were tested for its radioprotective effects against 60 Co irradiation induced DNA damage in fish model using fresh water fish Pangasius sutchi. Fishes subjected to a dose of 133 Gy of gamma radiation and observed for eight days. The genotoxic assessment by micronucleus assay showed us that that the plant extract helped in reducing the frequency of micronucleated and binucleated erythrocytes compared to the irradiated control group. The genotoxic assessment by alkaline comet assay by single gel electrophoresis shows that pretreatment with the plant extract appreciably decreased the percentage of tail DNA towards the levels close to those of normal control group. The gradual increase in the level of the antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) during the course of the experiment indicates that the antioxidant enzyme activities play an important role in protecting organisms against gamma radiation-induced cellular oxidative stress. In conclusion the leaf extracts of Gymnema sylvstre exerts its radio protective potential by suppressing the toxic assault of ROS generated by the ionizing radiation through its ability to boost the levels of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and SOD) due to the presence of its phytochemicals like gymnemgenenin- a Triterpene Saponin. (author)

  13. Screening of plant resources with anti-ice nucleation activity for frost damage prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shingo; Fukuda, Satoshi; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Arakawa, Keita

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that some polyphenols have anti-ice nucleation activity (anti-INA) against ice-nucleating bacteria that contribute to frost damage. In the present study, leaf disk freezing assay, a test of in vitro application to plant leaves, was performed for the screening of anti-INA, which inhibits the ice nucleation activity of an ice-nucleating bacterium Erwinia ananas in water droplets on the leaf surfaces. The application of polyphenols with anti-INA, kaempferol 7-O-β-glucoside and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, to the leaf disk freezing assay by cooling at -4--6 °C for 3 h, revealed that both the compounds showed anti-INAs against E. ananas in water droplets on the leaf surfaces. Further, this assay also revealed that the extracts of five plant leaves showed high anti-INA against E. ananas in water droplets on leaf surfaces, indicating that they are the candidate resources to protect crops from frost damage.

  14. IL-4-secreting eosinophils promote endometrial stromal cell proliferation and prevent Chlamydia-induced upper genital tract damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D; Quispe Calla, Nirk E; Dixon, Darlene; Foster, Robert A; Gambotto, Andrea; Pavelko, Stephen D; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Cherpes, Thomas L

    2017-08-15

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women typically are asymptomatic and do not cause permanent upper genital tract (UGT) damage. Consistent with this presentation, type 2 innate and T H 2 adaptive immune responses associated with dampened inflammation and tissue repair are elicited in the UGT of Chlamydia -infected women. Primary C. trachomatis infection of mice also causes no genital pathology, but unlike women, does not generate Chlamydia -specific T H 2 immunity. Herein, we explored the significance of type 2 innate immunity for restricting UGT tissue damage in Chlamydia -infected mice, and in initial studies intravaginally infected wild-type, IL-10 -/- , IL-4 -/- , and IL-4Rα -/- mice with low-dose C. trachomatis inoculums. Whereas Chlamydia was comparably cleared in all groups, IL-4 -/- and IL-4Rα -/- mice displayed endometrial damage not seen in wild-type or IL-10 -/- mice. Congruent with the aberrant tissue repair in mice with deficient IL-4 signaling, we found that IL-4Rα and STAT6 signaling mediated IL-4-induced endometrial stromal cell (ESC) proliferation ex vivo, and that genital administration of an IL-4-expressing adenoviral vector greatly increased in vivo ESC proliferation. Studies with IL-4-IRES-eGFP (4get) reporter mice showed eosinophils were the main IL-4-producing endometrial leukocyte (constitutively and during Chlamydia infection), whereas studies with eosinophil-deficient mice identified this innate immune cell as essential for endometrial repair during Chlamydia infection. Together, our studies reveal IL-4-producing eosinophils stimulate ESC proliferation and prevent Chlamydia -induced endometrial damage. Based on these results, it seems possible that the robust type 2 immunity elicited by Chlamydia infection of human genital tissue may analogously promote repair processes that reduce phenotypic disease expression.

  15. Experimental study of the preventional effects of drugs to lung radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, N [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1977-01-01

    The author experimented on effects of Cepharanthin (CR) and Urokinase (UK) on the lung of rabbits to which /sup 60/Co was irradiated by dividing a total dose of 10,000R into 500R a day. The rabbits irradiated were divided into 3 groups: a group administered ''CR'' (Group A), a group administered ''UK'' (Group B) and a control group (Group C). Body weight, leukocytes and chest x-ray findings were examined, and macroscopic and microscopic findings were discussed immediately and 3 months after irradiation. CR was effective in preventing the decrease of leukocytes and body weight. In the case of 5000R irradiation, an abnormal shadow was not recognized, but in the case of 10,000R irradiation, radiation pneumonitis began to appear immediately after the irradiation, and heart dilation and the shift of mediastinum on the side of irradiation were observed 3 months after that. In Group C, adhesion, hydropericardium and bleeding lesion were observed. In Groups A and B, the preventive effects were noted macroscopically. Group A seemed to show more significant results. In this group, the infiltration of the cells, and the appearance of foamy cells and eosinophyl cells which are characteristic of lung radiation disease were less observed than those in the other groups, and therefore, Group A showed more preventive effect upon inflammation than the other groups. In Group B, the thickness of the wall of the blood vessel tended to be improved 3 months after irradiation. Microthrombosis was not recognized, either. From these results, CR was effective in decreasing the infiltration of the cells, and UK was effective in decreasing the thickness of the wall of the blood vessel and in forming thromboses. Thus, these drugs should be used simultaneously because they had different reaction to the prevention of lung radiation disease.

  16. The experimental study of the preventional effects of drugs to lung radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Naoaki

    1977-01-01

    The author experimented on effects of Cepharanthin (CR) and Urokinase (UK) on the lung of rabbits to which 60 Co was irradiated by dividing a total dose of 10,000R into 500R a day. The rabbits irradiated were divided into 3 groups: a group administered ''CR'' (Group A), a group administered ''UK'' (Group B) and a control group (Group C). Body weight, leukocytes and chest x-ray findings were examined, and macroscopic and microscopic findings were discussed immediately and 3 months after irradiation. CR was effective in preventing the decrease of leukocytes and body weight. In the case of 5000R irradiation, an abnormal shadow was not recognized, but in the case of 10,000R irradiation, radiation pneumonitis began to appear immediately after the irradiation, and heart dilation and the shift of mediastinum on the side of irradiation were observed 3 months after that. In Group C, adhesion, hydropericardium and bleeding lesion were observed. In Groups A and B, the preventive effects were noted macroscopically. Group A seemed to show more significant results. In this group, the infiltration of the cells, and the appearance of foamy cells and eosinophyl cells which are characteristic of lung radiation disease were less observed than those in the other groups, and therefore, Group A showed more preventive effect upon inflammation than the other groups. In Group B, the thickness of the wall of the blood vessel tended to be improved 3 months after irradiation. Microthrombosis was not recognized, either. From these results, CR was effective in decreasing the infiltration of the cells, and UK was effective in decreasing the thickness of the wall of the blood vessel and in forming thromboses. Thus, these drugs should be used simultaneously because they had different reaction to the prevention of lung radiation disease. (J.P.N.)

  17. To Investigate the Effect of Colchicine in Prevention of Adhesions Caused by Serosal Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Yıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Adhesion formation is a process which starts with an inflammation caused by a number of factors and eventually results in fibrosis. Colchicine prevents adhesion formation which is antifibrous process. The effectivity of colchicine in the prevention of adhesions was investigated. Materials and Methods. A total of 36 rats were equally divided into three groups: (I control group 1 (n=12, (II abrasion group 2 (n=12, and (III abrasion + colchicine group 3 (n=12. Group 1 underwent laparotomy and was orally given physiological serum 2 cc/day for 10 days. In Group 2, injury was created in the cecum serosa following laparotomy and they were orally given physiological serum 2 cc/day for 10 days. In Group 3, injury was created in the cecum serosa following laparotomy and the rats were orally given colchicine 50 mcg kg/day mixed with physiological serum 2 cc/day for 10 days. Laparotomy was performed and adhesions were examined both macroscopically and microscopically. Both macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed using Zühlke’s score. Results. A significant difference was observed among the adhesion scores of the groups both macroscopically and microscopically. Macroscopic score was lower in group 3 than group 2. Microscopic score was lower in group 3 than group 2. Conclusion. Oral administration of colchicine is effective in the prevention of adhesions.

  18. Efficient prevention and compensation of catastrophic risks. The example of damage by nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanden Borre, T.

    2001-01-01

    This book deals with the liability for damage due to catastrophic risks. The nuclear liability law serves as an example of such a catastrophic risk. The question that we tried to answer is what an efficient compensation scheme for catastrophic risks should look like. This question is dealt with both from a law and an economic point of view and from a comparative point of view. The main element in comparing the laws in different countries is the comparison between Belgian and Dutch civil (nuclear) liability law. But also American nuclear liability law is part of the analysis (the Price-Anderson Act). The book consists of four parts: (nuclear) civil liability law, legal and economic approach, analysis of other compensation systems and conclusions. The big themes in this book are therefore civil (nuclear) liability law, insurance law and environmental liability law [nl

  19. Indirect assessment of economic damages from the Prestige oil spill: consequences for liability and risk prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, María Dolores; Prada, Albino; Varela, Manuel; Rodríguez, María Xosé Vázquez

    2009-03-01

    The social losses arising from the Prestige oil spill exceed the compensation granted under the IOPC (International Oil Pollution Compensation) system, with losses estimated at 15 times more than the applicable limit of compensations. This is far above the level of costs for which those responsible for hydrocarbons spills are liable. The highest market losses correspond to sectors of extraction, elaboration and commercialisation of seafood. However, damages to non-commercial natural resources could constitute an outstanding group of losses for which further primary data are needed: these losses would only be compensable under the current system by means of a refund for cleaning and restoration costs. Results show that, in Europe, the responsibility for oil spills in maritime transport is limited and unclear. The consequence of this is net social losses from recurrent oil spills and internationally accepted incentives for risky strategies in the marine transport of hydrocarbons.

  20. 77 FR 37734 - Technical Standard Order (TSO) C-122a, Equipment That Prevent Blocked Channels Used in Two-Way...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... address, weekdays except federal holidays, between 8:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. The Director, Aircraft Certification Service, will consider all comments received on or before the closing date. Background In 1984... obsolescence of TSO-C122a equipment and the lack of industry interest in new TSO-C122a product designs. We...

  1. 浅谈医疗设备管理中的预防性维护%On advantages and disadvantages of preventive maintenance for medical equipments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宜江; 焦明阳

    2012-01-01

    目的:医疗设备是医院现代化建设的物质基础,加强医疗设备管理,使医疗设备预防性维护(PM)成为医院现代化管理的一项重要措施.方法:在医院建设中,人才是基础,医疗器械是条件,管理是关键.加强医疗设备管理是医院重点工作之一,在医疗设备管理中维修与保养则是重中之重.结果:做好医疗设备的维护保养对延长仪器寿命、提高诊断准确率起到重要作用.结论:预防性维护是指周期性地对仪器进行一系列科学的维护工作,以确保仪器安全地处于最佳工作状态.%Objective: Hospital medical equipment is the material basis of hospital modernization, and also an important symbol of the modernization. Methods: In hospital construction, talent is the foundation, medical equipment is the condition, management is the key. Strengthen the management of medical equipment is a focal point of the work of the hospital. In the management of medical equipment, repair and maintenance is very important. Results: The maintenance plays an important role in extending equipment life and improving the accuracy of diagnosis. Conclusion: Preventive maintenance is a series of scientific maintenance work for equipments, to ensure that the apparatus securely in the best working condition. This series of maintenance work mainly includes the operating performance test and adjustment, electrical safety testing, cleaning, lubricating, and replacing consumable components.

  2. Prevention of iron- and copper-mediated DNA damage by catecholamine and amino acid neurotransmitters, L-DOPA, and curcumin: metal binding as a general antioxidant mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carla R; Angelé-Martínez, Carlos; Wilkes, Jenna A; Wang, Hsiao C; Battin, Erin E; Brumaghim, Julia L

    2012-06-07

    Concentrations of labile iron and copper are elevated in patients with neurological disorders, causing interest in metal-neurotransmitter interactions. Catecholamine (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) and amino acid (glycine, glutamate, and 4-aminobutyrate) neurotransmitters are antioxidants also known to bind metal ions. To investigate the role of metal binding as an antioxidant mechanism for these neurotransmitters, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), and curcumin, their abilities to prevent iron- and copper-mediated DNA damage were quantified, cyclic voltammetry was used to determine the relationship between their redox potentials and DNA damage prevention, and UV-vis studies were conducted to determine iron and copper binding as well as iron oxidation rates. In contrast to amino acid neurotransmitters, catecholamine neurotransmitters, L-DOPA, and curcumin prevent significant iron-mediated DNA damage (IC(50) values of 3.2 to 18 μM) and are electrochemically active. However, glycine and glutamate are more effective at preventing copper-mediated DNA damage (IC(50) values of 35 and 12.9 μM, respectively) than L-DOPA, the only catecholamine to prevent this damage (IC(50) = 73 μM). This metal-mediated DNA damage prevention is directly related to the metal-binding behaviour of these compounds. When bound to iron or copper, the catecholamines, amino acids, and curcumin significantly shift iron oxidation potentials and stabilize Fe(3+) over Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) over Cu(+), a factor that may prevent metal redox cycling in vivo. These results highlight the disparate antioxidant activities of neurotransmitters, drugs, and supplements and highlight the importance of considering metal binding when identifying antioxidants to treat and prevent neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. Does vitamin E prevent tubal damage caused by smoking? A light microscopy and animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Muzeyyen; Ustunyurt, Emin; Kosus, Aydin; Kosus, Nermin; Turhan, Nilgun; Hızlı, Deniz; Sarac, Gulce Naz; Erdogan, Deniz

    2014-04-01

    To assess the histomorphological effects of smoking on the cilia of fallopian tubes in mice and the effect of vitamin E on the negative effects of smoke. Eighteen 12-14 week-old Swiss albino type female mice were randomly divided into three groups, each consisting of six mice: Group A: control group; Group B: mice exposed to cigarette smoke; Group C: mice exposed to cigarette smoke together with vitamin E. Groups B and C were exposed to cigarette smoke for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, tubal excision was performed in all animals. Histopathologic examination of excised tubal tissue was conducted under light microscopy. The number of cilia was significantly lower in Group B. Although not statistically significant, the median number of cilia in Group C was measured to be higher than in Group B but lower than in Group A. Based on the results, it can be concluded that smoking decreases tubal cilia numbers. Supplementation by vitamin E may treat or at least help to slow down the decrease in number of cilia caused by smoking; therefore it could be used therapeutically in the treatment of smoking-related tubal damage. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Resveratrol attenuates radiation damage in Caenorhabditis elegans by preventing oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Kan; Gu Guixiong; Ji Chenbo; Ni Yuhui; Chen Xiaohui; Guo Xirong; Lu Xiaowei; Gao Chunlin; Zhao Yaping

    2010-01-01

    Resveratrol, a member of a class of polyphenolic compounds known as flavonols, has been extensively studied for its anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective roles. Caenorhabidits elegans is a well-established animal for investigating responses to radiation. We found that resveratrol may provide protection against hazardous radiation. Pre-treatment with resveratrol extended both the maximum and mean life span of irradiated C. elegans. Resveratrol acted as a strong radical scavenger and regulated superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression. In addition, resveratrol was shown to be capable of alleviating γ-ray radiation exposure-induced reduction in mitochondrial SOD expression. Ultimately, a correlation may exist between dietary intake of trace amounts of resveratrol and anti-aging effects. A specific response mechanism may be activated after the administration of resveratrol in irradiated animals. Our results suggest the protective effect of resveratrol is due to its strong ability to protect from oxidative stress and protective effects in mitochondria. Therefore, resveratrol is potentially an effective protecting agent against irradiative damage. (author)

  5. Heme oxygenase-1 prevents hyperthyroidism induced hepatic damage via an antioxidant and antiapoptotic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giriş, Murat; Erbil, Yeşim; Depboylu, Bilge; Mete, Ozgür; Türkoğlu, Umit; Abbasoğlu, Semra Doğru; Uysal, Müjdat

    2010-12-01

    The exact pathogenesis of hepatic dysfunction in hyperthyroidism is still unknown. We aimed to investigate the pathogenesis of liver dysfunction caused by hyperthyroidism through inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, which has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Rats were divided into six groups: untreated (group 1), treated with zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) (group 2), treated with hemin (group 3), treated with tri-iodothyronine (T3) (group 4), treated with T3 and ZnPP (group 5), and treated with T3 and hemin (group 6). After 22 d, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes and the expression of HO-1, mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome c, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-3 activity, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay were examined. Hyperthyroidism induced oxidative stress of liver tissue was ameliorated by HO-1 induction. Administration of hemin (HO-1 inducer) increased Bcl-2 expression. Decreased expression of cytochrome c was accompanied by a decrease in caspase-3, caspase-8, Bax expression, and caspase-3 activity. The apoptotic activity and oxidative damage were found to be increased by the administration of ZnPP (HO-1 inhibitor). Immunohistochemistry findings supported these results. HO-1 induction plays a protective role in the pathogenesis of the liver dysfunction in hyperthyroidism. This effect is dependent on modulation of the antiapoptotic and antioxidative pathways by HO-1 expression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reducing vibration damage claims: Field application of strong public relations and one method of using commonly available seismograph and video taping equipment to document blast vibration regression at the nearest structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzen, M.R.; Fritzen, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    Anytime that blasting operations will be conducted near existing inhabited structures, vibration damage claims are a major concern of the blasting contractor. It has been the authors' experience that even when vibration and airblast levels generated from a blast are well below accepted damage thresholds, damage claims can still arise. The single greatest source of damage claims is the element of surprise associated with not knowing that blasting operations are being conducted nearby. The second greatest source of damage claims arise form the inability to produce accurate and detailed records of all blasting activity which provides evidence that vibration and air blast levels from each blast had been taken by seismic recording equipment. Using a two part plan consisting of extensive public relations followed by a detailed and accurate monitoring and recording of blasting operations has resulted in no substantiated claims of damage since its' incorporation. The authors experience shows that by using this two part process when conducting blasting operations near inhabited structures, unsubstantiated blast vibration damage claims may be significantly reduced

  7. Reducing vibration damage claims: Field application of strong public relations and one method of using commonly available seismograph and video taping equipment to document blast vibration regression at the nearest structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzen, M.R.; Fritzen, T.A. [Blasting Technology, Inc., Maui, HI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Anytime that blasting operations will be conducted near existing inhabited structures, vibration damage claims are a major concern of the blasting contractor. It has been the authors` experience that even when vibration and airblast levels generated from a blast are well below accepted damage thresholds, damage claims can still arise. The single greatest source of damage claims is the element of surprise associated with not knowing that blasting operations are being conducted nearby. The second greatest source of damage claims arise form the inability to produce accurate and detailed records of all blasting activity which provides evidence that vibration and air blast levels from each blast had been taken by seismic recording equipment. Using a two part plan consisting of extensive public relations followed by a detailed and accurate monitoring and recording of blasting operations has resulted in no substantiated claims of damage since its` incorporation. The authors experience shows that by using this two part process when conducting blasting operations near inhabited structures, unsubstantiated blast vibration damage claims may be significantly reduced.

  8. An Experimental Investigation On Minimum Compressive Strength Of Early Age Concrete To Prevent Frost Damage For Nuclear Power Plant Structures In Cold Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kyungtaek; Kim, Dogyeum; Park, Chunjin; Ryu, Gumsung; Park, Jungjun; Lee, Janghwa

    2013-01-01

    Concrete undergoing early frost damage in cold weather will experience significant loss of not only strength, but also of permeability and durability. Accordingly, concrete codes like ACI-306R prescribe a minimum compressive strength and duration of curing to prevent frost damage at an early age and secure the quality of concrete. Such minimum compressive strength and duration of curing are mostly defined based on the strength development of concrete. However, concrete subjected to frost damage at early age may not show a consistent relationship between its strength and durability. Especially, since durability of concrete is of utmost importance in nuclear power plant structures, this relationship should be imperatively clarified. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of the minimum compressive strength specified in the codes like ACI-306R by evaluating the strength development and the durability preventing the frost damage of early age concrete for nuclear power plant. The results indicate that the value of 5 MPa specified by the concrete standards like ACI-306R as the minimum compressive strength to prevent the early frost damage is reasonable in terms of the strength development, but seems to be inappropriate in the viewpoint of the resistance to chloride ion penetration and freeze-thaw. Consequently, it is recommended to propose a minimum compressive strength preventing early frost damage in terms of not only the strength development, but also in terms of the durability to secure the quality of concrete for nuclear power plants in cold climates

  9. An Experimental Investigation On Minimum Compressive Strength Of Early Age Concrete To Prevent Frost Damage For Nuclear Power Plant Structures In Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kyungtaek; Kim, Dogyeum; Park, Chunjin; Ryu, Gumsung; Park, Jungjun; Lee, Janghwa [Korea Institute Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Concrete undergoing early frost damage in cold weather will experience significant loss of not only strength, but also of permeability and durability. Accordingly, concrete codes like ACI-306R prescribe a minimum compressive strength and duration of curing to prevent frost damage at an early age and secure the quality of concrete. Such minimum compressive strength and duration of curing are mostly defined based on the strength development of concrete. However, concrete subjected to frost damage at early age may not show a consistent relationship between its strength and durability. Especially, since durability of concrete is of utmost importance in nuclear power plant structures, this relationship should be imperatively clarified. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of the minimum compressive strength specified in the codes like ACI-306R by evaluating the strength development and the durability preventing the frost damage of early age concrete for nuclear power plant. The results indicate that the value of 5 MPa specified by the concrete standards like ACI-306R as the minimum compressive strength to prevent the early frost damage is reasonable in terms of the strength development, but seems to be inappropriate in the viewpoint of the resistance to chloride ion penetration and freeze-thaw. Consequently, it is recommended to propose a minimum compressive strength preventing early frost damage in terms of not only the strength development, but also in terms of the durability to secure the quality of concrete for nuclear power plants in cold climates.

  10. Free radicals in alcoholic myopathy: indices of damage and preventive studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preedy, Victor R; Adachi, Junko; Asano, Migiwa; Koll, Michael; Mantle, David; Niemela, Onni; Parkkila, Seppo; Paice, Alistair G; Peters, Timothy; Rajendram, Rajkumar; Seitz, Helmut; Ueno, Yasuhiro; Worrall, Simon

    2002-04-15

    Chronic alcoholic myopathy affects up to two-thirds of all alcohol misusers and is characterized by selective atrophy of Type II (glycolytic, fast-twitch, anaerobic) fibers. In contrast, the Type I fibers (oxidative, slow-twitch, aerobic) are relatively protected. Alcohol increases the concentration of cholesterol hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde-protein adducts, though protein-carbonyl concentration levels do not appear to be overtly increased and may actually decrease in some studies. In alcoholics, plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol may be reduced in myopathic patients. However, alpha-tocopherol supplementation has failed to prevent either the loss of skeletal muscle protein or the reductions in protein synthesis in alcohol-dosed animals. The evidence for increased oxidative stress in alcohol-exposed skeletal muscle is thus inconsistent. Further work into the role of ROS in alcoholic myopathy is clearly warranted.

  11. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  12. Cerium oxide nanoparticles, combining antioxidant and UV shielding properties, prevent UV-induced cell damage and mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Fanny; de Nicola, Milena; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Giovanetti, Anna; Bejarano, Ignacio; Licoccia, Silvia; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2015-09-01

    Efficient inorganic UV shields, mostly based on refracting TiO2 particles, have dramatically changed the sun exposure habits. Unfortunately, health concerns have emerged from the pro-oxidant photocatalytic effect of UV-irradiated TiO2, which mediates toxic effects on cells. Therefore, improvements in cosmetic solar shield technology are a strong priority. CeO2 nanoparticles are not only UV refractors but also potent biological antioxidants due to the surface 3+/4+ valency switch, which confers anti-inflammatory, anti-ageing and therapeutic properties. Herein, UV irradiation protocols were set up, allowing selective study of the extra-shielding effects of CeO2vs. TiO2 nanoparticles on reporter cells. TiO2 irradiated with UV (especially UVA) exerted strong photocatalytic effects, superimposing their pro-oxidant, cell-damaging and mutagenic action when induced by UV, thereby worsening the UV toxicity. On the contrary, irradiated CeO2 nanoparticles, via their Ce3+/Ce4+ redox couple, exerted impressive protection on UV-treated cells, by buffering oxidation, preserving viability and proliferation, reducing DNA damage and accelerating repair; strikingly, they almost eliminated mutagenesis, thus acting as an important tool to prevent skin cancer. Interestingly, CeO2 nanoparticles also protect cells from the damage induced by irradiated TiO2, suggesting that these two particles may also complement their effects in solar lotions. CeO2 nanoparticles, which intrinsically couple UV shielding with biological and genetic protection, appear to be ideal candidates for next-generation sun shields.

  13. Cerium oxide nanoparticles, combining antioxidant and UV shielding properties, prevent UV-induced cell damage and mutagenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Caputo, Fanny

    2015-08-20

    Efficient inorganic UV shields, mostly based on refracting TiO2 particles, have dramatically changed the sun exposure habits. Unfortunately, health concerns have emerged from the pro-oxidant photocatalytic effect of UV-irradiated TiO2, which mediates toxic effects on cells. Therefore, improvements in cosmetic solar shield technology are a strong priority. CeO2 nanoparticles are not only UV refractors but also potent biological antioxidants due to the surface 3+/4+ valency switch, which confers anti-inflammatory, anti-ageing and therapeutic properties. Herein, UV irradiation protocols were set up, allowing selective study of the extra-shielding effects of CeO2vs. TiO2 nanoparticles on reporter cells. TiO2 irradiated with UV (especially UVA) exerted strong photocatalytic effects, superimposing their pro-oxidant, cell-damaging and mutagenic action when induced by UV, thereby worsening the UV toxicity. On the contrary, irradiated CeO2 nanoparticles, via their Ce3+/Ce4+ redox couple, exerted impressive protection on UV-treated cells, by buffering oxidation, preserving viability and proliferation, reducing DNA damage and accelerating repair; strikingly, they almost eliminated mutagenesis, thus acting as an important tool to prevent skin cancer. Interestingly, CeO2 nanoparticles also protect cells from the damage induced by irradiated TiO2, suggesting that these two particles may also complement their effects in solar lotions. CeO2 nanoparticles, which intrinsically couple UV shielding with biological and genetic protection, appear to be ideal candidates for next-generation sun shields. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  14. Prevention of Hippocampal Neuronal Damage and Cognitive Function Deficits in Vascular Dementia by Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Bin; Lu, Kaili; Deng, Jiangshan; Zhao, Fei; Zhao, Bing-Qiao; Zhao, Yuwu

    2016-07-01

    Dextromethorphan (DM) is a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors and a widely used component of cough medicine. Recently, its indication has been extended experimentally to a wide range of disorders including inflammation-mediated central nervous system disorders such as Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigate whether DM treatment has protective effects on the hippocampal neuron damage induced by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion [2VO]), an animal model of vascular dementia (VaD). Sprague-Dawley (SD) (10 weeks of age) rats were subjected to the 2VO, and DM was injected intraperitoneally once per day for 37 days. Neuron death, glial activation, and cognitive function were assessed at 37 days after 2VO (0.2 mg/kg, i.p., "DM-0.2" and 2 mg/kg, i.p., "DM-2"). DM-2 treatment provided protection against neuronal death and glial activation in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and reduced cognitive impairment induced by 2VO in rats. The study also demonstrates that activation of the Nrf2-HO-1 pathway and upregulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) play important roles in these effects. These results suggest that DM is effective in treating VaD and protecting against oxidative stress, which is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of VaD. Therefore, the present study suggests that DM treatment may represent a new and promising protective strategy for treating VaD.

  15. Ketogenic diet in a patient with congenital hyperinsulinism: a novel approach to prevent brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorana, Arianna; Manganozzi, Lucilla; Barbetti, Fabrizio; Bernabei, Silvia; Gallo, Giorgia; Cusmai, Raffaella; Caviglia, Stefania; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2015-09-24

    Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the most frequent cause of hypoglycemia in children. In addition to increased peripheral glucose utilization, dysregulated insulin secretion induces profound hypoglycemia and neuroglycopenia by inhibiting glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and lipolysis. This results in the shortage of all cerebral energy substrates (glucose, lactate and ketones), and can lead to severe neurological sequelae. Patients with CHI unresponsive to medical treatment can be subjected to near-total pancreatectomy with increased risk of secondary diabetes. Ketogenic diet (KD), by reproducing a fasting-like condition in which body fuel mainly derives from beta-oxidation, is intended to provide alternative cerebral substrates such ketone bodies. We took advantage of known protective effect of KD on neuronal damage associated with GLUT1 deficiency, a disorder of impaired glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier, and administered KD in a patient with drug-unresponsive CHI, with the aim of providing to neurons an energy source alternative to glucose. A child with drug-resistant, long-standing CHI caused by a spontaneous GCK activating mutation (p.Val455Met) suffered from epilepsy and showed neurodevelopmental abnormalities. After attempting various therapeutic regimes without success, near-total pancreatectomy was suggested to parents, who asked for other options. Therefore, we proposed KD in combination with insulin-suppressing drugs. We administered KD for 2 years. Soon after the first six months, the patient was free of epileptic crises, presented normalization of EEG, and showed a marked recover in psychological development and quality of life. KD could represent an effective treatment to support brain function in selected cases of CHI.

  16. [Effect of equipment on current ski injuries, their development in the last 20 years and their prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucco, P

    1994-01-01

    Ski injuries depend from many factors which involve the skier and his behavior, the environment, especially the weather and slopes conditions, but first of all, the typical equipment, skis, boots and bindings. These materials have undergone a great technical improvement in recent years which allowed a significant decrease of ski injuries, first of all of the typical lower leg fracture, the so called "boot fracture". Nevertheless alpine skiers are exposed to conditions not encountered in other sports. The ski and the stiff plastic ski boot combine to form an extension to the human anatomy, which subjects the lower extremities to loads not normally encountered in other activities. The velocity of the skier combine with the equipment used to expose to a risk of injury that by type, severity and incidence is unusual. The more frequent ski injury in the last 15 years involve the knee and his ligaments. These lesions often involve the medial and lateral compartment and the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL, more than 65% of all knee lesions) and the etiology is related to both the boot and bindings characteristics. Many studies have shown the direct relationship between injuries of the lower extremity and equipment (the so called LEER-injuries, near 46% of all lesions in US studies) and also the importance of a proper binding setting for a lower risk. Ski boots are indicated as the primary cause of the ACL tears but, at this moment, for this lesion 4 mechanisms are described.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Sulforaphane Prevents Testicular Damage in Kunming Mice Exposed to Cadmium via Activation of Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hua Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulforaphane (SFN is a natural and highly effective antioxidant. Studies suggest that SFN protects cells and tissues against cadmium (Cd toxicity. This study investigated the protective effect of SFN against oxidative damage in the testes of Kunming mice exposed to cadmium, and explored the possible molecular mechanisms involved. Cadmium greatly reduced the serum testosterone levels in mice, reduced sperm motility, total sperm count, and increased the sperm deformity rate. Cadmium also reduces superoxide dismutase (T-SOD and glutathione (GSH levels and increases malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations. SFN intervention improved sperm quality, serum testosterone, and antioxidant levels. Both mRNA and protein expression of mouse testicular nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 was reduced in cadmium-treated group. Furthermore, the downstream genes of Nrf2, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, and NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1 were also decreased in cadmium-treated group. SFN intervention increases the expression of these genes. Sulforaphane prevents cadmium-induced testicular damage, probably via activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling.

  18. Guanosine prevents behavioral alterations in the forced swimming test and hippocampal oxidative damage induced by acute restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettio, Luis E B; Freitas, Andiara E; Neis, Vivian B; Santos, Danúbia B; Ribeiro, Camille M; Rosa, Priscila B; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2014-12-01

    Guanosine is a guanine-based purine that modulates glutamate uptake and exerts neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. In a previous study, our group demonstrated that this endogenous nucleoside displays antidepressant-like properties in a predictive animal model. Based on the role of oxidative stress in modulating depressive disorders as well as on the association between the neuroprotective and antioxidant properties of guanosine, here we investigated if its antidepressant-like effect is accompanied by a modulation of hippocampal oxidant/antioxidant parameters. Adult Swiss mice were submitted to an acute restraint stress protocol, which is known to cause behavioral changes that are associated with neuronal oxidative damage. Animals submitted to ARS exhibited an increased immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST) and the administration of guanosine (5mg/kg, p.o.) or fluoxetine (10mg/kg, p.o., positive control) before the exposure to stressor prevented this alteration. Moreover, the significantly increased levels of hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA; an indicator of lipid peroxidation), induced by ARS were not observed in stressed mice treated with guanosine. Although no changes were found in the hippocampal levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), the group submitted to ARS procedure presented enhanced glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and reduced catalase (CAT) activity in the hippocampus. Guanosine was able to prevent the alterations in GPx, GR, CAT activities, and in SOD/CAT activity ratio, but potentiated the increase in SOD activity elicited by ARS. Altogether, the present findings indicate that the observed antidepressant-like effects of guanosine might be related, at least in part, to its capability of modulating antioxidant defenses and mitigating hippocampal oxidative damage induced by ARS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid prevents ultraviolet A-induced damage and matrix metalloproteinases expression in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinfen; Lai, Wei; Zhu, Guoxing; Wan, Miaojian; Chen, Jian; Tai, Yan; Lu, Chun

    2013-10-01

    10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) is a major fatty acid component of royal jelly, which has been reported to have a variety of beneficial pharmacological characteristics. However, the effects of 10-HDA on skin photoageing and its potential mechanism of action are unclear. We investigated the protective effects of 10-HDA on ultraviolet (UV) A-induced damage in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). We then explored the inhibitory effects of 10-HDA on UVA-induced matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression and elucidated the signalling pathways controlling MMPs inhibition. Primary human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to UVA. Cell proliferation, cellular senescent state and collagen content were analysed using CCK-8, senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining and Sircol collagen assay, respectively. Fluorometric assays were performed to detect the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells. The mRNA levels of MMP-1, MMP-3 and type I (α1) collagen were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Western blot was applied to detect the expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, JNK and p38 MAPK. HDFs treated with 10-HDA were significantly protected from UVA-induced cytotoxicity, ROS, cellular senescence and stimulated collagen production. Moreover, 10-HDA suppressed the UVA-induced expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3 at both the transcriptional and protein levels. Treatment with 10-HDA also reduced the UVA-induced activation of the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways. The data obtained in this study provide evidence that 10-HDA could prevent UVA-induced damage and inhibit MMP-1 and MMP-3 expressions. Therefore, 10-HDA may be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of skin photoageing. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. Study of qinolones usage in prevention and therapy of septic complications of radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petyrek, P.; Spelda, S.

    1994-01-01

    A standard model of experimental sepsis was elaborated at rats in dependence on a gamma irradiation dose and a time interval between irradiation and application infectious agents E. coli O 83:K 24:H 31. For a development of experimental sepsis was proved that it is not decisive in these laboratory animals when infectious agents is i.v. or i.p. applicated. Such amount of organisms (1-20.10 7-8 ) was applicated in particular not to develop sepsis in non-irradiated laboratory animals. Laboratory animals were irradiated with sublethal doses and approximately. LD 50-30 doses of gamma radiation. The laboratory animals were treated only in experiments and qinolone drug ofloxacin was used in the treatment of experimental sepsis. Ofloxacin perorally administrated in the dose of 40 mg/kg in an hour after application of infectious agents and its administration for 5 days in the 24-h intervals confirmed in fact 100% therapeutic effectiveness in irradiated experimental animals. In non-treated experimental groups, animals died in 24-28 hours interval after application of infectious agents and sepsis was a cause of death. In treated experimental groups, animal survived by day 30 after irradiation with sublethal doses or died during the period typical for a bone marrow syndrome of acute radiation injury after irradiation with lethal doses of gamma radiation. Acquired experimental outcomes may suggest that fluorochinolone chemotherapeuticals in the respect of their essential pharmacokinetic properties will be used for a prevention of infectious complications in acute radiation injury. (author)

  1. Variations in status of preparation of personal protective equipment for preventing norovirus gastroenteritis in long-term care facilities for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Saori; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Nakayama, Takeo

    2017-12-01

    Residents of long-term care facilities are highly susceptible to norovirus gastroenteritis, and each facility is concerned about the need to implement norovirus infection control. Among control measures, personal protective equipment (PPE), such as disposable gloves and masks, plays a major role in reducing infectious spread. However, the preparation status of PPE in facilities before infection outbreaks has not been reported. The aim was to clarify the implementation status of preventive measures for norovirus gastroenteritis and the cost of preparing the necessary PPE in long-term care facilities. A questionnaire survey of facilities affiliated with the Kyoto Prefecture and Osaka Prefecture branches of the Japan Association of Geriatric Health Services Facilities was conducted. The survey items were the characteristics of the facility, whether preventive measures had been implemented for norovirus gastroenteritis from October through the following March in both 2009 and 2010, and the quantities and unit prices of PPE prepared for preventive measures. Twenty-six (11.2%) of 232 surveyed facilities (as of August 2011) answered the survey. Among them, 24 (92.3%) in 2009 and 25 (96.2%) in 2010 reported having implemented preventive measures for norovirus gastroenteritis, while 21 facilities (80.8%) in 2009 and 22 facilities (84.6%) in 2010 had prepared PPE. The median total cost for preparing the PPE needed for the preventive measures was US $2601 (range US $221-9192) in 2009 and US $3904 (range US $305-6427) in 2010. Although the results need careful interpretation because of the low response rate, most of the surveyed long-term care facilities had implemented preventive measures for norovirus gastroenteritis. However, the cost of preparing the PPE needed for the preventive measures varied among the facilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Polyamines contribute to salinity tolerance in the symbiosis Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti by preventing oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Miguel; Hidalgo-Castellanos, Javier; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Rubén; Marín-Peña, Agustín J; Lluch, Carmen; Herrera-Cervera, José A

    2017-07-01

    Polyamines (PAs) such as spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) are small ubiquitous polycationic compounds that contribute to plant adaptation to salt stress. The positive effect of PAs has been associated to a cross-talk with other anti-stress hormones such as brassinosteroids (BRs). In this work we have studied the effects of exogenous Spd and Spm pre-treatments in the response to salt stress of the symbiotic interaction between Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti by analyzing parameters related to nitrogen fixation, oxidative damage and cross-talk with BRs in the response to salinity. Exogenous PAs treatments incremented the foliar and nodular Spd and Spm content which correlated with an increment of the nodule biomass and nitrogenase activity. Exogenous Spm treatment partially prevented proline accumulation which suggests that this polyamine could replace the role of this amino acid in the salt stress response. Additionally, Spd and Spm pre-treatments reduced the levels of H 2 O 2 and lipid peroxidation under salt stress. PAs induced the expression of genes involved in BRs biosynthesis which support a cross-talk between PAs and BRs in the salt stress response of M. truncatula-S. meliloti symbiosis. In conclusion, exogenous PAs improved the response to salinity of the M. truncatula-S. meliloti symbiosis by reducing the oxidative damage induced under salt stress conditions. In addition, in this work we provide evidences of the cross-talk between PAs and BRs in the adaptive responses to salinity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevention Effect of Poly-Gamma-Glutamic Acid on Tissue Damage Induced by Gamma Irradiation as a Natural Cross-Linker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaehun; Sung, Nakyun; Kim, Jeongsoo; Jo, Euri; Choi, Jongil; Park, Jongheum; Lee, Juwoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwangwon [Eulji Univ. Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jungkee [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taewoon [Jeonbuk Technopark, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    This study was to determine the prevention effect of poly-gamma-glutamic acid (PGA) on tissue damage induced by gamma irradiation for development of xenograft. PGA (MW 2000 kDa) extracted from permeated soy bean (natto) was used in this study as natural compound, and glutaraldehyde (GA) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) were used as a control, chemical based cross-linking agents. GA, EDC and PGA treated porcine tendons were gamma-irradiated at the dose of 30 kGy. Prevention effects against tissue damage were measured as the result of tensile strength, hydroxyproline contents and tissue morphological analysis. Tensile of porcine tendon was remarkably decreased by gamma irradiation, but increased in PGA treated group. Morphological analysis showed that collagen structure was broken by gamma irradiation, but attenuated by PGA treatment. Base on the results, it demonstrated that gamma irradiation can induce severe alteration of porcine tendon, but PGA can effectively improve the tissue damage.

  4. Prevention Effect of Poly-Gamma-Glutamic Acid on Tissue Damage Induced by Gamma Irradiation as a Natural Cross-Linker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jaehun; Sung, Nakyun; Kim, Jeongsoo; Jo, Euri; Choi, Jongil; Park, Jongheum; Lee, Juwoon; Lee, Kwangwon; Kwon, Jungkee; Kim, Taewoon

    2012-01-01

    This study was to determine the prevention effect of poly-gamma-glutamic acid (PGA) on tissue damage induced by gamma irradiation for development of xenograft. PGA (MW 2000 kDa) extracted from permeated soy bean (natto) was used in this study as natural compound, and glutaraldehyde (GA) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) were used as a control, chemical based cross-linking agents. GA, EDC and PGA treated porcine tendons were gamma-irradiated at the dose of 30 kGy. Prevention effects against tissue damage were measured as the result of tensile strength, hydroxyproline contents and tissue morphological analysis. Tensile of porcine tendon was remarkably decreased by gamma irradiation, but increased in PGA treated group. Morphological analysis showed that collagen structure was broken by gamma irradiation, but attenuated by PGA treatment. Base on the results, it demonstrated that gamma irradiation can induce severe alteration of porcine tendon, but PGA can effectively improve the tissue damage

  5. A novel eye drop of alpha tocopherol to prevent ocular oxidant damage: improve the stability and ocular efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jiayu; Tang, Jingling; Bu, Meng; Sun, Yanhui; Wang, Xinyu; Wu, Linhua; Liu, Hongzhuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design novel mixed micelles as an ophthalmic delivery system for alpha-tocopherol (TOC) to prevent its degradation and improve ocular efficacy. The nonionic polymers, Polyoxyl 15 Hydroxystearate (Solutol® HS15) and Pluronic® F127, were discovered to be the most effective agents for retaining the activity and solubilization of TOC, respectively. Prepared by a thin-film hydration method, HS15/Pluronic® F127 yielded good encapsulation percentages of TOC, with a 27.7% drug loading efficiency. Incorporation of cetalkonium chloride (CKC) into HS15/Pluronic® F127 mixed micelles made the zeta potential of the micelles +17 mV, potentially prolonging the residence time of formulations on ocular surfaces. The optimized micelle preparation remained stable when diluted in a synthetic tear solution. It is known that the antioxidant ability of TOC in typical formulations reduces to around 85% of its initial value after 1 month when stored at 4 or 25 °C under an air atmosphere, which limits ophthalmic applications to less than 1 month. However, encapsulated TOC in investigated micelles remained stable for at least 6 months when sealed with N2. Finally, the cationic micelles were well tolerated after multiple administrations in rabbits, and they improved ocular accumulation of TOC. Taken together, these data suggest that the optimized micelle preparations described in this study may be suitable drug carriers for the treatment of ocular oxidant damage.

  6. Prevention of Dental Damage and Improvement of Difficult Intubation Using a Paraglossal Technique With a Straight Miller Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Huang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with diseased teeth, or those who are difficult to intubate, have a higher risk of dental injury during laryngoscopy. We report 3 cases of smooth endotracheal intubation using a paraglossal technique with a straight Miller blade in patients with poor dentition. Three patients with poor dentition were scheduled to undergo surgery under general anesthesia. All patients presented with extremely loose upper central incisors and had lost the other right upper teeth, while micrognathia and prominent, loose upper incisors were noted in 1 case. We elected to use a straight Miller blade using a paraglossal approach. A nasopharyngeal airway was inserted after induction of general anesthesia to facilitate mask ventilation and prevent air leakage from the mask. The Miller blade was then inserted from the right corner of the mouth, avoiding contact with the vulnerable incisors, and advanced along the groove between the tongue and tonsil. The endotracheal tube was subsequently smoothly inserted after obtaining a grade 1 Cormack and Lehane view without dental trauma in all 3 cases. Direct laryngoscopy using the paraglossal straight blade technique avoids dental damage in patients with mobile upper incisors and no right maxillary molars. It is a practical alternative method that differs from the traditional Macintosh laryngoscope in patients with a high risk of dental injury during the procedure. This technique, which provides an improved view of the larynx, might also be helpful with patients in whom intubation is difficult.

  7. The materials concept in German light water reactors. A contribution to plant safety, economic performance and damage prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilg, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    Major decisions taken as early as in the planning and construction phases of nuclear power plants may influence overall plant life. Component quality at the beginning of plant life is determined very much also by a balanced inclusion of the 'design, choice of materials, manufacturing and inspection' elements. One example of the holistic treatment of design, choice of material, and manufacture of important safety-related components in pressurized water reactors is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in which the ferritic compound tubes, with inside claddings, for the control rod drive nozzles are screwed into the vessel top. Also the choice of Incoloy 800 for the steam generator tubes, and the design of the main coolant pipes with inside claddings as seamless pipe bends / straight pipes with integrated nozzles connected to mixed welds with austenitic pipes are other special design features of the Siemens/KWU plants. A demonstrably high quality standard by international comparison to this day has been exhibited by the austenitic RPV internals of boiling water reactors, which were made of a low-carbon Nb-stabilized austenitic steel grade by optimum manufacturing technologies. The same material is used for backfitting austenitic pipes. Reliable and safe operation of German nuclear power plants has been demonstrated for more than 4 decades. One major element in this performance is the materials concept adopted in Germany also in the interest of damage prevention. (orig.)

  8. Gene transfection mediated by polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol nanocarrier prevents cisplatin-induced spiral ganglion cell damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-gui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol (PEI-PEG, a novel nanocarrier, has been used for transfection and gene therapy in a variety of cells. In our previous study, we successfully carried out PEI-PEG-mediated gene transfer in spiral ganglion cells. It remains unclear whether PEI-PEG could be used for gene therapy with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP in the inner ear. In the present study, we performed PEI-PEG-mediated XIAP gene transfection in the cochlea of Sprague-Dawley rats, via scala tympani fenestration, before daily cisplatin injections. Auditory brainstem reflex tests demonstrated the protective effects of XIAP gene therapy on auditory function. Immunohistochemical staining revealed XIAP protein expression in the cytoplasm of cells in the spiral ganglion, the organ of Corti and the stria vascularis. Reverse transcription-PCR detected high levels of XIAP mRNA expression in the cochlea. The present findings suggest that PEI-PEG nanocarrier-mediated XIAP gene transfection results in XIAP expression in the cochlea, prevents damage to cochlear spiral ganglion cells, and protects hearing.

  9. Structural damages prevention of the ITER vacuum vessel and ports by elasto-plastic analysis with regards to RCC-MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.martinez@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Jun, Chang Hoon; Portafaix, Christophe; Alekseev, Alexander; Sborchia, Carlo; Choi, Chang-Ho [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Albin, Vincent [SOM Calcul – Groupe ORTEC, 121 ancien Chemin de Cassis – Immeuble Grand Pré, 13009 Marseille (France); Borrelly, Stephane [Sogeti High Tech, RE2, 180 rue René Descartes, Le Millenium – Bat C, 13857 Aix en Provence (France); Cambazar, Magali [Assystem EOS, 117 rue Jacquard, 84120 Pertuis (France); Gaucher, Thomas [SOM Calcul – Groupe ORTEC, 121 ancien Chemin de Cassis – Immeuble Grand Pré, 13009 Marseille (France); Sfarni, Samir; Tailhardat, Olivier [Assystem EOS, 117 rue Jacquard, 84120 Pertuis (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ITER vacuum vessel (VV) is a part of the first barrier to confine the plasma. • ITER VV as NPE necessitates a third party organization authorized by the French nuclear regulator to assure design, fabrication, and conformance testing and quality assurance, i.e. ANB. • Several types of damages have to be prevented in order to guarantee the structural integrity with regards to RCC-MR. • It is usual to employ non-linear analysis when the “classical” elastic analysis reaches its limit of linear application. • Several structural analyses were performed with many different global and local models of the whole ITER VV. - Abstract: Several types of damages have to be prevented in order to guarantee the structural integrity of a structure with regards to RCC-MR; the P-type damages which can result from the application to a structure of a steadily and regularly increasing loading or a constant loading and the S-type damages during operational loading conditions which can only result from repeated application of loadings associated to the progressive deformations and fatigue. Following RCC-MR, the S-type damages prevention has to be started only when the structural integrity is guaranteed against P-type damages. The verification of the last one on the ITER vacuum vessel and ports has been performed by limit analysis with elasto-(perfectly)plastic material behavior. It is usual to employ non-linear analysis when the “classical” elastic analysis reaches its limit of linear application. Some elasto-plastic analyses have been performed considering several cyclic loadings to evaluate also more realistic structural margins of the against S-type damages.

  10. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, Paul A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-07-22

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  11. [Prevention of medical device-related adverse events in hospitals: Specifying the recommendations of the German Coalition for Patient Safety (APS) for users and operators of anaesthesia equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnet-Joschko, Sabine; Zippel, Claus; Siebert, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    The use and organisation of medical technology has an important role to play for patient and user safety in anaesthesia. Specification of the recommendations of the German Coalition for Patient Safety (APS) for users and operators of anaesthesia equipment, explore opportunities and challenges for the safe use and organisation of anaesthesia devices. We conducted a literature search in Medline/PubMed for studies dealing with the APS recommendations for the prevention of medical device-related risks in the context of anaesthesia. In addition, we performed an internet search for reports and recommendations focusing on the use and organisation of medical devices in anaesthesia. Identified studies were grouped and assigned to the recommendations. The division into users and operators was maintained. Instruction and training in anaesthesia machines is sometimes of minor importance. Failure to perform functional testing seems to be a common cause of critical incidents in anaesthesia. There is a potential for reporting to the federal authority. Starting points for the safe operation of anaesthetic devices can be identified, in particular, at the interface of staff, organisation, and (anaesthesia) technology. The APS recommendations provide valuable information on promoting the safe use of medical devices and organisation in anaesthesia. The focus will be on risks relating to the application as well as on principles and materials for the safe operation of anaesthesia equipment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan for the TA-60-01 Heavy Equipment Shop, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Revision 3, January 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgin, Jillian Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60-01 Heavy Equipment Shop at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60-01 Heavy Equipment Shop and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  13. Binding to the minor groove of the double-strand, tau protein prevents DNA from damage by peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan; Qu, Mei-Hua; Wang, Xing-Sheng; Chen, Lan; Wang, Dong-Liang; Liu, Ying; Hua, Qian; He, Rong-Qiao

    2008-07-02

    Tau, an important microtubule associated protein, has been found to bind to DNA, and to be localized in the nuclei of both neurons and some non-neuronal cells. Here, using electrophoretic mobility shifting assay (EMSA) in the presence of DNA with different chain-lengths, we observed that tau protein favored binding to a 13 bp or a longer polynucleotide. The results from atomic force microscopy also showed that tau protein preferred a 13 bp polynucleotide to a 12 bp or shorter polynucleotide. In a competitive assay, a minor groove binder distamycin A was able to replace the bound tau from the DNA double helix, indicating that tau protein binds to the minor groove. Tau protein was able to protect the double-strand from digestion in the presence of DNase I that was bound to the minor groove. On the other hand, a major groove binder methyl green as a negative competitor exhibited little effect on the retardation of tau-DNA complex in EMSA. This further indicates the DNA minor groove as the binding site for tau protein. EMSA with truncated tau proteins showed that both the proline-rich domain (PRD) and the microtubule-binding domain (MTBD) contributed to the interaction with DNA; that is to say, both PRD and MTBD bound to the minor groove of DNA and bent the double-strand, as observed by electron microscopy. To investigate whether tau protein is able to prevent DNA from the impairment by hydroxyl free radical, the chemiluminescence emitted by the phen-Cu/H(2)O(2)/ascorbate was measured. The emission intensity of the luminescence was markedly decreased when tau protein was present, suggesting a significant protection of DNA from the damage in the presence of hydroxyl free radical.

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of cotton squares and small cotton bolls fallen on ground after damage by boll weevil and the efficiency of the equipment used to collect them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study, we determined the spatial and temporal distribution of fallen cotton squares and small cotton bolls fallen damaged by boll weevil and the efficiency and time interval of the equipment used to collect cotton samples. Spatial and temporal distribution of cotton squares and small cotton bolls fallen on the soil damaged by boll weevil among cotton rows was determined in an experimental design of randomized blocks in a factorial arrangement of 4x3, represented by soil surface tracks located at 1-11cm, 12-22cm, 23-33cm, and 34-44cm away from the planting row of cotton plants 70, 85, and 100 days of age. Efficiency and collection time interval of the cotton samples fallen on the soil infested by boll weevil by plastic rakes that were straight or fan-shaped, big broom, collector instrument model CNPA and aspirator of leaves ‘Trapp’ were determined in randomized block design with five treatments, 10 repetitions for each. Results demonstrated that the collection of cotton samples must be performed with greater attention to soil strips located below the cotton top projection and aspirator ‘Trapp’ of leaves was more appropriate for the operation as it used less time of collection with similar efficiency to other available equipment.

  15. The ovarian DNA damage repair response is induced prior to phosphoramide mustard-induced follicle depletion, and ataxia telangiectasia mutated inhibition prevents PM-induced follicle depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Shanthi, E-mail: shanthig@iastate.edu; Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu

    2016-02-01

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM) is an ovotoxic metabolite of cyclophosphamide and destroys primordial and primary follicles potentially by DNA damage induction. The temporal pattern by which PM induces DNA damage and initiation of the ovarian response to DNA damage has not yet been well characterized. This study investigated DNA damage initiation, the DNA repair response, as well as induction of follicular demise using a neonatal rat ovarian culture system. Additionally, to delineate specific mechanisms involved in the ovarian response to PM exposure, utility was made of PKC delta (PKCδ) deficient mice as well as an ATM inhibitor (KU 55933; AI). Fisher 344 PND4 rat ovaries were cultured for 12, 24, 48 or 96 h in medium containing DMSO ± 60 μM PM or KU 55933 (48 h; 10 nM). PM-induced activation of DNA damage repair genes was observed as early as 12 h post-exposure. ATM, PARP1, E2F7, P73 and CASP3 abundance were increased but RAD51 and BCL2 protein decreased after 96 h of PM exposure. PKCδ deficiency reduced numbers of all follicular stages, but did not have an additive impact on PM-induced ovotoxicity. ATM inhibition protected all follicle stages from PM-induced depletion. In conclusion, the ovarian DNA damage repair response is active post-PM exposure, supporting that DNA damage contributes to PM-induced ovotoxicity. - Highlights: • PM exposure induces DNA damage repair gene expression. • Inhibition of ATM prevented PM-induced follicle depletion. • PKCδ deficiency did not impact PM-induced ovotoxicity.

  16. The Aurora-B-dependent NoCut checkpoint prevents damage of anaphase bridges after DNA replication stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Nuno; Vendrell, Alexandre; Funaya, Charlotta; Idrissi, Fatima-Zahra; Maier, Michael; Kumar, Arun; Neurohr, Gabriel; Colomina, Neus; Torres-Rosell, Jordi; Geli, María-Isabel; Mendoza, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Anaphase chromatin bridges can lead to chromosome breakage if not properly resolved before completion of cytokinesis. The NoCut checkpoint, which depends on Aurora B at the spindle midzone, delays abscission in response to chromosome segregation defects in yeast and animal cells. How chromatin bridges are detected, and whether abscission inhibition prevents their damage, remain key unresolved questions. We find that bridges induced by DNA replication stress and by condensation or decatenation defects, but not dicentric chromosomes, delay abscission in a NoCut-dependent manner. Decatenation and condensation defects lead to spindle stabilization during cytokinesis, allowing bridge detection by Aurora B. NoCut does not prevent DNA damage following condensin or topoisomerase II inactivation; however, it protects anaphase bridges and promotes cellular viability after replication stress. Therefore, the molecular origin of chromatin bridges is critical for activation of NoCut, which plays a key role in the maintenance of genome stability after replicative stress.

  17. Stage-by-stage licensing procedure, prevention of damage, control by administrative courts. Some comments on the Wyhl judgment of the Federal Administrative Court

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellner, D.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the three main items of the Wyhl judgment of the Federal Administrative Court, of December 19, 1985 - 7C65/82, which are likely to set trends. The judgment clarifies the function of the socalled preliminary approval of the concept and its delimitation to the preliminary partial licence. According to the judgment, the first is a licensing requirement in substantial law. Precaution for preventing damage according to sec. 7, sub-sec (2) No. 3 Atomic Energy Act is regarded by the Court not as a prevention of hazards, but as the obligation to take every precaution to prevent damage, i.e. types of damage have to be taken into account that cannot be excluded to develop to a real hazard or potential risk. The problem of extent of control by the administrative courts is solved by the approach based on the legal functions of competence and responsibility that are to be drawn from the principle of division of power. (HSCH) [de

  18. Selenium supplementation restores the antioxidative capacity and prevents cell damage in bone marrow stromal cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, Regina; Ulmer, Matthias; Zeck, Sabine

    2006-01-01

    signaling, cumulative cell damage, senescence, and tumor development. Selenium-dependent (glutathione peroxidases [GPxs] and thioredoxin reductases [TrxRs]) and selenium-independent (superoxide dismutases [SODs] and catalase [CAT]) enzyme systems regulate cellular ROS steady state levels. SODs process...

  19. Equipment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Trace or ultratrace analyses require that the HPLC equipment used, including the detector, be optimal for such determinations. HPLC detectors are discussed at length in Chapter 4; discussion here is limited to the rest of the equipment. In general, commercial equipment is adequate for trace analysis; however, as the authors approach ultratrace analysis, it becomes very important to examine the equipment thoroughly and optimize it, where possible. For this reason they will review the equipment commonly used in HPLC and discuss the optimization steps. Detectability in HPLC is influenced by two factors (1): (a) baseline noise or other interferences that lead to errors in assigning the baseline absorbance; (b) peak width. 87 refs

  20. Physical, chemical and agricultural investigations of fly ash originating from oil-fired equipment, with special regard to the damaging effect on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veres, I; Czibulya, J; Ravasz, T; Boszormenyi, Z

    1972-01-01

    Physical and chemical investigations and green house tests performed with fly ash samples from a large-capacity, oil-fired thermal power plant, are described. The vanadium content determined by a colorimetric method, ranged from 3.82 to 4.14% and the nickel content was determined by a gravimetric method as 0.59-0.62%. The bulk of the fly ash belonged in a fraction of 0.06-0.10 mm. A spherical, soot-like fraction and a mineral fraction with silica, iron oxides, and alkali earth metals as main components were distinguished by morphological investigations. The soot fraction, composed of spheres with smooth surface with limited adhesion, represents minor environmental, including corrosion, hazards, while the mineral fraction which contains hard, abrasive particulates of very irregular shape with large specific surface may produce slight silicosis in man and animals, and plug the stomata in plants. In addition, this fraction represents low-temperature corrosion hazards due to the presence of tetravalent vanacylsulfate and free sulfuric acid. Greenhouse tests with overdosed fly ash revealed white mustard (Brassica hirta) to be most sensitive for fly ash, which thus may be used as an indicator plant. The damage is also dependent on the water supply. The fairly high resistivity of leguminous species, especially of beans may be due to the stimulating effect of vanadium and the increased heat absorption through the fly ash buildups.

  1. [Prevention and control of air pollution needs to strengthen further study on health damage caused by air pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T C

    2016-08-06

    Heath issues caused by air pollution such as particulate matter (PM) are much concerned and focused among air, water and soil pollutions because human breathe air for whole life span. Present comments will review physical and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10; Dose-response associations of PM10, PM2.5 and their components with mortality and risk of cardiopulmonary diseases, early health damages such as the decrease of lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage; And the roles of genetic variations and epigenetic changes in lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage related to PMs and their components. This comments list some limitations and perspectives about the associations of air pollution with health.

  2. Evaluation of the Methods of portective Treatment against microbiological damages and prolonged antimicrobic protection of the interior and the equipment of space objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshevaya, E.; Novikova, N.; Polycarpov, N.; Poddubko, S.; Shumilina, G.; Bragina, M.; Zarubina, K.; Tverskoy, V.; Akova, M. D.

    The researches which have been carried out onboard the orbital complex (? C) MIR, testify that environment of the manned space object may be considered as peculiar ecological niche for development of the microbial community generated by microorganisms of various physiological and taxonomic groups. As a result of vital activity of fungi during OC MIR operation zones of fungi growth on various elements of interior and equipment, cases of destruction of the materials and attributes of corrosion of metals were noted. Existing methods of development of microorganisms on a surface of constructional materials using sanitary treatment of the accessible surfaces with disinfectants, represent the big labour input for the crew. More radical solution of the problem is the development and use of methods of superficial modification of constructional materials and use of methods of superficial modification of constructional materials and treatment of their surface of varnish or paint, resistant to biocontamination and growth of the microorganisms. As a result of the conducted research, the following methods of protection of constructional materials against development of microorganisms were chosen: - fluorination, sylilition, radiating graft polymerization etc., resulting in formation of the functional groups having biocide action; For varnish and paint coverings - coverings on a basis stoichiometrical interpolymeric polyelectrolytic complexes, organosilicone coverings, etc. For testing of the biological effects of samples of the materials subjected to the different methods of surface modification, researches were carried out and experimental models of typical biodestructive processes of the constructional materials are developed considering microclimatic parameters of local zones (the increased temperature and humidity), resistance of the materials to the influence of fungi and increased radiating background influence. Biological testing testifying the efficiency of developed

  3. Mitochondrial catalase overexpressed transgenic mice are protected against lung fibrosis in part via preventing alveolar epithelial cell mitochondrial DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok-Jo; Cheresh, Paul; Jablonski, Renea P; Morales-Nebreda, Luisa; Cheng, Yuan; Hogan, Erin; Yeldandi, Anjana; Chi, Monica; Piseaux, Raul; Ridge, Karen; Michael Hart, C; Chandel, Navdeep; Scott Budinger, G R; Kamp, David W

    2016-12-01

    Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) injury and mitochondrial dysfunction are important in the development of lung fibrosis. Our group has shown that in the asbestos exposed lung, the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in AEC mediate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and apoptosis which are necessary for lung fibrosis. These data suggest that mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants should ameliorate asbestos-induced lung. To determine whether transgenic mice that express mitochondrial-targeted catalase (MCAT) have reduced lung fibrosis following exposure to asbestos or bleomycin and, if so, whether this occurs in association with reduced AEC mtDNA damage and apoptosis. Crocidolite asbestos (100µg/50µL), TiO 2 (negative control), bleomycin (0.025 units/50µL), or PBS was instilled intratracheally in 8-10 week-old wild-type (WT - C57Bl/6J) or MCAT mice. The lungs were harvested at 21d. Lung fibrosis was quantified by collagen levels (Sircol) and lung fibrosis scores. AEC apoptosis was assessed by cleaved caspase-3 (CC-3)/Surfactant protein C (SFTPC) immunohistochemistry (IHC) and semi-quantitative analysis. AEC (primary AT2 cells from WT and MCAT mice and MLE-12 cells) mtDNA damage was assessed by a quantitative PCR-based assay, apoptosis was assessed by DNA fragmentation, and ROS production was assessed by a Mito-Sox assay. Compared to WT, crocidolite-exposed MCAT mice exhibit reduced pulmonary fibrosis as measured by lung collagen levels and lung fibrosis score. The protective effects in MCAT mice were accompanied by reduced AEC mtDNA damage and apoptosis. Similar findings were noted following bleomycin exposure. Euk-134, a mitochondrial SOD/catalase mimetic, attenuated MLE-12 cell DNA damage and apoptosis. Finally, compared to WT, asbestos-induced MCAT AT2 cell ROS production was reduced. Our finding that MCAT mice have reduced pulmonary fibrosis, AEC mtDNA damage and apoptosis following exposure to asbestos or bleomycin suggests an important role

  4. Optimal conditions in (/sup 3/H)-thymidine uptake studies to prevent radiation damage to cells. A scintimetric and cytofluorographic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Arguelles, A; Llorente, L; Diaz-Jouanen, E; Alarcon-Segovia, D [Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion, Mexico City

    1981-12-01

    Cells subjected to nucleoside incorporation studies using radiolabelled materials may suffer radiation damage that can alter the results. Scintimetric and cytofluorographic analyses were performed to confirm this and to determine the optimal experimental doses of, and exposure times to, (/sup 3/H)-TdR, in order to prevent or minimize such radiation damage to cells. The results showed that cultures of human mononuclear cells should be pulsed with 0.125 ..mu..Ci for 14 hr when stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin, 0.125 ..mu..Ci for 18 hr when stimulated with pokeweed mitogen, 0.5 ..mu..Ci for 8 hr when stimulated with concanavalin A and 0.5 ..mu..Ci for 8 hr when subjected to allogeneic stimulus, in order to achieve optimal incorporation with minimal disturbances of the cell cycle.

  5. Lovastatin prevents cisplatin-induced activation of pro-apoptotic DNA damage response (DDR) of renal tubular epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krüger, Katharina; Ziegler, Verena; Hartmann, Christina; Henninger, Christian [Institute of Toxicology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Thomale, Jürgen [Institute of Cell Biology, University Duisburg-Essen, 45122 Essen (Germany); Schupp, Nicole [Institute of Toxicology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Fritz, Gerhard, E-mail: fritz@uni-duesseldorf.de [Institute of Toxicology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    The platinating agent cisplatin (CisPt) is commonly used in the therapy of various types of solid tumors. The anticancer efficacy of CisPt largely depends on the formation of bivalent DNA intrastrand crosslinks, which stimulate mechanisms of the DNA damage response (DDR), thereby triggering checkpoint activation, gene expression and cell death. The clinically most relevant adverse effect associated with CisPt treatment is nephrotoxicity that results from damage to renal tubular epithelial cells. Here, we addressed the question whether the HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitor lovastatin affects the DDR of renal cells by employing rat renal proximal tubular epithelial (NRK-52E) cells as in vitro model. The data show that lovastatin has extensive inhibitory effects on CisPt-stimulated DDR of NRK-52E cells as reflected on the levels of phosphorylated ATM, Chk1, Chk2, p53 and Kap1. Mitigation of CisPt-induced DDR by lovastatin was independent of the formation of DNA damage as demonstrated by (i) the analysis of Pt-(GpG) intrastrand crosslink formation by Southwestern blot analyses and (ii) the generation of DNA strand breaks as analyzed on the level of nuclear γH2AX foci and employing the alkaline comet assay. Lovastatin protected NRK-52E cells from the cytotoxicity of high CisPt doses as shown by measuring cell viability, cellular impedance and flow cytometry-based analyses of cell death. Importantly, the statin also reduced the level of kidney DNA damage and apoptosis triggered by CisPt treatment of mice. The data show that the lipid-lowering drug lovastatin extensively counteracts pro-apoptotic signal mechanisms of the DDR of tubular epithelial cells following CisPt injury. - Highlights: • Lovastatin blocks ATM/ATR-regulated DDR of tubular cells following CisPt treatment. • Lovastatin attenuates CisPt-induced activation of protein kinase ATM in vitro. • Statin-mediated DDR inhibition is independent of initial DNA damage formation. • Statin-mediated blockage of Cis

  6. Lovastatin prevents cisplatin-induced activation of pro-apoptotic DNA damage response (DDR) of renal tubular epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krüger, Katharina; Ziegler, Verena; Hartmann, Christina; Henninger, Christian; Thomale, Jürgen; Schupp, Nicole; Fritz, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The platinating agent cisplatin (CisPt) is commonly used in the therapy of various types of solid tumors. The anticancer efficacy of CisPt largely depends on the formation of bivalent DNA intrastrand crosslinks, which stimulate mechanisms of the DNA damage response (DDR), thereby triggering checkpoint activation, gene expression and cell death. The clinically most relevant adverse effect associated with CisPt treatment is nephrotoxicity that results from damage to renal tubular epithelial cells. Here, we addressed the question whether the HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitor lovastatin affects the DDR of renal cells by employing rat renal proximal tubular epithelial (NRK-52E) cells as in vitro model. The data show that lovastatin has extensive inhibitory effects on CisPt-stimulated DDR of NRK-52E cells as reflected on the levels of phosphorylated ATM, Chk1, Chk2, p53 and Kap1. Mitigation of CisPt-induced DDR by lovastatin was independent of the formation of DNA damage as demonstrated by (i) the analysis of Pt-(GpG) intrastrand crosslink formation by Southwestern blot analyses and (ii) the generation of DNA strand breaks as analyzed on the level of nuclear γH2AX foci and employing the alkaline comet assay. Lovastatin protected NRK-52E cells from the cytotoxicity of high CisPt doses as shown by measuring cell viability, cellular impedance and flow cytometry-based analyses of cell death. Importantly, the statin also reduced the level of kidney DNA damage and apoptosis triggered by CisPt treatment of mice. The data show that the lipid-lowering drug lovastatin extensively counteracts pro-apoptotic signal mechanisms of the DDR of tubular epithelial cells following CisPt injury. - Highlights: • Lovastatin blocks ATM/ATR-regulated DDR of tubular cells following CisPt treatment. • Lovastatin attenuates CisPt-induced activation of protein kinase ATM in vitro. • Statin-mediated DDR inhibition is independent of initial DNA damage formation. • Statin-mediated blockage of Cis

  7. Disruption of the ECM33 Gene in Candida albicans Prevents Biofilm Formation, Engineered Human Oral Mucosa Tissue Damage and Gingival Cell Necrosis/Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Rouabhia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we demonstrated that ΔCaecm33 double mutant showed reduced biofilm formation and causes less damage to gingival mucosa tissues. This was confirmed by the reduced level of necrotic cells and Bax/Bcl2 gene expression as apoptotic markers. In contrast, parental and Caecm33 mutant strains decreased basement membrane protein production (laminin 5 and type IV collagen. We thus propose that ECM33 gene/protein represents a novel target for the prevention and treatment of infections caused by Candida.

  8. Carnitine prevents the early mitochondrial damage induced by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) in L1210 leukaemia cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikula, P; Ruohola, H; Alhonen-Hongisto, L; Jänne, J

    1985-01-01

    We previously found that the anti-cancer drug methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (mitoguazone) depresses carnitine-dependent oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in cultured mouse leukaemia cells [Nikula, Alhonen-Hongisto, Seppänen & Jänne (1984) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 120, 9-14]. We have now investigated whether carnitine also influences the development of the well-known mitochondrial damage produced by the drug in L1210 leukaemia cells. Palmitate oxidation was distinctly inhibited in...

  9. The hydrogen sulfide donor, Lawesson's reagent, prevents alendronate-induced gastric damage in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, L.A.D. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Silva, R.O.; Damasceno, S.R.B.; Carvalho, N.S.; Costa, N.R.D. [Laboratório de Fisiofarmacologia Experimental, Centro de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Parnaíba, PI (Brazil); Aragão, K.S. [Laboratório de Farmacologia da Inflamação e do Câncer, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Barbosa, A.L.R. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Laboratório de Fisiofarmacologia Experimental, Centro de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Parnaíba, PI (Brazil); Soares, P.M.G.; Souza, M.H.L.P. [Laboratório de Farmacologia da Inflamação e do Câncer, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Medeiros, J.V.R. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Laboratório de Fisiofarmacologia Experimental, Centro de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Parnaíba, PI (Brazil)

    2013-08-16

    Our objective was to investigate the protective effect of Lawesson's reagent, an H{sub 2}S donor, against alendronate (ALD)-induced gastric damage in rats. Rats were pretreated with saline or Lawesson's reagent (3, 9, or 27 µmol/kg, po) once daily for 4 days. After 30 min, gastric damage was induced by ALD (30 mg/kg) administration by gavage. On the last day of treatment, the animals were killed 4 h after ALD administration. Gastric lesions were measured using a computer planimetry program, and gastric corpus pieces were assayed for malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β], and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Other groups were pretreated with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip) or with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip)+diazoxide (3 mg/kg, ip). After 1 h, 27 µmol/kg Lawesson's reagent was administered. After 30 min, 30 mg/kg ALD was administered. ALD caused gastric damage (63.35±9.8 mm{sup 2}); increased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA (2311±302.3 pg/mL, 901.9±106.2 pg/mL, 121.1±4.3 nmol/g, respectively); increased MPO activity (26.1±3.8 U/mg); and reduced GSH levels (180.3±21.9 µg/g). ALD also increased cystathionine-γ-lyase immunoreactivity in the gastric mucosa. Pretreatment with Lawesson's reagent (27 µmol/kg) attenuated ALD-mediated gastric damage (15.77±5.3 mm{sup 2}); reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA formation (1502±150.2 pg/mL, 632.3±43.4 pg/mL, 78.4±7.6 nmol/g, respectively); lowered MPO activity (11.7±2.8 U/mg); and increased the level of GSH in the gastric tissue (397.9±40.2 µg/g). Glibenclamide alone reversed the gastric protective effect of Lawesson's reagent. However, glibenclamide plus diazoxide did not alter the effects of Lawesson's reagent. Our results suggest that Lawesson's reagent plays a protective role against ALD-induced gastric damage through mechanisms that depend at least in part on activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (K

  10. The hydrogen sulfide donor, Lawesson's reagent, prevents alendronate-induced gastric damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau, L.A.D.; Silva, R.O.; Damasceno, S.R.B.; Carvalho, N.S.; Costa, N.R.D.; Aragão, K.S.; Barbosa, A.L.R.; Soares, P.M.G.; Souza, M.H.L.P.; Medeiros, J.V.R.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the protective effect of Lawesson's reagent, an H 2 S donor, against alendronate (ALD)-induced gastric damage in rats. Rats were pretreated with saline or Lawesson's reagent (3, 9, or 27 µmol/kg, po) once daily for 4 days. After 30 min, gastric damage was induced by ALD (30 mg/kg) administration by gavage. On the last day of treatment, the animals were killed 4 h after ALD administration. Gastric lesions were measured using a computer planimetry program, and gastric corpus pieces were assayed for malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β], and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Other groups were pretreated with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip) or with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip)+diazoxide (3 mg/kg, ip). After 1 h, 27 µmol/kg Lawesson's reagent was administered. After 30 min, 30 mg/kg ALD was administered. ALD caused gastric damage (63.35±9.8 mm 2 ); increased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA (2311±302.3 pg/mL, 901.9±106.2 pg/mL, 121.1±4.3 nmol/g, respectively); increased MPO activity (26.1±3.8 U/mg); and reduced GSH levels (180.3±21.9 µg/g). ALD also increased cystathionine-γ-lyase immunoreactivity in the gastric mucosa. Pretreatment with Lawesson's reagent (27 µmol/kg) attenuated ALD-mediated gastric damage (15.77±5.3 mm 2 ); reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA formation (1502±150.2 pg/mL, 632.3±43.4 pg/mL, 78.4±7.6 nmol/g, respectively); lowered MPO activity (11.7±2.8 U/mg); and increased the level of GSH in the gastric tissue (397.9±40.2 µg/g). Glibenclamide alone reversed the gastric protective effect of Lawesson's reagent. However, glibenclamide plus diazoxide did not alter the effects of Lawesson's reagent. Our results suggest that Lawesson's reagent plays a protective role against ALD-induced gastric damage through mechanisms that depend at least in part on activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channels

  11. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment? A randomized crossover study among farmers in Chitwan, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2016-01-01

    Background: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. Objective: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophosphate...... exposure among farmers. Methods: In a crossover study, 45 male farmers from Chitwan, Nepal, were randomly allocated to work as usual applying organophosphate pesticides wearing Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment or Daily Practice Clothing. For seven days before each experiment, each farmer.......08; 0.06]. Wearing the Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment versus Daily Practice Clothing gave the following results, respectively: comfort 75.6% versus 100%, sense of heat 64.4% versus 31.3%, other problems 44.4% versus 33.3%, like-ability 95.6% versus 77.8%. Conclusion: We cannot support...

  12. Early MEK1/2 Inhibition after Global Cerebral Ischemia in Rats Reduces Brain Damage and Improves Outcome by Preventing Delayed Vasoconstrictor Receptor Upregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Sara Ellinor; Larsen, Stine Schmidt; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global cerebral ischemia following cardiac arrest is associated with increased cerebral vasoconstriction and decreased cerebral blood flow, contributing to delayed neuronal cell death and neurological detriments in affected patients. We hypothesize that upregulation of contractile ETB...... and 5-HT1B receptors, previously demonstrated in cerebral arteries after experimental global ischemia, are a key mechanism behind insufficient perfusion of the post-ischemic brain, proposing blockade of this receptor upregulation as a novel target for prevention of cerebral hypoperfusion and delayed...... neuronal cell death after global cerebral ischemia. The aim was to characterize the time-course of receptor upregulation and associated neuronal damage after global ischemia and investigate whether treatment with the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 can prevent cerebrovascular receptor upregulation and thereby...

  13. Physical exercise prevents short and long-term deficits on aversive and recognition memory and attenuates brain oxidative damage induced by maternal deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ben-Hur; Menezes, Jefferson; Souza, Mauren Assis; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

    2015-12-01

    It is known from previous research that physical exercise prevents long-term memory deficits induced by maternal deprivation in rats. But we could not assume similar effects of physical exercise on short-term memory, as short- and long-term memories are known to result from some different memory consolidation processes. Here we demonstrated that, in addition to long-term memory deficit, the short-term memory deficit resultant from maternal deprivation in object recognition and aversive memory tasks is also prevented by physical exercise. Additionally, one of the mechanisms by which the physical exercise influences the memory processes involves its effects attenuating the oxidative damage in the maternal deprived rats' hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

  14. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  15. Treatment with metallothionein prevents demyelination and axonal damage and increases oligodendrocyte precursors and tissue repair during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan

    2003-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). EAE and MS are characterized by significant inflammation, demyelination, neuroglial damage, and cell death. Metallothionein-I and -II (MT-I + II) are antiinflammatory an......)beta, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), NT-4/5, and nerve growth factor (NGF). These beneficial effects of Zn-MT-II treatment could not be attributable to its zinc content per se. The present results support further the use of Zn-MT-II as a safe and successful therapy for multiple sclerosis....

  16. Intake of Po-210 into the body through the damaged skin and efficiency of some methods in preventing its absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyin, L.A.; Ivannikov, A.T.; Bazhin, A.G.; Konstantinova, T.P.; Altukhova, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    The metabolic behaviour of 210 Po nitrate arising from contamination of damaged skin (stabbed, cutaneous and muscular wounds and abrasions) of rats and the efficiency of some methods of decontaminating the wounds and stimulating 210 Po removal from the body, have been studied. The decontamination efficiency obtained, by wiping and washing the wound surface with oxatiol, by surgical incision of the wounds, and by parenteral oxatiol injections, are compared. The accumulation of 210 Po in various organs and tissues of rats after the different decontamination routines had been carried out are shown tabulated. (U.K.)

  17. Dietary antioxidants prevent age-related retinal pigment epithelium actin damage and blindness in mice lacking αvβ5 integrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Chia; Nandrot, Emeline F.; Dun, Ying; Finnemann, Silvia C.

    2011-01-01

    In the aging human eye, oxidative damage and accumulation of pro-oxidant lysosomal lipofuscin cause functional decline of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which contributes to age-related macular degeneration. In mice with an RPE-specific phagocytosis defect due to lack of αvβ5 integrin receptors, RPE accumulation of lipofuscin suggests that the age-related blindness we previously described in this model may also result from oxidative stress. Cellular and molecular targets of oxidative stress in the eye remain poorly understood. Here we identify actin among 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) adducts formed specifically in β5−/− RPE but not neural retina with age. HNE modification directly correlated with loss of resistance of actin to detergent extraction, suggesting cytoskeletal damage in aging RPE. Dietary enrichment with natural antioxidants grapes or marigold extract containing macular pigments lutein/zeaxanthin was sufficient to prevent HNE-adduct formation, actin solubility, lipofuscin accumulation, and age-related cone and rod photoreceptor dysfunction in β5−/− mice. Acute generation of HNE-adducts directly destabilized actin but not tubulin cytoskeletal elements of RPE cells. These findings identify destabilization of the actin cytoskeleton as a consequence of physiological, sublethal oxidative burden of RPE cells in vivo that is associated with age-related blindness and that can be prevented by consuming an antioxidant-rich diet. PMID:22178979

  18. Prevention of short-term ultraviolet B radiation-mediated damages by resveratrol in SKH-1 hairless mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afaq, Farrukh; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Ahmad, Nihal

    2003-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most common cancer among humans and solar UV radiation, particularly its UVB component (290-320 nm), is its major cause. One way to reduce the occurrence of the cancer is via the use of substances (often antioxidants) termed 'photochemopreventive agents'. Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a phytoalexin found in grapes, nuts, fruits, and red wine, is a potent antioxidant with strong anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative properties. This study was designed to examine whether resveratrol possesses the potential to ameliorate the damages caused by short-term UVB exposure to mouse skin. Single topical application of resveratrol (25 μmol/0.2 ml acetone per mouse) to SKH-1 hairless mice was found to result in significant inhibition of UVB (180 mJ/cm 2 )-mediated increase in bifold skin thickness and skin edema. The resveratrol treatment to mouse skin was also found to result in significant inhibition of UVB-mediated induction of cyclooxygenase and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) enzyme activities and protein expression of ODC, which are well-established markers for tumor promotion. We also observed that resveratrol inhibits UVB-mediated increased level of lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that resveratrol may afford substantial protection against the damages caused by UVB exposure, and these protective effects may be mediated via its antioxidant properties

  19. Cost-Effective and Environmentally Safe Corrosion Prevention for 2nd Marine Air Wing Support Equipment Using Desiccant Wheel Dehumidification (DEW)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, David

    1994-01-01

    ...: change the material, coat its surface or keep the item dry. In an effort to reduce the cost and environmental impact of maintaining contingency support equipment, the 2nd Marine Air Wing (2nd MAW...

  20. Sequestosome 1 Deficiency Delays, but Does Not Prevent Brain Damage Formation Following Acute Brain Injury in Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sebastiani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal degeneration following traumatic brain injury (TBI leads to intracellular accumulation of dysfunctional proteins and organelles. Autophagy may serve to facilitate degradation to overcome protein debris load and therefore be an important pro-survival factor. On the contrary, clearing may serve as pro-death factor by removal of essential or required proteins involved in pro-survival cascades. Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1/p62 is a main regulator of the autophagic pathway that directs ubiquinated cargoes to autophagosomes for degradation. We show that SQSTM1 protein levels are suppressed 24 h and by trend 5 days after trauma. In line with these data the expression of Sqstm1 mRNA is reduced by 30% at day 3 after and stays depressed until day 5 after injury, indicating an impaired autophagy post controlled cortical impact (CCI. To determine the potential role of SQSTM1-dependent autophagy after TBI, mice lacking SQSTM1 (SQSTM1-KO and littermates (WT were subjected to CCI and brain lesion volume was determined 24 h and 5 days after insult. Lesion volume is 17% smaller at 24 h and immunoblotting reveals a reduction by trend of cell death marker αII-spectrin cleavage. But there is no effect on brain damage and cell death markers 5 days after trauma in SQSTM1-KO compared with WT. In line with these data neurofunctional testing does not reveal any differences. Additionally, gene expression of inflammatory (Tnf-α, iNos, Il-6, and Il-1β and protein degradation markers (Bag1 and Bag3 were quantified by real-time PCR. Protein levels of LC3, BAG1, and BAG3 were analyzed by immunoblotting. Real-time PCR reveals minor changes in inflammatory marker gene expression and reduced Bag3 mRNA levels 5 days after trauma. Immunoblotting of autophagy markers LC3, BAG1, and BAG3 does not show any difference between KO and WT 24 h and 5 days after TBI. In conclusion, genetic ablation of SQSTM1-dependent autophagy leads to a delay but shows no persistent effect on post

  1. Dehydroepiandrosterone restores hepatocellular function and prevents liver damage in estrogen-deficient females following trauma and hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebler, J F; Jarrar, D; Wang, P; Bland, K I; Chaudry, I H

    2001-05-15

    Recent studies have shown that administration of the sex steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in males following trauma-hemorrhagic shock has salutary effects on the depressed cardiovascular and immunological functions under those conditions. Since the effects of sex steroids are gender specific, we examined whether administration of DHEA has any beneficial effects on hepatocellular function in female rats with low estrogen levels following trauma-hemorrhage. Ovariectomy was performed in female Sprague-Dawley rats 14 days prior to the experiments. The animals then underwent a 5-cm midline laparotomy and were subjected to hemorrhagic shock (40 mm Hg for 90 min). This was followed by fluid resuscitation (Ringer's lactate over 60 min) and administration of DHEA (30 mg/kg BW) or vehicle subcutaneously at the end of resuscitation. At 24 h after resuscitation hepatocellular function, i.e., clearance of indocyanine green (ICG), and hepatocyte damage (serum alanine aminotransferase) were measured. Plasma levels of DHEA and 17beta-estradiol were also assayed. Vehicle-treated rats had significantly reduced hepatocellular function, increased ALT activity, and decreased levels of 17beta-estradiol following trauma-hemorrhage compared to sham-operated animals (P trauma-hemorrhage, hepatocellular function and ALT activity were similar to those of shams. However, administration of DHEA did not influence the plasma levels of 17beta-estradiol. Administration of DHEA following trauma-hemorrhage restored hepatocellular function and reduced hepatic damage that was observed in ovariectomized female rats under such conditions. This salutary effect of DHEA did not appear to be due to elevated levels of plasma 17beta-estradiol. We therefore propose that DHEA should be considered a novel, safe, and useful adjunct in the treatment of trauma-induced hepatocellular dysfunction in ovariectomized and postmenopausal females. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  2. BL153 Partially Prevents High-Fat Diet Induced Liver Damage Probably via Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to investigate whether a magnolia extract, named BL153, can prevent obesity-induced liver damage and identify the possible protective mechanism. To this end, obese mice were induced by feeding with high fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal as fat and the age-matched control mice were fed with control diet (10% kcal as fat for 6 months. Simultaneously these mice were treated with or without BL153 daily at 3 dose levels (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg by gavage. HFD feeding significantly increased the body weight and the liver weight. Administration of BL153 significantly reduced the liver weight but without effects on body weight. As a critical step of the development of NAFLD, hepatic fibrosis was induced in the mice fed with HFD, shown by upregulating the expression of connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor beta 1, which were significantly attenuated by BL153 in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanism study revealed that BL153 significantly suppressed HFD induced hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress and slightly prevented liver inflammation. These results suggest that HFD induced fibrosis in the liver can be prevented partially by BL153, probably due to reduction of hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  3. A milk-based wolfberry preparation prevents prenatal stress-induced cognitive impairment of offspring rats, and inhibits oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhihui; Jia, Haiqun; Li, Xuesen; Bai, Zhuanli; Liu, Zhongbo; Sun, Lijuan; Zhu, Zhongliang; Bucheli, Peter; Ballèvre, Olivier; Wang, Junkuan; Liu, Jiankang

    2010-05-01

    Lycium barbarum (Fructus Lycii, Wolfberry, or Gouqi) belongs to the Solanaceae. The red-colored fruits of L. barbarum have been used for a long time as an ingredient in Chinese cuisine and brewing, and also in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for improving health. However, its effects on cognitive function have not been well studied. In the present study, prevention of a milk-based wolfberry preparation (WP) on cognitive dysfunction was tested in a prenatal stress model with rats and the antioxidant mechanism was tested by in vitro experiments. We found that prenatal stress caused a significant decrease in cognitive function (Morris water maze test) in female offspring. Pretreatment of the mother rats with WP significantly prevented the prenatal stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. In vitro studies showed that WP dose-dependently scavenged hydroxyl and superoxide radicals (determined by an electron spin resonance spectrometric assay), and inhibited FeCl(2)/ascorbic acid-induced dysfunction in brain tissue and tissue mitochondria, including increases in reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation and decreases in the activities of complex I, complex II, and glutamate cysteine ligase. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with WP may be an effective strategy for preventing the brain oxidative mitochondrial damage and cognitive dysfunction associated with prenatal stress.

  4. N-acetylcysteine prevents HIV gp 120-related damage of human cultured astrocytes: correlation with glutamine synthase dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Nicola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV envelope gp 120 glycoprotein is released during active HIV infection of brain macrophages thereby generating inflammation and oxidative stress which contribute to the development of the AIDS-Dementia Complex (ADC. Gp120 has also been found capable to generate excitotoxic effect on brain tissue via enhancement of glutamatergic neurotransmission, leading to neuronal and astroglial damage, though the mechanism is still to be better understood. Here we investigated on the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, on gp120-induced damage in human cultured astroglial cells and the possible contribution of gp120-related reacting oxygen species (ROS in the imbalanced activity of glutamine synthase (GS, the enzyme that metabolizes glutamate into glutamine within astroglial cells playing a neuroprotective role in brain disorders. Results Incubation of Lipari human cultured astroglial cells with gp 120 (0.1–10 nM produced a significant reduction of astroglial cell viability and apoptosis as evaluated by TUNEL reaction and flow cytometric analysis (FACS. This effect was accompanied by lipid peroxidation as detected by means of malondialdehyde assay (MDA. In addition, gp 120 reduced both glutamine concentration in astroglial cell supernatants and GS expression as detected by immunocytochemistry and western blotting analysis. Pre-treatment of cells with NAC (0.5–5 mM, dose-dependently antagonised astroglial apoptotic cell death induced by gp 120, an effect accompanied by significant attenuation of MDA accumulation. Furthermore, both effects were closely associated with a significant recovery of glutamine levels in cell supernatants and by GS expression, thus suggesting that overproduction of free radicals might contribute in gp 120-related dysfunction of GS in astroglial cells. Conclusion In conclusion, the present experiments demonstrate that gp 120 is toxic to astroglial cells, an effect accompanied by lipid peroxidation and by altered

  5. Method to prevent ejecta from damaging the Compact Torus Accelerator driver of an inertial fusion energy power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattingly, S.E.K.; Moir, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Concern has been expressed about the conceptual design of fusion reactors using a Compact Torus Accelerator (CTA). A CTA accelerates a plasma torus toward a fusion target. When the torus nears the target, it is compressed and focused down to a small volume, creating a very high energy density and initiating a fusion micro explosion. The focusing cone is destroyed with each shot due to the stress from the passage of the torus as well as from the force of the explosion (1 800 MJ of yield, ∼0.5 Ton TNT equivalent). The focusing cone could be made of solidified Li 2 BeF 4 ; the same material used in liquid state to protect the reaction chamber from the micro explosion and to transport heat away to a power plant. The problem with this design is that when the focusing cone is shattered, the resulting small pieces of solid and liquid debris (ejecta) might be carded along by the expanding vapor of the explosion and might enter the CTA itself, causing damage and shortening the life of the CTA. The proposed solution for this possible problem is to bend the focusing cone so that the ejecta no longer have a clear path to the CTA. Calculations show that the plasma torus may be sent through a radius of curvature of less than 0.5 m just after the focusing cone, without significantly disturbing the plasma

  6. Flow measurement in turbine bearings. A measure to prevent damage; Durchflussmessung an Turbinenlagern. Eine Massnahme zur Verhuetung von Schaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagler, T. [STEAG AG, Heizkraftwerk Herne (Germany); Schenk, K. [STEAG AG, Essen (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    The temperature of sliding bearings for turbines, pumps, compressors, blowers and motors is normally continually monitored. Depending on the type of construction and size of the aggregates, it has been common practice since the beginning of 1960 to measure the temperature of the bearing metal directly instead of the outflowing oil. Provided measurements are made also in areas of the highest surface compression, any deficiency, i.e. overload due to increasing bearing metal temperatues, are noticed at an early stage. In case of other design types, however, serious damage might result. But also serious maintenance errors due to the closure of bearing oil flow have forced us to implement more suitable measuring measures, one of them being an ultrasonic quantity measurement, that can be refurbished without great expenditure during operation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Gleitlager fuer Turbinen, Pumpen, Verdichter, Geblaese, Getriebe und Motoren werden ueblicherweise kontinuierlich temperaturmaessig ueberwacht. Seit Anfang 1960 werden je nach Bauart und Groesse der Aggregate Temperaturen nicht mehr des ablaufendes Oeles, sondern des Weissmetalls direkt gemessen. Vorausgesetzt, es wird auch im Bereich der hoechsten Flaechenpressung gemessen, werden Maengel, d.h. Ueberbelastung durch ansteigende Weissmetalltemperaturen, schnell erkannt. Bei anderen Konstruktionen hingegen kann es zu schweren Schaeden kommen. Aber auch gravierende Wartungsfehler durch Verschluss der Lageroelzufuhr haben uns gezwungen, geeignetere Messmethoden anzuwenden. Hierzu gehoert eine Mengenmessung mittels Ultraschall, die ohne viel Aufwand waehrend des Betriebes nachgeruestet werden kann. (orig.)

  7. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Treated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammed Riaz Hasan; Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah; Hossain, Hemayet; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2015-01-01

    Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (-)-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA), nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP), and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level) and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats.

  8. Tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone induces hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory response, but not apoptosis in mouse: The prevention of curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Demei; Hu, Lihua; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Zhang, Pu; Fu, Juanli; Wang, Wenchao; Xu, Duo; Du, Hong; Hu, Qiuling; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of curcumin on tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone (TCBQ)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. TCBQ-treatment causes significant liver injury (the elevation of serum AST and ALT activities, histopathological changes in liver section including centrilobular necrosis and inflammatory cells), oxidative stress (the elevation of TBAR level and the inhibition of SOD and catalase activities) and inflammation (up-regulation of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB). However, these changes were alleviated upon pretreatment with curcumin. Interestingly, TCBQ has no effect on caspase family genes or B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) protein expressions, which implied that TCBQ-induced hepatotoxicity is independent of apoptosis. Moreover, curcumin was shown to induce phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and NQO1 through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2). In summary, the protective mechanisms of curcumin against TCBQ-induced hepatoxicity may be related to the attenuation of oxidative stress, along with the inhibition of inflammatory response via the activation of Nrf2 signaling. - Highlights: • TCBQ-intoxication significantly increased AST and ALT activities. • TCBQ-intoxication induced oxidative stress in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced inflammatory response in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced hepatotoxicity is independent of apoptosis. • Curcumin relieved TCBQ-induced liver damage remarkably

  9. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4 Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Riaz Hasan Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (−-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA, nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP, and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats.

  10. Tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone induces hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory response, but not apoptosis in mouse: The prevention of curcumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Demei; Hu, Lihua; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Zhang, Pu; Fu, Juanli; Wang, Wenchao; Xu, Duo; Du, Hong; Hu, Qiuling; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang, E-mail: songyangwenrong@hotmail.com

    2014-10-15

    This study investigated the protective effects of curcumin on tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone (TCBQ)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. TCBQ-treatment causes significant liver injury (the elevation of serum AST and ALT activities, histopathological changes in liver section including centrilobular necrosis and inflammatory cells), oxidative stress (the elevation of TBAR level and the inhibition of SOD and catalase activities) and inflammation (up-regulation of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB). However, these changes were alleviated upon pretreatment with curcumin. Interestingly, TCBQ has no effect on caspase family genes or B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) protein expressions, which implied that TCBQ-induced hepatotoxicity is independent of apoptosis. Moreover, curcumin was shown to induce phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and NQO1 through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2). In summary, the protective mechanisms of curcumin against TCBQ-induced hepatoxicity may be related to the attenuation of oxidative stress, along with the inhibition of inflammatory response via the activation of Nrf2 signaling. - Highlights: • TCBQ-intoxication significantly increased AST and ALT activities. • TCBQ-intoxication induced oxidative stress in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced inflammatory response in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced hepatotoxicity is independent of apoptosis. • Curcumin relieved TCBQ-induced liver damage remarkably.

  11. SRSF1 Prevents DNA Damage and Promotes Tumorigenesis through Regulation of DBF4B Pre-mRNA Splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulated alternative splicing events have been implicated in many types of cancer, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we observe that the splicing factor SRSF1 regulates DBF4B exon6 splicing by specifically binding and promoting its inclusion. Knockdown of the exon6-containing isoform (DBF4B-FL significantly inhibits the tumorigenic potential of colon cancer cells in vitro and in mice, and SRSF1 inactivation phenocopies DBF4B-FL depletion. DBF4B-FL and SRSF1 are required for cancer cell proliferation and for the maintenance of genomic stability. Overexpression of DBF4B-FL can protect against DNA damage induced by SRSF1 knockdown and rescues growth defects in SRSF1-depleted cells. Increased DBF4B exon6 inclusion parallels SRSF1 upregulation in clinical colorectal cancer samples. Taken together, our findings identify SRSF1 as a key regulator of DBF4B pre-mRNA splicing dysregulation in colon cancer, with possible clinical implications as candidate prognostic factors in cancer patients.

  12. The prevention of radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human intestinal epithelial cells by salvianic acid A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of radiation always provokes public debate, and the uses of radiation for therapeutic and other purposes have always been associated with some anxiety. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge has been widely used for the treatment of various diseases including cerebrovascular diseases, coronary artery diseases, and myocardial infarction. Salvianolic acid A (SAA d (+-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl lactic acid is the principal effective, watersoluble constituent of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. In our present study, radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC in the presence and absence of SAA were examined. We investigated the effects of SAA on ROS formation and the activity of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, the lipid peroxidative index and the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidant (GSH. Finally, we investigated whether the reduction of radiation-induced cell death caused by SAA might be related to mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Present findings indicate that SAA is a promising radioprotective agent with a strong antioxidant activity. SAA exerted its protective action on the proliferative activity of HIEC cells as evidenced by decreased cytotoxicity after exposure to γ-radiation. It is possible that SAA achieved its radioprotective action, at least in part, by enhancing DNA repair and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, by scavenging ROS and by inhibiting the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway.

  13. Peptidylarginine deiminases: novel drug targets for prevention of neuronal damage following hypoxic ischemic insult (HI) in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Sigrun; Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Thei, Laura; Mawjee, Priyanka; Bennett, Kate; Thompson, Paul R; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Nicholas, Anthony P; Peebles, Donald; Hristova, Mariya; Raivich, Gennadij

    2014-08-01

    Neonatal hypoxic ischaemic (HI) injury frequently causes neural impairment in surviving infants. Our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still limited. Protein deimination is a post-translational modification caused by Ca(+2) -regulated peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), a group of five isozymes that display tissue-specific expression and different preference for target proteins. Protein deimination results in altered protein conformation and function of target proteins, and is associated with neurodegenerative diseases, gene regulation and autoimmunity. In this study, we used the neonatal HI and HI/infection [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation] murine models to investigate changes in protein deimination. Brains showed increases in deiminated proteins, cell death, activated microglia and neuronal loss in affected brain areas at 48 h after hypoxic ischaemic insult. Upon treatment with the pan-PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine, a significant reduction was seen in microglial activation, cell death and infarct size compared with control saline or LPS-treated animals. Deimination of histone 3, a target protein of the PAD4 isozyme, was increased in hippocampus and cortex specifically upon LPS stimulation and markedly reduced following Cl-amidine treatment. Here, we demonstrate a novel role for PAD enzymes in neural impairment in neonatal HI Encephalopathy, highlighting their role as promising new candidates for drug-directed intervention in neurotrauma. Hypoxic Ischaemic Insult (HI) results in activation of peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) because of calcium dysregulation. Target proteins undergo irreversible changes of protein bound arginine to citrulline, resulting in protein misfolding. Infection in synergy with HI causes up-regulation of TNFα, nuclear translocation of PAD4 and change in gene regulation as a result of histone deimination. Pharmacological PAD inhibition significantly reduced HI brain damage. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry

  14. Ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi prevents oxidative damage and neuroinflammation and memorial impairments in artificial senescense mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Youkyung

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aging is a progressive process related to the accumulation of oxidative damage and neuroinflammation. We tried to find the anti-amnesic effect of the Scutellaria baicalens Georgia (SBG ethanol extract and its major ingredients. The antioxidative effect of SBG on the mice model with memory impairment induced by chronic injection of D-galactose and sodium nitrate was studied. The Y-maze test was used to evaluate the learning and memory function of mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and the content of malondialdehyde in brain tissue were used for the antioxidation activities. Neuropathological alteration and expression of bcl-2 protein were investigated in the hippocampus by immunohistochemical staining. ROS, neuroinflammation and apoptosis related molecules expression such as Cox-2, iNOS, procaspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, 8 and 9, bcl-2 and bax protein and the products of iNOS and Cox-2, NO, PGE2, were studied using LPS-activated Raw 264.7 cells and microglia BV2 cells. The cognition of mice was significantly improved by the treatment of baicalein and 50 and 100 mg/kg of SBG in Y-maze test. Both SBG groups showed strong antioxidation, antiinflammation effects with significantly decreased iNOS and Cox-2 expression, NO and PGE2 production, increased bcl-2 and decreased bax and cleaved caspase-3 protein expression in LPS induced Raw 264.7 and BV2 cells. We also found that apoptotic pathway was caused by the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway with the decreased cleaved caspase-9 and unchanged cleaved caspase-8 expression. These findings suggest that SBG, especially high dose, 100 mg/kg, improved the memory impairments significantly and showed antioxidation, antiinflammation and intrinsic caspase-mediated apoptosis effects.

  15. Magnesium chloride alone or in combination with diazepam fails to prevent hippocampal damage following transient forebrain ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Milani

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available In the central nervous system, magnesium ion (Mg2+ acts as an endogenous modulator of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-coupled calcium channels, and may play a major role in the pathomechanisms of ischemic brain damage. In the present study, we investigated the effects of magnesium chloride (MgCl2, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 mmol/kg, either alone or in combination with diazepam (DZ, on ischemia-induced hippocampal cell death. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g were subjected to transient forebrain ischemia for 15 min using the 4-vessel occlusion model. MgCl2 was applied systemically (sc in single (1x, 2 h post-ischemia or multiple doses (4x, 1, 2, 24 and 48 h post-ischemia. DZ was always given twice, at 1 and 2 h post-ischemia. Thus, ischemia-subjected rats were assigned to one of the following treatments: vehicle (0.1 ml/kg, N = 34, DZ (10 mg/kg, N = 24, MgCl2 (2.5 mmol/kg, N = 10, MgCl2 (5.0 mmol/kg, N = 17, MgCl2 (7.5 mmol/kg, N = 9 or MgCl2 (5 mmol/kg + DZ (10 mg/kg, N = 14. Seven days after ischemia the brains were analyzed histologically. Fifteen minutes of ischemia caused massive pyramidal cell loss in the subiculum (90.3% and CA1 (88.4% sectors of the hippocampus (P0.05. Both DZ alone and DZ + MgCl2 reduced rectal temperature significantly (P<0.05. No animal death was observed after drug treatment. These data indicate that exogenous magnesium, when administered systemically post-ischemia even in different multiple dose schedules, alone or with diazepam, is not useful against the histopathological effects of transient global cerebral ischemia in rats.

  16. The omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, prevents the damaging effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha during murine skeletal muscle cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Stephen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA is a ώ-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with anti-inflammatory and anti-cachetic properties that may have potential benefits with regards to skeletal muscle atrophy conditions where inflammation is present. It is also reported that pathologic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α are associated with muscle wasting, exerted through inhibition of myogenic differentiation and enhanced apoptosis. These findings led us to hypothesize that EPA may have a protective effect against skeletal muscle damage induced by the actions of TNF-α. Results The deleterious effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis were completely inhibited by co-treatment with EPA. Thus, EPA prevented the TNF-mediated loss of MyHC expression and significantly increased myogenic fusion (p p p p p p Conclusion In conclusion, EPA has a protective action against the damaging effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis. These findings support further investigations of EPA as a potential therapeutic agent during skeletal muscle regeneration following injury.

  17. 6-Gingerol-Rich Fraction from Zingiber officinale Prevents Hematotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Kidney and Liver of Rats Exposed to Carbendazim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Mariama; Ajayi, Babajide O; Adedara, Isaac A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a globally marketed flavoring agent and cooking spice with a long history of human health benefits. The fungicide carbendazim (CBZ) is often detected in fruits and vegetables for human nutrition and has been reported to elicit toxic effects in different experimental animal models. The present study investigated the protective effects of 6-Gingerol-rich fraction (6-GRF) from ginger on hematotoxicity and hepatorenal damage in rats exposed to CBZ. CBZ was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg alone or simultaneously administered with 6-GRF at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, whereas control rats received corn oil alone at 2 mL/kg for 14 days. Hematological examination showed that CBZ-mediated toxicity to the total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets counts were normalized to the control values in rats cotreated with 6-GRF. Moreover, administration of CBZ significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase as well as glutathione level in the livers and kidneys of rats compared with control. However, the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde were markedly elevated in kidneys and livers of CBZ-treated rats compared with control. The significant elevation in the plasma indices of renal and hepatic dysfunction in CBZ-treated rats was confirmed by light microscopy. Coadministration of 6-GRF exhibited chemoprotection against CBZ-mediated hematotoxicity, augmented antioxidant status, and prevented oxidative damage in the kidney and liver of rats.

  18. Fisetin Regulates Nrf2 Expression and the Inflammation-Related Signaling Pathway to Prevent UVB-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yuan Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic ultraviolet (UV exposure may cause skin damage, disrupt skin barrier function, and promote wrinkle formation. UV induces oxidative stress and inflammation, which results in extracellular matrix degradation in the dermis and epidermal hyperplasia. Our previous study demonstrated that fisetin exerts photoprotective activity by inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinase/activator protein-1/matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs activation. In this study, fisetin was applied topically to investigate its antiphotodamage effects in hairless mice. The erythema index (a* values and transepidermal water loss were evaluated to assess skin damage, and immunohistochemical staining was conducted to elucidate the photoprotective mechanism of fisetin. The results revealed that the topical application of fisetin reduced UVB-induced increase in the a* value and wrinkle formation. In addition, fisetin inhibited epidermal hyperplasia and increased the collagen content in the dermis. Fisetin exerted photoprotective activity by inhibiting the expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, and cyclooxygenase-2 and increasing the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor. Furthermore, fisetin increased the expression of filaggrin to prevent UVB-induced barrier function disruption. Altogether, the present results provide evidence of the effects and mechanisms of fisetin’s antiphotodamage and antiphotoinflammation activities.

  19. Fisetin Regulates Nrf2 Expression and the Inflammation-Related Signaling Pathway to Prevent UVB-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Po-Yuan; Lyu, Jia-Ling; Liu, Yi-Jung; Chien, Ting-Yi; Hsu, Hao-Cheng; Wen, Kuo-Ching; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei

    2017-10-10

    Chronic ultraviolet (UV) exposure may cause skin damage, disrupt skin barrier function, and promote wrinkle formation. UV induces oxidative stress and inflammation, which results in extracellular matrix degradation in the dermis and epidermal hyperplasia. Our previous study demonstrated that fisetin exerts photoprotective activity by inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinase/activator protein-1/matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activation. In this study, fisetin was applied topically to investigate its antiphotodamage effects in hairless mice. The erythema index (a* values) and transepidermal water loss were evaluated to assess skin damage, and immunohistochemical staining was conducted to elucidate the photoprotective mechanism of fisetin. The results revealed that the topical application of fisetin reduced UVB-induced increase in the a* value and wrinkle formation. In addition, fisetin inhibited epidermal hyperplasia and increased the collagen content in the dermis. Fisetin exerted photoprotective activity by inhibiting the expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, and cyclooxygenase-2 and increasing the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor. Furthermore, fisetin increased the expression of filaggrin to prevent UVB-induced barrier function disruption. Altogether, the present results provide evidence of the effects and mechanisms of fisetin's antiphotodamage and antiphotoinflammation activities.

  20. Multiple low-dose radiation prevents type 2 diabetes-induced renal damage through attenuation of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance and subsequent renal inflammation and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglong Shao

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and lipotoxicity-induced insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress are the key pathogeneses of renal damage in type 2 diabetes. Increasing evidence shows that whole-body low dose radiation (LDR plays a critical role in attenuating insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress.The aims of the present study were to investigate whether LDR can prevent type 2 diabetes-induced renal damage and the underlying mechanisms.Mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 40% of calories from fat for 12 weeks to induce obesity followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg to develop a type 2 diabetic mouse model. The mice were exposed to LDR at different doses (25, 50 and 75 mGy for 4 or 8 weeks along with HFD treatment. At each time-point, the kidney weight, renal function, blood glucose level and insulin resistance were examined. The pathological changes, renal lipid profiles, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis were also measured.HFD/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic mice exhibited severe pathological changes in the kidney and renal dysfunction. Exposure of the mice to LDR for 4 weeks, especially at 50 and 75 mGy, significantly improved lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity and protein kinase B activation, meanwhile, attenuated inflammation and oxidative stress in the diabetic kidney. The LDR-induced anti-oxidative effect was associated with up-regulation of renal nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2 expression and function. However, the above beneficial effects were weakened once LDR treatment was extended to 8 weeks.These results suggest that LDR exposure significantly prevented type 2 diabetes-induced kidney injury characterized by renal dysfunction and pathological changes. The protective mechanisms of LDR are complicated but may be mainly attributed to the attenuation of dyslipidemia and the subsequent lipotoxicity-induced insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  1. Taurine: A Potential Ergogenic Aid for Preventing Muscle Damage and Protein Catabolism and Decreasing Oxidative Stress Produced by Endurance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia G. De Carvalho

    2017-09-01

    did not improve aerobic parameters, but was effective in increasing taurine plasma levels and decreasing oxidative stress markers, which suggests that taurine may prevent oxidative stress in triathletes.

  2. [Hydrotherapy equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibikov, V B; Ragozin, S I; Mikheeva, L V

    1985-01-01

    A flow-chart is developed demonstrating the relation between medical and prophylactic institutions within the organizational structure of the rehabilitation system and main types of rehabilitation procedures. In order to ascertain the priority in equipping rehabilitation services with adequate hardware the special priority criterion is introduced. The highest priority is assigned to balneotherapeutic and fangotherapeutic services. Based on the operation-by-operation analysis of clinical processes related to service and performance of balneologic procedures the preliminary set of clinical devices designed for baths, basins and showers in hospitals and rehabilitation departments is defined in a generalized form.

  3. Increased protein damage in renal glomeruli, retina, nerve, plasma and urine and its prevention by thiamine and benfotiamine therapy in a rat model of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachalias, N; Babaei-Jadidi, R; Rabbani, N; Thornalley, P J

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify protein damage by glycation, oxidation and nitration in a rat model of diabetes at the sites of development of microvascular complications, including the effects of thiamine and benfotiamine therapy. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by 55 mg/kg streptozotocin and moderated by insulin (2 U twice daily). Diabetic and control rats were given thiamine or benfotiamine (7 or 70 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) over 24 weeks. Plasma, urine and tissues were collected and analysed for protein damage by stable isotopic dilution analysis MS. There were two- to fourfold increases in fructosyl-lysine and AGE content of glomerular, retinal, sciatic nerve and plasma protein in diabetes. Increases in AGEs were reversed by thiamine and benfotiamine therapy but increases in fructosyl-lysine were not. Methionine sulfoxide content of plasma protein and 3-nitrotyrosine content of sciatic nerve protein were increased in diabetes. Plasma glycation free adducts were increased up to twofold in diabetes; the increases were reversed by thiamine. Urinary excretion of glycation, oxidation and nitration free adducts was increased by seven- to 27-fold in diabetes. These increases were reversed by thiamine and benfotiamine therapy. AGEs, particularly arginine-derived hydroimidazolones, accumulate at sites of microvascular complication development and have markedly increased urinary excretion rates in experimental diabetes. Thiamine and benfotiamine supplementation prevented tissue accumulation and increased urinary excretion of protein glycation, oxidation and nitration adducts. Similar effects may contribute to the reversal of early-stage clinical diabetic nephropathy by thiamine.

  4. Gamma ray induced oxidative damage to human red blood cells proteins under hypotonic conditions and its prevention by natural phenolic malabaricone compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshi, K.; Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    As an oxygen shuttle, Human RBCs must continue to perform the task while being exposed to a wide range of environments for each vascular circuit and to a variety of xenobiotics across its life time. The inability to synthesise new protein makes them uniquely vulnerable to oxidative stress. Antioxidants can help in protecting the RBCs from oxidative insults. Currently herbal antioxidants gained worldwide popularity as drugs and food/drug supplements for the treatment of various diseases. The present effort was aimed at formulating some natural phenolic compounds isolated from M.malabarica (mal B and mal C) to prevent the biochemical parameters which are considered as biomarkers of redox balance primarily contribute to alterations in red blood cells proteins during gamma radiation induced oxidative stress. Compared to control gamma ray treatment with hypotonic stress resulted in significant haemolysis, associated with increased MDA (3.3 fold, p<0.001) and met-haemoglobin (7.0 fold, p<0.001). The structural deformation due to membrane damage was confirmed from SEM images and Heinz body formation, while the cell permeability was evident from the K + efflux (30.4%, p<0.05) and increased intracellular Na + concentration (5.2%, p<0.05). The membrane damage, due to the reduction of the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio and depletion (p<0.001) of ATP, 2,3-DPG by 54.7% and Na + -K + ATPase activity (48.%) indicated loss of RBC functionally. Pre-treatment of the RBCs with mal B (5μM), mal C (2.5 μM) or vitamin E (50 μM) for 1 h reversed these adverse effects of gamma radiation under hypotonic conditions on all these parameters and provided significant protection against oxidative haemolysis. (author)

  5. Equipment repair in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S

    1982-01-01

    Most equipment in Chinese coal mines consists of machinery and equipment produced in the 1950s; the efficiency of 4-62, CTD-57 and 70B/sub 2/ ventilators is 15% lower than that of new ones; that of SSM and AYaP pumps, 10% lower than of modern ones. Equipment renovation is done in three ways: replacing obsolete equipment with new equipment of the same type; improving the performance of existing equipment by introducing efficiency and reconstruction; and replacing obsolete equipment with advanced equipment. It is indicated that the second way, for example, replacement of 4-62 ventilator blades with a maximum efficiency of 73% by 4-72 ventilator blades raises its efficiency to 90%. Replacing the 8DA-8x3 water pump, having a maximum efficiency of 63%, with the 200D 43x3 pump with a maximum efficiency of 78%, enables an electricity savings of 7000 yuan per year, which exceeds all replacement costs (600 yuan). The need to improve equipment maintenance and preventive work to increase equipment service life and to introduce new techniques and efficiency is noted.

  6. Antibodies trap tissue migrating helminth larvae and prevent tissue damage by driving IL-4Rα-independent alternative differentiation of macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Esser-von Bieren

    Full Text Available Approximately one-third of the world's population suffers from chronic helminth infections with no effective vaccines currently available. Antibodies and alternatively activated macrophages (AAM form crucial components of protective immunity against challenge infections with intestinal helminths. However, the mechanisms by which antibodies target these large multi-cellular parasites remain obscure. Alternative activation of macrophages during helminth infection has been linked to signaling through the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Rα, but the potential effects of antibodies on macrophage differentiation have not been explored. We demonstrate that helminth-specific antibodies induce the rapid trapping of tissue migrating helminth larvae and prevent tissue necrosis following challenge infection with the natural murine parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hp. Mice lacking antibodies (JH (-/- or activating Fc receptors (FcRγ(-/- harbored highly motile larvae, developed extensive tissue damage and accumulated less Arginase-1 expressing macrophages around the larvae. Moreover, Hp-specific antibodies induced FcRγ- and complement-dependent adherence of macrophages to larvae in vitro, resulting in complete larval immobilization. Antibodies together with helminth larvae reprogrammed macrophages to express wound-healing associated genes, including Arginase-1, and the Arginase-1 product L-ornithine directly impaired larval motility. Antibody-induced expression of Arginase-1 in vitro and in vivo occurred independently of IL-4Rα signaling. In summary, we present a novel IL-4Rα-independent mechanism of alternative macrophage activation that is antibody-dependent and which both mediates anti-helminth immunity and prevents tissue disruption caused by migrating larvae.

  7. Taurine prevents arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative stress and apoptotic damage: Role of NF-κB, p38 and JNK MAPK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Jyotirmoy; Das, Joydeep; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to its complex pathogenesis. However, little is known about the mechanism of arsenic-induced cardiac abnormalities and the use of antioxidants as the possible protective agents in this pathophysiology. Conditionally essential amino acid, taurine, accounts for 25% to 50% of the amino acid pool in myocardium and possesses antioxidant properties. The present study has, therefore, been carried out to investigate the underlying mechanism of the beneficial role of taurine in arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative damage and cell death. Arsenic reduced cardiomyocyte viability, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and intracellular calcium overload, and induced apoptotic cell death by mitochondrial dependent caspase-3 activation and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These changes due to arsenic exposure were found to be associated with increased IKK and NF-κB (p65) phosphorylation. Pre-exposure of myocytes to an IKK inhibitor (PS-1145) prevented As-induced caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Arsenic also markedly increased the activity of p38 and JNK MAPKs, but not ERK to that extent. Pre-treatment with SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) attenuated NF-κB and IKK phosphorylation indicating that p38 and JNK MAPKs are mainly involved in arsenic-induced NF-κB activation. Taurine treatment suppressed these apoptotic actions, suggesting that its protective role in arsenic-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis is mediated by attenuation of p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways. Similarly, arsenic intoxication altered a number of biomarkers related to cardiac oxidative stress and other apoptotic indices in vivo and taurine supplementation could reduce it. Results suggest that taurine prevented arsenic-induced myocardial pathophysiology, attenuated NF-κB activation via IKK, p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways and could possibly provide a protection against As

  8. Development of a national system for prevention and mitigation of earthquake damages to people and properties, and the reduction of costs related to earthquakes for the Italian Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Console, R.; Greco, M.; Colangelo, A.; Cioè, A.; Trivigno, L.; Chiappini, M.; Ponzo, F.

    2015-12-01

    Recognizing that the Italian territory is prone to disasters in connection with seismic and hydro-geological risk, it has become necessary to define novel regulations and viable solutions aimed at conveying the economical resources of the Italian Government, too often utilized for the management of post-event situations, towards prevention activities. The work synthetically presents the project developed by the CGIAM together with the INGV, and open to collaboration with other Italian and International partners. This project is aimed at the development of a National System for prevention and mitigation of the earthquakes damages, through the definition of a model that achieves the mitigation of the building collapsing risk and the consequent reduction of casualties. Such a model is based on two main issues a) a correct evaluation of risk, defined as a reliable assessment of the hazard expected at a given site and of the vulnerability of civil and industrial buildings, b) setting up of novel strategies for the safety of buildings. The hazard assessment is pursued through the application of innovative multidisciplinary geophysical methodologies and the application of a physically based earthquake simulator. The structural vulnerability of buildings is estimated by means of simplified techniques based on few representative parameters (such as different structural typologies, dynamic soil-structure interaction, etc.) and, for detailed studies, standard protocols for model updating techniques. We analyze, through numerical and experimental approaches, new solutions for the use of innovative materials, and new techniques for the reduction of seismic vulnerability of structural, non-structural and accessorial elements, including low cost type. The project activities are initially implemented on a study area in Southern Italy (Calabria) selected because of its tectonic complexity. The results are expected to be applicable for other hazardous seismic areas of Italy.

  9. The effectiveness of neuromuscular warm-up strategies, that require no additional equipment, for preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Katherine; Barton, Christian; Malliaras, Peter; Morrissey, Dylan

    2012-07-19

    Lower limb injuries in sport are increasingly prevalent and responsible for large economic as well as personal burdens. In this review we seek to determine which easily implemented functional neuromuscular warm-up strategies are effective in preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation and in which sporting groups they are effective. Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to January 2012 for studies investigating neuromuscular warm-up strategies and injury prevention. The quality of each included study was evaluated using a modified version of the van Tulder scale. Data were extracted from each study and used to calculate the risk of injury following application of each evaluated strategy. Nine studies were identified including six randomized controlled trials (RCT) and three controlled clinical trials (CCT). Heterogeneity in study design and warm-up strategies prevented pooling of results. Two studies investigated male and female participants, while the remaining seven investigated women only. Risk Ratio (RR) statistics indicated 'The 11+' prevention strategy significantly reduces overall (RR 0.67, confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 0.84) and overuse (RR 0.45, CI 0.28 to 0.71) lower limb injuries as well as knee (RR 0.48, CI 0.32 to 0.72) injuries among young amateur female footballers. The 'Knee Injury Prevention Program' (KIPP) significantly reduced the risk of noncontact lower limb (RR 0.5, CI 0.33 to 0.76) and overuse (RR 0.44, CI 0.22 to 0.86) injuries in young amateur female football and basketball players. The 'Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance' (PEP) strategy reduces the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries (RR 0.18, CI 0.08 to 0.42). The 'HarmoKnee' programme reduces the risk of knee injuries (RR 0.22, CI 0.06 to 0.76) in teenage female footballers. The 'Anterior Knee Pain Prevention Training Programme' (AKP PTP) significantly reduces the incidence of anterior knee pain (RR 0.27, CI 0.14 to 0.54) in

  10. The effectiveness of neuromuscular warm-up strategies, that require no additional equipment, for preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Katherine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower limb injuries in sport are increasingly prevalent and responsible for large economic as well as personal burdens. In this review we seek to determine which easily implemented functional neuromuscular warm-up strategies are effective in preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation and in which sporting groups they are effective. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to January 2012 for studies investigating neuromuscular warm-up strategies and injury prevention. The quality of each included study was evaluated using a modified version of the van Tulder scale. Data were extracted from each study and used to calculate the risk of injury following application of each evaluated strategy. Results Nine studies were identified including six randomized controlled trials (RCT and three controlled clinical trials (CCT. Heterogeneity in study design and warm-up strategies prevented pooling of results. Two studies investigated male and female participants, while the remaining seven investigated women only. Risk Ratio (RR statistics indicated 'The 11+' prevention strategy significantly reduces overall (RR 0.67, confidence interval (CI 0.54 to 0.84 and overuse (RR 0.45, CI 0.28 to 0.71 lower limb injuries as well as knee (RR 0.48, CI 0.32 to 0.72 injuries among young amateur female footballers. The 'Knee Injury Prevention Program' (KIPP significantly reduced the risk of noncontact lower limb (RR 0.5, CI 0.33 to 0.76 and overuse (RR 0.44, CI 0.22 to 0.86 injuries in young amateur female football and basketball players. The 'Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance' (PEP strategy reduces the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries (RR 0.18, CI 0.08 to 0.42. The 'HarmoKnee' programme reduces the risk of knee injuries (RR 0.22, CI 0.06 to 0.76 in teenage female footballers. The 'Anterior Knee Pain Prevention Training Programme' (AKP PTP significantly reduces the incidence of anterior

  11. Cryogenic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, L.; Javellaud, J.; Caro, C.; Gilguy, R.; Testard, O.

    1966-06-01

    The cryostats presented here were built from standard parts; this makes it possible to construct a great variety of apparatus at minimum cost. The liquid nitrogen and helium reservoirs were designed so as to reduce losses to a minimum, and so as to make the cryostats as autonomous as possible. The experimental enclosure which is generally placed in the lower part of the apparatus requires a separate study in every case. Furthermore, complete assemblies such as transfer rods, isolated traps and high vacuum valves, were designed with a similar regard for the economic aspects and for the need for standardization. This equipment thus satisfies a great variety of experimental needs; it is readily adaptable and the consumptions of helium and liquid nitrogen are very low. (authors) [fr

  12. 46 CFR 121.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 121.220 Section 121.220 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance... cooking appliance must be installed to prevent movement in heavy seas. (c) For a grill or similar type of...

  13. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance must be provided with hinges and locking devices to prevent...

  14. Improved estimates of separation distances to prevent unacceptable damage to nuclear power plant structures from hydrogen detonation for gaseous hydrogen storage. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This report provides new estimates of separation distances for nuclear power plant gaseous hydrogen storage facilities. Unacceptable damage to plant structures from hydrogen detonations will be prevented by having hydrogen storage facilities meet separation distance criteria recommended in this report. The revised standoff distances are based on improved calculations on hydrogen gas cloud detonations and structural analysis of reinforced concrete structures. Also, the results presented in this study do not depend upon equivalencing a hydrogen detonation to an equivalent TNT detonation. The static and stagnation pressures, wave velocity, and the shock wave impulse delivered to wall surfaces were computed for several different size hydrogen explosions. Separation distance equations were developed and were used to compute the minimum separation distance for six different wall cases and for seven detonating volumes (from 1.59 to 79.67 lbm of hydrogen). These improved calculation results were compared to previous calculations. The ratio between the separation distance predicted in this report versus that predicted for hydrogen detonation in previous calculations varies from 0 to approximately 4. Thus, the separation distances results from the previous calculations can be either overconservative or unconservative depending upon the set of hydrogen detonation parameters that are used. Consequently, it is concluded that the hydrogen-to-TNT detonation equivalency utilized in previous calculations should no longer be used

  15. Prevention of Medical Device-Related Pressure Injuries Associated With Respiratory Equipment Use in a Critical Care Unit: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Cynthia A; Paradis, Heidi; Goodwin, Robert; Lynch, Judith; Hegerich-Bartula, Deborah

    Medical devices have been identified as an extrinsic risk factor for development of pressure injuries, with as many as 30% to 70% of medical device-related pressure injuries resulting from respiratory equipment. This article describes a quality improvement project undertaken to reduce the occurrence of respiratory device-related pressure injuries in a critically care unit. Multiple actions were implemented to achieve this goal. Respiratory therapists were trained to document occurrences on a daily basis, and apparent cause analyses were conducted on each occurrence. An interdisciplinary team conducted biweekly rounds on patients with respiratory devices and consulted other professionals as indicated. Nurses and respiratory therapists attended an evidence-based, collaborative, educational offering and completed a measure of team functioning before the program and at the end of the study period. The occurrence rates of respiratory device-related pressure injuries were reduced over the project period, and these changes were sustained over the subsequent 12 months.

  16. X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.)

  17. X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-06

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.).

  18. Lansoprazole prevents experimental gastric injury induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs through a reduction of mucosal oxidative damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandizzi, Corrado; Fornai, Matteo; Colucci, Rocchina; Natale, Gianfranco; Lubrano, Valter; Vassalle, Cristina; Antonioli, Luca; Lazzeri, Gloria; Tacca, Mario Del

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This study investigated the mechanisms of protection afforded by the proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole against gastric injury induced by different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated with indomethacin (100 µmol/kg), diclofenac (60 µmol/kg), piroxicam (150 µmol/kg) or ketoprofen (150 µmol/kg). Thirty minutes before NSAIDs, animals were orally treated with lansoprazole 18 or 90 µmol/kg. Four hours after the end of treatments, the following parameters were assessed: gastric mucosal PGE2, malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) or non-proteic sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) levels; reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of mucosal COX-2 mRNA; gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated animals; in vitro effects of lansoprazole (1-300 µmol/L) on the oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) induced by copper sulphate. RESULTS: All NSAIDs elicited mucosal necrotic lesions which were associated with neutrophil infiltration and reduction of PGE2 levels. Increments of MPO and MDA contents, as well as a decrease in GSH levels were detected in the gastric mucosa of indomethacin- or piroxicam-treated animals. Indomethacin enhanced mucosal cyclooxygenase-2 expression, while not affecting cyclooxygenase-1. At the oral dose of 18 µmol/kg lansoprazole partly counteracted diclofenac-induced mucosal damage, whereas at 90 µmol/kg it markedly prevented injuries evoked by all test NSAIDs. Lansoprazole at 90 µmol/kg reversed also the effects of NSAIDs on MPO, MDA and GSH mucosal contents, without interfering with the decrease in PGE2 levels or indomethacin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression. However, both lansoprazole doses markedly inhibited acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. Lansoprazole concentration-dependently reduced the oxidation of LDLs in vitro. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that, besides the inhibition of acid secretion, lansoprazole protection against NSAID

  19. Ethical considerations for the design and implementation of child injury prevention interventions: the example of delivering and installing safety equipment into the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtes, Beatrice; Schröder-Bäck, Peter

    2017-12-11

    Public health ethics is a growing field of academic interest but ethical discussion of injury prevention seems to have received limited attention. Interventions that promise to be effective are not necessarily-without explicit justification-'good' and 'right' interventions in every sense. This paper explores public health ethics in the context of child injury prevention with the objective to initiate interdisciplinary dialogue on the ethics of child safety interventions. A framework of seven public health ethics principles (non-maleficence, health maximisation, beneficence, respect for autonomy, justice, efficiency and proportionality) were applied to an intervention to promote child safety in the home. Preventing child injury in the home is ethically challenging due to the requirement for the state to intervene in the private sphere. Non-maleficence and beneficence are difficult to judge within this intervention as these are likely to be highly dependent on the nature of intervention delivery, in particular, the quality of communication. Respect for autonomy is challenged by an intervention occurring in the home. The socioeconomic gradient in child injury risk is an important factor but a nuanced approach could help to avoid exacerbating inequalities or stigmatisation. Equally, a nuanced approach may be necessary to accommodate the principles of proportionality and efficiency within the local context. We conclude that this intervention is justifiable from an ethical perspective but that this type of reflection loop is helpful to identify the impact of interventions beyond effectiveness. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Application and issues of online maintenance for equipment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higasa, Hisakazu

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance systems for long-term safety and repair costs reduction of equipment of nuclear power plants are stated. Planned maintenance contained the breakdown maintenance (BM) and the preventive maintenance, which consists of the time based maintenance (MBM) and the condition based maintenance (CBM). Explained are the characteristics of equipments, maintenance methods, maintenance solutions and the self-evaluation maintenance power, damage mechanism and solutions, and monitoring tools and application. Stated are the maintenance system and application of monitoring technology, periodical maintenance, application of diagnosis, vibration monitoring techniques, decision of vibration monitoring, and application of monitoring techniques for improvement of maintenance. Illustrated are realization of planned maintenance by reorganization of maintenance, a trend of maintenance of equipments, table of classified maintenance systems, change of maintenance program, maintenance data and investigation of damage mechanism, examples of self-evaluation maintenance power, examples of analysis of damage of parts of equipments, evaluation of rotating machines by vibration method, examples of results of diagnosis of bearing of rotating machines, online maintenance system of Asahi Kasei Engineering Corporation, degradation pattern of pomp, estimation of lifetime by total vibration and vibration on acceleration, and improvement of equipments. (S.Y.)

  1. Managing Occupational Irritant Contact Dermatitis Using a Two-Step Skincare Regimen Designed to Prevent Skin Damage and Support Skin Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Grote, Erika C; Palaniswarmy, Kiruthi; Meckfessel, Matthew H

    2016-12-01

    Occupational irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) affecting the hands is a common and difficult-to-manage condition. Occupations that necessitate contact with harsh chemicals, use of alcohol-based disinfectants, and frequent hand washing elevate the risk of ICD. Management strategies that do not adequately prevent accumulated damage and repair skin, can develop into chronic dermatoses which negatively impact work productivity and quality of life. A 2-step skin-care regimen (Excipial Daily Protection Hand Cream (EP) and Excipial Rapid Repair Hand Cream (ER), Galderma Laboratories, L.P.) has been developed as a daily-use management strategy to protect and repair vulnerable hands. The protective barrier cream is formulated with aluminum chlorohydrate and designed for pre-exposure application to enhance the skin's natural protective barrier and minimize excessive moisture while wearing protective gloves. The repair cream, a lipid-rich formulation, is intended for post-exposure application to rehydrate and facilitate the skin's natural healing process. The results of 3 clinical studies highlighted in this review demonstrate how the use of a 2-step skin-care regimen offers a greater protective effect against ICD than the use of barrier cream alone, and also how the formulation of the barrier cream used in these studies helps minimize the occlusion effect caused by gloves and does not interfere with the antibacterial efficacy of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. This 2-step skin-care regimen is effectively designed to manage and minimize the risk of ICD development in a variety of patients and provides clinicians an additional tool for helping patients manage ICD. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(12):1504-1510.

  2. Medical Issues: Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > equipment Equipment Individuals with SMA often require a ...

  3. Preventative Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  4. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  5. DETECTION OF UNAUTHORIZED CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT IN PIPELINE RIGHT-OF-WAYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James E. Huebler

    2002-01-01

    Natural gas transmission companies mark the right-of-way areas where pipelines are buried with warning signs to prevent accidental third-party damage. Nevertheless, pipelines are sometimes damaged by third-party construction equipment. A single incident can be devastating, causing death and millions of dollars of property loss. This damage could be prevented if potentially hazardous construction equipment could be detected and identified before the pipeline was damaged. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a system to solve this problem by using an optical fiber as a distributed sensor and interrogating the fiber with an optical time domain reflectometer. Key issues are the ability to detect encroachment and the ability to discriminate among potentially hazardous and benign encroachment. The work performed in the first quarter of the project includes development of the Research Management Plan, writing a paper assessing of the state-of-the-art in encroachment and third party damage detection, and development of factors for selecting the optical fiber sensors

  6. Protective equipment use among female rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, R Dawn; Fields, Sarah K; Knox, Christy L

    2005-07-01

    Our objective was to assess the prevalence of protective equipment use and the motivation for using protective equipment among a sample of US female rugby players. We surveyed a convenience sample of 234 current US female rugby players from 14 teams participating in a US women's rugby tournament, obtaining self-reported demographic, rugby exposure, and protective equipment use information. Mouthguards were the most commonly used piece of protective equipment: 90.8% of players reported having always worn a mouthguard while playing or practicing rugby within their most recent 3 months of play. Fewer than 15% of players reported having always worn other types of protective equipment. Equipment use varied by playing position. Whereas over 80% of players in all other positions always wore a mouthguard, 66.7% of scrum halves reported always wearing one. Both backs and forwards reported wearing shoulder pads, but only forwards reported always wearing padded headgear. Mouthguards, padded headgear, and shoulder pads were worn "to prevent injury," whereas ankle braces, neoprene sleeves, and athletic tape on joints were worn "to protect a current/recent injury." This is the first study of female rugby players to assess the prevalence of protective equipment use by playing position and the motivation for using protective equipment. With the exception of mouthguards, US female rugby players infrequently use protective equipment. Protective equipment use varies by playing position. Some types of protective equipment appear to be used as primary prevention mechanisms, whereas others are used as secondary or tertiary prevention mechanisms.

  7. Selection of equipment for equipment qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torr, K.G.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the methodology applied in selecting equipment in the special safety systems for equipment qualification in the CANDU 600 MW nuclear generating stations at Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau. Included is an explanation of the selection procedure adopted and the rationale behind the criteria used in identifying the equipment. The equipment items on the list have been grouped into three priority categories as a planning aid to AECB staff for a review of the qualification status of the special safety systems

  8. Scalp cooling to prevent alopecia after chemotherapy can be considered safe in patients with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, C.J.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; Breed, W.P.M.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Nortier, J.

    2013-01-01

    With modern scalp cooling equipment cytotoxic damage of hair root cells can be prevented in half of the patients with cancer at high risk of alopecia. However, traditionally doubt has existed whether scalp cooling might facilitate hiding and disseminating scalp skin metastases and thus decrease

  9. [Public health, damage containment and the prevention of blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections: a review of the core concepts and their implementation in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Lucília de Almeida; Bastos, Francisco Inacio

    2011-12-01

    This article assesses the historical context and the conceptual frame of setting up damage containment programs in the field of public health, with special emphasis on the Brazilian experience. The survey seeks to assess the relevance of such programs in the ongoing efforts to curb the spread of blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections, especially AIDS and hepatitis C. Findings from both the Brazilian and the international literature demonstrate that practical damage containment initiatives tend to be more effective when integrated with other public health measures based on common goals. Damage containment initiatives, aligned with the basic principles of public health do not limit themselves to a priori models or health care per se. They encompass a variety of pragmatic measures based on public policies and should be in line with the demands of the communities since the moment of their inception and implemented in the context of full partnership with such communities.

  10. Survey of damage to 602 MR scanners after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Toshiharu; Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Tsuchihashi, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    An earthquake of 9.0 magnitude, the largest in modern Japanese history, struck east Japan on March 11, 2011. We investigated hazards and observations related to magnetic resonance (MR) scanners in this earthquake to evaluate potential risks and consider further prevention or minimization of damage from and injury of patients in such large earthquakes. The investigation team funded by MHLW sent questionnaires to the 984 facilities with installed MR scanners in the 7 prefectures of east Japan (Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima, Ibaraki, Chiba, Tokyo, Saitama) and collected 458 responses (46.6%) with information on 602 MR scanners (144 units≤0.5 tesla; 31 one-T units; 371 1.5-T units; and 56 units≥3 T). Significant differences in damage were observed between seismic scale 5 and 6 (χ 2 test, P<0.001 for all items of damage checked). The frequencies of typical damage were displacement of magnets (12.4%), failure of the chiller or air conditioning (9.6%), rapid decrease in liquid helium (8.4%), damage to magnet enclosure and its equipment (7.6%), damage to shielding of the MR scanner room (6.1%), damage to the quench duct (4.5%), breakage of devices anchoring system cabinets (4.4%), damage to the magnet base (3.9%), and flying of metal components (1.5%). Twelve facilities reported flooding by the subsequent tsunami, and quench was confirmed in 19 facilities. No fire damage was reported. It was confirmed that no one was severely injured in MR scanners, and base isolation of the building was very useful in completely preventing damage even at seismic scale 7. In the future, training for evacuation and establishment of a standard protocol for emergency shutdown of MR scanners, onsite checking by MR operators, and emergency power plant equipment to maintain chiller for MR scanners will further ensure MR safety in an earthquake. (author)

  11. Reactor fuel charging equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, Elman.

    1977-01-01

    In many types of reactor fuel charging equipment, tongs or a grab, attached to a trolley, housed in a guide duct, can be used for withdrawing from the core a selected spent fuel assembly or to place a new fuel assembly in the core. In these facilities, the trolley may have wheels that roll on rails in the guide duct. This ensures the correct alignment of the grab, the trolley and fuel assembly when this fuel assembly is being moved. By raising or lowering such a fuel assembly, the trolley can be immerged in the coolant bath of the reactor, whereas at other times it can be at a certain level above the upper surface of the coolant bath. The main object of the invention is to create a fuel handling apparatus for a sodium cooled reactor with bearings lubricated by the sodium coolant and in which the contamination of these bearings is prevented [fr

  12. CDK5-mediated phosphorylation of p19INK4d avoids DNA damage-induced neurodegeneration in mouse hippocampus and prevents loss of cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogara, María Florencia; Belluscio, Laura M; de la Fuente, Verónica; Berardino, Bruno G; Sonzogni, Silvina V; Byk, Laura; Marazita, Mariela; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2014-07-01

    DNA damage, which perturbs genomic stability, has been linked to cognitive decline in the aging human brain, and mutations in DNA repair genes have neurological implications. Several studies have suggested that DNA damage is also increased in brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, the precise mechanisms connecting DNA damage with neurodegeneration remain poorly understood. CDK5, a critical enzyme in the development of the central nervous system, phosphorylates a number of synaptic proteins and regulates dendritic spine morphogenesis, synaptic plasticity and learning. In addition to these physiological roles, CDK5 has been involved in the neuronal death initiated by DNA damage. We hypothesized that p19INK4d, a member of the cell cycle inhibitor family INK4, is involved in a neuroprotective mechanism activated in response to DNA damage. We found that in response to genotoxic injury or increased levels of intracellular calcium, p19INK4d is transcriptionally induced and phosphorylated by CDK5 which provides it with greater stability in postmitotic neurons. p19INK4d expression improves DNA repair, decreases apoptosis and increases neuronal survival under conditions of genotoxic stress. Our in vivo experiments showed that decreased levels of p19INK4d rendered hippocampal neurons more sensitive to genotoxic insult resulting in the loss of cognitive abilities that rely on the integrity of this brain structure. We propose a feedback mechanism by which the neurotoxic effects of CDK5-p25 activated by genotoxic stress or abnormal intracellular calcium levels are counteracted by the induction and stabilization of p19INK4d protein reducing the adverse consequences on brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevention measures for avoiding unexpected drifting of marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from sea water. Positioning and monitoring system for marine component and improvement of its positioning accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Masao; Kasai, Noboru; Seko, Noriaki; Hasegawa, Shin; Takeda, Hayato; Katakai, Akio; Sugo, Takanobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Kawabata, Yukiya [Ebara Reseach Co., Ltd., Fujisawa, Kanagawa (Japan); Onuma, Kenji [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    Positioning and monitoring system for marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from seawater with adsorbent was designed and assembled to avoid unexpected drifting accident. This system which was set on float part of the marine component obtains the positioning data from GPS satellites and sends them to Takasaki and Mutsu establishments through satellite communication. In both establishments, the position data were shown in computer displays. As characteristic test for 20 days in the real sea, 262 data were obtained every 2 hours. The twice of the distance root mean square (2DRMS) was 223.7 m. To improve this performance, three new functions were added to the present firmware. There are to raise positioning resolutions in longitude and latitude from 0.001 to 0.00001 degree, to remove the reflection of GPS signal from sea surface, and to average remaining three positioning data after maximum and minimum data were omitted from continuous five positioning data. The improved system shows the 2DRMS positioning of 15.5 m. This performance is enough to prevent marine component from its drifting accident. (author)

  14. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone prevents while methylone enhances methamphetamine-induced damage to dopamine nerve endings: β-ketoamphetamine modulation of neurotoxicity by the dopamine transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anneken, John H.; Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    Methylone, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), and mephedrone are psychoactive ingredients of ‘bath salts’ and their abuse represents a growing public health care concern. These drugs are cathinone derivatives and are classified chemically as β-ketoamphetamines. Because of their close structural similarity to the amphetamines, methylone, MDPV, and mephedrone share most of their pharmacological, neurochemical, and behavioral properties. One point of divergence in their actions is the ability to cause damage to the CNS. Unlike methamphetamine, the β-ketoamphetamines do not damage dopamine (DA) nerve endings. However, mephedrone has been shown to significantly accentuate methamphetamine neurotoxicity. Bath salt formulations contain numerous different psychoactive ingredients, and individuals who abuse bath salts also coabuse other illicit drugs. Therefore, we have evaluated the effects of methylone, MDPV, mephedrone, and methamphetamine on DA nerve endings. The β-ketoamphetamines alone or in all possible two-drug combinations do not result in damage to DA nerve endings but do cause hyperthermia. MDPV completely protects against the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine while methylone accentuates it. Neither MDPV nor methylone attenuates the hyperthermic effects of methamphetamine. The potent neuroprotective effects of MDPV extend to amphetamine-, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-, and MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. These results indicate that β-ketoamphetamine drugs that are non-substrate blockers of the DA transporter (i.e., MDPV) protect against methamphetamine neurotoxicity, whereas those that are substrates for uptake by the DA transporter and which cause DA release (i.e., methylone, mephedrone) accentuate neurotoxicity. PMID:25626880

  15. Nerve damage from diabetes - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000326.htm Nerve damage from diabetes - self-care To use the ... or at other unusual times. Treating and Preventing Nerve Damage from Diabetes Treating diabetic neuropathy can make ...

  16. Remote handling equipment for SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulten, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    This report gives information on the areas of the SNS, facility which become highly radioactive preventing hands-on maintenance. Levels of activity are sufficiently high in the Target Station Area of the SNS, especially under fault conditions, to warrant reactor technology to be used in the design of the water, drainage and ventilation systems. These problems, together with the type of remote handling equipment required in the SNS, are discussed

  17. 2006 equipment evolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArdle, D. [KMC Mining, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    KMC Mining is a privately-owned major mining contractor that was established in 1949. The company has a long history in construction of roads; railroads; dams; and other major earthworks. It is primarily involved in Alberta oilsands, although it has also performed elsewhere in northern and western Canada. This presentation provided a corporate overview of KMC Mining and discussed its fleet profile, operations and an overview of its South Tailings Pond Project. The company added 7 new 320 ton class haul trucks to its fleet in 2005 to match its shovel capacity. The presentation provided an overview of 3 separate incidents in 2005 that resulted in damage to the frame and steering linkage; tie-rod failure with both front struts separated from a truck; and tie-rod failure with left hand front strut separated from a truck. These incidents were described in detail and post-investigations were conducted. As a result of this investigation, some possible incident contributors were also discussed. Next, the presentation discussed mounting hardware and provided an overview of hardware failure and replacement hardware. Last, the presentation addressed incident reoccurrence mitigation. A reoccurrence prevention plan was developed, which included suspension mounting hardware; tie-rod inspection and re-design; and payload monitoring and operating practices. It was summarized that measures are still in place since the reoccurrence prevention plan and there have been no further incidents. figs.

  18. Incidents of chemical reactions in cell equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, N.M.; Barlow, C.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Strongly exothermic reactions can occur between equipment structural components and process gases under certain accident conditions in the diffusion enrichment cascades. This paper describes the conditions required for initiation of these reactions, and describes the range of such reactions experienced over nearly 50 years of equipment operation in the US uranium enrichment program. Factors are cited which can promote or limit the destructive extent of these reactions, and process operations are described which are designed to control the reactions to minimize equipment damage, downtime, and the possibility of material releases.

  19. Performance monitoring of safeguards equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirisena, K.; Peltoranta, M.; Goussarov, V.; Vodrazka, P.

    1999-01-01

    SGTCS is responsible for monitoring and reporting the performance of the SG equipment. Performance monitoring (PM) has been implemented in most important safeguards equipment operating unattended in nuclear facilities. Inspectors acquire equipment performance data in facilities. After inspection, the data package is submitted to SGTCS for processing and analysis. The performance data is used for identification of systems or components, which should be changed in the field and for identification of modules which, should be diagnosed at HQ in order to determine the cause of failure. Moreover, the performance data is used for preventive maintenance and spares distribution planning, and to provide statistics for official reports and management decision making. An important part of the performance monitoring is reporting. Equipment performance reports contain information about equipment inventory, utilization, failure types, failure distribution, and reliability. Trends in performance are given in graphical form in cases, where past data is available. Reliability estimates such as expected times between failures are provided. The automated reporting tools are obtainable through EMIS database application. (author)

  20. Equipment Reliability Process in Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluhak, M.

    2016-01-01

    To ensure long-term safe and reliable plant operation, equipment operability and availability must also be ensured by setting a group of processes to be established within the nuclear power plant. Equipment reliability process represents the integration and coordination of important equipment reliability activities into one process, which enables equipment performance and condition monitoring, preventive maintenance activities development, implementation and optimization, continuous improvement of the processes and long term planning. The initiative for introducing systematic approach for equipment reliability assuring came from US nuclear industry guided by INPO (Institute of Nuclear Power Operations) and by participation of several US nuclear utilities. As a result of the initiative, first edition of INPO document AP-913, 'Equipment Reliability Process Description' was issued and it became a basic document for implementation of equipment reliability process for the whole nuclear industry. The scope of equipment reliability process in Krsko NPP consists of following programs: equipment criticality classification, preventive maintenance program, corrective action program, system health reports and long-term investment plan. By implementation, supervision and continuous improvement of those programs, guided by more than thirty years of operating experience, Krsko NPP will continue to be on a track of safe and reliable operation until the end of prolonged life time. (author).

  1. Damage Mechanism of High Voltage Solar Arrays and Electronic Equipment in the Plasma Environment%高压太阳能电池阵与电子设备在等离子体环境中的毁伤机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施维; 郑步生; 刘少斌

    2015-01-01

    目的 通过研究高压太阳能电池阵与电子设备在等离子体环境中气体放电的毁伤机理,从而可运用于军事上的电子对抗、干扰及隐身技术.方法 通过分析气体放电的几种基本形式,研究太阳能电池阵和电子设备在等离子体射流或等离子体环境下可能发生的放电过程.结果 高压太阳能电池阵在等离子体环境下易产生电弧放电现象,而电子设备在此环境下的毁伤主要是通过内部充电与外部充电产生的.结论 在等离子体环境中,气体放电会对高压太阳能电池阵和电子设备产生严重的影响,可以利用这种影响对空间邻域的探索提供帮助.%Objective To research the damage mechanism of gas discharge of high voltage solar arrays and electronic equipment in the plasma environment in order to apply in electronic warfare, interference and military stealth technology. Methods By analysis of several basic forms of gas discharge, the discharge process of high voltage solar arrays and electronic equipment which may occur in the plasma jet or the plasma environment was researched. Results High voltage solar arrays were likely to generate arc discharge, and the damage of the electronic equipment was mainly caused by internal and external charging in this environment. Conclusion Gas discharge may have a serious effect on high voltage solar arrays and electronic equipment in the plasma environment. This effect may help to explore the spatial neighborhood.

  2. Air exposure behavior of the semiterrestrial crab Neohelice granulata allows tolerance to severe hypoxia but not prevent oxidative damage due to hypoxia-reoxygenation cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Tábata Martins; Geihs, Márcio Alberto; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia; Maciel, Fábio Everton

    2015-11-01

    The air exposure behavior of the semi-terrestrial crab Neohelice granulata during severe hypoxia was studied. This study also verified whether this behavior mitigates possible oxidative damage, namely lipoperoxidation, caused by hypoxia and reoxygenation cycles. The lethal time for 50% of the crabs subjected to severe hypoxia (0.5 mgO2 · L(-1)) with free access to air was compared to that of crabs subjected to severe hypoxia without access to air. Crabs were placed in aquaria divided into three zones: water (when the animal was fully submersed), land (when the animal was completely emerged) and intermediate (when the animal was in contact with both environments) zones. Then the crabs were held in this condition for 270 min, and the time spent in each zone was recorded. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) damage to the walking leg muscles was determined for the following four experimental conditions: a--normoxic water with free access to air; b--hypoxic water without access to air; c--hypoxic water followed by normoxic water without air access; and d--hypoxic water with free access to air. When exposed to hypoxic water, N. granulata spent significantly more time on land, 135.3 ± 17.7 min, whereas control animals (exposed to normoxic water) spent more time submerged, 187.4 ± 20.2 min. By this behavior, N. granulata was able to maintain a 100% survival rate when exposed to severe hypoxia. However, N. granulata must still return to water after periods of air exposure (~ 14 min), causing a sequence of hypoxia/reoxygenation events. Despite increasing the survival rate, hypoxia with air access does not decrease the lipid peroxidation damage caused by the hypoxia and reoxygenation cycle experienced by these crabs.

  3. Role of l-carnitine in the prevention of seminiferous tubules damage induced by gamma radiation: a light and electron microscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topcu-Tarladacalisir, Yeter; Kanter, Mehmet [Trakya University, Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Edirne (Turkey); Uzal, Mustafa Cem [Trakya University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Edirne (Turkey)

    2009-08-15

    The present study, we hypothesized that l-carnitine can minimize germ-cell depletion and morphological features of late cell damage in the rat testis following gamma ({gamma})-irradiation. Wistar albino male rats were divided into three groups. Control group received physiological saline 0.2 ml intraperitoneally (i.p.), as placebo. Radiation group received scrotal {gamma}-irradiation of 10 Gy as a single dose plus physiological saline. Radiation + l-carnitine group received scrotal {gamma}-irradiation plus 200 mg/kg i.p. l-carnitine. l-carnitine starting 1 day before irradiation and 21 days (three times per week) after irradiation. Testis samples of the all groups were taken at day 21, 44 and 70 post-irradiation. All samples were processed at the light and electron microscopic levels. Morphologically, examination of {gamma}-irradiated testis revealed presence of marked disorganization and depletion of germ cells, arrest of spermatogenesis, formation of multinucleated giant cells, and vacuolization in the germinal epithelium. The type and extent of these changes varied at different post-treatment intervals. The damage was evident at the 21st day and reached maximum level by the 44th day. By day 44 post-irradiation, the changes were most advanced, and were associated with atrophied seminiferous tubules without germ cells, the increase in the number and size of vacuolizations in germinal epithelium, and the absent multinucleated giant cells due to spermatids had completely disappeared. The increase in nucleus invaginations, the dilatation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum cysternas and the increase in the number and size of lipid droplets in the Sertoli cells were determined at the electron microscopic level. In conclusion, l-carnitine supplementation during the radiotherapy would be effective in protecting against radiation-induced damages in rat testis, and thereby may improve the quality of patient's life after the therapy. (orig.)

  4. Role of l-carnitine in the prevention of seminiferous tubules damage induced by gamma radiation: a light and electron microscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcu-Tarladacalisir, Yeter; Kanter, Mehmet; Uzal, Mustafa Cem

    2009-01-01

    The present study, we hypothesized that l-carnitine can minimize germ-cell depletion and morphological features of late cell damage in the rat testis following gamma (γ)-irradiation. Wistar albino male rats were divided into three groups. Control group received physiological saline 0.2 ml intraperitoneally (i.p.), as placebo. Radiation group received scrotal γ-irradiation of 10 Gy as a single dose plus physiological saline. Radiation + l-carnitine group received scrotal γ-irradiation plus 200 mg/kg i.p. l-carnitine. l-carnitine starting 1 day before irradiation and 21 days (three times per week) after irradiation. Testis samples of the all groups were taken at day 21, 44 and 70 post-irradiation. All samples were processed at the light and electron microscopic levels. Morphologically, examination of γ-irradiated testis revealed presence of marked disorganization and depletion of germ cells, arrest of spermatogenesis, formation of multinucleated giant cells, and vacuolization in the germinal epithelium. The type and extent of these changes varied at different post-treatment intervals. The damage was evident at the 21st day and reached maximum level by the 44th day. By day 44 post-irradiation, the changes were most advanced, and were associated with atrophied seminiferous tubules without germ cells, the increase in the number and size of vacuolizations in germinal epithelium, and the absent multinucleated giant cells due to spermatids had completely disappeared. The increase in nucleus invaginations, the dilatation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum cysternas and the increase in the number and size of lipid droplets in the Sertoli cells were determined at the electron microscopic level. In conclusion, l-carnitine supplementation during the radiotherapy would be effective in protecting against radiation-induced damages in rat testis, and thereby may improve the quality of patient's life after the therapy. (orig.)

  5. Directive about environmental responsibility. Prevention and reparation of damage; La directiva sobre responsabilidad medioambiental. La prevencion y la reparacion de danos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, S.

    2003-07-01

    The concerns arising from recent accidents in some industrial plants as well as in some mining complex and,very specially, those accidents suffered by vessels that carried oil products, have made the authorities and the public to be aware of the high costs that represent the damaged naturals habitats and contaminated sites restoration. The lack of a common normative frame in the EU, relative to environmental liability, has been clearly shown and has led to the adoption of initiatives which taken shape in a Directive that aims to regulate this subject in the UE scope. (Author)

  6. Ultrasonic Guided Wave Technology for Non-Invasive Assessment of Corrosion-Induced Damage in Piping for Pollution Prevention in DOD Fuel Storage Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    using a mixture of rock salt and tap water. A combination of lacquer and duct tape was used to mask the desired corrosion areas and to prevent excessive...Corrosion Measurements," NDT efT E International, Vol. 37, No.3, 2004, pp. 167-180. Demma, A, P. Cawley, M. Lowe and B. Pavlakovic, "The Effect of

  7. Shipboard and laboratory equipment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shyamprasad, M.; Ramaswamy, V.

    The polymetallic nodules occur at an average depth of 4500 m. Adequate equipment and techniques are required for the exploration at such depths. Shipboard and various laboratory equipments for the sampling of polymetallic nodules is described...

  8. Remote handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, G.

    1984-01-01

    After a definition of intervention, problems encountered for working in an adverse environment are briefly analyzed for development of various remote handling equipments. Some examples of existing equipments are given [fr

  9. BP volume reduction equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yoshinori; Muroo, Yoji; Hamanaka, Isao

    2003-01-01

    A new type of burnable poison (BP) volume reduction system is currently being developed. Many BP rods, a subcomponent of spent fuel assemblies are discharged from nuclear power reactors. This new system reduces the overall volume of BP rods. The main system consists of BP rod cutting equipment, equipment for the recovery of BP cut pieces, and special transport equipment for the cut rods. The equipment is all operated by hydraulic press cylinders in water to reduce operator exposure to radioactivity. (author)

  10. Predictive Maintenance of Power Substation Equipment by Infrared Thermography Using a Machine-Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ullah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A variety of reasons, specifically contact issues, irregular loads, cracks in insulation, defective relays, terminal junctions and other similar issues, increase the internal temperature of electrical instruments. This results in unexpected disturbances and potential damage to power equipment. Therefore, the initial prevention measures of thermal anomalies in electrical tools are essential to prevent power-equipment failure. In this article, we address this initial prevention mechanism for power substations using a computer-vision approach by taking advantage of infrared thermal images. The thermal images are taken through infrared cameras without disturbing the working operations of power substations. Thus, this article augments the non-destructive approach to defect analysis in electrical power equipment using computer vision and machine learning. We use a total of 150 thermal pictures of different electrical equipment in 10 different substations in operating conditions, using 300 different hotspots. Our approach uses multi-layered perceptron (MLP to classify the thermal conditions of components of power substations into “defect” and “non-defect” classes. A total of eleven features, which are first-order and second-order statistical features, are calculated from the thermal sample images. The performance of MLP shows initial accuracy of 79.78%. We further augment the MLP with graph cut to increase accuracy to 84%. We argue that with the successful development and deployment of this new system, the Technology Department of Chongqing can arrange the recommended actions and thus save cost in repair and outages. This can play an important role in the quick and reliable inspection to potentially prevent power substation equipment from failure, which will save the whole system from breakdown. The increased 84% accuracy with the integration of the graph cut shows the efficacy of the proposed defect analysis approach.

  11. Preventive measures against earthquake damage to museum collections: The recuperation of the exhibits at the Lorca archaeological museum; Medidas de prevencion ante seismos para las colecciones de museos: el caso del museo arqueologico de Lorca y la recuperacion de sus colecciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Alonso, E.; Hernandez, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    As a result of the earthquake on 11 May 2011 the Lorca municipal archaeological museum suffered serious damage to its structure and its exhibits. The lack of preventive measures and the inadequacy of steps taken before the earthquake aggravated the severity of damage. We have assessed the damage to the exhibits and analysed the causes that exacerbated the impact of the seismic movement. We also describe the work carried out by the Institute of Spain's Cultural Heritage (IPCE) to recuperate the collections and detail the measures and general criteria for the prevention and minimization of damage that the museum must implement to reduce the damage to its collections to a minimum during any subsequent earthquakes. (Author) 12 refs.

  12. Role of permissive hypotension, hypertonic resuscitation and the global increased permeability syndrome in patients with severe hemorrhage: adjuncts to damage control resuscitation to prevent intra-abdominal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Juan C; Kaplan, Lewis J; Balogh, Zsolt J; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2015-01-01

    Secondary intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are closely related to fluid resuscitation. IAH causes major deterioration of the cardiac function by affecting preload, contractility and afterload. The aim of this review is to discuss the different interactions between IAH, ACS and resuscitation, and to explore a new hypothesis with regard to damage control resuscitation, permissive hypotension and global increased permeability syndrome. Review of the relevant literature via PubMed search. The recognition of the association between the development of ACS and resuscitation urged the need for new approach in traumatic shock management. Over a decade after wide spread application of damage control surgery damage control resuscitation was developed. DCR differs from previous resuscitation approaches by attempting an earlier and more aggressive correction of coagulopathy, as well as metabolic derangements like acidosis and hypothermia, often referred to as the 'deadly triad' or the 'bloody vicious cycle'. Permissive hypotension involves keeping the blood pressure low enough to avoid exacerbating uncontrolled haemorrhage while maintaining perfusion to vital end organs. The potential detrimental mechanisms of early, aggressive crystalloid resuscitation have been described. Limitation of fluid intake by using colloids, hypertonic saline (HTS) or hyperoncotic albumin solutions have been associated with favourable effects. HTS allows not only for rapid restoration of circulating intravascular volume with less administered fluid, but also attenuates post-injury oedema at the microcirculatory level and may improve microvascular perfusion. Capillary leak represents the maladaptive, often excessive, and undesirable loss of fluid and electrolytes with or without protein into the interstitium that generates oedema. The global increased permeability syndrome (GIPS) has been articulated in patients with persistent systemic inflammation failing

  13. Moderate Dose of Trolox Preventing the Deleterious Effects of Wi-Fi Radiation on Spermatozoa In vitro through Reduction of Oxidative Stress Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shang-Shu; Sun, Ping; Zhang, Zhou; Liu, Xiang; Tian, Hong; Huo, Yong-Wei; Wang, Li-Rong; Han, Yan; Xing, Jun-Ping

    2018-01-01

    Background: The worsening of semen quality, due to the application of Wi-Fi, can be ameliorated by Vitamin E. This study aimed to demonstrate whether a moderate dose of trolox, a new Vitamin E, inhibits oxidative damage on sperms in vitro after exposure to Wi-Fi radiation. Methods: Each of the twenty qualified semen, gathered from June to October 2014 in eugenics clinic, was separated into four aliquots, including sham, Wi-Fi-exposed, Wi-Fi plus 5 mmol/L trolox, and Wi-Fi plus 10 mmol/L trolox groups. At 0 min, all baseline parameters of the 20 samples were measured in sequence. Reactive oxygen species, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase were evaluated in the four aliquots at 45 and 90 min, as were sperm DNA fragments, sperm mitochondrial potential, relative amplification of sperm mitochondrial DNA, sperm vitality, and progressive and immotility sperm. The parameters were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's posttest. Results: Among Wi-Fi plus 5 mmol/L trolox, Wi-Fi-exposed and Wi-Fi plus 10 mmol/L trolox groups, reactive oxygen species levels (45 min: 3.80 ± 0.41 RLU·10−6·ml−1 vs. 7.50 ± 0.35 RLU·10−6·ml−1 vs. 6.70 ± 0.47 RLU·10−6·ml−1, P Fi plus 5 mmol/L trolox group at 45 and 90 min, respectively. Other parameters were not affected, while the sham group maintained the baseline. Conclusion: This study found that 5 mmol/L trolox protected the Wi-Fi-exposed semen in vitro from the damage of electromagnetic radiation-induced oxidative stress. PMID:29451144

  14. Electrical equipment qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    Electrical equipment qualification research programs being carried out by CEA, JAERI, and Sandia Laboratories are discussed. Objectives of the program are: (1) assessment of accident simulation methods for electrical equipment qualification testing; lower coarse (2) evaluation of equipment aging and accelerated aging methods; (3) determine radiation dose spectrum to electrical equipment and assess simulation methods for qualification; (4) identify inadequacies in electrical equipment qualification procedures and standards and potential failure modes; and (5) provide data for verifying and improving standards, rules and regulatory guides

  15. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  16. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  17. Experience with rotating equipment in FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, A.; Subramanian, K.G.; Selvam, B.

    2006-01-01

    Fast breeder test reactor (FBTR) is a 40MWth sodium cooled PuC-UC fuelled fast breeder reactor located at Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu. FBTR has a variety of mechanical and electrical equipment comprising of single stage and multi stage water pumps, sodium pumps, compressors, Chiller units, Diesel Generator sets, vacuum pumps, ventilation fans, Turbo generator etc. The degree and extent of maintenance on these equipment are decided based on nuclear safety, station technical specification requirements, design criteria and operating philosophy. The variety and complexity of the equipment in FBTR demands various maintenance strategies (preventive, predictive, proactive etc.) for their upkeep. This paper discusses the performance of all mechanical and electrical equipment in FBTR, measures taken for their upkeep, major modifications done to prevent recurring failures, condition monitoring programme implemented, Maintenance Management and Information System developed for data acquisition and dissemination, etc. (author)

  18. Inhibition of cytosolic Phospholipase A2 prevents prion peptide-induced neuronal damage and co-localisation with Beta III Tubulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Last Victoria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and the subsequent metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA to prostaglandins have been shown to play an important role in neuronal death in neurodegenerative disease. Here we report the effects of the prion peptide fragment HuPrP106-126 on the PLA2 cascade in primary cortical neurons and translocation of cPLA2 to neurites. Results Exposure of primary cortical neurons to HuPrP106-126 increased the levels of phosphorylated cPLA2 and caused phosphorylated cPLA2 to relocate from the cell body to the cellular neurite in a PrP-dependent manner, a previously unreported observation. HuPrP106-126 also induced significant AA release, an indicator of cPLA2 activation; this preceded synapse damage and subsequent cellular death. The novel translocation of p-cPLA2 postulated the potential for exposure to HuPrP106-126 to result in a re-arrangement of the cellular cytoskeleton. However p-cPLA2 did not colocalise significantly with F-actin, intermediate filaments, or microtubule-associated proteins. Conversely, p-cPLA2 did significantly colocalise with the cytoskeletal protein beta III tubulin. Pre-treatment with the PLA2 inhibitor, palmitoyl trifluoromethyl ketone (PACOCF3 reduced cPLA2 activation, AA release and damage to the neuronal synapse. Furthermore, PACOCF3 reduced expression of p-cPLA2 in neurites and inhibited colocalisation with beta III tubulin, resulting in protection against PrP-induced cell death. Conclusions Collectively, these findings suggest that cPLA2 plays a vital role in the action of HuPrP106-126 and that the colocalisation of p-cPLA2 with beta III tubulin could be central to the progress of neurodegeneration caused by prion peptides. Further work is needed to define exactly how PLA2 inhibitors protect neurons from peptide-induced toxicity and how this relates to intracellular structural changes occurring in neurodegeneration.

  19. Treadmill running prevents age-related memory deficit and alters neurotrophic factors and oxidative damage in the hippocampus of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzella, Cláudia; Neves, Juliana Dalibor; Vizuete, Adriana Fernanda; Aristimunha, Dirceu; Kolling, Janaína; Longoni, Aline; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto Saraiva; Wyse, Angela T S; Netto, Carlos Alexandre

    2017-09-15

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies indicate that exercise is beneficial to many aspects of brain function especially during aging. The present study investigated the effects of a treadmill running protocol in young (3month-old) and aged (22month-old) male Wistar rats, on: I) cognitive function, as assessed by spatial reference memory in the Morris water maze; II) oxidative stress parameters and the expression of neurotrophic factors BDNF, NT-3, IGF-1 and VEGF in the hippocampus. Animals of both ages were assigned to sedentary (non-exercised) and exercised (20min of daily running sessions, 3 times per week for 4weeks) groups. Cognition was assessed by a reference memory task run in the Morris water maze; twenty four hours after last session of behavioral testing hippocampi were collected for biochemical analysis. Results demonstrate that the moderate treadmill running exercise: I) prevented age-related deficits in reference memory in the Morris water maze; II) prevented the age-related increase of reactive oxygen species levels and lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus; III) caused an increase of BDNF, NT-3 and IGF-1 expression in the hippocampus of aged rats. Taken together, results suggest that both exercise molecular effects, namely the reduction of oxidative stress and the increase of neurotrophic factors expression in the hippocampus, might be related to its positive effect on memory performance in aged rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Caffeine consumption prevents memory impairment, neuronal damage, and adenosine A2A receptors upregulation in the hippocampus of a rat model of sporadic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Janaína; Rocha, Andreia; Nunes, Fernanda; Costa, Marcelo S; Schein, Vanessa; Kazlauckas, Vanessa; Kalinine, Eduardo; Souza, Diogo O; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2013-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular (icv) streptozotocin (STZ) administration induces pathological and behavioral alterations similar to those observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is thus considered an experimental model of sporadic AD. Since caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) and selective antagonists of adenosine A2A receptors modify the course of memory impairment in different amyloid-β-based experimental models of AD, we now tested the impact of caffeine on STZ-induced dementia and associated neurodegeneration in the hippocampus as well as on the expression and density of adenosine receptors. Adult male rats received a bilateral infusion of saline or STZ (3 mg/kg, icv), which triggered memory deficits after four weeks, as gauged by impaired object recognition memory. This was accompanied by a reduced NeuN immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 region and an increased expression and density of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR), but not A1R, in the hippocampus. Caffeine consumption (1 g/L in the drinking water starting 2 weeks before the STZ challenge) prevented the STZ-induced memory impairment and neurodegeneration as well as the upregulation of A2AR. These findings provide the first demonstration that caffeine prevents sporadic dementia and implicate the control of central A2AR as its likely mechanism of action.

  1. A broad-spectrum sunscreen prevents cumulative damage from repeated exposure to sub-erythemal solar ultraviolet radiation representative of temperate latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, S; Christiaens, F; Bredoux, C; Compan, D; Zucchi, H; Lombard, D; Fourtanier, A; Young, A R

    2010-02-01

    We have previously shown the detrimental effects of 19 sub-erythemal exposures to daily ultraviolet radiation (DUVR, which mimics non-extreme exposure conditions), delivered over 4 weeks to volunteers. This source had UVA (320-400 nm) to UVB (290-320 nm) irradiance ratio of 25, instead of that close to 10 that is typically the case with solar-simulated radiation (SSR) that represents summer global sunlight with a clear sky and quasi-zenith solar irradiance. Here, we report on an extension of this previous study, in which we evaluated the photoprotection afforded by a broad-spectrum daily-care product with a low-sun protection factor (SPF 8, UVA-PF 7 and 3* rated UVA protection). We assessed cellular and molecular markers of photodamage that are relevant to skin cancer and photoageing. This study shows that biological effects of repeated exposure to DUVR can be prevented by a broad-spectrum daily-care product and that the level of protection afforded varies with the studied endpoint. Efficient daily UVR protection, as provided by a broad-spectrum daily-care product, is necessary to prevent the 'silent' sub-erythemal cumulative effects of UVR from inadvertent sun exposure.

  2. An improved probit method for assessment of domino effect to chemical process equipment caused by overpressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingguang, Zhang; Juncheng, Jiang

    2008-10-30

    Overpressure is one important cause of domino effect in accidents of chemical process equipments. Damage probability and relative threshold value are two necessary parameters in QRA of this phenomenon. Some simple models had been proposed based on scarce data or oversimplified assumption. Hence, more data about damage to chemical process equipments were gathered and analyzed, a quantitative relationship between damage probability and damage degrees of equipment was built, and reliable probit models were developed associated to specific category of chemical process equipments. Finally, the improvements of present models were evidenced through comparison with other models in literatures, taking into account such parameters: consistency between models and data, depth of quantitativeness in QRA.

  3. Use of Remote Sensing Data to Enhance NWS Storm Damage Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlove, Gary J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; White, Kris; Burks, Jason; Stellman, Keith; Smith, Mathew

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of a natural disaster such as a tornado, the National Weather Service (NWS) is required to provide a very detailed and timely storm damage assessment to local, state and federal homeland security officials. The Post ]Storm Data Acquisition (PSDA) procedure involves the acquisition and assembly of highly perishable data necessary for accurate post ]event analysis and potential integration into a geographic information system (GIS) available to its end users and associated decision makers. Information gained from the process also enables the NWS to increase its knowledge of extreme events, learn how to better use existing equipment, improve NWS warning programs, and provide accurate storm intensity and damage information to the news media and academia. To help collect and manage all of this information, forecasters in NWS Southern Region are currently developing a Storm Damage Assessment Toolkit (SDAT), which incorporates GIS ]capable phones and laptops into the PSDA process by tagging damage photography, location, and storm damage details with GPS coordinates for aggregation within the GIS database. However, this tool alone does not fully integrate radar and ground based storm damage reports nor does it help to identify undetected storm damage regions. In many cases, information on storm damage location (beginning and ending points, swath width, etc.) from ground surveys is incomplete or difficult to obtain. Geographic factors (terrain and limited roads in rural areas), manpower limitations, and other logistical constraints often prevent the gathering of a comprehensive picture of tornado or hail damage, and may allow damage regions to go undetected. Molthan et al. (2011) have shown that high resolution satellite data can provide additional valuable information on storm damage tracks to augment this database. This paper presents initial development to integrate satellitederived damage track information into the SDAT for near real ]time use by forecasters

  4. Voltage surges induced in transformer secondaries with loads characterized by sensitive electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogo, Joao Roberto [GSI Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Taubate, SP (Brazil)], Email: gsi@gsiconsultoria.com.br; Dommel, Hermann Wilhelm [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)], Email: hermannd@ece.ubc.ca

    2007-07-01

    The grounding of sensitive electronic equipment such as computers, programmable logic controllers (PLC), process control systems, and other electronic equipment is one of the most important considerations towards obtaining an efficient operation of such systems. Such equipment, which for the purposes of this work is called 'Sensitive Electronic Equipment - SEE' is very sensitive to faults and low intensity random voltages which have no effect upon the electrical power equipment and upon human beings. In this work, the grounding problem is evaluated, to guide the user on the proper installation of SEEs, so as to prevent them from being damaged. The following items will be discussed: voltages which SEEs are subject to during incidence of atmospheric surges in the distribution overhead lines to which they are connected; sustained voltage that the high voltage supply of SEEs must be able to withstand during line-to-ground faults that originate from atmospheric surges that reach the transmission lines which are connected to the electrical power self producers (or electrical power independent producers). (author)

  5. The DNA damage response during mitosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, Anne Margriet; Krajewska, Malgorzata; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.

    2013-01-01

    Cells are equipped with a cell-intrinsic signaling network called the DNA damage response (DDR). This signaling network recognizes DNA lesions and initiates various downstream pathways to coordinate a cell cycle arrest with the repair of the damaged DNA. Alternatively, the DDR can mediate clearance

  6. Effects of the South Hyogo earthquake on LNG facilities and damage prevention measures; Effets du tremblement de terre de Hyogo-Sud sur les installations GNL et mesures pour la prevention des degats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoichi, Fuchimoto [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd., Dept. Production (Japan); Yukiyoshi, Hasegawa [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd., Senboku LNG Terminail (Japan); Ysuhiro, Ueno; Junji, Doi [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd., Engineering Dept. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The South Hyogo Earthquake that took place in the morning of January 17, 1995, at about 5:46 A.M. registered a magnitude of 7.2 on the Richter scale with earthquake motion of 800 gal (horizontal) on the ground surface. It was the largest vertical-motion earthquake to hit a major urban area in modern days, and it struck the service area of Osaka Gas. The ground motion values monitored were 240 gal at the Senboku LNG Terminal and 189 gal at the Himeji LNG Terminal, but these terminals did not receive sufficient damage to affect their gas processing or supply functions. There were also seven gas holders operating in the worst hit area, where ground motion of 616 to 833 gal was recorded. However, these gas holders were also not damaged by the earthquake. These gas processing plants and supply facilities were constructed in compliance with the current seismic design standards, and they incorporate elastic design (capable of withstanding ground motion of 300 gal max.) in which due consideration is given to factors such as their importance and the ground characteristics. Although the South Hyogo Earthquake generated ground motion that far exceeded the design level of the gas holders, the facilities maintained their integrity without shape deformation, thus demonstrating their high level of earthquake resistance. For other gas processing facilities, Osaka Gas conducted evaluations of their resistance to an extremely large earthquake using the ultimate strength design method, and confirmed similar levels of earthquake resistance performance. According to the above examination results, it was found that design based on the current seismic design standards is capable of withstanding an earthquake of high magnitude. However, the current seismic design standards do not take into consideration earthquakes of an extremely high magnitude or specify the use of the ultimate strength design method. Therefore, The Japan Gas Association is currently examining standards that take those

  7. Plant-wide integrated equipment monitoring and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, C.N.; Hunter, T.A.; Chiang, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    A nuclear power plant equipment monitoring system monitors plant equipment and reports deteriorating equipment conditions. The more advanced equipment monitoring systems can also provide information for understanding the symptoms and diagnosing the root cause of a problem. Maximizing the equipment availability and minimizing or eliminating consequential damages are the ultimate goals of equipment monitoring systems. GE Integrated Equipment Monitoring System (GEIEMS) is designed as an integrated intelligent monitoring and analysis system for plant-wide application for BWR plants. This approach reduces system maintenance efforts and equipment monitoring costs and provides information for integrated planning. This paper describes GEIEMS and how the current system is being upgraded to meet General Electric's vision for plant-wide decision support. (author)

  8. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-01-01

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler

  9. Medical equipment management

    CERN Document Server

    Willson, Keith; Tabakov, Slavik

    2013-01-01

    Know What to Expect When Managing Medical Equipment and Healthcare Technology in Your Organization As medical technology in clinical care becomes more complex, clinical professionals and support staff must know how to keep patients safe and equipment working in the clinical environment. Accessible to all healthcare professionals and managers, Medical Equipment Management presents an integrated approach to managing medical equipment in healthcare organizations. The book explains the underlying principles and requirements and raises awareness of what needs to be done and what questions to ask. I

  10. Data communication equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Seon; Lee, Sang Mok

    1998-02-01

    The contents of this book are introduction of data communication on definition, purpose and history, information terminal about data communication system and data transmission system, data transmit equipment of summary, transmission cable, data port, concentrator and front-end processor, audio communication equipment like phones, radio communication equipment of summary on foundation of electromagnetic waves, AM transmitter, AM receiver, FM receiver and FM transmitter, a satellite and mobile communication equipment such as earth station, TT and C and Cellular phone, video telephone and new media apparatus.

  11. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  12. Gas cluster ion beam equipments for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, J.; Takaoka, G.H.; Yamada, I.

    1995-01-01

    30 keV and 200 keV gas cluster ion beam equipments have been developed for industrial applications. A gas cluster source with a non-cooled nozzle was used for both the equipments. Sufficient monomer ion suppression was achieved by using an ExB filter and chromatic lenses mass filter with low extraction voltage. These equipments are suitable to be used for low-damage surface treatment of metals, insulators and semiconductors without heavy metal contamination. (orig.)

  13. Ultrasensitive determination of DNA oxidation products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and the role of antioxidants in the prevention of oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawbaa, Sam; Aybastıer, Önder; Demir, Cevdet

    2017-04-15

    Oxidative stress is considered as one of the significant causes of DNA damage which in turn contributes to cell death through a series of intermediate processes such as cancer formation, mutation, and aging. Natural sources such as plant and fruit products have provided us with interesting substances of antioxidant activity that could be recruited in protecting the genetic materials of the cells. This study is an effort to discover some of those antioxidants effects in their standard and natural forms by performing an ultrasensitive determination of the products of DNA oxidation using GC-MS/MS. Experiments were used to determine the direct antioxidant activity of the substances contained in the tendrils of Vitis vinifera (var. alphonse) by extracting them and achieving Folin-Ciocalteau and CHROMAC analyses to determine the total phenolic content (TPC) and the antioxidant capacity of the extract, respectively; results revealed a phenolic content of 11.39±0.30mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/g of the plant's fresh weight (FW) by Folin-Ciocalteau and 8.17±0.49mg Trolox Equivalent (TE)/g FW by CHROMAC assays. The qualitative analysis of the plant extract by HPLC-DAD technique revealed that two flavonoid glycosides namely rutin and isoquercitrin in addition to chlorogenic acid were contained in the extract. The determination of the DNA oxidation products was performed after putting DNA, rutin and isoquercitrin standard samples with different concentration, and the extract's sample under oxidative stress. Eighteen DNA oxidation products were traced using GC-MS/MS with ultra-sensitivity and the experiments proved a significant decrease in the concentration of the DNA oxidation products when the extract was used as a protectant against the oxidative stress. It is believed by conclusion that the extract of V. vinifera's (var. alphonse) tendrils has a good antioxidant activity; hence it is recommended to be used as a part of the daily healthy food list if possible

  14. EX4 stabilizes and activates Nrf2 via PKCδ, contributing to the prevention of oxidative stress-induced pancreatic beta cell damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi-Hwi; Kim, Eung-Hwi [College of Pharmacy, Gachon Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Gachon University, Yeonsu-ku, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Yeonsu-ku, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hye Seung [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dongki [Department of Physiology, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eun-Young, E-mail: parkey@mokpo.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Natural Medicine Research Institute, Mokpo National University, Muan-gun, Jeonnam (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Hee-Sook, E-mail: hsjun@gachon.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Gachon Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Gachon University, Yeonsu-ku, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Yeonsu-ku, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Oxidative stress in pancreatic beta cells can inhibit insulin secretion and promote apoptotic cell death. Exendin-4 (EX4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, can suppress beta cell apoptosis, improve beta cell function and protect against oxidative damage. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms for antioxidative effects of EX4 in pancreatic beta cells. INS-1 cells, a rat insulinoma cell line, were pretreated with EX4 and exposed to palmitate or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and glutathione and insulin secretion were measured. The mRNA and protein expression levels of antioxidant genes were examined. The level of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), its binding to antioxidant response element (ARE), and its ubiquination in the presence of EX4 were determined. The Nrf2 signaling pathway was determined using rottlerin (protein kinase [PK]Cδ inhibitor), H89 (PKA inhibitor) and LY294002 (phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase [PI3K] inhibitor). EX4 treatment decreased ROS production, recovered cellular glutathione levels and insulin secretion in the presence of oxidative stress in INS-1 cells. The expression levels of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit and heme oxygenase-1 were increased by EX4 treatment. EX4 promoted Nrf2 translocation, ARE binding activity and enhanced stabilization of Nrf2 by inhibition of ubiquitination. Knockdown of Nrf2 abolished the effect of EX4 on increased insulin secretion. Inhibition of PKCδ attenuated Nrf2 translocation and antioxidative gene expression by EX4 treatment. We suggest that EX4 activates and stabilizes Nrf2 through PKCδ activation, contributing to the increase of antioxidant gene expression and consequently improving beta cell function in the presence of oxidative stress. - Highlights: • EX4 protects against oxidative stress-induced pancreatic beta cell dysfunction. • EX4 increases antioxidant gene expression. • Antioxidative effect of EX4 is

  15. EX4 stabilizes and activates Nrf2 via PKCδ, contributing to the prevention of oxidative stress-induced pancreatic beta cell damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi-Hwi; Kim, Eung-Hwi; Jung, Hye Seung; Yang, Dongki; Park, Eun-Young; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress in pancreatic beta cells can inhibit insulin secretion and promote apoptotic cell death. Exendin-4 (EX4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, can suppress beta cell apoptosis, improve beta cell function and protect against oxidative damage. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms for antioxidative effects of EX4 in pancreatic beta cells. INS-1 cells, a rat insulinoma cell line, were pretreated with EX4 and exposed to palmitate or H 2 O 2 . Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and glutathione and insulin secretion were measured. The mRNA and protein expression levels of antioxidant genes were examined. The level of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), its binding to antioxidant response element (ARE), and its ubiquination in the presence of EX4 were determined. The Nrf2 signaling pathway was determined using rottlerin (protein kinase [PK]Cδ inhibitor), H89 (PKA inhibitor) and LY294002 (phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase [PI3K] inhibitor). EX4 treatment decreased ROS production, recovered cellular glutathione levels and insulin secretion in the presence of oxidative stress in INS-1 cells. The expression levels of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit and heme oxygenase-1 were increased by EX4 treatment. EX4 promoted Nrf2 translocation, ARE binding activity and enhanced stabilization of Nrf2 by inhibition of ubiquitination. Knockdown of Nrf2 abolished the effect of EX4 on increased insulin secretion. Inhibition of PKCδ attenuated Nrf2 translocation and antioxidative gene expression by EX4 treatment. We suggest that EX4 activates and stabilizes Nrf2 through PKCδ activation, contributing to the increase of antioxidant gene expression and consequently improving beta cell function in the presence of oxidative stress. - Highlights: • EX4 protects against oxidative stress-induced pancreatic beta cell dysfunction. • EX4 increases antioxidant gene expression. • Antioxidative effect of EX4 is mediated by

  16. Evaluation of the effectiveness of peracetic acid in the sterilization of dental equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceretta, R; Paula, M M S; Angioletto, Ev; Méier, M M; Mitellstädt, F G; Pich, C T; Junior, S A; Angioletto, E

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of peracetic acid in the microbiological sterilisation of dental materials. Peracetic acid solution was evaluated at concentrations of 800, 1500 and 2500 ppm. At these concentrations, it was determined whether peracetic acid caused corrosion to dental instruments and induced cellular mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), agar diffusion and diffusion by well method, were also verified. The corrosion rate, calculated from potentiodynamic assays was 10(-6) cm/year, indicating that the product does not damage equipment. The sterilisation capacity of peracetic acid at 2500 ppm was the best. The comet assay indicated genotoxic activity at 2500 ppm. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of peracetic acid for sterilizing dental equipment, providing another alternative for the prevention of infections in clinics.

  17. Equipment and physical plant changes in response to the Fukushima event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, G.

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima event led the international nuclear industry and regulatory bodies to challenge the ability of existing nuclear power plants to prevent and mitigate the effects of a severe external event leading to a total loss of AC power and resultant loss of cooling. Canadian Nuclear Industry's immediate response was to provide a high level of assurance that the existing plant is in a high state of readiness to deal with design basis and beyond design basis events, verify the capability of the existing plant to deal with beyond design basis events (equipment, procedures, staff qualification, external support agreements, etc), verify capability to mitigate station black out events, verify capability to cope with internal and external floods and address vulnerabilities to seismically induced damage to mitigation equipment.

  18. Development of SYN-004, an oral beta-lactamase treatment to protect the gut microbiome from antibiotic-mediated damage and prevent Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleko, Michael; Bristol, J Andrew; Hubert, Steven; Parsley, Todd; Widmer, Giovanni; Tzipori, Saul; Subramanian, Poorani; Hasan, Nur; Koski, Perrti; Kokai-Kun, John; Sliman, Joseph; Jones, Annie; Connelly, Sheila

    2016-10-01

    The gut microbiome, composed of the microflora that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and their genomes, make up a complex ecosystem that can be disrupted by antibiotic use. The ensuing dysbiosis is conducive to the emergence of opportunistic pathogens such as Clostridium difficile. A novel approach to protect the microbiome from antibiotic-mediated dysbiosis is the use of beta-lactamase enzymes to degrade residual antibiotics in the gastrointestinal tract before the microflora are harmed. Here we present the preclinical development and early clinical studies of the beta-lactamase enzymes, P3A, currently referred to as SYN-004, and its precursor, P1A. Both P1A and SYN-004 were designed as orally-delivered, non-systemically available therapeutics for use with intravenous beta-lactam antibiotics. SYN-004 was engineered from P1A, a beta-lactamase isolated from Bacillus licheniformis, to broaden its antibiotic degradation profile. SYN-004 efficiently hydrolyses penicillins and cephalosporins, the most widely used IV beta-lactam antibiotics. In animal studies, SYN-004 degraded ceftriaxone in the GI tract of dogs and protected the microbiome of pigs from ceftriaxone-induced changes. Phase I clinical studies demonstrated SYN-004 safety and tolerability. Phase 2 studies are in progress to assess the utility of SYN-004 for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. DA-1229, a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor, protects against renal injury by preventing podocyte damage in an animal model of progressive renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun Lee, Jee; Kim, Jung Eun; Lee, Mi Hwa; Song, Hye Kyoung; Ghee, Jung Yeon; Kang, Young Sun; Min, Hye Sook; Kim, Hyun Wook; Cha, Jin Joo; Han, Jee Young; Han, Sang Youb; Cha, Dae Ryong

    2016-05-01

    Although dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) inhibitors are known to have renoprotective effects, the mechanism underlying these effects has remained elusive. Here we investigated the effects of DA-1229, a novel DPPIV inhibitor, in two animal models of renal injury including db/db mice and the adriamycin nephropathy rodent model of chronic renal disease characterized by podocyte injury. For both models, DA-1229 was administered at 300 mg/kg/day. DPPIV activity in the kidney was significantly higher in diabetic mice compared with their nondiabetic controls. Although DA-1229 did not affect glycemic control or insulin resistance, DA-1229 did improve lipid profiles, albuminuria and renal fibrosis. Moreover, DA-1229 treatment resulted in decreased urinary excretion of nephrin, decreased circulating and kidney DPPIV activity, and decreased macrophage infiltration in the kidney. In adriamycin-treated mice, DPPIV activity in the kidney and urinary nephrin loss were both increased, whereas glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations were unchanged. Moreover, DA-1229 treatment significantly improved proteinuria, renal fibrosis and inflammation associated with decreased urinary nephrin loss, and kidney DPP4 activity. In cultured podocytes, DA-1229 restored the high glucose/angiotensin II-induced increase of DPPIV activity and preserved the nephrin levels in podocytes. These findings suggest that activation of DPPIV in the kidney has a role in the progression of renal disease, and that DA-1229 may exert its renoprotective effects by preventing podocyte injury.

  20. Practical approaches to implementing facility wide equipment strengthening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kincaid, R.H.; Smietana, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    Equipment strengthening programs typically focus on components required to ensure operability of safety related equipment or to prevent the release of toxic substances. Survival of non-safety related equipment may also be crucial to ensure rapid recovery and minimize business interruption losses. Implementing a strengthening program for non-safety related equipment can be difficult due to the large amounts of equipment involved and limited budget availability. EQE has successfully implemented comprehensive equipment strengthening programs for a number of California corporations. Many of the lessons learned from these projects are applicable to DOE facilities. These include techniques for prioritizing equipment and three general methodologies for anchoring equipment. Pros and cons of each anchorage approach are presented along with typical equipment strengthening costs

  1. Tort Damages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this Chapter, I provide an overview of Law and Economics literature regarding tort damages. Where necessary, attention is also spent to rules of tort liability. Both types of rules provide behavioral incentives to both injurers and victims, with respect to their level of

  2. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...

  3. Capital Equipment Replacement Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Batterham, Robert L.; Fraser, K.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the optimal replacement of capital equipment, especially farm machinery. It also considers the influence of taxation and capital rationing on replacement decisions. It concludes that special taxation provisions such as accelerated depreciation and investment allowances are unlikely to greatly influence farmers' capital equipment replacement decisions in Australia.

  4. Research on Application of FMECA in Missile Equipment Maintenance Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Wang

    2018-03-01

    Fault mode effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) is a method widely used in engineering. Studying the application of FMEA technology in military equipment maintenance decision-making, can help us build a better equipment maintenance support system, and increase the using efficiency of weapons and equipment. Through Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) of equipment, known and potential failure modes and their causes are found out, and the influence on the equipment performance, operation success, personnel security are determined. Furthermore, according to the synthetical effects of the severity of effects and the failure probability, possible measures for prevention and correction are put forward. Through replacing or adjusting the corresponding parts, corresponding maintenance strategy is decided for preventive maintenance of equipment, which helps improve the equipment reliability.

  5. Hanford Site Tank 241-SY-101, damaged equipment removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titzler, P.A.; Legare, D.E.; Barrus, H.G.

    1993-11-01

    Hanford Site Tank 241-SY-101 has a history of generating hydrogen-nitrous oxide gases. The gases are generated and trapped in the non-convective waste layer near the bottom of the 23-m- (75-ft-) diameter underground tank. Approximately every three months the pressure in the tank is relieved as the trapped gases are released through or around the surface crust into the tank dome. This process moves large amounts of liquid waste and crust material around in the tank. The moving waste displaced air lances and thermocouple assemblies (2-in. schedule-40 pipe) installed in four tank risers and permanently bent them to a maximum angle of 40 degrees. The bends were so severe that assemblies could not be removed from the tank using the originally designed hardware. Just after the tank releases the trapped gas, a 20-to-30-day work ''window'' opens

  6. Remotely controlled working equipment and mobile systems for damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, G.W.; Salaske, M.

    1975-01-01

    All functions of the MF3 vehicle with its variable geometry chassis were verified in accordance with specifications. Fixed price bids have now been submitted by industries on the action control system and the EMSM II manipulators. Tests of the EMSM I manipulator with supplements especially the remotely controlled application of tools, have been started. (orig.) [de

  7. Research into damage - avoiding damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The brochure reports on the work of five European materials testing institutions. Subjects covered are prevention of accidents and catastrophies, energy conservation, environmental pollution, and the safeguarding of values of national economy. (RW) [de

  8. Equipment Reliability Program in NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaler, F.; Djetelic, N.

    2006-01-01

    Operation that is safe, reliable, effective and acceptable to public is the common message in a mission statement of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To fulfill these goals, nuclear industry, among other areas, has to focus on: 1 Human Performance (HU) and 2 Equipment Reliability (EQ). The performance objective of HU is as follows: The behaviors of all personnel result in safe and reliable station operation. While unwanted human behaviors in operations mostly result directly in the event, the behavior flaws either in the area of maintenance or engineering usually cause decreased equipment reliability. Unsatisfied Human performance leads even the best designed power plants into significant operating events, which can be found as well-known examples in nuclear industry. Equipment reliability is today recognized as the key to success. While the human performance at most NPPs has been improving since the start of WANO / INPO / IAEA evaluations, the open energy market has forced the nuclear plants to reduce production costs and operate more reliably and effectively. The balance between these two (opposite) goals has made equipment reliability even more important for safe, reliable and efficient production. Insisting on on-line operation by ignoring some principles of safety could nowadays in a well-developed safety culture and human performance environment exceed the cost of electricity losses. In last decade the leading USA nuclear companies put a lot of effort to improve equipment reliability primarily based on INPO Equipment Reliability Program AP-913 at their NPP stations. The Equipment Reliability Program is the key program not only for safe and reliable operation, but also for the Life Cycle Management and Aging Management on the way to the nuclear power plant life extension. The purpose of Equipment Reliability process is to identify, organize, integrate and coordinate equipment reliability activities (preventive and predictive maintenance, maintenance

  9. HVAC systems and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.T. (Linford Air and Refrigeration Company, Oakland, CA (US))

    1990-02-01

    The author discusses the section of the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 which addresses HVAC systems and equipment. New features of HVAC systems mandatory general requirements are described. New prescriptive requirements are detailed.

  10. Personal Protective Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ... of personal protective equipment A safety program for new employees is a necessary part of any orientation program An on-going safety program should be used to motivate employees to continue to use...

  11. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  12. CV equipment responsibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Pirollet, B

    2008-01-01

    This document describes the limits of the responsibilities of the TS/CV for fire fighting equipment at the LHC. The various interfaces, providers and users of the water supply systems and clean water raising systems are described.

  13. Equipment for hydraulic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, L.; Norlander, H.

    1981-07-01

    Hydraulic testing in boreholes is one major task of the hydrogeological program in the Stripa Project. A new testing equipment for this purpose was constructed. It consists of a downhole part and a surface part. The downhole part consists of two packers enclosing two test-sections when inflated; one between the packers and one between the bottom packer and the bottom of the borehole. A probe for downhole electronics is also included in the downhole equipment together with electrical cable and nylon tubing. In order to perform shut-in and pulse tests with high accuracy a surface controlled downhole valve was constructed. The surface equipment consists of the data acquisition system, transducer amplifier and surface gauges. In the report detailed descriptions of each component in the whole testing equipment are given. (Auth.)

  14. Case Based Asset Maintenance for the Electric Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-Hyeon; Jung, Jae-Cheon; Chang, Young-Woo; Chang, Hoon-Seon; Kim, Jae-Cheol; Kim, Hang-Bae; Kim, Kyu-Ho; Hur, Yong; Lee, Dong-Chul

    2006-01-01

    The electric equipment maintenance strategies are changing from PM(Preventive Maintenance) or CM(Corrective Maintenance) to CBM(Condition Based Maintenance). The main benefits of CBM are reduced possibility of service failures of critical equipment and reduced costs or maintenance work. In CBM, the equipment status need to be monitored continuously and a decision should be made whether an equipment need to be repaired or replaced. For the maintenance decision making, the CBR(Case Base Reasoning) system is introduced. The CBR system receives the current equipment status and retrieves the case based historic database to determine any possible equipment failure under current conditions. In retrieving the case based historic data, the suggested DSS(Decision Support System) uses a reasoning engine with an equipment/asset ontology that describes the equipment subsumption relationships

  15. Cycle chemistry monitoring system as means of improving the reliability of the equipment at the power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegoshina, O. V.; Voronov, V. N.; Yarovoy, V. O.; Bolshakova, N. A.

    2017-11-01

    There are many problems in domestic energy at the present that require urgent solutions in the near future. One of these problems - the aging of the main and auxiliary equipment. Wear of equipment is the cause of decrease reliability and efficiency of power plants. Reliability of the equipment are associated with the introduction of cycle chemistry monitoring system. The most damageable equipment’s are boilers (52.2 %), turbines (12.6 %) and heating systems (12.3 %) according to the review of failure rate on the power plants. The most part of the damageability of the boiler is heated surfaces (73.2 %). According to the Russian technical requirements, the monitoring systems are responsible to reduce damageability the boiler heating surfaces and to increase the reliability of the equipment. All power units capacity of over 50 MW are equipped with cycle chemistry monitoring systems in order to maintain water chemistry within operating limits. The main idea of cycle chemistry monitoring systems is to improve water chemistry at power plants. According to the guidelines, cycle chemistry monitoring systems of a single unit depends on its type (drum or once-through boiler) and consists of: 20…50 parameters of on-line chemical analyzers; 20…30 «grab» sample analyses (daily) and about 15…20 on-line monitored operating parameters. The operator of modern power plant uses with many data at different points of steam/water cycle. Operators do not can estimate quality of the cycle chemistry due to the large volume of daily and every shift information and dispersion of data, lack of systematization. In this paper, an algorithm for calculating the quality index developed for improving control the water chemistry of the condensate, feed water and prevent scaling and corrosion in the steam/water cycle.

  16. Molecular Signatures in the Prevention of Radiation Damage by the Synergistic Effect of N-Acetyl Cysteine and Qingre Liyan Decoction, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Using a 3-Dimensional Cell Culture Model of Oral Mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P. Lambros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Qingre Liyan decoction (QYD, a Traditional Chinese medicine, and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC have been used to prevent radiation induced mucositis. This work evaluates the protective mechanisms of QYD, NAC, and their combination (NAC-QYD at the cellular and transcriptional level. A validated organotypic model of oral mucosal consisting of a three-dimensional (3D cell tissue-culture of primary human keratinocytes exposed to X-ray irradiation was used. Six hours after the irradiation, the tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E and a TUNEL assay to assess histopathology and apoptosis, respectively. Total RNA was extracted and used for microarray gene expression profiling. The tissue-cultures treated with NAC-QYD preserved their integrity and showed no apoptosis. Microarray results revealed that the NAC-QYD caused the upregulation of genes encoding metallothioneins, HMOX1, and other components of the Nrf2 pathway, which protects against oxidative stress. DNA repair genes (XCP, GADD45G, RAD9, and XRCC1, protective genes (EGFR and PPARD, and genes of the NFκB pathway were upregulated. Finally, tissue-cultures treated prophylactically with NAC-QYD showed significant downregulation of apoptosis, cytokines and chemokines genes, and constrained damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs. NAC-QYD treatment involves the protective effect of Nrf2, NFκB, and DNA repair factors.

  17. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  18. Prioritizing equipment for replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Mike

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that clinical engineers take the lead in formulating evaluation processes to recommend equipment replacement. Their skill, knowledge, and experience, combined with access to equipment databases, make them a logical choice. Based on ideas from Fennigkoh's scheme, elements such as age, vendor support, accumulated maintenance cost, and function/risk were used.6 Other more subjective criteria such as cost benefits and efficacy of newer technology were not used. The element of downtime was also omitted due to the data element not being available. The resulting Periop Master Equipment List and its rationale was presented to the Perioperative Services Program Council. They deemed the criteria to be robust and provided overwhelming acceptance of the list. It was quickly put to use to estimate required capital funding, justify items already thought to need replacement, and identify high-priority ranked items for replacement. Incorporating prioritization criteria into an existing equipment database would be ideal. Some commercially available systems do have the basic elements of this. Maintaining replacement data can be labor-intensive regardless of the method used. There is usually little time to perform the tasks necessary for prioritizing equipment. However, where appropriate, a clinical engineering department might be able to conduct such an exercise as shown in the following case study.

  19. Prevention of Noise Damage to Cochlear Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    antibody blocking buffer 5% horse serum / 0.1% bovine serum albumin / 0.1% Triton / 0.02% NaN3 for 60 min at room temperature. Immunostaining: The hair...control of parasites in livestock as well as research animal housing. We felt it would be helpful to the auditory research community to know whether

  20. Sulfur Mustard Damage to Cornea: Preventive Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varma, Shambhu

    2004-01-01

    Studies are in progress to determine the efficacy and mechanism of a formulation containing anti-alkylating, antioxidants and metabolic accelerators present in VM against mustard induced skin toxicity...

  1. Vitamin C for DNA damage prevention

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Binková, B.; Rössner ml., Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 733, 1-2 (2012), s. 39-49 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08005; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/50/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Chromosomal aberrations * DNA adducts * DNA repair Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.902, year: 2012

  2. Prevention of Noise Damage to Cochlear Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    for 1 h at room temperature, washed 3x with 0.1% Triton in PBS, then blocked in antibody blocking buffer 5% horse serum / 0.1% bovine serum albumin ...These results have been reported at the Association for Research in Otolaryngology 39th Annual MidWinter Meeting, Baltimore, MD, Feb 2016. A paper

  3. Radioactive decontamination of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    After a recall of some definitions relating to decontamination techniques and of the regulation into effect, the principles to be respected to arrange rationally work zones are quoted while insisting more particularly on the types of coatings which facilitate maintenance operations and the dismantling of these installations. Then, the processes and equipments to use in decontamination units for routine or particular operations are described; the list of recommended chemical products to decontaminate the equipment is given. The influence of these treatments on the state and the duration of life of equipments is studied, and some perfectible methods are quoted. In the appendix, are given: the limits of surface contamination accepted in the centers; a standard project which defines the criteria of admissible residual contamination in wastes considered as cold wastes; some remarks on the interest that certain special ventilation and air curtain devices for the protection of operators working on apparatus generating contaminated dusts [fr

  4. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  5. Irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization

  6. Equipment Operational Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  7. Charging equipment. Ladegeraet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, E

    1981-09-17

    The invention refers to a charging equipment, particularly on board charging equipment for charging traction batteries of an electric vehicle from the AC mains supply, consisting of a DC converter, which contains a controlled power transistor, a switching off unloading circuit and a power transmitter, where the secondary winding is connected in series with a rectifier diode, and a smoothing capacitor is connected in parallel with this series circuit. A converter module is provided, which consists of two DC voltage converters, whose power transistors are controlled by a control circuit in opposition with a phase displacement of 180/sup 0/.

  8. 30 CFR 56.4230 - Self-propelled equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....4230 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 56.4230 Self-propelled equipment. (a)(1) Whenever a fire or its effects...

  9. Experimental equipment, ch. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomstra, F.; Hoogenboom, A.M.; Prins, C.M.; Strasters, B.A.; Vermeer, A.; Wit, P. de; Zwol, N.A. van.

    1977-01-01

    The experimental equipment in use at Utrecht university is discussed. Attention is paid to the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator and the 4MV and 1MV accelerators. The detection systems for gamma-ray spectroscopy are reviewed with emphasis on the compton-suppression spectrometer. The data-handling system used for experiments with the tandem is also briefly discussed

  10. Equipment gift to Monaco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    Research work at the Agency's Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco, including that concerned with pollution of the sea, has been made more effective by its latest acquisition of equipment. This is a spectrophotometer donated by the Federal Republic of Germany. (author)

  11. Lifetime of Mechanical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leland, K.

    1999-07-01

    The gas plant at Kaarstoe was built as part of the Statpipe gas transport system and went on stream in 1985. In 1993 another line was routed from the Sleipner field to carry condensate, and the plant was extended accordingly. Today heavy additional supply- and export lines are under construction, and the plant is extended more than ever. The main role of the factory is to separate the raw gas into commercial products and to pump or ship it to the markets. The site covers a large number of well-known mechanical equipment. This presentation deals with piping, mechanical and structural disciplines. The lifetime of mechanical equipment is often difficult to predict as it depends on many factors, and the subject is complex. Mechanical equipment has been kept in-house, which provides detailed knowledge of the stages from a new to a 14 years old plant. The production regularity has always been very high, as required. The standard of the equipment is well kept, support systems are efficient, and human improvisation is extremely valuable.

  12. Safeguards techniques and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The current booklet is intended to give a full and balanced description of the techniques and equipment used for both nuclear material accountancy and containment and surveillance measures, and for the new safeguards measure of environmental sampling. As new verification measures continue to be developed, the material in the booklet will be periodically reviewed and updated versions issued. (author)

  13. Equipping tomorrow's fire manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Dicus

    2008-01-01

    Fire managers are challenged with an ever-increasing array of both responsibilities and critics. As in the past, fire managers must master the elements of fire behavior and ecology using the latest technologies. In addition, today’s managers must be equipped with the skills necessary to understand and liaise with a burgeoning group of vocal stakeholders while also...

  14. Electrical equipment design library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This book guides the design supervision, construction order for electrical equipment. The contents of this library are let's use electricity like this, leading-in-pole and casual power, electric pole install below 300KVA, electric pole install below 301∼1000KVA, electric pole install exceed 1000KVA, rooftop install exceed 1000KVA, CUBICLE type, 154KV services. It adds an appendix.

  15. Orphee reactor experimental equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Experimental equipment around the ORPHEE reactor is presented. The neutron source; and the spectrometers and sample environment (inelastic and quasi-elastic scattering, elastic scattering, spread scattering, small angle scattering) are described. An experiment proposal and reports guide is supplied [fr

  16. Seismic qualification of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidebrecht, A.C.; Tso, W.K.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes the results of an investigation into the seismic qualification of equipment located in CANDU nuclear power plants. It is particularly concerned with the evaluation of current seismic qualification requirements, the development of a suitable methodology for the seismic qualification of safety systems, and the evaluation of seismic qualification analysis and testing procedures

  17. Underground coal equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.

    2002-12-01

    This paper reports on increasing automation and enhanced productivity on longwalls, new development cutting and bolting technologies and haulage systems. Amongst equipment discussed is DBT's Electra series EL3000 shearer, the Dosco LH1400 roadheader with onboard bolters, and Joy 12 CM30 continuous miners. 4 photos.

  18. Lunar construction/mining equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Levent

    1990-01-01

    For centuries, mining has utilized drill and blast as the primary method of rock excavation. Although this technique has undergone significant improvements, it still remains a cyclic, labor intensive operation with inherent safety hazards. Other drawbacks include damage to the surrounding ground, creation of blast vibrations, rough excavation walls resulting in increased ventilation requirements, and the lack of selective mining ability. Perhaps the most important shortcoming of drill and blast is that it is not conducive to full implementation of automation or robotics technologies. Numerous attempts have been made in the past to automate drill and blast operations to remove personnel from the hazardous work environment. Although most of the concepts devised look promising on paper, none of them was found workable on a sustained production basis. In particular, the problem of serious damage to equipment during the blasting cycle could not be resolved regardless of the amount of charge used in excavation. Since drill and blast is not capable of meeting the requirements of a fully automated rock fragmentation method, its role is bound to gradually decrease. Mechanical excavation, in contrast, is highly suitable to automation because it is a continuous process and does not involve any explosives. Many of the basic principles and trends controlling the design of an earth-based mechanical excavator will hold in an extraterrestrial environment such as on the lunar surface. However, the economic and physical limitations for transporting materials to space will require major rethinking of these machines. In concept, then, a lunar mechanical excavator will look and perform significantly different from one designed for use here on earth. This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of such mechanical excavator systems.

  19. Damaged Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn V vehicle, carrying the unmarned orbital workshop for the Skylab-1 mission, lifted off successfully and all systems performed normally. Sixty-three seconds into the flight, engineers in the operation support and control center saw an unexpected telemetry indication that signalled that damages occurred on one solar array and the micrometeoroid shield during the launch. The micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop protecting it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat, ripped loose from its position around the workshop. This caused the loss of one solar wing and jammed the other. Still unoccupied, the Skylab was stricken with the loss of the heat shield and sunlight beat mercilessly on the lab's sensitive skin. Internal temperatures soared, rendering the station uninhabitable, threatening foods, medicines, films, and experiments. This image, taken during a fly-around inspection by the Skylab-2 crew, shows a crippled Skylab in orbit. The crew found their home in space to be in serious shape; the heat shield gone, one solar wing gone, and the other jammed. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed, tested, rehearsed, and approved three repair options. These options included a parasol sunshade and a twin-pole sunshade to restore the temperature inside the workshop, and a set of metal cutting tools to free the jammed solar panel.

  20. Structural damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually all structures show some signs of distress due to deterioration of the building components, to changed loads, or to changed support conditions. Changed support conditions result from ground movements. In mining regions many cases of structural distress are attributed to mining without considering alternative causes. This is particularly true of coal mining since it occurs under extensive areas. Coal mining is estimated to have already undermined more than eight million acres and may eventually undermine 40 million acres in the United States. Other nonmetal and metal underground mines impact much smaller areas. Although it is sometimes difficult, even with careful study, to identify the actual cause of damage, persons responsible for underground coal mining should at least be aware of possible causes of building stress other than mine subsidence. This paper presents information on distress to structures and briefly reviews a number of causes of ground movements other than subsidence: Mass movements, dissolution, erosion, frost action, shrinking and swelling, yield into excavations and compressibility

  1. Radiation damage prediction system using damage function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Mori, Seiji

    1979-01-01

    The irradiation damage analysis system using a damage function was investigated. This irradiation damage analysis system consists of the following three processes, the unfolding of a damage function, the calculation of the neutron flux spectrum of the object of damage analysis and the estimation of irradiation effect of the object of damage analysis. The damage function is calculated by applying the SAND-2 code. The ANISN and DOT3, 5 codes are used to calculate neutron flux. The neutron radiation and the allowable time of reactor operation can be estimated based on these calculations of the damage function and neutron flux. The flow diagram of the process of analyzing irradiation damage by a damage function and the flow diagram of SAND-2 code are presented, and the analytical code for estimating damage, which is determined with a damage function and a neutron spectrum, is explained. The application of the irradiation damage analysis system using a damage function was carried out to the core support structure of a fast breeder reactor for the damage estimation and the uncertainty evaluation. The fundamental analytical conditions and the analytical model for this work are presented, then the irradiation data for SUS304, the initial estimated values of a damage function, the error analysis for a damage function and the analytical results are explained concerning the computation of a damage function for 10% total elongation. Concerning the damage estimation of FBR core support structure, the standard and lower limiting values of damage, the permissible neutron flux and the allowable years of reactor operation are presented and were evaluated. (Nakai, Y.)

  2. Use of accident experience in developing criteria for teleoperator equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallario, E.J.; Selby, J.M.

    1985-10-01

    The 1961 SL-1 reactor accident in Idaho and the Recuplex accident at Hanford are reviewed to identify problems common to emergency situations, lessons learned from accidents, criteria for emergency equipment, and recommendations for using robotics to solve problems during emergencies. Teleoperator equipment could be used to assess the extent of the damage and the condition of the reactor, retrieve dosimeters, evacuate and treat accident victims, clean up debris and decontaminate accident areas. 2 refs., 9 figs

  3. The design and qualification of radiation tolerant equipment for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.; Pater, L.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear power industry has many demands for equipment tolerant to the damaging effects of radiation. The wide variety of applications, including components handling, tooling, monitoring and communications, means that a systematic evaluation of the effects of radiation on materials and components used for equipment in radioactive facilities is often required. This paper describes the various effects of radiation on equipment, and discusses how to manage them when using and designing equipment. (Author)

  4. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-01

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  5. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-15

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  6. Equipment cost optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, E.M.; Farias, M.A.; Dreyer, S.R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Considering the importance of the cost of material and equipment in the overall cost profile of an oil company, which in the case of Petrobras, represents approximately 23% of the total operational cost or 10% of the sales, an organization for the optimization of such costs has been established within Petrobras. Programs are developed aiming at: optimization of life-cycle cost of material and equipment; optimization of industrial processes costs through material development. This paper describes the methodology used in the management of the development programs and presents some examples of concluded and ongoing programs, which are conducted in permanent cooperation with suppliers, technical laboratories and research institutions and have been showing relevant results

  7. Tube for irradiation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehrich, K.; Vogt, H.

    1979-01-01

    This patent describes a tube for irradiation equipment for limiting an emergent beam, with a baseplate, possessing a central aperture, intended for attaching to the equipment, as well as four carrier plates, each of which possesses a limiting edge and a sliding edge located at right angles thereto. The carrier plates are located parallel to the baseplate, the limiting edge of each carrier plate resting against the sliding edge of the adjacent carrier plate and each of the two mutually opposite pairs of carrier plates being displaceable, parallel to the direction of its sliding edges and symmetrically to the center of the transmission aperture, for the purpose of continuously varying the transmission aperture defined by the limiting edges, during which displacement each of the displaced carrier plates carries with it the carrier plate, resting against the limiting edge of the former plate, parallel to the direction of the limiting edge of the latter plate. 8 claims

  8. Equipment for isotope diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platz, W.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns an improvement of equipment for isotope diagnostics allowing to mark special intensity ranges of the recorded measurements by means of different colors. For undisturbed operation it is of advantage to avoid electric circuits between movable and unmovable parts of the color recorder. According to the invention, long gear wheels of glass fiber-reinforced polyamide are used for these connections. (ORU) [de

  9. Soviet equipment flies in

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    End of February 1977 a Soviet Ilyushin-76 heavy freight aircraft landed at Cointrin airport having on board fifty large wire proprtional chambers and associated apparatus, together weighing 10 tons, supplied by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR. The equipment was for the CERN- Dubna-Munich-Saclay experiment NA4 on deep inelastic muon scattering being set up in the North Area of SPS. See Weekly Bulletin 11/78.

  10. Labelling of equipment dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D C

    1993-01-01

    A new labelling system for use on medical equipment dispensers is tested. This system uses one of the objects stored in each unit of the dispenser as the 'label', by attaching it to the front of the dispenser with tape. The new system was compared to conventional written labelling by timing subjects asked to select items from two dispensers. The new system was 27% quicker than the conventional system. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8110335

  11. Radiation tolerance assurance of technical equipment in the LHC radiation monitoring for technical equipment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, Thijs; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2005-01-01

    In contrast with other accelerators at CERN, a large amount of technical equipment will be located in the LHC tunnel, the underground areas and in the experimental caverns where they will be exposed to radiation. Nearly all this equipment makes, to a certain extent, use of commercial microelectronics which is extremely sensitive to radiation damage, both instantaneous damage and cumulative damage. Examples in the TS Department are the electronics for the position sensors of the low beta quadrupoles, the access system, the cooling and ventilation units, the electronics for the electrical distribution, the oxygen deficiency monitors and fire detection systems. The basic effects of radiation on electronic systems and components are well understood because similar problems with radiation are encountered in the aerospace and aviation industry. Since 1998, an efficient and original Radiation Tolerance Assurance approach for the LHC machine has been established. Its aim is to minimise the effects of radiation damage...

  12. Equipment Obsolescence Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond, J.

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Operators are challenged with securing reliable supply channels for safety related equipment due to equipment obsolescence. Many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have terminated production of spare parts and product life-cycle support. The average component life cycles are much shorter than the NPP design life, which means that replacement components and parts for the original NPP systems are not available for the complete design life of the NPPs. The lack or scarcity of replacement parts adversely affects plant reliability and ultimately the profitability of the affected NPPs. This problem is further compounded when NPPs pursue license renewal and approval for plant-life extension. A reliable and predictable supply of replacement co components is necessary for NPPs to remain economically competitive and meet regulatory requirements and guidelines. Electrical and I and C components, in particular, have short product life cycles and obsolescence issues must be managed pro actively and not reactively in order to mitigate the risk to the NPP to ensure reliable and economic NPP operation. (Author)

  13. Personal protective equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series that has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, radiation protection officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have responsibility for ensuring the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manuals to provide training, instruction and information for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiation. Personal protective equipment (PPE) includes clothing or other special equipment that is issued to individual workers to provide protection against actual or potential exposure to ionizing radiations. It is used to protect each worker against the prevailing risk of external or internal exposure in circumstances in which it is not reasonably practicable to provide complete protection by means of engineering controls or administrative methods. Adequate personal protection depends on PPE being correctly selected, fitted and maintained. Appropriate training for the users and arrangements to monitor usage are also necessary to ensure that PPE provides the intended degree of protection effectively. This Manual explains the principal types of PPE, including protective clothing and respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Examples of working procedures are also described to indicate how PPE should be used within a safe system of work. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of a more comprehensive training programme or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Some of the RPE described in this Manual should be used under the guidance of a qualified expert

  14. Bacteriological research for the contamination of equipment in chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seung Gu; Song, Woon Heung; Kweon, Dae Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The purpose is to determine the degree of contamination of the equipment for infection control in chest radiography of the radiology department. We confirmed by chemical and bacterial identification of bacteria of the equipment and established a preventive maintenance plan. Chest X-ray radiography contact area on the instrument patients shoulder, hand, chin, chest lateral radiography patient contact areas with a 70% isopropyl alcohol cotton swab were compared to identify the bacteria before and after sterilization on the patient contact area in the chest radiography equipment of the department. The gram positive Staphylococcus was isolated from side shoots handle before disinfection in the chest radiography equipment. For the final identification of antibiotic tested that it was determined by performing the nobobiocin to the sensitive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Chest radiography equipment before disinfecting the handle side of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria were detected using a disinfectant should be to prevent hospital infections

  15. Bacteriological research for the contamination of equipment in chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Gu; Song, Woon Heung; Kweon, Dae Cheol [Shinhan University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The purpose is to determine the degree of contamination of the equipment for infection control in chest radiography of the radiology department. We confirmed by chemical and bacterial identification of bacteria of the equipment and established a preventive maintenance plan. Chest X-ray radiography contact area on the instrument patients shoulder, hand, chin, chest lateral radiography patient contact areas with a 70% isopropyl alcohol cotton swab were compared to identify the bacteria before and after sterilization on the patient contact area in the chest radiography equipment of the department. The gram positive Staphylococcus was isolated from side shoots handle before disinfection in the chest radiography equipment. For the final identification of antibiotic tested that it was determined by performing the nobobiocin to the sensitive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Chest radiography equipment before disinfecting the handle side of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria were detected using a disinfectant should be to prevent hospital infections.

  16. Development of Partial Discharging Simulation Test Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Xue; Genghua, Liu; Yan, Jia; Ziqi, Chai; Jian, Lu

    2017-12-01

    In the case of partial discharge training for recruits who lack of on-site work experience, the risk of physical shock and damage of the test equipment may be due to the limited skill level and improper operation by new recruits. Partial discharge simulation tester is the use of simulation technology to achieve partial discharge test process simulation, relatively true reproduction of the local discharge process and results, so that the operator in the classroom will be able to get familiar with and understand the use of the test process and equipment.The teacher sets up the instrument to display different partial discharge waveforms so that the trainees can analyze the test results of different partial discharge types.

  17. Recommendations concerning the prevention of radiation-induced health hazards through the application of soft and MID lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The Federal Health Office (BGA) recommends observation of the following practical hints: The application of soft lasers or MID lasers for cosmetic treatment or acupuncture represents a danger to the eye. Instructions for use of laser equipment have to indicate this danger. Appropriate use of the equipment will prevent damage. Any person applying soft lasers or MID lasers for treatment of customers or patients near the eye are required to give proof of a special training assuring appropriate handling, and of instructions in laser radiation protection.

  18. Recommendations concerning the prevention of radiation-induced health hazards through the application of soft and MID lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The Federal Health Office (BGA) recommends observation of the following practical hints: The application of soft lasers or MID lasers for cosmetic treatment or acupuncture represents a danger to the eye. Instructions for use of laser equipment have to indicate this danger. Appropriate use of the equipment will prevent damage. Any person applying soft lasers or MID lasers for treatment of customers or patients near the eye are required to give proof of a special training assuring appropriate handling, and of instructions in laser radiation protection. (orig./PW) [de

  19. Application of the international guidelines for machinery breakdown prevention at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, W.G.

    2001-01-01

    For more than forty years as a specialized branch of the worldwide insurance industry, the nuclear insurance pools have underwritten property damage protection for nuclear facilities throughout the world. At power plants insured by the pools, an enviable record of operational safety has been attained. Nevertheless, electrical and mechanical equipment does break down occasionally. Although these failures do not necessarily compromise nuclear safety, they can cause significant damage to equipment, leading to a considerable loss of generating revenue and causing sizeable insurance losses. Since insurance companies have a large financial stake in nuclear power plants, their goal is to minimize insurance losses, including the failure of systems and equipment and ensuing consequential damages. To ensure that the insurance risk is properly underwritten, insurance companies analyze loss information, develop loss prevention guidelines and focus loss control activities on those areas where insurance risk is most significant. This paper provides a chronology of the development of the ''International Guidelines for Machinery Breakdown Prevention at Nuclear Power Plants'' and describes the results of insurance inspections conducted using these guidelines. Included is a summary of guideline content and of insurance loss experience between 1962 and 1999. (author)

  20. RENAL DAMAGE WITH MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Kolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between renal damage and malignant neoplasms is one of the most actual problems of the medicine of internal diseases. Very often, exactly availability of renal damage determines the forecast of cancer patients. The range of renal pathologies associated with tumors is unusually wide: from the mechanical effect of the tumor or metastases on the kidneys and/or the urinary tract and paraneoplastic manifestations in the form of nephritis or amyloidosis to nephropathies induced with drugs or tumor lysis, etc. Thrombotic complications that develop as a result of exposure to tumor effects, side effects of certain drugs or irradiation also play an important role in the development of the kidney damage. The most frequent variants of renal damage observed in the practice of medical internists (therapists, urologists, surgeons, etc., as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches are described in the article. Timely and successful prevention and treatment of tumor-associated nephropathies give hope for retaining renal functions, therefore, a higher life standard after completion of anti-tumor therapy. Even a shortterm episode of acute renal damage suffered by a cancer patient must be accompanied with relevant examination and treatment. In the caseof transformation of acute renal damage into the chronic kidney disease, such patients need systematic and weighted renoprotective therapy and correct dosing of nephrotoxic drugs.

  1. Scientific Equipment Division - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halik, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Scientific Equipment Division consists of the Design Group and the Mechanical Workshop. The activity of the Division includes the following: - designing of devices and equipment for experiments in physics, their mechanical construction and assembly. In particular, there are vacuum chambers and installations for HV and UHV; - maintenance and upgrading of the existing installations and equipment in our Institute; - participation of our engineers and technicians in design works, equipment assembly and maintenance for experiments in foreign laboratories. The Design Group is equipped with PC-computers and AutoCAD graphic software (release 2000 and Mechanical Desktop 4.0) and a AO plotter, what allows us to make drawings and 2- and 3-dimensional mechanical documentation to the world standards. The Mechanical Workshop can offer a wide range of machining and treatment methods with satisfactory tolerances and surface quality. It offers the following possibilities: - turning - cylindrical elements of a length up to 2000 mm and a diameter up to 400 mm, and also disc-type elements of a diameter up to 600 mm and a length not exceeding 300 mm; - milling - elements of length up to 1000 mm and gear wheels of diameter up to 300 mm; - grinding - flat surfaces of dimensions up to 300 mm x 1000 mm and cylindrical elements of a diameter up to 200 mm and a length up to 800 mm; - drilling - holes of a diameter up to 50 mm; - welding - electrical and gas welding, including TIG vacuum-tight welding; - soft and hard soldering; - mechanical works including precision engineering; - plastics treatment - machining and polishing using diamond milling, modelling, lamination of various shapes and materials, including plexiglas, scintillators and light-guides; - painting - paint spraying with possibility of using furnace-fred drier of internal dimensions of 800 mm x 800 mm x 800 mm. Our workshop posses CNC milling machine which can be used for machining of work-pieces up to 500 kg

  2. Mining face equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G, Litvinskiy G; Babyuk, G V; Yakovenko, V A

    1981-01-07

    Mining face equipment includes drilling advance wells, drilling using explosives on the contour bore holes, loading and transporting the crushed mass, drilling reinforcement shafts, injecting reinforcement compounds and moving the timber. Camouflet explosives are used to form relaxed rock stress beyond the mining area to decrease costs of reinforcing the mining area by using nonstressed rock in the advance well as support. The strengthening solution is injected through advanced cementing wells before drilling the contour bores as well as through radial cementing wells beyond the timbers following loading and transport of the mining debris. The advance well is 50-80 m.

  3. Coal ash monitoring equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, C G; Wormald, M R

    1978-10-02

    The monitoring equipment is used to determine the remainder from combustion (ash slack) of coal in wagons designed for power stations. Next to the rails, a neutron source (252 Cf, 241 Am/Be) is situated, which irradiates the coal with neutrons at a known dose, which produces the reaction 27 Al (n ..gamma..) Al 28. The aluminium content is a measure of the remainder. The 1.78 MeV energy is measured downstream of the rail with a detector. The neutron source can only act in the working position of a loaded wagon.

  4. Management of Transportation Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    Record% % %. "jP -M -. M LIh TRANSPORTATION MAENTKENAI4CE SHOP WORKLOAD CONTROL WORK CENTER SADR A-OR .a’* tLR 4.,R53 8114LM 0 o 251 50 75 100 125 ISO ...PDBP 06 7 4892 TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 14001-20000 PDBP 06 7 4893 TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 20001-27000 PDBP 06 7 4894 TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 27001 PDBP...27K TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 27001 PDBP & UP P-i LINE ITEM 07 LIGHTING AND POWER GENERATION EQUIPMENT 5110 T FLOODLIGHT ELEC FLOODLIGHT, ELEC, TRUCK

  5. Californium-252 Program Equipment Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattin, Fred Rhea [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Kenton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ezold, Julie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-01

    To successfully continue the 252Cf production and meet the needs of the customers, a comprehensive evaluation of the Building 7920 processing equipment was requested to identify equipment critical to the operational continuity of the program.

  6. Damage Atlas for Photographic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Van Camp

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La conservation des documents photographiques peut nécessiter des interventions préventives ou curatives. Ce choix est guidé par leur état de conservation. Une meilleure connaissance des détériorations est donc cruciale. Le répertoire présenté ici essaie de les classifier selon des caractéristiques spécifiques et leur niveau de gravité. Les différents types de dégradation sont illustrés et décrits avec une terminologie précise. L’auteur propose en regard de ceux-ci l’intervention qui semble la plus appropriée. Ce répertoire s’adresse à toutes les personnes concernées par la photographie, qu’ils soient dans le milieu de la conservation ou dans le domaine artistique, dans les musées ou dans les archives. In order to rescue a damaged photographic object, preventive or conservative actions are needed. Knowing the specific characteristics of different types of damage is crucial. A damage atlas can provide these characteristics. With this atlas the damage can be recognised and appropriate actions can be taken. This damage atlas offers a first attempt to such a characterisation in the field of photography. The damage atlas contains images and the necessary information about damage on photographic material. The atlas with special annotations about the terminology and the grade of the damage is meant for everybody who works with photographic material, as well in museums as in archives.

  7. 29 CFR 1910.334 - Use of equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... remain connected once they are put in place and are not exposed to damage need not be visually inspected... until repairs and tests necessary to render the equipment safe have been made. (iii) When an attachment... grounding conductor. (ii) Attachment plugs and receptacles may not be connected or altered in a manner which...

  8. Let us prevent the next explosion in hazardous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhalla, Jogen [Amot Controls Corporation, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    There are many potential ignition sources in the oil and gas industry (drilling, petrochemical, refining and production). Some of them are hot work, internal combustion engines, improperly classified or maintained electrical equipment, lighting, and adjacent fire equipment. These are typically controlled using measures such as hot work permits for: - Welding/burning - Hot work or vehicle entry permit requirements to operate engines inside posted areas - Proper electrical classification along with maintenance programs - Programs/practices to prevent and detect releases of flammable materials A large number of diesel engines (in vehicles, lighting towers, power generators and other equipment) are used in the oil and gas industry for day-to-day operations. Diesel engine runaway is a serious hazard where flammable hydrocarbon emissions or leaks may occur. Hydrocarbons drawn into diesel engines through the air intake system act as an uncontrolled fuel source and can lead to dangerous engine overspeed or runaway. When an operator cannot shut down the engine using conventional methods (i.e. turning off the engine ignition switch) it could result in a total runaway engine. These could range from minor engine damage to engine and plant explosion, causing catastrophic damage to the equipment and surrounding facilities and/or death or injuries, such as the Texas City refinery and Deep water Horizon explosions. Fortunately, there is simple, inexpensive technology available which can prevent a diesel engine runaway. The paper is presented to increase awareness and lessons learned from many accidents involving runaway diesel engines. The author will present what companies are doing around the world to avoid diesel engine runaway as an ignition source for explosions in the hydrocarbon industry. (author)

  9. The cost function for the preventive - maintenance replacement problem

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaplana, Jose Perez

    1994-01-01

    Let a discounted continuous review preventive-maintenance replacement model be such that its total discounted cost is given by means of two functional equations. We assume that downtime is caused by equipment breakdowns, and the length of a given downtime is the time necessary to repair the equipment and set it back in operation. The periodic preventive replacement policy is to replace the equipment by a new identical equipment when service age X is reached, or when the equipment ...

  10. FMECA application to Rainfall Hazard prevention in olive trees growings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendia-Buendía, F. S.; Bermudez, R.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.

    2010-05-01

    The FMECA (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis) is a broadly extended System Safety tool applied in industries as Aerospace in order to prevent hazards. This methodology studies the different failure modes of a system and try to mitigate them in a systematic procedure. In this paper this tool is applied in order to mitigate economical impact hazards derived from Rainfalls to olive trees growing in Granada (Spain), understanding hazard from the System Safety perspective (Any real or potential condition that can cause injury, illness, or death to personnel; damage to or loss of a system, equipment or property; or damage to the environment). The work includes a brief introduction to the System Safety and FMECA methodologies, applying then these concepts to analyze the Olive trees as a system and identify the hazards during the different stages of the whole life cycle plant production.

  11. Smart accelerometer. [vibration damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention discloses methods and apparatus for detecting vibrations from machines which indicate an impending malfunction for the purpose of preventing additional damage and allowing for an orderly shutdown or a change in mode of operation. The method and apparatus is especially suited for reliable operation in providing thruster control data concerning unstable vibration in an electrical environment which is typically noisy and in which unrecognized ground loops may exist.

  12. Characterization equipment essential drawing plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILSON, G.W.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to list the Characterization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential Drawings. Essential Drawings: Are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment (HNF 1997a). The Characterization equipment drawings identified in this report are deemed essential drawings as defined in HNF-PRO-242, Engineering Drawing Requirements (HNF 1997a). These drawings will be prepared, revised, and maintained per HNF-PRO-440, Engineering Document Change Control (HNF 1997b). All other Characterization equipment drawings not identified in this document will be considered Support drawings until the Characterization Equipment Drawing Evaluation Report is completed

  13. Coal mining equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, R.R.; Martin, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    The word in longwall components is big, and these larger components have price tags to match. The logic behind the greater investment is that it will yield high production rates and good uptime statistics. This is true in most cases. More important than single-shift tonnage records, average shift production continues to climb upwards. This paper reports on the quality, and more significantly, the quantity of service supplied for long-wall equipment, which has reached levels that would have been seen as unachievable when longwall mining was first introduced in the U.S. The school of thought then was that longwall would increase productivity in part by reducing the number of production units and thus reducing the number of personnel employed underground. The expectation of fewer employees turned out to be unrealistic. That was probably one reason that some early attempts to install longwall system looked more like failures than vision of the future

  14. Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to bottle caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Anderson; William C. Miller

    1973-01-01

    Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to aluminum resealable caps during distribution. A study at bottling plants and distribution warehouses showed that an average of 1 bottle out of 4,000 has cap damage. Most of the damage was attributed to handling at the warehouse and in transit. Some recommendations are given for improvement of wooden beverage cases to prevent...

  15. Chapter 12. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  16. Department of Energy: Opportunities Exist to Improve Los Alamos' Equipment Purchasing Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    In fiscal year 2000, the Department of Energy (DOE) received $13.2 million in supplemental funding to replace equipment lost in the May 2000 Cerro Grande fire that damaged the Los Alamos National Laboratory...

  17. The application and practice of predictive maintenance at CANDU equipment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Guangting

    2014-01-01

    The equipment in Qinshan CANDU unit is characterized by large number and complex structure. Some equipment failure has no relation with the operation time, it is impossible to avoid the failure of these equipment only by periodical maintenance. To improve the equipment reliability, increase the equipment usability and decrease the maintenance cost, for important equipment related to nuclear safety and generating electricity, it is required to perform condition monitoring and the predictive maintenance (PdM). According to different characteristics of equipment, it is required to use suitable equipment condition monitoring method, content and frequency. In this way, some potential equipment failure can be found, preventive maintenance can be arranged in advance, and equipment maintenance management can be optimized. (author)

  18. Optimization of safety equipment outages improves safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, Marko

    2002-01-01

    Testing and maintenance activities of safety equipment in nuclear power plants are an important potential for risk and cost reduction. An optimization method is presented based on the simulated annealing algorithm. The method determines the optimal schedule of safety equipment outages due to testing and maintenance based on minimization of selected risk measure. The mean value of the selected time dependent risk measure represents the objective function of the optimization. The time dependent function of the selected risk measure is obtained from probabilistic safety assessment, i.e. the fault tree analysis at the system level and the fault tree/event tree analysis at the plant level, both extended with inclusion of time requirements. Results of several examples showed that it is possible to reduce risk by application of the proposed method. Because of large uncertainties in the probabilistic safety assessment, the most important result of the method may not be a selection of the most suitable schedule of safety equipment outages among those, which results in similarly low risk. But, it may be a prevention of such schedules of safety equipment outages, which result in high risk. Such finding increases the importance of evaluation speed versus the requirement of getting always the global optimum no matter if it is only slightly better that certain local one

  19. Autophagy in DNA Damage Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Czarny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage response (DDR involves DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, but autophagy is also suggested to play a role in DDR. Autophagy can be activated in response to DNA-damaging agents, but the exact mechanism underlying this activation is not fully understood, although it is suggested that it involves the inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1. mTORC1 represses autophagy via phosphorylation of the ULK1/2–Atg13–FIP200 complex thus preventing maturation of pre-autophagosomal structures. When DNA damage occurs, it is recognized by some proteins or their complexes, such as poly(ADPribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1, Mre11–Rad50–Nbs1 (MRN complex or FOXO3, which activate repressors of mTORC1. SQSTM1/p62 is one of the proteins whose levels are regulated via autophagic degradation. Inhibition of autophagy by knockout of FIP200 results in upregulation of SQSTM1/p62, enhanced DNA damage and less efficient damage repair. Mitophagy, one form of autophagy involved in the selective degradation of mitochondria, may also play role in DDR. It degrades abnormal mitochondria and can either repress or activate apoptosis, but the exact mechanism remains unknown. There is a need to clarify the role of autophagy in DDR, as this process may possess several important biomedical applications, involving also cancer therapy.

  20. Core damage frequency estimation using accident sequence precursor data: 1990-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.F.

    1998-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) ongoing Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques to assess the potential for severe core damage (henceforth referred to simply as core damage) based on operating events. The types of operating events considered include accident sequence initiators, safety equipment failures, and degradation of plant conditions that could increase the probability that various postulated accident sequences occur. Such operating events potentially reduce the margin of safety available for prevention of core damage an thus can be considered as precursors to core damage. The current process for identifying, analyzing, and documenting ASP events is described in detail in Vanden Heuval et al. The significance of a Licensee Event Report (LER) event (or events) is measured by means of the conditional probability that the event leads to core damage, the so-called conditional core damage probability or, simply, CCDP. When the first ASP study results were published in 1982, it covered the period 1969--1979. In addition to identification and ranking of precursors, the original study attempted to estimate core damage frequency (CDF) based on the precursor events. The purpose of this paper is to compare the average annual CDF estimates calculated using the CCDP sum, Cooke-Goossens, Bier, and Abramson estimators for various reactor classes using the combined ASP data for the four years, 1990--1993. An important outcome of this comparison is an answer to the persistent question regarding the degree and effect of the positive bias of the CCDP sum method in practice. Note that this paper only compares the estimators with each other. Because the true average CDF is unknown, the estimation error is also unknown. Therefore, any observations or characterizations of bias are based on purely theoretical considerations

  1. Damage analysis: damage function development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, R.L.; Odette, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    The derivation and application of damage functions, including recent developments for the U.S. LMFBR and CTR programs, is reviewed. A primary application of damage functions is in predicting component life expectancies; i.e., the fluence required in a service spectrum to attain a specified design property change. An important part of the analysis is the estimation of the uncertainty in such fluence limit predictions. The status of standardizing the procedures for the derivation and application of damage functions is discussed. Improvements in several areas of damage function development are needed before standardization can be completed. These include increasing the quantity and quality of the data used in the analysis, determining the limitations of the analysis due to the presence of multiple damage mechanisms, and finally, testing of damage function predictions against data obtained from material surveillance programs in operating thermal and fast reactors. 23 references. (auth)

  2. Liability for damage to the global commons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, K.

    1993-01-01

    The 'global commons' discussed in this paper are the areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. Responsibility to prevent environmental damage to these areas is clearly recognized in customary international law. On the other hand, although liability for such damage undoubtedly has a useful role to play in protecting these areas, the precise nature of liability for such damage is unclear. Some issues, such as whether liability for such damage is strict or tied to breaching a standard of care and the definition of environmental damage, equally arise in relation to damage to the environment of States. Others, such as who could take action to enforce the liability and the nature of the remedy, raise special problems in the case of damage to the global commons. The work under way in the IAEA Standing Committee on Liability for Nuclear Damage provides an opportunity for clarifying these issues in relation to nuclear damage to the global commons. Treaties dealing with particular types of damage which have recently been adopted or are currently being developed in other fields provide a starting point in dealing with this matter. More work, however, needs to be done

  3. Early recognition of damage and course of damage on metal components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the German Research Association set up the programme 'Early recognition of damage and course of damage on metal components'. The concept worked out by a programme committee provided that scientifically secured bases for the understanding of the occurrence of damage, the prevention of damage, affecting damage, and the mechanism triggering damage, or cumulation of damage should be obtained. 36 individual projects costing 14 million DM were supported in the course of 6 years. The task of a test group was to find these projects from a far larger number of applications which promised an increase in knowledge in the sense of the target of the programme. For the final colloquium, the test group chose those contributions which had not previously been published to the wider technical public. (orig.) [de

  4. Flood damage estimation of companies: A comparison of Stage-Damage-Functions and Random Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieg, Tobias; Kreibich, Heidi; Vogel, Kristin; Merz, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The development of appropriate flood damage models plays an important role not only for the damage assessment after an event but also to develop adaptation and risk mitigation strategies. So called Stage-Damage-Functions (SDFs) are often applied as a standard approach to estimate flood damage. These functions assign a certain damage to the water depth depending on the use or other characteristics of the exposed objects. Recent studies apply machine learning algorithms like Random Forests (RFs) to model flood damage. These algorithms usually consider more influencing variables and promise to depict a more detailed insight into the damage processes. In addition they provide an inherent validation scheme. Our study focuses on direct, tangible damage of single companies. The objective is to model and validate the flood damage suffered by single companies with SDFs and RFs. The data sets used are taken from two surveys conducted after the floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in the years 2002 and 2013 in Germany. Damage to buildings (n = 430), equipment (n = 651) as well as goods and stock (n = 530) are taken into account. The model outputs are validated via a comparison with the actual flood damage acquired by the surveys and subsequently compared with each other. This study investigates the gain in model performance with the use of additional data and the advantages and disadvantages of the RFs compared to SDFs. RFs show an increase in model performance with an increasing amount of data records over a comparatively large range, while the model performance of the SDFs is already saturated for a small set of records. In addition, the RFs are able to identify damage influencing variables, which improves the understanding of damage processes. Hence, RFs can slightly improve flood damage predictions and provide additional insight into the underlying mechanisms compared to SDFs.

  5. 21 CFR 866.4540 - Immunonephelometer equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4540 Immunonephelometer equipment. (a) Identification. Immunonephelometer equipment for clinical use...

  6. 21 CFR 866.4520 - Immunofluorometer equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4520 Immunofluorometer equipment. (a) Identification. Immunofluorometer equipment for clinical use with...

  7. Auxiliary equipment cooling circuit in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Ko.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the propagation of bacterias that transform NO 2 into NO 3 in auxiliary equipment coolants using corrosion inhibitors of nitrite type in BWR type reactors. Method: In auxiliary equipments coolant systems, water quality is controlled by using purified water as supplement water and nitrite such as Na 2 NO 2 as the corrosion inhibitors. However, in the circumstance where dissolved oxygen is present, bacteria propagate to oxidize NO 2 into NO 3 . Thus, NO 2 at 200 ppm is reduced to 20 ppm. In view of the above, a surge tank supplied from water supplement line is connected in series and a deaeration device is disposed thereto. Since the presence of dissolved oxygen causes the bacteria to propagate it is desired that the dissolved oxygen density in the supplement water is less than 5 ppm. Deaeration and pressure reduction in the surge tank can remove the dissolved oxygen, prevent NO 3 increase and also prevent stress corrosion cracks in the system pipeways. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. Recommended method to prevent leakage of titanium tube in condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun

    2010-01-01

    Qinshan Phase III is located at the estuary area of Qiantang River, where contains much slit and sand in the seawater. Since the units were put into operation, tube bundles in the condenser have been scratched, damaged or blocked by hard foreign materials, and outside wall thickness reduced and broken due to various reasons. Many tube bundles are discarded. In order to effectively prevent the re-occurrence of such problem and eliminate the existing defects, equipment management personnels of Qinshan Phase III work together with experts both from home and abroad, and perfom root-analysis for various cause of defects. After the problem root is identified, a serious of specific and effective measures are taken to prevent and eliminate the problem and reached a good effect. This paper herein is written for comments and reference. (authors)

  9. Equipment standards for interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, A.; Gallagher, A.; Walsh, C.; Malone, J.

    2005-01-01

    Interventional radiology has seen rapid growth in cardiology and represents an alternative to hazardous surgery. Recently there has been a substantial growth in the number of procedures being performed and interventional cardiology (IC) procedures are the most common interventional procedures in Europe. Advances in imaging technology have facilitated the development of increasingly complex radiological IC equipment. Currently, the technology is developing at a rate ahead of supporting research, equipment standards and a regulatory framework. International standards play a key role in the design, manufacture and performance of radiological IC equipment. A survey of 12 IC systems (15 imaging chains) was conducted in Irish hospitals. The aim of the study was to assess the imbalance between rapidly advancing technology and existing standards and to propose recommendations for new IC equipment standards. The results demonstrate the need for definitive equipment requirements and standardisation in the design, manufacture, acceptance and maintenance of IC equipment. (authors)

  10. Generation of equipment response spectrum considering equipment-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Yoo, Kwang Hoon

    2005-01-01

    Floor response spectra for dynamic response of subsystem such as equipment, or piping in nuclear power plant are usually generated without considering dynamic interaction between main structure and subsystem. Since the dynamic structural response generally has the narrow-banded shapes, the resulting floor response spectra developed for various locations in the structure usually have high spectral peak amplitudes in the narrow frequency bands corresponding to the natural frequencies of the structural system. The application of such spectra for design of subsystems often leads to excessive design conservatisms, especially when the equipment frequency and structure are at resonance condition. Thus, in order to provide a rational and realistic design input for dynamic analysis and design of equipment, dynamic equipment-structure interaction (ESI) should be considered in developing equipment response spectrum which is particularly important for equipment at the resonance condition. Many analytical methods have been proposed in the past for developing equipment response spectra considering ESI. However, most of these methods have not been adapted to the practical applications because of either the complexities or the lack of rigorousness of the methods. At one hand, mass ratio among the equipment and structure was used as an important parameter to obtain equipment response spectra. Similarly, Tseng has also proposed the analytical method for developing equipment response spectra using mass ratio in the frequency domain. This method is analytically rigorous and can be easily validated. It is based on the dynamic substructuring method as applied to the dynamic soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis, and can relatively easily be implemented for practical applications without to change the current dynamic analysis and design practice for subsystems. The equipment response spectra derived in this study are also based on Tseng's proposed method

  11. 75 FR 75911 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ..., Notice No. 3] RIN 2130-ZA04 Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents... (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the rail equipment accident/incident reporting threshold from $9,200 to $9,400 for certain railroad accidents/incidents involving property damage that...

  12. Evaporation equipment with electron beam heating for the evaporation of metals and other conducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.

    1977-01-01

    Equipment for the evaporation of metals and other conducting materials by electron beam heating is to be improved by surrou nding the evaporation equipment with a grid, which has a negative voltage compared to the cathode. This achieves the state where the cathode is hit and damaged less by the ions formed, so that its life period is prolonged. (UWI) [de

  13. Overall Equipment Effectiveness Implementation Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramova, I. G.; Abramov, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    This article documents the methods applied in production control technics specifically focused on commonly used parameter OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness). The indicators of extensive and intensive use of equipment are considered. Their appointment this is comparison in the same type of production within the industry and comparison of single-type and / or different types of equipment in terms of capacity. However, it is shown that there is no possibility of revealing the reasons for the machine’s operation: productive / unproductive, with disturbances. Therefore, in the article reveals the approaches to calculating the indicator characterizing the direct operation of the equipment. The Machine Load coefficient is approaching closely to the indicator of the efficiency of the use of equipment. Methods analysis is proceeded through the historically applied techniques such as “Stopwatch” and “Motion” studies. Was performed the analysis of the efficiency index of OEE equipment using the comparable indexes performance of equipment in the Russian practice. An important indicator of OEE contains three components. The meaning of each of them reflects historically applicable indicators. The value of the availability of equipment indicator is close to the value of the equipment extensibility index. The value of the indicator of the efficiency of work can be compared with the characteristic of the capacity of the equipment and the indicator of the quality level can meet the requirements for compliance with the manufacturing technology. Shown that the sum of the values of the coefficient of “Availability” of the equipment and the value of the “Factor of compaction of working hours” are one. As well as the total value of the indicator “level of quality” and the coefficient of marriage given in the result unit. The measurability of the indicators makes it possible to make a prediction about efficiency of the equipment.

  14. Information technology equipment cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  15. Management methodology for pressure equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletchly, P. J.

    Pressure equipment constitutes a significant investment in capital and a major proportion of potential high-risk plant in many operations and this is particularly so in an alumina refinery. In many jurisdictions pressure equipment is also subject to statutory regulation that imposes obligations on Owners of the equipment with respect to workplace safety. Most modern technical standards and industry codes of practice employ a risk-based approach to support better decision making with respect to pressure equipment. For a management system to be effective it must demonstrate that risk is being managed within acceptable limits.

  16. Cryogenic equipment; Materiel cryogenique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leger, L; Javellaud, J; Caro, C; Gilguy, R; Testard, O

    1966-06-01

    The cryostats presented here were built from standard parts; this makes it possible to construct a great variety of apparatus at minimum cost. The liquid nitrogen and helium reservoirs were designed so as to reduce losses to a minimum, and so as to make the cryostats as autonomous as possible. The experimental enclosure which is generally placed in the lower part of the apparatus requires a separate study in every case. Furthermore, complete assemblies such as transfer rods, isolated traps and high vacuum valves, were designed with a similar regard for the economic aspects and for the need for standardization. This equipment thus satisfies a great variety of experimental needs; it is readily adaptable and the consumptions of helium and liquid nitrogen are very low. (authors) [French] De nombreuses experiences utilisant les basses temperatures, necessitent l'emploi d'un materiel cryogenique complexe n'existant pas dans le commerce. Les cryostats presentes ici ont ete realises a partir d'elements standard, ce qui permet, malgre la diversite des appareils, de realiser un ensemble a moindre frais. Les reservoirs d'azote et d'helium liquides ont ete concus de facon a limiter les pertes et a conferer au cryostat la plus grande autonomie possible. L'enceinte experimentale situee en general dans la partie inferieure de l'appareil necessite dans tous les cas une etude speciale. D'autre part des ensembles complets tels que les cannes de transfert, piege isole, robinet pour vide secondaire, ont ete concus dans le meme souci de rentabilite et de standardisation. Ce materiel peut donc repondre a un grand nombre d'exigences experimentales, il est facilement adaptable, et les consommations d'helium et d'azote liquide sont tres reduites. (auteurs)

  17. The KnowRISK project: Tools and strategies to reduce non-structural damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Lopes, Mário; Mota de Sá, Francisco; Amaral Ferreia, Mónica; Candeias, Paulo; Campos Costa, Alfredo; Rupakhety, Rajesh; Meroni, Fabrizio; Azzaro, Raffaele; D'Amico, Salvatore; Langer, Horst; Musacchio, Gemma; Sousa Silva, Delta; Falsaperla, Susanna; Scarfì, Luciano; Tusa, Giuseppina; Tuvé, Tiziana

    2016-04-01

    The project KnowRISK (Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements) is financed by the European Commission to develop prevention measures that may reduce non-structural damage in urban areas. Pilot areas of the project are within the three European participating countries, namely Portugal, Iceland and Italy. Non-structural components of a building include all those components that are not part of the structural system, more specifically the architectural, mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems, as well as furniture, fixtures, equipment, and contents. Windows, partitions, granite veneer, piping, ceilings, air conditioning ducts and equipment, elevators, computer and hospital equipment, file cabinets, and retail merchandise are all examples of non-structural components that are vulnerable to earthquake damage. We will use the experience gained during past earthquakes, which struck in particular Iceland, Italy and Portugal (Azores). Securing the non-structural elements improves the safety during an earthquake and saves lives. This paper aims at identifying non-structural seismic protection measures in the pilot areas and to develop a portfolio of good practices for the most common and serious non-structural vulnerabilities. This systematic identification and the portfolio will be achieved through a "cross-knowledge" strategy based on previous researches, evidence of non-structural damage in past earthquakes. Shake table tests of a group of non-structural elements will be performed. These tests will be filmed and, jointly with portfolio, will serve as didactic supporting tools to be used in workshops with building construction stakeholders and in risk communication activities. A Practical Guide for non-structural risk reduction will be specifically prepared for citizens on the basis of the outputs of the project, taking into account the local culture and needs of each participating country.

  18. Radiation damage of nonmetallic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goland, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    A review of data and information on radiation damage in nonmetallic solids is presented. Discussions are included on defects in nonmetals, radiation damage processes in nonmetals, electronic damage processes, physical damage processes, atomic displacement, photochemical damage processes, and ion implantation

  19. Radiology preparedness in ebola virus disease: guidelines and challenges for disinfection of medical imaging equipment for the protection of staff and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollura, Daniel J; Palmore, Tara N; Folio, Les R; Bluemke, David A

    2015-05-01

    The overlap of early Ebola virus disease (EVD) symptoms (eg, fever, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, emesis, and fatigue) with symptoms of other more common travel-related diseases (eg, malaria, typhoid fever, pneumonia, and meningococcemia) may result in delayed diagnosis of EVD before isolation of infected patients. Radiology departments should consider policies for and approaches to decontamination of expensive and potentially easily damaged radiology equipment. In addition, the protection of radiology personnel must be considered during the work-up phase of undiagnosed EVD patients presenting to emergency departments. The purpose of this article is to consider the effect of EVD on radiology departments and imaging equipment, with particular consideration of guidelines currently available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that may be applicable to radiology. (©) RSNA, 2015.

  20. Public health officials and MECs should be held liable for harm caused to patients through incompetence, indifference, maladministration or negligence regarding the availability of hospital equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuoid-Mason, David Jan

    2016-06-17

    There have been several reports of state hospitals not having functional equipment such as radiological equipment. Where these are due to incompetence, Indifference, maladministration or negligence by the public officials concerned, they may be held personally liable for the resulting harm to patients. However, the courts have often observed that where the State has been sued vicariously for the wrongs of public officials, it has not obtained reimbursement from the offending official. It has therefore been suggested that irresponsible public servants should be sued in their personal capacity (in addition to the State), to prevent taxpayers always having to pay for their misdeeds. If an individual public official cannot afford to pay all the damages awarded, the injured party can recover the balance from the State by citing it as a vicarious joint wrongdoer.

  1. Radiation-induced liver damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcial, V.A.; Santiago-Delpin, E.A.; Lanaro, A.E.; Castro-Vita, H.; Arroyo, G.; Moscol, J.A.; Gomez, C.; Velazquez, J.; Prado, K.

    1977-01-01

    Due to the recent increase in the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer with or without chemotherapy, the risk of liver radiation damage has become a significant concern for the radiotherapist when the treated tumour is located in the upper abdomen or lower thorax. Clinically evident radiation liver damage may result in significant mortality, but at times patients recover without sequelae. The dose of 3000 rads in 3 weeks to the entire liver with 5 fractions per week of 200 rads each, seems to be tolerated well clinically by adult humans. Lower doses may lead to damage when used in children, when chemotherapy is added, as in recent hepatectomy cases, and in the presence of pre-existent liver damage. Reduced fractionation may lead to increased damage. Increased fractionation, limitation of the dose delivered to the entire liver, and restriction of the high dose irradiation volume may afford protection. With the aim of studying the problems of hepatic radiation injury in humans, a project of liver irradiation in the dog is being conducted. Mongrel dogs are being conditioned, submitted to pre-irradiation studies (haemogram, blood chemistry, liver scan and biopsy), irradiated under conditions resembling human cancer therapy, and submitted to post-irradiation evaluation of the liver. Twenty-two dogs have been entered in the study but only four qualify for the evaluation of all the study parameters. It has been found that dogs are susceptible to liver irradiation damage similar to humans. The initial mortality has been high mainly due to non-radiation factors which are being kept under control at the present phase of the study. After the initial experiences, the study will involve variations in total dose and fractionation, and the addition of anticoagulant therapy for possible prevention of radiation liver injury. (author)

  2. 29 CFR 1926.952 - Mechanical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment that are not covered with insulating protective equipment. (c) Derrick trucks, cranes and other lifting equipment. (1) All derrick trucks, cranes and other lifting equipment shall comply with subpart N...

  3. 22 CFR 135.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  4. 21 CFR 1403.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  5. 45 CFR 602.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  6. 49 CFR 18.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  7. 34 CFR 80.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  8. 10 CFR 600.232 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  9. 45 CFR 1183.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  10. Food Service Equipment and Appurtenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Equipment design specifications are presented relating to tables of all kinds, counters, sinks and drainboards, bins, shelves, drawers, hoods and similar kitchen appurtenances, not including baking, roasting, toasting, broiling or frying equipment, food preparation machinery such as slicers, choppers, and cutters, mixers and grinders, steam…

  11. War damages and reconstruction of Peruca dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonveiller, E.; Sever, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the heavy damages caused by blasting in the Peruca rockfill dam in Croatia in January 1993. Complete collapse of the dam by overtopping was prevented through quick action of the dam owner by dumping clayey gravel on the lowest sections of the dam crest and opening the bottom outlet of the reservoir, thus efficiently lowering the water level. After the damages were sufficiently established and alternatives for restoration of the dam were evaluated, it was decided to construct a diaphragm wall through the damaged core in the central dam part as the impermeable dam element and to rebuild the central clay core at the dam abutments. Reconstruction works are described

  12. Equipe de trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gerber Hornink

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available   Equipe de Trabalho 2014 1. Equipe editorial Editor-Chefe Bayardo Bapstista Torres, Instituto de Química - USP, Brasil Eduardo Galembeck, Departamento de Bioquímica Instituto de Biologia UNICAMP, Brasil   Editores Gabriel Gerber Hornink, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade - Federal de Alfenas - Unifal-MG, Brasil Vera Maria Treis Trindade, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil   Corpo Editorial Adriana Cassina, Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguai Angel Herráez, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología molecular, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Espanha André Amaral Gonçalves Bianco, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, Brasil Denise Vaz de Macedo, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Unicamp, Brasil Eneida de Paula, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Unicamp, Brasil Guilherme Andrade Marson, Instituto de Química - USP, Brasil Jose Antonio Martinez Oyanedel, Universidad de Concepción, Chile Josep Maria Fernández Novell, Dept. Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular Universitat de Barcelona, Espanha Leila Maria Beltramini, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade Estadual de São Paulo - USP, Brasil Manuel João da Costa, Escola de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Minho, Portugal Maria Lucia Bianconi, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, Brasil María Noel Alvarez, Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguai Miguel Ángel Medina Torres, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry Faculty of Sciences University of Málaga, Espanha Nelma Regina Segnini Bossolan, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo - USP, Brasil Paulo De Avila

  13. Femoral nerve damage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

  14. Information technology equipment cooling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-20

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools air utilized by the rack of information technology equipment to cool the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat generated by the rack of information technology equipment.

  15. Mechanisms of dealing with DNA damage in terminally differentiated cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortini, P. [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Dogliotti, E., E-mail: eugenia.dogliotti@iss.it [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2010-03-01

    To protect genomic integrity living cells that are continuously exposed to DNA-damaging insults are equipped with an efficient defence mechanism termed the DNA damage response. Its function is to eliminate DNA damage through DNA repair and to remove damaged cells by apoptosis. The DNA damage response has been investigated mainly in proliferating cells, in which the cell cycle machinery is integrated with the DNA damage signalling. The current knowledge of the mechanisms of DNA repair, DNA damage signalling and cell death of post-mitotic cells that have undergone irreversible cell cycle withdrawal will be reviewed. Evidence will be provided that the protection of the genome integrity in terminally differentiated cells is achieved by different strategies than in proliferating cells.

  16. Mechanisms of dealing with DNA damage in terminally differentiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortini, P.; Dogliotti, E.

    2010-01-01

    To protect genomic integrity living cells that are continuously exposed to DNA-damaging insults are equipped with an efficient defence mechanism termed the DNA damage response. Its function is to eliminate DNA damage through DNA repair and to remove damaged cells by apoptosis. The DNA damage response has been investigated mainly in proliferating cells, in which the cell cycle machinery is integrated with the DNA damage signalling. The current knowledge of the mechanisms of DNA repair, DNA damage signalling and cell death of post-mitotic cells that have undergone irreversible cell cycle withdrawal will be reviewed. Evidence will be provided that the protection of the genome integrity in terminally differentiated cells is achieved by different strategies than in proliferating cells.

  17. RILEM recommendations for the prevention of damage by alkali-aggregate reactions in new concrete structures state-of-the-art report of the RILEM technical committee 219-ACS

    CERN Document Server

    Sims, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This book contains the full set of RILEM Recommendations which have been produced to enable engineers, specifiers and testing houses to design and produce concrete which will not suffer damage arising from alkali reactions in the concrete. There are five recommended test methods for aggregates (designated AAR-1 to AAR-5), and an overall recommendation which describes how these should be used to enable a comprehensive aggregate assessment (AAR-0). Additionally, there are two Recommended International Specifications for concrete (AAR-7.1 & 7.2) and a Preliminary International Specification for dams and other hydro structures (AAR-7.3), which describe how the aggregate assessment can be combined with other measures in the design of the concrete to produce a concrete with a minimised risk of developing damage from alkali-aggregate reactions.

  18. Cleaning and sterilisation of anaesthetic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Sanjeev Juwarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this review article is to bring up what has been known (practiced about decontamination, disinfection, and sterilisation of anaesthetic equipment. It also discusses how this evidence-based information on infection prevention and control impacts care of patient in routine anaesthesia practice. This review underscores the role played by us, anaesthetists in formulating guidelines, implementing the same, monitoring the outcome and training post-graduate trainees and coworkers in this regard. The article re-emphasises that certain guidelines when followed strictly will go a long way in reducing transmission of hospital acquired infection between patient and anaesthetist or between patients. Anaesthetists do not restrict their work to operating room but are involved in disaster management, interventional radiological procedures and in trauma care. They should ensure that the patients are cared for in clean and safe environment so as to reduce healthcare associated infections (HCAIs simultaneously taking preventive measures against the various health hazards associated with clinical practice. They should ensure that the coworkers too adopt all the preventive measures while delivering their duties. For this review, we conducted literature searches in Medline (PubMed and also searched for relevant abstracts and full texts of related articles that we came across. There is much to be learned from the western world where, health care organisations now have legal responsibility to implement changes in accordance with the newer technology to reduce health care associated infection. There is a need to develop evidence-based infection prevention and control programs and set national guidelines for disinfection and sterilisation of anaesthesia equipment which all the institutions should comply with.

  19. Planning of maintenance of electrical equipment in nuclear plants/laboratories [Paper No.: VB-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasinga Rao, S.N.; Bhattacharyya, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    Satisfactory operating performance of electrical systems ensures continuous availability of power to the various plants and machinery in nuclear plant and laboratories. For effective optimal functioning of the electrical equipment and to reduce their down time, scheduled planning of maintenance to the equipment is essential. Maintenance of power plant, nuclear or fossil, and industrial plant and research laboratories demands essential ingredients such as right type of trained and motivated technical personnel, adoption of standard procedures for maintenance, adequate safety and protection for equipment, safety procedures adopted in the installation to prevent hazards to the workers, provision of adequate stores and inventories, facilities for quick repairs and testing of equipment and effective planning of procedures for their maintenance. While breakdown maintenance allows equipment to operate before it is repaired or replaced, preventive maintenance makes use of scheduled inspection and periodical equipment overhaul and has little value for predicting future continuous performances of equipment. The engineered maintenance is most advantageous and offers maximum operating time to reduce down time of the equipment while adding predictive testing technique to aid in determining the frequency of overhaul of equipment. The important checks to be conducted and preventive maintenance programme to be scheduled are discussed in this paper. The safety and reliable functioning of the electrical equipment depend on proper optimal design, selection of equipment, their installation, subsequent maintenance and strict compliance with safety regulations. (author)

  20. Tree-based flood damage modeling of companies: Damage processes and model performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieg, Tobias; Vogel, Kristin; Merz, Bruno; Kreibich, Heidi

    2017-07-01

    Reliable flood risk analyses, including the estimation of damage, are an important prerequisite for efficient risk management. However, not much is known about flood damage processes affecting companies. Thus, we conduct a flood damage assessment of companies in Germany with regard to two aspects. First, we identify relevant damage-influencing variables. Second, we assess the prediction performance of the developed damage models with respect to the gain by using an increasing amount of training data and a sector-specific evaluation of the data. Random forests are trained with data from two postevent surveys after flood events occurring in the years 2002 and 2013. For a sector-specific consideration, the data set is split into four subsets corresponding to the manufacturing, commercial, financial, and service sectors. Further, separate models are derived for three different company assets: buildings, equipment, and goods and stock. Calculated variable importance values reveal different variable sets relevant for the damage estimation, indicating significant differences in the damage process for various company sectors and assets. With an increasing number of data used to build the models, prediction errors decrease. Yet the effect is rather small and seems to saturate for a data set size of several hundred observations. In contrast, the prediction improvement achieved by a sector-specific consideration is more distinct, especially for damage to equipment and goods and stock. Consequently, sector-specific data acquisition and a consideration of sector-specific company characteristics in future flood damage assessments is expected to improve the model performance more than a mere increase in data.

  1. Development of manufacturing equipment and QC equipment for DUPIC fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Park, J.J.; Lee, J.W.; Kim, S.S.; Yim, S.P.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, K.H.; Na, S.H.; Kim, W.K.; Shin, J.M.; Lee, D.Y.; Cho, K.H.; Lee, Y.S.; Sohn, J.S.; Kim, M.J.

    1999-05-01

    In this study, DUPIC powder and pellet fabrication equipment, welding system, QC equipment, and fission gas treatment are developed to fabricate DUPIC fuel at IMEF M6 hot cell. The systems are improved to be suitable for remote operation and maintenance with the manipulator at hot cell. Powder and pellet fabrication equipment have been recently developed. The systems are under performance test to check remote operation and maintenance. Welding chamber and jigs are designed and developed to remotely weld DUPIC fuel rod with manipulators at hot cell. Remote quality control equipment are being tested for analysis and inspection of DUPIC fuel characteristics at hot cell. And trapping characteristics is analyzed for cesium and ruthenium released under oxidation/reduction and sintering processes. The design criteria and process flow diagram of fission gas treatment system are prepared incorporating the experimental results. The fission gas treatment system has been successfully manufactured. (Author). 33 refs., 14 tabs., 91 figs

  2. Study on Earthquake Response of High Voltage Electrical Equipment Coupling System with Flexible Busbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuncheng; Qu, Da; Wang, Chongyang; Lv, Chunlei; Li, Guoqiang

    2017-12-01

    With the rapid development of technology and society, all walks of life in China are becoming more and more dependent on power systems. When earthquake occurs, the electrical equipment of substation is prone to damage because of its own structural features, top-heavy, and brittleness of main body. At the same time, due to the complex coupling of the soft electrical connection of substation electrical equipment, the negative impact can not be estimated. In this paper, the finite element model of the coupling system of the single unit of high voltage electrical equipment with the connecting soft bus is established and the seismic response is analysed. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the simple analysis for the seismic response of electrical equipment monomer and the analytical results of electrical equipment systems, and the impact on different electrical equipment is different. It lays a foundation for the future development of seismic performance analysis of extra high voltage electrical equipment.

  3. TRANSPORT AND EMPLACEMENT EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) Transport and Emplacement in the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. The Transport and Emplacement equipment described in this document consists of the following: (1) WP Transporter; (2) Reusable Rail Car; (3) Emplacement Gantry; (4) Gantry Carrier; and (5) Transport Locomotive

  4. Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetters, F.O.

    1980-02-01

    The Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium contains information sections describing the application and status of seals, optical surveillance systems, and monitors for international safeguards systems. The Compendium is a collection of information on equipment in use (generally by the IAEA) or under development in the US in diverse programs being conducted at numerous facilities under different sponsors. The Compendium establishes a baseline for the status and applications of C/S equipment and is a tool to assist in the planning of future C/S hardware development activities. The Appendix contains design concepts which can be developed to meet future goals

  5. Simulation of the ductile damage under the metal forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogatov, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    Potentiality of metal forming is limited by ductile damage. The damage degree is estimated by the scalar value ω, that is equal to 0(ω=0) before plastic strain and is equal to 1(ω=1) at the macro cracks moment. There are two criteria that describe micro damage. The value ω=ω * corresponds to the generation of micro voids that couldn't be recovered by recrystallization but do not reduce the metal strength. The value ω=ω ** corresponds to the generation of micro voids that reduce the metal strength and material long life. The models of metal damage accumulation under pure and alternate strain also the model of metal damage recovery under the recrystallization are developed. The specimen testing at high loading parameters gives the basic equations of the ductile damage mechanics. All of that gives the method to study ductile damage under the metal forming. The methodology damage nucleation and growing is shown on various examples: the void and crack development in the areas ductile damage and unlimited ductility; mathematical simulation of the metal damage under the sheet and wire drawing and others. The problems of physical simulating at the ductile damage under metal forming are shown too in this paper. The method and equipment of metal damage physical simulation are proposed. (Original)

  6. Disaster: Prevention, Preparedness and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Sally

    1981-01-01

    Discission of threat of disaster to library archival materials focuses on prevention (building maintenance, materials storage, fire prevention), preparedness (preplanning, procedures for handling emergencies, finances of recovery operation), and action (instructions for handling damaged materials). Current library activities in disaster planning…

  7. Radiation damage of structural materials

    CERN Document Server

    Koutsky, Jaroslav

    1994-01-01

    Maintaining the integrity of nuclear power plants is critical in the prevention or control of severe accidents. This monograph deals with both basic groups of structural materials used in the design of light-water nuclear reactors, making the primary safety barriers of NPPs. Emphasis is placed on materials used in VVER-type nuclear reactors: Cr-Mo-V and Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel for RPV and Zr-Nb alloys for fuel element cladding. The book is divided into 7 main chapters, with the exception of the opening one and the chapter providing a phenomenological background for the subject of radiation damage. Ch

  8. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid contained in beer, prevents the induction of preneoplastic lesions and DNA damage in liver and colon induced by the heterocyclic aromatic amine amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferk, Franziska; Huber, Wolfgang W.; Filipic, Metka; Bichler, Julia; Haslinger, Elisabeth; Misik, Miroslav; Nersesyan, Armen; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Zegura, Bojana; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    Xanthohumol (XN) is a hop derived prenylated flavonoid contained in beer. Earlier findings indicated that it has promising chemopreventive properties and protects cells against DNA damage by carcinogens via inhibition of their activation. Furthermore, it was found that XN inhibits DNA synthesis and proliferation of cancer cells in vitro, inactivates oxygen radicals and induces apoptosis. Since evidence for its chemoprotective properties is restricted to results from in vitro experiments, we monitored the impact of XN on the formation of amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced preneoplastic foci in livers and colons of rats (9/group). Additionally, we studied its effects on IQ-induced DNA damage in colonocytes and hepatocytes in single cell gel electrophoresis assays and on the activities of a panel of drug metabolising enzymes. Consumption of the drinking water supplemented with XN (71 μg/kg b.w.) before and during carcinogen treatment led to a significant reduction of the number of GST-p + foci in the liver by 50% and also to a decrease of the foci area by 44%. DNA migration was decreased significantly in both, colon mucosa and liver cells, but no alterations of the activities of different phases I and II enzymes were found in hepatic tissue. Our findings indicate that XN protects against DNA damage and cancer induced by the cooked food mutagen. Since the effects were observed with low doses of XN which are reached after consumption of brews with high XN levels, our findings may be relevant for humans.

  9. Data Center Equipment Location and Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Data center equipment location systems include hardware and software to provide information on the location, monitoring, and security of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The systems provide a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...... connected to each piece of equipment, each electronic ID tag connected directly by wires to an equipment rack controller on the equipment rack. The equipment rack controllers link to a central control computer that provides an operator ...

  10. An audit of some health facilities and equipment for neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neonatal Mortality rates continue to be high in spite of the general decline in under-5 mortality rates in Nigeria. Available evidence has shown that the availability of a skilled birth attendant and equipment for basic neonatal resuscitation is necessary for the prevention of early neonatal death which accounts for ...

  11. EAS Equipment Authorization Grantee Registrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — EAS (Equipment Authorization System). Radio Frequency (RF) devices are required to be properly authorized under 47 CFR Part 2 prior to being marketed or imported...

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Imaging Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment that are effective as of...

  13. EMR Measurements on NDA Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonell, Alexander Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meierbachtol, Krista Cruse [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Evans, James Walter Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-10

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emission strength measurements were performed on a suite of passive non-destructive assay (NDA) radiation detection equipment. Data were collected from 9 kHz up to 6 GHz on each of the assembled systems.

  14. Mongolia - Vocational Education - Equipment Upgrades

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Evaluation design The impact evaluation sought to identify the causal impact of exposure to equipment upgrades on subsequent outcomes. Insofar as we were not able to...

  15. Origins of eponymous orthopaedic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, Clifton; Wang, Jeffrey

    2010-06-01

    Orthopaedists make great use of eponymous equipment, however the origins of these tools are unknown to many users. This history enriches, enlightens, and enhances surgical education, and may inspire modern innovation. We explored the origins of common and eponymous orthopaedic equipment. We selected pieces of equipment named for their inventors and in the broadest use by modern orthopaedists. We do not describe specialized orthopaedic implants and instruments owing to the overwhelming number of these devices. The history of this equipment reflects the coevolution of orthopaedics and battlefield medicine. Additionally, these stories evidence the primacy of elegant design and suggest that innovation is often a process of revision and refinement rather than sudden inspiration. Their history exposes surgical innovators as brilliant, lucky, hardworking, and sometimes odd. These stories amuse, enlighten, and may inspire modern orthopaedists to develop creative solutions of their own. The rich history of the field's eponymous instruments informs an ongoing tradition of innovation in orthopaedics.

  16. Operation monitor for plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Tetsufumi; Kanemoto, Shigeru.

    1991-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant, states of each of equipment in the plant are monitored accurately even under such a operation condition that the power is changed. That is, the fundamental idea is based on a model comparison method. A deviation between an output signal upon normal plant state obtained in a forecasting model device and that of the objective equipment in the plant are compared with a predetermined value. The result of the comparison is inputted to an alarm device to alarm the abnormality of the states of the equipment to an operator. The device of the present invention thus constituted can monitor the abnormality of the operation of equipment accurately even under such a condition that a power level fluctuates. As a result, it can remarkably contribute to mitigate operator's monitoring operation under the condition such as during load following operation. (I.S.)

  17. Integrated reliability condition monitoring and maintenance of equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Osarenren, John

    2015-01-01

    Consider a Viable and Cost-Effective Platform for the Industries of the Future (IOF) Benefit from improved safety, performance, and product deliveries to your customers. Achieve a higher rate of equipment availability, performance, product quality, and reliability. Integrated Reliability: Condition Monitoring and Maintenance of Equipment incorporates reliable engineering and mathematical modeling to help you move toward sustainable development in reliability condition monitoring and maintenance. This text introduces a cost-effective integrated reliability growth monitor, integrated reliability degradation monitor, technological inheritance coefficient sensors, and a maintenance tool that supplies real-time information for predicting and preventing potential failures of manufacturing processes and equipment. The author highlights five key elements that are essential to any improvement program: improving overall equipment and part effectiveness, quality, and reliability; improving process performance with maint...

  18. Equipment improvements for performance enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaestel, P.; Guesnon, H.; Sauze, G.

    1994-01-01

    In order to enhance the reactor availability, several improvements on reactor equipment have been developed: design optimization for stator maintenance replacement in the main alternator; adjustment modification of stator coils in the main alternator for an easier maintenance; improvement of the fuel handling line (pole crane, transfer equipment, loading machine); development of a loose part trapping system in the steam generator secondary circuit. 1 tab

  19. Low level photoneutron detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Yuqin; Li Yuansui

    1991-01-01

    A low level photoneutron detection equipment has been developed. The photoneutrons produced by interaction of 226 Ra gamma quanta and deutron (D) target are detected with n-n discrimination detector made up of 3 He proportional counter array. The D-content information in the target can be obtained from the measured photoneutron counts. The equipment developed is mainly used for nondestructive D-content measurement of D-devices

  20. FUSRAP equipment concept development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinerman, K.B.; Smith, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Under DOE contract, Dalton-Dalton-Newport, Inc. is performing an engineering evaluation of three selected FUSRAP sites in an effort to generate equipment concepts to perform remedial action for retrieval, packaging, storing, and transporting contaminated soil and other debris. Along with this engineering evaluation, an analysis of state and Federal regulations was made which had significant impact on the selected equipment and costs for each remedial action concept

  1. Remotely operated replaceable process equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westendorf, H.

    1987-01-01

    The coupling process of pneumatic and electrical auxiliary lines of a pneumatic control pressure line in a large cell of the reprocessing plant is carried out, together with the coupling process of the connecting flange of the process equipment. The coupling places of the auxiliary lines, such as control or supply lines, are laid in the flange parts of the flanges to be connected. The pipe flange on the frame side remains flush with the connecting flange of the process equipment. (DG) [de

  2. Partners in qualified equipment supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rygg, D.E.; O'Hare, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    Industry initiatives have been taken to improve procurement practices and commercial dedication programs, formation of procurement engineering groups, emphasis on product quality, and increased engineering involvement in procurement and maintenance of qualified equipment. This poses new challenges for many licensees in terms of resources, product knowledge, and access to information normally held proprietary by equipment suppliers. Alternative approaches to future licensee/Westinghouse relationships which will allow licensees to adapt to the changing environment are discussed. 2 figs

  3. Assessment of Equipment Capability to Perform Reliably under Severe Accident Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The experience from the last 40 years has shown that severe accidents can subject electrical and instrumentation and control (I&C) equipment to environmental conditions exceeding the equipment’s original design basis assumptions. Severe accident conditions can then cause rapid degradation or damage to various degrees up to complete failure of such equipment. This publication provides the technical basis to consider when assessing the capability of electrical and I&C equipment to perform reliably during a severe accident. It provides examples of calculation tools to determine the environmental parameters as well as examples and methods that Member States can apply to assess equipment reliability.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF MONK EQUIPPED PONDS ON THE QUALITY OF BASIN HEAD STREAMS, THE EXAMPLE OF WATER TEMPERATURE IN LIMOUSIN AND BERRY (FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent TOUCHART

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the centre-west regions of France, the deep water outlet system known as a “monk” is used in 13% of bodies of water. The authorities are strongly encouraging this to increase, arguing that this system would reduce pond induced warming of the hydrographical network. We have measured the water temperature in four monk equipped ponds for 13 years to such an extent that this paper draws on an analysis of 142,200 original measurements. Compared to a surface outflow, a monk is a system which shifts the warming of the emissary water course to the end of summer and the autumn which reduces average annual warming by about 1°C. This reduces the heating of diurnal maxima but increases warming of the minima. A monk equipped pond warms the river with deep water which has acquired its heat by mechanical convection generated by the wind, as opposed to a weir equipped pond which provides surface water warmed by insolation. In winter the monk equipped pond does not damage the thermal living conditions for Fario trout embryos and larvae under the gravel. In summer, the monk prevents night time cooling of the emissary and increases the temperature of the minima excessively for sensitive species.

  5. Methodology development for availability improvement of standby equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sung Min; Jeon, In Seop; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2014-01-01

    The core damage frequency (CDF) of operating and constructing pressurized nuclear plants are ranging on the order of 10 -5 and 10 -6 per year. The target CDF of new NPP design has been set at 10 -7 . In this context, although various systems are currently studied, availability improvement of standby equipment will be more efficient than the additional application of safety systems. It is obvious in every aspect, such as management and cost efficiency. Here, soundness can affect equipment unavailability, and the soundness degrades because of aging. However, some studies did not consider aging when calculating the unavailability. Standby equipment can age because of two important factors: standby stress which accumulates over time, and test stress which accumulates with the number of tests (or operations). Both factors should be considered together when aging is considered. However, some studies only considered standby stress or test stress. There are some previous studies which considered both factors. Besides equipment soundness related to aging effect, some process like bypass during test also can affect equipment unavailability because the original function of equipment cannot be performed immediately during this process. However, there are seldom studies dealing with above factors as a whole problem. This study investigated a general approach to calculate the unavailability of standby equipment which considers aging caused by standby and test stresses and bypass process. Based on this general approach, we propose two maintenance strategies which aim to reduce standby equipment unavailability. In section 2, the general approach is presented. As one of the strategies, the changing test interval method (CIM) is introduced in section 3, and its effectiveness is also analyzed. The online monitoring method (OMM) is investigated in section 4 as another method to reduce equipment unavailability. In section 5, a combination of these two methods is analyzed. A general

  6. 29 CFR 97.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) When acquiring replacement equipment, the grantee or subgrantee may use the equipment to be replaced as... equipment (including replacement equipment), whether acquired in whole or in part with grant funds, until... established to ensure the highest possible return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment...

  7. 44 CFR 13.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) When acquiring replacement equipment, the grantee or subgrantee may use the equipment to be replaced as... equipment (including replacement equipment), whether acquired in whole or in part with grant funds, until... established to ensure the highest possible return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment...

  8. 24 CFR 85.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) When acquiring replacement equipment, the grantee or subgrantee may use the equipment to be replaced as... equipment (including replacement equipment), whether acquired in whole or in part with grant funds, until... established to ensure the highest possible return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment...

  9. 41 CFR 105-71.132 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the grantee or subgrantee may use the equipment to be... managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether acquired in whole or in part with grant funds... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment. 105-71.132...

  10. 43 CFR 12.72 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) When acquiring replacement equipment, the grantee or subgrantee may use the equipment to be replaced as... equipment (including replacement equipment), whether acquired in whole or in part with grant funds, until... established to ensure the highest possible return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment...

  11. 1968 Listing of Swimming Pool Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    An up-to-date listing of swimming pool equipment including--(1) companies authorized to display the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standards relating to diatomite type filters, (3) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standard relating to sand type…

  12. Radioprotection against DNA damage by an extract of Indian green mussel, Perna viridis (L.)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumaran, S.P.; Kutty, B.C.; Chatterji, A.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Mishra, K.P.

    -irradiation Prevention of DNA damage both in plasmid and lymphocytes and cell death in lymphocytes appears correlated with reduction of oxidatively generated free radicals It is concluded that protection against radiation-induced cell death and DNA damage by MH...

  13. Environmental Friendly Coatings and Corrosion Prevention For Flight Hardware Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz

    2014-01-01

    Identify, test and develop qualification criteria for environmentally friendly corrosion protective coatings and corrosion preventative compounds (CPC's) for flight hardware an ground support equipment.

  14. Radiation damage of structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutsky, J.; Kocik, J.

    1994-01-01

    Maintaining the integrity of nuclear power plants (NPP) is critical in the prevention or control of severe accidents. This monograph deals with both basic groups of structural materials used in the design of light-water nuclear reactors, making the primary safety barriers of NPPs. Emphasis is placed on materials used in VVER-type nuclear reactors: Cr-Mo-V and Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel for reactor pressure vessels (RPV) and Zr-Nb alloys for fuel element cladding. The book is divided into seven main chapters, with the exception of the opening one and the chapter providing phenomenological background for the subject of radiation damage. Chapters 3-6 are devoted to RPV steels and chapters 7-9 to zirconium alloys, analyzing their radiation damage structure, changes of mechanical properties due to neutron irradiation as well as factors influencing the degree of their performance degradation. The recovery of damaged materials is also discussed. Considerable attention is paid to a comparison of VVER-type and western-type light-water materials

  15. The DNA damage response during mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijink, Anne Margriet; Krajewska, Małgorzata; Vugt, Marcel A.T.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Cells are equipped with a cell-intrinsic signaling network called the DNA damage response (DDR). This signaling network recognizes DNA lesions and initiates various downstream pathways to coordinate a cell cycle arrest with the repair of the damaged DNA. Alternatively, the DDR can mediate clearance of affected cells that are beyond repair through apoptosis or senescence. The DDR can be activated in response to DNA damage throughout the cell cycle, although the extent of DDR signaling is different in each cell cycle phase. Especially in response to DNA double strand breaks, only a very marginal response was observed during mitosis. Early on it was recognized that cells which are irradiated during mitosis continued division without repairing broken chromosomes. Although these initial observations indicated diminished DNA repair and lack of an acute DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest, insight into the mechanistic re-wiring of DDR signaling during mitosis was only recently provided. Different mechanisms appear to be at play to inactivate specific signaling axes of the DDR network in mitosis. Importantly, mitotic cells not simply inactivate the entire DDR, but appear to mark their DNA damage for repair after mitotic exit. Since the treatment of cancer frequently involves agents that induce DNA damage as well as agents that block mitotic progression, it is clinically relevant to obtain a better understanding of how cancer cells deal with DNA damage during interphase versus mitosis. In this review, the molecular details concerning DDR signaling during mitosis as well as the consequences of encountering DNA damage during mitosis for cellular fate are discussed

  16. The DNA damage response during mitosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijink, Anne Margriet; Krajewska, Małgorzata; Vugt, Marcel A.T.M. van, E-mail: m.vugt@umcg.nl

    2013-10-15

    Cells are equipped with a cell-intrinsic signaling network called the DNA damage response (DDR). This signaling network recognizes DNA lesions and initiates various downstream pathways to coordinate a cell cycle arrest with the repair of the damaged DNA. Alternatively, the DDR can mediate clearance of affected cells that are beyond repair through apoptosis or senescence. The DDR can be activated in response to DNA damage throughout the cell cycle, although the extent of DDR signaling is different in each cell cycle phase. Especially in response to DNA double strand breaks, only a very marginal response was observed during mitosis. Early on it was recognized that cells which are irradiated during mitosis continued division without repairing broken chromosomes. Although these initial observations indicated diminished DNA repair and lack of an acute DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest, insight into the mechanistic re-wiring of DDR signaling during mitosis was only recently provided. Different mechanisms appear to be at play to inactivate specific signaling axes of the DDR network in mitosis. Importantly, mitotic cells not simply inactivate the entire DDR, but appear to mark their DNA damage for repair after mitotic exit. Since the treatment of cancer frequently involves agents that induce DNA damage as well as agents that block mitotic progression, it is clinically relevant to obtain a better understanding of how cancer cells deal with DNA damage during interphase versus mitosis. In this review, the molecular details concerning DDR signaling during mitosis as well as the consequences of encountering DNA damage during mitosis for cellular fate are discussed.

  17. The DNA damage response during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijink, Anne Margriet; Krajewska, Małgorzata; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2013-10-01

    Cells are equipped with a cell-intrinsic signaling network called the DNA damage response (DDR). This signaling network recognizes DNA lesions and initiates various downstream pathways to coordinate a cell cycle arrest with the repair of the damaged DNA. Alternatively, the DDR can mediate clearance of affected cells that are beyond repair through apoptosis or senescence. The DDR can be activated in response to DNA damage throughout the cell cycle, although the extent of DDR signaling is different in each cell cycle phase. Especially in response to DNA double strand breaks, only a very marginal response was observed during mitosis. Early on it was recognized that cells which are irradiated during mitosis continued division without repairing broken chromosomes. Although these initial observations indicated diminished DNA repair and lack of an acute DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest, insight into the mechanistic re-wiring of DDR signaling during mitosis was only recently provided. Different mechanisms appear to be at play to inactivate specific signaling axes of the DDR network in mitosis. Importantly, mitotic cells not simply inactivate the entire DDR, but appear to mark their DNA damage for repair after mitotic exit. Since the treatment of cancer frequently involves agents that induce DNA damage as well as agents that block mitotic progression, it is clinically relevant to obtain a better understanding of how cancer cells deal with DNA damage during interphase versus mitosis. In this review, the molecular details concerning DDR signaling during mitosis as well as the consequences of encountering DNA damage during mitosis for cellular fate are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The DNA damage response in mammalian oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eCarroll

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is one of the most common insults that challenge all cells. To cope, an elaborate molecular and cellular response has evolved to sense, respond to and correct the damage. This allows the maintenance of DNA fidelity essential for normal cell viability and the prevention of genomic instability that can lead to tumour formation. In the context of oocytes, the impact of DNA damage is not one of tumour formation but of the maintenance of fertility. Mammalian oocytes are particularly vulnerable to DNA damage because physiologically they may lie dormant in the ovary for many years (>40 in humans until they receive the stimulus to grow and acquire the competence to become fertilized. The implication of this is that in some organisms, such as humans, oocytes face the danger of cumulative genetic damage for decades. Thus, the ability to detect and repair DNA damage is essential to maintain the supply of oocytes necessary for reproduction. Therefore, failure to confront DNA damage in oocytes could cause serious anomalies in the embryo that may be propagated in the form of mutations to the next generation allowing the appearance of hereditary disease. Despite the potential impact of DNA damage on reproductive capacity and genetic fidelity of embryos, the mechanisms available to the oocyte for monitoring and repairing such insults have remained largely unexplored until recently. Here, we review the different aspects of the response to DNA damage in mammalian oocytes. Specifically, we address the oocyte DNA damage response from embryonic life to adulthood and throughout oocyte development.

  19. AVM branch vibration test equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    An inventory of the test equipment of the AVM Branch ''Acoustic and Vibratory Mechanics Analysis Methods'' group has been undertaken. The purpose of this inventory is to enable better acquaintance with the technical characteristics of the equipment, providing an accurate definition of their functionalities, ad to inform potential users of the possibilities and equipment available in this field. The report first summarizes the various experimental surveys conduced. Then, using the AVM equipment database to draw up an exhaustive list of available equipment, it provides a full-scope picture of the vibration measurement systems (sensors, conditioners and exciters) and data processing resources commonly used on industrial sites and in laboratories. A definition is also given of a mobile test unit, called 'shelter', and a test bench used for the testing and performance rating of the experimental analysis methods developed by the group. The report concludes with a description of two fixed installations: - the calibration bench ensuring the requisite quality level for the vibration measurement systems ; - the training bench, whereby know-how acquired in the field in the field of measurement and experimental analysis processes is made available to others. (author). 27 refs., 15 figs., 2 appends

  20. 78 FR 25916 - Authorization of Radiofrequency Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ...] Authorization of Radiofrequency Equipment AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... bodies, and measurement procedures used to determine RF equipment compliance. The Commission believes... Commission is responsible for an equipment authorization program for radiofrequency (RF) devices under part 2...

  1. Natural plant polyphenols for alleviating oxidative damage in man ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevent the body from oxidative damage over human life span. This review .... Antioxidant supplementation/treatment has been adopted for .... deacetylase family regulates gene silencing and .... Drug News Perspect 2007; 20: 579-. 585. 12.

  2. Bilding (Kay) Ki Damaje PSA (:60) (Damaged Buildings)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    An important public health announcement about your safety when entering damaged buildings. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  3. Synergistic effect of melatonin and ghrelin in preventing cisplatin-induced ovarian damage via regulation of FOXO3a phosphorylation and binding to the p27Kip1 promoter in primordial follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hoon; Na, Younghwa; Hong, Kwonho; Lee, Sangho; Moon, Sohyeon; Cho, Minha; Park, Miseon; Lee, Ok-Hee; Chang, Eun Mi; Lee, Dong Ryul; Ko, Jung Jae; Lee, Woo Sik; Choi, Youngsok

    2017-10-01

    Premature ovarian failure during chemotherapy is a serious problem for young women with cancer. To preserve the fertility of these patients, approaches to prevent chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure are needed. In a previous study, we reported that melatonin treatment prevents the depletion of the dormant follicle pool via repression of the simultaneous activation of dormant primordial follicles by cisplatin. However, melatonin's protective effect was only partial and thus insufficient. In this study, we found that the hormone ghrelin enhances the protective effect of melatonin against cisplatin-induced ovarian failure in mouse model. Co-administration of melatonin and ghrelin more effectively prevented cisplatin-induced follicle disruption. Simultaneous treatment with melatonin and ghrelin almost restored the number of primordial follicles and the corpus luteum in cisplatin-treated ovaries, compared with single administration. We found melatonin and ghrelin receptors on the cell membrane of premature oocytes of primordial follicles. In addition, melatonin and ghrelin co-administration inhibited the cisplatin-induced phosphorylation of PTEN and FOXO3a that induces cytoplasmic translocation of FOXO3a. Inhibition of FOXO3a phosphorylation by melatonin and ghrelin increased the binding affinity of FOXO3a for the p27 Kip1 promoter in primordial follicles. Co-administration of melatonin and ghrelin in cisplatin-treated ovaries restored the expression of p27 Kip1 , which is critical for retention of the dormant status of primordial follicles. In conclusion, these findings suggest that melatonin and ghrelin co-administration is suitable for use as a fertoprotective adjuvant therapy during cisplatin chemotherapy in young female cancer patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Another donation of computer equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    On Thursday 27 February, CERN was pleased to donate computer equipment to a physics institute in the Philippines.   H.E. Leslie J. Baja and Rolf Heuer. Following donations of computer equipment to institutes in Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria, Serbia and Egypt, CERN is to send 50 servers and 4 network switches to the National Institute of Physics at the University of the Philippines Diliman. CERN’s Director-General Rolf Heuer and the Ambassador of the Philippines to Switzerland and Lichtenstein, H.E. Leslie J. Baja, spoke of their enthusiasm for the project during an official ceremony. The equipment will be used for various high energy physics research programmes in the Philippines and for the University’s development of digital resources for science.

  5. Radiation damage to mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    This document contains newspaper cuttings and correspondence with various ministries in Hessen on the subject of radiation damage to mushrooms from the Odenwald area. The reader is given, amongst other things, detailed information on radiation damage to different types of mushroom in 1986. (MG) [de

  6. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  7. Animal damage management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1994-01-01

    This handbook treats animal damage management (ADM) in the West in relation to forest, range, and recreation resources; predator management is not addressed. It provides a comprehensive reference of safe, effective, and practical methods for managing animal damage on National Forest System lands. Supporting information is included in references after each chapter and...

  8. Nuclear damage - civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of the civil liability for nuclear damage since there is a need to adjust the existing rules to the new situations created. The conventions that set up the new disciplining rules not considered in the common law for the liability of nuclear damage are also mentioned. (A.L.) [pt

  9. DNA damage and autophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.; Franco, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Both exogenous and endogenous agents are a threat to DNA integrity. Exogenous environmental agents such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals and endogenous byproducts of metabolism including reactive oxygen species can cause alterations in DNA structure (DNA damage). Unrepaired DNA damage has been linked to a variety of human disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Thus, efficient mechanisms to detect DNA lesions, signal their presence and promote their repair have been evolved in cells. If DNA is effectively repaired, DNA damage response is inactivated and normal cell functioning resumes. In contrast, when DNA lesions cannot be removed, chronic DNA damage triggers specific cell responses such as cell death and senescence. Recently, DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular catabolic process that maintains a balance between synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular components. But the exact mechanisms by which DNA damage triggers autophagy are unclear. More importantly, the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cellular fate is unknown. In this review we analyze evidence that supports a role for autophagy as an integral part of the DNA damage response.

  10. [2011 Shanghai customer satisfaction report of DSA/X-ray equipment's after-service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Qian, Jianguo; Cao, Shaoping; Zheng, Yunxin; Xu, Zitian; Wang, Lijun

    2012-11-01

    To improve the manufacturer's medical equipment after-sale service, the fifth Shanghai zone customer satisfaction survey was launched by the end of 2011. The DSA/X-ray equipment was setup as an independent category for the first time. From the survey we can show that the DSA/X-ray equipment's CSI is higher than last year, the customer satisfaction scores of preventive maintenance and service contract are lower than others, and CSI of local brand is lower than imported brand.

  11. Prevention of cisplatin nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayati Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin has a well-established role in the treatment of broad spectrum of malignancies; however its use is limited because of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN which can be progressive in more than 50% of cases. The most important risk factors for CIN include higher doses of cisplatin, previous cisplatin chemotherapy, underlying kidney damage and concurrent treatment with other potential nephrotoxin agents, such as aminoglycosides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, or iodinated contrast media. Different strategies have been offered to diminish or prevent nephrotoxicity of cisplatin. The standard approach for prevention of CIN is the administration of lower doses of cisplatin in combination with full intravenous hydration prior and after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in the kidney may be prevented by natural antioxidant compounds. The results of this review show that many strategies for prevention of CIN exist, however, attention to the administration of these agent for CIN is necessary.

  12. Analysis of bacterial contamination on surface of general radiography equipment and CT equipment in emergency room of radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Dong Hee; KIm, Hyeong Gyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    We aim to offer basic materials about infection management through conducting bacterial contamination test about general radiography equipment and CT equipment installed in ER of three general hospitals with 100 sickbeds or more located in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province, and suggest management plan. It had been conducted from 1st December 2015 to 31st December, and objects were general radiography equipment and CT equipment of emergency room located in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province. For general radiography equipment, sources were collected from 4 places such as upper side of control box which employees use most, upper side of exposure button, whole upper side of table which is touching part of patient's skin, upper side of stand bucky's grid, and where patients put their jaws on. For CT equipment, sources were collected from 3 places such as upper side of control box which radiography room employees use most, X-ray exposure button, whole upper side of table which is touching part of patient's skin, and gantry inner. Surface contamination strain found at general radiography equipment in emergency room of radiology are Providencia stuartii(25%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia(18%), Enterobacter cloacae(8%), Pseudomonas species(8%), Staphylococcus epidermidis(8%), Gram negative bacilli(8%), and ungrown bacteria at incubator after 48 hours of incubation (67%) which is the biggest. Most bacteria were found at upper side of stand bucky-grid and stand bucky of radiology's general radiography equipment, and most sources of CT equipment were focused at patient table, which means it is contaminated by patients who have various diseases, and patients who have strains with decreased immunity may get severe diseases. Thus infection prevention should be made through 70% alcohol disinfection at both before test and after test.

  13. Analysis of bacterial contamination on surface of general radiography equipment and CT equipment in emergency room of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Dong Hee; KIm, Hyeong Gyun

    2016-01-01

    We aim to offer basic materials about infection management through conducting bacterial contamination test about general radiography equipment and CT equipment installed in ER of three general hospitals with 100 sickbeds or more located in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province, and suggest management plan. It had been conducted from 1st December 2015 to 31st December, and objects were general radiography equipment and CT equipment of emergency room located in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province. For general radiography equipment, sources were collected from 4 places such as upper side of control box which employees use most, upper side of exposure button, whole upper side of table which is touching part of patient's skin, upper side of stand bucky's grid, and where patients put their jaws on. For CT equipment, sources were collected from 3 places such as upper side of control box which radiography room employees use most, X-ray exposure button, whole upper side of table which is touching part of patient's skin, and gantry inner. Surface contamination strain found at general radiography equipment in emergency room of radiology are Providencia stuartii(25%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia(18%), Enterobacter cloacae(8%), Pseudomonas species(8%), Staphylococcus epidermidis(8%), Gram negative bacilli(8%), and ungrown bacteria at incubator after 48 hours of incubation (67%) which is the biggest. Most bacteria were found at upper side of stand bucky-grid and stand bucky of radiology's general radiography equipment, and most sources of CT equipment were focused at patient table, which means it is contaminated by patients who have various diseases, and patients who have strains with decreased immunity may get severe diseases. Thus infection prevention should be made through 70% alcohol disinfection at both before test and after test

  14. 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D3 prevents activation of hepatic stellate cells in vitro and ameliorates inflammatory liver damage but not fibrosis in the Abcb4−/− model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, Florian P.; Hohenester, Simon; Nagel, Jutta M.; Wimmer, Ralf; Artmann, Renate; Wottke, Lena; Makeschin, Marie-Christine; Mayr, Doris; Rust, Christian; Trauner, Michael; Denk, Gerald U.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Purpose of the study: Vitamin D 3 -deficiency is common in patients with chronic liver-disease and may promote disease progression. Vitamin D 3 -administration has thus been proposed as a therapeutic approach. Vitamin D 3 has immunomodulatory effects and may modulate autoimmune liver-disease such as primary sclerosing cholangitis. Although various mechanisms of action have been proposed, experimental evidence is limited. Here we test the hypothesis that active 1,25-(OH) 2 -vitamin D 3 inhibits activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in vitro and modulates liver-injury in vivo. Methods: Proliferation and activation of primary murine HSC were assessed by BrdU- and PicoGreen ® -assays, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence-microscopy, quantitative-PCR, and zymography following calcitriol-treatment. Wild-type and ATP-binding cassette transporter b4 −/− (Abcb4 −/− )-mice received calcitriol for 4 weeks. Liver-damage, inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed by serum liver-tests, Sirius-red staining, quantitative-PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and hydroxyproline quantification. Results: In vitro, calcitriol inhibited activation and proliferation of murine HSC as shown by reduced α-smooth muscle actin and platelet-derived growth factor-receptor-β-protein-levels, BrdU and PicoGreen®-assays. Furthermore, mRNA-levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 13 were profoundly increased. In vivo, calcitriol ameliorated inflammatory liver-injury reflected by reduced levels of alanine aminotransferase in Abcb4 −/− -mice. In accordance, their livers had lower mRNA-levels of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-receptor 1 and a lower count of portal CD11b positive cells. In contrast, no effect on overall fibrosis was observed. Conclusion: Calcitriol inhibits activation and proliferation of HSCs in vitro. In Abcb4 −/− -mice, administration of calcitriol ameliorates inflammatory liver-damage but has no effect on biliary fibrosis after 4 weeks

  15. 1,25-(OH){sub 2}-vitamin D{sub 3} prevents activation of hepatic stellate cells in vitro and ameliorates inflammatory liver damage but not fibrosis in the Abcb4{sup −/−} model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Florian P., E-mail: florian.reiter@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Medicine II, Liver Center Munich, University of Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Hohenester, Simon; Nagel, Jutta M.; Wimmer, Ralf; Artmann, Renate; Wottke, Lena [Department of Medicine II, Liver Center Munich, University of Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Makeschin, Marie-Christine; Mayr, Doris [Institute of Pathology, University of Munich, Thalkirchner Str. 36, D-80337 Munich (Germany); Rust, Christian [Department of Medicine I, Krankenhaus Barmherzige Brüder, Romanstr. 93, D-80639 Munich (Germany); Trauner, Michael [Hans Popper Laboratory of Molecular Hepatology, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Denk, Gerald U. [Department of Medicine II, Liver Center Munich, University of Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, D-81377 Munich (Germany)

    2015-04-03

    Background/Purpose of the study: Vitamin D{sub 3}-deficiency is common in patients with chronic liver-disease and may promote disease progression. Vitamin D{sub 3}-administration has thus been proposed as a therapeutic approach. Vitamin D{sub 3} has immunomodulatory effects and may modulate autoimmune liver-disease such as primary sclerosing cholangitis. Although various mechanisms of action have been proposed, experimental evidence is limited. Here we test the hypothesis that active 1,25-(OH){sub 2}-vitamin D{sub 3} inhibits activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in vitro and modulates liver-injury in vivo. Methods: Proliferation and activation of primary murine HSC were assessed by BrdU- and PicoGreen{sup ®}-assays, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence-microscopy, quantitative-PCR, and zymography following calcitriol-treatment. Wild-type and ATP-binding cassette transporter b4{sup −/−} (Abcb4{sup −/−})-mice received calcitriol for 4 weeks. Liver-damage, inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed by serum liver-tests, Sirius-red staining, quantitative-PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and hydroxyproline quantification. Results: In vitro, calcitriol inhibited activation and proliferation of murine HSC as shown by reduced α-smooth muscle actin and platelet-derived growth factor-receptor-β-protein-levels, BrdU and PicoGreen®-assays. Furthermore, mRNA-levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 13 were profoundly increased. In vivo, calcitriol ameliorated inflammatory liver-injury reflected by reduced levels of alanine aminotransferase in Abcb4{sup −/−}-mice. In accordance, their livers had lower mRNA-levels of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-receptor 1 and a lower count of portal CD11b positive cells. In contrast, no effect on overall fibrosis was observed. Conclusion: Calcitriol inhibits activation and proliferation of HSCs in vitro. In Abcb4{sup −/−}-mice, administration of calcitriol ameliorates inflammatory liver-damage but has

  16. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans and the env......Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans...

  17. The development of superconducting equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Ueda, T; Hiue, H

    2003-01-01

    Fuji Electric has been developing various types of superconducting equipment for over a quarter of a century. This paper describes the development results achieved for superconducting equipment and especially focuses on large-capacity current leads and superconducting transmission systems, the development of which is being promoted for application to the field of nuclear fusion. High temperature superconductor (HTS) is becoming the mainstream in the field of superconductivity, and the HTS floating coil and conduction-cooled HTS transformed are also introduced as recent developments for devices that utilize this technology. (author)

  18. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  19. Prevenção de agravos à saúde do trabalhador: replanejando o trabalho através das negociações cotidianas Preventing damage to workers' health: redesigning jobs through day-to-day negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny Sato

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar algumas reflexões sobre a prevenção de agravos à saúde do trabalhador através do replanejamento do trabalho. Compreendendo o replanejamento como processo de negociação de escolhas organizacionais, apresenta as características das negociações cotidianas processadas no chão de fábrica e relata, a título de exemplo, um caso de negociação cotidiana que toma por objeto a organização do processo de trabalho da produção fabril de uma indústria de alimentos. Por fim, discute os alcances e os limites de tais negociações à luz da prevenção de agravos à saúde do trabalhador.This paper reflects on prevention of harm to workers' health by redesigning jobs. Assuming redesign as the process of negotiating organizational choices, the author discusses the characteristics of routine negotiation at the workplace, illustrated by daily negotiations in work process organization at a Brazilian food-processing factory. Finally, the author discusses both the range and limits of such negotiations in the prevention of harm to workers' health.

  20. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.