WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevent direct contact

  1. Water hammers in direct contact heater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uffer, R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the causes and mitigation or prevention of water hammers occurring in direct contact heaters and their attached lines. These water hammers are generally caused by rapid pressure reductions in the heaters or by water lines not flowing full. Proper design and operating measures can prevent or mitigate water hammer occurrence. Water hammers often do not originate at the areas where damage is noted

  2. Advances in direct contact evaporator design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, P.L.C. [Programa de Engenharia Quimica, COPPE/UFRJ, C. P. 68502, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Campos, F.B. [Gerencia de Gas e Energia, CENPES/PETROBRAS, Cidade Universitaria, Q.7, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 21949-900 (Brazil)

    2004-01-01

    Direct contact evaporators are nonisothermal bubble columns where a hot gas, usually obtained by combustion, is used to heat and vaporize the solvent of a given solution that needs to be concentrated. The design of such equipment has been relied on experimental data or on a simplified method that assumes that the gas leaves the evaporator at equilibrium with the liquid phase, giving no information about the necessary bubbling height to attain such equilibrium conditions. Recent advances in the heat and mass transfer processes during the formation and ascension of superheated bubbles together with simple mass and energy balances in the liquid phase and gas distributor system were used to develop a more detailed design procedure. The accuracy of both design procedures are compared to available experimental data in a direct contact evaporator operating in semibatch mode. The new design method agreed well with the experimental data. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Direct contact condensation in packed beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Klausner, James F.; Mei, Renwei; Knight, Jessica [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    A diffusion driven desalination process was recently described where a very effective direct contact condenser with a packed bed is used to condense water vapor out of an air/vapor mixture. A laboratory scale direct contact condenser has been fabricated as a twin tower structure with two stages, co-current and countercurrent. Experiments have been operated in each stage with respective saturated air inlet temperatures of 36, 40 and 43{sup o}C. The temperature and humidity data have been collected at the inlet and exit of the packed bed for different water to air mass flow ratios that vary between 0 and 2.5. A one-dimensional model based on conservation principles has been developed, which predicts the variation of temperature, humidity, and condensation rate through the condenser stages. Agreement between the model and experiments is very good. It is observed that the countercurrent flow stage condensation effectiveness is significantly higher than that for the co-current stage. The condensation heat and mass transfer rates were found to decrease when water blockages occur within the packed bed. Using high-speed digital cinematography, it was observed that this problem can occur at any operating condition, and is dependent on the packing surface wetting characteristics. This observation is used to explain the requirement for two different empirical constants, depending on packing diameter, suggested by Onda for the air side mass transfer coefficient correlation. (author)

  4. Geysers advanced direct contact condenser research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, J.; Bahning, T.; Bharathan, D.

    1997-12-31

    The first geothermal application of the Advanced Direct Contact Condenser (ADCC) technology developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is now operational and is being tested at The Geysers Power Plant Unit 11. This major research effort is being supported through the combined efforts of NREL, The Department of Energy (DOE), and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E). NREL and PG&E have entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for a project to improve the direct-contact condenser performance at The Geysers Power Plant. This project is the first geothermal adaptation of an advanced condenser design developed for the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems. PG&E expects this technology to improve power plant performance and to help extend the life of the steam field by using steam more efficiently. In accordance with the CRADA, no money is transferred between the contracting parties. In this case the Department of Energy is funding NREL for their efforts in this project and PG&E is contributing funds in kind. Successful application of this technology at The Geysers will provide a basis for NREL to continue to develop this technology for other geothermal and fossil power plant systems.

  5. Non-contact method for directing electrotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahirwar, Dinesh K.; Nasser, Mohd W.; Jones, Travis H.; Sequin, Emily K.; West, Joseph D.; Henthorne, Timothy L.; Javor, Joshua; Kaushik, Aniruddha M.; Ganju, Ramesh K.; Subramaniam, Vish V.

    2015-06-01

    We present a method to induce electric fields and drive electrotaxis (galvanotaxis) without the need for electrodes to be in contact with the media containing the cell cultures. We report experimental results using a modification of the transmembrane assay, demonstrating the hindrance of migration of breast cancer cells (SCP2) when an induced a.c. electric field is present in the appropriate direction (i.e. in the direction of migration). Of significance is that migration of these cells is hindered at electric field strengths many orders of magnitude (5 to 6) below those previously reported for d.c. electrotaxis, and even in the presence of a chemokine (SDF-1α) or a growth factor (EGF). Induced a.c. electric fields applied in the direction of migration are also shown to hinder motility of non-transformed human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) in the presence of the growth factor EGF. In addition, we also show how our method can be applied to other cell migration assays (scratch assay), and by changing the coil design and holder, that it is also compatible with commercially available multi-well culture plates.

  6. Direct measurement of graphene contact resistivity to pre-deposited metal in buried contact test structure

    KAUST Repository

    Qaisi, Ramy M.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate a buried contact based novel test structure for direct contact resistivity measurement of graphene-metal interfaces. We also observe excellent contact resistivity 1 μO-cm2 without any additional surface modification suggesting that the intrinsic Au-graphene contact is sufficient for achieving devices with low contact resistance. The chemical mechanical polishing less test structure and data described herein highlights an ideal methodology for systematic screening and engineering of graphene-metal contact resistivity to enable low power high speed carbon electronics. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Categorization of fragrance contact allergens for prioritization of preventive measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne D; Börje, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is still relatively common, affecting ∼ 16% of patients patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis, considering all current screening allergens. The objective of the review is to systematically retrieve, evaluate and classify evidence on contact allergy...... to fragrances, in order to arrive at recommendations for targeting of primary and secondary prevention. Besides published evidence on contact allergy in humans, animal data (local lymph node assay), annual use volumes and structure-activity relationships (SARs) were considered for an algorithmic categorization...... to the categorization of a further 26 substances as likely contact allergens. In conclusion, the presence of 127 single fragrance substances and natural mixtures should, owing to their skin sensitizing properties, be disclosed, for example on the label. As an additional preventive measure, the maximum use concentration...

  8. Direct-contact closed-loop heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Gregory F.; Minkov, Vladimir; Petrick, Michael

    1984-01-01

    A high temperature heat exchanger with a closed loop and a heat transfer liquid within the loop, the closed loop having a first horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a first fluid at a first temperature with the heat transfer liquid, a second horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a second fluid at a second temperature with the heat transfer liquid, and means for circulating the heat transfer liquid.

  9. A bandage contact lens prevents extrusion of ocular contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjiani, Vipul; Fearnley, Thomas; Tan, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    A 76 year old male presents with a corneal perforation in a phthisical eye. Definitive treatment in the form of an evisceration was delayed by 38 days. During this period a bandage contact lens prevented extrusion of ocular contents through an enlarging corneal perforation. This case demonstrates that a bandage contact lens can be effective in the immediate management of large corneal perforations whilst awaiting urgent definitive treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Direct analysis of elastic contact using super elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Pauli

    2006-02-01

    Solutions to contact problems are important in mechanical as well as in civil engineering, and even for the most simple problems there is still a need for research results. In the present paper we suggest an alternative finite element procedure and by examples show the need for more knowledge related to the compliance of contact surfaces. The most simple solutions are named Hertz solutions from 1882, and we use some of these solutions for comparison with our finite element results. As a function of the total contact force we find the size of the contact area, the distribution of the contact pressure, and the contact compliance. In models of finite size the compliance depends on the flexibility of the total model, including the boundary condition of the model, and therefore disagreement with the locally based analytical models is expected and found. With computational contact mechanics we can solve more advanced contact problems and treat models that are closer to physical reality. The finite element method is widely used and solutions are obtained by incrementation and/or iteration for these non-linear problems with unknown boundary conditions. Still with these advanced tools the solution is difficult because of extreme sensitivity. Here we present a direct analysis of elastic contact without incrementation and iteration, and the procedure is based on a finite element super element technique. This means that the contacting bodies can be analyzed independently, and are only coupled through a direct analysis with low order super element stiffness matrices. The examples of the present paper are restricted to axisymmetric problems with isotropic, elastic materials and excluding friction. Direct extensions to cases of non-isotropy, including laminates, and to plane and general 3D models are possible.

  11. The prevention of injuries in contact flag football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yonatan; Myklebust, Grethe; Nyska, Meir; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Victor, Jan; Witvrouw, Erik

    2014-01-01

    American flag football is a non-tackle, contact sport with many moderate to severe contact-type injuries reported. A previous prospective injury surveillance study by the authors revealed a high incidence of injuries to the fingers, face, knee, shoulder and ankle. The objectives of the study were to conduct a pilot-prospective injury prevention study in an attempt to significantly reduce the incidence and the severity of injuries as compared to a historical cohort, as well as to provide recommendations for a future prospective injury prevention study. A prospective injury prevention study was conducted involving 724 amateur male (mean age: 20.0 ± 3.1 years) and 114 female (mean age: 21.2 ± 7.2 years) players. Four prevention measures were implemented: the no-pocket rule, self-fitting mouth guards, ankle braces (for those players with recurrent ankle sprains) and an injury treatment information brochure. An injury surveillance questionnaire was administered to record all time-loss injuries sustained in game sessions. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of injured players, the number of finger/hand injuries, the incidence rate and the incidence proportion between the two cohorts (p injuries can be significantly reduced in flag football. Prevention strategies for a longer, prospective, randomised-controlled injury prevention study should include the strict enforcement of the no-pocket rule, appropriate head gear, the use of comfortable-fitting ankle braces and mouth guards, and changing the blocking rules of the game.

  12. Direct measurement of friction of a fluctuating contact line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuo; Gao, Min; Xiong, Xiaomin; Wang, Yong Jian; Wang, Xiaoping; Sheng, Ping; Tong, Penger

    2013-07-12

    We report a direct measurement of the friction coefficient of a fluctuating (and slipping) contact line using a thin vertical glass fiber of diameter d with one end glued onto a cantilever beam and the other end touching a liquid-air interface. By measuring the broadening of the resonant peak of the cantilever system with varying liquid viscosity η, we find the friction coefficient of the contact line has a universal form, ξ(c)≃0.8πdη, independent of the liquid-solid contact angle. The obtained scaling law is further supported by the numerical simulation based on the phase field model under the generalized Navier boundary conditions.

  13. Direct contact heat transfer characteristics between melting alloy and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Izumi; Nishi, Yoshihisa; Furuya, Masahiro

    1995-01-01

    As a candidate for an innovative steam generator for fast breeder reactors, a heat exchanger with direct contact heat transfer between melting alloy and water was proposed. The evaluation of heat transfer characteristics of this heat exchanger is one of the research subjects for the design and development of the steam generator. In this study, the effect of the pressure on heat transfer characteristics and the required degree of superheating of melting alloy above water saturation temperature are evaluated during the direct contact heat transfer experiment by injecting water into Wood's alloy. In the experiment, the pressure, the temperature of the Wood's alloy, the flow rate of feed water, and the depth of the feed water injection point are varied as parameters. As a result of the experiment, the product of the degree of Wood's alloy superheating above water saturation temperature and the depth of the feed water injection point is constant for each pressure. This constant increases as the pressure rises. (author)

  14. Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination

  15. Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Dairy Process Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Weeks

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation (MD was applied for the concentration of a range of dairy streams, such as whole milk, skim milk and whey. MD of a pure lactose solution was also investigated. Direct contact MD (DCMD mode experiments were carried out in continuous concentration mode, keeping the warm feed/retentate and cold permeate stream temperatures at 54 °C and 5 °C respectively. Performance in terms of flux and retention was assessed. The flux was found to decrease with an increase of dry-matter concentration in the feed. Retention of dissolved solids was found to be close to 100% and independent of the dry-matter concentration in the feed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR of the fouled membranes confirms organics being present in the fouling layer.

  16. Polyazole hollow fiber membranes for direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul

    2013-08-07

    Porous hollow fiber membranes were fabricated from fluorinated polyoxadiazole and polytriazole by a dry-wet spinning method for application in desalination of Red Sea water by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The data were compared with commercially available hollow fiber MD membranes prepared from poly(vinylidene fluoride). The membranes were characterized by electron microscopy, liquid entry pressure (LEP), and pore diameter measurements. Finally, the hollow fiber membranes were tested for DCMD. Salt selectivity as high as 99.95% and water fluxes as high as 35 and 41 L m -2 h-1 were demonstrated, respectively, for polyoxadiazole and polytriazole hollow fiber membranes, operating at 80 C feed temperature and 20 C permeate. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Treatment of radioactive wastewater using direct contact membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyang; Wang, Jianlong

    2013-10-15

    Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was used to treat low level radioactive wastewater (LLRW). The dusty gas model (DGM) was used to analyze the mass transfer mechanism and calculate the permeate flux. The operating parameters such as feed temperature, feed velocity and feed concentration were studied. The experimental results showed that DCMD process can separate almost all Cs(+), Sr(2+) and Co(2+) from wastewater. The permeate flux decreased linearly when NaNO3 concentration increased from 1.0 to 200 g/L. The permeate flux remained about 60% of its initial flux even when NaNO3 concentration in feed solution was as high as 200 g/L. The dusty gas model can be successfully applied to estimate the mass transfer, and the experimental permeate flux values fitted well with that calculated by DGM. DCMD is a promising separation process for low level radioactive wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Dairy Process Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Angela; Sanciolo, Peter; Vasiljevic, Todor; Ponnampalam, Elankovan; Quispe-Chavez, Nohemi; Weeks, Mike; Duke, Mikel

    2011-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) was applied for the concentration of a range of dairy streams, such as whole milk, skim milk and whey. MD of a pure lactose solution was also investigated. Direct contact MD (DCMD) mode experiments were carried out in continuous concentration mode, keeping the warm feed/retentate and cold permeate stream temperatures at 54 °C and 5 °C respectively. Performance in terms of flux and retention was assessed. The flux was found to decrease with an increase of dry-matter concentration in the feed. Retention of dissolved solids was found to be close to 100% and independent of the dry-matter concentration in the feed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of the fouled membranes confirms organics being present in the fouling layer. PMID:24957495

  19. Renewable water: Direct contact membrane distillation coupled with solar ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, Francisco; Ruskowitz, Jeffrey A.; Tyler, Scott W.; Childress, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental investigation of direct contact membrane distillation driven by solar ponds. • The DCMD/SGSP system treats ∼6 times the water flow treated by an AGMD/SGSP system. • Half of the energy extracted from the SGSP was used to transport water across the membrane. • Reducing heat losses through the DCMD/SGSP system would yield higher water fluxes. - Abstract: Desalination powered by renewable energy sources is an attractive solution to address the worldwide water-shortage problem without contributing significant to greenhouse gas emissions. A promising system for renewable energy desalination is the utilization of low-temperature direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) driven by a thermal solar energy system, such as a salt-gradient solar pond (SGSP). This investigation presents the first experimental study of fresh water production in a coupled DCMD/SGSP system. The objectives of this work are to determine the experimental fresh water production rates and the energetic requirements of the different components of the system. From the laboratory results, it was found that the coupled DCMD/SGSP system treats approximately six times the water flow treated by a similar system that consisted of an air–gap membrane distillation unit driven by an SGSP. In terms of the energetic requirements, approximately 70% of the heat extracted from the SGSP was utilized to drive thermal desalination and the rest was lost in different locations of the system. In the membrane module, only half of the useful heat was actually used to transport water across the membrane and the remainder was lost by conduction in the membrane. It was also found that by reducing heat losses throughout the system would yield higher water fluxes, pointing out the need to improve the efficiency throughout the DCMD/SGSP coupled system. Therefore, further investigation of membrane properties, insulation of the system, or optimal design of the solar pond must be addressed in

  20. Fluoride removal from brackish groundwater by direct contact membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, D Y; Wang, J; Wang, B Q; Luan, Z K; Sun, X C; Ren, X J

    2010-01-01

    The direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) applied for fluoride removal from brackish groundwater is presented. The self-prepared polyvinylidene fluoride membrane exhibited high rejection of inorganic salt solutes and a maximum permeate flux 35.6 kgm(-2) h(-1) was obtained. The feed concentration had no marked impact on the permeate flux and the rejection of fluoride. The precipitation of CaCO3 would clog the hollow fiber inlets and foul the membrane surface with the increase of concentration factor when natural groundwater was used directly as the feed, which resulted in a rapid decline of the module efficiency. This phenomenon was diminished by acidification of the feed. The experimental results showed that the permeate flux and the quality of obtained distillate kept stable before concentration factor reached 5.0 with the acidified groundwater as feed. The membrane module efficiency began to decline gradually when the feed continued to be concentrated, which can be mainly attributed to the formation of CaF2 deposits on the membrane surface. Finally, a 300 h continuous fluoride removal experiment on acidified groundwater was carried out with concentration factor at 4.0, the permeate flux kept stable and the permeate fluoride was not detected.

  1. Desalination of brackish groundwater by direct contact membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, D Y; Wang, J; Qu, D; Luan, Z K; Zhao, C W; Ren, X J

    2010-01-01

    The direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) applied for desalination of brackish groundwater with self-made polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes was presented in the paper. The PVDF membrane exhibited high rejection of non-volatile inorganic salt solutes and a maximum permeate flux 24.5 kg m(-2) h(-1) was obtained with feed temperature at 70 degrees C. The DCMD experimental results indicated that the feed concentration had no significant influence on the permeate flux and the rejection of solute. When natural groundwater was used directly as the feed, the precipitation of CaCO(3) would be formed and clog the hollow fibre inlets with gradual concentration of the feed, which resulted in a rapid decline of the module efficiency. The negative influence of scaling could be eliminated by acidification of the feed. Finally, a 250 h DCMD continuous desalination experiment of acidified groundwater with the concentration factor at constant 4.0 was carried out. The permeate flux kept stable and the permeate conductivity was less than 7.0 microS cm(-1) during this process. Furthermore, there was no deposit observed on the membrane surface. All of these demonstrated that DCMD could be efficiently used for production of high-quality potable water from brackish groundwater with water recovery as high as 75%.

  2. Treatment of radioactive wastewater using direct contact membrane distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haiyang; Wang, Jianlong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • DCMD process can separate almost all Cs + , Sr 2+ , Co 2+ from liquid wastes. • The permeate flux decreased linearly when NaNO 3 concentration increased. • DGM could be used to estimate the mass transfer. • DCMD is a promising separation process for LLRW treatment. -- Abstract: Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was used to treat low level radioactive wastewater (LLRW). The dusty gas model (DGM) was used to analyze the mass transfer mechanism and calculate the permeate flux. The operating parameters such as feed temperature, feed velocity and feed concentration were studied. The experimental results showed that DCMD process can separate almost all Cs + , Sr 2+ and Co 2+ from wastewater. The permeate flux decreased linearly when NaNO 3 concentration increased from 1.0 to 200 g/L. The permeate flux remained about 60% of its initial flux even when NaNO 3 concentration in feed solution was as high as 200 g/L. The dusty gas model can be successfully applied to estimate the mass transfer, and the experimental permeate flux values fitted well with that calculated by DGM. DCMD is a promising separation process for low level radioactive wastewater treatment

  3. Direct contact membrane distillation: Capability to desalt raw water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Boubakri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the potentialities of membrane distillation to desalt raw waters were investigated. The experiments were performed on a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD unit using a flat sheet polypropylene (PP membrane with a low pore size of 0.064 μm. The effect of relevant operating parameters such as transmembrane temperature difference, hydrodynamic conditions and ionic strength on permeate flux and conductivity was studied. The results indicated that a permeate flux increases with increasing transmembrane temperature difference and Reynolds number, and slightly decreases with increasing ionic strength. The permeate flux reached 4.24 L/m2 h at a temperature difference of 60 °C and Reynolds number of 3740 and ionic strength of 8.56 × 10−2 M. DCMD process using PP with low pore size membrane present a very low salt passage through the membrane which was not affected by feed concentration. DCMD process has been applied during a long period to desalt raw water without any pretreatment. For brackish water, the variation of permeate flux and conductivity were slightly changed as function of operating time. For seawater, the permeate flux decreased slightly and the permeate conductivity increased sharply in which a simple pretreatment step is recommended to ameliorate the performance of DCMD process.

  4. Boron removal from aqueous solution by direct contact membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Deyin; Wang, Jun; Sun, Xiangcheng; Luan, Zhaokun; Zhao, Changwei; Ren, Xiaojing

    2010-05-15

    The removal of boron from aqueous solution by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was studied with self-prepared polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes in the present work. The effect of pH, boron concentration, temperature and salt concentration of the feed solution on the boron rejection was investigated. The experimental results indicated that boron rejection was less dependent on the feed pH and salt concentration. DCMD process had high boron removal efficiency (>99.8%) and the permeate boron was below the maximum permissible level even at feed concentration as high as 750 mg/L. Although the permeate flux was enhanced exponentially with the feed temperature increasing, the influence of feed temperature on the boron rejection could be neglected. Finally, the natural groundwater sample containing 12.7 mg/L of boron was treated by DCMD process. The permeate boron kept below 20 microg/L whether the feed was acidified or not, but pre-acidification was helpful to maintain the permeate flux stability. All the experimental results indicated that DCMD could be efficiently used for boron removal from aqueous solution. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Directional close-contact melting in glacier ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Julia; Schüller, Kai

    2015-04-01

    The Saturnian moon Enceladus shows incidence of liquid water underneath a thick ice sheet cover and is thought to be a potential candidate for extraterrestrial life. However, direct exploration of these subglacial aquatic ecosystems is very challenging. Within the scope of the joint research project 'Enceladus Explorer' (EnEx) (consisting of FH Aachen, RWTH Aachen, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Universität Bremen, TU Braunschweig und Bundeswehr Universität München), initiated by the German Space Agency, a maneuverable close-contact melting probe has been developed. The force-regulated and heater-controlled probe is able to melt against gravity or even on a curved trajectory. Hence, it offers additional degrees of freedom in its melting motion, e.g. for target oriented melting or obstacle avoidance strategies. General feasibility of the concept has been demonstrated in various field tests. However, in order to optimize its design and to adopt it to extraterrestrial missions a simulation model is needed, capable of determining melting velocity and efficiency at given environmental conditions and system configurations. Within this contribution, the physical situation is abstracted into a quasi-stationary mathematical model description, and a numerical solution strategy is developed to compute melting velocity and temperature distribution within the probe and the surrounding ice. We present an inverse solution approach, in which a background velocity field of the ice mimics the melting velocity. The fundamental balance laws are solved with the corresponding melting rate. Following Newton's laws, the resulting force acting on the probe has to balance the contact force exerted by the probe and can hence be used for convergence. We present both, analytical results to a simplified head geometry, as well as results from a simulation model implemented into the open source software Elmer for arbitrary head geometries. The latter can deal with the full 3d situation

  6. Contacts in the Office of Pesticide Programs, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contact the Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (BPPD) about regulatory activities associated with biologically-based pesticides, implementation of integrated pest management and the Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program.

  7. Directly Printable Flexible Strain Sensors for Bending and Contact Feedback of Soft Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Elgeneidy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fully printable sensorized bending actuator that can be calibrated to provide reliable bending feedback and simple contact detection. A soft bending actuator following a pleated morphology, as well as a flexible resistive strain sensor, were directly 3D printed using easily accessible FDM printer hardware with a dual-extrusion tool head. The flexible sensor was directly welded to the bending actuator’s body and systematically tested to characterize and evaluate its response under variable input pressure. A signal conditioning circuit was developed to enhance the quality of the sensory feedback, and flexible conductive threads were used for wiring. The sensorized actuator’s response was then calibrated using a vision system to convert the sensory readings to real bending angle values. The empirical relationship was derived using linear regression and validated at untrained input conditions to evaluate its accuracy. Furthermore, the sensorized actuator was tested in a constrained setup that prevents bending, to evaluate the potential of using the same sensor for simple contact detection by comparing the constrained and free-bending responses at the same input pressures. The results of this work demonstrated how a dual-extrusion FDM printing process can be tuned to directly print highly customizable flexible strain sensors that were able to provide reliable bending feedback and basic contact detection. The addition of such sensing capability to bending actuators enhances their functionality and reliability for applications such as controlled soft grasping, flexible wearables, and haptic devices.

  8. Whither papillon? Future directions for contact radiotherapy in rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, J; Gerard, J P; Sun Myint, A

    2007-01-01

    Although contact radiotherapy was developed 70 years ago, and is highly effective with cure rates of over 90% for early rectal cancer, there are few centres that offer this treatment today. One reason is the lack of replacement of ageing contact X-ray machines, many of which are now over 30 years...... old. To address this problem, the International Contact Radiotherapy Evaluation (ICONE) group was formed at a meeting in Liverpool in 2005 with the aim of developing a new contact X-ray unit and to establish clinical protocols that would enable the new machine to safely engage in the treatment...... of rectal cancer. As a result of these efforts, a European company is starting production of the new Papillon RT-50 machine, which will be available shortly. In addition, the ICONE group is planning an observational study on contact X-ray and transanal endoscopic microsurgery (CONTEM) for curative treatment...

  9. A heat accumulation method and a direct-contact, latent melting-heat thermal accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricard, Alain; Moracchioli, Robert; Goffinet, Pierre; Kurka, Gerard; Cachard, Maurice de.

    1974-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thermal accumulation method and to a direct-contact, latent melting-heat thermal accumulator. According to the invention, a fluid is caused to flow in direct contact with a material for storing heat, said material being in divided form. This can be applied to the storage of energy [fr

  10. Molecular Cancer Prevention: Current Status & Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresso, Karen Colbert; Tsai, Kenneth Y.; Brown, Powel H.; Szabo, Eva; Lippman, Scott; Hawk, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneity and complexity of advanced cancers strongly supports the rationale for an enhanced focus on molecular prevention as a priority strategy to reduce the burden of cancer. Molecular prevention encompasses traditional chemopreventive agents as well as vaccinations and therapeutic approaches to cancer-predisposing conditions. Despite challenges to the field, we now have refined insights into cancer etiology and early pathogenesis; successful risk assessment and new risk models; agents with broad preventive efficacy (e.g., aspirin) in common chronic diseases, including cancer; and a successful track record of more than 10 agents approved by the FDA for the treatment of precancerous lesions or cancer risk reduction. The development of molecular preventive agents does not differ significantly from the development of therapies for advanced cancers, yet has unique challenges and special considerations given that it most often involves healthy or asymptomatic individuals. Agents, biomarkers, cohorts, overall design, and endpoints are key determinants of molecular preventive trials, as with therapeutic trials, although distinctions exist for each within the preventive setting. Progress in the development and evolution of molecular preventive agents has been steadier in some organ systems, such as breast and skin, than in others. In order for molecular prevention to be fully realized as an effective strategy, a number of challenges to the field must be addressed. Here we provide a brief overview of the context for and special considerations of molecular prevention along with a discussion of the results of major randomized controlled trials. PMID:26284997

  11. Injuries can be prevented in contact flag football!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yonatan; Myklebust, Grethe; Nyska, Meir; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Victor, J; Witvrouw, E

    2016-06-01

    This original prospective cohort study was conducted in an attempt to significantly reduce the incidence and the severity of injuries in an intervention cohort as compared to a two-season historical cohort, and to provide recommendations to the International Federation of Football (IFAF) pertaining to prevention measures to make the game safer. A total of 1,260 amateur male (mean age: 20.4 ± 3.9 years) and 244 female (mean age: 18.5 ± 1.7 years) players participated in the study. Four prevention measures were implemented: the no-pocket rule, self-fitting mouth guards, ankle braces (for those players with recurrent ankle sprains) and an injury treatment information brochure. All time-loss injuries sustained in game sessions were recorded by the off-the-field medical personnel and followed up by a more detailed phone injury surveillance questionnaire. There was a 54 % reduction in the total number of injuries and a significant reduction in the incidence rate and incidence proportion between the intervention cohorts as compared to the historical cohort (p injuries in any of the body parts, except for in hand/wrist injuries related to the use of pockets (p injuries (p injuries can be significantly reduced in flag football. Recommendations to the IFAF include strict enforcement of the no-pocket rule, the use of soft headgear, comfortable-fitting ankle braces and mouth guards and additionally, to change game rules concerning blocking. II.

  12. A method of heat accumulation and a direct-contact latent melting heat thermal accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachard, Maurice de; Goffinet, Pierre; Kurka, Gerard; Bricard, Alain; Morrachioli, Robert.

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the accumulation of heat, and to a direct-contact latent melting-heat thermal accumulator. According to the invention, a coolant fluid F is caused to be in direct contact with a material C having a high latent melting-heat, said fluid F and material C being in heat exchange relationship at a temperature in the vicinity of the melting point of C, whereby, when hot fluid F is caused to be in direct contact with material C, the later will melt and store heat in the form of latent melting-heat while cooling fluid F, and when cold fluid F is caused to be in direct contact with material C, the latter will solidify by transferring heat to fluid F. This can be applied to the manufacturing of heat-exchangers for coupling an electric power-station to a distribution network [fr

  13. Direct nanomaterial-DNA contact effects on DNA and mutation induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkumkoon, P; Sangwijit, K; Chaiwong, C; Thongtem, S; Singjai, P; Yu, L D

    2014-04-07

    The toxicity of nanomaterials has been well known, but mechanisms involved have been little known. This study was aimed at looking at direct interaction between nanomaterials and naked DNA for some fundamental understanding. Two different types of nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and tungsten trioxide (WO₃) nanoplates, were simply mixed with naked DNA plasmid, respectively, in two different contact modes, dry or wet (in solution), for varied time periods. DNA topological forms were analyzed for changes using gel electrophoresis and fluoro-spectrometry. The nanomaterial-contacted DNA was transferred into bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells for mutation observation. Certain types and degrees of DNA damage were observed, such as single strand break and double strand break, and bacterial mutation was confirmed. The DNA damage increased with the contacting time in an exponential manner and increased more rapidly in the initial stage for the wet contact. The nanomaterials-contacted DNA transferred bacteria had about less than 10% survival but almost 100% mutation for the surviving cells. The CNTs were more offensive than the metal oxide nanomaterials. The mutation spectrum from the DNA sequencing analysis showed that DNA point mutation was dominated by transversion, which was dominated by guanine changes in the wet contact condition while by cytosine changes in the dry contact condition. The point mutation occurrence in the wet contact was more than in the dry contact, confirming the wet contact more active and thus dangerous than dry contact. This experiment, although as a model study, revealed that direct simple contacts between nanomaterials and DNA could cause DNA changes and thus induce mutations which might potentially lead to cancers, diseases and genetic changes. This could be a mechanism for nanomaterial genotoxicity to the cells and also provided a caution to applications in using nanomaterials for DNA delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland

  14. Future Directions in Preventing Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the abuse and neglect of children requires: professionals and citizens who care to make a difference; development of multidisciplinary units, teams, or organizations to deal with specific parts of the problem; a clear statement of child protection policy; programs that work; commitment to research and program evaluation; and a…

  15. Sibling Relation, Ethnic Prejudice, Direct and Indirect Contact: There is a Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Sara; Marta, Elena

    2015-11-01

    The literature on the socialisation of prejudice has concentrated on "vertical" processes (from parents to children), ignoring siblings' contribution. This work aims to investigate the effect of contact (direct or indirect) with the outgroup that young people experience a) directly or b) indirectly through older or younger siblings' friendships. Our hypotheses are a) that young people with friends in the outgroup will report lower prejudice levels (direct contact), as will young people who have older or younger siblings with friends in the outgroup (indirect contact); b) that other forms of contact such as having classmates/coworkers, neighbours, or employees are not effective in reducing either direct or indirect prejudice. 88 sibling dyads were administered the blatant and subtle prejudice questionnaire (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995) and some ad hoc items aimed at investigating the typology of the contact experienced. The analysis of mixed ANOVA reveals that the first hypothesis was partially confirmed in that prejudice (subtle for the younger sibling and blatant for the older one) decreases in a statistically significant way only when there is the co-presence of direct and indirect contact. The second hypothesis is fully confirmed as no statistically significant differences emerged between the groups.

  16. Sibling Relation, Ethnic Prejudice, Direct and Indirect Contact: There is a Connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Alfieri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the socialisation of prejudice has concentrated on “vertical” processes (from parents to children, ignoring siblings’ contribution. This work aims to investigate the effect of contact (direct or indirect with the outgroup that young people experience a directly or b indirectly through older or younger siblings’ friendships. Our hypotheses are a that young people with friends in the outgroup will report lower prejudice levels (direct contact, as will young people who have older or younger siblings with friends in the outgroup (indirect contact; b that other forms of contact such as having classmates/coworkers, neighbours, or employees are not effective in reducing either direct or indirect prejudice. 88 sibling dyads were administered the blatant and subtle prejudice questionnaire (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995 and some ad hoc items aimed at investigating the typology of the contact experienced. The analysis of mixed ANOVA reveals that the first hypothesis was partially confirmed in that prejudice (subtle for the younger sibling and blatant for the older one decreases in a statistically significant way only when there is the co-presence of direct and indirect contact. The second hypothesis is fully confirmed as no statistically significant differences emerged between the groups.

  17. Sibling Relation, Ethnic Prejudice, Direct and Indirect Contact: There is a Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Sara; Marta, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The literature on the socialisation of prejudice has concentrated on “vertical” processes (from parents to children), ignoring siblings’ contribution. This work aims to investigate the effect of contact (direct or indirect) with the outgroup that young people experience a) directly or b) indirectly through older or younger siblings’ friendships. Our hypotheses are a) that young people with friends in the outgroup will report lower prejudice levels (direct contact), as will young people who have older or younger siblings with friends in the outgroup (indirect contact); b) that other forms of contact such as having classmates/coworkers, neighbours, or employees are not effective in reducing either direct or indirect prejudice. 88 sibling dyads were administered the blatant and subtle prejudice questionnaire (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995) and some ad hoc items aimed at investigating the typology of the contact experienced. The analysis of mixed ANOVA reveals that the first hypothesis was partially confirmed in that prejudice (subtle for the younger sibling and blatant for the older one) decreases in a statistically significant way only when there is the co-presence of direct and indirect contact. The second hypothesis is fully confirmed as no statistically significant differences emerged between the groups. PMID:27247684

  18. Design of high-pressure direct contact heater for promising power supply units: Experimental substantiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, E. V.; Shvarts, A. L.; Turkin, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The results of experimental studies of superheated steam condensation on feed water jets in a highpressure, direct-contact heat exchanger are presented. Direct contact feed water heater (DCFWH) can be used in a dual-flow diagram of a steam-power unit with ultrasupercritical steam parameters (35 MPa, 700/720°C). The direct contact feed water heater is included in the flow diagram of the II circuit in a promising power unit; it provides feed water heating to 340°C in all maintenance and emergency operation modes of the unit. The reliability of the high-pressure direct contact heater operation in this flow diagram is of major importance in relation to the danger of lead solidification in the tube space of the steam generator. Technical requirements to the design of the high-pressure direct contact heater for increasing the heat exchange efficiency are formulated based on the results of earlier studies with steam-water mixture as the heating medium. The results of studies of superheated steam condensation on jets presented in this study testify that feed water is additionally heated to the required temperature at the output of the installation. The influence of initial feed water parameters (outflow velocity and temperature) on the jet heating length is elucidated. The numerical approximation of the experimental data for determination of the jet heating length in the nominal and partial power unit loads is obtained. The results of the calculations are used to simplify the design of the water-supplying element for the direct contact feed water heater. The proposed design of direct contact feed water heater is characterized by simplicity and low metal intensity, which provides the installation reliability at the considered pressure level due to the minimum number of structural elements.

  19. Effect of direct and indirect contact with mental illness on dangerousness and social distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Mikyung

    2018-03-01

    This study is based on the contact hypothesis that contact with mental illness is the most effective anti-stigma strategy. This study aims to analyze which form of contact can most effectively decrease the dangerousness and social distance associated with schizophrenia, depression and alcoholism. In total, 573 Korean adults ( M age  = 43.71 years, standard deviation ( SD) = 13.41; 54.1% male, 45.9% female) were surveyed about randomly assigned vignettes of schizophrenia, depression and alcoholism. The participants were questioned on the dangerousness and social distance associated with the assigned vignette, as well as direct and indirect contact experience with the mental illness. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the main effect and interaction effect that the type of mental illness and contact experience have on the two dependent variables (dangerousness and social distance). The findings show that the type of mental illness has a significant main effect on dangerousness and social distance, but contact type only has a significant main effect on social distance. Moreover, the two independent variables (mental illness subtype and contact experience) have an interaction effect on two dependent variables (dangerousness and social distance). Therefore, the anti-stigma effect of contact varies according to the type of mental illness. Our findings suggest that appropriate anti-stigma strategies are required for each type of mental illness. Considering that opportunities for direct contact with persons with mental illness are highly limited, it is necessary to actively utilize indirect contact.

  20. Investigation of the Dynamic Contact Angle Using a Direct Numerical Simulation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangpu; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Hai; Li, Aifen; Shams, Bilal

    2016-11-15

    A large amount of residual oil, which exists as isolated oil slugs, remains trapped in reservoirs after water flooding. Numerous numerical studies are performed to investigate the fundamental flow mechanism of oil slugs to improve flooding efficiency. Dynamic contact angle models are usually introduced to simulate an accurate contact angle and meniscus displacement of oil slugs under a high capillary number. Nevertheless, in the oil slug flow simulation process, it is unnecessary to introduce the dynamic contact angle model because of a negligible change in the meniscus displacement after using the dynamic contact angle model when the capillary number is small. Therefore, a critical capillary number should be introduced to judge whether the dynamic contact model should be incorporated into simulations. In this study, a direct numerical simulation method is employed to simulate the oil slug flow in a capillary tube at the pore scale. The position of the interface between water and the oil slug is determined using the phase-field method. The capacity and accuracy of the model are validated using a classical benchmark: a dynamic capillary filling process. Then, different dynamic contact angle models and the factors that affect the dynamic contact angle are analyzed. The meniscus displacements of oil slugs with a dynamic contact angle and a static contact angle (SCA) are obtained during simulations, and the relative error between them is calculated automatically. The relative error limit has been defined to be 5%, beyond which the dynamic contact angle model needs to be incorporated into the simulation to approach the realistic displacement. Thus, the desired critical capillary number can be determined. A three-dimensional universal chart of critical capillary number, which functions as static contact angle and viscosity ratio, is given to provide a guideline for oil slug simulation. Also, a fitting formula is presented for ease of use.

  1. Assembly of the murine leukemia virus is directed towards sites of cell-cell contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the underlying mechanism by which direct cell-cell contact enhances the efficiency of cell-to-cell transmission of retroviruses. Applying 4D imaging to a model retrovirus, the murine leukemia virus, we directly monitor and quantify sequential assembly, release, and transmission events for individual viral particles as they happen in living cells. We demonstrate that de novo assembly is highly polarized towards zones of cell-cell contact. Viruses assembled approximately 10-fold more frequently at zones of cell contact with no change in assembly kinetics. Gag proteins were drawn to adhesive zones formed by viral Env glycoprotein and its cognate receptor to promote virus assembly at cell-cell contact. This process was dependent on the cytoplasmic tail of viral Env. Env lacking the cytoplasmic tail while still allowing for contact formation, failed to direct virus assembly towards contact sites. Our data describe a novel role for the viral Env glycoprotein in establishing cell-cell adhesion and polarization of assembly prior to becoming a fusion protein to allow virus entry into cells.

  2. A method for direct contact resistance evaluation in low voltage coplanar organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S.; Cosseddu, P.; Bonfiglio, A.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a method for the extrapolation of contact resistance in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) from a single transfer characteristic curve in the linear regime is proposed. The method, namely DIrect Contact Resistance Extrapolation (DICRE), is based on the idea of making the current dependent only on contact resistance by setting the device in large over-threshold conditions. Constant contact resistance with respect to gate-to-source voltage is considered as an acceptable approximation, as confirmed by other examples in the literature. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by extrapolating the contact resistance of two different OFET structures (self-aligned and not self-aligned) and comparing the results with standard reference techniques, namely the Modified Transmission Line Method (M-TLM) and the Y function method. The results demonstrate that the DICRE method can be applied to low voltage devices without any damage to the gate insulator, even if the applied gate-to-source voltage drop is well beyond the values normally employed for transistor operation. The proposed method allows extrapolating a value of contact resistance comparable with the ones derived by TLM, with restrained variability. Moreover, the capability of properly recognizing the differences in contact resistance values between OFET structures with different features in terms of source/drain-gate overlap is reported. Finally, the possibility of correctly deriving the contact resistance dependence on drain-to-source voltage using DICRE is discussed.

  3. Direct contact membrane distillation for the concentration of saline dairy effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezia, Kezia; Lee, Judy; Weeks, Mike; Kentish, Sandra

    2015-09-15

    The ability of direct contact membrane distillation to concentrate the waste effluent from salty whey, a by-product from the cheese making industry has been investigated. The effect of trace protein in the feed, cross-flow velocity and feed acidity were the factors examined. Flat Sheet PTFE membranes of nominal pore sizes 0.05, 0.22 and 0.45 μm were utilised. A decline in feed flux in the presence of trace protein in the feed was observed, but liquid penetration through the membrane could still be prevented by utilization of a membrane of smaller pore size, to achieve a final total solids concentration of ±30% w/w with water recovery from 37 to 83 %. The pressure-drop across the channel length was also predicted accounting for the feed spacer. To increase the channel length up to 1 m will require operation using the smallest pore size of 0.05 μm, unless very low cross-flow velocities are used. The fouling of the membrane is primarily governed by precipitation of a calcium phosphate salt. However, operation at low pH does not improve the flux or the final salt concentration significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence for transmission of bluetongue virus serotype 26 through direct contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Batten

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the mechanisms of transmission of bluetongue virus serotype 26 (BTV-26 in goats. A previous study, which investigated the pathogenicity and infection kinetics of BTV-26 in goats, unexpectedly revealed that one control goat may have been infected through a direct contact transmission route. To investigate the transmission mechanisms of BTV-26 in more detail an experimental infection study was carried out in which three goats were infected with BTV-26, three goats were kept uninfected, but were housed in direct contact with the infected goats, and an additional four goats were kept in indirect contact separated from infected goats by metal gates. This barrier allowed the goats to have occasional face-to-face contact in the same airspace, but feeding, watering, sampling and environmental cleaning was carried out separately. The three experimentally infected goats did not show clinical signs of BTV, however high levels of viral RNA were detected and virus was isolated from their blood. At 21 dpi viral RNA was detected in, and virus was isolated from the blood of the three direct contact goats, which also seroconverted. The four indirect barrier contact goats remained uninfected throughout the duration of the experiment. In order to assess replication in a laboratory model species of Culicoides biting midge, more than 300 Culicoides sonorensis were fed a BTV-26 spiked blood meal and incubated for 7 days. The dissemination of BTV-26 in individual C. sonorensis was inferred from the quantity of virus RNA and indicated that none of the insects processed at day 7 possessed transmissible infections. This study shows that BTV-26 is easily transmitted through direct contact transmission between goats, and the strain does not seem to replicate in C. sonorensis midges using standard incubation conditions.

  5. Experimental study of droplet-wall direct contact heat transfer using infrared thermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Junseok; Kim, Hyungdae [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jun Yeong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To prevent the fuel assembly melting, emergency core cooling systems are immediately initiated to flood the fuel assembly from the bottom. It is expected that the heated fuel temperature during the reflooding phase is higher than Leidenfrost temperature of water. When water rewets the fuel surface at the temperature higher than Leidenfrost temperature, quenching phenomenon occurs and a lot of droplets are generated near the quenching front. Dispersed droplet flow is formed above the quenching front. Direct contact heat transfer of droplets with the heated wall likely contributes to the cooling of the upper part of the fuel rods. However, the full understanding of complex fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics during droplet-wall collision is very difficult during LOCA. In this regard, this effect has been neglected in the previous studies, and thus prediction of fuel rod temperature has still a large uncertainty. A few years later, some research groups studied the effects of droplets on heat transfer and developed the prediction models for the fuel temperature. However, these model considered heat transfer mechanism without consideration of dynamics. Therefore, it is necessary to study the heat transfer mechanism considering the dynamic effects on single droplet-wall collision. We used a technique with the spatially and temporally synchronized high-speed camera and IR camera. The high-speed camera is used to measure droplet diameter, collision angle and velocity. IR camera is used to examine temperature changes on wall. Droplet-wall heat transfer phenomena are observed on the basis of wall temperature and collision angle. This study reviewed the previous our studies about the effects of wall temperature and collision angle on heat transfer characteristics of single droplet-wall collision. We compared the experimental data with the prediction by droplet-wall direct heat transfer correlation proposed by Bajorek and Young.

  6. 77 FR 14022 - Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella Species in Human Foods and Direct-Human-Contact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...-contact animal foods. It does not create or confer any rights for or on any person and does not operate to... Human Foods and Direct-Human-Contact Animal Foods; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... Direct- Human-Contact Animal Foods.'' The document provides guidance to firms that manufacture, process...

  7. How to prevent and treat anysometropic-amblyopic child by contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salopek-Rabatić, Jasminka; Pavan, Josip; Kastelan, Snjezana; Rabatić, Leon

    2013-04-01

    Anisometropy as a first step on a way forward future amblyopic child, can be prevent and treat if this condition is recognased on time. Second step is wisdom, right contact lens fit on bothes eyes. As follow, some ortoptic-pleoptic procedures depending on (objective, subjective squinting angle, state of fusion, visus on bothes eyes and separatly each eay and condition of nervus opticus (VEP), normal or absent retinal corespondence, are recomended. There is no limit how old a child is, but best choice and best compliance is age between five and twelve. Contact lens materiales, different fit procedures, right diagnosys and tips all about are discussed.

  8. Interventions for preventing the spread of infestation in close contacts of people with scabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Deirdre; Grainger, Rachel J; Reid, Alex

    2014-02-24

    Scabies, caused by Sarcoptes scabiei variety hominis or the human itch mite, is a common parasitic infection. While anyone can become infected, it causes significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts and it spreads easily between human hosts where there is overcrowding or poor sanitation. The most common symptom reported is itch which is worse at night. As the symptoms are attributed to an allergic reaction to the mite, symptoms usually develop between four to six weeks after primary infection. Therefore, people may be infected for some time prior to developing symptoms. During this time, while asymptomatic, they may spread infection to others they are in close contact with. Consequently, it is usually recommended that when an index case is being treated, others who have been in close contact with the index case should also be provided with treatment. To assess the effects of prophylactic interventions for contacts of people with scabies to prevent infestation in the contacts. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Occupational Safety and Health Review Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (Ovid), Pubmed, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, OpenGrey and WHO ICTRP) up to November 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or cluster RCTs which compared prophylactic interventions which were given to contacts of index cases with scabies infestation. Interventions could be compared to each other, or to placebo or to no treatment. Both drug treatments and non-drug treatments were acceptable. Two authors intended to extract dichotomous data (developed infection or did not develop infection) for the effects of interventions and report this as risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals. We intended to report any adverse outcomes similarly. We did not include any trials in this review. Out of 29 potentially-relevant studies, we excluded 16 RCTs as the data for the contacts were either not reported or were reported only in combination with the outcomes

  9. Transmission of African swine fever virus from infected pigs by direct contact and aerosol routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Ann Sofie; Lohse, Louise; Boklund, Anette

    2017-01-01

    In 2014, African swine fever virus (ASFV) was introduced into the Baltic states and Poland. Since then, the disease has continued to spread within these regions, and recently, cases were reported in the Czech Republic and Romania. Currently, there is an increasing risk of ASFV introduction...... inoculation, by direct contact to infected animals and by aerosol developed acute disease characterized by viremia, fever and depression. Infectious virus was first detected in blood obtained from the inoculated pigs and then sequentially among the within-pen, between-pen and air-contact pigs. ASFV DNA...

  10. Three-dimensional direct laser written graphitic electrical contacts to randomly distributed components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Bryce; Parkinson, Patrick; Scully, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    The development of cost-effective electrical packaging for randomly distributed micro/nano-scale devices is a widely recognized challenge for fabrication technologies. Three-dimensional direct laser writing (DLW) has been proposed as a solution to this challenge, and has enabled the creation of rapid and low resistance graphitic wires within commercial polyimide substrates. In this work, we utilize the DLW technique to electrically contact three fully encapsulated and randomly positioned light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in a one-step process. The resolution of the contacts is in the order of 20 μ m, with an average circuit resistance of 29 ± 18 kΩ per LED contacted. The speed and simplicity of this technique is promising to meet the needs of future microelectronics and device packaging.

  11. Strategies for the prevention of contact lens-related Acanthamoeba keratitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnt, Nicole; Stapleton, Fiona

    2016-03-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is a severe, often sight threatening, corneal infection which in Western countries is predominantly seen in daily wear of contact lenses. This review aims to summarise the pathobiology and epidemiology of contact lens-related Acanthamoeba keratitis, and to present strategies for prevention, particularly with respect to modifiable risk factors in contact lens wear. The virulence of Acanthamoeba and resistance to treatment in keratitis appears to be linked with the production of a low molecular weight protease MIP133 by the organism, in response to binding to corneal epithelial cells through a mannose binding protein, and to the ability of the organism to convert from the trophozoite to the resistant cyst form. Recent epidemiological studies in contact lens relate disease have confirmed the link between solution topping up and Acanthamoeba keratitis and have reinforced the importance of avoidance of tap water, either as part of the care for the contact lens or storage case, handling lenses with wet hands or showering while wearing lenses. In the most recent analysis from the USA, there were no strong effects for solution type, water source or water disinfection process. Wearer age, lens wear time and history to appear to be linked with Acanthamoeba keratitis. Daily disposable contact lens use would be expected to reduce the prevalence of Acanthamoeba disease although this is unproven. While Acanthamoeba keratitis remains challenging to diagnose and manage, strategies to limit the disease severity in contact lens wearers should include attention to recently identified risk factors, particularly those related to water contact. Public health awareness measures, the use of daily disposable contact lenses, a better understanding of the contribution of the host immunity and the development of standardised methods for culture of amoeba and testing of contact lens care systems against Acanthamoeba in the licensing process may be of value. Alternative

  12. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L.

    2015-01-01

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for <1-year-old children were assessed. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were below safe (HQ<1) and acceptable (<10 −6 ) limits, respectively, according to international standards. However, for Sb, non-carcinogenic risk was above 10% of the safety limit (HQ>0.1) for dermal contact with clothes. - Highlights: • We determined in skin-contact clothes the concentrations of a number of metals. • Dermal contact exposure and health risks for adults and for 1-year-old children were assessed. • Carcinogenic risks were considered as acceptable (<10 −6 ). • For non-carcinogenic risks, only Sb exceeded a 10% of the HQ for dermal contact with clothes

  13. Contacting ZnO Individual Crystal Facets by Direct Write Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Nikolay; Volk, János; Erdélyi, Róbert; Lukács, István Endre; Nagata, Takahiro; Sturm, Chris; Grundmann, M

    2016-09-14

    Many advanced electronic devices take advantage of properties developed at the surface facets of grown crystals with submicrometer dimensions. Electrical contacts to individual crystal facets can make possible the investigations of facet-dependent properties such as piezoelectricity in ZnO or III-nitride crystals having noncentrosymmetric structure. However, a lithography-based method for developing contacts to individual crystal facets with submicrometer size has not yet been demonstrated. In this report we study the use of electron beam-induced deposition (EBID), a direct write lithography method, for contacting individual facets of ZnO pillars within an electron microscope. Correlating structural and in situ deposition and electrical data, we examine proximity effects during the EBID and evaluate the process against obtaining electrically insulated contact lines on neighboring and diametrically opposite ZnO facets. Parameters such as incident beam energy geometry and size of the facets were investigated with the view of minimizing unwanted proximity broadening effects. Additionally, we show that the EBID direct write method has the required flexibility, resolution, and minimized proximity deposition for creating prototype devices. The devices were used to observe facet-dependent effects induced by mechanical stress on single ZnO pillar structures.

  14. Transport phenomena and fouling in vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation: Experimental and modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Naidu, Gayathri

    2016-08-27

    The application of vacuum to direct contact membrane distillation (vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation, V-DCMD) removed condensable gasses and reduced partial pressure in the membrane pores, achieving 37.6% higher flux than DCMD at the same feed temperature. Transfer mechanism and temperature distribution profile in V-DCMD were studied. The empirical flux decline (EFD) model represented fouling profiles of V-DCMD. In a continuous V-DCMD operation with moderate temperature (55 degrees C) and permeate pressure (300 mbar) for treating wastewater ROC, a flux of 16.0 +/- 0.3 L/m(2) h and high quality distillate were achieved with water flushing, showing the suitability of V-DCMD for ROC treatment. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Formation of retinal direction-selective circuitry initiated by starburst amacrine cell homotypic contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Thomas A; Roy, Suva; Kozlowski, Christopher; Wang, Jingjing; Cafaro, Jon; Hulbert, Samuel W; Wright, Christopher V E; Field, Greg D; Kay, Jeremy N

    2018-04-03

    A common strategy by which developing neurons locate their synaptic partners is through projections to circuit-specific neuropil sublayers. Once established, sublayers serve as a substrate for selective synapse formation, but how sublayers arise during neurodevelopment remains unknown. Here we identify the earliest events that initiate formation of the direction-selective circuit in the inner plexiform layer of mouse retina. We demonstrate that radially-migrating newborn starburst amacrine cells establish homotypic contacts on arrival at the inner retina. These contacts, mediated by the cell-surface protein MEGF10, trigger neuropil innervation resulting in generation of two sublayers comprising starburst-cell dendrites. This dendritic scaffold then recruits projections from circuit partners. Abolishing MEGF10-mediated contacts profoundly delays and ultimately disrupts sublayer formation, leading to broader direction tuning and weaker direction-selectivity in retinal ganglion cells. Our findings reveal a mechanism by which differentiating neurons transition from migratory to mature morphology, and highlight this mechanism's importance in forming circuit-specific sublayers. © 2018, Ray et al.

  16. The use of dimethyl sulfoxide in contact lens disinfectants is a potential preventative strategy against contracting Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Aqeel, Yousuf; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii is the causative agent of blinding keratitis. Though reported in non-contact lens wearers, it is most frequently associated with improper use of contact lens. For contact lens wearers, amoebae attachment to the lens is a critical first step, followed by amoebae binding to the corneal epithelial cells during extended lens wear. Acanthamoeba attachment to surfaces (biological or inert) and migration is an active process and occurs during the trophozoite stage. Thus retaining amoebae in the cyst stage (dormant form) offers an added preventative measure in impeding parasite traversal from the contact lens onto the cornea. Here, we showed that as low as 3% DMSO, abolished A. castellanii excystation. Based on the findings, it is proposed that DMSO should be included in the contact lens disinfectants as an added preventative strategy against contracting Acanthamoeba keratitis. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cross Sectional Study Evaluating Routine Contact Investigation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Missed Opportunity to Prevent Tuberculosis in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assefa, Dawit; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Yosef, Genet

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 global roadmap for childhood tuberculosis calls for countries to implement contact screening and provide preventive therapy to children younger than 5 years. Therefore, this study designed to evaluate the implementation status of child contact screening and management in the health

  18. Participant observation of time allocation, direct patient contact and simultaneous activities in hospital physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zupanc Andrea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital physicians' time is a critical resource in medical care. Two aspects are of interest. First, the time spent in direct patient contact – a key principle of effective medical care. Second, simultaneous task performance ('multitasking' which may contribute to medical error, impaired safety behaviour, and stress. There is a call for instruments to assess these aspects. A preliminary study to gain insight into activity patterns, time allocation and simultaneous activities of hospital physicians was carried out. Therefore an observation instrument for time-motion-studies in hospital settings was developed and tested. Methods 35 participant observations of internists and surgeons of a German municipal 300-bed hospital were conducted. Complete day shifts of hospital physicians on wards, emergency ward, intensive care unit, and operating room were continuously observed. Assessed variables of interest were time allocation, share of direct patient contact, and simultaneous activities. Inter-rater agreement of Kappa = .71 points to good reliability of the instrument. Results Hospital physicians spent 25.5% of their time at work in direct contact with patients. Most time was allocated to documentation and conversation with colleagues and nursing staff. Physicians performed parallel simultaneous activities for 17–20% of their work time. Communication with patients, documentation, and conversation with colleagues and nursing staff were the most frequently observed simultaneous activities. Applying logit-linear analyses, specific primary activities increase the probability of particular simultaneous activities. Conclusion Patient-related working time in hospitals is limited. The potential detrimental effects of frequently observed simultaneous activities on performance outcomes need further consideration.

  19. Electrical Thermal Network for Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Modeling and Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2015-02-04

    Membrane distillation is an emerging water distillation technology that offers several advantages compared to conventional water desalination processes. Although progress has been made to model and understand the physics of the process, many studies are based on steady-state assumptions or are computationally not appropriate for real time control. This paper presents the derivation of a novel dynamical model, based on analogy between electrical and thermal systems, for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The proposed model captures the dynamics of temperature distribution and distilled water flux. To demonstrate the adequacy of the proposed model, validation with transient and steady-state experimental data is presented.

  20. Feedback control for distributed heat transfer mechanisms in direct-contact membrane distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi

    2015-09-21

    In this paper, the problem of stabilization and production rate reference tracking for a Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) system is addressed. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotic and exponential stabilization for DCMD system are presented using the Gronwall-Bellman lemma and Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) approaches, respectively. A nonlinear observer is then proposed to estimate the temperature distribution among the DCMD domain. This contributes to propose a reference production rate control design for the DCMD process via observer-based output control approach. Finally, numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  1. A Model of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Black Currant Juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; Christensen, Knud Villy; Andrésen, René

    2011-01-01

    A numerical model to describe a direct contact membrane distillation proces has been developed. Said model is based on the Dusty Gas model and shell mass and energy balances over a tubular membrane module.  "The solution is applicable to laminar, incompressible and continuous flow in shell......-side spacing of tubular-type unit."  Turtuosity and porosity are characteristics of the membrane in use and have been estimated base don eksperimental studies on destillation of pure water. The fitted model shows a good fit to experimental data obtained by destillation of black currant juice....

  2. Evaluation of a direct contact heat exchanger; Evaluacion de un intercambiador de calor de contacto directo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueiros, J.; Bonilla, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper the application areas of the direct contact heat exchangers is discussed, as well as its main characteristics. A description is made of the experimental equipment designed and built at pilot scale including the instrumentation employed. The methodology employed as well as the analysis and the discussion of the results are also presented. [Espanol] Se mencionan las areas de aplicacion de los intercambiadores de calor de contacto directo, asi como sus caracteristicas principales. Se describe el equipo experimental a nivel piloto disenado y construido incluyendo la instrumentacion utilizada. Se presenta la metodologia empleada asi como el analisis y discusion de los resultados.

  3. Different cytotoxicity responses to antimicrobial nanosilver coatings when comparing extract-based and direct-contact assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Eric M; Casey, Brendan J; Dutta, Debargh; Dair, Benita J

    2015-06-01

    This study was performed to understand how the choice of cytotoxicity assay format affects the observed biocompatibility of nanosilver (nAg). nAg coatings are physical coatings containing silver (Ag) that have feature sizes of 100 nm or less, often in the form of nanoparticles or grains. They are used on medical devices to prevent infection, but in spite of this intended benefit, observations of potential cytotoxicity from nAg have been reported in numerous published studies. For medical device regulation, cytotoxicity testing is part of a biocompatibility evaluation, in which specific test methods are chosen based on the technological characteristics and intended use of a device. For this study, nAg-coated tissue culture polystyrene surfaces were prepared using magnetron sputter coating, resulting in nAg films of 0.2 to 311 µg cm(-2) Ag. These coatings exhibited nanometer-scale morphologies and demonstrated a > 4log10 reduction in Escherichia coli viability. It was observed that extracts of nAg caused no cytotoxicity to L929 mouse fibroblasts, but cells cultured directly on nAg coatings (direct-contact assay format) showed a dose-dependent reduction in viability by up to 100% (P cytotoxic over time, probably owing to the reaction with cell culture media and serum (six-fold cytotoxicity reductions observed over a 24-h period). These findings highlight the potential value of direct-contact cytotoxicity testing for nAg in predicting biological interactions with cells or tissue in vivo. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Stability analysis of direct contact heat exchangers subject to system perturbations. Final report, Task 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    This report includes a project summary, copies of two papers resulting from the work and the Ph.D. Dissertation of Dr. Mehdi Golafshani entitled, ''Stability of a Direct Contact Heat Exchanger''. Specifically, the work deals with the operational stability of a spray column type heat exchanger subject to disturbances typical of those which can occur for geothermal applications. A computer program was developed to solve the one-dimensional transient two-phase flow problem and it was applied to the design of a spray column. The operation and design of the East Mesa 500kW/sub e/ direct contactor was assessed. It is shown that the heat transfer is governed by the internal resistance of the dispersed phase. In fact, the performance is well-represented by diffusion of heat within the drops. 5 refs.

  5. Analysis and hazard evaluation of heat-transfer fluids for the direct contact cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Joo Hi; Lee, Yeon Hee; Shin, You Hwan; Karng, Sarng Woo; Kim, Seo Young; Kim, Young Gil

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses several low-temperature heat-transfer fluids, including water-based inorganic salt, organic salt, alcohol/glycol mixtures, silicones, and halogenated hydrocarbons in order to choose the best heat-transfer fluid for the newly designed direct contact refrigeration system. So, it contains a survey on commercial products such as propylene glycol and potassium formate as newly used in super market and food processing refrigeration. The stability of commercial fluids at the working temperature of -20 .deg. C was monitored as a function of time up to two months. And organic and inorganic compositions of candidate fluids were obtained by analytical instruments such as ES, XRF, AAS, ICP-AES, GC, and GC-MS. Analysis results indicate that commercial propylene glycol is very efficient and safe heat transfer fluids for the direct cooling system with liquid phase

  6. Electrokinetic desalination of protruded areas of stone avoiding the direct contact with electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feijoo, J.; Matyscák, O.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Soluble salts are considered one of the main deterioration factors of porous building materials such as rocks, bricks or granites. The desalination treatments currently used in order to mitigate this alteration process are usually applied directly on the affected areas, which have often a low...... degree of cohesion precisely due to the deteriorating effect of the salts. The present study aimed to investigate the evaluation of a new approach based on electrokinetic techniques to desalinate rocks in monuments, specifically to desalinate carved reliefs. The procedure avoids the direct contact...... with the areas highly affected by salts, which usually show loss of cohesion due to salt crystallization processes, by placing the electrodes on adjacent areas less contaminated with salts. This fact represents another difficulty in the desalination process because the electric field must be adapted to the shape...

  7. Bacterial pathogen emergence required more than direct contact with a novel passerine host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Molly; Hill, Geoffrey E; Josefson, Chloe C; Armbruster, Jonathan W; Bonneaud, Camille

    2018-01-08

    While direct contact may sometimes be sufficient to allow a pathogen to jump into a new host species, in other cases fortuitously adaptive mutations that arise in the original donor host are also necessary. Viruses have been the focus of most host shift studies, so less is known about the importance of ecological versus evolutionary processes to successful bacterial host shifts. Here we tested whether direct contact with the novel host was sufficient to enable the mid-1990s jump of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum from domestic poultry into house finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus ). We experimentally inoculated house finches with two genetically distinct M. gallisepticum strains obtained either from poultry (Rlow) or from house finches at epizootic outbreak (HF1995). All 15 house finches inoculated with HF1995 became infected, whereas Rlow successfully infected 12 of 15 (80%) inoculated house finches. Comparisons among infected birds showed that, relative to HF1995, Rlow achieved substantially lower bacterial loads in the host respiratory mucosa and was cleared faster. Furthermore, Rlow-infected finches were less likely to develop clinical symptoms than HF1995-infected birds and, when they did, displayed milder conjunctivitis. The lower infection success of Rlow relative to HF1995 was not, however, due to a heightened host antibody response to Rlow. Taken together, our results indicate that contact between infected poultry and house finches was not, by itself, sufficient to explain the jump of M. gallisepticum into house finches. Instead, mutations arising in the original poultry host would have been necessary for successful pathogen emergence in the novel finch host. Copyright © 2018 Staley et al.

  8. Analyzing and modeling the dynamic thermal behaviors of direct contact condensers packed with PCM spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Hu, Tao; Hassabou, Abdel H.; Spinnler, Markus; Polifke, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Condensers serve as important components for humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination plants. Based on the interpenetration continua approach with volume averaging technique, a mathematical dynamic model for analyzing the heat and mass transfer within direct contact condensers with co-current or countercurrent flow arrangement was developed. It was validated against the experimental data from a small scale HDH desalination system. Comparisons including the productivities and the temperature profiles of gas, liquid, and solid phases show good agreement with the measurements. Phase change material (PCM) melting processes have little effect on water production rate for co-current flow arrangement, but the condenser packed with PCM capsules have higher water production rates than that packed with air capsules packed under given conditions. The relative humidity profile of the bulk gas shows contrary trend with the gas temperature profile. The direct contact condenser with countercurrent flow arrangement can provide much better heat and mass transfer between gas and water and produce about 16.3% more fresh water than the same condenser with co-current flow arrangement in 4 h under given conditions.

  9. Workshop on Direct Contact Heat Transfer at the Solar Energy Research Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Boehm, R

    1988-01-01

    to increase the use of direct contact processes, the National Science Foundation sup­ ported a workshop on direct contact heat transfer at the Solar Energy Research Insti­ tute in the summer of 1985. We served as organizers for this workshop, which em­ phasized an area of thermal engineering that, in our opinion, has great promise for the future, but has not yet reached the point of wide-spread commercial application. Hence, a summary of the state of knowledge at this point is timely. The workshop had a dual objective: 1. To summarize the current state of knowledge in such a form that industrial practi­ tioners can make use of the available information. 2. To indicate the research and development needed to advance the state-of-the-art, indicating not only what kind of research is needed, but also the industrial poten­ tial that could be realized if the information to be obtained through the proposed research activities were available.

  10. Preventative maintenance cycle of contact switches for nuclear power plants based on lifetime assessment and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jie

    2010-01-01

    An approach to determine the preventive maintenance cycle was proposed in consideration of the lifetime, optimal cost and economy. Two parameters Weibull distribution was used to calculate the lifetime of contact switch. The block replacement model and age replacement model were built with the objective of optimal cost, and the preventive replacement cycle was accounted. Eight proposals for preventive replacement cycle were given. Economy model was applied to assess those proposals and the optimal proposal was confirmed. (authors)

  11. Fabrication of bioinspired composite nanofiber membranes with robust superhydrophobicity for direct contact membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuan; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G

    2014-06-03

    The practical application of membrane distillation (MD) for water purification is hindered by the absence of desirable membranes that can fulfill the special requirements of the MD process. Compared to the membranes fabricated by other methods, nanofiber membranes produced by electrospinning are of great interest due to their high porosity, low tortuosity, large surface pore size, and high surface hydrophobicity. However, the stable performance of the nanofiber membranes in the MD process is still unsatisfactory. Inspired by the unique structure of the lotus leaf, this study aimed to develop a strategy to construct superhydrophobic composite nanofiber membranes with robust superhydrophobicity and high porosity suitable for use in MD. The newly developed membrane consists of a superhydrophobic silica-PVDF composite selective skin formed on a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) porous nanofiber scaffold via electrospinning. This fabrication method could be easily scaled up due to its simple preparation procedures. The effects of silica diameter and concentration on membrane contact angle, sliding angle, and MD performance were investigated thoroughly. For the first time, the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) tests demonstrate that the newly developed membranes are able to present stable high performance over 50 h of testing time, and the superhydrophobic selective layer exhibits excellent durability in ultrasonic treatment and a continuous DCMD test. It is believed that this novel design strategy has great potential for MD membrane fabrication.

  12. Metal-Organic Frameworks Supported on Nanofiber for Desalination by Direct Contact Membrane Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Efome, Johnson E; Rana, Dipak; Matsuura, Takeshi; Lan, Christopher

    2018-03-22

    Among other applications, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are slowly gaining grounds as fillers for desalination composite membranes. In this study, superhydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofibrous membranes were fabricated with MOF (iron 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) loading of up to 5 wt % via electrospinning on a nonwoven substrate. To improve the attachment of nanofibers onto the substrate, a substrate pretreatment method called "solvent basing" was employed. The iron content in the nanofiber, measured by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, increased proportionally with the increase of the MOF concentration in the spinning dope, indicating a uniform distribution of MOF in the nanofiber. The water contact angle increased up to 138.06 ± 2.18° upon the incorporation of 5 wt % MOF, and a liquid entry pressure of 82.73 kPa could be maintained, making the membrane useful for direct contact membrane distillation experiments. The membrane was stable for the entire operating period of 5 h, exhibiting 2.87 kg/m 2 ·h of water vapor flux and 99.99% NaCl (35 g/L) rejection when the feed and permeate temperature were 48 and 16 °C, respectively. Immobilization of MOF on nanofibers with the enhanced attachment was proven by inductively coupled mass spectrometry analysis, by which no Fe 2+ could be found in the permeate to the detection limit of ppt.

  13. Analysis of direct contact membrane distillation based on a lumped-parameter dynamic predictive model

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2016-10-03

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology that has a great potential for sustainable water desalination. In order to pave the way for successful commercialization of MD-based water desalination techniques, adequate and accurate dynamical models of the process are essential. This paper presents the predictive capabilities of a lumped-parameter dynamic model for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) and discusses the results under wide range of steady-state and dynamic conditions. Unlike previous studies, the proposed model captures the time response of the spacial temperature distribution along the flow direction. It also directly solves for the local temperatures at the membrane interfaces, which allows to accurately model and calculate local flux values along with other intrinsic variables of great influence on the process, like the temperature polarization coefficient (TPC). The proposed model is based on energy and mass conservation principles and analogy between thermal and electrical systems. Experimental data was collected to validated the steady-state and dynamic responses of the model. The obtained results shows great agreement with the experimental data. The paper discusses the results of several simulations under various conditions to optimize the DCMD process efficiency and analyze its response. This demonstrates some potential applications of the proposed model to carry out scale up and design studies. © 2016

  14. Induced gamma-band brain responses to direct eye contact in the frontal and parietal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, Sunao

    2013-01-01

    We used simultaneous recordings of the neuromagnetic (MEG) and electrooculogram (EOG) recordings on a pair of directly facing subjects, i.e., the sender and the observer of the eye gaze, to measure changes in the spontaneous brain activities while the observer perceives changes in eye gaze direction of the sender. The MEG signals were analyzed in the time-frequency domain to evaluate event-related changes in the spontaneous brain activities induced by the onset of eye movements. Significant increase in the gamma-band power was observed in the eye-contact condition compared to the averting condition in the right superior parietal, bilateral posterior superior-temporal, and the frontal areas of the observer. Together with the preliminary results from the frequency-domain Granger-Geweke causality analysis, the current results indicate that the connectivity between (a) the bilateral frontal areas, and (b) the right frontal and parietal areas might be crucial for the perception of eye gaze of the directly facing person. The increase in gamma-band activities in these regions might reflect the integration of information processed individually in these regions for eye gaze perception.

  15. Performance evaluation of ePTFE and PVDF flat-sheet module direct contact membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ching-Jung; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Fan, Yang-Hsiang; Ho, Chii-Dong; Huang, James

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports experiments using a flat-sheet module with 0.18 approximately 0.45 microm ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) and PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) membranes to show the effects of membrane properties, salt concentration and fluid hydrodynamics on the permeate flux and salt rejection of DCMD (direct contact membrane distillation). A theoretical prediction of the permeate flux was carried out, and was in close agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the energy integration of the process was also analyzed in order to evaluate module design to increase energy efficiency. According to the simulated results of the energy integration design, a combination of simultaneous cooling of the permeate stream and an additional heat exchanger to lower the temperature of the permeate stream not only enhances the MD flux, but also reduces energy consumption.

  16. Real time optimization of solar powered direct contact membrane distillation based on multivariable extremum seeking

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2015-09-21

    This paper presents a real time optimization scheme for a solar powered direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) water desalination system. The sun and weather conditions vary and are inconsistent throughout the day. Therefore, the solar powered DCMD feed inlet temperature is never constant, which influences the distilled water flux. The problem of DCMD process optimization has not been studied enough. In this work, the response of the process under various feed inlet temperatures is investigated, which demonstrates the need for an optimal controller. To address this issue, we propose a multivariable Newton-based extremum seeking controller which optimizes the inlet feed and permeate mass flow rates as the feed inlet temperature varies. Results are presented and discussed for a realistic temperature profile.

  17. APPLICATION OF DIRECT CONTACT TEST IN EVALUATION OF CYTOTOXICITY OF ACRYLIC DENTURE BASE RESINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Kostić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of acrylic denture base resins is widely spread in dental practice. They belong to the group of biomaterials due to their role of morphological and functional substituent in the mouth. However, clinical practice has shown that some toxic ingredients of these materials may lead to adverse local and even systemic changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate cytotoxic effect of various denture base resins on cell culture using direct contact test. The effect of four different acrylic materials on HeLa cell structure was evaluated. Upon light microscopy analysis, MTT test was performed without previous removal of material samples. The obtained values of MTT indicate that cell proliferation is dependant on the type of acrylic denture base resins. Cold polymerization denture base resins showed mild inhibitory effect on the cell culture growth. The signs of toxicity were not observed in heat polymerization denture base resins.

  18. Humidification Dehumidification Spray Column Direct Contact Condenser Part I: Countercurrent Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shouman, L.; Karameldin, A.; Fadel, D.

    2015-01-01

    Humidification-dehumidification (HDH) is a low grade energy desalination technology. The waste heat from power plant (such NPP) can be used as heat source to preheat water (in evaporator) and air (in condenser) . Hot humid air and cooled spray water in counter current flow with direct contact is theoretically analyzing in the present work. Direct contact spray condenser is studied to provide the effect of various parameters on its performance. A computer programme describing the theoretical model is designed to solve a one-dimensional differential equations by using Rung–Kutta method. The programme predicts the droplet radius, velocity and temperature, besides, the humidity and temperature of air. The results show that, the length of column has great effect on the performance of spray condenser. At column height of 0.762, 2, 5, 10, and 20 m the humidity of the output air decreases by 50%, 72%, 89%, 97%, and 99% respectively. The condensate increases about 35% when the length increase from 5 to 10 m at ΔT = 25°C while increase only 18% at ΔT = 30°C. Also, it is found that, at ΔT = 25°C the condensate decrease from H = 10 to 5 m about 31% and increases from 10 to 20 m about 32%. While these results for ΔT = 25°C are 32% from H = 10 to 5 m and 36% from 10 to 20 m.The increase of both water and air mass fluxes increases the condensate mass flow rate. (author)

  19. Contact with HIV prevention services highest in gay and bisexual men at greatest risk: cross-sectional survey in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Graham J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV in the UK and new HIV prevention strategies are needed. In this paper, we examine what contact MSM currently have with HIV prevention activities and assess the extent to which these could be utilised further. Methods Anonymous, self-complete questionnaires and Orasure™ oral fluid collection kits were distributed to men visiting the commercial gay scenes in Glasgow and Edinburgh in April/May 2008. 1508 men completed questionnaires (70.5% response rate and 1277 provided oral fluid samples (59.7% response rate; 1318 men were eligible for inclusion in the analyses. Results 82.5% reported some contact with HIV prevention activities in the past 12 months, 73.1% obtained free condoms from a gay venue or the Internet, 51.1% reported accessing sexual health information (from either leaflets in gay venues or via the Internet, 13.5% reported talking to an outreach worker and 8.0% reported participating in counselling on sexual health or HIV prevention. Contact with HIV prevention activities was associated with frequency of gay scene use and either HIV or other STI testing in the past 12 months, but not with sexual risk behaviours. Utilising counselling was also more likely among men who reported having had an STI in the past 12 months and HIV-positive men. Conclusions Men at highest risk, and those likely to be in contact with sexual health services, are those who report most contact with a range of current HIV prevention activities. Offering combination prevention, including outreach by peer health workers, increased uptake of sexual health services delivering behavioural and biomedical interventions, and supported by social marketing to ensure continued community engagement and support, could be the way forward. Focused investment in the needs of those at highest risk, including those diagnosed HIV-positive, may generate a prevention dividend in the long

  20. Studi Eksperimental Keausan Permukaan Material Akibat Adanya Multi-Directional Contact Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hasry

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian terkait keausan akibat gesekan satu arah dan gesekan dua arah sampai saat ini telah banyak dilakukan, tetapi hanya sedikit yang mengkaji keausan akibat gesekan banyak arah (multi-directional friction, padahal tidak sedikit suatu mekanisme mengakibatkan terjadinya multi-directional contact  friction, seperti pada kontak ban mobil terhadap jalan saat melakukan drifting ataupun pada sistem yang meggunakan ball joint. Data penelitian berupa data keausan merupakan hasil pengujian menggunakan tribometer tipe Pin-on-disk dengan material Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE sebagai pin uji dan material Stainless steel sebagai disk. Pada pengujian, masing-masing pin dan disk bergerak rotasi dan saling kontak permukaan sehingga pada permukaan material terjadi gesekan ke arah yang berubah-ubah sepanjang waktu. Secara garis besar penelitian dilakukan dalam 2 macam, yaitu penelitian keausan akibat gesekan tanpa pelumasan (dry sliding dan dengan pelumasan (wet sliding. Sebagai data pembanding, diambil juga data keausan akibat dari gesekan satu arah, yaitu dengan menggerakkan disk secara rotasi sedangkan pin hanya mengalami pembebanan dan tidak bergerak sama sekali. Permukaan spesimen yang telah diuji selanjutnya diamati struktur permukaannya menggunakan mikroskop optis dengan perbesaran 100 kali. Hasil dari penelitian menyebutkan bahwa gesekan banyak arah (Multi-Directional Friction akan menghasilkan keausan yang lebih besar dibanding gesekan satu arah (Uni-Directional Friction. Material yang mengalami gesekan banyak arah dengan pembebanan statis sebesar 39.2 N dan dengan kecepatan sesaat yang berubah-ubah mulai dari nol sampai 19.546 m/menit, akan mengalami keausan dengan mekanisme abrasi. Berdasarkan penelitian diketahui juga bahwa adanya pelumas memberi pengaruh yang besar dalam mengurangi keausan.

  1. Electrical equivalent thermal network for direct contact membrane distillation modeling and analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2016-09-19

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging water desalination technology that offers several advantages compared to conventional desalination methods. Although progress has been made to model the physics of the process, there are two common limitations of existing models. Firstly, many of the models are based on the steady-state analysis of the process and secondly, some of the models are based on partial differential equations, which when discretized introduce many states which are not accessible in practice. This paper presents the derivation of a novel dynamic model, based on the analogy between electrical and thermal systems, for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). An analogous electrical thermal network is constructed and its elements are parameterized such that the response of the network models the DCMD process. The proposed model captures the spatial and temporal responses of the temperature distribution along the flow direction and is able to accurately predict the distilled water flux output. To demonstrate the adequacy of the proposed model, validation with time varying and steady-state experimental data is presented. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. State-of-the-art and needs for jet instability and direct contact condensation model improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bousbia-Salah Anis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a common understanding among thermal-hydraulic experts that the system analysis codes have currently reached an acceptable degree of maturity. Reliable application, however, is still limited to the validated domain. There is a growing need for qualified codes in assessing the safety of the existing reactors and for developing advanced reactor systems. Under conditions involving multi-phase flow simulations, the use of classical methods, mainly based upon the one dimensional approach, is not appropriate at all. The use of new computational models, such as the direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation or other advanced computational fluid dynamics methods, seems to be more suitable for more complex events. For this purpose, the European Commission financed NURESIM Integrated Project (as a part of the FP6 programme, was adopted to provide the initial step towards a Common European Standard Software Platform for Modeling, recording and recovering computer data for nuclear reactor simulations. Some of the studies carried out at the University of Pisa within the framework of the NURESIM project are presented in this paper. They mainly concern the investigation of two critical phenomena connected with jet instabilities and direct contact condensation that occur during emergency core cooling. Through these examples, the state-of-the-art and the need for model improvements and validation against new experimental data for the sake of getting a better understanding and more accurate predictions are discussed.

  3. State-of-the-art and needs for jet instability and direct contact condensation model improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousbia-Salah, A.; Moretti, F.; D'auria, F.; Bousbia-Salah, A.)

    2007-01-01

    There is a common understanding among thermal-hydraulic experts that the system analysis codes have currently reached an acceptable degree of maturity. Reliable application, however, is still limited to the validated domain. There is a growing need for qualified codes in assessing the safety of the existing reactors and for developing advanced reactor systems. Under conditions involving multi-phase flow simulations, the use of classical methods, mainly based upon the one dimensional approach, is not appropriate at all. The use of new computational models, such as the direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation or other advanced computational fluid dynamics methods, seems to be more suitable for more complex events. For this purpose, the European Commission financed NURESIM Integrated Project (as a part of the FP6 programme), was adopted to provide the initial step towards a Common European Standard Software Platform for modelling, recording and recovering computer data for nuclear reactor simulations. Some of the studies carried out at the University of Pisa within the framework of the NURESIM project are presented in this paper. They mainly concern the investigation of two critical phenomena connected with jet instabilities and direct contact condensation that occur during emergency core cooling. Through these examples, the state-of-the-art and the need for model improvements and validation against new experimental data for the sake of getting a better understanding and more accurate predictions are discussed. (author)

  4. Convective heat transfer measurements in a vapour-liquid-liquid three-phase direct contact heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahood, Hameed B.; Campbell, A. N.; Baqir, Ali Sh.; Sharif, A. O.; Thorpe, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Energy usage is increasing around the world due to the continued development of technology, and population growth. Solar energy is a promising low-grade energy resource that can be harvested and utilised in different applications, such solar heater systems, which are used in both domestic and industrial settings. However, the implementation of an efficient energy conversion system or heat exchanger would enhance such low-grade energy processes. The direct contact heat exchanger could be the right choice due to its ability to efficiently transfer significant amounts of heat, simple design, and low cost. In this work, the heat transfer associated with the direct contact condensation of pentane vapour bubbles in a three-phase direct contact condenser is investigated experimentally. Such a condenser could be used in a cycle with a solar water heater and heat recovery systems. The experiments on the steady state operation of the three-phase direct contact condenser were carried out using a short Perspex tube of 70 cm in total height and an internal diameter of 4 cm. Only a height of 48 cm was active as the direct contact condenser. Pentane vapour, (the dispersed phase) with three different initial temperatures (40° C, 43.5° C and 47.5° C) was directly contacted with water (the continuous phase) at 19° C. The experimental results showed that the total heat transfer rate per unit volume along the direct contact condenser gradually decreased upon moving higher up the condenser. Additionally, the heat transfer rate increases with increasing mass flow rate ratio, but no significant effect on the heat transfer rate of varying the initial temperature of the dispersed phase was seen. Furthermore, both the outlet temperature of the continuous phase and the void fraction were positively correlated with the total heat transfer rate per unit volume, with no considerable effect of the initial temperature difference between the dispersed and continuous phases.

  5. Influence of direct or indirect contact for the cytotoxicity and blood compatibility of spider silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhbier, J W; Coger, V; Mueller, J; Liebsch, C; Schlottmann, F; Bucan, V; Vogt, P M; Strauss, S

    2017-08-01

    Spider silk became one of the most-researched biomaterials in the last years due to its unique mechanical strength and most favourable chemical composition for tissue engineering purposes. However, standardized analysis of cytocompatibility is missing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate hemolysis, cytotoxicity of native spider silk as well as influences on the cell culture medium. Changes of cell culture medium composition, osmolarity as well as glucose and lactate content were determined via ELISA measurement. Possible hemolysis and cytotoxicity in vitro of spider silk were performed via measurement of hemoglobin release of human red blood cells or relative metabolic activity of L929 fibroblasts, respectively, according to international standard procedures. In ELISA measurement, no significant changes in medium composition could be found in this study. Spider silk was not hemolytic in direct and indirect testing. However, a borderline cytotoxicity according to definitions was found in indirect cytotoxicity testing. Nevertheless, in direct cytotoxicity testing, relative metabolic activity measurement revealed that spider silk is not cytotoxic under these conditions. This is the first study to conduct standardized tests regarding cytotoxicity and hemolysis of native spider silk, which might be considered inert in cell culture. As neither hemolysis nor cytotoxicity was found in direct contact in standardized procedures, safety in biomedical applications may be assumed. The indirect cytotoxicity seems to play a minor role in vivo. However, a borderline toxicity was revealed, suggesting potential leachables not yet identified. Displays one of the weaving frames used in this study after seeding with the single drop technique described herein.

  6. Universal deformation of soft substrates near a contact line and the direct measurement of solid surface stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Style, Robert W; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Che, Yonglu; Wettlaufer, J S; Wilen, Larry A; Dufresne, Eric R

    2013-02-08

    Droplets deform soft substrates near their contact lines. Using confocal microscopy, we measure the deformation of silicone gel substrates due to glycerol and fluorinated-oil droplets for a range of droplet radii and substrate thicknesses. For all droplets, the substrate deformation takes a universal shape close to the contact line that depends on liquid composition, but is independent of droplet size and substrate thickness. This shape is determined by a balance of interfacial tensions at the contact line and provides a novel method for direct determination of the surface stresses of soft substrates. Moreover, we measure the change in contact angle with droplet radius and show that Young's law fails for small droplets when their radii approach an elastocapillary length scale. For larger droplets the macroscopic contact angle is constant, consistent with Young's law.

  7. Tuberculosis contact screening and isoniazid preventive therapy in a South Indian district: operational issues for programmatic consideration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Pothukuchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Under India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP, all household contacts of sputum smear positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB patients are screened for TB. In the absence of active TB disease, household contacts aged <6 years are eligible for Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT (5 milligrams/kilogram body weight/day for 6 months. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the number of household contacts aged <6 years, of sputum smear positive PTB patients registered for treatment under RNTCP from April to June'2008 in Krishna District, to assess the extent to which they are screened for TB disease and in its absence initiated on IPT. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted. Households of all smear positive PTB cases (n = 848 registered for treatment from April to June'2008 were included. Data on the number of household contacts aged <6 years, the extent to which they were screened for TB disease, and the status of initiation of IPT, was collected. RESULTS: Households of 825 (97% patients were visited, and 172 household contacts aged <6 years were identified. Of them, 116 (67% were evaluated for TB disease; none were found to be TB diseased and 97 (84% contacts were initiated on IPT and 19 (16% contacts were not initiated on IPT due to shortage of INH tablets in peripheral health centers. The reasons for non-evaluation of the remaining eligible children (n = 56, 33% include no home visit by the health staff in 25 contacts, home visit done but not evaluated in 31 contacts. House-hold contacts in rural areas were less likely to be evaluated and initiated on IPT [risk ratio 6.65 (95% CI; 3.06-14.42]. CONCLUSION: Contact screening and IPT implementation under routine programmatic conditions is sub-optimal. There is an urgent need to sensitize all concerned programme staff on its importance and establishment of mechanisms for rigorous monitoring.

  8. A novel multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation module: Design, experimental and theoretical approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2016-10-24

    An economic desalination system with a small scale and footprint for remote areas, which have a limited and inadequate water supply, insufficient water treatment and low infrastructure, is strongly demanded in the desalination markets. Here, a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process has the simplest configuration and potentially the highest permeate flux among all of the possible MD processes. This process can also be easily instituted in a multi-stage manner for enhanced compactness, productivity, versatility and cost-effectiveness. In this study, an innovative, multi-stage, DCMD module under countercurrent-flow configuration is first designed and then investigate both theoretically and experimentally to identify its feasibility and operability for desalination application. Model predictions and measured data for mean permeate flux are compared and shown to be in good agreement. The effect of the number of module stages on the mean permeate flux, performance ratio and daily water production of the MDCMD system has been theoretically identified at inlet feed and permeate flow rates of 1.5 l/min and inlet feed and permeate temperatures of 70 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The daily water production of a three-stage DCMD module with a membrane area of 0.01 m2 at each stage is found to be 21.5 kg.

  9. Explosive Evaporating Phenomena of Cryogenic Fluids by Direct Contacting Normal Temperature Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Watanabe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryogenic fluids have characteristics such as thermal stratification and flashing by pressure release in storage vessel. The mixture of the extreme low temperature fluid and the normal temperature fluid becomes the cause which causes pressure vessel and piping system crush due to explosive boiling and rapid freezing. In recent years in Japan, the demand of cryogenic fluids like a LH2, LNG is increasing because of the advance of fuel cell device technology, hydrogen of engine, and stream of consciousness for environmental agreement. These fuel liquids are cryogenic fluids. On the other hand, as for fisheries as well, the use of a source of energy that environment load is small has been being a pressing need. And, the need of the ice is high, as before, for keeping freshness of marine products in fisheries. Therefore, we carried out the experiments related to promotion of evaporating cryogenic fluids and generation of ice, in the contact directly of the water and liquid nitrogen. From the results of visualization, phenomena of explosive evaporating and ice forming were observed by using video camera.

  10. Dynamic modeling and experimental validation for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi

    2016-02-01

    This work proposes a mathematical dynamic model for the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The model is based on a 2D Advection–Diffusion Equation (ADE), which describes the heat and mass transfer mechanisms that take place inside the DCMD module. The model studies the behavior of the process in the time varying and the steady state phases, contributing to understanding the process performance, especially when it is driven by intermittent energy supply, such as the solar energy. The model is experimentally validated in the steady state phase, where the permeate flux is measured for different feed inlet temperatures and the maximum absolute error recorded is 2.78 °C. Moreover, experimental validation includes the time variation phase, where the feed inlet temperature ranges from 30 °C to 75 °C with 0.1 °C increment every 2min. The validation marks relative error to be less than 5%, which leads to a strong correlation between the model predictions and the experiments.

  11. Polyoxadiazole hollow fibers for produced water treatment by direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jingli

    2018-01-08

    Treatment of produced water in the petroleum industry has been a challenge worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the use of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) for this purpose, removing oil and dissolved elements and supplying clean water from waste. We synthesized fluorinated polyoxadiazole, a highly hydrophobic polymer, to fabricate hollow fiber membranes, which were optimized and tested for simulated produced water and real produced water treatment. The process performance was investigated under different operating parameters, such as feed temperature, feed flow velocity and length of the membrane module for 4 days. The results indicate that by increasing feed temperature and feed flow rate the vapor flux increases. The flux decreased with increasing the length of the module due to the decrease of the driving force along the module. The fouling behavior, which corresponds to flux decline and cleaning efficiency of the membrane, was studied. The performance of the fabricated hollow fiber membranes was demonstrated for the treatment of produced water, complying with the industrial reuse and discharge limits.

  12. Performance modeling of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) seawater desalination process using a commercial composite membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Junggil

    2015-01-10

    This paper presents the development of a rigorous theoretical model to predict the transmembrane flux of a flat sheet hydrophobic composite membrane, comprising both an active layer of polytetrafluoroethylene and a scrim-backing support layer of polypropylene, in the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. An integrated model includes the mass, momentum, species and energy balances for both retentate and permeate flows, coupled with the mass transfer of water vapor through the composite membrane and the heat transfer across the membrane and through the boundary layers adjacent to the membrane surfaces. Experimental results and model predictions for permeate flux and performance ratio are compared and shown to be in good agreement. The permeate flux through the composite layer can be ignored in the consideration of mass transfer pathways at the composite membrane. The effect of the surface porosity and the thickness of active and support layers on the process performance of composite membrane has also been studied. Among these parameters, surface porosity is identified to be the main factor significantly influencing the permeate flux and performance ratio, while the relative influence of the surface porosity on the performance ratio is less than that on flux.

  13. Study of Direct-Contact HfO2/Si Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Miyata

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Controlling monolayer Si oxide at the HfO2/Si interface is a challenging issue in scaling the equivalent oxide thickness of HfO2/Si gate stack structures. A concept that the author proposes to control the Si oxide interface by using ultra-high vacuum electron-beam HfO2 deposition is described in this review paper, which enables the so-called direct-contact HfO2/Si structures to be prepared. The electrical characteristics of the HfO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors are reviewed, which suggest a sufficiently low interface state density for the operation of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs but reveal the formation of an unexpected strong interface dipole. Kelvin probe measurements of the HfO2/Si structures provide obvious evidence for the formation of dipoles at the HfO2/Si interfaces. The author proposes that one-monolayer Si-O bonds at the HfO2/Si interface naturally lead to a large potential difference, mainly due to the large dielectric constant of the HfO2. Dipole scattering is demonstrated to not be a major concern in the channel mobility of MOSFETs.

  14. Experimental and Analytical Study of Lead-Bismuth-Water Direct Contact Boiling Two-Phase Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitrian; Dostal, Vaclav; Takahashi, Minoru

    The characteristics of lead-bismuth(Pb-Bi)-water boiling two-phase flow were investigated experimentally and analytically using a Pb-Bi-water direct contact boiling two-phase flow loop. Pb-Bi flow rates and void fraction were measured in a vertical circular tube at conditions of system pressure 7MPa, liquid metal temperature 460°C and injected water temperature 220°C. The drift-flux model with the assumption that bubble sizes were dependent on the fluid surface tension and the density ratio of Pb-Bi to steam-water mixture was chosen and modified by the best fit to the measured void fraction. Pb-Bi flow rates were analytically estimated using balance condition between buoyancy force and pressure losses, where the buoyancy force was calculated from void fraction estimated using the modified drift-flux model. The deviation of the analytical results of the flow rates from the experimental ones was less than 10%.

  15. Fouling development in direct contact membrane distillation: Non-invasive monitoring and destructive analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Fortunato, Luca

    2017-12-26

    Fouling development in direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) for seawater desalination was evaluated combining in-situ monitoring performed using optical coherence tomography (OCT) together with destructive techniques. The non-invasive monitoring with OCT provided a better understanding of the fouling mechanism by giving an appropriate sampling timing for the membrane autopsy. The on-line monitoring system allowed linking the flux trend with the structure of fouling deposited on the membrane surface. The water vapor flux trend was divided in three phases based on the deposition and formation of different foulants over time. The initial flux decline was due to the deposition of a 50–70 nm porous fouling layer consisting of a mixture of organic compounds and salts. Liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis revealed the abundance of biopolymer in the fouling layer formed at the initial phase. In the second phase, formation of carbonate crystals on the membrane surface was observed but did not affect the flux significantly. In the last phase, the water vapor flux dropped to almost zero due to the deposition of a dense thick layer of sulfate crystals on the membrane surface.

  16. A novel multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation module: Design, experimental and theoretical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Gil; Kim, Woo-Seung; Choi, June-Seok; Ghaffour, Noreddine; Kim, Young-Deuk

    2016-12-15

    An economic desalination system with a small scale and footprint for remote areas, which have a limited and inadequate water supply, insufficient water treatment and low infrastructure, is strongly demanded in the desalination markets. Here, a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process has the simplest configuration and potentially the highest permeate flux among all of the possible MD processes. This process can also be easily instituted in a multi-stage manner for enhanced compactness, productivity, versatility and cost-effectiveness. In this study, an innovative, multi-stage, DCMD module under countercurrent-flow configuration is first designed and then investigate both theoretically and experimentally to identify its feasibility and operability for desalination application. Model predictions and measured data for mean permeate flux are compared and shown to be in good agreement. The effect of the number of module stages on the mean permeate flux, performance ratio and daily water production of the MDCMD system has been theoretically identified at inlet feed and permeate flow rates of 1.5 l/min and inlet feed and permeate temperatures of 70 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The daily water production of a three-stage DCMD module with a membrane area of 0.01 m 2  at each stage is found to be 21.5 kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluoride removal from aqueous solution by direct contact membrane distillation: theoretical and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubakri, Ali; Bouchrit, Raja; Hafiane, Amor; Bouguecha, Salah Al-Tahar

    2014-09-01

    Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane was used for fluoride removal from aqueous solution. This study has been carried out on heat and mass transfer analyses in DCMD. The dusty-gas model was used to analyze the mass transfer mechanism and to calculate the permeate flux. The heat transfer is analyzed based on energy balance, and the different layers are considered as a series of thermal resistances. Mass transfer analysis showed that the transition Knudsen-molecular diffusion is the dominant mechanism to describe the transport of water vapor through the pores of the PVDF membrane. The most significant operating parameter is the feed temperature. The permeate increases sensitively with feed temperature and velocity, and it shows insignificant change with feed salts concentration. Heat transfer analysis showed the conduction through the matrix of the membrane presents the major part of available energy. The increasing feed temperature leads to increase thermal efficiency (TE) and decrease temperature polarization coefficient (TPC). The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical values. Therefore, it is suggested to work at high feed temperature, which will benefit both the thermal efficiency and permeate flux. The experimental results proved that DCMD process is able to produce almost fluoride-free water suitable for many beneficial uses.

  18. Fouling development in direct contact membrane distillation: Non-invasive monitoring and destructive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Luca; Jang, Yongsun; Lee, Jung-Gil; Jeong, Sanghyun; Lee, Sangho; Leiknes, TorOve; Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2018-04-01

    Fouling development in direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) for seawater desalination was evaluated combining in-situ monitoring performed using optical coherence tomography (OCT) together with destructive techniques. The non-invasive monitoring with OCT provided a better understanding of the fouling mechanism by giving an appropriate sampling timing for the membrane autopsy. The on-line monitoring system allowed linking the flux trend with the structure of fouling deposited on the membrane surface. The water vapor flux trend was divided in three phases based on the deposition and formation of different foulants over time. The initial flux decline was due to the deposition of a 50-70 nm porous fouling layer consisting of a mixture of organic compounds and salts. Liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis revealed the abundance of biopolymer in the fouling layer formed at the initial phase. In the second phase, formation of carbonate crystals on the membrane surface was observed but did not affect the flux significantly. In the last phase, the water vapor flux dropped to almost zero due to the deposition of a dense thick layer of sulfate crystals on the membrane surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling the Concentration of Volatile and Semivolatile Contaminants in Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) Product Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, Judith M; Bossa, Nathan; Rosen, David; Vardner, Jonathan T; Wiesner, Mark R

    2017-11-21

    Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) is an emerging water treatment technology that has high salt rejection; however, its commercialization potential for applications such as seawater desalination or industrial wastewater reuse may be limited by low rejection of volatile and semivolatile contaminants. In this manuscript, a contaminant concentration (CC) model describing the transport of volatile and semivolatile contaminants for DCMD systems was developed and validated using data from the bench-scale DCMD treatment of synthetic wastewaters. The DCMD tests showed that the more volatile contaminants (methyl-tert-butyl ether, acetone, pentanone, butanol, and hexanol) accumulated in the permeate collection stream at greater concentrations than in the feed stream. The validated CC model (average normalized root mean squared error ≤11.3%) was then used to evaluate the product water quality from the large-scale DCMD treatment of oil and gas produced waters. The modeled product water contaminant concentrations exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency limits for discharging to publicly owned treatment works. This indicated that DCMD treatment of produced waters may require additional processing to meet discharge requirements.

  20. Direct measurement of asperity contact growth in quartz at hydrothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Nicholas M.; Hickman, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake recurrence requires interseismic fault restrengthening which results from solid state deformation in room-temperature friction and indentation experiments. In contrast exhumed fault zones show solution-transport processes such as pressure solution and contact overgrowths influence fault zone properties . In the absence of fluid flow, overgrowths are driven by gradients in surface curvature where material is dissolved, diffuses, and precipitates at the contact without convergence normal to the contact. To determine the rate of overgrowth for quartz, we conducted single contact experiments in an externally heated pressure vessel. Convergence was continuously monitored using reflected-light interferometry through a long-working-distance microscope. Contact normal force was constant with an initial effective normal stress of 1.7 MPa, temperature was between 350 and 530{degree sign}C, and water pressure was constant at 150 MPa. Two control experiments were conducted: one dry at 425{degree sign}C and one bi-material (sapphire) at 425{degree sign}C and 150 MPa water pressure. No contact growth or convergence was observed in the controls. For wet single-phase contacts, growth was initially rapid and then decreased with time. No convergence was observed. Fluid inclusions indicate that the contact is not uniformly wetted. The contact is bounded by small regions of high aperture, reflecting local free-face dissolution as the source for the overgrowth. The apparent activation energy is ~125 kJ/mol. Extrapolation predicts rates of contact area increase orders of magnitude faster than in dry, room-temperature and hydrothermal friction experiments, suggesting that natural strength recovery near the base of the seismogenic zone could be dominated by contact overgrowth.

  1. Three-dimensional culture of dental pulp stem cells in direct contact to tricalcium silicate cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widbiller, M; Lindner, S R; Buchalla, W; Eidt, A; Hiller, K-A; Schmalz, G; Galler, K M

    2016-03-01

    Calcium silicate cements are biocompatible dental materials applicable in contact with vital tissue. The novel tricalcium silicate cement Biodentine™ offers properties superior to commonly used mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Objective of this study was to evaluate its cytocompatibility and ability to induce differentiation and mineralization in three-dimensional cultures of dental pulp stem cells after direct contact with the material. Test materials included a new tricalcium silicate (Biodentine™, Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France), MTA (ProRoot® MTA, DENSPLY Tulsa Dental Specialities, Johnson City, TN, USA), glass ionomer (Ketac™ Molar Aplicap™, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany), human dentin disks and polystyrene. Magnetic activated cell sorting for to the surface antigen STRO-1 was performed to gain a fraction enriched with mesenchymal stem cells. Samples were allowed to set and dental pulp stem cells in collagen carriers were placed on top. Scanning electron microscopy of tricalcium silicate cement surfaces with and without cells was conducted. Cell viability was measured for 14 days by MTT assay. Alkaline phosphatase activity was evaluated (days 3, 7, and 14) and expression of mineralization-associated genes (COL1A1, ALP, DSPP, and RUNX2) was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Nonparametric statistical analysis for cell viability and alkaline phosphatase data was performed to compare different materials as well as time points (Mann-Whitney U test, α = 0.05). Cell viability was highest on tricalcium silicate cement, followed by MTA. Viability on glass ionomer cement and dentin disks was significantly lower. Alkaline phosphatase activity was lower in cells on new tricalcium silicate cement compared to MTA, whereas expression patterns of marker genes were alike. Increased cell viability and similar levels of mineralization-associated gene expression in three-dimensional cell cultures on the novel tricalcium silicate cement and mineral

  2. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  3. Performance investigation of a solar-assisted direct contact membrane distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a solar-assisted direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) system with novel energy recovery concepts for a continuous 24-h-a-day operation. A temperature modulating scheme is introduced to the solar-thermal system that supplies feed seawater to the DCMD modules. This scheme attenuates extreme temperature fluctuations of the feed water by storing the collected energy during solar-peak hours and reutilizing it throughout the day. Thus, the energy savings is realized yet the feed seawater temperature is maintained within the desired range. Additionally, the system employs heat recovery from the permeate and brine streams to the feed seawater. The simulations for such a system with a shell-and-tube type DCMD modules are carried out to examine the spatial property variations and the sensitivity of system performance (i.e., transmembrane pressure, permeate flux and performance ratio) to the operating conditions (inlet temperature and flow rate) and the fiber dimensions (fiber length and packing density). It is found that there are trade-offs between mean permeate flux and performance ratio with respect to permeate inlet temperature and flow rate and between total distillate production and performance ratio with respect to packing density. For the solar-assisted DCMD system having evacuated-tube collectors of 3360m2 with 160m3 seawater storage tanks and 50 DCMD modules, the annual solar fraction and the collector efficiency are found to be 77% and 53%, respectively, whilst the overall permeate production capacity is 31m3/day. The overall specific thermal energy consumption of the DCMD system with heat recovery is found to be 436kWh/m3 and it is about 43% lower as compared to the system without heat recovery. It is observed that the specific thermal energy consumption decreases significantly by 55% with increased collector area from 1983m2 to 3360m2 whereas the specific electrical energy consumption increases slightly by 16%. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Treatment of Simulated Coalbed Methane Produced Water Using Direct Contact Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Wan Cho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Expolitation of coalbed methane (CBM involves production of a massive amount saline water that needs to be properly managed for environmental protection. In this study, direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD was utilized for treatment of CBM-produced water to remove saline components in the water. Simulated CBM waters containing varying concentrations of NaCl (1, 20, and 500 mM and NaHCO3 (1 and 25 mM were used as feed solutions under two transmembrane temperatures (Δ40 and 60 °C. In short-term distillation (~360 min, DCMD systems showed good performance with nearly 100% removal of salts for all solutes concentrations at both temperatures. The permeate flux increased with the feed temperature, but at a given temperature, it remained fairly stable throughout the whole operation. A gradual decline in permeate flux was observed at Δ60 °C at high NaHCO3 concentration (25 mM. In long-term distillation (5400 min, the presence of 25 mM NaHCO3 further decreased the flux to 25%–35% of the initial value toward the end of the operation, likely due to membrane fouling by deposition of Ca-carbonate minerals on the pore openings. Furthermore, pore wetting by the scalants occurred at the end of the experiment, and it increased the distillate conducitivity to 110 µS·cm−1. The precipitates formed on the surface were dominantly CaCO3 crystals, identified as aragonite.

  5. Cross Sectional Study Evaluating Routine Contact Investigation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Missed Opportunity to Prevent Tuberculosis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Dawit; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Yosef, Genet

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 global roadmap for childhood tuberculosis calls for countries to implement contact screening and provide preventive therapy to children younger than 5 years. Therefore, this study designed to evaluate the implementation status of child contact screening and management in the health facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Smear positive TB patients living with children attending daily observed treatment at the TB clinic and health care workers providing service were approached to address the study objective. Structured questionnaires were administered to smear positive index cases living with children whether they were requested to bring children age five year and below for TB screening and to health care providers in HIV, TB and child health clinics to assess their knowledge and practice on contact screening and management. Double data entry and analysis was done using EpiData software 3.1. In 27 health centres, 688 smear-positive index tuberculosis patients were approached of whom 203 (29.5%) reported to have children five years and below in their household. A total of 48 (23.6%) index cases had been requested by the health care workers to bring their children for tuberculosis screening and 45 (93.8%) had complied with this request. Of 230 children living with index smear positive tuberculosis patient, 152 (66.1%) were not screened for tuberculosis, 78 (33.9%) children screened, 2 had tuberculosis, 76 screened negative of which 3 (3.8%) received preventive treatment. None of the health care workers indicated to routinely record and report on child contact management. Household child contact screening and preventive intervention was sub-optimal in Addis Ababa. An important opportunity lost to prevent tuberculosis in young children. Training of health care workers, availing simple symptom based screening tool, and proper documentation could improve implementation.

  6. Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. Objectives. To investigate...

  7. Direkte Kontakte zu Deutschland aus und in der Ferne (Direct Contact with Germany from and at a Distance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Rainer E.

    This guide is a summary of ideas for enhancing the teaching of German through direct contact with Germany or German people without traveling abroad. The following ideas are highlighted: (1) correspondence (pen pals) with students in Germany; (2) audiotape recordings as an alternative to letter writing; (3) the exchange of videotape recordings with…

  8. Opinions of Dutch Liver Transplant Recipients on Anonymity of Organ Donation and Direct Contact With the Donors Family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema-de Jong, Coby; op den Dries, Sanna; van den Berg, Aad P.; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Porte, Robert J.

    Background. In the Netherlands, anonymity of organ donation, which is currently protected by legislation, has come under discussion. In the Dutch society, a tendency to allow direct contact between transplant recipients and their donor's family is noticeable. As little is known about the opinion of

  9. Semiconductor nanowires directly grown on graphene--towards wafer scale transferable nanowire arrays with improved electrical contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, John P; Gutes, Albert; Carraro, Carlo; Maboudian, Roya

    2013-05-21

    We present for the first time the growth of dense arrays of silicon and silicon carbide nanowires directly on graphene as well as methods of transferring these novel hybrids to arbitrary substrates. Improved electrical contact for SiC nanowire/graphene hybrid is demonstrated in the application of a robust supercapacitor electrode.

  10. Pseudophakodonesis and corneal endothelial contact: direct observations by high-speed cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P M; Cheng, H; Price, N C

    1983-10-01

    High-speed cinematography was used to observe the movement of Federov type I lens implants within the anterior chamber. Our measurements suggest that in most patients contact between the lens implant and corneal endothelium does not occur.

  11. Impact of the collective diffusion of charged nanoparticles in the convective/capillary deposition directed by receding contact lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Marín, Diego; Moraila-Martínez, Carmen Lucía; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, Miguel; Rodríguez-Valverde, Miguel Angel

    2016-02-01

    The motion of electrically charged particles under crowding conditions and subjected to evaporation-driven capillary flow might be ruled by collective diffusion. The concentration gradient developed inside an evaporating drop of colloidal suspension may reduce by diffusion the number of particles transported toward the contact line by convection. Unlike self-diffusion coefficient, the cooperative diffusion coefficient of interacting particles becomes more pronounced in crowded environments. In this work, we examined experimentally the role of the collective diffusion of charge-stabilized nanoparticles in colloidal patterning. To decouple the sustained evaporation from the contact line motion, we conducted evaporating menisci experiments with driven receding contact lines at low capillary number. This allowed us to explore convective assembly at fixed and low bulk concentration, which enabled to develop high concentration gradients. At fixed velocity of receding contact line, we explored a variety of substrate-particle systems where the particle-particle electrostatic interaction was changed (via p H) as well as the substrate receding contact angle and the relative humidity. We found that the particle deposition directed by receding contact lines may be controlled by the interplay between evaporative convection and collective diffusion, particularly at low particle concentration.

  12. Total water production capacity inversion phenomenon in multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation: A theoretical study

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-09-09

    The low thermal efficiency and low water production are among the major challenges that prevent membrane distillation (MD) process from being commercialized. In an effort to design an efficient multi-stage direct contact MD (DCMD) unit through mathematical simulation, a new phenomenon that we refer to as total water production capacity inversion (WPI) has been detected. It is represented by a decrease in the total water production beyond a number of stages or a certain module length. WPI phenomenon, which was confirmed by using two different mathematical models validated experimentally, was found to take place due to the decrease in water vapor flux across the membrane as well as the increase in heat loss by conduction as the membrane length increases. Therefore, WPI should be considered as a critical MD design-criterion, especially for large scale units. Investigations conducted for a simulated multi-stage DCMD process showed that inlet feed and permeate temperatures difference, feed and permeate flow rates, and feed salinity have different effects on WPI. The number of stages (or module length at constant width) that leads to a maximum water production has been determined for different operating parameters. Decreasing inlet feed and permeate temperatures difference, or inlet feed and permeate flow rates and increasing inlet feed temperature at constant temperature difference or inlet feed salinity cause the WPI to take place at lower number of stages. Even though the feed salinity affects negligibly the mean permeate flux, it was clearly shown that it can affect WPI. The results presented herein unveil a hidden phenomenon that is likely to occur during process scale-up procedures and should be considered by process engineers for a proper choice of system design and operating conditions.

  13. Changing the Direction of Suicide Prevention in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenberg, Dan; Berman, Alan L

    2017-08-01

    It is axiomatic that the goal of suicide prevention is the prevention of suicide. Yet in spite of significant efforts to this end since the middle of the last century, and most notably in the last decade, the rate of suicide in the U.S. has not declined; rather, it has increased. To address this issue, Suicide Awareness Voices of Education (SAVE) brought together leading prevention specialists from other public health problems where successes have been achieved, representatives from countries where suicide rates have declined, and U.S. based suicide prevention researchers and program directors, to "think outside the box" and propose innovative, scalable approaches that might better drive success in achieving desired results from U.S. suicide prevention efforts. The recommendations should challenge our preconceptions and force us outside our own mental constraints to broaden our perspectives and suggest catalysts for real change in suicide prevention. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  14. Prevention of UV-induced damage to the anterior segment using class I UV-absorbing hydrogel contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Heather L; Reuter, Kathleen S; Sinnott, Loraine T; Nichols, Jason J

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether class I ultraviolet (UV) light-blocking contact lenses prevent UV-induced pathologic changes in a rabbit model. Twelve rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (n = 4), as follows: senofilcon A (class I UV blocking) contact lenses; lotrafilcon A contact lenses (no reported UV blocking); no contact lens. The contralateral eye was patched without a contact lens. Animals received UV-B (1.667 J/cm(2)) exposure daily for 5 days. Postmortem tissue was examined as follows: in the cornea, the expression of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) was evaluated by zymography, and apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL and caspase-3 ELISA; ascorbate in the aqueous humor was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; crystalline lens apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL and caspase-3 ELISA. Exposed corneas showed a significant increase in MMP-2 and -9, TUNEL-positive cells, and caspase-3 activity in the lotrafilcon A group compared with the senofilcon A group (all P = 0.03). A significant decrease in aqueous humor ascorbate was observed in the exposed lotrafilcon A lens-wearing group compared with the exposed senofilcon A lens-wearing group (P = 0.03). Exposed crystalline lenses had significantly increased caspase-3 activity in the lotrafilcon A group compared with the senofilcon A group (P = 0.03). Increased numbers of TUNEL-positive cells were noted in both the lotrafilcon A and the non-contact lens groups. The authors show that senofilcon A class I UV-blocking contact lenses are capable of protecting the cornea, aqueous humor, and crystalline lens of rabbits from UV-induced pathologic changes.

  15. A Program on Preventing Sexual Assault Directed toward Greek Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara; Boyd, Cynthia

    This paper discusses a program that uses the leadership and status of Greek system officers to prevent sexual assault at a large university. This program aims to prevent future assaults by altering the conditions of a rape-prone culture. The presentation comprises a definition and two examples of acquaintance rape situations, a discussion of…

  16. Health Promotion/Disease Prevention: New Directions for Geriatric Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkoff, Sue; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes 10 modules for primary care practitioners on health promotion/disease prevention for the elderly on these topics: Alzheimer's disease in minorities, dehydration, diabetes, elder abuse, geriatric nutrition, oncology, oral health in long-term care, incontinence, injury prevention, and physical activity. These areas are significant for…

  17. Current and Future Directions in Elementary School Drug Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, William B.

    2010-01-01

    Drug prevention efforts in elementary schools are widespread. Nonetheless, there are clear challenges that both researchers and practitioners face. Because there may be occasional unintended negative outcomes--statistically these are guaranteed--does not mean all prevention efforts should grind to a halt. It is far better that any observed…

  18. Clonogenic growth of human breast cancer cells co-cultured in direct contact with serum-activated fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoszuk, Michael; Tan, Jenny; Chorn, Guillaume

    2005-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that fibroblasts play a pivotal role in promoting the growth of breast cancer cells. The objective of the present study was to characterize and validate an in vitro model of the interaction between small numbers of human breast cancer cells and human fibroblasts. We measured the clonogenic growth of small numbers of human breast cancer cells co-cultured in direct contact with serum-activated, normal human fibroblasts. Using DNA microarrays, we also characterized the gene expression profile of the serum-activated fibroblasts. In order to validate the in vivo relevance of our experiments, we then analyzed clinical samples of metastatic breast cancer for the presence of myofibroblasts expressing α-smooth muscle actin. Clonogenic growth of human breast cancer cells obtained directly from in situ and invasive tumors was dramatically and consistently enhanced when the tumor cells were co-cultured in direct contact with serum-activated fibroblasts. This effect was abolished when the cells were co-cultured in transwells separated by permeable inserts. The fibroblasts in our experimental model exhibited a gene expression signature characteristic of 'serum response' (i.e. myofibroblasts). Immunostaining of human samples of metastatic breast cancer tissue confirmed that myofibroblasts are in direct contact with breast cancer cells. Serum-activated fibroblasts promote the clonogenic growth of human breast cancer cells in vitro through a mechanism that involves direct physical contact between the cells. This model shares many important molecular and phenotypic similarities with the fibroblasts that are naturally found in breast cancers

  19. Assessment of MARS for Direct Contact Condensation in the Core Make-up Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Keun Tae; Park, Ik Kyu; Lee, Seung Wook

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve safety features under loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions, in many advanced light water reactors, gravity driven passive safety injection systems (PSISs) replace active pump driven emergency core cooling systems. Among various PSISs, the core make-up tank (CMT) with the pressure balancing line (PBL) and the coolant injection line (IL) represents an effective means of providing core cooling. Because the fluid is always sensing the reactor coolant system (RCS) through the PBL connecting the inlet of the CMT to the pressurizer in the case of CP1300 or to the cold legs in the case of AP600/1000, the CMT can provide cold water at any RCS pressure by gravity force. However, after the initiation of LOCAs, if the injection (or isolation) valve is opened, and the steam from the RCS is jetting into the highly subcooled liquid in the CMT and the enhanced interfacial area results in rapid condensation, which in turn, causes a rapid pressure drop in the CMT. As a result, the CMT pressure becomes less than the RCS pressure, and the injection of the CMT can be delayed until the CMT pressure builds up due to greatly reduced condensation in the CMT by the thermal stratification. In order to identify the parameters having significant effects on the gravity-driven injection and the major condensation modes, Lee and No (1998) conducted the separated effect tests of CMT with a small-scale facility. MARS has been developed as a multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic (TH) system analysis code for the realistic simulation of two-phase TH transients for pressurized water reactor plants. As the backbones for the MARS code, the RELAP5/MOD3.2 and the COB-RA-TF codes were adopted. Recently, Chun et al. (2013) evaluated performance of the SMART passive safety system for SBLOCA using MARS code. However, it is not clarified that MARS can simulate properly the direct contact condensation in the CMT. Thus, in this study, we assess the analysis capability of the MARS code for

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induce Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Colon Cancer Cells through Direct Cell-to-Cell Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, Hidehiko; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Shinagawa, Kei; Yuge, Ryo; Higashi, Yukihito; Tanaka, Shinji; Yasui, Wataru; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-05-01

    We previously reported that in an orthotopic nude mouse model of human colon cancer, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) migrated to the tumor stroma and promoted tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we evaluated the proliferation and migration ability of cancer cells cocultured with MSCs to elucidate the mechanism of interaction between cancer cells and MSCs. Proliferation and migration of cancer cells increased following direct coculture with MSCs but not following indirect coculture. Thus, we hypothesized that direct contact between cancer cells and MSCs was important. We performed a microarray analysis of gene expression in KM12SM colon cancer cells directly cocultured with MSCs. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes such as fibronectin (FN), SPARC, and galectin 1 was increased by direct coculture with MSCs. We also confirmed the upregulation of these genes with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Gene expression was not elevated in cancer cells indirectly cocultured with MSCs. Among the EMT-related genes upregulated by direct coculture with MSCs, we examined the immune localization of FN, a well-known EMT marker. In coculture assay in chamber slides, expression of FN was seen only at the edges of cancer clusters where cancer cells directly contacted MSCs. FN expression in cancer cells increased at the tumor periphery and invasive edge in orthotopic nude mouse tumors and human colon cancer tissues. These results suggest that MSCs induce EMT in colon cancer cells via direct cell-to-cell contact and may play an important role in colon cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, G.F.; Minkov, V.; Petrick, M.

    1981-11-02

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system is described in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

  2. Prevention of the adverse photic effects of peripheral light-focusing using UV-blocking contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, L Stephen; Kuznetsov, Valerian A; Ho, Arthur; Coroneo, Minas T

    2003-04-01

    Peripheral light-focusing (PLF) is an occult form of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) hazardous to the human eye. In PLF, obliquely incident light is refracted from the peripheral cornea to concentrated sites inside the anterior segment. In the current study, the directionality of this phenomenon for UVR and whether PLF is established in outdoor settings exposed to sunlight were investigated. The protection provided by a UV-blocking contact lens was also evaluated. UVA and UVB sensors were placed on the nasal limbus of an anatomically based model eye. The temporal limbus was exposed to a UV light source placed at various angles behind the frontal plane. PLF was quantified with the sensor output. The ensemble was mounted in the orbit of a mannequin head and exposed to sunlight in three insolation environments within the region of Sydney, Australia. PLF for UVA and UVB was determined with no eyewear or with sunglasses and commercially available soft contact lenses, with and without UV-blocking capability. The intensity of UVA peaked at approximately 120 degrees incidence, the level at which the UVB response was also at its maximum. The intensification of UVA was up to x18.3. The intensity of PLF for UVA and UVB was reduced by an order of magnitude by a UV-blocking contact lens, whereas a clear contact lenses had a much lesser effect. Only the UV-blocking contact lens achieved a significant effect on UVA and UVB irradiance in the urban, beach, and mountain locales (P UV-blocking soft contact lenses. Sunglasses may be unable to shield oblique rays, unless side protection is incorporated. Contact lenses can offer UVR protection against all angles of incidence, including the peak-response angle. They can also protect the eye in settings in which the wearing of sunglasses is not feasible or convenient.

  3. CFD simulation of direct contact condensation with ANSYS CFX using surface renewal theory based heat transfer coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Ceuca, Sabin Cristian; Macian-Juan, Rafael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Different approaches for the calculation of Direct Contact Condensation (DCC) using Heat Transfer Coefficients (HTC) based on the Surface Renewal Theory (SRT) are tested using the CFD simulation tool ANSYS CFX. The present work constitutes a preliminary study of the flow patterns and conditions observed using different HTC models. A complex 3D flow pattern will be observed in the CFD simulations as well as a strong coupling between the condensation rate and the two-phase flow dynamics. (orig.)

  4. Water in contact with extended hydrophobic surfaces: Direct evidence of weak dewetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben René; Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Reitzel, Niels

    2003-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity measurements reveal a significant dewetting of a large hydrophobic paraffin surface floating on water. The dewetting phenomenon extends less than 15 Angstrom into the bulk water phase and results in an integrated density deficit of about one water molecule per 25-30 Angstrom(2......) of water in contact with the paraffin surface. The results are supported by molecular dynamics simulations and related to the hydrophobic effect....

  5. Direct contact between dust and HBCD-treated fabrics is an important pathway of source-to-dust transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauert, Cassandra; Kuribara, Isamu; Kataoka, Toshiyuki; Wada, Takeharu; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Suzuki, Go; Takigami, Hidetaka; Harrad, Stuart

    2016-03-01

    Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are a class of brominated flame retardant that have found extensive application in consumer products used widely in indoor environments. Although uncertainty remains about the human health impacts of HBCDs, ingestion of HBCD-contaminated indoor dust has been shown to be a particularly significant exposure pathway for young children. Despite this, understanding of the mechanisms via which HBCD transfer from products to indoor dust remains incomplete. In this study, an in-house test chamber was used to investigate transfer of HBCDs from a treated textile sample to indoor dust via direct textile:dust contact. Results were compared with previous data using the same test chamber to examine other pathways via which HBCDs transfer from products to dust, and highlighted HBCD transfer via direct source:dust contact as being particularly important. This novel finding was corroborated by complementary experiments that examined HBCD transfer via direct contact, from other treated textiles to three major components of indoor dust: artificial indoor dust, soil particles, and cotton linters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Future directions in Alzheimer's disease from risk factors to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Bushra; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka

    2014-04-15

    The increase in life expectancy has resulted in a high occurrence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research on AD has undergone a paradigm shift from viewing it as a disease of old age to taking a life course perspective. Several vascular, lifestyle, psychological and genetic risk factors influencing this latent period have been recognized and they may act both independently and by potentiating each other. These risk factors have consequently been used to derive risk scores for predicting the likelihood of dementia. Despite population differences, age, low education and vascular risk factors were identified as key factors in all scoring systems. Risk scores can help to identify high-risk individuals who might benefit from different interventions. The European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI), an international collaboration, encourages data sharing between different randomized controlled trials. At the moment, it includes three large ongoing European trials: Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care (preDIVA), and Multidomain Alzheimer Prevention study (MAPT). Recently EDPI has developed a "Healthy Aging through Internet Counseling in Elderly" (HATICE) program, which intends to manage modifiable risk factors in an aged population through an easily accessible Internet platform. Thus, the focus of dementia research has shifted from identification of potential risk factors to using this information for developing interventions to prevent or delay the onset of dementia as well as identifying special high-risk populations who could be targeted in intervention trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Combination chemoprevention: future direction of colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Cheng, Shao-Wen; Yang, Rong; Wang, Bing; Liu, Jian

    2012-05-01

    Recent research has drawn attention to protective effects of chemopreventive agents that reverse, suppress, or prevent the carcinogenic progression using pharmacological or nutritional agents. Aspirin and celecoxib are the promising preventive agents to effectively reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, but such agents are associated with severe gastrointestinal and cardiovascular side effects in long-term administration at high doses. Recently, the strategy that combinational use with several chemopreventive agents at low doses induces greater inhibition of carcinogenesis has become the focus. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may combine with ornithine decarboxylase inhibitors, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, epidermal growth factor signaling inhibitors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ligands, and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, to magnify the chemoprophylactic effect. It is noteworthy that the phase III trial of difluoromethylornithine combination with sulidac has shown greater and effective preventive roles, which pave the way for the use of combinations of other agents. The long-term statins and low-dose NSAIDs have also been associated with risk reduction in vitro, in vivo, and in retrospective studies; however, the data are inconsistent. Epidermal growth factor signaling inhibitors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ligands and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand have been demonstrated to potentiate the preventive effects of NSAIDs in vitro and in vivo, but these combinational regimens have not yet been applied to clinical research. The major goal of this study was to review combination chemoprevention for colorectal cancer by means of combining low doses of potential preventive agents to increase their chemoprophylaxis efficacy and to minimize toxicity.

  8. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung

    2017-06-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents' use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying- cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  9. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents’ use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying—cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:28562094

  10. A multicenter study of preventable contact burns from glass fronted gas fireplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbenmeyer, Lucy; Gittelman, Michael A; Kluesner, Karen; Liao, Junlin; Xing, Yunfan; Faraklas, Iris; Anyan, Walter; Gamero, Chelsea; Moulton, Steven; Nederveld, Cindy; Banks, Ashley; Ryan, Colleen M; Conway, Jennifer A; Reilly, Debra A; Fish, Joel; Kelly, Charis; Peltier, George; Schwantke, Emily; Conrad, Peggie F; Caruso, Daniel M; Richey, Karen J; McCrory, Kristine; Elfar, Mohamed S A; Pittinger, Timothy; Sadie, Christine; Greenhalgh, David; Palmieri, Tina; Grossman, Peter H; Richards, Kurt M; Joyce, Teresa; Pozez, Andrea L; Savetamal, Alisa; Harrington, David T; Duncan, Kimberley; Pomerantz, Wendy J; Dillard, B Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Glass fronted gas fireplaces (GFGFs) have exterior surfaces that can reach extremely high temperatures. Burn injuries from contact with the glass front can be severe with long-term sequelae. The Consumer Product Safety Commission reported that these injuries are uncommon, whereas single-center studies indicate a much higher frequency. The purpose of this multi-institutional study was to determine the magnitude and severity of GFGF injuries in North America. Seventeen burn centers elected to participate in this retrospective chart review. Chart review identified 402 children ≤10 years of age who sustained contact burns from contact with GFGF, who were seen or admitted to the study hospitals from January 2006 to December 2010. Demographic, burn, treatment, and financial data were collected. The mean age of the study group was 16.8 ± 13.3 months. The majority suffered burns to their hands (396, 98.5%), with burns to the face being the second, much less common site (14, 3.5%). Two hundred and sixty-nine required rehabilitation therapy (66.9%). The number of GFGF injuries reported was 20 times greater than the approximately 30 injuries estimated by the Consumer Product Safety Commission's 10-year review. For the affected children, these injuries are painful, often costly and occasionally can lead to long-term sequelae. Given that less than a quarter of burn centers contributed data, the injury numbers reported herein support a need for broader safety guidelines for gas fireplaces in order to have a significant impact on future injuries.

  11. Prevention of Rheumatic Diseases: Strategies, Caveats and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckh, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases affect a significant portion of the population and lead to increased health care costs, disability and even premature mortality; as such, effective preventive measures for these diseases could lead to substantial improvements in public health. Importantly, established and emerging data from natural history studies show that for most rheumatic diseases there is a period of ‘preclinical’ disease development during which abnormal biomarkers or other processes can be detected. These changes are useful to understand mechanisms of disease pathogenesis; in addition, they may be applied to estimate a personal risk of future disease, while individuals are still relatively asymptomatic. Based on this, a hope is to implement effective screening and preventive approaches for some rheumatic diseases, perhaps in the near future. However, a key part of such approaches is a deep understanding of the mechanisms of disease development as well as evidence-based and effective screening and preventive interventions that incorporate disease biology as well as ethical and public health concerns. PMID:25437291

  12. Hierarchical micro- and nanofabrication by pattern-directed contact instabilities of thin viscoelastic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abir; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Sarkar, Jayati; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2017-12-01

    A surface of a thin viscoelastic film forms spinodal patterns when brought in contact proximity of another surface due to the dominance of destabilizing intermolecular interaction over the stabilizing elastic and surface tension forces. In this study, we theoretically explore such contact instabilities of a thin viscoelastic film, wherein the patterns generated on the surface of the film is developed with the help of a contactor decorated with periodic physical, chemical, and physicochemical features on the surface. The nonlinear analysis shown here considers the movement of the patterned contactor during the adhesion and debonding processes, which is unlike most of the previous works where the contactor is considered to be stationary. The simulations reveal that the amplitude and periodicity of the patterns decorated on the contactor together with the contactor speed can be the key parameters to stimulate pattern formation on the film surface alongside causing changeover of the various modes of debonding of the surfaces. In particular, the ratio of the elastic to viscous compliances of the film is found to play a critical role to stimulate the changeover of the modes from catastrophic to peeling or coalescence. The study uncovers that a higher wettability contrast across the patterned contactor leads to the catastrophic collapse of the patterns decorated on the film surface when the contactor debonds at a moderate speed. In comparison, a moderately high wettability contrast alongside a faster withdrawal speed of the contactor results in the gradual peeling of columns during the debonding cycle. Remarkably, a higher withdrawal speed of the contactor from the film-proximity can increase the aspect ratio of the patterns fabricated on the film surface to about fourfold during the peeling mode of debonding. The results show the importance of the usage of patterned contactors, their controlled movement, and extent of elastic to viscous compliance ratio of the film for

  13. The role of tears in preventing protein deposition on contact lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, N.; Kok, J.; Kijlstra, A.

    1989-01-01

    Recently the presence of a coating inhibitory factor was described in human tears which can prevent the binding of proteins to a solid phase. In these earlier studies depositions of lactoferrin and IgG onto plastic was studied. In the study described here, peroxidase conjugated albumin was used as a

  14. Exploring surface cleaning strategies in hospital to prevent contact transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hao; Jones, Rachael M; Li, Yuguo

    2017-01-18

    Cleaning of environmental surfaces in hospitals is important for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other hospital-acquired infections transmitted by the contact route. Guidance regarding the best approaches for cleaning, however, is limited. In this study, a mathematical model based on ordinary differential equations was constructed to study MRSA concentration dynamics on high-touch and low-touch surfaces, and on the hands and noses of two patients (in two hospitals rooms) and a health care worker in a hypothetical hospital environment. Two cleaning interventions - whole room cleaning and wipe cleaning of touched surfaces - were considered. The performance of the cleaning interventions was indicated by a reduction in MRSA on the nose of a susceptible patient, relative to no intervention. Whole room cleaning just before first patient care activities of the day was more effective than whole room cleaning at other times, but even with 100% efficiency, whole room cleaning only reduced the number of MRSA transmitted to the susceptible patient by 54%. Frequent wipe cleaning of touched surfaces was shown to be more effective that whole room cleaning because surfaces are rapidly re-contaminated with MRSA after cleaning. Wipe cleaning high-touch surfaces was more effective than wipe cleaning low-touch surfaces for the same frequency of cleaning. For low wipe cleaning frequency (≤3 times per hour), high-touch surfaces should be targeted, but for high wipe cleaning frequency (>3 times per hour), cleaning should target high- and low-touch surfaces in proportion to the surface touch frequency. This study reproduces the observations from a field study of room cleaning, which provides support for the validity of our findings. Daily whole room cleaning, even with 100% cleaning efficiency, provides limited reduction in the number of MRSA transmitted to susceptible patients via the contact route; and should be supplemented with frequent targeted

  15. Dual-Bioinspired Design for Constructing Membranes with Superhydrophobicity for Direct Contact Membrane Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhigao; Liu, Yuanren; Hou, Haoqing; Shi, Wenxin; Qu, Fangshu; Cui, Fuyi; Wang, Wei

    2018-03-06

    Water flux and durability are the two critical parameters that are closely associated with the practical application of membrane distillation (MD). Herein, we report a facile approach to fabricate superhydrophobic polyimide nanofibrous membranes (PI NFMs) with hierarchical structures, interconnected pores, and high porosity, which was derived from the electrospinning, dual-bioinspired design, and fluorination processes. Bioinspired adhesive based on polydopamine /polyethylenimine (PDA/PEI) composite was first linked onto membrane substrates and then assembled lotus leaf hierarchical structure by binding the negatively charged silica nanoparticles (SiO 2 NPs) via electrostatic attraction. The resultant superhydrophobic PI NFMs exhibit a water contact angle of 152°, robust hot water resistance of 85 °C, and high water entry pressure of 42 kPa. Moreover, the membrane with omniphobicity presents high water flux over 31 L m -2 h -1 and high salts rejection of ∼100% as well as robust durability for treating high salinity wastewater containing typical low surface tension and dissolved contaminants (Δ T = 40 °C). Significantly, the novel dual-bioinspired method can be used as a universal tool to modify various materials with hierarchical structures, which is expected to provide more effective alternative membranes for MD and even for other selective wetting separation fields.

  16. Application of direct contact heat exchangers to geothermal power production cycles. Project review, December 1, 1974--May 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, H.R.; Boehm, R.F.; Hansen, A.C.

    1977-01-01

    Work performed on the development of direct contact heat exchanger power cycles for geothermal applications is reviewed. The period covered in the report is from the inception of the project in 1974 through May 31, 1977. Results from a large experimental program on heat exchanger develpment as well as from many analyses of components and cycle performance and economics are given. A number of working fluids and operating conditions have been considered, and no major obstacles for the implementation of the concept have been discovered.

  17. Effectiveness of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis in preventing leprosy in patient contacts: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Silvana Margarida Benevides; Yonekura, Tatiana; Ignotti, Eliane; Oliveira, Larissa Bertacchini de; Takahashi, Juliana; Soares, Cassia Baldini

    2017-10-01

    studies. Studies published from the time of the respective database inception to January 2016 in English, Spanish, Portuguese, Japanese and Chinese were considered. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for methodological quality using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Standardized data extraction tools developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute were used to extract quantitative and qualitative data from papers included in the review. Due to clinical and methodological heterogeneity in the interventions of the included studies, no statistical meta-analysis was possible. Quantitative and qualitative research findings are presented in narrative form. Following critical appraisal, eight studies were included in this review, seven quantitative and one qualitative. The reduction in incidence of leprosy, using one dose of rifampicin in the first two years, was 56.5%; in the follow up period of one to four years, the reduction was 34.9%. The combination of rifampicin and the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine showed a preventative effect of 80% against the disease. The only controlled clinical trial using two doses of rifampicin was community-based and did not indicate effectiveness of the intervention. The qualitative findings showed social acceptability of rifampicin. Chemoprophylaxis with one dose of rifampicin is found to be effective in preventing contacts of leprosy patients from contracting the disease. Also, there is indication that this strategy is socially accepted.

  18. Colorectal cancer detection by measuring DNA from exfoliated colonocytes obtained by direct contact with rectal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktionov, Alexandre; Bandaletova, Tatiana; Llewelyn, Andrew H; Dion, Carine; Lywood, Hugo G G; Lywood, Rupert C G; Rockall, Tim A; Stebbing, John F; Broughton, Mary; Caffarey, Sue; Marks, Christopher G

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the potential of direct exfoliated colonocyte collection from human rectal mucosa for colorectal cancer screening. A special device was designed for standardized collection of exfoliated cells from the surface of human rectal mucosa. Material was collected from 120 outpatients selected for colonoscopy and 36 patients with confirmed diagnosis of colorectal cancer or large polyps. Determination of total DNA amounts in the collected samples (DNA scores) by PicoGreen assay and real-time PCR was employed alongside cytological assessment. Well preserved cells with cytological patterns characteristic for different colorectal conditions (cancer, inflammatory bowel disease) were detected in the collected material. In the outpatient group DNA scores were higher in patients with cancer and inflammatory bowel disease compared to those with no abnormalities detected, diverticular disease and small polyps (Pcut-off point 3.0 microg/ml) for detecting serious colorectal conditions were 1.00 and 0.74, respectively. In the group with confirmed tumours, the PicoGreen assay performed better for distal colorectal cancer (sensitivity 0.83; specificity 0.76) compared with proximal colon malignancies (sensitivity 0.57; specificity 0.76). It can be concluded that the proposed technique of direct collection of exfoliated cells from the surface of human rectal mucosa provides abundant cellular material suitable for diagnostic and research applications. Further refinement of the quantitative DNA test may lead to a new approach for colorectal cancer early detection and screening.

  19. Glial-Restricted Precursors Protect Neonatal Brain Slices from Hypoxic-Ischemic Cell Death Without Direct Tissue Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweda, Romy; Phillips, Andre W; Marx, Joel; Johnston, Michael V; Wilson, Mary Ann; Fatemi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Glial-Restricted Precursors (GRPs) are tripotential progenitors that have been shown to exhibit beneficial effects in several preclinical models of neurological disorders, including neonatal brain injury. The mechanisms of action of these cells, however, require further study, as do clinically relevant questions such as timing and route of cell administration. Here, we explored the effects of GRPs on neonatal hypoxia-ischemia during acute and subacute stages, using an in vitro transwell co-culture system with organotypic brain slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). OGD-exposed slices that were then co-cultured with GRPs without direct cell contact had decreased tissue injury and cortical cell death, as evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and propidium iodide (PI) staining. This effect was more pronounced when cells were added during the subacute phase of the injury. Furthermore, GRPs reduced the amount of glutamate in the slice supernatant and changed the proliferation pattern of endogenous progenitor cells in brain slices. In summary, we show that GRPs exert a neuroprotective effect on neonatal hypoxia-ischemia without the need for direct cell-cell contact, thus confirming the rising view that beneficial actions of stem cells are more likely attributable to trophic or immunomodulatory support rather than to long-term integration.

  20. An effect-directed strategy for characterizing emerging chemicals in food contact materials made from paper and board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Bengtström, Linda; Taxvig, Camilla; Trier, Xenia; Petersen, Jens Højslev; Svingen, Terje; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Barbara Medea Alice, van Vugt-Lussenburg; Dybdahl, Marianne; Granby, Kit; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2017-08-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are any type of item intended to come into contact with foods and thus represent a potential source for human exposure to chemicals. Regarding FCMs made of paper and board, information pertaining to their chemical constituents and the potential impacts on human health remains scarce, which hampers safety evaluation. We describe an effect-directed strategy to identify and characterize emerging chemicals in paper and board FCMs. Twenty FCMs were tested in eight reporter gene assays, including assays for the AR, ER, AhR, PPARγ, Nrf2 and p53, as well as mutagenicity. All FCMs exhibited activities in at least one assay. As proof-of-principle, FCM samples obtained from a sandwich wrapper and a pizza box were carried through a complete step-by-step multi-tiered approach. The pizza box exhibited ER activity, likely caused by the presence of bisphenol A, dibutyl phthalate, and benzylbutyl phthalate. The sandwich wrapper exhibited AR antagonism, likely caused by abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid. Migration studies confirmed that the active chemicals can transfer from FCMs to food simulants. In conclusion, we report an effect-directed strategy that can identify hazards posed by FCMs made from paper and board, including the identification of the chemical(s) responsible for the observed activity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevention of Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Soft Contact Lenses Using Natural Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ganiny, Amira M; Shaker, Ghada H; Aboelazm, Abeer A; El-Dash, Heba A

    2017-12-01

    In eye care field, contact lenses (CL) have a great impact on improving vision, but their use can be limited by ocular infection. CL- associated infections can be reduced by good attention to CL storage case practice. CL-care solutions should be able to control microbial growth on CL. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of CL-care solutions (found in Egyptian market) with some natural compounds in removal and inhibition of bacterial biofilm formed on soft CL. Clinical isolates were recovered from patients having conjunctivitis from Benha University Hospital and identified microbiologically. Quantification of biofilm was done using microtiter plate assay. Three multipurpose CL-care solutions were examined for their ability to remove and inhibit biofilm. Also four natural extracts having antibacterial activity and are safe on eye were tested for their anti-biofilm activity. The major bacterial isolates from eye infections were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (36%) and Staphylococcus spp. (37.8%). Only 33.3% of isolates showed ability to produce weak to moderate biofilm. The tested multi-purpose CL-care solutions showed moderate ability to remove preformed biofilm. Among the tested natural compounds, Calendula officinalis and Buddleja salviifolia extracts showed an excellent efficacy in inhibition of biofilm and also removal of preformed biofilm. This study demonstrated that isolates from infected eye and CL-cases showed weak to moderate biofilm formation. Calendula officinalis and Buddleja salviifolia extracts showed excellent effect on inhibition and removal of biofilm, these extracts could be added into CL-care solutions which could markedly reduce eye-infections during CL-wear.

  2. Prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer players. Part 1: Mechanisms of injury and underlying risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Myer, Gregory D; Silvers, Holly J; Samitier, Gonzalo; Romero, Daniel; Lázaro-Haro, Cristina; Cugat, Ramón

    2009-07-01

    Soccer is the most commonly played sport in the world, with an estimated 265 million active soccer players by 2006. Inherent to this sport is the higher risk of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) relative to other sports. ACL injury causes the most time lost from competition in soccer which has influenced a strong research focus to determine the risk factors for injury. This research emphasis has afforded a rapid influx of literature defining potential modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors that increase the risk of injury. The purpose of the current review is to sequence the most recent literature that reports potential mechanisms and risk factors for non-contact ACL injury in soccer players. Most ACL tears in soccer players are non-contact in nature. Common playing situations precluding a non-contact ACL injury include: change of direction or cutting maneuvers combined with deceleration, landing from a jump in or near full extension, and pivoting with knee near full extension and a planted foot. The most common non-contact ACL injury mechanism include a deceleration task with high knee internal extension torque (with or without perturbation) combined with dynamic valgus rotation with the body weight shifted over the injured leg and the plantar surface of the foot fixed flat on the playing surface. Potential extrinsic non-contact ACL injury risk factors include: dry weather and surface, and artificial surface instead of natural grass. Commonly purported intrinsic risk factors include: generalized and specific knee joint laxity, small and narrow intercondylar notch width (ratio of notch width to the diameter and cross sectional area of the ACL), pre-ovulatory phase of menstrual cycle in females not using oral contraceptives, decreased relative (to quadriceps) hamstring strength and recruitment, muscular fatigue by altering neuromuscular control, decreased "core" strength and proprioception, low trunk, hip, and knee flexion angles, and high

  3. Contact corrosion measurements on the pair UO 2+ x and carbon steel 1.0330 in brines and bentonite porewater with respect to direct waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, J.; Marx, G.

    1999-01-01

    Contact corrosion between carbon steel and UO 2 was studied in the MgCl 2 rich Q-brine, in bentonite porewater and in saturated NaCl solution by use of contact potential and contact current measurements. In all solutions the carbon steel dominates the contact potential, so that this potential is near to the rest potential of the carbon steel. Only in solutions without precipitation of iron corrosion products, the presence of metallic iron slightly reduces the UO 2 corrosion rate. If iron corrosion products precipitate, the relevant adsorption of the uranium species will be more effective than any direct cathodic corrosion protection.

  4. Direct Contact - Sorptive Tape Extraction coupled with Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry to reveal volatile topographical dynamics of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) upon herbivory by Spodoptera littoralis Boisd

    OpenAIRE

    Boggia, Lorenzo; Sgorbini, Barbara; Bertea, Cinzia M; Cagliero, Cecilia; Bicchi, Carlo; Maffei, Massimo E; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Background The dynamics of plant volatile (PV) emission, and the relationship between damaged area and biosynthesis of bioactive molecules in plant-insect interactions, remain open questions. Direct Contact-Sorptive Tape Extraction (DC-STE) is a sorption sampling technique employing non adhesive polydimethylsiloxane tapes, which are placed in direct contact with a biologically-active surface. DC-STE coupled to Gas Chromatography ? Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a non-destructive, high concentra...

  5. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajati, Alireza; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes. PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles. Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i) landing, ii) side cutting, iii) stop-jump, and iv) muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position. Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.

  6. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Monajati

    Full Text Available Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes.The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes.PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles.Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i landing, ii side cutting, iii stop-jump, and iv muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position.Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.

  7. Migration by 'direct' or 'indirect' food contact? 'Dry' and 'wetting' foods? Experimental data for 'touching' contact of dry foods with paper and board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Angela; Biedermann, Maurus; Zurfluh, Michael; Grob, Koni

    2015-01-01

    Food contact is characterised in various terms, all of which are somewhat ill-defined. This work investigated the simplification that migration from food contact materials into dry food virtually exclusively proceeds through the gas phase, which would imply that the migration of essentially non-volatile components is negligible. It is shown here that this is not necessarily appropriate: for newspaper printed with an ink based on essentially non-volatile polyalphaolefins (PAO) as the main solvent, the migration into polenta and a baking mix reached 64% and 66% respectively of the content in the paper in merely 20 days at ambient temperature. Migration of involatile substances into dry foods implies diffusion through the paper to the small contact points. It depended on particle size, as this determines the density of the contacts. The diffusion rates within the food contact material and the food, including the transfer from one particle to the next, are other determining factors. This leaves the question whether such migration can be modelled or tested in a systematic manner (simulation), or whether it needs to be determined on a case-by-case basis.

  8. Numerical Investigation on the Performance of an Automotive Thermoelectric Generator with Exhaust-Module-Coolant Direct Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Tang, Yulin; Deng, Yadong; Su, Chuqi

    2017-12-01

    Energy conservation and environmental protection have typically been a concern of research. Researchers have confirmed that in automotive engines, just 12-25% of the fuel energy converts into effective work and 30-40% gets wasted in the form of exhaust. Saidur et al. (Energy Policy 37:3650, 2009) and Hasanuzzaman et al. (Energy 36:233, 2011). It will be significant to enhance fuel availability and decrease environmental pollution if the waste heat in the exhaust could be recovered. Thermoelectric generators (TEGs), which can translate heat into electricity, have become a topic of interest for vehicle exhaust waste heat recovery. In conventional automotive TEGs, the thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are arranged between the exhaust tank and the coolant tank. The TEMs do not contact the hot exhaust and coolant, which leads to low heat transfer efficiency. Moreover, to provide enough packing force to keep good contact with the exhaust tank and the coolant tank, the framework required is so robust that the TEGs become too heavy. Therefore, in current study, an automotive TEG was designed which included one exhaust channel, one coolant channel and several TEMs. In the TEG, the TEMs which contacted the exhaust and coolant directly were inserted into the walls of each coolant channel. To evaluate the performance of the automotive TEG, the flow field and temperature field were computed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Based on the temperature distribution obtained by CFD and the performance parameters of the modules, the total power generation was obtained by some proved empirical formulas. Compared with conventional automotive TEGs, the power generation per unit volume exhaust was boosted.

  9. Preparation of novel poly(vinylidene fluoride)/TiO2 photocatalysis membranes for use in direct contact membrane distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yukun; Dong, Shuying; Zhu, Liang

    2018-03-01

    Immobilization of TiO2 is a potential approach to obtain photocatalytic membranes that could eliminate concentration polarization in sewage disposal for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. A simple non-solvent-induced phase separation (NIPS) method was proposed to prepare poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane, and the double-coating technology was further used to prepare the self-cleaning membranes with different TiO2 content. The effects of TiO2 nano-particles on membrane crystal form, morphology, porosity, pore size, pore size distribution, hydrophobicity, permeation, and photocatalytic efficiency were investigated, respectively. The flux of the prepared membranes is higher than the membrane (MS) provided by Membrane Solutions, LLC, in DCMD process. The contact angle between water and membrane could be increased 22° by introducing photocatalytic layer containing TiO2. During the photocatalytic test, 65.78-96.31% degrading rate of 15 mg/L Rhodamine B (RhB) was achieved. The relative flux of the membrane T-3 can be recovered to 0.96 in photocatalysis-membrane reactor for 8 h UV radiation. The fabricated membrane has great potential in high-salty dyeing wastewater treatment due to its high hydrophobicity and photocatalytic capability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. 2D Analytical Model for the Directivity Prediction of Ultrasonic Contact Type Transducers in the Generation of Guided Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Kumar Anubhav; Raisutis, Renaldas; Mazeika, Liudas; Samaitis, Vykintas

    2018-03-26

    In this paper, a novel 2D analytical model based on the Huygens's principle of wave propagation is proposed in order to predict the directivity patterns of contact type ultrasonic transducers in the generation of guided waves (GWs). The developed model is able to estimate the directivity patterns at any distance, at any excitation frequency and for any configuration and shape of the transducers with prior information of phase dispersive characteristics of the guided wave modes and the behavior of transducer. This, in turn, facilitates to choose the appropriate transducer or arrays of transducers, suitable guided wave modes and excitation frequency for the nondestructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The model is demonstrated for P1-type macro-fiber composite (MFC) transducer glued on a 2 mm thick aluminum (Al) alloy plate. The directivity patterns of MFC transducer in the generation of fundamental guided Lamb modes (the S0 and A0) and shear horizontal mode (the SH0) are successfully obtained at 80 kHz, 5-period excitation signal. The results are verified using 3D finite element (FE) modelling and experimental investigation. The results obtained using the proposed model shows the good agreement with those obtained using numerical simulations and experimental analysis. The calculation time using the analytical model was significantly shorter as compared to the time spent in experimental analysis and FE numerical modelling.

  11. 2D Analytical Model for the Directivity Prediction of Ultrasonic Contact Type Transducers in the Generation of Guided Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Anubhav Tiwari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel 2D analytical model based on the Huygens’s principle of wave propagation is proposed in order to predict the directivity patterns of contact type ultrasonic transducers in the generation of guided waves (GWs. The developed model is able to estimate the directivity patterns at any distance, at any excitation frequency and for any configuration and shape of the transducers with prior information of phase dispersive characteristics of the guided wave modes and the behavior of transducer. This, in turn, facilitates to choose the appropriate transducer or arrays of transducers, suitable guided wave modes and excitation frequency for the nondestructive testing (NDT and structural health monitoring (SHM applications. The model is demonstrated for P1-type macro-fiber composite (MFC transducer glued on a 2 mm thick aluminum (Al alloy plate. The directivity patterns of MFC transducer in the generation of fundamental guided Lamb modes (the S0 and A0 and shear horizontal mode (the SH0 are successfully obtained at 80 kHz, 5-period excitation signal. The results are verified using 3D finite element (FE modelling and experimental investigation. The results obtained using the proposed model shows the good agreement with those obtained using numerical simulations and experimental analysis. The calculation time using the analytical model was significantly shorter as compared to the time spent in experimental analysis and FE numerical modelling.

  12. Direct-contact condensers for open-cycle OTEC applications: Model validation with fresh water experiments for structured packings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.; Parsons, B.K.; Althof, J.A.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of the reported work was to develop analytical methods for evaluating the design and performance of advanced high-performance heat exchangers for use in open-cycle thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. This report describes the progress made on validating a one-dimensional, steady-state analytical computer of fresh water experiments. The condenser model represents the state of the art in direct-contact heat exchange for condensation for OC-OTEC applications. This is expected to provide a basis for optimizing OC-OTEC plant configurations. Using the model, we examined two condenser geometries, a cocurrent and a countercurrent configuration. This report provides detailed validation results for important condenser parameters for cocurrent and countercurrent flows. Based on the comparisons and uncertainty overlap between the experimental data and predictions, the model is shown to predict critical condenser performance parameters with an uncertainty acceptable for general engineering design and performance evaluations. 33 refs., 69 figs., 38 tabs.

  13. Modeling 3D conjugate heat and mass transfer for turbulent air drying of Chilean papaya in a direct contact dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto A.; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zambra, Carlos E.; Moraga, Nelson O.

    2017-01-01

    A 3D model considering heat and mass transfer for food dehydration inside a direct contact dryer is studied. The k- ɛ model is used to describe turbulent air flow. The samples thermophysical properties as density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary non-linearly with temperature. FVM, SIMPLE algorithm based on a FORTRAN code are used. Results unsteady velocity, temperature, moisture, kinetic energy and dissipation rate for the air flow are presented, whilst temperature and moisture values for the food also are presented. The validation procedure includes a comparison with experimental and numerical temperature and moisture content results obtained from experimental data, reaching a deviation 7-10 %. In addition, this turbulent k- ɛ model provided a better understanding of the transport phenomenon inside the dryer and sample.

  14. New reassortant and enzootic European swine influenza 1 viruses transmits efficiently through direct contact in the ferret model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina; P. Fabrizio, Thomas; Yoon, Sun-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The reverse zoonotic events that introduced the 2009 pandemic influenza virus into pigs have drastically increased the diversity of swine influenza viruses in Europe. The pandemic potential of these novel reassortments is still unclear, necessitating enhanced surveillance of European pigs...... and human-like N2 and one with 2009 pandemic H1 and swine-like N2. All viruses replicated to high titers in nasal wash- and nasal turbinate samples from inoculated ferrets and transmitted efficiently by direct contact. Only the H3N2 virus transmitted to naïve ferrets via the airborne route. Growth kinetics...... using a differentiated human bronchial epithelial cell line showed that all four viruses were able to replicate to high titers. Further, the viruses revealed preferential binding to the α2,6-silalylated glycans and investigation of the antiviral susceptibility of the viruses revealed that all were...

  15. Effect of feed flow pattern on the distribution of permeate fluxes in desalination by direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Soukane, Sofiane

    2017-05-31

    The current study aims to highlight the effect of flow pattern on the variations of permeate fluxes over the membrane surface during desalination in a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) flat module. To do so, a three dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model with embedded pore scale calculations is implemented to predict flow, heat and mass transfer in the DCMD module. Model validation is carried out in terms of average permeate fluxes with experimental data of seawater desalination using two commercially available PTFE membranes. Average permeate fluxes agree within 6% and less with experimental values without fitting parameters. Simulation results show that the distribution of permeate fluxes and seawater salinity over the membrane surface are strongly dependent on momentum and heat transport and that temperature and concentration polarization follow closely the flow distribution. The analysis reveals a drastic effect of recirculation loops and dead zones on module performance and recommendations to improve MD flat module design are drawn consequently.

  16. Experimental study on direct-contact liquid film cooling simulated dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiping; Shi, Xusheng; Huang, Qunwu; Cui, Yong; Kang, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct-contact liquid film cooling dense-array solar cells was first proposed. • Average temperature was controlled well below 80 °C. • The maximum temperature difference was less than 10 °C. • The heat transfer coefficient reached up to 11.91 kW/(m 2 ·K) under 589X. - Abstract: This paper presented a new method of cooling dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system by direct-contact liquid film, and water was used as working fluid. An electric heating plate was designed to simulate the dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system. The input power of electric heating plate simulated the concentration ratios. By heat transfer experiments, the effect of water temperatures and flow rates on heat transfer performance was investigated. The results indicated that: the average temperature of simulated solar cells was controlled well below 80 °C under water temperature of 30 °C and flow rate of 300 L/h when concentration ratio ranged between 300X and 600X. The maximum temperature difference among temperature measurement points was less than 10 °C, which showed the temperature distribution was well uniform. The heat transfer coefficient reached up to 11.91 kW/(m 2 ·K) under concentration ratio of 589X. To improve heat transfer performance and obtain low average temperature of dense-array solar cells, lower water temperature and suitable water flow rate are preferred.

  17. Preventive malaria treatment for contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease in the context of the west Africa 2014-15 Ebola virus disease response: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carias, Cristina; Greening, Bradford; Campbell, Caresse G; Meltzer, Martin I; Hamel, Mary J

    2016-04-01

    After the detection of an Ebola virus disease outbreak in west Africa in 2014, one of the elements of the response was to contact trace and isolate patients in specialised Ebola treatment units (ETUs) at onset of fever. We aimed to assess the economic feasibility of administering preventive malaria treatment to all contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease, to prevent the onset of febrile malaria and subsequent admission to ETUs. We used a decision tree model to analyse the costs of preventive malaria treatment (artemisinin-based combination treatment [ACT]) for all contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease (in terms of administration and averted ETU-stay costs) and benefits (in terms of averted ETU admissions) in west Africa, from a health-care provider perspective. The period of analyses was 1 year, which is roughly similar to the duration of the 2014-15 west Africa Ebola outbreak response. We calculated the intervention's cost per ETU admission averted (average cost-effectiveness ratio) by season (wet and dry), country (Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea), and age of contact (Ebola virus disease was cost saving for contacts of all ages in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea, in both seasons, from a health-care provider perspective. In the wet season, preventive malaria treatment was estimated to reduce the probability of a contact being admitted to an ETU by a maximum of 36% (in Guinea, for contacts aged Ebola virus disease should be considered by public health officials when addressing Ebola virus disease outbreaks in countries and seasons where malaria reaches high levels of transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlates of isoniazid preventive therapy failure in child household contacts with infectious tuberculosis in high burden settings in Nairobi, Kenya - a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwara, Florence Nafula; Oyore, John Paul; Were, Fred Nabwire; Gwer, Samson

    2017-09-16

    Sub-Saharan Africa continues to document high pediatric tuberculosis (TB) burden, especially among the urban poor. One recommended preventive strategy involves tracking and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for children under 5 years in close contact with infectious TB. However, sub-optimal effectiveness has been documented in diverse settings. We conducted a study to elucidate correlates to IPT strategy failure in children below 5 years in high burden settings. A prospective longitudinal cohort study was done in informal settlings in Nairobi, where children under 5 years in household contact with recently diagnosed smear positive TB adults were enrolled. Consent was sought. Structured questionnaires administered sought information on index case treatment, socio-demographics and TB knowledge. Contacts underwent baseline clinical screening exclude TB and/or pre-existing chronic conditions. Contacts were then put on daily isoniazid for 6 months and monitored for new TB disease, compliance and side effects. Follow-up continued for another 6 months. At baseline, 428 contacts were screened, and 14(3.2%) had evidence of TB disease, hence excluded. Of 414 contacts put on IPT, 368 (88.8%) completed the 1 year follow-up. Operational challenges were reported by 258(70%) households, while 82(22%) reported side effects. Good compliance was documented in 89% (CI:80.2-96.2). By endpoint, 6(1.6%) contacts developed evidence of new TB disease and required definitive anti-tuberculosis therapy. The main factor associated with IPT failure was under-nutrition of contacts (p = 0.023). Under-nutrition was associated with IPT failure for child contacts below 5 years in high burden, resource limited settings. IPT effectiveness could be optimized through nutrition support of contacts.

  19. Helicobacter pylori dwelling on the apical surface of gastrointestinal epithelium damages the mucosal barrier through direct contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Hongyu; Yu, Lu; Cao, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Epithelial junctions and mucins compose a major portion of the mucosal barrier. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections induce alterations of the tight junctions and adherens junctions in epithelial cells, although the precise mechanisms underlying this process are not fully understood. The expression of adhesion molecules and MUC1 was systematically investigated in gastrointestinal epithelial cells infected with H. pylori in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we developed several new in vitro methods to study the relationships between the bacterium and the dysfunction of tight junctions using Boyden Chambers. The expression of a series of junctional molecules and MUC1 decreased in the cultured cells that were infected with H. pylori. According to the degree of damage at the tight junctions, direct contact of H. pylori with the apical membrane of the cells resulted in the greatest increase in permeability compared to basal membrane binding or non-binding of H. pylori to the cells. Similarly, we noted that H. pylori infection could reduce the expression and glycosylation of MUC1. Helicobacter pylori dwelling on the apical surface of the gastrointestinal epithelium could directly induce serious injury of the mucosal barrier, and the new methods outlined here, based on the Boyden Chamber system, could be very useful for studying the relationships between bacteria and their target cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Entropy Assessment on Direct Contact Condensation of Subsonic Steam Jets in a Water Tank through Numerical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article analyzes the dissipation characteristics of the direct contact condensation (DCC phenomenon that occurs when steam is injected into a water tank at a subsonic speed using a new modeling approach for the entropy generation over the calculation domain. The developed entropy assessment model is based on the local equilibrium hypothesis of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The fluid flow and heat transfer processes are investigated numerically. To describe the condensation and evaporation process at the vapor-liquid interface, a phase change model originated from the kinetic theory of gas is implemented with the mixture model for multiphase flow in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD code ANSYS-FLUENT. The CFD predictions agree well with the published works, which indicates the phase change model combined with the mixture model is a promising way to simulate the DCC phenomenon. In addition, three clear stages as initial stage, developing stage and oscillatory stage are discriminated from both the thermal-hydraulic results and the entropy generation information. During different stages, different proportion of the entropy generation rate owing to heat transfer, viscous direct dissipation, turbulent dissipation and inner phase change in total entropy generation rate is estimated, which is favorable to deeper understanding the irreversibility of DCC phenomenon, designing and optimizing the equipment involved in the process.

  1. Direct observation of contact and channel resistance in pentacene four-terminal thin-film transistor patterned by laser ablation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Iwao; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Aoyagi, Yoshinobu

    2004-01-01

    We established a dry-etching patterning process for the channel formation of pentacene thin-film transistor, and fabricated a four-terminal device equipped with a gate electrode. The four-terminal device enabled us to divide two-terminal source-drain resistance into two components of contact resistance and pentacene channel resistance. We obtained direct evidence of a gate-voltagedependent contact resistance change: the gate-induced charge significantly reduced the contact resistance and increased source-drain current. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the device clearly indicated that the contact resistance was much higher than the channel resistance and was dominated in the two-terminal total resistance of the device below 120 K. An observed activation energy of 80 meV for contact resistance was higher than that of 42 meV for pentacene channel resistance

  2. Migration of selected hydrocarbon contaminants into dry semolina and egg pasta packed in direct contact with virgin paperboard and polypropylene film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barp, Laura; Suman, Michele; Lambertini, Francesca; Moret, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Migration of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH), polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH), and polyalphaolefins (PAO from hot melts) into dry semolina and egg pasta packed in direct contact with virgin paperboard or polypropylene (PP) flexible film was studied. Migration was monitored during shelf life (up to 24 months), through storage in a real supermarket (packs kept on shelves), conditions preventing exchange with the surrounding environment (packs wrapped in aluminium foil), and storage in a warehouse (packs inside of the transport box of corrugated board). Semolina pasta packed in virgin paperboard (without hot melts) had a MOSH content lower than 1.0 mg kg(-1). An increasing contamination with PAO belonging to the adhesives used to close the boxes was detected in egg pasta, wrapped in aluminium (1.5 and 5 mg kg(-1) after 3 and 24 months, respectively). An environmental contribution to total hydrocarbon contamination was observed in egg pasta kept on shelves that, after 3 and 24 months, showed levels of PAO/MOSH packed in PP film and stored in the transport box showed that some MOSH migrated into the pasta from the board of the transport box (through the plastic film).

  3. Observer-Based Perturbation Extremum Seeking Control with Input Constraints for Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation Process

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi

    2017-05-08

    An Observer-based Perturbation Extremum Seeking Control (PESC) is proposed for a Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) process. The process is described with a dynamic model that is based on a 2D Advection-Diffusion Equation (ADE) model which has pump flow rates as process inputs. The objective of the controller is to optimize the trade-off between the permeate mass flux and the energy consumption by the pumps inside the process. Cases of single and multiple control inputs are considered through the use of only the feed pump flow rate or both the feed and the permeate pump flow rates. A nonlinear Lyapunov-based observer is designed to provide an estimation for the temperature distribution all over the designated domain of the DCMD process. Moreover, control inputs are constrained with an anti-windup technique to be within feasible and physical ranges. Performance of the proposed structure is analyzed, and simulations based on real DCMD process parameters for each control input are provided.

  4. Influence of high range of mass transfer coefficient and convection heat transfer on direct contact membrane distillation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-11-03

    In order to improve water production of membrane distillation (MD), the development of high performance membrane having better mass transfer and enhancement of convection heat transfer in MD module have been continuously investigated. This paper presents the relationship between the heat and mass transfer resistance across the membrane and the performance improvement. Various ranges of mass transfer coefficient (MTC) from normal (0.3×10−6 to 2.1×10−6kg/m2sPa: currently available membranes) to high (>2.1×10−6kg/m2sPa: membranes under development) were simulated using an experimentally validated model at different ranges of convection heat transfer by varying the inlet flow rates and spacer enhancement factor. The effect of mass transfer and convection heat transfer on the MD performance parameters including temperature polarization coefficient (TPC), mean permeate flux, and specific energy consumption were investigated in a direct contact MD (DCMD) configuration. Results showed that improving the MTC at the low ranges is more important than that at the high ranges where the heat transfer resistance becomes dominant and hence the convection heat transfer coefficient must be increased. Therefore, an effort on designing MD modules using feed and permeate spacers and controlling the membrane surface roughness to increase the convection heat transfer and TPC in the channel aiming to enhance the flux is required because the currently developed mass transfer has almost reached the critical point.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Molybdenum Back Contact Using Direct Current-Magnetron Sputtering for Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash M. Pandharkar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In present work, we report synthesis of molybdenum (Mo thin films by direct current (DC-magnetron sputtering method. The structural, optical, morphological, and electrical properties were investigated as a function of target-to-substrate distance. From the results, it is evident that with increase in target-to-substrate distance the thickness of films decreases while its sheet resistance and electrical resistivity increases, which is confirmed by van der Pauw method. Low angle XRD analysis revealed that with increase in target-to-substrate distance preferred orientation of Mo crystallites changes from (211 to (110 and its size decreases. The field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM analysis revealed a significant change in surface morphology with increase in target-to-substrate distance. UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis showed that Mo films deposited at higher target-to-substrate distance have more reflection than those deposited at lower target-to-substrate. Finally, adhesion test was performed using scotch hatch tape adhesion test which show all Mo films have excellent adhesion over the entire range of target-to-substrate distance studied. The employment of such Mo films as back contact can be useful to improve efficiency of CZTS solar cells.

  6. Potable water recovery from As, U, and F contaminated ground waters by direct contact membrane distillation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarlagadda, Saketa; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Camacho, Lucy Mar; Pinappu, Saireddy; Deng, Shuguang

    2011-09-15

    In this study, the feasibility of the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process to recover arsenic, uranium and fluoride contaminated saline ground waters was investigated. Two types of membranes (polypropylene, PP; and polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE) were tested to compare the permeate production rates and contaminant removal efficiencies. Several experiments were conducted to study the effect of salts, arsenic, fluoride and uranium concentrations (synthetic brackish water with salts: 1000-10,000 ppm; arsenic and uranium: 10-400 ppb; fluoride: 1-30 ppm) on the desalination efficiency. The effect of process variables such as feed flow rate, feed temperature and pore size was studied. The experimental results proved that the DCMD process is able to achieve over 99% rejection of the salts, arsenic, fluoride and uranium contaminants and produced a high quality permeate suitable for many beneficial uses. The ability to utilize the low grade heat sources makes the DCMD process a viable option to recover potable water from a variety of impaired ground waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation system: Concept design, modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-04-26

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the monthly average daily and hourly performances of a solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation (SMDCMD) system with an energy recovery scheme and dynamic operating system. Mid-latitude meteorological data from Busan, Korea is employed, featuring large climate variation over the course of one year. The number of module stages used by the dynamic operating scheme changes dynamically based on the inlet feed temperature of the successive modules, which results in an improvement of the water production and thermal efficiency. The simulations of the SMDCMD system are carried out to investigate the spatial and temporal variations in the feed and permeate temperatures and permeate flux. The monthly average daily water production increases from 0.37m3/day to 0.4m3/day and thermal efficiency increases from 31% to 45% when comparing systems both without and with dynamic operation in December. The water production with respect to collector area ranged from 350m2 to 550m2 and the seawater storage tank volume ranged from 16m3 to 28.8m3, and the solar fraction at various desired feed temperatures from 50°C to 80°C have been investigated in October and December.

  8. Utilization of solar energy for direct contact membrane distillation process: An experimental study for desalination of real seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palanisami, Nallasamy; He, Ke; Moon, Il Shik [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Membrane distillation (MD), a non-isothermal membrane separation process, is based on the phenomenon that pure water in its vapor state can be extracted from aqueous solutions by passing vapor through a hydrophobic microporous membrane when a temperature difference is established across it. We used three commercially available hydrophobic microporous membranes (C02, C07 and C12; based on the pore size 0.2, 0.7 and 1.2 µm respectively) for desalination via direct contact MD (DCMD). The effects of operating parameters on permeation flux were studied. In addition, the desalination of seawater by solar assisted DCMD process was experimentally investigated. First, using solar power only short-term (one day), successful desalination of real seawater was achieved without temperature control under the following conditions: feed inlet temperature 65.0 .deg. C, permeate inlet temperature 25.0 .deg. C, and a flow rate of 2.5 L/min. The developed system also worked well in the long-term (150 days) for seawater desalination using both solar and electric power. Long-term test flux was reduced from 28.48 to only 26.50 L/m{sup 2}hr, indicating system feasibility.

  9. Utilization of solar energy for direct contact membrane distillation process: An experimental study for desalination of real seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanisami, Nallasamy; He, Ke; Moon, Il Shik

    2014-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD), a non-isothermal membrane separation process, is based on the phenomenon that pure water in its vapor state can be extracted from aqueous solutions by passing vapor through a hydrophobic microporous membrane when a temperature difference is established across it. We used three commercially available hydrophobic microporous membranes (C02, C07 and C12; based on the pore size 0.2, 0.7 and 1.2 µm respectively) for desalination via direct contact MD (DCMD). The effects of operating parameters on permeation flux were studied. In addition, the desalination of seawater by solar assisted DCMD process was experimentally investigated. First, using solar power only short-term (one day), successful desalination of real seawater was achieved without temperature control under the following conditions: feed inlet temperature 65.0 .deg. C, permeate inlet temperature 25.0 .deg. C, and a flow rate of 2.5 L/min. The developed system also worked well in the long-term (150 days) for seawater desalination using both solar and electric power. Long-term test flux was reduced from 28.48 to only 26.50 L/m 2 hr, indicating system feasibility

  10. Study on direct-contact phase-change liquid immersion cooling dense-array solar cells under high concentration ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Xue; Wang, Yiping; Huang, Qunwu; Cui, Yong; Shi, Xusheng; Sun, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct-contact phase-change liquid immersion cooling for solar cells was proposed. • A self-regulating system investigated the feasibility in temperature control. • Temperature was well controlled between 87.3 °C and 88.5 °C. • Surface heat transfer coefficient was up to 23.49 kW/(m 2 ·K) under 398.4×. • A model illustrated the interface function was the main reason to affect light. - Abstract: A new cooling method by directly immersing the solar cells into phase-change liquid was put forward to cool dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system. A self-running system was built to study the feasibility of temperature control and the effect of bubbles generated by ethanol phase change under concentration ratio ranged between 219.8× and 398.4×. The results show that the cooling system is self-regulating without consuming extra energy and ethanol flow rate reaches up to 180.6 kg/(s·m 2 ) under 398.4×. The temperature of solar cells distributes in the range between 87.3 °C and 88.5 °C, the surface heat transfer coefficient of electric heating plate is up to 23.49 kW/(m 2 ·K) under 398.4×. The bubble effect on electrical performance of triple-junction solar cells is reported and the results show that I sc and P max decline 10.2% and 7.3%, respectively. A model based on bubble images illustrates that light loss at the interface between ethanol and bubble is the main reason to cut down the electrical performance.

  11. Prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer players. Part 2: a review of prevention programs aimed to modify risk factors and to reduce injury rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Myer, Gregory D; Silvers, Holly J; Samitier, Gonzalo; Romero, Daniel; Lázaro-Haro, Cristina; Cugat, Ramón

    2009-08-01

    Soccer is the most commonly played sport in the world, with an estimated 265 million active soccer players participating in the game as on 2006. Inherent to this sport is the higher risk of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) relative to other sports. ACL injury causes a significant loss of time from competition in soccer, which has served as the strong impetus to conduct research that focuses to determine the risk factors for injury, and more importantly, to identify and teach techniques to reduce this injury in the sport. This research emphasis has afforded a rapid influx of literature aimed to report the effects of neuromuscular training on the risk factors and the incidence of non-contact ACL injury in high-risk soccer populations. The purpose of the current review is to sequence the most recent literature relating the effects of prevention programs that were developed to alter risk factors associated with non-contact ACL injuries and to reduce the rate of non-contact ACL injuries in soccer players. To date there is no standardized intervention program established for soccer to prevent non-contact ACL injuries. Multi-component programs show better results than single-component preventive programs to reduce the risk and incidence of non-contact ACL injuries in soccer players. Lower extremity plyometrics, dynamic balance and strength, stretching, body awareness and decision-making, and targeted core and trunk control appear to be successful training components to reduce non-contact ACL injury risk factors (decrease landing forces, decrease varus/valgus moments, and increase effective muscle activation) and prevent non-contact ACL injuries in soccer players, especially in female athletes. Pre-season injury prevention combined with an in-season maintenance program may be advocated to prevent injury. Compliance may in fact be the limiting factor to the overall success of ACL injury interventions targeted to soccer players regardless of gender. Thus

  12. Direct Measurement of Static and Dynamic Contact Angles Using a Random Micromodel Considering Geological CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jafari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The pore-level two-phase fluids flow mechanism needs to be understood for geological CO2 sequestration as a solution to mitigate anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide. Capillary pressure at the interface of water–CO2 influences CO2 injectability, capacity, and safety of the storage system. Wettability usually measured by contact angle is always a major uncertainty source among important parameters affecting capillary pressure. The contact angle is mostly determined on a flat surface as a representative of the rock surface. However, a simple and precise method for determining in situ contact angle at pore-scale is needed to simulate fluids flow in porous media. Recent progresses in X-ray tomography technique has provided a robust way to measure in situ contact angle of rocks. However, slow imaging and complicated image processing make it impossible to measure dynamic contact angle. In the present paper, a series of static and dynamic contact angles as well as contact angles on flat surface were measured inside a micromodel with random pattern of channels under high pressure condition. Our results showed a wide range of pore-scale contact angles, implying complexity of the pore-scale contact angle even in a highly smooth and chemically homogenous glass micromodel. Receding contact angle (RCA showed more reproducibility compared to advancing contact angle (ACA and static contact angle (SCA for repeating tests and during both drainage and imbibition. With decreasing pore size, RCA was increased. The hysteresis of the dynamic contact angle (ACA–RCA was higher at pressure of one megapascal in comparison with that at eight megapascals. The CO2 bubble had higher mobility at higher depths due to lower hysteresis which is unfavorable. CO2 bubbles resting on the flat surface of the micromodel channel showed a wide range of contact angles. They were much higher than reported contact angle values observed with sessile drop or captive bubble tests on a

  13. An effect-directed strategy for characterizing emerging chemicals in food contact materials made from paper and board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Bengtström, Linda; Taxvig, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are any type of item intended to come into contact with foods and thus represent a potential source for human exposure to chemicals. Regarding FCMs made of paper and board, information pertaining to their chemical constituents and the potential impacts on human health...

  14. Insider Threat: Preventing Direct Action Attacks Within the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    of Other Actions Available to Commanders .............................55 Table 8. TARP Indicators of Potential International Terrorist-Associated...effectively prevent direct action attacks by insider threats? What actions are available to commanders who identify potential insider threats within... actions are available to commanders who identify potential insider threats within their organizations? As an initial research hypothesis the author

  15. Directed microspore-specific recombination of transgenic alleles to prevent pollen-mediated transmission of transgenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlynarova, L.; Conner, A.J.; Nap, J.P.H.

    2006-01-01

    A major challenge for future genetically modified (GM) crops is to prevent undesired gene flow of transgenes to plant material intended for another use. Recombinase-mediated auto excision of transgenes directed by a tightly controlled microspore-specific promoter allows efficient removal of either

  16. Future Directions in Etiologic, Prevention, and Treatment Research for Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; South, Kelsey; Shaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred regarding the understanding of etiologic processes that give rise to eating disorders and the design and evaluation of efficacious prevention programs and treatment interventions. Herein we offer suggestions regarding potentially fruitful directions for future research in these areas. We suggest it would be…

  17. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during…

  18. Preventing malaria in pregnancy through community-directed interventions: evidence from Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishola Gbenga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive anti-malaria campaigns across the subcontinent, effective access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs among pregnant women remain low in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The slow uptake of malaria prevention products appears to reflect lack of knowledge and resistance to behavioural change, as well as poor access to resources, and limited support of programmes by local communities and authorities. Methods A recent community-based programme in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is analysed to determine the degree to which community-directed interventions can improve access to malaria prevention in pregnancy. Six local government areas in Southern Nigeria were selected for a malaria in pregnancy prevention intervention. Three of these local government areas were selected for a complementary community-directed intervention (CDI programme. Under the CDI programme, volunteer community-directed distributors (CDDs were appointed by each village and kindred in the treatment areas and trained to deliver ITNs and IPTp drugs as well as basic counseling services to pregnant women. Findings Relative to women in the control area, an additional 7.4 percent of women slept under a net during pregnancy in the treatment areas (95% CI [0.035, 0.115], p-value Conclusion The presented results suggest that the inclusion of community-based programmes can substantially increase effective access to malaria prevention, and also increase access to formal health care access in general, and antenatal care attendance in particular in combination with supply side interventions. Given the relatively modest financial commitments they require, community-directed programmes appear to be a cost-effective way to improve malaria prevention; the participatory approach underlying CDI programmes also promises to strengthen ties between the formal health sector and local communities.

  19. Performance and fouling mechanism of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) treating fermentation wastewater with high organic concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Kang, Yun; Zhang, Liqiu; Qu, Dan; Cheng, Xiang; Feng, Li

    2018-03-01

    In this study, direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was used for treating fermentation wastewater with high organic concentrations. DCMD performance characteristics including permeate flux, permeate water quality as well as membrane fouling were investigated systematically. Experimental results showed that, after 12hr DCMD, the feed wastewater was concentrated by about a factor of 3.7 on a volumetric basis, with the permeate flux decreasing from the initial 8.7L/m 2 /hr to the final 4.3L/m 2 /hr due to membrane fouling; the protein concentration in the feed wastewater was increased by about 3.5 times and achieved a value of 6178mg/L, which is suitable for reutilization. Although COD and TOC in permeate water increased continuously due to the transfer of volatile components from wastewater, organic rejection of over 95% was achieved in wastewater. GC-MS results suggested that the fermentation wastewater contained 128 kinds of organics, in which 14 organics dominated. After 12hr DCMD, not only volatile organics including trimethyl pyrazine, 2-acetyl pyrrole, phenethyl alcohol and phenylacetic acid, but also non-volatile dibutyl phthalate was detected in permeate water due to membrane wetting. FT-IR and SEM-EDS results indicated that the deposits formed on the membrane inner surface mainly consisted of Ca, Mg, and amine, carboxylic acid and aromatic groups. The fouled membrane could be recovered, as most of the deposits could be removed using a HCl/NaOH chemical cleaning method. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Prevention of diabetes in NOD mice by repeated exposures to a contact allergen inducing a sub-clinical dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engkilde, Kaare; Buschard, Karsten; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup

    2010-01-01

    of contact allergens on the development of diabetes in NOD mice. As the link between contact allergy and diabetes is yet unexplained we also examined the effect of provocation with allergens on Natural Killer T (NKT) cells, since involvement of NKT cells could suggest an innate connection between the two...

  1. Effect of Virtual Reality Exposure and Aural Stimuli on Eye Contact, Directional Focus, and Focus of Attention of Novice Wind Band Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orman, Evelyn K.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of virtual reality immersion with audio on eye contact, directional focus and focus of attention for novice wind band conductors. Participants (N = 34) included a control group (n = 12) and two virtual reality groups with (n = 10) and without (n = 12) head tracking. Participants completed conducting/score study…

  2. Direct Measurement of Static and Dynamic Contact Angles Using a Random Micromodel Considering Geological CO2 Sequestration

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Jafari; Jongwon Jung

    2017-01-01

    The pore-level two-phase fluids flow mechanism needs to be understood for geological CO2 sequestration as a solution to mitigate anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide. Capillary pressure at the interface of water–CO2 influences CO2 injectability, capacity, and safety of the storage system. Wettability usually measured by contact angle is always a major uncertainty source among important parameters affecting capillary pressure. The contact angle is mostly determined on a flat surface as a r...

  3. [Correct contact lens hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümle, S; Kaercher, T; Khaireddin, R

    2013-06-01

    Although contact lenses have long been established in ophthalmology, practical aspects of handling contact lenses is becoming increasingly less important in the clinical training as specialist for ophthalmology. Simultaneously, for many reasons injuries due to wearing contact lenses are increasing. In order to correct this discrepancy, information on contact lenses and practical experience with them must be substantially increased from a medical perspective. This review article deals with the most important aspects for prevention of complications, i.e. contact lens hygiene.

  4. Reduced-Order Dynamic Modeling, Fouling Detection, and Optimal Control of Solar-Powered Direct Contact Membrane Distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2016-12-01

    Membrane Distillation (MD) is an emerging sustainable desalination technique. While MD has many advantages and can be powered by solar thermal energy, its main drawback is the low water production rate. However, the MD process has not been fully optimized in terms of its manipulated and controlled variables. This is largely due to the lack of adequate dynamic models to study and simulate the process. In addition, MD is prone to membrane fouling, which is a fault that degrades the performance of the MD process. This work has three contributions to address these challenges. First, we derive a mathematical model of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD), which is the building block for the next parts. Then, the proposed model is extended to account for membrane fouling and an observer-based fouling detection method is developed. Finally, various control strategies are implemented to optimize the performance of the DCMD solar-powered process. In part one, a reduced-order dynamic model of DCMD is developed based on lumped capacitance method and electrical analogy to thermal systems. The result is an electrical equivalent thermal network to the DCMD process, which is modeled by a system of nonlinear differential algebraic equations (DAEs). This model predicts the water-vapor flux and the temperature distribution along the module length. Experimental data is collected to validate the steady-state and dynamic responses of the proposed model, with great agreement demonstrated in both. The second part proposes an extension of the model to account for membrane fouling. An adaptive observer for DAE systems is developed and convergence proof is presented. A method for membrane fouling detection is then proposed based on adaptive observers. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the membrane fouling detection method. Finally, an optimization problem is formulated to maximize the process efficiency of a solar-powered DCMD. The adapted method is known as Extremum

  5. Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. Objectives. To investigate...... frequencies of sensitization to the 26 individual fragrances and evaluate their importance as screening markers of fragrance allergy. Method. This was a retrospective study based on data from the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte. Eczema patients (n = 1508) were patch...

  6. Adaptation of H9N2 AIV in guinea pigs enables efficient transmission by direct contact and inefficient transmission by respiratory droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Airong; Ding, Jie; Kong, Huihui; Gao, Xiaolong; Li, Lin; Chai, Tongjie; Li, Yuanguo; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Chengyu; Wan, Zhonghai; Huang, Geng; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Hualei; Zhao, Yongkun; Yang, Songtao; Qian, Jun; Hu, Guixue; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2015-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses circulate worldwide in poultry and have sporadically infected humans, raising concern whether H9N2 viruses have pandemic potential. Here, we use a guinea pig model to examine whether serial passage results in adaptive viral changes that confer a transmissible phenotype to a wild-type H9N2 virus. After nine serial passages of an H9N2 virus through guinea pigs, productive transmission by direct contact occurred in 2/3 guinea pig pairs. The efficiency of transmission by direct contact increased following the fifteenth passage and occurred in 3/3 guinea pig pairs. In contrast, airborne transmission of the passaged virus was less efficient and occurred in 1/6 guinea pig pairs and 0/6 ferret pairs after the fifteenth passage. Three amino acid substitutions, HA1-Q227P, HA2-D46E, and NP-E434K, were sufficient for contact transmission in guinea pigs (2/3 pairs). The two HA amino acid substitutions enhanced receptor binding to α2,3-linked sialic acid receptors. Additionally, the HA2-D46E substitution increased virus thermostability whereas the NP-E434K mutation enhanced viral RNA polymerase activity in vitro. Our findings suggest that adaptive changes that enhance viral receptor binding, thermostability, and replicative capacity in mammalian cells can collectively enhance the transmissibility of H9N2 AIVs by direct contact in the guinea pig model. PMID:26552719

  7. Prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in sports. Part II: systematic review of the effectiveness of prevention programmes in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Mendiguchía, Jurdan; Samuelsson, Kristian; Musahl, Volker; Karlsson, Jon; Cugat, Ramon; Myer, Gregory D

    2014-01-01

    To synthesize the results of systematic literature review focused on the effectiveness of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programmes in male athletes. All abstracts and articles of potential interest identified through the systematic literature search were reviewed in detail to determine on inclusion status. Information regarding prevention programmes to reduce ACL injuries or to modify risk factors for ACL injuries in male athletes was systematically extracted and included intervention and study design, characteristics of participants, sport and level of competition, characteristics of prevention programmes, results, and conclusions. All studies were evaluated for methodological quality to assess the risk of bias. The principal findings of this systematic review are as follows: (1) most of the studies applied prevention programmes that utilized risk factors as outcomes of interest as opposed to ACL injury incidence (5 and 2 studies, respectively); (2) the effectiveness of prevention programmes to reduce ACL injuries in male athletes is equivocal (1 in favour, 1 against) and only refers to soccer players; (3) the effectiveness of prevention programmes to modify risk factors for ACL injuries in male athletes is controversial (2 in favour, 3 against) and outcome data are limited to cutting manoeuvres. Data regarding the effectiveness of prevention programmes to reduce ACL injuries or to modify risk factors for ACL injuries in male athletes are scarce and not conclusive. Future research to better determine the most effective approaches to optimize the effectiveness of prevention programmes targeted to reduce ACL injuries in male athletes is warranted.

  8. Fall Prediction and Prevention Systems: Recent Trends, Challenges, and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Rajagopalan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fall prediction is a multifaceted problem that involves complex interactions between physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors. Existing fall detection and prediction systems mainly focus on physiological factors such as gait, vision, and cognition, and do not address the multifactorial nature of falls. In addition, these systems lack efficient user interfaces and feedback for preventing future falls. Recent advances in internet of things (IoT and mobile technologies offer ample opportunities for integrating contextual information about patient behavior and environment along with physiological health data for predicting falls. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in fall detection and prediction systems. It also describes the challenges, limitations, and future directions in the design and implementation of effective fall prediction and prevention systems.

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription. Follow the contact lens care directions for cleaning, disinfecting, and wearing the lenses. Never share contact ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  10. Contact: Releasing the news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  11. Poverty, Stress, and Brain Development: New Directions for Prevention and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C Cybele

    2016-04-01

    We review some of the growing evidence of the costs of poverty to children's neuroendocrine function, early brain development, and cognitive ability. We underscore the importance of addressing the negative consequences of poverty-related adversity early in children's lives, given evidence supporting the plasticity of executive functions and associated physiologic processes in response to early intervention and the importance of higher order cognitive functions for success in school and in life. Finally, we highlight some new directions for prevention and intervention that are rapidly emerging at the intersection of developmental science, pediatrics, child psychology and psychiatry, and public policy. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct oral anticoagulants for secondary prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Masotti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF, both permanent and paroxysmal, and history of previous transient ischemic attack (TIA or stroke represent a category of patients at high risk of new embolic events, independently of the presence of other risk factors. In these patients, national and international guidelines recommend oral anticoagulants as first choice for antithrombotic prevention. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs have been demonstrated to be not inferior to warfarin for many end points in NVAF patients in terms of efficacy and safety. The post hoc analysis in selected subgroups of patients enrolled in the three mega trials of phase III comparing DOACs (RE-LY, ROCKET-AF and ARISTOTLE with warfarin help to evaluate whether superiority and non-inferiority persist in these subgroups. Here, patients with NVAF and history of previous TIA/stroke receiving DOACs as secondary prevention are compared with patients with the same characteristics receiving warfarin. An analysis of these patients has been recently published (separately for each of three DOACs. This analysis shows that DOACs maintain their non-inferiority when compared with warfarin in secondary prevention, representing a real alternative in this context of patients at high risk for ischemic and bleeding events.

  13. Direct oral anticoagulants in the prevention of venous thromboembolism: evidence from major clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandoni, Paolo; Temraz, Sally; Taher, Ali

    2014-04-01

    Hospitalized medical and surgical patients encompass a group of patients in whom venous thromboembolism (VTE) poses a major concern on morbidity and mortality. Recently, direct oral anticoagulants for the prevention of VTE have been developed to overcome the drawbacks of the food/drug interactions and the need for frequent laboratory monitoring and dose adjustments associated with the use of vitamin K antagonists and the inconvenience of the subcutaneous administration of low-molecular-weight heparins and fondaparinux. The novel oral anticoagulants that have been tested in major clinical trials for VTE prevention in medical and surgical patients are the thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the factor Xa inhibitors apixaban, rivaroxaban, and edoxaban, which will be the focus of this review. While the new drugs proved to be highly effective and safe in the prevention of VTE following major orthopedic surgery, they failed to show a favorable benefit-to-risk profile in hospitalized medical patients receiving extended anticoagulation beyond the hospital stay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk Profiles for Falls among Older Adults: New Directions for Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Satariano

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo address whether neighborhood factors, together with older adults’ levels of health and functioning, suggest new combinations of risk factors for falls and new directions for prevention. To explore the utility of Grade-of-Membership (GoM analysis to conduct this descriptive analysis.MethodThis is a cross-sectional, descriptive study of 884 people aged ≥65 years from Alameda County, CA, Cook County, IL, Allegheny County, PA, and Wake and Durham counties, NC. Interviews focused on neighborhood characteristics, physical and cognitive function, walking, and falls and injuries. Four risk profiles (higher order interactions of individual and neighborhood factors were derived from GoM analysis.ResultsProfiles 1 and 2 reflect previous results showing that frail older adults are likely to fall indoors (Profile 1; healthy older adults are likely to fall outdoors (Profile 2. Profile 3 identifies the falls risk for older with mild cognitive impairment living in moderately walkable neighborhoods. Profile 4 identifies the risk found for healthy older adults living in neighborhoods with low walkability.DiscussionNeighborhood walkability, in combination with levels of health and functioning, is associated with both indoor and outdoor falls. Descriptive results suggest possible research hypotheses and new directions for prevention, based on individual and neighborhood factors.

  15. Healthcare spending and preventive care in high-deductible and consumer-directed health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeuwkes Buntin, Melinda; Haviland, Amelia M; McDevitt, Roland; Sood, Neeraj

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the effects of high-deductible health plans (HDHPs) and consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) on healthcare spending and on the use of recommended preventive care. Retrospective study. We analyzed claims and enrollment data for 808,707 households from 53 large US employers, 28 of which offered HDHPs or CDHPs. We estimated the effects of HDHP or CDHP enrollment on healthcare cost growth between 2004 and 2005 using a difference-in-difference method that compared cost growth for families who were enrolled in HDHPs or CDHPs for the first time in 2005 with cost growth for families who were not offered HDHPs or CDHPs. Control families were weighted using propensity score weights to match the treatment families. Using similar methods, we examined the effects of HDHP or CDHP enrollment on the use of preventive care and the effects of HDHP or CDHP offering by employers on the mean cost growth. Families enrolling in HDHPs or CDHPs for the first time spent 14% less than similar families enrolled in conventional plans. Families in firms offering an HDHP or a CDHP spent less than those in other firms. Significant savings for enrollees were realized only for plans with deductibles of at least $1000, and savings decreased with generous employer contributions to healthcare accounts. Enrollment in HDHPs or CDHPs was also associated with moderate reductions in the use of preventive care. The HDHPs or CDHPs with at least a $1000 deductible significantly reduced healthcare spending, but they also reduced the use of preventive care in the first year. This merits additional study because of concerns about enrollee health.

  16. Direct marketing of parenting programs: comparing a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Backman, Anna

    2017-06-01

    : For parenting programs to achieve a public health impact, it is necessary to develop more effective marketing strategies to increase public awareness of these programs and promote parental participation. In this article, we compared a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy via two studies. : We designed two ads inviting parents to participate in a universal parenting program; one ad focused on the program increasing the likelihood of positive outcomes for children (promotion-focused) and the other on the program reducing the likelihood of negative outcomes (prevention-focused). In study I, the two ads were run online simultaneously. Those who clicked on an ad were directed to a website where they could read about and sign up for the program. In study II, a community sample of 706 parents answered a questionnaire about the ads. : In study I, over 85 days, the prevention ad generated more clicks. There was no difference in the number of pages visited on the website nor in the number of parents who signed up for the program. In study II, parents showed a preference for the promotion ad, perceiving it as more relevant and rating it as more effective in getting them interested in the program. : A prevention strategy may be more effective in drawing public attention, in general. However, a promotion strategy is more likely to reach parents, in particular, and inspire them to consider participating in parenting programs. These strategies should be developed further and tested in both general and clinical populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. Objectives. To investigate...... frequencies of sensitization to the 26 individual fragrances and evaluate their importance as screening markers of fragrance allergy. Method. This was a retrospective study based on data from the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte. Eczema patients (n = 1508) were patch......). Including fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II and Myroxylon pereirae, 196 (13.0%) had a fragrance allergy. Testing with the 26 fragrances additionally identified 23 subjects who would otherwise have gone undetected. The majority (75.7%) of positive reactions to the 26 fragrances were of clinical relevance...

  18. Power converter using near-load output capacitance, direct inductor contact, and/or remote current sense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coteus, Paul W.; Ferencz, Andrew; Hall, Shawn A.; Takken, Todd E.; Tian, Shurong; Zhang, Xin

    2017-11-28

    An apparatus includes a first circuit board including first components including a load, and a second circuit board including second components including switching power devices and an output inductor. Ground and output voltage contacts between the circuit boards are made through soldered or connectorized interfaces. Certain components on the first circuit board and certain components, including the output inductor, on the second circuit board act as a DC-DC voltage converter for the load. An output capacitance for the conversion is on the first circuit board with no board-to-board interface between the output capacitance and the load. The inductance of the board-to-board interface functions as part of the output inductor's inductance and not as a parasitic inductance. Sense components for sensing current through the output inductor are located on the first circuit board. Parasitic inductance of the board-to-board interface has less effect on a sense signal provided to a controller.

  19. Power converter using near-load output capacitance, direct inductor contact, and/or remote current sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coteus, Paul W.; Ferencz, Andrew; Hall, Shawn A.; Takken, Todd E.; Tian, Shurong; Zhang, Xin

    2017-11-28

    An apparatus includes a first circuit board including first components including a load, and a second circuit board including second components including switching power devices and an output inductor. Ground and output voltage contacts between the circuit boards are made through soldered or connectorized interfaces. Certain components on the first circuit board and certain components, including the output inductor, on the second circuit board act as a DC-DC voltage converter for the load. An output capacitance for the conversion is on the first circuit board with no board-to-board interface between the output capacitance and the load. The inductance of the board-to-board interface functions as part of the output inductor's inductance and not as a parasitic inductance. Sense components for sensing current through the output inductor are located on the first circuit board. Parasitic inductance of the board-to-board interface has less effect on a sense signal provided to a controller.

  20. Physical characterization of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors with direct-contact asymmetric graphene electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Jeong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High performance a-IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs are fabricated using an asymmetric graphene drain electrode structure. A-IGZO TFTs (channel length = 3 μm were successfully demonstrated with a saturation field-effect mobility of 6.6 cm2/Vs without additional processes between the graphene and a-IGZO layer. The graphene/a-IGZO junction exhibits Schottky characteristics and the contact property is affected not only by the Schottky barrier but also by the parasitic resistance from the depletion region under the graphene electrode. Therefore, to utilize the graphene layer as S/D electrodes for a-IGZO TFTs, an asymmetric electrode is essential, which can be easily applied to the conventional pixel electrode structure.

  1. Development, Evaluation, and Future Directions of the PREPaRE School Crisis Prevention and Intervention Training Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Stephen E.; Nickerson, Amanda B.; Reeves, Melissa A.; Savage, Todd A.; Woitaszewski, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development, program evaluation, and future directions of the PREPaRE School Crisis Prevention and Intervention Training Curriculum (PREPaRE). Satisfaction ratings were analyzed for 1,073 participants who attended the Crisis Prevention and Preparedness workshop (Workshop 1) and 1,008 participants who attended the Crisis…

  2. State of the art and challenges in development of electrical contact materials in the light of the RoHS directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosović V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article surveys current state of the art and challenges in the development of the electrical contact materials in the light of the EU Directive on Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS. The focus was placed on widely used silver-cadmium alloys. According to this directive, as of July 1, 2006, use of six hazardous materials, including cadmium, are restricted for applicable electrical and electronic products intended for the EU market. In contrast, traditionally preferred material for production of electrical contacts is Ag-CdO, due to its outstanding functional properties. These conflicting interests result in present state where RoHS directive has not yet been implemented in its original form and has undergone numerous amendments and exceptions regarding the use of cadmium. Main reason for this seems to be the unrealistic time frame imposed by legislation. Although, significant effort has been put into research and development of alternative materials, there are still cases where adequate replacement materials had not been found. Therefore, importance of synchronicity between legislation and technological progress i.e. communication between legislative administration and industry and academia is brought to light as well as some common issues that may arise with an introduction of new replacement materials or product modification. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike SRbije, br. OI 172037 and TR 34023

  3. Household point of care CD4 testing and isoniazid preventive therapy initiation in a household TB contact tracing programme in two districts of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Shipp, Liesl; Lewis, James J; Velen, Kavindhran; Senoge, Sedikanelo; Zishiri, Elizabeth; Popane, Flora; Chihota, Violet N; Clark, Dave; Churchyard, Gavin J; Charalambous, Salome

    2018-01-01

    In South Africa, TB household contact tracing provides an opportunity for increased TB and HIV case finding. We aimed to determine the effect of two new potential interventions for TB contact tracing programmes: Point of Care CD4 (PoC CD4) on HIV linkage to care and household Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) provision on uptake and retention of IPT. A pragmatic, three-arm, cluster-randomized trial was undertaken. TB Household contacts were randomised to 3 arms: 1) Standard of Care TB and HIV testing (SOC); 2) SOC with POC CD4 for those testing HIV positive; 3) SOC with POC CD4 and IPT for eligible household members. Linkage to care within 90 days was assessed either through patient visits (at 10 weeks and 6 months) or via telephonic contact. 2,243 index TB patients and 3,012 contacts (64,3% female, median age 30 years) were enrolled. On self-report, 26(1.2%) were currently receiving TB treatment and 1816 (60.3%) reported a prior HIV test. HIV testing uptake was 34.7% in the SoC arm, 40.2% in the PoC CD4 arm (RR1.16, CI 0.99-1.36, p-value = 0.060) and 39.9% in the PoC CD4 + HH-IPT arm (RR = 1.15, CI 0.99-1.35, p-value = 0.075). Linkage to care within 3 months was 30.8% in the SoC arm and 42.1% in the POC CD4 arms (RR 1.37; CI: 0.68-2.76, p-value = 0.382). 20/21 contacts (95.2%) initiated IPT in the PoC CD4 + HH-IPT arm, compared to 3/20 (15.0%) in the PoC CD4 arm (p = 0.004; p-value from Fisher's exact test TB with an overall yield of TB of 0.5% (95% CI: 0.3%, 0.8%). Household PoC CD4 testing and IPT initiation is feasible. There was only weak evidence that PoCCD4 led to a small increase in HCT uptake and no evidence for an increase in linkage-to-care. IPT initiation and completion was increased by the household intervention. Although feasible, these interventions had low impact due to the low uptake of HIV testing in households.

  4. Toward mHealth Brief Contact Interventions in Suicide Prevention: Case Series From the Suicide Intervention Assisted by Messages (SIAM) Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrouiguet, Sofian; Larsen, Mark Erik; Mesmeur, Catherine; Gravey, Michel; Billot, Romain; Walter, Michel; Lemey, Christophe; Lenca, Philippe

    2018-01-10

    Research indicates that maintaining contact either via letter or postcard with at-risk adults following discharge from care services after a suicide attempt (SA) can reduce reattempt risk. Pilot studies have demonstrated that interventions using mobile health (mHealth) technologies are feasible in a suicide prevention setting. The aim of this study was to report three cases of patients recruited in the Suicide Intervention Assisted by Messages (SIAM) study to describe how a mobile intervention may influence follow-up. SIAM is a 2-year, multicenter randomized controlled trial conducted by the Brest University Hospital, France. Participants in the intervention group receive SIAM text messages 48 hours after discharge, then at day 8 and day 15, and months 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The study includes participants aged 18 years or older, who have attended a participating hospital for an SA, and have been discharged from the emergency department (ED) or a psychiatric unit (PU) for a stay of less than 7 days. Eligible participants are randomized between the SIAM intervention messages and a control group. In this study, we present three cases from the ongoing SIAM study that demonstrate the capability of a mobile-based brief contact intervention for triggering patient-initiated contact with a crisis support team at various time points throughout the mobile-based follow-up period. Out of the 244 patients recruited in the SIAM randomized controlled trial, three cases were selected to illustrate the impact of mHealth on suicide risk management. Participants initiated contact with the emergency crisis support service after receiving text messages up to 6 months following discharge from the hospital. Contact was initiated immediately following receipt of a text message or up to 6 days following a message. This text message-based brief contact intervention has demonstrated the potential to reconnect suicidal individuals with crisis support services while they are experiencing

  5. The long term effects of "Consumer-Directed" health plans on preventive care use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Matthew D; Haviland, Amelia M; Mehrotra, Ateev; Huckfeldt, Peter J; Sood, Neeraj

    2017-09-01

    "Consumer-Directed" Health Plans (CDHPs), those with high deductibles and personal medical accounts, have been shown to reduce health care spending. The impact of CDHPs on preventive care is unclear. On the one hand CDHPs might increase use of preventive care as such care is exempt from the deductible. However, CDHPs also decrease visits to physicians which might results in less screening. Prior research has found conflicting results. In this study, using data from 37 employers we examine the effects of CDHPs on the use of cancer screenings up to three years after the initial CDHP offering with ITT and LATE approaches. Being offered a CDHP or enrolling in a CDHP had little or no effect on cancer screening rates but individuals increase screenings prior to enrolling in a CDHP. Our findings suggest the importance of examining CDHP effects on periodic care over the longer-term and carefully controlling for anticipatory stockpiling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Long Spin-Relaxation Times in a Transition-Metal Atom in Direct Contact to a Metal Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermenau, Jan; Ternes, Markus; Steinbrecher, Manuel; Wiesendanger, Roland; Wiebe, Jens

    2018-03-14

    Long spin-relaxation times are a prerequisite for the use of spins in data storage or nanospintronics technologies. An atomic-scale solid-state realization of such a system is the spin of a transition-metal atom adsorbed on a suitable substrate. For the case of a metallic substrate, which enables the direct addressing of the spin by conduction electrons, the experimentally measured lifetimes reported to date are on the order of only hundreds of femtoseconds. Here, we show that the spin states of iron atoms adsorbed directly on a conductive platinum substrate have a surprisingly long spin-relaxation time in the nanosecond regime, which is comparable to that of a transition metal atom decoupled from the substrate electrons by a thin decoupling layer. The combination of long spin-relaxation times and strong coupling to conduction electrons implies the possibility to use flexible coupling schemes to process the spin information.

  7. Long Spin-Relaxation Times in a Transition-Metal Atom in Direct Contact to a Metal Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermenau, Jan; Ternes, Markus; Steinbrecher, Manuel; Wiesendanger, Roland; Wiebe, Jens

    2018-03-01

    Long spin relaxation times are a prerequisite for the use of spins in data storage or nanospintronics technologies. An atomic-scale solid-state realization of such a system is the spin of a transition metal atom adsorbed on a suitable substrate. For the case of a metallic substrate, which enables directly addressing the spin by conduction electrons, the experimentally measured lifetimes reported to date are on the order of only hundreds of femtoseconds. Here, we show that the spin states of iron atoms adsorbed directly on a conductive platinum substrate have an astonishingly long spin relaxation time in the nanosecond regime, which is comparable to that of a transition metal atom decoupled from the substrate electrons by a thin decoupling layer. The combination of long spin relaxation times and strong coupling to conduction electrons implies the possibility to use flexible coupling schemes in order to process the spin-information.

  8. Investigating the Dendritic Growth during Full Cell Cycling of Garnet Electrolyte in Direct Contact with Li Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguesse, Frederic; Manalastas, William; Buannic, Lucienne; Lopez Del Amo, Juan Miguel; Singh, Gurpreet; Llordés, Anna; Kilner, John

    2017-02-01

    All-solid-state batteries including a garnet ceramic as electrolyte are potential candidates to replace the currently used Li-ion technology, as they offer safer operation and higher energy storage performances. However, the development of ceramic electrolyte batteries faces several challenges at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces, which need to withstand high current densities to enable competing C-rates. In this work, we investigate the limits of the anode/electrolyte interface in a full cell that includes a Li-metal anode, LiFePO 4 cathode, and garnet ceramic electrolyte. The addition of a liquid interfacial layer between the cathode and the ceramic electrolyte is found to be a prerequisite to achieve low interfacial resistance and to enable full use of the active material contained in the porous electrode. Reproducible and constant discharge capacities are extracted from the cathode active material during the first 20 cycles, revealing high efficiency of the garnet as electrolyte and the interfaces, but prolonged cycling leads to abrupt cell failure. By using a combination of structural and chemical characterization techniques, such as SEM and solid-state NMR, as well as electrochemical and impedance spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that a sudden impedance drop occurs in the cell due to the formation of metallic Li and its propagation within the ceramic electrolyte. This degradation process is originated at the interface between the Li-metal anode and the ceramic electrolyte layer and leads to electromechanical failure and cell short-circuit. Improvement of the performances is observed when cycling the full cell at 55 °C, as the Li-metal softening favors the interfacial contact. Various degradation mechanisms are proposed to explain this behavior.

  9. Salmonella Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birds, or baby chicks, and after contact with pet feces. Avoid direct or even indirect contact between reptiles (turtles, iguanas, other lizards, snakes) and infants or immunocompromised persons. ...

  10. School-Based Prevention of Depression and Anxiety in Australia: Current State and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehmy, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Depression and anxiety constitute an enormous public health burden in Australia, and as such primary prevention is an important focus for school-based prevention efforts. The focus of the current literature review is school-based prevention programmes for depression and anxiety in Australia. Most prevention studies to date would be better…

  11. Ultraviolet/violet dual-color electroluminescence based on n-ZnO single crystal/p-GaN direct-contact light-emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Songzhan; Lin, Wenwen; Fang, Guojia; Huang, Feng; Huang, Huihui; Long, Hao; Mo, Xiaoming; Wang, Haoning; Guan, Wenjie; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2013-01-01

    We have fabricated a fully transparent ultraviolet (UV)/violet dual-color electroluminescence (EL) device based on n-ZnO single crystal and p-GaN via a simple direct-contact method. The device presents dual-color EL under forward and reverse biases—an intense violet emission centered at 400 nm from ZnO and a sharp UV emission peaked at 365 nm from GaN, respectively. The reason for dual color emissions is proposed in terms of the energy band theory and the transmission spectra of ZnO single crystal and p-GaN. -- Highlights: ► A fully transparent LED based on n-ZnO SC and p-GaN is fabricated via the direct-contact method. ► The n-ZnO SC/p-GaN device shows UV/violet dual-color emission under electrically pumped. ► The device presents a violet emission 400 nm and a UV emission 365 nm under forward and reverse biases. ► The EL of the dual-color device displays good stability and reproducibility

  12. Contact hysteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggish, M S; Barbot, J

    1983-06-01

    the menstrual cycle may be identified on the basis of the endometrial pattern. This pattern diagnosis is dependent on color, contour, and physical adhesiveness of the tissue. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the most common neoplastic lesion of the cervix. When atypical epithelium extends into the cervical canal beyond the view of the colposcope, the 6 mm contact hysteroscope has been helpful in determining the extent and severity of the lesion as well as to direct biopsy equipment to the site of the pathologic condition.

  13. A Class I UV-Blocking (senofilcon A) Soft Contact Lens Prevents UVA-induced Yellow Fluorescence and NADH loss in the Rabbit Lens Nucleus in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Frank J.; Lin, Li-Ren; Simpanya, Mukoma F.; Leverenz, Victor R.; Fick, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    It is known that fluorescence, much of it caused by UVA light excitation, increases in the aging human lens, resulting in loss of sharp vision. This study used an in vivo animal model to investigate UVA-excited fluorescence in the rabbit lens, which contains a high level of the UVA chromophore NADH, existing both free and bound to λ-crystallin. Also, the ability of a Class I (senofilcon A) soft contact lens to protect against UVA-induced effects on the rabbit lens was tested. Rabbit eyes were irradiated with UVA light in vivo (100 mW/cm2 on the cornea) for 1 hour using monochromatic 365 nm light. Irradiation was conducted in the presence of either a senofilcon A contact lens, a minimally UV-absorbing lotrafilcon A contact lens, or no contact lens at all. Eyes irradiated without a contact lens showed blue 365 nm-excited fluorescence initially, but this changed to intense yellow fluorescence after 1 hour. Isolated, previously irradiated lenses exhibited yellow fluorescence originating from the lens nucleus when viewed under 365 nm light, but showed normal blue fluorescence arising from the cortex. Previously irradiated lenses also exhibited a faint yellow color when observed under visible light. The senofilcon A contact lens protected completely against the UVA-induced effects on fluorescence and lens yellowing, whereas the lotrafilcon A lens showed no protection. The UVA-exposure also produced a 53% loss of total NADH (free plus bound) in the lens nucleus, with only a 13% drop in the anterior cortex. NADH loss in the nucleus was completely prevented with use of a senofilcon A contact lens, but no significant protection was observed with a lotrafilcon A lens. Overall, the senofilcon A lens provided an average of 67% protection against UVA-induced loss of four pyridine nucleotides in four different regions of the lens. HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection indicated a nearly six-fold increase in 365 nm-excited yellow fluorescence arising from lens nuclear

  14. Effect of candesartan on prevention (DIRECT-Prevent 1) and progression (DIRECT-Protect 1) of retinopathy in type 1 diabetes: randomised, placebo-controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaturvedi, N.; Porta, M.; Klein, R.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results of previous studies suggest that renin-angiotensin system blockers might reduce the burden of diabetic retinopathy. We therefore designed the DIabetic REtinopathy Candesartan Trials (DIRECT) Programme to assess whether candesartan could reduce the incidence and progression of ...

  15. Risk and direct protective factors for youth violence: results from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Multisite Violence Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David B; Tolan, Patrick H; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Schoeny, Michael E

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted as part of a multisite effort to examine risk and direct protective factors for youth violence. The goal was to identify those factors in the lives of young people that increase or decrease the risk of violence. These analyses fill an important gap in the literature, as few studies have examined risk and direct protective factors for youth violence across multiple studies. Data on 4432 middle-school youth, from the CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project were used. Evaluations were made of effects of variables coded as risk and direct protective factors in the fall of 6th grade on violence measured in spring of 7th and 8th grades. Factors tested included depression, delinquency, alcohol and drug involvement, involvement in family activities, academic achievement, attitudes toward school, truancy, and peer deviance. Most variables were coded with two sets of dummy variables indicating risk and protective directions of effects. Results showed that higher teacher-rated study skills were associated with lower subsequent violence across genders and ethnic groups. Affiliation with deviant peers was significantly associated with increased subsequent violence among youth reporting their race/ethnicity as white or other, marginally associated with increased violence among African-American youth, and unrelated among Latino youth. This study identified some factors than should be areas of interest for effective prevention programs. Some ethnic differences also should be considered in planning of prevention. The CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project completed enrollment prior to July 2005. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ...

  18. Small-sized and contacting Pt-WC nanostructures on graphene as highly efficient anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruihong; Xie, Ying; Shi, Keying; Wang, Jianqiang; Tian, Chungui; Shen, Peikang; Fu, Honggang

    2012-06-11

    The synergistic effect between Pt and WC is beneficial for methanol electro-oxidation, and makes Pt-WC catalyst a promising anode candidate for the direct methanol fuel cell. This paper reports on the design and synthesis of small-sized and contacting Pt-WC nanostructures on graphene that bring the synergistic effect into full play. Firstly, DFT calculations show the existence of a strong covalent interaction between WC and graphene, which suggests great potential for anchoring WC on graphene with formation of small-sized, well-dispersed WC particles. The calculations also reveal that, when Pt attaches to the pre-existing WC/graphene hybrid, Pt particles preferentially grow on WC rather than graphene. Our experiments confirmed that highly disperse WC nanoparticles (ca. 5 nm) can indeed be anchored on graphene. Also, Pt particles 2-3 nm in size are well dispersed on WC/graphene hybrid and preferentially grow on WC grains, forming contacting Pt-WC nanostructures. These results are consistent with the theoretical findings. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy further confirms the intimate contact between Pt and WC, and demonstrates that the presence of WC can facilitate the crystallinity of Pt particles. This new Pt-WC/graphene catalyst exhibits a high catalytic efficiency toward methanol oxidation, with a mass activity 1.98 and 4.52 times those of commercial PtRu/C and Pt/C catalysts, respectively. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effect of candesartan on prevention (DIRECT-Prevent 1) and progression (DIRECT-Protect 1) of retinopathy in type 1 diabetes: randomised, placebo-controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaturvedi, N.; Porta, M.; Klein, R.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results of previous studies suggest that renin-angiotensin system blockers might reduce the burden of diabetic retinopathy. We therefore designed the DIabetic REtinopathy Candesartan Trials (DIRECT) Programme to assess whether candesartan could reduce the incidence and progression of ...... of retinopathy, we did not see a beneficial effect on retinopathy progression Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10/18...

  20. Effect of candesartan on prevention (DIRECT-Prevent 1) and progression (DIRECT-Protect 1) of retinopathy in type 1 diabetes: randomised, placebo-controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaturvedi, Nish; Porta, Massimo; Klein, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results of previous studies suggest that renin-angiotensin system blockers might reduce the burden of diabetic retinopathy. We therefore designed the DIabetic REtinopathy Candesartan Trials (DIRECT) Programme to assess whether candesartan could reduce the incidence and progression of ...... of retinopathy, we did not see a beneficial effect on retinopathy progression....

  1. Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-11-01

    Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. To investigate frequencies of sensitization to the 26 individual fragrances and evaluate their importance as screening markers of fragrance allergy. This was a retrospective study based on data from the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte. Eczema patients (n = 1508) were patch tested (January 2008 to July 2010) with the 26 fragrance ingredients. Sensitization to the 26 fragrances was identified in 115 (7.6%) subjects. The most frequent allergens were Evernia furfuracea (n = 50), Evernia prunastri (n = 31), and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (n = 24). Including fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II and Myroxylon pereirae, 196 (13.0%) had a fragrance allergy. Testing with the 26 fragrances additionally identified 23 subjects who would otherwise have gone undetected. The majority (75.7%) of positive reactions to the 26 fragrances were of clinical relevance. Sensitization to the 26 individual fragrance ingredients was identified in 7.6% of the subjects patch tested. Most reactions were of clinical relevance. Fragrance-allergic subjects would be missed if testing with the individual fragrance ingredients was not performed. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Phage phi 29 regulatory protein p4 stabilizes the binding of the RNA polymerase to the late promoter in a process involving direct protein-protein contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuez, B; Rojo, F; Salas, M

    1992-12-01

    Transcription from the late promoter, PA3, of Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29 is activated by the viral regulatory protein p4. A kinetic analysis of the activation process has revealed that the role of protein p4 is to stabilize the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter as a closed complex without significantly affecting further steps of the initiation process. Electrophoretic band-shift assays performed with a DNA fragment spanning only the protein p4 binding site showed that RNA polymerase could efficiently retard the complex formed by protein p4 bound to the DNA. Similarly, when a DNA fragment containing only the RNA polymerase-binding region of PA3 was used, p4 greatly stimulated the binding of RNA polymerase to the DNA. These results strongly suggest that p4 and RNA polymerase contact each other at the PA3 promoter. In the light of current knowledge of the p4 activation mechanism, we propose that direct contacts between the two proteins participate in the activation process.

  3. Toxicological evaluation of liquids proposed for use in direct contact liquid--liquid heat exchangers for solar heated and cooled buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchan, R.M.; Majestic, J.R.; Billau, R.

    1976-09-01

    This report contains the results of the toxicological evaluation part of the project entitled, ''Direct Contact Liquid-Liquid Heat Exchangers for Solar Heated and Cooled Buildings.'' Obviously any liquid otherwise suitable for use in such a device should be subjected to a toxicological evaluation. 34 liquids (24 denser than water, 10 less dense) have physical and chemical properties that would make them suitable for use in such a device. In addition to the complexity involved in selecting the most promising liquids from the standpoint of their chemical and physical properties is added the additional difficulty of also considering their toxicological properties. Some of the physical and chemical properties of these liquids are listed. The liquids are listed in alphabetical order within groups, the denser than water liquids are listed first followed by those liquids less dense than water.

  4. Heat storage characteristics of latent microcapsules using hot air bubbles by direct contact heat exchange; Onshitsu kihogun to sennetsu microcapsule tono chokusetsu sesshohku kokan ni yoru chikunetsu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, K.; Sugiura, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    2000-05-25

    This paper has dealt with the heat storage characteristics of fine microcapsules packed with latent heat storage material in the water layer. The heat storage operation to the latent microcapsules was carried out using hot air bubbles by direct contact heat exchange. The microcapsule consists of n-paraffin as a core latent-heat storage material and melamine resin as a coating substance. The relation of the completion time of latent-heat storage to some parameters was examined experimentally. The non-dimensional correlation equations for the completion time of latent-heat storage process had were derived in terms of the ratio of water layer height to diameter of microcapsule, Reynolds number for air flow, Stefan number and modified Stefan number for absolute humidity of flowing air. (author)

  5. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  6. Stroke prevention by direct revascularization for patients with adult-onset moyamoya disease presenting with ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tackeun; Oh, Chang Wan; Kwon, O-Ki; Hwang, Gyojun; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Won-Sang; Bang, Jae Seung

    2016-06-01

    . CONCLUSIONS Direct or combined revascularization for patients with adult-onset moyamoya disease presenting with ischemia can prevent further stroke.

  7. Managing Occupational Irritant Contact Dermatitis Using a Two-Step Skincare Regimen Designed to Prevent Skin Damage and Support Skin Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Grote, Erika C; Palaniswarmy, Kiruthi; Meckfessel, Matthew H

    2016-12-01

    Occupational irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) affecting the hands is a common and difficult-to-manage condition. Occupations that necessitate contact with harsh chemicals, use of alcohol-based disinfectants, and frequent hand washing elevate the risk of ICD. Management strategies that do not adequately prevent accumulated damage and repair skin, can develop into chronic dermatoses which negatively impact work productivity and quality of life. A 2-step skin-care regimen (Excipial Daily Protection Hand Cream (EP) and Excipial Rapid Repair Hand Cream (ER), Galderma Laboratories, L.P.) has been developed as a daily-use management strategy to protect and repair vulnerable hands. The protective barrier cream is formulated with aluminum chlorohydrate and designed for pre-exposure application to enhance the skin's natural protective barrier and minimize excessive moisture while wearing protective gloves. The repair cream, a lipid-rich formulation, is intended for post-exposure application to rehydrate and facilitate the skin's natural healing process. The results of 3 clinical studies highlighted in this review demonstrate how the use of a 2-step skin-care regimen offers a greater protective effect against ICD than the use of barrier cream alone, and also how the formulation of the barrier cream used in these studies helps minimize the occlusion effect caused by gloves and does not interfere with the antibacterial efficacy of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. This 2-step skin-care regimen is effectively designed to manage and minimize the risk of ICD development in a variety of patients and provides clinicians an additional tool for helping patients manage ICD. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(12):1504-1510.

  8. Gynecologic Cancer Prevention and Control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: Progress, Current Activities, and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M.; Larkin, O. Ann; Moore, Angela R.; Hayes, Nikki S.

    2013-01-01

    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  9. Gynecologic cancer prevention and control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: progress, current activities, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M; Larkin, O Ann; Moore, Angela R; Hayes, Nikki S

    2013-08-01

    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  10. Detection, prevention and direct post-operative intervention in orthopaedic implant infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maathuis, Patrick Gerardus Maria

    2007-01-01

    In modern medicine, biomaterials are increasingly used to support or restore human body function. A biomaterial can be defined as man-made material designed to interact with living tissue or with body fluid. Joint prostheses, heart valves, external fixator pins, catheters, and contact lenses can all

  11. Direct and indirect contact effect between Al and TiO2 on the conduction mechanism for polymer-TiO2 Schottky diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, K H; Kang, K S; Chen, Y; Han, K J; Kim, Jaehwan

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of Schottky diodes comprising an of Al/a mixture of TiO 2 nanoparticles and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) : poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT : PSS)/Au and Al/TiO 2 /PEDOT : PSS/Au were fabricated to investigate the effect of direct and indirect contacts of Al/TiO 2 on the conduction mechanism. A mixture of TiO 2 nanoparticles and PEDOT : PSS was coated to fabricate an Al/TiO 2 -PEDOT : PSS/Au Schottky diode (IATPA). TiO 2 nanoparticles were directly coated on the Al electrode prior to PEDOT : PSS coating to fabricate an Al/TiO 2 /PEDOT : PSS/Au Schottky diode (DATPA). The forward current of DATPA increased by more than three-fold with respect to that of IATPA. Three conduction models including space charge limited conduction (SCLC), Schottky conduction and Poole-Frenkel conduction (PFC) models were employed to analyse the conduction mechanism. The major conduction mechanisms for both IATPA and DATPA closely follow the SCLC and PFC models. Higher slope and bigger beta value than those of the theoretical SCLC and PFC models for the DATPA indicate more involvement of the PFC mechanism in SCLC or vice versa. The reason for following the SCLC mechanism might be the low conductive property of PEDOT : PSS and the reason for following the PFC mechanism may be the partial positive and negative charges of the PEDOT : PSS.

  12. Technologies for hydrogen production based on direct contact of gaseous hydrocarbons and evaporated water with Molten Pb or Pb-Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulevich, A. V.; Martynov, P. N.; Gulevsky, V. A.; Ulyanov, V. V.

    2007-01-01

    Results of studies intended for the substantiation of a new energy-saving and safe technology for low cost hydrogen production have been presented. The technology's basis is direct mixing of water and (or) gaseous hydrocarbons with heavy liquid metal coolants (HLMC) Pb or Pb-Bi. Preliminary research has been done on thermal dynamics and kinetics of the processes taking place in the interaction of HLMC with hydrocarbon-containing gases. It has been shown as a result that water and gaseous hydrocarbons interact with molten Pb and Pb-Bi relatively quietly in chemical aspect (without ignition and explosions). Therefore, (and taking into account the thermal physics, physical and chemical properties of HLMC such as low pressure of saturated vapor of Pb and Pb- Bi in enhanced temperatures, their good heat conductivity and heat capacity, low viscosity, etc.) heat transfer is possible from the molten metal to water and hydrocarbons without heat transferring partitions (that is, by direct contact of the working media). Devices to implement this method of heating liquid and gaseous media provide essential advantages: - A simple design; - None heat-transferring surfaces subject to corrosion, contamination, thermal fatigue, vibration impacts; - A high effectiveness owing to a larger heat exchanging surface per volume unit; - A small hydraulic resistance. The possibility and effectiveness of heating various gaseous and liquid media in their direct contact with molten Pb and Pb-Bi has been substantiated convincingly by experimental results at IPPE. Besides, the following processes of hydrogen-containing media conversion have been proved feasible thereby. 1. Water decomposition into hydrogen and oxygen. The process can develop at temperatures of 400-1000 degree C. It is necessary to provide constant removal of oxygen from the reaction zone and maintain a minimum possible content of chemically active oxygen in the melt. 2. Pyrolytic decomposition of hydrocarbons into carbon and

  13. Pathogenesis of highly virulent African swine fever virus in domestic pigs exposed via intraoropharyngeal, intranasopharyngeal, and intramuscular inoculation, and by direct contact with infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howey, Erin B; O'Donnell, Vivian; de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena C; Borca, Manuel V; Arzt, Jonathan

    2013-12-26

    To investigate the pathogenesis of African swine fever virus (ASFV), domestic pigs (n=18) were challenged with a range (10(2)-10(6) 50% hemadsorbing doses (HAD50)) of the highly virulent ASFV-Malawi strain by inoculation via the intraoropharyngeal (IOP), intranasopharyngeal (INP), or intramuscular (IM) routes. A subsequent contact challenge experiment was performed in which six IOP-inoculated donor pigs were allowed to have direct contact (DC) with six naïve pigs for exposure times that varied from 24 to 72 h. All challenge routes resulted in clinical progression and postmortem lesions similar to those previously described in experimental and natural infection. The onset of clinical signs occurred between 1 and 7 days post inoculation (dpi) and included pyrexia with variable progression to obtundation, hematochezia, melena, moribundity and death with a duration of 4-11 days. Viremia was first detected between 4 and 5 dpi in all inoculation groups whereas ASFV shedding from the nasal cavity and tonsil was first detected at 3-9 dpi. IM and DC were the most consistent modes of infection, with 12/12 (100%) of pigs challenged by these routes becoming infected. Several clinical and virological parameters were significantly different between IM and DC groups indicating dissimilarity between these modes of infection. Amongst the simulated natural routes, INP inoculation resulted in the most consistent progression of disease across the widest range of doses whilst preserving simulation of natural exposure and therefore may provide a superior system for pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy investigation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. [Maternal filicide in Japan: analyses of 96 cases and future directions for prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Hisako

    2007-01-01

    Maternal filicide is not an isolated phenomenon. When a mother kills her child, she may be affected by many factors and confronted with different problems based on the child's developmental stage. In this study in Japan, a judicial sample of 96 adult women, convicted in their first trial for the murder or attempted murder of their children, was divided into four groups of mothers according to the age of the victim (25 women killed neonates, 22 women infants, 27 women preschool children, and 22 women schoolchildren and/or teenagers) in order to identify the factors that have a major impact on filicide in each group. The socio-demographic, clinical, forensic, circumstantial, and offense characteristics, and legal disposition of 96 cases drawn from judicial records were compared among the four groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test; comparison of two groups was conducted using the Mann-Whitney test. Neonaticide cases were distinguished from the other three groups by marked differences: a significantly higher rate of unmarried mothers, financial difficulties, absence of mental illness, and admission of not wanting an illegitimate child. In the other groups, mental disorders were frequent; in particular, post-partum depression was the primary cause of infanticide. For the two groups of cases involving a child older than one year, filicidal mothers were more affected by circumstantial factors such as health problems of the child or severe marital discord. These problems may then have caused a reactive mental disorder among these mothers. The risk of fatal abuse or neglect was higher for handicapped preschool children. Filicide-suicide was most frequently seen among school-aged children and/or teenagers who had serious behavioral problems, and these children often had a mental disorder. The classification of maternal filicide by age of the child demonstrated that there are specific issues for each group. Based on these findings, future directions for prevention include

  15. Enhanced visible light activity on direct contact Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan [National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Zhang, Min [National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Li, Qiuye, E-mail: qiuyeli@henu.edu.cn [National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Yang, Jianjun, E-mail: yangjianjun@henu.edu.cn [National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} composites were obtained by simple solid state sintering. • The composites were direct contact Z-scheme without an electron mediator. • TiO{sub 2} with large amount of SETOV was obtained by dehydration of NTA. - Abstract: Direct contact Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites without an electron mediator are prepared via simple annealing the mixture of bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and nanotube titanic acid (NTA) in air at 600 °C for 2 h. In the process of annealing, the bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} transformed to ultra-thin g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets, and NTA converted to a novel anatase TiO{sub 2}, then the two components formed a close interaction. The XPS result reveals that some amount of nitrogen is doped into this novel-TiO{sub 2}, and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets exist in the composites. The results of XRD, TEM and TG indicate that the thickness of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets is very thin. The ESR spectrum shows the existence of Ti{sup 3+} and single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancy in the 30%g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} composites. In photocatalytic activity test, the 30%g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites showed an excellent photo-oxidation activity of propylene under visible light irradiation (λ≥ 420 nm), and the removal efficiency of propylene reached as high as 56.6%, and the activity kept nearly 82% after four consecutive recycles. Photoluminescence (PL) result using terephthalic acid (TA) as a probe molecule indicated that the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites displayed a Z-sheme photocatalytic reaction system and this should be the main reason for the high photocatalytic activity. A possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed on the basis of PL result and transient photocurrent-time curves.

  16. Changes in the pattern of sensitization to common contact allergens in denmark between 1985-86 and 1997-98, with a special view to the effect of preventive strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J d; Menné, T; Christophersen, J

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to describe any changes in the prevalence of sensitization to common contact allergens in patch-tested patients over a 12-year period. Attention is given to possible effects of preventive strategies introduced in Denmark regarding nickel and chromate sensitiz...

  17. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  18. A Framework for Better Understanding and Enhancing Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) in Terms of Module Design, Cost Analysis and Energy Required

    KAUST Repository

    AbuHannoud, Ali

    2011-07-01

    Water is becoming scarcer and several authors have highlighted the upcoming problem of higher water salinity and the difficulty of treating and discharging water. Moreover, current discoveries of problems with chemicals that have been used for pretreating or post-treating water alerted scientists to research better solutions to treat water. Membrane distillation (MD) is a promising technology that might replace current processes as it has lower pretreatment requirements combined with a tremendous ability to treat a wide range of feed sources while producing very high product quality. If it enters the market, it will have a big influence on all products, from food industry to spaceflight. However, there are several problems which make MD a hot topic for research. One of them is the question about the real cost of MD in terms of heating feed and cooling distillate over time with respect to product quantity and quality. In this work, extensive heating and cooling analyses are covered to answer this question in order to enhance the MD process. Results show energy cost to produce water and the main source of energy loss for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD), and several suggestions are made in order to better understand and hence enhance the process.

  19. Measurement of Near-Surface Salinity, Temperature and Directional Wave Spectra using a Novel Wave-Following, Lagrangian Surface Contact Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    Results from a surface contact drifter buoy which measures near-surface conductivity ( 10 cm depth), sea state characteristics and near-surface water temperature ( 2 cm depth) are described. This light (autonomous, with low power requirements and solar panel battery recharging. Onboard sensors include an inductive toroidal conductivity probe for salinity measurement, a nine-degrees-of-freedom motion package for derivation of directional wave spectra and a thermocouple for water temperature measurement. Data retrieval for expendable, ocean-going operation uses an onboard Argos transmitter. Scientific results as well as data processing algorithms are presented from laboratory and field experiments which support qualification of buoy platform measurements. These include sensor calibration experiments, longer-term dock-side biofouling experiments during 2013-2014 and a series of short-duration ocean deployments in the Gulf Stream in 2014. In addition, a treatment method will be described which appears to minimize the effects of biofouling on the inductive conductivity probe when in coastal surface waters. Due to its low cost and ease of deployment, scores, perhaps hundreds of these novel instruments could be deployed from ships or aircraft during process studies or to provide surface validation for satellite-based measurements, particularly in high precipitation regions.

  20. A direct contact between astrocyte and vitreous body is possible in the rabbit eye due to discontinuities in the basement membrane of the retinal inner limiting membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haddad

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Different from most mammalian species, the optic nerve of the rabbit eye is initially formed inside the retina where myelination of the axons of the ganglion cells starts and vascularization occurs. Astrocytes are confined to these regions. The aforementioned nerve fibers known as medullated nerve fibers form two bundles that may be identified with the naked eye. The blood vessels run on the inner surface of these nerve fiber bundles (epivascularization and, accordingly, the accompanying astrocytes lie mostly facing the vitreous body from which they are separated only by the inner limiting membrane of the retina. The arrangement of the astrocytes around blood vessels leads to the formation of structures known as glial tufts. Fragments (N = 3 or whole pieces (N = 3 of the medullated nerve fiber region of three-month-old male rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus were fixed in glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide, and their thin sections were examined with a transmission electron microscope. Randomly located discontinuities (up to a few micrometers long of the basement membrane of the inner limiting membrane of the retina were observed in the glial tufts. As a consequence, a direct contact between the astrocyte plasma membrane and vitreous elements was demonstrated, making possible functional interactions such as macromolecular exchanges between this glial cell type and the components of the vitreous body.

  1. Performance and Fouling Study of Asymmetric PVDF Membrane Applied in the Concentration of Organic Fertilizer by Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes using membrane distillation (MD as an alternative to the conventional multi-stage flushing (MSF process to concentrate a semi-product of organic fertilizer. By applying a unique asymmetric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF membrane, which was specifically designed for MD applications using a nonsolvent thermally induced phase separation (NTIPS method, the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD performance was investigated in terms of its sustainability in permeation flux, fouling resistance, and anti-wetting properties. It was found that the permeation flux increased with increasing flow rate, while the top-surface facing feed mode was the preferred orientation to achieve 25% higher flux than the bottom-surface facing feed mode. Compared to the commercial polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE membrane, the asymmetric PVDF membrane exhibited excellent anti-fouling and sustainable flux, with less than 8% flux decline in a 15 h continuous operation, i.e., flux decreased slightly and was maintained as high as 74 kg·m−2·h−1 at 70 °C. Meanwhile, the lost flux was easily recovered by clean water rinsing. Overall 2.6 times concentration factor was achieved in 15 h MD operation, with 63.4% water being removed from the fertilizer sample. Further concentration could be achieved to reach the desired industrial standard of 5x concentration factor.

  2. Performance and Fouling Study of Asymmetric PVDF Membrane Applied in the Concentration of Organic Fertilizer by Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfei; Xiao, Tonghu; Bao, Chenghuan; Zhang, Jifei; Yang, Xing

    2018-02-16

    This study proposes using membrane distillation (MD) as an alternative to the conventional multi-stage flushing (MSF) process to concentrate a semi-product of organic fertilizer. By applying a unique asymmetric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane, which was specifically designed for MD applications using a nonsolvent thermally induced phase separation (NTIPS) method, the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performance was investigated in terms of its sustainability in permeation flux, fouling resistance, and anti-wetting properties. It was found that the permeation flux increased with increasing flow rate, while the top-surface facing feed mode was the preferred orientation to achieve 25% higher flux than the bottom-surface facing feed mode. Compared to the commercial polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane, the asymmetric PVDF membrane exhibited excellent anti-fouling and sustainable flux, with less than 8% flux decline in a 15 h continuous operation, i.e., flux decreased slightly and was maintained as high as 74 kg·m-2·h-1 at 70 °C. Meanwhile, the lost flux was easily recovered by clean water rinsing. Overall 2.6 times concentration factor was achieved in 15 h MD operation, with 63.4% water being removed from the fertilizer sample. Further concentration could be achieved to reach the desired industrial standard of 5x concentration factor.

  3. Prevention of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After Trauma: Current Evidence and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Gevonden, Martin; Shalev, Arieh

    2016-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a frequent, tenacious, and disabling consequence of traumatic events. The disorder's identifiable onset and early symptoms provide opportunities for early detection and prevention. Empirical findings and theoretical models have outlined specific risk factors and pathogenic processes leading to PTSD. Controlled studies have shown that theory-driven preventive interventions, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), or stress hormone-targeted pharmacological interventions, are efficacious in selected samples of survivors. However, the effectiveness of early clinical interventions remains unknown, and results obtained in aggregates (large groups) overlook individual heterogeneity in PTSD pathogenesis. We review current evidence of PTSD prevention and outline the need to improve the disorder's early detection and intervention in individual-specific paths to chronic PTSD.

  4. Non-communicable disease prevention in Nepal: systemic challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sudesh Raj; Page, Rachel; Matheson, Anna; Lambrick, Danielle; Faulkner, James; Mishra, Shiva Raj

    2017-08-01

    Developing countries such as Nepal are experiencing a double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) resulting in social and economic losses. In Nepal, more than half of the disease burden is due to NCDs. The major NCDs in Nepal are cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes. Behavioural factors such as tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet are driving the epidemic of NCDs, which are further influenced by social, economic and environmental determinants. The health system of Nepal has not been able to address the ever-increasing burden of NCDs. With the formulation of the Multisectoral Action Plan for Prevention and Control of NCDs 2014-2020, there has been some hope for tackling the NCDs and their social determinants in Nepal through a primary prevention approach. This paper discusses the systemic challenges and recommends two key actions for the prevention and control of NCDs in Nepal.

  5. Crane-Load Contact Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Cox, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An electronic instrument has been developed as a prototype of a portable crane-load contact sensor. Such a sensor could be helpful in an application in which the load rests on a base in a horizontal position determined by vertical alignment pins (see Figure 1). If the crane is not positioned to lift the load precisely vertically, then the load can be expected to swing once it has been lifted clear of the pins. If the load is especially heavy, large, and/or fragile, it could hurt workers and/or damage itself and nearby objects. By indicating whether the load remains in contact with the pins when it has been lifted a fraction of the length of the pins, the crane-load contact sensor helps the crane operator determine whether it is safe to lift the load clear of the pins: If there is contact, then the load is resting against the sides of the pins and, hence, it may not be safe to lift; if contact is occasionally broken, then the load is probably not resting against the pins, so it should be safe to lift. It is assumed that the load and base, or at least the pins and the surfaces of the alignment holes in the load, are electrically conductive, so the instrument can use electrical contact to indicate mechanical contact. However, DC resistance cannot be used as an indicator of contact for the following reasons: The load and the base are both electrically grounded through cables (the load is grounded through the lifting cable of the crane) to prevent discharge of static electricity. In other words, the DC resistance between the load and the pins is always low, as though they were always in direct contact. Therefore, instead of DC resistance, the instrument utilizes the AC electrical impedance between the pins and the load. The signal frequency used in the measurement is high enough (.1 MHz) that the impedance contributed by the cables and the electrical ground network of the building in which the crane and the base are situated is significantly greater than the contact

  6. Preventing relapse in the treatment of nicotine addiction: current issues and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, T P

    1992-01-01

    Although smoking-cessation rates have continued to increase, the vast majority of smokers who quit eventually relapse. Between 1974 and 1985, over 1.3 million smokers quit during each of those years. However, 75% to 80% of those individuals resumed smoking within six months. This article describes the dynamic phenomenon of smoking relapse within the context of cyclical episodes of smoking and quitting during an individual's lifetime. Theories of the determinants of smoking relapse are reviewed and methods designed to prevent relapse are described. Smoking relapse is discussed in terms of three aspects of tobacco addiction: (1) biological-addiction mechanisms, (2) conditioning processes, and (3) cognitive-social learning factors. The major determinants of smoking relapse are reviewed, including nicotine withdrawal, stress, weight gain, social influences, conditioning factors, causal attributions, and environmental variables. A transtheoretical-developmental model is explored in the longitudinal investigation of the natural history of slips (lapses) and relapse episodes. Relapse prevention interventions are described that emphasize self-awareness, self-regulation, self-efficacy, affect regulation, social support, and lifestyle balance. Recent developments in pharmacological adjuncts to treatment are also examined. It is concluded that innovative relapse prevention methods need to be designed for hard-core smokers with histories of cessation failures, substance abuse and/or psychiatric impairment. These and other recommendations for future research on smoking relapse and relapse prevention are discussed.

  7. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  8. Prevention of Type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes directed at the family context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Nielsen, K; Grunnet, L Groth; Maindal, H Terkildsen

    2018-01-01

    for future research. A narrative review of the symposium presentations and related literature is given. GDM is associated with increased short- and long-term adverse outcomes including Type 2 diabetes for both mother and offspring. Interestingly, women's partners are also at higher risk of Type 2 diabetes....... Thus, although GDM is diagnosed in pregnant women, the implications seem to affect the whole family. Structured lifestyle intervention can prevent or delay the onset of Type 2 diabetes. In this review, we show how numerous challenges are present in the target group, when such interventions are sought......In this review, we aim to summarize knowledge about gestational diabetes (GDM) after delivery; with special focus on the potential of preventing Type 2 diabetes in a family context. The review expands on the key messages from a symposium held in Copenhagen in May 2017 and highlights avenues...

  9. Osteoporosis knowledge translation for young adults: new directions for prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Holland

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis prevention is heavily reliant on education programs, which are most effective when tailored to their intended audience. Most osteoporosis prevention education is designed for older adults, making application of these programs to younger adults difficult. Designing programs for young adults requires understanding the information-seeking practices of young adults, so that knowledge about osteoporosis can be effectively translated. Methods: Individual interviews were conducted with 60 men and women—multiethnic, Canadian young adults—to explore both the sources and types of information they search for when seeking information on nutrition or bone health. Results: The results of this study raised themes related to the sources participants use, to their interests and to ways of engaging young adults. Prevention programs should make use of traditional sources, such as peers, family members and medical professionals, as well as emerging technologies, such as social media. Choice of sources was related to the perceived authority of and trust associated with the source. Messaging should relate to young adult interests, such as fitness and food—topics on which young adults are already seeking information—rather than being embedded within specific osteoporosis awareness materials. Engaging young adults means using relatable messages that are short and encourage small changes. Small gender-based differences were found in the information-seeking interests of participants. Differences related to age were not examined. Conclusion: Creating short, action-oriented messages that are designed to encourage small changes in behaviour and are packaged with information that young adults are actively seeking is more likely to result in active engagement in prevention behaviours.

  10. Osteoporosis knowledge translation for young adults: new directions for prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alyson

    2017-08-01

    Osteoporosis prevention is heavily reliant on education programs, which are most effective when tailored to their intended audience. Most osteoporosis prevention education is designed for older adults, making application of these programs to younger adults difficult. Designing programs for young adults requires understanding the information-seeking practices of young adults, so that knowledge about osteoporosis can be effectively translated. Individual interviews were conducted with 60 men and women-multiethnic, Canadian young adults-to explore both the sources and types of information they search for when seeking information on nutrition or bone health. The results of this study raised themes related to the sources participants use, to their interests and to ways of engaging young adults. Prevention programs should make use of traditional sources, such as peers, family members and medical professionals, as well as emerging technologies, such as social media. Choice of sources was related to the perceived authority of and trust associated with the source. Messaging should relate to young adult interests, such as fitness and food-topics on which young adults are already seeking information-rather than being embedded within specific osteoporosis awareness materials. Engaging young adults means using relatable messages that are short and encourage small changes. Small gender-based differences were found in the information-seeking interests of participants. Differences related to age were not examined. Creating short, action-oriented messages that are designed to encourage small changes in behaviour and are packaged with information that young adults are actively seeking is more likely to result in active engagement in prevention behaviours.

  11. [Subjective hardship and training by female staff working in direct contact with the elderly in nursing homes: a cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissier, Carole; Fontana, Luc; Fort, Emmanuel; Charbotel, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    To describe training given and training desired and to assess the relation between training and perceived hard working conditions as experienced by female staff working in direct contact with the elderly in nursing homes. A transverse descriptive study was conducted with the involvement of 78 occupational physicians, and included staff in 105 nursing homes in the Rhône-Alpes Region of France. Data on training received during the previous 5 years and on training needs were collected from staff by self-administered questionnaire. 1,446 nursing assistants, 667 housekeepers and 348 nurses were included. The most frequent form of training during the previous 5 years was in handling. Staff most frequently desired training in palliative care and psychological approaches to residents. Part-time workers had less frequently had training during the previous 5 years. Staff with daytime hours significantly more often had training in the reception of and activities for the elderly and in hygiene than did night-staff. Almost half of respondents reported very hard working conditions related to physical handling of residents or to the physical deterioration of elderly persons. More than two-thirds reported very hard working conditions related to death. In all occupational categories, respondents who had had training in palliative care less often reported experiencing very hard working conditions related to death. Better adaptation of the training offer to the needs expressed by employees could improve the experience of working conditions in nursing homes. A longitudinal study could assess the impact of training in palliative care on reported hard working conditions related to death.

  12. Effect of non-solvent additives on the morphology, pore structure, and direct contact membrane distillation performance of PVDF-CTFE hydrophobic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Libing; Wu, Zhenjun; Zhang, Yong; Wei, Yuansong; Wang, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Four common types of additives for polymer membrane preparation including organic macromolecule and micromolecule additives, inorganic salts and acids, and the strong non-solvent H2O were used to prepare poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene) (PVDF-CTFE) hydrophobic flat-sheet membranes. Membrane properties including morphology, porosity, hydrophobicity, pore size and pore distribution were investigated, and the permeability was evaluated via direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) of 3.5g/L NaCl solution in a DCMD configuration. Both inorganic and organic micromolecule additives were found to slightly influence membrane hydrophobicity. Polyethylene glycol (PEG), organic acids, LiCl, MgCl2, and LiCl/H2O mixtures were proved to be effective additives to PVDF-CTFE membranes due to their pore-controlling effects and the capacity to improve the properties and performance of the resultant membranes. The occurrence of a pre-gelation process showed that when organic and inorganic micromolecules were added to PVDF-CTFE solution, the resultant membranes presented a high interconnectivity structure. The membrane prepared with dibutyl phthalate (DBP) showed a nonporous surface and symmetrical cross-section. When H2O and LiCl/H2O mixtures were also used as additives, they were beneficial for solid-liquid demixing, especially when LiCl/H2O mixed additives were used. The membrane prepared with 5% LiCl+2% H2O achieved a flux of 24.53kg/(m(2)·hr) with 99.98% salt rejection. This study is expected to offer a reference not only for PVDF-CTFE membrane preparation but also for other polymer membranes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. A theoretical study of a direct contact membrane distillation system coupled to a salt-gradient solar pond for terminal lakes reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Francisco; Tyler, Scott W; Childress, Amy E

    2010-08-01

    Terminal lakes are water bodies that are located in closed watersheds with the only output of water occurring through evaporation or infiltration. The majority of these lakes, which are commonly located in the desert and influenced by human activities, are increasing in salinity. Treatment options are limited, due to energy costs, and many of these lakes provide an excellent opportunity to test solar-powered desalination systems. This paper theoretically investigates utilization of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) coupled to a salt-gradient solar pond (SGSP) for sustainable freshwater production at terminal lakes. A model for heat and mass transport in the DCMD module and a thermal model for an SGSP were developed and coupled to evaluate the feasibility of freshwater production. The construction of an SGSP outside and inside of a terminal lake was studied. As results showed that freshwater flows are on the same order of magnitude as evaporation, these systems will only be successful if the SGSP is constructed inside the terminal lake so that there is little or no net increase in surface area. For the study site of this investigation, water production on the order of 2.7 x 10(-3) m(3) d(-1) per m(2) of SGSP is possible. The major advantages of this system are that renewable thermal energy is used so that little electrical energy is required, the coupled system requires low maintenance, and the terminal lake provides a source of salts to create the stratification in the SGSP. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Innovation: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Ruth Hoskins Editor University of KwaZulu-Natal, Information Studies Programme Email: hoskinsr@ukzn.ac.za. Support Contact. Gita Ramdass Email: ramdass@ukzn.ac.za. ISSN: 1025-8892. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  15. Electric contact arcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthrell, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Electrical contacts must function properly in many types of components used in nuclear weapon systems. Design, application, and testing of these components require detailed knowledge of chemical and physical phenomena associated with stockpile storage, stockpile testing, and operation. In the past, investigation of these phenomena has led to significant discoveries on the effects of surface contaminants, friction and wear, and the mechanics of closure on contact performance. A recent investigation of contact arcing phenomena which revealed that, preceding contact closure, arcs may occur at voltages lower than had been previously known is described. This discovery is important, since arcing may damage contacts, and repetitive testing of contacts performed as part of a quality assurance program might produce cumulative damage that would yield misleading life-test data and could prevent proper operation of the contacts at some time in the future. This damage can be avoided by determining the conditions under which arcing occurs, and ensuring that these conditions are avoided in contact testing

  16. Contact allergy epidemics and their controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil

    2007-01-01

    Contact dermatitis can be severe and lead to sick leave as well as significant healthcare expenses. The aim of this review is to present the published knowledge on 6 historical epidemics of contact allergy to apply this knowledge on the prevention and control of future contact allergy epidemics...... to prevent contact allergy epidemics. It is essential that dermatologist, scientists, administrators, and consumers organize and structure known methods to accelerate the control of emerging contact allergens....

  17. FLU AS PROBLEM COMMON TO ALL MANKIND. FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korovaeva I.V

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the flu, as one of the most common infectious diseases affecting humanity throughout its history. The data on the structure of A influenza virus and its variability is given historical background for most famous of the pandemics, which inflicted irreparable damage to the population of the Earth, are shown the basic stages of the study for influenza virus. Are considered the types of variability of the A virus influenza, its ability to overcome interspecies barriers that form the basis of pathogen escape from the immune response. The article shows the promising areas of modern prevention and treatment of this disease

  18. Need for Early Interventions in the Prevention of Pediatric Overweight: A Review and Upcoming Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Dattilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is currently one of the most prevailing and challenging public health issues among industrialized countries and of international priority. The global prevalence of obesity poses such a serious concern that the World Health Organization (WHO has described it as a “global epidemic.” Recent literature suggests that the genesis of the problem occurs in the first years of life as feeding patterns, dietary habits, and parental feeding practices are established. Obesity prevention evidence points to specific dietary factors, such as the promotion of breastfeeding and appropriate introduction of nutritious complementary foods, but also calls for attention to parental feeding practices, awareness of appropriate responses to infant hunger and satiety cues, physical activity/inactivity behaviors, infant sleep duration, and family meals. Interventions that begin at birth, targeting multiple factors related to healthy growth, have not been adequately studied. Due to the overwhelming importance and global significance of excess weight within pediatric populations, this narrative review was undertaken to summarize factors associated with overweight and obesity among infants and toddlers, with focus on potentially modifiable risk factors beginning at birth, and to address the need for early intervention prevention.

  19. Need for early interventions in the prevention of pediatric overweight: a review and upcoming directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilo, Anne M; Birch, Leann; Krebs, Nancy F; Lake, Alan; Taveras, Elsie M; Saavedra, Jose M

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is currently one of the most prevailing and challenging public health issues among industrialized countries and of international priority. The global prevalence of obesity poses such a serious concern that the World Health Organization (WHO) has described it as a "global epidemic." Recent literature suggests that the genesis of the problem occurs in the first years of life as feeding patterns, dietary habits, and parental feeding practices are established. Obesity prevention evidence points to specific dietary factors, such as the promotion of breastfeeding and appropriate introduction of nutritious complementary foods, but also calls for attention to parental feeding practices, awareness of appropriate responses to infant hunger and satiety cues, physical activity/inactivity behaviors, infant sleep duration, and family meals. Interventions that begin at birth, targeting multiple factors related to healthy growth, have not been adequately studied. Due to the overwhelming importance and global significance of excess weight within pediatric populations, this narrative review was undertaken to summarize factors associated with overweight and obesity among infants and toddlers, with focus on potentially modifiable risk factors beginning at birth, and to address the need for early intervention prevention.

  20. mHealth approaches to child obesity prevention: successes, unique challenges, and next directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; O'Reilly, Gillian; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Gotsis, Marientina; Pentz, Mary Ann; Dunton, Genevieve F

    2013-12-01

    Childhood obesity continues to be a significant public health issue. mHealth systems offer state-of-the-art approaches to intervention design, delivery, and diffusion of treatment and prevention efforts. Benefits include cost effectiveness, potential for real-time data collection, feedback capability, minimized participant burden, relevance to multiple types of populations, and increased dissemination capability. However, these advantages are coupled with unique challenges. This commentary discusses challenges with using mHealth strategies for child obesity prevention, such as lack of scientific evidence base describing effectiveness of commercially available applications; relatively slower speed of technology development in academic research settings as compared with industry; data security, and patient privacy; potentially adverse consequences of increased sedentary screen time, and decreased focused attention due to technology use. Implications for researchers include development of more nuanced measures of screen time and other technology-related activities, and partnering with industry for developing healthier technologies. Implications for health practitioners include monitoring, assessing, and providing feedback to child obesity program designers about users' data transfer issues, perceived security and privacy, sedentary behavior, focused attention, and maintenance of behavior change. Implications for policy makers include regulation of claims and quality of apps (especially those aimed at children), supporting standardized data encryption and secure open architecture, and resources for research-industry partnerships that improve the look and feel of technology. Partnerships between academia and industry may promote solutions, as discussed in this commentary.

  1. What works for obesity prevention and treatment in black Americans? Research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, S K; Whitt-Glover, M C; Haire-Joshu, D

    2014-10-01

    Obesity prevalence in black/African American children and adults of both sexes is high overall and compared with US whites. What we know, and do not know, about how to enhance the effectiveness of obesity prevention and treatment interventions in African Americans is the focus of the 10 articles in this special issue of Obesity Reviews. The evidence base is limited in quantity and quality and insufficient to provide clear guidance. With respect to children, there is relatively consistent, but not definitive support for prioritizing the systematic implementation and evaluation of child-focused interventions in pre-school and school settings and outside of school time. For adults or all ages, developing and refining e-health approaches and faith-based or other culturally and contextually relevant approaches, including translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program intervention to community settings is indicated. Major evidence gaps were identified with respect to interventions with black men and boys, ways to increase participation and retention of black adults in lifestyle behaviour change programmes, and studies of the impact of environmental and policy changes on eating and physical activity in black communities. Bold steps related to research funding priorities, research infrastructure and methodological guidelines are recommended to improve the quantity and quality of research in this domain. © 2014 World Obesity.

  2. The planned EC Directive on 'Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control' (IPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellner, D.; Schnutenhaus, J.

    1993-01-01

    This EC Directive is intended to incorporate integrated pollution control as a mandatory obligation in the legal provisions governing industrial installations licensing within the EC. The article in hand presents an assessment of the Directive and discusses some possible impacts on the German national law in the field of pollution control, which hitherto has been defined on the basis of a preferably medium-oriented approach. A serious point of deviation from the German approach is seen in the fact that the draft's provisions relating to the licensing of industrial installations defines certain pre-conditions allowing a plant in a low-polluted area to be licensed, although the pollution control systems of the plant do not them come up to the state-of-the-art in pollution abatement technology. This is seen as a fact jeopardizing the principle of precantionary measures which has been firmly established in German pollution control law. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Youth violence prevention comes of age: research, training and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kara; Rivera, Lourdes; Neighbours, Robert; Reznik, Vivian

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent behavior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the individual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work still remains to be done in this field, both in examining potential causes and in designing effective intervention strategies. This chapter highlights specific dimensions of youth violence prevention selected by the authors because these dimensions are the focus of public attention, are emerging as critical issues in the study of youth violence, or have a unique place in the current political and social context. We focus on the developmental pathways to violence, factors that mediate and moderate youth violence, the role of culture and media in youth violence, school-based violence such as school shootings and bullying, and the training of health care professionals.

  4. Comparison of Two Methods of Direct and Indirect Education on Osteoporosis Preventive Behaviors among Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Darabi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease that decreases bone mass, causes destruction and eventually friability. This disease is preventable, and because adolescent females are the high-risk population, teaching this age group is of the utmost importance. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the two educational methods (Lecture and Pamphlet on osteoporosis preventive behaviors among female students. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial (RCT. To collect data, demographic questionnaire, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, and physical activity questionnaire were used. Subjects were 205 seventh-grade girls who were selected by multistage random method and allocated in two experimental (Lecture = 68, Pamphlet = 67 and 70 for control group. In the Lecture group, there were 5 sessions of training, each of which lasted 60 minutes. In the Pamphlet group, only educational pamphlets were given, and no interventions were performed in the control group. Data were analyzed through statistical software SPSS version 21.0. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, t-test and ANOVA were applied to analyze the data. Results: The mean age of the students was 13 + 0.856 years old and there was no difference in terms of demographic variables between intervention and control groups. The results identified the mean scores of physical activity behaviors significantly improved two mounts after the intervention in the lecture group (P=0.001.While, the men scores of the pamphlet group had no significant changes after two months, but the differences of the both group compared to the control group were significant. Considering the significant decreased in the control group (P= 001. The mean scores of calcium intake in the two lecture and pamphlet groups significantly increased (P

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers ... Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de ...

  6. A Class I (Senofilcon A) Soft Contact Lens Prevents UVB-Induced Ocular Effects, Including Cataract, in the Rabbit In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Ren; Leverenz, Victor R.; Dang, Loan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. UVB radiation from sunlight is known to be a risk factor for human cataract. The purpose in this study was to investigate the ability of a class I UV-blocking soft contact lens to protect against UVB-induced effects on the ocular tissues of the rabbit in vivo. Methods. Eyes of rabbits were exposed to UVB light for 30 minutes (270–360 nm, peak at 310 nm, 1.7 mW/cm2 on the cornea). Eyes were irradiated in the presence of either a UV-blocking senofilcon A contact lens, a minimally UV-blocking lotrafilcon A contact lens, or no contact lens at all. Effects on the cornea and lens were evaluated at various times after exposure. Results. Eyes irradiated with no contact lens protection showed corneal epithelial cell loss plus lens epithelial cell swelling, vacuole formation, and DNA single-strand breaks, as well as lens anterior subcapsular opacification. The senofilcon A lens protected nearly completely against the UVB-induced effects, whereas the lotrafilcon A lens showed no protection. Conclusions. The results indicate that use of a senofilcon A contact lens is beneficial in protecting ocular tissues of the rabbit against the harmful effects of UVB light, including photokeratitis and cataract. PMID:21421866

  7. Changes in the pattern of sensitization to common contact allergens in denmark between 1985-86 and 1997-98, with a special view to the effect of preventive strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J d; Menné, T; Christophersen, J

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to describe any changes in the prevalence of sensitization to common contact allergens in patch-tested patients over a 12-year period. Attention is given to possible effects of preventive strategies introduced in Denmark regarding nickel and chromate sensitiz......The objective of the present study is to describe any changes in the prevalence of sensitization to common contact allergens in patch-tested patients over a 12-year period. Attention is given to possible effects of preventive strategies introduced in Denmark regarding nickel and chromate...... sensitization during that period, and particular areas of concern are identified. Members of the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group collected patch-test results from consecutive eczema patients as well as information about exposures and demographic variables over a 6-month period in 1985-86. The investigation...... was repeated in 1997-98 in the same clinics, at the same time of year, using identical methods and patch-test substances, including nickel sulphate 5%, potassium dichromate 0.5% and fragrance mix 8%. Nickel was the most common contact allergen in both study periods, followed by the fragrance mix. In children 0...

  8. Studi Eksperimental Stick-Slip Friction Akibat Multi-Directional Contact Friction dengan Material Uji Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE Terhadap Stainless Steel (AISI 304

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Yamsi Kurnia

    2017-01-01

    -slip friction lebih tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan benda yang mengalami uni-directional contact friction. Mekanisme keausan yang terjadi pada saat fenomena stick-slip terjadi adalah keausan abrasif dan adhesif.

  9. Ulceration of the oral mucosa following direct contact with ferrous sulfate in elderly patients: a case report and a review of the French National Pharmacovigilance Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liabeuf S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sophie Liabeuf,1–3 Valérie Gras,1 Julien Moragny,1 Marie-Laure Laroche,4 Michel Andrejak1,3On behalf of the French National Network of Pharmacovigilance Centers1Regional Pharmacovigilance Center, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Amiens University Medical Center and Jules Verne University of Picardy, Amiens, France; 2Clinical Research Centre, Clinical Pharmacology Division, Amiens University Medical Center and the Jules Verne University of Picardy, Amiens, France; 3INSERM U1088, Amiens, France; 4Regional Pharmacovigilance Center, Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacovigilance, Limoges University Medical Center, Limoges, FranceObjective: To report a series of cases of ulceration of the oral mucosa linked to direct contact with ferrous sulfate in elderly patients.Case summary: The first case report concerns the occurrence of widespread oral ulceration in an 87-year-old woman with Alzheimer’s disease. The ulceration extended from the side of the tongue to the floor of the mouth. No clear explanation was found and various local treatments were ineffective. Once it was realized that the ferrous sulfate tablets (given as an iron supplement were crushed prior to administration (due to the patient’s deglutition disorder, withdrawal of this treatment led to rapid resolution of the ulceration. Nine other cases of oral ulcerations associated with ferrous sulfate were identified in the French National Pharmacovigilance Database. All but one of the patients were over 80 years of age and the youngest patient (a 54-year-old had dysphagia associated with facial paralysis.Discussion: Only two other reports of oral ulceration due to ferrous sulfate have been published to date. Mucosal toxicity of ferrous sulfate (which is probably related to oxidative stress has previously been reported for the hypopharynx, the esophageal lumen, and (after inhalation of a tablet the tracheobronchial tree.Conclusion: The mucosal toxicity of ferrous

  10. Mechanical Contact Experiments and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, P; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical contact is studied under dynamic development by means of a combined numerical and experimental investigation. The experiments are designed to allow dynamical development of non-planar contact areas with significant expansion in all three directions as the load is increased. Different....... The overall investigation serves for testing and validating the numerical implementation of the mechanical contact, which is one of the main contributions to a system intended for 3D simulation of resistance welding. Correct modelling of contact between parts to be welded, as well as contact with electrodes......, is crucial for satisfactory modelling of the resistance welding process. The resistance heating at the contact interfaces depends on both contact area and pressure, and as the contact areas develop dynamically, the presented tests are relevant for assessing the validity and accuracy of the mechanical contact...

  11. Direct contact between dendritic cells and bronchial epithelial cells inhibits T cell recall responses towards mite and pollen allergen extracts in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazian, Dick; Wagtmann, Valery R; Hansen, Soren

    2015-01-01

    Background: Airway epithelial cells (AECs) form a polarized barrier along the respiratory tract. They are the first point of contact with airborne antigens and are able to instruct resident immune cells to mount appropriate immune responses by either soluble or contact-dependent mechanisms....... Objective: We hypothesize that a healthy, polarized epithelial cell layer inhibits inflammatory responses toward allergens to uphold homeostasis. Methods: Using an in vitro co-culture model of the airway epithelium, where a polarized cell layer of bronchial epithelial cells can interact with dendritic cells...... cell recall responses towards Bet v 1, Phl p 5 and Der p 1 in vitro, suggesting that AECs-DC contact in vivo constitute a key element in mucosal homeostasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  12. Direct measurement of the field from a magnetic recording head using an InAs Hall sensor on a contact write/read tester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokemeijer, N.J.; Clinton, T.W.; Crawford, T.M.; Johnson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    At 1 Tbit/in 2 areal density magnetic recording dimensions, reliable magnetic field metrology does not exist. One technique to map the spatial profile of the magnetic field of a write head is to use a contact read/write tester. A magnetic recording head is brought into contact with a Hall sensor, and is subsequently scanned with nm resolution. For a 300 nm track width longitudinal recording head, the magnetic field of the head was mapped. Measurements include the down track field gradient and cross-track field profile and the current-field transfer curve. These results suggest this technique offers a viable write field metrology

  13. Effect of caries preventive measures directed to expectant mothers on caries experience in their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanata Régia Luzia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effectiveness of caries preventive measures started during pregnancy on the caries experience of first-time mothers and their infants. Eighty-one pregnant women with low social background were selected on the basis of the presence of active carious lesions and were randomly divided into control (38 and experimental (43 groups. The initial dental status (DMFS and white spot lesions was established through clinical examination. The prophylactic measures were repeated during pregnancy and 6 and 12 months after delivery. Both groups received primary care intervention. They were instructed in relation to the etiologic factors of dental caries and received oral hygiene kits. Oral hygiene instructions were reinforced through interactive brushing. The experimental group also received antimicrobial treatment (topical application of NaF and iodine solution immediately after prophylaxis and 3 and 5 days later and restorative care using glass ionomer cement. By the time the children were 2 years of age, 33.3% of the infants in the control group and 14.7% in the experimental group had caries activity. A significant difference in caries prevalence was observed between children with and without visible dental plaque. The mean number of tooth surfaces with carious lesions (including areas of demineralization was higher among the children in the control group compared to the experimental group (6.3 x 3.2, however, with no statistical significance. Maternal caries increase was a significant factor influencing the caries experience of the children. These data support the evidence of an association between caries prevalence in young children and clinical (dental plaque and maternal factors.

  14. Seveso II directive in prevention and mitigation of consequences of chemical terrorism, safety management systems in hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klicek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Mayor accidents caused by hazardous substances are great threat to public. The consequences are often very severe with great number of injured people or even deaths and a great material damage. Statistic data shows that the main cause of accidents in hazardous installations is 'human factor', including the possibility of terrorist attack, or classic military operations. In order to ensure effective chemical safety, the actions should be taken by industry, public authorities, communities and other stake holders to prevent industrial accidents. Safety should be an integral part of the business activities of an enterprise, and all hazardous installations should strive to reach the ultimate goal of zero incidents. Safety management systems (SMS) should include appropriate technology and processes, as well as establishing an effective organisational structure. To mitigate consequences of accidents, emergency planning, land-use planning and risk communication is necessary. Adequate response in the event of accident should limit adverse consequences to health, environment and property. Follow-up actions are needed to learn from the accidents and other unexpected events, in order to reduce future incidents. In this paper the author will discus the implementing of SEVESO II directive in obtaining two main goals: major accident prevention and mitigation of consequences for men and environment in case of possible terrorist actions or military activities. Some Croatian experiences in implementing of UNEP APELL Programme, and its connection with SEVESO II directive will be shown.(author)

  15. A small molecule inhibits Akt through direct binding to Akt and preventing Akt membrane translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghwa; Sun, Mei; He, Lili; Zhou, Qing-Hua; Chen, Jun; Sun, Xia-Meng; Bepler, Gerold; Sebti, Said M; Cheng, Jin Q

    2010-03-12

    The Akt pathway is frequently hyperactivated in human cancer and functions as a cardinal nodal point for transducing extracellular and intracellular oncogenic signals and, thus, presents an exciting target for molecular therapeutics. Here we report the identification of a small molecule Akt/protein kinase B inhibitor, API-1. Although API-1 is neither an ATP competitor nor substrate mimetic, it binds to pleckstrin homology domain of Akt and blocks Akt membrane translocation. Furthermore, API-1 treatment of cancer cells results in inhibition of the kinase activities and phosphorylation levels of the three members of the Akt family. In contrast, API-1 had no effects on the activities of the upstream Akt activators, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phosphatidylinositol-dependent kinase-1, and mTORC2. Notably, the kinase activity and phosphorylation (e.g. Thr(P)(308) and Ser(P)(473)) levels of constitutively active Akt, including a naturally occurring mutant AKT1-E17K, were inhibited by API-1. API-1 is selective for Akt and does not inhibit the activation of protein kinase C, serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase, protein kinase A, STAT3, ERK1/2, or JNK. The inhibition of Akt by API-1 resulted in induction of cell growth arrest and apoptosis selectively in human cancer cells that harbor constitutively activated Akt. Furthermore, API-1 inhibited tumor growth in nude mice of human cancer cells in which Akt is elevated but not of those cancer cells in which it is not. These data indicate that API-1 directly inhibits Akt through binding to the Akt pleckstrin homology domain and blocking Akt membrane translocation and that API-1 has anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo and could be a potential anti-cancer agent for patients whose tumors express hyperactivated Akt.

  16. MEK1 inhibits cardiac PPARα activity by direct interaction and prevents its nuclear localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid el Azzouzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The response of the postnatal heart to growth and stress stimuli includes activation of a network of signal transduction cascades, including the stress activated protein kinases such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 pathways. In response to increased workload, the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK MEK1 has been shown to be active. Studies embarking on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling cascades in the heart have indicated peroxisome-proliferators activated-receptors (PPARs as downstream effectors that can be regulated by this signaling cascade. Despite the importance of PPARα in controlling cardiac metabolism, little is known about the relationship between MAPK signaling and cardiac PPARα signaling. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence approaches we show a complex formation of PPARα with MEK1 and not with ERK1/2. Binding of PPARα to MEK1 is mediated via a LXXLL motif and results in translocation from the nucleus towards the cytoplasm, hereby disabling the transcriptional activity of PPARα. Mice subjected to voluntary running-wheel exercise showed increased cardiac MEK1 activation and complex formation with PPARα, subsequently resulting in reduced PPARα activity. Inhibition of MEK1, using U0126, blunted this effect. CONCLUSION: Here we show that activation of the MEK1-ERK1/2 pathway leads to specific inhibition of PPARα transcriptional activity. Furthermore we show that this inhibitory effect is mediated by MEK1, and not by its downstream effector kinase ERK1/2, through a mechanism involving direct binding to PPARα and subsequent stimulation of PPARα export from the nucleus.

  17. Can possible toxic effect of ultraviolet-A after corneal cross-linking be prevented? In vitro transmittance study of contact lenses at 370 nm wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, Kamil; Yuksel, Erdem; Deniz, Nuriye Gokcen; Yuksel, Nilay

    2015-01-01

    Corneal collagen cross linking (CCL) with ultraviolet A (UVA) has been proposed as a treatment for the progression of corneal ectasia associated with keratoconus and post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia. Despite the reports about safety of procedure, we consider that UVA of sunlight can effect riboflavin saturated and de-epitelizated cornea early after CCL. To evaluate the UVA blockage capability of 11 different silicone hydrogel contact lenses which are widely used after CCL treatment. Eleven different silicone hydrogel and daily disposable contact lenses were evaluated. The UVA light at 365 nm wavelength for UVA source and UV light meter to measure UVA radiation were used. 3, 9 and 18 mW/cm(2) power of UV radiance was applied centrally to the each type of contact lenses. The power of UVA transmittance for each radiance and percentage of blockage were evaluated for each brand. Also, protection factor (PF) was calculated. The senofilcon A and narafilcon A had the highest blockage and lowest transmittance (p = 0.02). PF was significantly higher in the senofilcon A and narafilcon A at 3, 9 and 18 mW/cm(2) (p = 0.0001). And also, the hilafilcon B, filcon IV, nelfilcon A, enfilcon A, lotrafilcon A and lotrafilcon B had the highest UVA transmittance. The narafilcon A and the senofilcon A may be a good options for epithelial healing after CCL procedure to protect the cornea from UVA of sunlight. And also, the hilafilcon B, filcon IV, nelfilcon A, enfilcon A, lotrafilcon A and lotrafilcon B contact lenses that have high-UVA transmittance feature can be a treatment choice for contact lens-assisted CCL technique in thin corneas.

  18. The Use of Self-Directed Relapse Prevention Booklets to Assist in Maintaining Abstinence after a 6-Week Group Smoking Cessation Treatment Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldheer, Susan; Hrabovsky, Shari; Yingst, Jessica; Sciamanna, Chris; Berg, Arthur; Foulds, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Background: Identifying effective relapse prevention interventions is a vital step to help smokers maintain abstinence for the long term. Aims: The purpose of this study is to determine if providing recently quit smokers with self-directed relapse prevention booklets is effective at maintaining abstinence after intensive group smoking cessation…

  19. Dietary Fiber Pectin Directly Blocks Toll-Like Receptor 2–1 and Prevents Doxorubicin-Induced Ileitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha M. Sahasrabudhe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary carbohydrate fibers are known to prevent immunological diseases common in Western countries such as allergy and asthma but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Until now beneficial effects of dietary fibers are mainly attributed to fermentation products of the fibers such as anti-inflammatory short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs. Here, we found and present a new mechanism by which dietary fibers can be anti-inflammatory: a commonly consumed fiber, pectin, blocks innate immune receptors. We show that pectin binds and inhibits, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 and specifically inhibits the proinflammatory TLR2–TLR1 pathway while the tolerogenic TLR2–TLR6 pathway remains unaltered. This effect is most pronounced with pectins having a low degree of methyl esterification (DM. Low-DM pectin interacts with TLR2 through electrostatic forces between non-esterified galacturonic acids on the pectin and positive charges on the TLR2 ectodomain, as confirmed by testing pectin binding on mutated TLR2. The anti-inflammatory effect of low-DM pectins was first studied in human dendritic cells and mouse macrophages in vitro and was subsequently tested in vivo in TLR2-dependent ileitis in a mouse model. In these mice, ileitis was prevented by pectin administration. Protective effects were shown to be TLR2–TLR1 dependent and independent of the SCFAs produced by the gut microbiota. These data suggest that low-DM pectins as a source of dietary fiber can reduce inflammation through direct interaction with TLR2–TLR1 receptors.

  20. Moving alcohol prevention research forward-Part II: new directions grounded in community-based system dynamics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Lemke, Michael K; Barry, Adam E; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller

    2018-02-01

    Given the complexity of factors contributing to alcohol misuse, appropriate epistemologies and methodologies are needed to understand and intervene meaningfully. We aimed to (1) provide an overview of computational modeling methodologies, with an emphasis on system dynamics modeling; (2) explain how community-based system dynamics modeling can forge new directions in alcohol prevention research; and (3) present a primer on how to build alcohol misuse simulation models using system dynamics modeling, with an emphasis on stakeholder involvement, data sources and model validation. Throughout, we use alcohol misuse among college students in the United States as a heuristic example for demonstrating these methodologies. System dynamics modeling employs a top-down aggregate approach to understanding dynamically complex problems. Its three foundational properties-stocks, flows and feedbacks-capture non-linearity, time-delayed effects and other system characteristics. As a methodological choice, system dynamics modeling is amenable to participatory approaches; in particular, community-based system dynamics modeling has been used to build impactful models for addressing dynamically complex problems. The process of community-based system dynamics modeling consists of numerous stages: (1) creating model boundary charts, behavior-over-time-graphs and preliminary system dynamics models using group model-building techniques; (2) model formulation; (3) model calibration; (4) model testing and validation; and (5) model simulation using learning-laboratory techniques. Community-based system dynamics modeling can provide powerful tools for policy and intervention decisions that can result ultimately in sustainable changes in research and action in alcohol misuse prevention. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  2. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  3. An electronic environment and contact direction sensitive scoring function for predicting affinities of protein-ligand complexes in Contour(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Peter R; Wu, Guosheng; Liu, Zhijie; Jim, Kam-Chuen; Baldwin, John J; Gregg, Richard E; Claremon, David A; Singh, Suresh B

    2014-09-01

    Contour(®) is a computational structure-based drug design technology that grows drug-like molecules by assembling context sensitive fragments in well-defined binding pockets. The grown molecules are scored by a novel empirical scoring function developed using high-resolution crystal structures of diverse classes of protein-ligand complexes and associated experimental binding affinities. An atomic model bearing features of the valence bond and VSEPR theories embodying their molecular electronic environment has been developed for non-covalent intermolecular interactions. On the basis of atomic hybridization and polarization states, each atom is modeled by features representing electron lone pairs, p-orbitals, and polar and non-polar hydrogens. A simple formal charge model was used to differentiate between polar and non-polar atoms. The interaction energy and the desolvation contribution of the protein-ligand association energy is computed as a linear sum of pair-wise interactions and desolvation terms. The pair-wise interaction energy captures short-range positive electrostatic interactions via hydrogen bonds, electrostatic repulsion of like charges, and non-bond contacts. The desolvation energy is estimated by calculating the energy required to desolvate interaction surfaces of the protein and the ligand in the complex. The scoring function predicts binding energies of a diverse set of protein-ligand complexes used for training with a correlation coefficient of 0.61. It also performs equally well in predicting association energies of a diverse validation set of protein-ligand complexes with a correlation coefficient of 0.57, which is equivalent to or better than 12 other scoring functions tested against this set including X-Score, GOLD, and DrugScore. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical trials with direct oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: how representative are they for real life patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmaele, S; Steurbaut, S; Cornu, P; Brouns, R; Dupont, A G

    2016-09-01

    To identify the proportion of real-life patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) eligible for direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) therapy, based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria used in the clinical studies and based on the officially approved indications as mentioned in the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC). Data for this retrospective cross-sectional study was extracted from the UZ Brussel Stroke Registry, containing anonymized data of 2205 patients with a suspected stroke. Characteristics of patients with documented AF were compared with the patient characteristics in clinical trials and the approved indications in the SmPC. Data of 468 patients with AF was analyzed. Based on the selection criteria of the clinical trials, significantly less patients were eligible for treatment with rivaroxaban compared to dabigatran etexilate (39.3 versus 47.6 %; p = 0.010), but not compared to apixaban (45.5 %; p = 0.055). Based on the indications and contraindications in the SmPC, significantly fewer patients were eligible for apixaban compared to dabigatran etexilate and rivaroxaban (62.0 % for apixaban, 72.9 % for dabigatran etexilate, and 75.6 % for rivaroxaban; p trials (72.9 versus 47.6 %; p trials with DOACs for stroke prevention in AF, less than half of real-life patients are eligible for therapy with one of the DOACs. However, the indications mentioned in the SmPCs of these drugs are less strict.

  5. Non-targeted screening for contaminants in paper and board food-contact materials using effect-directed analysis and accurate mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtström, Linda; Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Trier, Xenia; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger; Granby, Kit; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Driffield, Malcolm; Højslev Petersen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Due to large knowledge gaps in chemical composition and toxicological data for substances involved, paper and board food-contact materials (P&B FCM) have been emerging as a FCM type of particular concern for consumer safety. This study describes the development of a step-by-step strategy, including extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation, tentative identification of relevant substances and in vitro testing of selected tentatively identified substances. As a case study, we used two fractions from a recycled pizza box sample which exhibited aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity. These fractions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometers (QTOF MS) in order tentatively to identify substances. The elemental composition was determined for peaks above a threshold, and compared with entries in a commercial mass spectral library for GC-MS (GC-EI-QTOF MS) analysis and an in-house built library of accurate masses for substances known to be used in P&B packaging for UHPLC-QTOF analysis. Of 75 tentatively identified substances, 15 were initially selected for further testing in vitro; however, only seven were commercially available and subsequently tested in vitro and quantified. Of these seven, the identities of three pigments found in printing inks were confirmed by UHPLC tandem mass spectrometry (QqQ MS/MS). Two pigments had entries in the database, meaning that a material relevant accurate mass database can provide a fast tentative identification. Pure standards of the seven tentatively identified substances were tested in vitro but could not explain a significant proportion of the AhR-response in the extract. Targeted analyses of dioxins and PCBs, both well-known AhR agonists, was performed. However, the dioxins could explain approximately 3% of the activity observed in the pizza box extract indicating that some very AhR active substance(s) still remain to be

  6. A Class I UV-blocking (senofilcon A) soft contact lens prevents UVA-induced yellow fluorescence and NADH loss in the rabbit lens nucleus in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Frank J; Lin, Li-Ren; Simpanya, Mukoma F; Leverenz, Victor R; Fick, Catherine E

    2012-09-01

    It is known that fluorescence, much of it caused by UVA light excitation, increases in the aging human lens, resulting in loss of sharp vision. This study used an in vivo animal model to investigate UVA-excited fluorescence in the rabbit lens, which contains a high level of the UVA chromophore NADH, existing both free and bound to λ-crystallin. Also, the ability of a Class I (senofilcon A) soft contact lens to protect against UVA-induced effects on the rabbit lens was tested. Rabbit eyes were irradiated with UVA light in vivo (100 mW/cm(2) on the cornea) for 1 h using monochromatic 365 nm light. Irradiation was conducted in the presence of either a senofilcon A contact lens, a minimally UV-absorbing lotrafilcon A contact lens, or no contact lens at all. Eyes irradiated without a contact lens showed blue 365 nm-excited fluorescence initially, but this changed to intense yellow fluorescence after 1 h. Isolated, previously irradiated lenses exhibited yellow fluorescence originating from the lens nucleus when viewed under 365 nm light, but showed normal blue fluorescence arising from the cortex. Previously irradiated lenses also exhibited a faint yellow color when observed under visible light. The senofilcon A contact lens protected completely against the UVA-induced effects on fluorescence and lens yellowing, whereas the lotrafilcon A lens showed no protection. The UVA-exposure also produced a 53% loss of total NADH (free plus bound) in the lens nucleus, with only a 13% drop in the anterior cortex. NADH loss in the nucleus was completely prevented with use of a senofilcon A contact lens, but no significant protection was observed with a lotrafilcon A lens. Overall, the senofilcon A lens provided an average of 67% protection against UVA-induced loss of four pyridine nucleotides in four different regions of the lens. HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection indicated a nearly six-fold increase in 365 nm-excited yellow fluorescence arising from lens nuclear

  7. Disproportionate Minority Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Rebecca L; Cyperski, Melissa A; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-04-01

    The overrepresentation of racial/ethnic minorities within the criminal justice system relative to their population percentage, a phenomenon termed disproportionate minority contact, has been examined within general adult and adolescent offender populations; yet few studies have tested whether this phenomenon extends to juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs). In addition, few studies have examined whether offender race/ethnicity influences registration and notification requirements, which JSOs are subject to in some U.S. states. The present study assessed for disproportionate minority contact among general delinquent offenders and JSOs, meaning it aimed to test whether the criminal justice system treats those accused of sexual and non-sexual offenses differently by racial/ethnic group. Furthermore, racial/ethnic group differences in risk, legal classification, and sexual offending were examined for JSOs. Results indicated disproportionate minority contact was present among juveniles with non-sexual offenses and JSOs in Alabama. In addition, offense category and risk scores differed between African American and European American JSOs. Finally, registration classifications were predicted by offending characteristics, but not race/ethnicity. Implications and future directions regarding disproportionate minority contact among JSOs and social and legal policy affecting JSOs are discussed.

  8. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The development of scanning probe techniques, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy [1], has often been touted as the catalyst for the surge in activity and progress in nanoscale science and technology. Images of nanoscale structural detail have served as an invaluable investigative resource and continue to fascinate with the fantastical reality of an intricate nether world existing all around us, but hidden from view of the naked eye by a disparity in scale. As is so often the case, the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope heralded far more than just a useful new apparatus, it demonstrated the scope for exploiting the subtleties of electronic contact. The shrinking of electronic devices has been a driving force for research into molecular electronics, in which an understanding of the nature of electronic contact at junctions is crucial. In response, the number of experimental techniques in molecular electronics has increased rapidly in recent years. Scanning tunnelling microscopes have been used to study electron transfer through molecular films on a conducting substrate, and the need to monitor the contact force of scanning tunnelling electrodes led to the use of atomic force microscopy probes coated in a conducting layer as studied by Cui and colleagues in Arizona [2]. In this issue a collaboration of researchers at Delft University and Leiden University in the Netherlands report a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport, which will enable thorough studies of molecular transport in the future [3]. Scanning probes can also be used to pattern surfaces, such as through spatially-localized Suzuki and Heck reactions in chemical scanning probe lithography. Mechanistic aspects of spatially confined Suzuki and Heck chemistry are also reported in this issue by researchers in Oxford [4]. All these developments in molecular electronics fabrication and characterization provide alternative

  9. Proposed ICDRG Classification of the Clinical Presentation of Contact Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pongpairoj, Korbkarn; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2016-01-01

    The International Contact Dermatitis Research Group proposes a classification for the clinical presentation of contact allergy. The classification is based primarily on the mode of clinical presentation. The categories are direct exposure/contact dermatitis, mimicking or exacerbation of preexisting...

  10. Is prevention a fantasy, or the future of medicine? A panoramic view of recent data, status, and direction in cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kones, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Americans are under assault by a fierce epidemic of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, of their own doing. Lowered death rates from heart disease and reduced rates of smoking are seriously threatened by the inexorable rise in overweight and obesity. Latest data indicate that 32% of children are overweight or obese, and fewer than 17% exercise sufficiently. Over 68% of adults are overweight, 35% are obese, nearly 40% fulfill criteria for the metabolic syndrome, 8-13% have diabetes, 34% have hypertension, 36% have prehypertension, 29% have prediabetes, 15% of the population with either diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia are undiagnosed, 59% engage in no vigorous activity, and fewer than 5% of the US population qualifies for the American Heart Association (AHA) definition of ideal cardiovascular health. Health, nutrition, and exercise illiteracy is prevalent, while misinformation and unrealistic expectations are the norm. Half of American adults have at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Up to 65% do not have their conventional risk biomarkers under control. Of those patients with multiple risk factors, fewer than 10% have all of them adequately controlled. Even when patients are treated according to evidence-based protocols, about 70% of cardiac events remain unaddressed. Undertreatment is also common. Poor patient adherence, probably well below 50%, adds further difficulty in reducing cardiovascular risk. Available data indicate that only a modest fraction of the total cardiovascular risk burden in the population is actually now being eliminated. A fresh view of these issues, a change in current philosophy, leading to new and different, multimechanistic methods of prevention may be needed. Adherence to published guidelines will improve substantially outcomes in both primary and secondary prevention. Primordial prevention, which does not allow risk values to appear in a population, affords more complete protection than subsequent partial reversal

  11. Research and development of a 3 MW power plant from the design, development, and demonstration of a 100 KW power system utilizing the direct contact heat exchanger concept for geothermal brine recovery project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, A. W.; Wall, D. A.; Herlacher, T. L.

    1980-09-01

    The design phase for the 100 KW unit consumed the months of May through November 1978, with the final design having a direct contact boiler and condenser, a single-stage radial inflow induction turbine generator using isopentane as the working fluid, and a single cell ejector-type cooling tower. The unit was constructed on two, forty-foot flatbed trailers between the months of October 1978 and June 1979. Systems start-up testing, in-field modifications, unit operation, and performance testing were performed between July and December 1979. AP and L (Arkansas Power and Light) personnel assumed responsibility of the unit at that time and conducted further maintenance, operations, and testing through August 1980.

  12. Contact Control, Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-21

    The contact control code is a generalized force control scheme meant to interface with a robotic arm being controlled using the Robot Operating System (ROS). The code allows the user to specify a control scheme for each control dimension in a way that many different control task controllers could be built from the same generalized controller. The input to the code includes maximum velocity, maximum force, maximum displacement, and a control law assigned to each direction and the output is a 6 degree of freedom velocity command that is sent to the robot controller.

  13. Contact sport and osteoarthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Molloy, Michael G

    2011-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease in the world and the single largest cause of disability for those over 18 years. It affects more than twice as many people as does cardiac disease, and increases in incidence and prevalence with age. Animal and human studies have shown no evidence of increased risk of hip or knee OA with moderate exercise and in the absence of traumatic injury, sporting activity has a protective effect. One age-matched case control study found recreational runners who ran 12-14 miles per week for up to 40 years had no increase in radiological or symptomatic hip or knee OA. However, higher rates of hip OA occur in contact sports than in age-matched controls, with the highest rate in professional players. Soccer players with torn anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) are more likely to develop knee OA than those with intact ACL. Early ACL repair reduces the risk of knee OA, but does not prevent it. Established injury prevention programmes have been refined to prevent injuries such as ACL rupture.

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non-Prescription Contact Lens Laura: Vision ... Robyn: Blurry Vision and Daily Eye Drops After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  17. Clinical update on contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Orton, David I

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to review recent findings in contact allergy, regarding clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: The biocide methyldibromo glutaronitrile was identified to be an important sensitizer. Subsequently, it was banned from leave-on cosmetics in the European Union......, and cutting fluid components. SUMMARY: Constant awareness for new allergens, confirmed by critical evaluation, standardization of patch test materials, and the identification of temporal patterns and subgroups at risk will improve both the diagnosis and prevention of allergic contact dermatitis....

  18. Allergic contact stomatitis from colophony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Paul R

    2006-09-01

    Colophony is an ubiquitous contact sensitizer which may be present in dental materials, such as periodontal dressings, impression materials, cements, fix adhesives and varnishes. Exposure to a sensitizer in a hypersensitive person may initiate an allergic contact dermatitis/stomatitis. This usually occurs after direct skin/mucosa contact with the sensitizer. This paper reports the case of a colophony hypersensitive male who developed contact stomatitis after dental treatment with a colophony-containing product. Sensitizing colophony is present in Duraphat 2.26%F varnish, a fluoride varnish used all over the world. A case of hypersensitivity to Duraphat 2.26%F varnish is presented in a patient who, at the initial visit, indicated only an allergy to sticking plasters.

  19. [Contact lens care and maintenance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, L

    2017-04-01

    All contact lenses with replacement schedules longer than daily must be maintained. At each step of their use, the lenses may be contaminated. Contact lens solutions perform the essential functions of cleaning, decontaminating and preserving the lenses to prevent infectious problems and improve wearing comfort. Contact lens contamination essentially comes from hands, cleaning solutions, cases, water and the environment. The pathogenic microorganisms are mainly Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and amoebae. Contact lens deposits may or may not have an organic origin. Their presence increases the risk of infection because they serve as a nutrient matrix for microbes, and they are responsible for wearing discomfort. Contact lens solutions differ in their composition, their mechanism of action and the concentration of the various agents. To prescribe the best lens care system to each wearer and for each material, it is necessary to be very familiar with them. Maintenance is the main cause of discomfort with contact lenses, either through improper use, solution-material incompatibility, or a reaction of the wearer to the components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Contact tracing performance during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Kenema district, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senga, Mikiko; Koi, Alpha; Moses, Lina; Wauquier, Nadia; Barboza, Philippe; Fernandez-Garcia, Maria Dolores; Engedashet, Etsub; Kuti-George, Fredson; Mitiku, Aychiluhim Damtew; Vandi, Mohamed; Kargbo, David; Formenty, Pierre; Hugonnet, Stephane; Bertherat, Eric; Lane, Christopher

    2017-05-26

    Contact tracing in an Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the process of identifying individuals who may have been exposed to infected persons with the virus, followed by monitoring for 21 days (the maximum incubation period) from the date of the most recent exposure. The goal is to achieve early detection and isolation of any new cases in order to prevent further transmission. We performed a retrospective data analysis of 261 probable and confirmed EVD cases in the national EVD database and 2525 contacts in the Contact Line Lists in Kenema district, Sierra Leone between 27 April and 4 September 2014 to assess the performance of contact tracing during the initial stage of the outbreak. The completion rate of the 21-day monitoring period was 89% among the 2525 contacts. However, only 44% of the EVD cases had contacts registered in the Contact Line List and 6% of probable or confirmed cases had previously been identified as contacts. Touching the body fluids of the case and having direct physical contact with the body of the case conferred a 9- and 20-fold increased risk of EVD status, respectively. Our findings indicate that incompleteness of contact tracing led to considerable unmonitored transmission in the early months of the epidemic. To improve the performance of early outbreak contact tracing in resource poor settings, our results suggest the need for prioritized contact tracing after careful risk assessment and better alignment of Contact Line Listing with case ascertainment and investigation.This article is part of the themed issue 'The 2013-2016 West African Ebola epidemic: data, decision-making and disease control'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Direct, indirect, total, and overall effectiveness of the rotavirus vaccines for the prevention of gastroenteritis hospitalizations in privately insured US children, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panozzo, Catherine A; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Pate, Virginia; Weber, David J; Jonsson Funk, Michele; Stürmer, Til; Brookhart, M Alan

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate how direct, indirect, total, and overall effectiveness estimates and absolute benefits of rotavirus vaccines vary through the years following vaccine introduction. Privately insured US children in a large claims database were followed from age 8 months until they 1) experienced a hospitalization for rotavirus or acute gastroenteritis; 2) lost continuous health plan enrollment; 3) turned 20 months of age; or 4) reached the end of the study period. Vaccine effectiveness estimates in preventing rotavirus and acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression, stratified by calendar year and adjusted for birth month. Incidence rate differences were estimated to determine the absolute number of gastroenteritis hospitalizations prevented in the cohort. Among 905,718 children, 51%, 66%, 80%, and 86% received 1 or more doses of rotavirus vaccine in each year from 2007 to 2010. The direct vaccine effectiveness of 1 or more doses of rotavirus vaccine in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalizations ranged from 87% to 92% each year. Accounting for indirect protection increased estimates of vaccine effectiveness by an additional 3%-8% among those vaccinated. Failing to account for population-level vaccine benefits in 2010, when circulation of rotavirus was low, could underestimate the sustained impact of the vaccine program.

  2. Preventative Reading Interventions Teaching Direct Mapping of Graphemes in Texts and Set-for-Variability Aid At-Risk Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Robert; Georgiou, George; Parrila, Rauno; Maiorino, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated two experimenter-delivered, small-group word reading programs among at-risk poor readers in Grade 1 classes of regular elementary schools using a two-arm, dual-site-matched control trial intervention. At-risk poor word readers (n = 201) were allocated to either (a) Direct Mapping and Set-for-Variability (DMSfV) or (b) Current or…

  3. Direct renin inhibition is not enough to prevent reactive oxygen species generation and vascular dysfunction in renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Oliveira, Alisson; Guimaraes, Danielle A; Ceron, Carla S; Rizzi, Elen; Oliveira, Diogo M M; Tirapelli, Carlos R; Casarini, Dulce E; Fernandes, Fernanda B; Pinheiro, Lucas C; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2018-02-15

    Renin-angiotensin system activation promotes oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. However, no previous study has examined the effects of the renin inhibitor aliskiren, either alone or combined with angiotensin II type 1 antagonists on alterations induced by two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertension. We compared the vascular effects of aliskiren (50mg/kg/day), losartan (10mg/kg/day), or both by gavage for 4 weeks in 2K1C and control rats. Treatment with losartan, aliskiren, or both exerted similar antihypertensive effects. Aliskiren lowered plasma Ang I concentrations in sham rats and in hypertensive rats treated with aliskiren or with both drugs. Aliskiren alone or combined with losartan decreased plasma angiotensin II concentrations measured by high performance liquid chromatography, whereas losartan alone had no effects. In contrast, losartan alone or combined with aliskiren abolished hypertension-induced increases in aortic angiotensin II concentrations, whereas aliskiren alone exerted no such effects. While hypertension enhanced aortic oxidative stress assessed by dihydroethidium fluorescence and by lucigenin chemiluminescence, losartan alone or combined with aliskiren, but not aliskiren alone, abolished this alteration. Hypertension impaired aortic relaxation induced by acetylcholine, and losartan alone or combined with aliskiren, but not aliskiren alone, reversed this alteration. Losartan alone or combined with aliskiren, but not aliskiren alone, increased plasma nitrite concentrations in 2K1C rats. These findings show that antihypertensive effects of aliskiren do not prevent hypertension-induced vascular oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. These findings contrast those found with losartan and suggest that renin inhibition is not enough to prevent hypertension-induced impaired redox biology and vascular dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Contact investigation for active tuberculosis among child contacts in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganath, Devan; Zalwango, Sarah; Okware, Brenda; Nsereko, Mary; Kisingo, Hussein; Malone, LaShaunda; Lancioni, Christina; Okwera, Alphonse; Joloba, Moses; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Boom, W Henry; Stein, Catherine; Mupere, Ezekiel

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis is a large source of morbidity and mortality among children. However, limited studies characterize childhood tuberculosis disease, and contact investigation is rarely implemented in high-burden settings. In one of the largest pediatric tuberculosis contact investigation studies in a resource-limited setting, we assessed the yield of contact tracing on childhood tuberculosis and indicators for disease progression in Uganda. Child contacts aged tuberculosis disease via clinical, radiographic, and laboratory methods for up to 24 months. Seven hundred sixty-one child contacts were included in the analysis. Prevalence of tuberculosis in our child population was 10%, of which 71% were culture-confirmed positive. There were no cases of disseminated tuberculosis, and 483 of 490 children (99%) started on isoniazid preventative therapy did not develop disease. Multivariable testing suggested risk factors including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status (odds ratio [OR], 7.90; P children aged ≤5 years (OR, 0.23; P children in high-burden settings is able to identify a large percentage of culture-confirmed positive tuberculosis cases before dissemination of disease, while suggesting factors for disease progression to identify who may benefit from targeted screening.

  5. Systemic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Nowak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD is a skin inflammation occurring in a patient after systemic administration of a hapten, which previously caused an allergic contact skin reaction in the same person. Most frequently, hypersensitivity reactions typical for SCD occur after absorption of haptens with food or inhalation. Haptens occur mainly in the forms of metals and compounds present in natural resins, preservatives, food thickeners, flavorings and medicines. For many years, several studies have been conducted on understanding the pathogenesis of SCD in which both delayed type hypersensitivity (type IV and immediate type I are observed. Components of the complement system are also suspected to attend there. Helper T cells (Th (Th1 and Th2, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc, and NK cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SCD. They secrete a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, regulatory T cells (Tregs have an important role. They control and inhibit activity of the immune system during inflammation. Tregs release suppressor cytokines and interact directly with a target cell through presentation of immunosuppressive particles at the cell surface. Diagnostic methods are generally the patch test, oral provocation test, elimination diet and lymphocyte stimulation test. There are many kinds of inflammatory skin reactions caused by systemic haptens’ distribution. They are manifested in a variety of clinical phenotypes of the disease.

  6. Research priorities to achieve universal access to hepatitis C prevention, management and direct-acting antiviral treatment among people who inject drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grebely, Jason; Bruneau, Julie; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2017-01-01

    of HCV infection among current PWID also remains high in many settings. Morbidity and mortality due to liver disease among PWID with HCV infection continues to increase, despite the advent of well-tolerated, simple interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) HCV regimens with cure rates >95......, gaps in research, and develop research priorities. Topics for discussion included the epidemiology of injecting drug use, HCV, and HIV among PWID, HCV prevention, HCV testing, linkage to HCV care and treatment, DAA treatment for HCV infection, and reinfection following successful treatment. This paper...

  7. New oral antithrombotics: focus on dabigatran, an oral, reversible direct thrombin inhibitor for the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thromboembolic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahl OE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ola E Dahl1,21Department of Orthopaedics, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Elverum Central Hospital, Elverum, Norway; 2Thrombosis Research Institute, London, UKAbstract: Venous thromboembolism, presenting as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, is a major challenge for health care systems. It is the third most common vascular disease after coronary heart disease and stroke, and many hospitalized patients have at least one risk factor. In particular, patients undergoing hip or knee replacement are at risk, with an incidence of asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis of 40%–60% without thromboprophylaxis. Venous thromboembolism is associated with significant mortality and morbidity, with patients being at risk of recurrence, post-thrombotic syndrome, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Arterial thromboembolism is even more frequent, and atrial fibrillation, the most common embolic source (cardiac arrhythmia, is associated with a five-fold increase in the risk of stroke. Strokes due to atrial fibrillation tend to be more severe and disabling and are more often fatal than strokes due to other causes. Currently, recommended management of both venous and arterial thromboembolism involves the use of anticoagulants such as coumarin and heparin derivatives. These agents are effective, although have characteristics that prevent them from providing optimal anticoagulation and convenience. Hence, new improved oral anticoagulants are being investigated. Dabigatran is a reversible, direct thrombin inhibitor, which is administered as dabigatran etexilate, the oral prodrug. Because it is the first new oral anticoagulant that has been licensed in many countries worldwide for thromboprophylaxis following orthopedic surgery and for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation, this compound will be the main focus of this review. Dabigatran has been investigated for the treatment of established venous thromboembolism and prevention of

  8. Contact Estimation in Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo D'Ippolito

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, safety issues are examined in a scenario in which a robot manipulator and a human perform the same task in the same workspace. During the task execution, the human should be able to physically interact with the robot, and in this case an estimation algorithm for both interaction forces and a contact point is proposed in order to guarantee safety conditions. The method, starting from residual joint torque estimation, allows both direct and adaptive computation of the contact point and force, based on a principle of equivalence of the contact forces. At the same time, all the unintended contacts must be avoided, and a suitable post-collision strategy is considered to move the robot away from the collision area or else to reduce impact effects. Proper experimental tests have demonstrated the applicability in practice of both the post-impact strategy and the estimation algorithms; furthermore, experiments demonstrate the different behaviour resulting from the adaptation of the contact point as opposed to direct calculation.

  9. Direct comparison of first-contact versus longitudinal register-based case finding in the same population : early evidence that the incidence of schizophrenia may be three times higher than commonly reported

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerzeil, S. J.; van Hemert, A. M.; Rosendaal, F. R.; Susser, E.; Hoek, H. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The incidence of schizophrenia is commonly estimated by screening for psychosis among subjects presenting to psychiatric services. This approach (using a first-contact sampling frame) cannot account for cases that did not meet criteria for schizophrenia at first contact. We compared the

  10. Reduced contact resistance in top-contact organic field-effect transistors by interface contact doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ji-Ling; Kasemann, Daniel; Widmer, Johannes; Günther, Alrun A.; Lüssem, Björn; Leo, Karl

    2016-03-01

    Emerging organic integrated electronics require capability of high speed and the compatibility with high-resolution structuring processes such as photolithography. When downscaling the channel length, the contact resistance is known to limit the performance of the short channel devices. In this report, orthogonal photolithography is used for the patterning of the source/drain electrodes of the organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) as well as the interface dopant insertion layers for further modifications of the contact resistance. Bottom-gate top-contact pentacene OFETs with different thicknesses of the p-dopant 2,2'-(perfluoronaphthalene-2,6-diylidene)dimalononitrile under the Au electrodes show a significant decrease in threshold voltage from -2.2 V to -0.8 V and in contact resistance from 55 k Ω cm to 10 k Ω cm by adding a 1 nm thin dopant interlayer. The influence of doping on charge carrier injection is directly visible in the temperature-dependent output characteristics and a charge-transfer activation energy of ˜20 meV is obtained. Our results provide a systematic study of interface contact doping and also show the connection between interface contact doping and improved charge carrier injection by the activation of charge transfer process.

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in a pair of colored contact lenses, Laura Butler of Parkersburg, W.Va., had "extreme pain in ... to wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left ...

  15. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  16. Multiple Josephson contact interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappe, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    The interferometer (quantum interference between two parallel contacts) displays a mid connector and contacts of the same size, or contacts at which the middle one is twice the size as the other two, or a double connector and three contacts by which the middle contact carries twice the current as the other two. Also there can be provided interferometers with three and four contacts as well as with symmetrical double current connectors and the same largest Josephson current through all contacts. Because all contacts display the same phase state in the voltage free switching state, the amplification property can be increased and current dissipation can be decreased in a way that logic circuits with high integration degree and high switching velocities can be designed. (DG) [de

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... the lenses. Never share contact lenses with another person. Get follow up exams with your eye care ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... popping touch. But colored contact lenses are popular year-round, not just at Halloween. But few know the ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals Harmful to Eyes Four Ways Over- ... without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. "Many of ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals Harmful to Eyes Four Ways Over-the-Counter Costume Contact Lenses Can ... was in severe pain and on medication for four weeks, and couldn't see well enough to ...

  1. Corporate Consumer Contact API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data in the Corporate Consumer Contact API is based on the content you can find in the Corporate Consumer Contact listing in the Consumer Action Handbook (PDF)....

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lens because they can be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, ... Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals Harmful to Eyes ...

  4. Contact Us about Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to contact EPA for more information on asbestos, including state and regional contacts, EPA’s Asbestos Abatement/Management Ombudsman and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Assistance Information Service (TSCA Hotline).

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... an ophthalmologist — an eye medical doctor — who will measure each eye and talk to you about proper ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  8. Contact dermatitis from Eriodictyon parryi: a novel cause of contact dermatitis in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicki, Christopher D

    2013-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by Eriodictyon parryi, better known as poodle-dog bush, is a growing cause of contact dermatitis in California. Blooming after a large fire, E parryi is a threat to reforestation workers as well as countless outdoor enthusiasts across the state. This paper focuses on the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of contact dermatitis from this little-researched plant. Copyright © 2013 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Etiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Depression: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades a body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cross-national and cross-sectional data suggest that greater habitual intake of preformed EPA+DHA is associated with reduced risk for developing depressive symptoms and syndromal MDD. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition is highly correlated with habitual fish or fish oil intake, and case-control studies have consistently observed lower erythrocyte EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with MDD. Low erythrocyte EPA+DHA composition may also be associated with increased risk for suicide and cardiovascular disease, two primary causes of excess premature mortality in MDD. While controversial, dietary EPA+DHA supplementation may have antidepressant properties and may augment the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant medications. Neuroimaging and rodent neurodevelopmental studies further suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid intake or biostatus can recapitulate central pathophysiological features associated with MDD. Prospective findings suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid biostatus increases risk for depressive symptoms in part by augmenting pro-inflammatory responsivity. When taken collectively, these translational findings provide a strong empirical foundation in support of dietary LCn-3 fatty acid deficiency as a modifiable risk factor for MDD. This review provides an overview of this translational evidence and then discusses future directions including strategies to translate this evidence into routine clinical screening and treatment algorithms. PMID:27766299

  10. CVS-1123, a direct thrombin inhibitor, prevents occlusive arterial and venous thrombosis in a canine model of vascular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, S S; Miller, B V; Basler, G C; Lucchesi, B R

    1997-02-01

    CVS-1123, low-molecular-weight, direct thrombin inhibitor was studied in an anesthetized canine model of arterial and venous thrombosis to determine whether thrombin inhibition could reduce the incidence of occlusive thrombosis in response to vessel-wall injury. The left carotid artery (LCA) and right jugular vein (RJV) were instrumented with a flow probe, intraluminal electrode, and critical stenosis. Either saline (n = 9), or CVS-1123 (n = 12) was administered in a loading dose of 2 mg/kg i.v., followed by an infusion (2.46 mg/kg/h for 180 min). Vessel-wall injury was initiated by applying a 300-microA anodal current to the intimal surface of the LCA and RJV. Platelet aggregation in response to gamma-thrombin remained inhibited by CVS-1123 for 8 h. The activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) was increased and remained elevated for the duration of the protocol. The prothrombin time (PT) showed an initial increase and then a rapid decrease after the infusion was discontinued. There was a twofold increase in the bleeding time (BT) at 2 h. The time to occlusion of the LCA was prolonged (380 +/- 22 min in the CVS-1123 group vs. 152 +/- 18 min in the saline group) with seven of 12 patent arteries at 8 h. Similarly, the time to occlusion for RJV was prolonged (415 +/- 16 min in the CVS-1123 group vs. 99 +/- 8 min in the saline group) with eight of 12 veins remaining patent at 8 h. CVS-1123 administration was associated with a decrease in the thrombus weights in both the LCA and RJV as compared with the saline-treated animals. In summary, CVS-1123 modifies the thrombogenic response to deep vessel-wall injury in both the arterial and venous circulations. The results suggest that CVS-1123 is an effective antithrombin and may offer a therapeutic alternative to current antithrombins in the management of arterial and venous thrombosis.

  11. Preventing Ticks on Your Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fipronil Pyrethroids (permethrin, etc.) Amitraz Repel Ticks on Dogs A repellent product may prevent the tick from coming into contact with an animal at all or have anti-feeding effects once the tick comes into contact with ...

  12. Contact lens in keratoconus

    OpenAIRE

    Rathi, Varsha M; Mandathara, Preeji S; Dumpati, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the En...

  13. Contact printed masks for 3D microfabrication in negative resists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häfliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja

    2005-01-01

    We present a process based on contact printed shadow masks for three dimensional microfabrication of soft and sensitive overhanging membranes in SU-8. A metal mask is transferred onto unexposed SU-8 from an elastomer stamp made of polydimethylsiloxane. This mask is subsequently embedded into the ......We present a process based on contact printed shadow masks for three dimensional microfabrication of soft and sensitive overhanging membranes in SU-8. A metal mask is transferred onto unexposed SU-8 from an elastomer stamp made of polydimethylsiloxane. This mask is subsequently embedded...... into the negative resist to protect buried material from UV-exposure. Unlike direct evaporation-deposition of a mask onto the SU-8, printing avoids high stress and radiation, thus preventing resist wrinkling and prepolymerization. We demonstrate effective monolithic fabrication of soft, 4-μm thick and 100-μm long...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ...

  15. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact ... After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter ...

  17. Hydrogenation of passivated contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, William; Yuan, Hao-Chih; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Pauls; Page, Matthew R.

    2018-03-06

    Methods of hydrogenation of passivated contacts using materials having hydrogen impurities are provided. An example method includes applying, to a passivated contact, a layer of a material, the material containing hydrogen impurities. The method further includes subsequently annealing the material and subsequently removing the material from the passivated contact.

  18. Contact lens in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha M Rathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL, hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL.

  19. Contact lens in keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Varsha M; Mandathara, Preeji S; Dumpati, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL. PMID:23925325

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back ... in very slightly. Hold a ball directly in front of you. Keep your abdominal muscles tight and ...

  1. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in HIV prevention; current status and future directions: a summary of the DAIDS and BMGF sponsored think tank on pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD) in HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Joseph; Kashuba, Angela; Becker, Stephen; Cummins, James; Turpin, Jim; Veronese, Fulvia

    2013-11-01

    Thirty years after its beginning, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is still raging around the world. According to UNAIDS, in 2011 alone 1.7M deaths were attributable to AIDS, and 2.5M people were newly infected by the virus. Despite the success in treating HIV-infected people with potent antiretroviral drugs, preventing HIV infection is the key to ending the epidemic. Recently, the efficacy of topical and systemic antiviral chemoprophylaxis (i.e., preexposure prophylaxis or "PrEP"), using the same drugs used for HIV treatment, has been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials. However, results from other trials have been inconsistent, especially those evaluating PrEP in women. These inconsistencies may result from our incomplete understanding of pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD) at the mucosal sites of sexual transmission: the male and female gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts. The drug concentrations used in these trials were derived from those used for treatment; however, we still do not know the relationship between the therapeutic and the preventive dose. This article presents the first comprehensive review of the available data in the HIV pharmacology field from animal models to human studies, and outlines gaps, challenges, and future directions. Addressing these pharmacological gaps and challenges will be critical in selecting and advancing future PrEP candidates and strategies with the greatest impact on the HIV epidemic.

  2. CONTACT LENS RELATED CORNEAL ULCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGARWAL P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are:overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. The presenting symptoms of contact lens related corneal ulcers include eye discomfort, foreign body sensation and lacrimation. More serious symptoms are redness (especially circum-corneal injection, severe pain, photophobia, eye discharge and blurring of vision. The diagnosis is established by a thorough slit lamp microscopic examination with fluorescein staining and corneal scraping for Gram stain and culture of the infective organism. Delay in diagnosing and treatment can cause permanent blindness, therefore an early referral to ophthalmologist and commencing of antimicrobial therapy can prevent visual loss.

  3. Nutrigenomics, the Microbiome, and Gene-Environment Interactions: New Directions in Cardiovascular Disease Research, Prevention, and Treatment: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jane F; Allayee, Hooman; Gerszten, Robert E; Ideraabdullah, Folami; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Ordovás, José M; Rimm, Eric B; Wang, Thomas J; Bennett, Brian J

    2016-06-01

    Cardiometabolic diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and are strongly linked to both genetic and nutritional factors. The field of nutrigenomics encompasses multiple approaches aimed at understanding the effects of diet on health or disease development, including nutrigenetic studies investigating the relationship between genetic variants and diet in modulating cardiometabolic risk, as well as the effects of dietary components on multiple "omic" measures, including transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, lipidomics, epigenetic modifications, and the microbiome. Here, we describe the current state of the field of nutrigenomics with respect to cardiometabolic disease research and outline a direction for the integration of multiple omics techniques in future nutrigenomic studies aimed at understanding mechanisms and developing new therapeutic options for cardiometabolic disease treatment and prevention. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Effects of Preventative Ankle Taping on Planned Change-of-Direction and Reactive Agility Performance and Ankle Muscle Activity in Basketballers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Jeffriess, Adrian B. Schultz, Tye S. McGann, Samuel J. Callaghan, Robert G. Lockie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of preventative ankle taping on planned change-of-direction and reactive agility performance and peak ankle muscle activity in basketballers. Twenty male basketballers (age = 22.30 ± 3.97 years; height = 1.84 ± 0.09 meters; body mass = 85.96 ± 11.88 kilograms with no ankle pathologies attended two testing sessions. Within each session, subjects completed six planned and six reactive randomized trials (three to the left and three to the right for each condition of the Y-shaped agility test, which was recorded by timing lights. In one session, subjects had both ankles un-taped. In the other, both ankles were taped using a modified subtalar sling. Peak tibialis anterior, peroneus longus (PL, peroneus brevis (PB, and soleus muscle activity was recorded for both the inside and outside legs across stance phase during the directional change, which was normalized against 10-meter sprint muscle activity (nEMG. Both the inside and outside cut legs during the change-of-direction step were investigated. Repeated measures ANOVA determined performance time and nEMG differences between un-taped and taped conditions. There were no differences in planned change-of-direction or reactive agility times between the conditions. Inside cut leg PL nEMG decreased when taped for the planned left, reactive left, and reactive right cuts (p = 0.01. Outside leg PB and soleus nEMG increased during the taped planned left cut (p = 0.02. There were no other nEMG changes during the cuts with taping. Taping did not affect change-of-direction or agility performance. Inside leg PL activity was decreased, possibly due to the tape following the line of muscle action. This may reduce the kinetic demand for the PL during cuts. In conclusion, ankle taping did not significantly affect planned change-of-direction or reactive agility performance, and did not demonstrate large changes in activity of the muscle complex in healthy basketballers.

  5. Compliance among soft contact lens wearers.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzman, Tomislav; Barišić Kutija, Marija; Masnec, Sanja; Jandroković, Sonja; Mrazovac, Danijela; Jurišić, Darija; Škegro, Ivan; Kalauz, Miro; Kordić, Rajko

    2014-01-01

    Contact lens compliance is proven to be crucial for preventing lens wear-related complications because of the interdependence of the steps in lens care regime and their influence on lens system microbial contamination. Awareness of the patients' lens handling compliance as well as correct recognition of non-compliant behaviours is the basis for creating more targeted strategies for patient education. The aim of this study was to investigate compliance among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in ...

  6. Persistence of contact allergy among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2001-01-01

    , the persistence of allergic contact sensitivity, defined as 1 or more positive patch tests in both surveys, was 71% (37 out of 52 subjects). Nickel allergy persisted in 79% (19 out of 24 subjects), while 60% (21 out of 35 subjects) had a positive patch test reaction to 1 or more allergens, other than nickel...... at least 1 positive patch test. Nickel allergy persisted in 79%. Allergen avoidance should probably be lifelong to prevent elicitation of contact dermatitis....

  7. Jet Fuel-Associated Occupational Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contestable, James J

    2017-03-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is a ubiquitous problem. Sailors onboard U.S. Navy vessels are at high risk given the multitude of potential workplace exposures. Solvents, petrochemicals, and fuels are abundant and can cause irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. Symptoms of contact dermatitis can cause inability to work and, if chronic, may require a change in rating or job. Prevention of this issue requires patient education about the risks and correct personnel protective equipment. Even with preventative strategies in place, exposures and cases of contact dermatitis will occur. Treatment consists of topical steroids and immunomodulators, as well as barrier creams and emollients. The goal of treatment is to fully restore the skin's natural barrier and prevent further exposure. A classic case of jet fuel-associated contact dermatitis is reviewed. A literature review utilizing PubMed, Google Scholar, and Google Search was conducted to elucidate our understanding of this issue, current occupational health guidelines, preventative approaches, and treatments. This case report provides guidance and recommendations for providers who encounter contact dermatitis related to petrochemicals, such as jet fuel. The literature review revealed limited knowledge surrounding in vivo human skin effects of jet fuel, specifically JP-5. Even larger gaps were found in our understanding of, and guidelines for, protective modalities against jet fuel exposure and dermatitis. A case is presented to facilitate recognition of jet fuel contact dermatitis and guidance for treatment and prevention. Given our current limited knowledge and guidelines concerning protective equipment and skin protectants, multiple proposals for future studies are suggested. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. Projecting social contact matrices in 152 countries using contact surveys and demographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prem, Kiesha; Cook, Alex R; Jit, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Heterogeneities in contact networks have a major effect in determining whether a pathogen can become epidemic or persist at endemic levels. Epidemic models that determine which interventions can successfully prevent an outbreak need to account for social structure and mixing patterns. Contact patterns vary across age and locations (e.g. home, work, and school), and including them as predictors in transmission dynamic models of pathogens that spread socially will improve the models' realism. Data from population-based contact diaries in eight European countries from the POLYMOD study were projected to 144 other countries using a Bayesian hierarchical model that estimated the proclivity of age-and-location-specific contact patterns for the countries, using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Household level data from the Demographic and Health Surveys for nine lower-income countries and socio-demographic factors from several on-line databases for 152 countries were used to quantify similarity of countries to estimate contact patterns in the home, work, school and other locations for countries for which no contact data are available, accounting for demographic structure, household structure where known, and a variety of metrics including workforce participation and school enrolment. Contacts are highly assortative with age across all countries considered, but pronounced regional differences in the age-specific contacts at home were noticeable, with more inter-generational contacts in Asian countries than in other settings. Moreover, there were variations in contact patterns by location, with work-place contacts being least assortative. These variations led to differences in the effect of social distancing measures in an age structured epidemic model. Contacts have an important role in transmission dynamic models that use contact rates to characterize the spread of contact-transmissible diseases. This study provides estimates of mixing patterns for societies for which

  9. Projecting social contact matrices in 152 countries using contact surveys and demographic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiesha Prem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneities in contact networks have a major effect in determining whether a pathogen can become epidemic or persist at endemic levels. Epidemic models that determine which interventions can successfully prevent an outbreak need to account for social structure and mixing patterns. Contact patterns vary across age and locations (e.g. home, work, and school, and including them as predictors in transmission dynamic models of pathogens that spread socially will improve the models' realism. Data from population-based contact diaries in eight European countries from the POLYMOD study were projected to 144 other countries using a Bayesian hierarchical model that estimated the proclivity of age-and-location-specific contact patterns for the countries, using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Household level data from the Demographic and Health Surveys for nine lower-income countries and socio-demographic factors from several on-line databases for 152 countries were used to quantify similarity of countries to estimate contact patterns in the home, work, school and other locations for countries for which no contact data are available, accounting for demographic structure, household structure where known, and a variety of metrics including workforce participation and school enrolment. Contacts are highly assortative with age across all countries considered, but pronounced regional differences in the age-specific contacts at home were noticeable, with more inter-generational contacts in Asian countries than in other settings. Moreover, there were variations in contact patterns by location, with work-place contacts being least assortative. These variations led to differences in the effect of social distancing measures in an age structured epidemic model. Contacts have an important role in transmission dynamic models that use contact rates to characterize the spread of contact-transmissible diseases. This study provides estimates of mixing patterns for

  10. Contact resistance evolution of highly cycled, lightly loaded micro-contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilson, Christopher; Coutu, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    Reliable microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switches are critical for developing high performance radio frequency circuits like phase shifters. Engineers have attempted to improve reliability and lifecycle performance using novel contact metals, unique mechanical designs and packaging. Various test fixtures including: MEMS devices, atomic force microscopes (AFM) and nanoindentors have been used to collect resistance and contact force data. AFM and nanoindentor test fixtures allow direct contact force measurements but are severely limited by low resonance sensors, and therefore low data collection rates. This paper reports the contact resistance evolution results and fabrication of thin film, sputtered and evaporated gold, micro-contacts dynamically tested up to 3kHz. The upper contact support structure consists of a gold surface micromachined, fix-fix beam designed with sufficient restoring force to overcome adhesion. The hemisphere-upper and planar-lower contacts are mated with a calibrated, external load resulting in approximately 100μN of contact force and are cycled in excess of 106 times or until failure. Contact resistance is measured, in-situ, using a cross-bar configuration and the entire apparatus is isolated from external vibration and housed in an enclosure to minimize contamination due to ambient environment. Additionally, contact cycling and data collection are automated using a computer and LabVIEW. Results include contact resistance measurements of 6 and 8 μm radius contact bumps and lifetime testing up to 323.6 million cycles.

  11. [Eye contact in adult patients with Asperger syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M; Wolfgang, D

    2015-05-01

    It is unclear if individuals with autism spectrum disorders rarely hold direct eye contact because eyes are unimportant for them, or if it is actively avoided. The aim of the current investigation was to gain a better understanding for their views on direct eye contact by exploring adult patients with Asperger syndrome. 63 adult patients with Asperger syndrome (28 females, 35 males, 21 - 62 years old) were explored about using and sensing direct eye contact by means of a standardised questionnaire. 87 % of investigated patients depict direct eye contact as being disagreeable. They describe it as arduous and distracting. Therefore they mostly actively avoid direct eye contact. The here gained knowledge about aversion towards direct eye contact in individuals with autism should lead to a stronger understanding and acceptance of this problem in the non-autistic population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Effects of Preventative Ankle Taping on Planned Change-of-Direction and Reactive Agility Performance and Ankle Muscle Activity in Basketballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffriess, Matthew D; Schultz, Adrian B; McGann, Tye S; Callaghan, Samuel J; Lockie, Robert G

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of preventative ankle taping on planned change-of-direction and reactive agility performance and peak ankle muscle activity in basketballers. Twenty male basketballers (age = 22.30 ± 3.97 years; height = 1.84 ± 0.09 meters; body mass = 85.96 ± 11.88 kilograms) with no ankle pathologies attended two testing sessions. Within each session, subjects completed six planned and six reactive randomized trials (three to the left and three to the right for each condition) of the Y-shaped agility test, which was recorded by timing lights. In one session, subjects had both ankles un-taped. In the other, both ankles were taped using a modified subtalar sling. Peak tibialis anterior, peroneus longus (PL), peroneus brevis (PB), and soleus muscle activity was recorded for both the inside and outside legs across stance phase during the directional change, which was normalized against 10-meter sprint muscle activity (nEMG). Both the inside and outside cut legs during the change-of-direction step were investigated. Repeated measures ANOVA determined performance time and nEMG differences between un-taped and taped conditions. There were no differences in planned change-of-direction or reactive agility times between the conditions. Inside cut leg PL nEMG decreased when taped for the planned left, reactive left, and reactive right cuts (p = 0.01). Outside leg PB and soleus nEMG increased during the taped planned left cut (p = 0.02). There were no other nEMG changes during the cuts with taping. Taping did not affect change-of-direction or agility performance. Inside leg PL activity was decreased, possibly due to the tape following the line of muscle action. This may reduce the kinetic demand for the PL during cuts. In conclusion, ankle taping did not significantly affect planned change-of-direction or reactive agility performance, and did not demonstrate large changes in activity of the muscle complex in healthy basketballers. Key pointsAnkle taping

  13. Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Yosemite FAQ: Non-U.S. Visitors to Yosemite History of HPS Related Links Prevent Rodent Infestations Cleaning Up After Rodents Diseases From Rodent Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Eliminate or minimize contact with ...

  14. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries ... LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By ...

  15. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Direct Oral Anticoagulants Compared to Warfarin in Prevention of Thromboembolic Events Among Elderly Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailas, Shilpa D; Thambuluru, Sirisha Reddy

    2016-10-18

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), previously also known as novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs), have increased the therapeutic options for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). Previous studies comparing their relative efficacy and safety do not address age-related differences, such as comorbidities and physical and social boundaries. This review aimed to summarize and compare the clinical and safety outcomes of DOACs and warfarin for stroke prevention in AF in the elderly population (≥ 65 years). We searched PubMed for randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses that compared DOACs and warfarin in elderly patients with AF. Stroke and systemic embolism (SSE) and major bleeding (MB) were primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included ischemic stroke, all-cause mortality, intracranial bleeding, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Of 66 studies identified, one randomized control trial (RCT) and one meta-analysis were included. DOACs were at least as effective at reducing the risk of SSE as warfarin. DOACs demonstrated a minimal benefit for ischemic stroke (dabigatran, 110 mg, relative risk (RR) 1.08; edoxaban, 60 mg, RR 1.00; and apixaban, 5 mg, RR 0.99). DOACs associated with decreased risk of MB relative to warfarin include dabigatran, 110 mg; apixaban, 5 mg; and edoxaban, 60 mg (RR 0.80, 0.70, and 0.80, respectively), while dabigatran, 150 mg, and rivaroxaban, 20 mg, increased risk (RR 0.79 - 0.83, respectively). Dabigatran, 110 mg and 150 mg doses, and edoxaban increased the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (RR 1.04, 1.12, and 1.23, respectively). Lower rates of SSE and intracranial bleeding were seen with DOACs compared to warfarin. Dabigatran, 150 mg, and rivaroxaban, 20 mg, were associated with higher MB in older elderly compared to warfarin. DOACs may be attractive alternatives to warfarin, but further studies are needed to make clinical recommendations.

  17. Animal Research International: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. J. E. Eyo Dr. Department of Zoology, University of Nig Department of Zoology, POBox 3146, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Phone: 234 42 308030. Email: joseph.eyo@unn.edu.ng. Support Contact. N. S. Oluah Phone: +234-83732127. Email: ndubusioluah@yahoo.com.

  18. Contact Hamiltonian mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravetti, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.bravetti@iimas.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Cruz, Hans, E-mail: hans@ciencias.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Tapias, Diego, E-mail: diego.tapias@nucleares.unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2017-01-15

    In this work we introduce contact Hamiltonian mechanics, an extension of symplectic Hamiltonian mechanics, and show that it is a natural candidate for a geometric description of non-dissipative and dissipative systems. For this purpose we review in detail the major features of standard symplectic Hamiltonian dynamics and show that all of them can be generalized to the contact case.

  19. Discovery and Innovation: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. Keto Mshigeni Editor-in-Chief Academy Science Publishers. PO Box 14798-00200. Nairobi. Kenya. Phone: 254 (20) 884401-5. Fax: 254 (20) 884406. Email: aas@aasciences.org. Support Contact. Prof. Keto Mshigeni Email: aas@aasciences.org. ISSN: 1015-079X. AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. LBS Management Review: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr Obinna Muogboh Managing Editor Lagos Business School Pan African University 2 Ahmed Onibudo Street, P.O. Box 73688, Victoria Island, Lagos, NIGERIA Email: omuogboh@lbs.edu.ng. Support Contact. Editor Email: omuogboh@lbs.edu.ng. ISSN: 1118-3713. AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. African Health Sciences: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr James Tumwine Editor-in-Chief. Makerere University Medical School P. O. Box 7072 Kampala Uganda. Phone: 256-41-530020/1. Email: kabaleimc@gmail.com. Support Contact. Pauline Salamula Email: paulinesalamula@gmail.com. ISSN: 1680-6905. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get follow up exams with your eye care provider. If you notice redness, swelling, excessive discharge, pain or discomfort from wearing contact lenses, remove the lenses and seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to properly care for contact lenses . ...

  3. Contact Quality in Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Jensen, Olav Storm

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the concept of participation from the perspective of quality of the contact in the communicative interactions between participants. We argue for the need for an academic-personal competence that qualifies the human contact central in all Participatory Design (PD) activities as a wa...

  4. Sciences & Nature: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Ehouan Etienne Ehile Professor University of Abobo-Adjamé 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02. Phone: (+225) 2030 4201. Fax: (+225) 2030 4203. Email: eh_ehile@yahoo.fr. Support Contact. Irie Zoro Bi Email: banhiakalou@yahoo.fr. ISSN: 1812-0741. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  6. African Zoology: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Lester Isaacs Phone: +27466229698. Fax: +2746 622 9550. Email: lester@nisc.co.za. Support Contact. NISC office. Email: info@nisc.co.za. ISSN: 2224-073X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  7. Factor XII Contact Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Clément; Burillo, Elena; Blankenberg, Stefan; Butler, Lynn; Renné, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Contact activation is the surface-induced conversion of factor XII (FXII) zymogen to the serine protease FXIIa. Blood-circulating FXII binds to negatively charged surfaces and this contact to surfaces triggers a conformational change in the zymogen inducing autoactivation. Several surfaces that have the capacity for initiating FXII contact activation have been identified, including misfolded protein aggregates, collagen, nucleic acids, and platelet and microbial polyphosphate. Activated FXII initiates the proinflammatory kallikrein-kinin system and the intrinsic coagulation pathway, leading to formation of bradykinin and thrombin, respectively. FXII contact activation is well characterized in vitro and provides the mechanistic basis for the diagnostic clotting assay, activated partial thromboplastin time. However, only in the past decade has the critical role of FXII contact activation in pathological thrombosis been appreciated. While defective FXII contact activation provides thromboprotection, excess activation underlies the swelling disorder hereditary angioedema type III. This review provides an overview of the molecular basis of FXII contact activation and FXII contact activation-associated disease states. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Afrika Statistika: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. Gane Samb Lo Editor Université Gaston Berger BP 234, Université Saint-Louis Sénégal Phone: 221 961 23 40. Fax: 221 961 53 38. Email: ganesamblo@yahoo.com. Support Contact. Mamadou Camara Email: mdoucamara@gmail.com. ISSN: 2316-090X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  9. Nigerian Food Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Food Journal. ... Nigerian Food Journal: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigerian Food Journal: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Mailing Address. Department of Food Science and Technology University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria ...

  10. Lettuce contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any...

  11. Contact materials for nanoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we review current research activities in contact material development for electronic and nanoelectronic devices. A fundamental issue in contact materials research is to understand and control interfacial reactions and phenomena that modify the expected device performance. These reactions have become more challenging and more difficult to control as new materials have been introduced and as device sizes have entered the deep nanoscale. To provide an overview of this field of inquiry, this issue of MRS Bulletin includes articles on gate and contact materials for Si-based devices, junction contact materials for Si-based devices, and contact materials for alternate channel substrates (Ge and III-V), nanodevices. © 2011 Materials Research Society.

  12. Measuring social contacts in the emergency department.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas W Lowery-North

    Full Text Available Infectious individuals in an emergency department (ED bring substantial risks of cross infection. Data about the complex social and spatial structure of interpersonal contacts in the ED will aid construction of biologically plausible transmission risk models that can guide cross infection control.We sought to determine the number and duration of contacts among patients and staff in a large, busy ED. This prospective study was conducted between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2010. Two 12-hour shifts per week were randomly selected for study. The study was conducted in the ED of an urban hospital. There were 81 shifts in the planned random sample of 104 (78% with usable contact data, during which there were 9183 patient encounters. Of these, 6062 (66% were approached to participate, of which 4732 (78% agreed. Over the course of the year, 88 staff members participated (84%. A radiofrequency identification (RFID system was installed and the ED divided into 89 distinct zones structured so copresence of two individuals in any zone implied a very high probability of contact <1 meter apart in space. During study observation periods, patients and staff were given RFID tags to wear. Contact events were recorded. These were further broken down with respect to the nature of the contacts, i.e., patient with patient, patient with staff, and staff with staff. 293,171 contact events were recorded, with a median of 22 contact events and 9 contacts with distinct individuals per participant per shift. Staff-staff interactions were more numerous and longer than patient-patient or patient-staff interactions.We used RFID to quantify contacts between patients and staff in a busy ED. These results are useful for studies of the spread of infections. By understanding contact patterns most important in potential transmission, more effective prevention strategies may be implemented.

  13. Primary cilia utilize glycoprotein-dependent adhesion mechanisms to stabilize long-lasting cilia-cilia contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ott Carolyn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The central tenet of cilia function is sensing and transmitting information. The capacity to directly contact extracellular surfaces would empower primary cilia to probe the environment for information about the nature and location of nearby surfaces. It has been well established that flagella and other motile cilia perform diverse cellular functions through adhesion. We hypothesized that mammalian primary cilia also interact with the extracellular environment through direct physical contact. Methods We identified cilia in rod photoreceptors and cholangiocytes in fixed mouse tissues and examined the structures that these cilia contact in vivo. We then utilized an MDCK cell culture model to characterize the nature of the contacts we observed. Results In retina and liver tissue, we observed that cilia from nearby cells touch one another. Using MDCK cells, we found compelling evidence that these contacts are stable adhesions that form bridges between two cells, or networks between many cells. We examined the nature and duration of the cilia-cilia contacts and discovered primary cilia movements that facilitate cilia-cilia encounters. Stable adhesions form as the area of contact expands from a single point to a stretch of tightly bound, adjacent cilia membranes. The cilia-cilia contacts persisted for hours and were resistant to several harsh treatments such as proteases and DTT. Unlike many other cell adhesion mechanisms, calcium was not required for the formation or maintenance of cilia adhesion. However, swainsonine, which blocks maturation of N-linked glycoproteins, reduced contact formation. We propose that cellular control of adhesion maintenance is active because cilia adhesion did not prevent cell division; rather, contacts dissolved during mitosis as cilia were resorbed. Conclusions The demonstration that mammalian primary cilia formed prolonged, direct, physical contacts supports a novel paradigm: that mammalian primary

  14. Equal Status Contact and Modification of Racial Prejudice: A Re-examination of the Contact Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jerry W.; Preston, James D.

    1976-01-01

    Concludes that many interracial contact situations that are perceived as being of equal status by whites are not perceived in the same manner by blacks, suggesting a modification of the traditional equal status contact hypothesis as well as having direct implications for policy making in school desegregation. (Author/AM)

  15. Native American Stereotypes, TV Portrayals, and Personal Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Alexis; Fujioka, Yuki; Lucht, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Investigates stereotyping of Native Americans by white college students, examining effects of vicarious contact via television and affective evaluations of direct and vicarious contact on stereotypes. Finds that evaluations of contact with minority groups determine group evaluation and that stereotyping is predicted by pleasant or unpleasant first…

  16. Contacts to semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tove, P.A.

    1975-08-01

    Contacts to semiconductors play an important role in most semiconductor devices. These devices range from microelectronics to power components, from high-sensitivity light or radiation detectors to light-emitting of microwave-generating components. Silicon is the dominating material but compound semiconductors are increasing in importance. The following survey is an attempt to classify contact properties and the physical mechanisms involved, as well as fabrication methods and methods of investigation. The main interest is in metal-semiconductor type contacts where a few basic concepts are dealt with in some detail. (Auth.)

  17. Feasibility and coverage of implementing intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnant women contacting private or public clinics in Tanzania: experience-based viewpoints of health managers in Mkuranga and Mufindi districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubyazi, Godfrey M; Magnussen, Pascal; Byskov, Jens; Bloch, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Evidence on healthcare managers' experience on operational feasibility of malaria intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in Africa is systematically inadequate. This paper elucidates the perspectives of District Council Health Management Team (CHMT)s regarding the feasibility of IPTp with SP strategy, including its acceptability and ability of district health care systems to cope with the contemporary and potential challenges. The study was conducted in Mkuranga and Mufindi districts. Data were collected between November 2005 and December 2007, involving focus group discussion (FGD) with Mufindi CHMT and in-depth interviews were conducted with few CHMT members in Mkuranga where it was difficult to summon all members for FGD. Participants in both districts acknowledged the IPTp strategy, considering the seriousness of malaria in pregnancy problem; government allocation of funds to support healthcare staff training programmes in focused antenatal care (fANC) issues, procuring essential drugs distributed to districts, staff remuneration, distribution of fANC guidelines, and administrative activities performed by CHMTs. The identified weaknesses include late arrival of funds from central level weakening CHMT's performance in health supervision, organising outreach clinics, distributing essential supplies, and delivery of IPTp services. Participants anticipated the public losing confidence in SP for IPTp after government announced artemither-lumefantrine (ALu) as the new first-line drug for uncomplicated malaria replacing SP. Role of private healthcare staff in IPTp services was acknowledged cautiously because CHMTs rarely supplied private clinics with SP for free delivery in fear that clients would be required to pay for the SP contrary to government policy. In Mufindi, the District Council showed a strong political support by supplementing ANC clinics with bottled water; in Mkuranga such support was

  18. New aspects in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-10-01

    To give selected new information on contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis with focus on diagnostic procedures and pitfalls. Recent studies dealing with common contact allergens have improved our understanding of the relationship between positive patch tests and the clinical interpretation and consequences for the patient. Nickel allergy is still the most common contact allergy in Europe in spite of full implementation of the EU Nickel Directive in 2001. Contact allergens in cosmetics and topical drugs are another common cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The main culprits include fragrance chemicals, preservatives, and hair dyes. We are all more or less exposed to cosmetics and topical drugs on a daily basis. The labelling requirements given in the Cosmetics Directive is of great help in tracing the causative allergenic ingredients. Most of the components present in cosmetic products are also occurring in household and industrial products, often under other trade names. Patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special problem because their quality of life is severely affected by the multitude of eliciting products in the environment. We still lack a good understanding of why these patients become so easily sensitized.

  19. Hepatitis A infection in recent international adoptees and their contacts in Minnesota, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Kristin; Sutherland, Wendy; Ehresmann, Kristen; Lynfield, Ruth

    2011-08-01

    The goal of this study was to describe hepatitis A-infected adoptees and the risk of transmission to their contacts. This was a retrospective review of adoptee-associated cases of hepatitis A and hepatitis A-infected adoptees identified in Minnesota from 2007 through 2009. From 2007 through 2009 in Minnesota, 10 cases of hepatitis A, including 1 fulminant case, were associated with international adoptees. Eight cases were direct contacts of a hepatitis A-infected adoptee, and 2 other cases secondary contacts of an adoptee. During the same period, hepatitis A infection was identified in 21 recently arrived foreign-born adoptees; all were younger than 60 months of age, and only 6 were symptomatic. Clinicians should be aware that transmission of hepatitis A may occur among both direct and secondary contacts of young children recently adopted from hepatitis A-endemic areas and that infected young children may be asymptomatic. Household members and other close contacts of international adoptees should be counseled about hepatitis A prevention, including vaccination. In addition, screening for hepatitis A should be considered for recently arrived adoptees from endemic areas.

  20. Via Method for Lithography Free Contact and Preservation of 2D Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Evan J; Benyamini, Avishai; Rhodes, Daniel; Wang, Da; Jung, Younghun; Zangiabadi, Amirali; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Jia, Shuang; Barmak, Katayun; Pasupathy, Abhay N; Dean, Cory R; Hone, James

    2018-02-14

    Atomically thin 2D materials span the common components of electronic circuits as metals, semiconductors, and insulators, and can manifest correlated phases such as superconductivity, charge density waves, and magnetism. An ongoing challenge in the field is to incorporate these 2D materials into multilayer heterostructures with robust electrical contacts while preventing disorder and degradation. In particular, preserving and studying air-sensitive 2D materials has presented a significant challenge since they readily oxidize under atmospheric conditions. We report a new technique for contacting 2D materials, in which metal via contacts are integrated into flakes of insulating hexagonal boron nitride, and then placed onto the desired conducting 2D layer, avoiding direct lithographic patterning onto the 2D conductor. The metal contacts are planar with the bottom surface of the boron nitride and form robust contacts to multiple 2D materials. These structures protect air-sensitive 2D materials for months with no degradation in performance. This via contact technique will provide the capability to produce "atomic printed circuit boards" that can form the basis of more complex multilayer heterostructures.

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... ask for a prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... people with high myopia? Mar 29, 2017 New Technology Helps the Legally Blind Be More Independent Oct ... Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

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  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel Do you know what the difference is between ophthalmologists and optometrists? A ...

  8. Ergonomics SA: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Mrs June McDougall. Rhodes University. Department of Human Kinetics and Ergonomics. P.O. Box 94. Rhodes University. Grahamstown. 6140. Phone: +27 46 6038471. Email: j.mcdougall@ru.ac.za ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  10. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after she first put in a pair ... Prescription Contact Lens Laura: Vision Loss After Just 10 Hours Robyn: Blurry Vision and Daily Eye Drops ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... in beauty salons, novelty shops or in pop-up Halloween stores are not FDA-approved and are ... share contact lenses with another person. Get follow up exams with your eye care provider. If you ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... videos on your website Promotional materials for eye health observances EyeSmart resources are also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  17. GAS-FOVEAL CONTACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Mark; la Cour, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare gas-foveal contact in face-down positioning (FDP) and nonsupine positioning (NSP), to analyze causes of gas-foveal separation and to determine how gas-foveal contact affects clinical outcome after idiopathic macular hole repair. METHODS: Single center, randomized controlled...... study. Participants with an idiopathic macular hole were allocated to either FDP or NSP. Primary outcome was gas-foveal contact, calculated by analyzing positioning in relation to intraocular gas fill. Positioning was measured with an electronic device recording positioning for 72 hours postoperatively....... RESULTS: Positioning data were available for 33/35 in the FDP group and 35/37 in the NSP group, thus results are based on 68 analyzed participants. Median gas-foveal contact was 99.82% (range 73.6-100.0) in the FDP group and 99.57% (range 85.3-100.0) in the NSP group (P = 0.22). In a statistical model...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to properly care for contact lenses . Learn about ... Shape of the Eclipse Itself Dec 08, 2017 How long does it take the eye to go ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Purchase the colored contact lenses from an eye product retailer who asks for a prescription. Follow the ... for people with high myopia? Mar 29, 2017 New Technology Helps the Legally Blind Be More Independent ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... are being sold illegally," Dr. Steinemann said. Never buy colored contact lenses from a retailer that does ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without ... been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like a suction ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription ... people with high myopia? Mar 29, 2017 New Technology Helps the Legally Blind Be More Independent Oct ...

  7. Contact Lens Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tap and distilled water have been associated with Acanthamoeba keratitis, a corneal infection that is resistant to ... to: Advice for Patients With Soft Contact Lenses: Acanthamoeba Keratitis Infections Related to Complete® MoisturePlus Multi Purpose ...

  8. Contact Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M. L.; Stalmach, D. D.; Cox, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Fluid pressure controls contact between heat pipe and heat exchanger. Heat exchanger system in cross section provides contact interface between fluid system and heat pipe with easy assembly/disassembly of heat-pipe/ pumped-liquid system. Originally developed for use in space, new device applicable on Earth where fluid system is linked with heat pipe, where rapid assembly/disassembly required, or where high pressures or corrosive fluids used.

  9. Patients with multiple contact allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Patients with multiple contact allergies, also referred to as polysensitized, are more frequent than predicted from prevalence of single sensitivities. The understanding of why some people develop multiple contact allergies, and characterization of patients with multiple contact allergies...... of developing multiple contact allergies. Evidence of allergen clusters among polysensitized individuals is also reviewed. The literature supports the idea that patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special entity within the field of contact allergy. There is no generally accepted definition...... of patients with multiple contact allergies. We suggest that contact allergy to 3 or more allergens are defined as multiple contact allergies....

  10. Protein contact order prediction from primary sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wishart David S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contact order is a topological descriptor that has been shown to be correlated with several interesting protein properties such as protein folding rates and protein transition state placements. Contact order has also been used to select for viable protein folds from ab initio protein structure prediction programs. For proteins of known three-dimensional structure, their contact order can be calculated directly. However, for proteins with unknown three-dimensional structure, there is no effective prediction method currently available. Results In this paper, we propose several simple yet very effective methods to predict contact order from the amino acid sequence only. One set of methods is based on a weighted linear combination of predicted secondary structure content and amino acid composition. Depending on the number of components used in these equations it is possible to achieve a correlation coefficient of 0.857–0.870 between the observed and predicted contact order. A second method, based on sequence similarity to known three-dimensional structures, is able to achieve a correlation coefficient of 0.977. We have also developed a much more robust implementation for calculating contact order directly from PDB coordinates that works for > 99% PDB files. All of these contact order predictors and calculators have been implemented as a web server (see Availability and requirements section for URL. Conclusion Protein contact order can be effectively predicted from the primary sequence, at the absence of three-dimensional structure. Three factors, percentage of residues in alpha helices, percentage of residues in beta strands, and sequence length, appear to be strongly correlated with the absolute contact order.

  11. Metal-Semiconductor Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, D. I.

    Metal-semiconductor contacts display a range of electrical characteristics from strongly rectifying to ohmic, each having its own applications. The rectifying properties of metal points on metallic sulphides were used extensively as detectors in early radio experiments, while during the second world war the rectifying point contact diode became important as a frequency detector and low level microwave radar detector [1]. Since 1945 the development of metal semiconductor contacts has been stimulated by the intense activity in the field of semiconductor physics and has remained vital in the ohmic connection of semiconductor devices with the outside world. The developments in surface science and the increased use of Schottky barriers in microelectronics has lead to much research with the aim of obtaining a full understanding of the physics of barrier formation and of current transport across the metal-semiconductor interface. Large gain spin electronic devices are possible with appropriate designs by incorporating ferromagnetic layers with semiconductors such as silicon [2]. This inevitably leads to metal-semiconductor contacts, and the impact of such junctions on the device must be considered. In this section we aim to look simply at the physical models that can be used to understand the electrical properties that can arise from these contacts, and then briefly discuss how deviations of these models can occur in practical junctions.

  12. [Computers and contact dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooms-Goossens, A

    1989-01-01

    A computerized database with the complete composition of pharmaceutical products and some cosmetics helps the patient with an allergic contact dermatitis reaction to avoid his specific allergens. Together with a database with patient information (12000 cases) this product, file serves as the basis for an expert system that assists the dermatologist during his every day clinical practice. The use of the computer in the field of contact dermatitis has gained much interest in the course of the last decade. In fact, the computer can be a particularly helpful tool in: 1. The storage of large amounts of data that can help to identify the patient's allergen microenvironment: --literature: articles related to contact dermatitis problems; --product information such as, for example, the composition of pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and industrial materials; --the dermatologist: the filling in of a standardized anamnesis from also helps to assure that relevant clinical data is not overlooked. 2. The diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis: on the basis of all these data stored, an expert system can be developed to provide targeted information to assist the physician with the anamnesis of a new patient. Depending on the profile of the patient, several factors that could be at the source of the contact dermatitis, such as the patient's profession, hobbies, and use of pharmaceutical products and cosmetics, can be considered, thus increasing the efficiency of the allergological examination considerably. 3. Research in contact dermatitis: --The data can be used for epidemiological analyses in behalf of the patients, the medical profession, the industry, and the authorities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Contact and contagion: Probability of transmission given contact varies with demographic state in bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Kezia R.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Plowright, Raina K.; Cross, Paul C.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding both contact and probability of transmission given contact are key to managing wildlife disease. However, wildlife disease research tends to focus on contact heterogeneity, in part because the probability of transmission given contact is notoriously difficult to measure. Here, we present a first step towards empirically investigating the probability of transmission given contact in free-ranging wildlife.We used measured contact networks to test whether bighorn sheep demographic states vary systematically in infectiousness or susceptibility to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, an agent responsible for bighorn sheep pneumonia.We built covariates using contact network metrics, demographic information and infection status, and used logistic regression to relate those covariates to lamb survival. The covariate set contained degree, a classic network metric describing node centrality, but also included covariates breaking the network metrics into subsets that differentiated between contacts with yearlings, ewes with lambs, and ewes without lambs, and animals with and without active infections.Yearlings, ewes with lambs, and ewes without lambs showed similar group membership patterns, but direct interactions involving touch occurred at a rate two orders of magnitude higher between lambs and reproductive ewes than between any classes of adults or yearlings, and one order of magnitude higher than direct interactions between multiple lambs.Although yearlings and non-reproductive bighorn ewes regularly carried M. ovipneumoniae, our models suggest that a contact with an infected reproductive ewe had approximately five times the odds of producing a lamb mortality event of an identical contact with an infected dry ewe or yearling. Consequently, management actions targeting infected animals might lead to unnecessary removal of young animals that carry pathogens but rarely transmit.This analysis demonstrates a simple logistic regression approach for testing

  14. Contact and contagion: Probability of transmission given contact varies with demographic state in bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Kezia R; Cassirer, E Frances; Plowright, Raina K; Cross, Paul C; Hudson, Peter J

    2017-07-01

    Understanding both contact and probability of transmission given contact are key to managing wildlife disease. However, wildlife disease research tends to focus on contact heterogeneity, in part because the probability of transmission given contact is notoriously difficult to measure. Here, we present a first step towards empirically investigating the probability of transmission given contact in free-ranging wildlife. We used measured contact networks to test whether bighorn sheep demographic states vary systematically in infectiousness or susceptibility to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, an agent responsible for bighorn sheep pneumonia. We built covariates using contact network metrics, demographic information and infection status, and used logistic regression to relate those covariates to lamb survival. The covariate set contained degree, a classic network metric describing node centrality, but also included covariates breaking the network metrics into subsets that differentiated between contacts with yearlings, ewes with lambs, and ewes without lambs, and animals with and without active infections. Yearlings, ewes with lambs, and ewes without lambs showed similar group membership patterns, but direct interactions involving touch occurred at a rate two orders of magnitude higher between lambs and reproductive ewes than between any classes of adults or yearlings, and one order of magnitude higher than direct interactions between multiple lambs. Although yearlings and non-reproductive bighorn ewes regularly carried M. ovipneumoniae, our models suggest that a contact with an infected reproductive ewe had approximately five times the odds of producing a lamb mortality event of an identical contact with an infected dry ewe or yearling. Consequently, management actions targeting infected animals might lead to unnecessary removal of young animals that carry pathogens but rarely transmit. This analysis demonstrates a simple logistic regression approach for testing a priori

  15. Gas fireplace contact burns in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettel, Julie C; Khambalia, Amina; Barden, Wendy; Murthy, Trisha; Macarthur, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Contact burns from domestic appliances are common in young children. Recently, gas fireplaces have been recognized as a potential cause of contact burns in young children. We sought to quantify the frequency of gas fireplace contact burns in young children, to identify the etiology of contact, to describe the clinical presentation, and to describe clinical outcomes. Children with gas fireplace contact burn injuries presenting to The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto (1999-2002) were identified using three data sources: the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program Database, the Burn Unit Registry, and the Rehabilitation Services Database. Demographic, clinical, and outcomes data were collected on all children. During the 4-year study period, 27 children presented to the hospital because of a gas fireplace contact burn (approximately 9% of all contact burns). The median age of the children was 14 months (range, 8-36 months), with 16 boys (59%). Most children were burned in their own home. With regard to etiology, 10 children (37%) lost their balance near the fireplace, 2 (7%) walked too close to the glass front, and 8 (30%) touched the glass front out of curiosity. Almost half (44%) of the children burned the palms and digits of both hands. The median total burn surface area was 1% (range, 0.2-2.5%). In total, 30% of children were admitted to hospital, and 11% required skin grafts. All children had full wound closure after 4 to 43 days. Given the etiology of these burns (loss of balance or curiosity), passive prevention, such as barriers or changes in the composition of glass panels, may be the most effective approach to combat them.

  16. Training for eye contact modulates gaze following in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Lisa J; Range, Friederike; Müller, Corsin A; Serisier, Samuel; Huber, Ludwig; Virányi, Zsófia

    2015-08-01

    Following human gaze in dogs and human infants can be considered a socially facilitated orientation response, which in object choice tasks is modulated by human-given ostensive cues. Despite their similarities to human infants, and extensive skills in reading human cues in foraging contexts, no evidence that dogs follow gaze into distant space has been found. We re-examined this question, and additionally whether dogs' propensity to follow gaze was affected by age and/or training to pay attention to humans. We tested a cross-sectional sample of 145 border collies aged 6 months to 14 years with different amounts of training over their lives. The dogs' gaze-following response in test and control conditions before and after training for initiating eye contact with the experimenter was compared with that of a second group of 13 border collies trained to touch a ball with their paw. Our results provide the first evidence that dogs can follow human gaze into distant space. Although we found no age effect on gaze following, the youngest and oldest age groups were more distractible, which resulted in a higher number of looks in the test and control conditions. Extensive lifelong formal training as well as short-term training for eye contact decreased dogs' tendency to follow gaze and increased their duration of gaze to the face. The reduction in gaze following after training for eye contact cannot be explained by fatigue or short-term habituation, as in the second group gaze following increased after a different training of the same length. Training for eye contact created a competing tendency to fixate the face, which prevented the dogs from following the directional cues. We conclude that following human gaze into distant space in dogs is modulated by training, which may explain why dogs perform poorly in comparison to other species in this task.

  17. Third sound dissipation at a point contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, F M; Eddinger, J D

    2009-01-01

    Third sound on a planar geometry at low temperatures is characterized by a rapidly diminishing thermal dissipation. Direct mechanical dissipation is limited to that associated with defects in the system. This includes interaction with pinned vortices, critical flow at surface defect sites, and unintentional acoustic coupling. Dissipation of this latter type is possible in the parallel plate geometry of capacitively detected third sound. We calculate the coupling of a third sound wave across a contacting bridge to a parallel plane, and investigate the energy transfer out of the wave and flow properties of the film in the vicinity of the contact. The presence of various mirror waves on the contacting plane is also considered. Experimental dissipation is observed in both geometries and it is shown that a single contact is capable of accounting for the dissipation as well as an unusually low observed critical velocity.

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... A medical degree and many more years of training, for starters. A recent article from U.S. News and World Report explains what ophthalmologists are and how they can help you look after ... Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  19. Nigeria Agricultural Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. J.A. Mbanasor Editor in Chief Head of Department, Agribusiness and Management College of Agribusiness and Financial Management Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Office of the Head of Department. Agribusiness and Management. College of Agribusiness and Financial Management.

  20. Language Contact and Bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, René; Muysken, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    What happens - sociologically, linguistically, educationally, politically - when more than one language is in regular use in a community? How do speakers handle these languages simultaneously, and what influence does this language contact have on the languages involved? Although most people in the

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  3. Mathematics Connection: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Kofi Mereku Executive Editor Department of Mathematics Education, UCE Mathematical Association of Ghana, C/o Department of Mathematics Education University College of Education of Winneba P. O. Box 25, Winneba, Ghana Phone: +233244961318. Email: dkmereku@uew.edu.gh ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her with a corneal ... A recent article from U.S. News and World Report explains what ophthalmologists are and how they can ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours ...

  6. Zoologist (The): Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. A.B. Odaibo Editor-in-Chief University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria. Hydrobiology & Fisheries Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Oyo State. Nigeria. West Africa. Alternative Email Address: adebakar19@yahoo.com. Phone: +234-(0)- 803-049-74. Fax: +234-02-8103043

  7. Open Veterinary Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Ibrahim Eldaghayes Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli, P. O. Box 13662, Tripoli, Libya Phone: +218 21 462 8422. Fax: +218 21 462 8421. Email: ibrahim.eldaghayes@vetmed.edu.ly ...

  8. Have Confidence in Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

    2010-01-01

    In an article in the May-June 2009 "American Psychologist," we discussed a new approach to reducing prejudice and encouraging more positive intergroup relations (Crisp & Turner, 2009). We named the approach imagined intergroup contact and defined it as "the mental simulation of a social interaction with a member or members of an outgroup category"…

  9. Lubrication Of Nonconformal Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Yeau-Ren

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses advances in knowledge of lubrication of nonconformal contacts in bearings and other machine elements. Reviews previous developments in theory of lubrication, presents advances in theory of lubrication to determine minimum film thickness, and describes experiments designed to investigate one of regimes of lubrication for ball bearings.

  10. CODESRIA Bulletin: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Francis B. Nyamnjoh Editor-in-Chief CODESRIA Avenue Cheikh Anta Diop x Canal 4. BP 3304. Dakar SENEGAL. ISSN: 0850-8712. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  11. Ghana Mining Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Professor Daniel Mireku-Gyimah Editor-in-Chief University of Mines & Technology Ghana Mining Journal University of Mines & Technology P. O. BOX 237 Tarkwa Ghana Phone: +233 362 20280/20324. Fax: +233 362 20306. Email: dm.gyimah@umat.edu.gh ...

  12. Contact allergy to spices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Van den Akker Th. (W.); I.D. Roesyanto-Mahadi (I.); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); Th. van Joost (Theo)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA group of 103 patients suspected of contact allergy was tested with the European standard series, wood tars and spices; paprika, cinnamon, laurel, celery seed, nutmeg, curry, black pepper, cloves, while pepper, coriander, cacao and garlic. 32 patients (Group I) were selected on the

  13. Duality based contact shape optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vondrák, Vít; Dostal, Zdenek; Rasmussen, John

    2001-01-01

    An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization.......An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization....

  14. Electrical contacts principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Slade, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    Covering the theory, application, and testing of contact materials, Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition introduces a thorough discussion on making electric contact and contact interface conduction; presents a general outline of, and measurement techniques for, important corrosion mechanisms; considers the results of contact wear when plug-in connections are made and broken; investigates the effect of thin noble metal plating on electronic connections; and relates crucial considerations for making high- and low-power contact joints. It examines contact use in switch

  15. Contact Graph Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  16. HTSC-Josephson step contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.

    1994-03-01

    In this work the properties of josephson step contacts are investigated. After a short introduction into Josephson step contacts the structure, properties and the Josphson contacts of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x high-T c superconductors is presented. The fabrication of HTSC step contacts and the microstructure is discussed. The electric properties of these contacts are measured together with the Josephson emission and the magnetic field dependence. The temperature dependence of the stationary transport properties is given. (WL)

  17. The effectiveness of a skin care program for the prevention of contact dermatitis in health care workers (the Healthy Hands Project): study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanipoor, Maryam; Kezic, Sanja; Sluiter, Judith K; Rustemeyer, Thomas

    2017-02-28

    Health care workers (HCW) are at high risk for developing occupational hand dermatitis (HD) due to frequent exposure to 'wet work'. Amongst HCWs, nurses are at highest risk, with an estimated point prevalence of HD ranging between 12 and 30%. The burden of disease is high with chronicity, sick leave, risk of unemployment and impaired quality of life. Despite evidence from the medical literature on the risk factors and the importance of skin care in the prevention of HD, in practice, compliance to skin care protocols are below 30%. New preventive strategies are obviously needed. This is a cluster randomized controlled trial, focusing on nurses performing wet work. In total, 20 wards are recruited to include 504 participating nurses in the study at baseline. The wards will be randomized to an intervention or a control group and followed up for 18 months. The intervention consists of the facilitation of creams being available at the wards combined with the continuous electronic monitoring of their consumption with regular feedback on skin care performance in teams of HCWs. Both the intervention and the control group receive basic education on skin protection (as 'care as usual'). Every 6 months, participants of both groups will fill in the questionnaires regarding exposure to wet work and skin protective behavior. Furthermore, skin condition will be assessed and samples of the stratum corneum collected. The effect of the intervention will be measured by comparing the change in Hand Eczema Severity Index (HECSI score) from baseline to 12 months. The Natural Moisturizing Factor (NMF) levels, measured in the stratum corneum as an early biomarker of skin barrier damage, and the total consumption of creams per ward will be assessed as a secondary outcome. This trial will assess the clinical effectiveness of an intervention program to prevent hand dermatitis among health care workers TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register (NTR), identification number NTR5564

  18. Contact dynamics math model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaese, John R.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed consists of a hydraulically driven, computer controlled six degree of freedom (DOF) motion system with which docking, berthing, and other mechanisms can be evaluated. Measured contact forces and moments are provided to the simulation host computer to enable representation of orbital contact dynamics. This report describes the development of a generalized math model which represents the relative motion between two rigid orbiting vehicles. The model allows motion in six DOF for each body, with no vehicle size limitation. The rotational and translational equations of motion are derived. The method used to transform the forces and moments from the sensor location to the vehicles' centers of mass is also explained. Two math models of docking mechanisms, a simple translational spring and the Remote Manipulator System end effector, are presented along with simulation results. The translational spring model is used in an attempt to verify the simulation with compensated hardware in the loop results.

  19. Contact allergy to cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, E; Johansen, J D; Agner, T

    1999-01-01

    .4%) had doubtfully positive reaction(s) and 31 (5.8%) had irritant reaction(s). Skin-care products were tested most frequently and were also found to cause most positive, doubtfully positive and irritant reactions, 80% of the patients with positive reactions to their own products had no history of contact......In a 2-year period, 1527 patients with contact dermatitis were investigated in the patch-test clinic. In 531 patients, allergy to cosmetics was suspected from the history and they were tested with their own cosmetic products. 40 (7.5%) (of the 531 patients) had 1 or more positive reactions, 82 (15...... of common cosmetic ingredients. Fragrance mix and formaldehyde were found to be the ingredients most often responsible and were significantly more frequent in patients with positive reactions to their own products, compared to a control group of eczema patients also seen in the patch-test clinic....

  20. Critical Points of Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Morelli, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    In contemporary urban societies multiple networks and systems interact, overlap, exist in parallel, converge, conflict etc. creating unforeseen complexity and less transparency. By exploring how layered networks of physical movement, service information, goods delivery, commercial communication etc....... are connected (and disconnected) we get a much better understanding of how to design and intervene regardless if we are thinking about public spaces in the city or new systems of service design. The many networks orchestrating and facilitating contemporary everyday life are dependent on the strategic sites...... where the networks meet and establish contact. Thus we argue for the usefulness of the notion of Critical Point of Contact (CPC) to deepen our understanding of the actual life within networks. En route to this notion we draw upon theories within as diverse realms such as interaction design, service...

  1. Contact allergy to lanolin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransen, Marloes; Overgaard, Line E K; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lanolin has been tested as lanolin alcohols (30% pet.) in baseline patch test series since 1969, and this has shown clinically relevant allergic contact dermatitis cases. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the temporal development of lanolin allergy (i.e. positive reaction to lanolin alcohols...... and/or Amerchol™ L-101), and the association between contact allergy to lanolin and patient characteristics from the MOAHLFA index. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of consecutively patch tested dermatitis patients (n = 9577) between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2015 with lanolin...... alcohols 30% pet. and Amerchol™ L-101 50% pet. was performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of lanolin allergy increased from 0.45% in 2004 to 1.81% in 2015. In age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analyses, weak, significant associations were found between atopic dermatitis and lanolin and lanolin alcohols allergy...

  2. Contact stress sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  3. Paraben Contact Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Bajaj

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred patients suspected to be having contact hypersensitivity to topical medicaments were patch tested with methly and propyl parabens along with commercially available topical medicaments. Six patients showed positive reactions to parabens. Two patients each were positive to methyl paraben and propyl paraben and two showed positive reactions to both of these. Three patients each showed positive reactions to soframycin, econazole and nitrofurazone also.

  4. Pediatric contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and it begins right from early childhood, including 1-week-old neonates. Vaccinations, piercing, topical medicaments and cosmetics in younger patients are potential exposures for sensitization. Nickel is the most common sensitizer in almost all studies pertaining to pediatric contact dermatitis. Other common allergens reported are cobalt, fragrance mix, rubber, lanolin, thiomersol, neomycin, gold, mercapto mix, balsum of Peru and colophony. Different factors like age, sex, atopy, social and cultural practices, habit of parents and caregivers and geographic changes affect the patterns of ACD and their variable clinical presentation. Patch testing should be considered not only in children with lesions of a morphology suggestive of ACD, but in any child with dermatitis that is difficult to control.

  5. FreeContact: fast and free software for protein contact prediction from residue co-evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaján, László; Hopf, Thomas A; Kalaš, Matúš; Marks, Debora S; Rost, Burkhard

    2014-03-26

    20 years of improved technology and growing sequences now renders residue-residue contact constraints in large protein families through correlated mutations accurate enough to drive de novo predictions of protein three-dimensional structure. The method EVfold broke new ground using mean-field Direct Coupling Analysis (EVfold-mfDCA); the method PSICOV applied a related concept by estimating a sparse inverse covariance matrix. Both methods (EVfold-mfDCA and PSICOV) are publicly available, but both require too much CPU time for interactive applications. On top, EVfold-mfDCA depends on proprietary software. Here, we present FreeContact, a fast, open source implementation of EVfold-mfDCA and PSICOV. On a test set of 140 proteins, FreeContact was almost eight times faster than PSICOV without decreasing prediction performance. The EVfold-mfDCA implementation of FreeContact was over 220 times faster than PSICOV with negligible performance decrease. EVfold-mfDCA was unavailable for testing due to its dependency on proprietary software. FreeContact is implemented as the free C++ library "libfreecontact", complete with command line tool "freecontact", as well as Perl and Python modules. All components are available as Debian packages. FreeContact supports the BioXSD format for interoperability. FreeContact provides the opportunity to compute reliable contact predictions in any environment (desktop or cloud).

  6. Does contact reduce prejudice or does prejudice reduce contact? A longitudinal test of the contact hypothesis among majority and minority groups in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Jens; Zagefka, Hanna; Brown, Rupert; Funke, Friedrich; Kessler, Thomas; Mummendey, Amelie; Maquil, Annemie; Demoulin, Stephanie; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe

    2009-04-01

    A widely researched panacea for reducing intergroup prejudice is the contact hypothesis. However, few longitudinal studies can shed light on the direction of causal processes: from contact to prejudice reduction (contact effects) or from prejudice to contact reduction (prejudice effects). The authors conducted a longitudinal field survey in Germany, Belgium, and England with school students. The sample comprised members of both ethnic minorities (n = 512) and ethnic majorities (n = 1,143). Path analyses yielded both lagged contact effects and prejudice effects: Contact reduced prejudice, but prejudice also reduced contact. Furthermore, contact effects were negligible for minority members. These effects were obtained for 2 indicators of prejudice: negative intergroup emotions and desire for social distance. For both majority and minority members, contact effects on negative emotions were stronger when outgroup contacts were perceived as being typical of their group. Contact effects were also mediated by intergroup anxiety. This mediating mechanism was impaired for minority members because of a weakened effect of anxiety on desire for social distance. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. A longitudinal exploration of pain tolerance and participation in contact sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Claire; Sheffield, David; Baird, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Athletes who choose to engage in contact sports do so with the knowledge that participation will bring pain in the form of contact with others, injury, and from exertion. Whilst athletes who play contact sports have been shown to have higher pain tolerance than those who do not, it is unclear whether this is a result of habituation over time, or as a result of individual differences at the outset. The aim was to compare pain responses over an athletic season in athletes who participated in contact sport and those who disengaged from it. One hundred and two new contact athletes completed measures of cold and ischaemic pain tolerance, perceived pain intensity, pain bothersomeness, pain coping styles and attendance at the start, middle (4 months) and end (8 months) of their season. The athletes were drawn from martial arts, rugby and American football. Cluster analysis placed 47 athletes into a participating category and 55 into a non-participating cluster. Participating athletes had higher ischaemic pain tolerance at the start (r=0.27, p=0.05), middle (r=0.41, pdirect coping, catastrophized less about injury pain and also found contact pain to be less bothersome physically and psychologically compared to non-participating athletes. Participating athletes were more tolerant of ischaemic pain at the end of the season compared to the start (r=0.28, p=0.04). Conversely non-participating athletes became significantly less tolerant to both pain stimuli by the end of the season (cold pressor; r=0.54, psports become less pain tolerant of experimental pain, possibly a result of catastrophizing. The results suggest that athletes who commit to contact sports find pain less bothersome over time, possibly as a result of experience and learning to cope with pain. Athletes who continue to participate in contact sports have a higher pain tolerance, report less bothersomeness and have higher direct coping than those who drop out. In addition, tolerance to ischaemic pain increased

  8. Moving contact lines on vibrating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomenko, Zlatko; Spelt, Peter; Scott, Julian

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale simulations of flows with moving contact lines for realistic conditions generally requires a subgrid scale model (analyses based on matched asymptotics) to account for the unresolved part of the flow, given the large range of length scales involved near contact lines. Existing models for the interface shape in the contact-line region are primarily for steady flows on homogeneous substrates, with encouraging results in 3D simulations. Introduction of complexities would require further investigation of the contact-line region, however. Here we study flows with moving contact lines on planar substrates subject to vibrations, with applications in controlling wetting/dewetting. The challenge here is to determine the change in interface shape near contact lines due to vibrations. To develop further insight, 2D direct numerical simulations (wherein the flow is resolved down to an imposed slip length) have been performed to enable comparison with asymptotic theory, which is also developed further. Perspectives will also be presented on the final objective of the work, which is to develop a subgrid scale model that can be utilized in large-scale simulations. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ANR for financial support (ANR-15-CE08-0031) and the meso-centre FLMSN for use of computational resources. This work was Granted access to the HPC resources of CINES under the allocation A0012B06893 made by GENCI.

  9. Prolonging contact lens wear and making contact lens wear safer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulks, Gary N

    2006-02-01

    To summarize the present status of safety and efficacy of contact lens wear. Literature review. Ovid Medline searches were performed on records from 1966 through 2005 using keywords: keratitis, contact lens complications, extended-wear contact lenses, and silicone-hydrogel contact lenses. Patients desire comfort, clarity of vision, and prolonged contact lens wear when contact lenses are used to correct refractive error. Practitioners desire patient satisfaction but also require maintenance of the integrity of the eye and no complications that jeopardize vision or health of the eye. Improvements in the oxygen permeability of the contact lens materials, design of the contact lens and its surface, and solutions for the maintenance of the lens have reduced but not eliminated the risks of infection, inflammation, and conjunctival papillary reaction associated with contact lens wear. The lessons of past and recent history suggest that patient education and practitioner participation in the management of contact lens wear continue to be critical factors for patient satisfaction and safety in the extended wear of contact lenses. The availability of highly oxygen permeable contact lenses has increased the tolerance and safety of extended contact lens wear, but patient instruction and education in proper use and care of lenses is required and caution is advised.

  10. Mechanical Contact Experiments and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, P; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    . The overall investigation serves for testing and validating the numerical implementation of the mechanical contact, which is one of the main contributions to a system intended for 3D simulation of resistance welding. Correct modelling of contact between parts to be welded, as well as contact with electrodes...... geometries and different materials are analyzed including contact between dissimilar materials. The numerical implementation is performed with a finite element computer program based on the irreducible flow formulation, and contact between deformable objects is modelled by applying the penalty method......, is crucial for satisfactory modelling of the resistance welding process. The resistance heating at the contact interfaces depends on both contact area and pressure, and as the contact areas develop dynamically, the presented tests are relevant for assessing the validity and accuracy of the mechanical contact...

  11. Multiscale electrical contact resistance in clustered contact distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyoung; Cho, Hyun; Jang, Yong Hoon

    2009-08-01

    For contact between rough surfaces of conductors in which a clustered contact spot distribution is dominant through a multiscale process, electrical contact resistance (ECR) is analysed using a smoothed version of Greenwood's model (Jang and Barber 2003 J. Appl. Phys. 94 7215), which is extended to estimate the statistical distribution of contact spots considering the size and the location simultaneously. The application of this statistical method to a contact spot distribution, generated by the finite element method using a fractal surface defined by the random midpoint displacement algorithm, identifies the effect of the clustered contact distribution on ECR, showing that including a finer scale in the fractal contact surface causes the predicted resistance to approach a finite limit. It is also confirmed that the results are close to that of Barber's analogy (Barber 2003 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 459 53) regarding incremental stiffness and conductance for elastic contact.

  12. Contact-induced doping in aluminum-contacted molybdenum disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Yoshihiro; Arai, Kensuke; Iwabuchi, Tatsuya

    2018-01-01

    The interface between two-dimensional semiconductors and metal contacts is an important topic of research of nanoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional semiconducting materials such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). We report transport properties of thin MoS2 flakes in a field-effect transistor geometry with Ti/Au and Al contacts. In contrast to widely used Ti/Au contacts, the conductance of flakes with Al contacts exhibits a smaller gate-voltage dependence, which is consistent with a substantial electron doping effect of the Al contacts. The temperature dependence of two-terminal conductance for the Al contacts is also considerably smaller than for the Ti/Au contacts, in which thermionic emission and thermally assisted tunneling play a dominant role. This result is explained in terms of the assumption that the carrier injection mechanism at an Al contact is dominated by tunneling that is not thermally activated.

  13. Pair housing for female longtailed and rhesus macaques in the laboratory: behavior in protected contact versus full contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate C; Crockett, Carolyn M; Lee, Grace H; Oettinger, Brooke C; Schoof, Valérie; Thom, Jinhee P

    2012-01-01

    Pair housing for caged macaques in the laboratory generally allows unrestricted tactile contact but, less commonly, may involve limited contact via grooming-contact bars or perforated panels. The purpose of using this protected contact housing, which prevents entry into pair-mates' cages, typically is to accommodate research and management requirements. The study used behavioral data collected on 12 pairs of female longtailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at the Washington National Primate Research Center and 7 pairs of female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) housed at the Tulane National Primate Research Center to assess the relative benefits of protected versus full protected contact. The study collected data in stable pairs housed first in protected contact followed by full contact. Species combined, the study found the presence of the panel was associated with lower levels of social grooming and higher levels of self-grooming, abnormal behavior, and tension-related behavior. Within species, only the protected- versus full-contact contrasts for abnormal and tension were statistically significant-and only for rhesus macaques. Results suggest that for female rhesus macaques, potential disadvantages or inconveniences of full contact should be balanced against the improved behavioral profile in comparison to protected contact. The use of protected contact among female longtailed macaques does not appear to require the same cost-benefit analysis. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  14. Contextualizing Intergroup Contact: Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter Frølund

    2015-01-01

    This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. We expand on previous efforts of social psychologists by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among......,000 individuals confirms that the ability of intergroup contact to reduce antiforeigner sentiment increases when political parties focus intensively on immigration issues and cultural differences. Specifically, both workplace contact and interethnic friendship become more effective in reducing antiforeigner...

  15. [Eye contact effects: A therapeutic issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, M; Conty, L

    2016-12-01

    The perception of a direct gaze - that is, of another individual's gaze directed at the observer that leads to eye contact - is known to influence a wide range of cognitive processes and behaviors. We stress that these effects mainly reflect positive impacts on human cognition and may thus be used as relevant tools for therapeutic purposes. In this review, we aim (1) to provide an exhaustive review of eye contact effects while discussing the limits of the dominant models used to explain these effects, (2) to illustrate the therapeutic potential of eye contact by targeting those pathologies that show both preserved gaze processing and deficits in one or several functions that are targeted by the eye contact effects, and (3) to propose concrete ways in which eye contact could be employed as a therapeutic tool. (1) We regroup the variety of eye contact effects into four categories, including memory effects, activation of prosocial behavior, positive appraisals of self and others and the enhancement of self-awareness. We emphasize that the models proposed to account for these effects have a poor predictive value and that further descriptions of these effects is needed. (2) We then emphasize that people with pathologies that affect memory, social behavior, and self and/or other appraisal, and self-awareness could benefit from eye contact effects. We focus on depression, autism and Alzheimer's disease to illustrate our proposal. To our knowledge, no anomaly of eye contact has been reported in depression. Patients suffering from Alzheimer disease, at the early and moderate stage, have been shown to maintain a normal amount of eye contact with their interlocutor. We take into account that autism is controversial regarding whether gaze processing is preserved or altered. In the first view, individuals are thought to elude or omit gazing at another's eyes while in the second, individuals are considered to not be able to process the gaze of others. We adopt the first stance

  16. Thermal contact conductance

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudana, Chakravarti V

    2013-01-01

    The work covers both theoretical and practical aspects of thermal contact conductance. The theoretical discussion focuses on heat transfer through spots, joints, and surfaces, as well as the role of interstitial materials (both planned and inadvertent). The practical discussion includes formulae and data that can be used in designing heat-transfer equipment for a variety of joints, including special geometries and configurations. All of the material has been updated to reflect the latest advances in the field.

  17. Contact ionization ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, N.; Van Der Houven Van Oordt, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    An ion source in which an apertured or foraminous electrode having a multiplicity of openings is spaced from one or more active surfaces of an ionisation electrode, the active surfaces comprising a material capable of ionising by contact ionization a substance to be ionized supplied during operation to the active surface or surfaces comprises means for producing during operation a magnetic field which enables a stable plasma to be formed in the space between the active surface or surfaces and the apertured electrode, the field strength of the magnetic field being preferably in the range between 2 and 8 kilogauss. (U.S.)

  18. Precision contact level gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, M.; Pilat, M.; Stulik, P.

    1977-01-01

    Equipment was developed measuring the heavy water level in the TR-0 reactor core within an accuracy of several hundredths of a millimeter in a range of around 3.5 m and at a temperature of up to 90 degC. The equipment uses a vibrating needle contact as a high sensitivity level gauge and a servomechanical system with a motion screw carrying the gauge for monitoring and measuring the level in the desired range. The advantage of the unique level gauge consists in that that the transducer converts the measured level position to an electric signal, ie., pulse width, with high sensitivity and without hysteresis. (Kr)

  19. Contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios; Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Andrade, Ana Regina Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative found in cosmetic and industrial products. Contact dermatitis caused by either methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI or Kathon CG) or MI has shown increasing frequency. The latter is preferably detected through epicutaneous testing with aqueous MI 2000 ppm, which is not included in the Brazilian standard tray. We describe a series of 23 patients tested using it and our standard tray. A case with negative reaction to MCI/MI and positive to MI is emphasized. PMID:26734880

  20. Contact with turf algae alters the coral microbiome: contact versus systemic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Zoe A.; Longo, Guilherme O.; Burns, Andrew S.; Hay, Mark E.; Stewart, Frank J.

    2018-03-01

    Coral reefs are degrading to algae-dominated reefs worldwide, with alterations of coral microbiomes commonly co-occurring with reef demise. The severe thermal anomaly during the 2016 El Niño event in the South Pacific killed many corals and stressed others. We examined the microbiome of turf algae and of the coral Porites sp. in contact with turf during this thermal event to investigate algal turf effects on the coral microbiome during a period of environmental stress. The microbial composition of turf did not differ between coral-contacted and non-contacted turfs. However, microbiomes of corals in direct contact with turf were similar to those of the turf microbiome, but differed significantly from coral portions 5 cm from the point of turf/coral contact and from portions of the coral that looked most healthy, regardless of location. Although the majority of significant differences occurred in coral samples at the point of contact, a small subset of microbial taxa was enriched in coral tissues taken 5 cm from turf contact compared to all other sample types, including samples from areas of the coral that appeared most healthy. These results suggest that the coral microbiome is susceptible to colonization by microbes from turf, but not vice versa. Results also suggest that algal contact elicits a subtle shift in the coral microbiome just beyond the contact site. The combination of turf microbiome stability and coral microbiome vulnerability at areas of contact may contribute to the continued decline in coral cover and increase in algal cover associated with coral-algae phase shifts.

  1. Quantifying age-related rates of social contact using diaries in a rural coastal population of Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Chapa Kiti

    Full Text Available Improved understanding and quantification of social contact patterns that govern the transmission dynamics of respiratory viral infections has utility in the design of preventative and control measures such as vaccination and social distancing. The objective of this study was to quantify an age-specific matrix of contact rates for a predominantly rural low-income population that would support transmission dynamic modeling of respiratory viruses.From the population register of the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System, coastal Kenya, 150 individuals per age group (50 years exhibited the highest inter-generational contacts. Rural contact rates were higher than semiurban (18.8 vs 15.6, p = 0.002, with rural primary school students having twice as many assortative contacts as their semiurban peers.This is the first age-specific contact matrix to be defined for tropical Sub-Saharan Africa and has utility in age-structured models to assess the potential impact of interventions for directly transmitted respiratory infections.

  2. Prevent Injury After a Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventing Violence Pressure Washer Safety Trench Foot or Immersion Foot Emergency Wound Care Wound Management for Healthcare ... as hard hat, safety glasses, hearing protection, heavy work gloves, and cut-resistant legwear. Avoid contact with ...

  3. Optimal contact definition for reconstruction of Contact Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehr Henning

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contact maps have been extensively used as a simplified representation of protein structures. They capture most important features of a protein's fold, being preferred by a number of researchers for the description and study of protein structures. Inspired by the model's simplicity many groups have dedicated a considerable amount of effort towards contact prediction as a proxy for protein structure prediction. However a contact map's biological interest is subject to the availability of reliable methods for the 3-dimensional reconstruction of the structure. Results We use an implementation of the well-known distance geometry protocol to build realistic protein 3-dimensional models from contact maps, performing an extensive exploration of many of the parameters involved in the reconstruction process. We try to address the questions: a to what accuracy does a contact map represent its corresponding 3D structure, b what is the best contact map representation with regard to reconstructability and c what is the effect of partial or inaccurate contact information on the 3D structure recovery. Our results suggest that contact maps derived from the application of a distance cutoff of 9 to 11Å around the Cβ atoms constitute the most accurate representation of the 3D structure. The reconstruction process does not provide a single solution to the problem but rather an ensemble of conformations that are within 2Å RMSD of the crystal structure and with lower values for the pairwise average ensemble RMSD. Interestingly it is still possible to recover a structure with partial contact information, although wrong contacts can lead to dramatic loss in reconstruction fidelity. Conclusions Thus contact maps represent a valid approximation to the structures with an accuracy comparable to that of experimental methods. The optimal contact definitions constitute key guidelines for methods based on contact maps such as structure prediction through

  4. The importance of contact quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian; Gerritsen, Marinel; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter

    Establishing contact between expatriates and a local host has been found to reap benefits with regard to Interaction Adjustment, Host National Social Support, Open-mindedness, and Social Initiative. This longitudinal study examines the role of the quality of contact for these four aspects. Expatr......, the more benefit the expatriate experienced. Moreover, expatriates with low-quality contact did not experience a detrimental effect.......Establishing contact between expatriates and a local host has been found to reap benefits with regard to Interaction Adjustment, Host National Social Support, Open-mindedness, and Social Initiative. This longitudinal study examines the role of the quality of contact for these four aspects....... Expatriates in the Netherlands were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 33) of which 21 developed high-quality contact with their host, and a control group (n = 32) without host. The results show that contact quality plays an important role and suggest that the higher the quality of the contact...

  5. Contact Center Manager Administration (CCMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — CCMA is the server that provides a browser-based tool for contact center administrators and supervisors. It is used to manage and configure contact center resources...

  6. Perceived importance of five different health issues for gay and bisexual men: implications for new directions in health education and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Jimenez, Ruben H; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2013-07-01

    This study assessed the perceived importance of five health issues for gay and bisexual men (N = 660) using time-space sampling in gay bars/clubs and bathhouses in New York City: "HIV & STDs," "Drugs & Alcohol," "Body Image," "Mental Health," and "Smoking." This study compared ratings based on demographic differences, recent substance use, recent sexual risk behavior, and whether or not participants owned a smart device (e.g., "smart" phone, iPad, iPod touch). Contrary to research indicating that gay and bisexual men may be experiencing HIV prevention fatigue, this study identified that HIV and STIs were perceived as most important. Drugs and alcohol and mental health were also rated high, suggesting that providers may be well served to include mental health and drugs and alcohol as part of their comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. A majority of participants (72%) owned a smart device. Smart device owners rated health issues similarly to those who did not, suggesting that such devices may be a useful platform to reach gay and bisexual men for health education and prevention.

  7. Infection prevention: 2013 review and update for neurodiagnostic technologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nancy Kriso

    2013-12-01

    Since 1995 ASET has published recommendations for infection prevention (Altman 1995, Altman 2000, Sullivan and Altman 2008). In keeping with the desire of providing current updates every five years, this article reviews the aforementioned past publications and incorporates new information from books and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations. Knowledge of current infection control practices and recommendations is essential for every neurodiagnostic technologist, no matter if employed in a hospital, an ambulatory setting, an intensive care unit, or the operating room. All technologists who have direct patient contact are responsible for ensuring best practices for infection prevention.

  8. ZnO nanowire photodetectors based on Schottky contact with surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dakuan; Sheng, Yun; Wang, Jianyu; Gao, Fan; Yan, Shancheng; Wang, Junzhuan; Pan, Lijia; Wan, Qing; Shi, Yi

    2017-07-01

    Performance characteristics, such as dark current and response time, of ZnO nanowire (NW) photodetectors are usually degraded by H2O/O2 adsorption on the NW surfaces. In this work, ZnO NW photodetectors based on Au Schottky contact through passivating surface states were investigated. ZnO NW photodetectors were fabricated with a lateral electrode structure, in which Au served as Au/ZnO Schottky contact and semi-transparent top electrode. Specifically, passivation of the surface states of ZnO NWs by using highly intensive UV irradiation effectively improved the photoresponse. A physical model based on surface band theory was developed to understand the origin of the performance improvement of the photodetector. The present device architecture prevents ZnO NWs photodetector from H2O/O2 adsorption in air and efficiently extracts photogenerated carriers across a diametrical direction.

  9. Using customer contact centres as relationship marketing instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, Zanna; Bloemer, Josée; Henseler, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates whether, to what extent and how customer contact centres influence customer–firm relationships through customer contact centre quality. The proposed model compiles direct and indirect effects of this form of quality on focal relationship marketing constructs, including

  10. [The adaptation to contact lenses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, D; Koos, M J

    1992-01-01

    The indications of contact lens adaptation in optical purpose are widely large, starting, with refractive errors [correction of vices], unilateral and bilateral aphakia, myopia, anisometropia and astigmatism, together with the use of contact lens in esthetic purpose. We have been presented the adaptation techniques, the supervise, and maintenance of contact lens.

  11. Contact and non-contact ultrasonic measurement in the food industry: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khairi, Mohd Taufiq; Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Md Yunus, Mohd Amri; Faramarzi, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of the food manufacturing process is vital since it determines the safety and quality level of foods which directly affect the consumers’ health. Companies which produce high quality products will gain trust from consumers. This factor helps the companies to make profits. The use of efficient and appropriate sensors for the monitoring process can also reduce cost. The food assessing process based on an ultrasonic sensor has attracted the attention of the food industry due to its excellent capabilities in several applications. The utilization of low or high frequencies for the ultrasonic transducer has provided an enormous benefit for analysing, modifying and guaranteeing the quality of food. The contact and non-contact ultrasonic modes for measurement also contributed significantly to the food processing. This paper presents a review of the application of the contact and non-contact mode of ultrasonic measurement focusing on safety and quality control areas. The results from previous researches are shown and elaborated. (topical review)

  12. Contact Binary Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Samantha

    2015-05-01

    Recent observations have found that some contact binaries are oriented such that the secondary impacts with the primary at a high inclination. This research investigates the evolution of how such contact binaries came to exist. This process begins with an asteroid pair, where the secondary lies on the Laplace plane. The Laplace plane is a plane normal to the axis about which the pole of a satellites orbit precesses, causing a near constant inclination for such an orbit. For the study of the classical Laplace plane, the secondary asteroid is in circular orbit around an oblate primary with axial tilt. This system is also orbiting the Sun. Thus, there are two perturbations on the secondarys orbit: J2 and third body Sun perturbations. The Laplace surface is defined as the group of orbits that lie on the Laplace plane at varying distances from the primary. If the secondary is very close to the primary, the inclination of the Laplace plane will be near the equator of the asteroid, while further from the primary the inclination will be similar to the asteroid-Sun plane. The secondary will lie on the Laplace plane because near the asteroid the Laplace plane is stable to large deviations in motion, causing the asteroid to come to rest in this orbit. Assuming the secondary is asymmetrical in shape and the bodys rotation is synchronous with its orbit, the secondary will experience the BYORP effect. BYORP can cause secular motion such as the semi-major axis of the secondary expanding or contracting. Assuming the secondary expands due to BYORP, the secondary will eventually reach the unstable region of the Laplace plane. The unstable region exists if the primary has an obliquity of 68.875 degrees or greater. The unstable region exists at 0.9 Laplace radius to 1.25 Laplace radius, where the Laplace radius is defined as the distance from the central body where the inclination of the Laplace plane orbit is half the obliquity. In the unstable region, the eccentricity of the orbit

  13. Contact Lens Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people wear them for special events, parties or Halloween. People may also wear them to look like ... from a beauty supply store, flea market, or Halloween store. Follow directions for cleaning and wearing the ...

  14. Acanthamoeba keratitis and contact lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Richard G; Watters, Grant; Johnson, Richard; Ormonde, Susan E; Snibson, Grant R

    2007-09-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious complication of contact lens wear that may cause severe visual loss. The clinical picture is usually characterised by severe pain, sometimes disproportionate to the signs, with an early superficial keratitis that is often misdiagnosed as herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis. Advanced stages of the infection are usually characterised by central corneal epithelial loss and marked stromal opacification with subsequent loss of vision. In this paper, six cases of contact lens-related Acanthamoeba keratitis that occurred in Australia and New Zealand over a three-year period are described. Three of the patients were disposable soft lens wearers, two were hybrid lens wearers and one was a rigid gas permeable lens wearer. For all six cases, the risk factors for Acanthamoeba keratitis were contact lens wear with inappropriate or ineffective lens maintenance and exposure of the contact lenses to tap or other sources of water. All six patients responded well to medical therapy that involved topical use of appropriate therapeutic agents, most commonly polyhexamethylene biguanide and propamidine isethionate, although two of the patients also subsequently underwent deep lamellar keratoplasty due to residual corneal surface irregularity and stromal scarring. Despite the significant advances that have been made in the medical therapy of Acanthamoeba keratitis over the past 10 years, prevention remains the best treatment and patients who wear contact lenses must be thoroughly educated about the proper use and care of the lenses. In particular, exposure of the contact lenses to tap water or other sources of water should be avoided.

  15. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    typically have a history of rash to a fine fragrance or scented deodorants. Chemical analysis has revealed that well known allergens from the fragrance mix are present in 15-100% of cosmetic products, including deodorants and fine fragrances, and most often in combinations of three to four allergens......Most people in modern society are exposed daily to fragrance ingredients from one or more sources. Fragrance ingredients are also one of the most frequent causes of contact allergic reactions. The diagnosis is made by patch testing with a mixture of fragrance ingredients, the fragrance mix....... This gives a positive patch-test reaction in about 10% of tested patients with eczema, and the most recent estimates show that 1.7-4.1% of the general population are sensitized to ingredients of the fragrance mix. Fragrance allergy occurs predominantly in women with facial or hand eczema. These women...

  16. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    Most people in modern society are exposed daily to fragrance ingredients from one or more sources. Fragrance ingredients are also one of the most frequent causes of contact allergic reactions. The diagnosis is made by patch testing with a mixture of fragrance ingredients, the fragrance mix....... This gives a positive patch-test reaction in about 10% of tested patients with eczema, and the most recent estimates show that 1.7-4.1% of the general population are sensitized to ingredients of the fragrance mix. Fragrance allergy occurs predominantly in women with facial or hand eczema. These women...... typically have a history of rash to a fine fragrance or scented deodorants. Chemical analysis has revealed that well known allergens from the fragrance mix are present in 15-100% of cosmetic products, including deodorants and fine fragrances, and most often in combinations of three to four allergens...

  17. Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015 in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested during the last five-year period. As expected, fragrance materials, preservatives, and hair dyes were the most frequent culprits, but a great variety of other allergenic ingredients were involved as well. This underlines the need of additional and extensive patch testing with the patient’s products used and their ingredients.

  18. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    in the same products. This means that it is difficult to avoid exposure, as products labelled as 'fragrance free' have also been shown to contain fragrance ingredients, either because of the use of fragrance ingredients as preservatives or masking perfumes, or the use of botanicals. About 2500 different...... fragrance ingredients are currently used in the composition of perfumes and at least 100 of these are known contact allergens. Therefore, it is advisable to supplement standard patch testing with the patient's own stay-on cosmetic products, as well as the fragrance chemical hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexane...... carboxaldehyde, which on its own gives responses in 1-3% of tested patients. The focus in recent years on the ingredients of the fragrance mix will probably result in the fragrance industry changing the composition of perfumes, and thus make the current diagnostic test less useful. New diagnostic tests are under...

  19. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  20. Mechanoluminescent Contact Type Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Yefremov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanoluminescent sensing elements convert mechanical stress into optical radiation. Advantages of such sensors are the ability to generate an optical signal, solid-state, simple structure, and resistance to electromagnetic interference. Mechanoluminescent sensor implementations can possess the concentrated and distributed sensitivity, thereby allowing us to detect the field of mechanical stresses distributed across the area and in volume. Most modern semiconductor photo-detectors can detect mechanoluminescent radiation, so there are no difficulties to provide its detection when designing the mechanoluminescent sensing devices. Mechanoluminescent substances have especial sensitivity to shock loads, and this effect can be used to create a fuse the structure of which includes a target contact type sensor with a photosensitive actuator. The paper briefly describes the theoretical basics of mechanoluminiscence: a light signal emerges from the interaction of crystalline phosphor luminescence centers with electrically charged dislocations, moving due to the deformation of the crystal. A mathematical model of the mechanoluminescent conversion is represented as a functional interaction between parameters of the mechanical shock excitation and the sensor light emission. Examples of computing the optical mechanoluminescent output signal depending on the duration and peak level of impulse load are given. It is shown that the luminous flux, generated by mechanoluminescent sensing element when there is an ammunition-target collision causes the current emerging in photo-detector (photodiode that is sufficient for a typical actuator of the fuse train to operate. The potential possibility to create a contact target type sensor based on the light-sensitive mechanoluminescent sensor was proved by the calculation and simulation results.

  1. MRSA Prevention Information and Advice for Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection. Share items and surfaces that come into direct skin contact. Are sometimes not able to shower ... MRSA are most commonly reported among athletes in sports with a lot of physical contact. This includes ...

  2. Contact and Non-contact Measurements of Grinding Pins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdziak Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of contact and non-contact measurements of external profiles of selected grinding pins. The measurements were conducted in order to choose the appropriate measuring technique in the case of the considered measurement task. In the case of contact measurements the coordinate measuring machine ACCURA II was applied. The used coordinate measuring machine was equipped with the contact scanning probe VAST XT and the Calypso inspection software. Contact coordinate measurements were performed by using of different measurement strategies. The applied strategies included different scanning velocities and distances between measured points. Non-contact measurements were conducted by means of the tool presetter produced by the Mahr company. On the basis of gained results the guidelines concerning measurements of grinding pins were formulated. The measurements of analyzed grinding pins performed by means of the non-contact measuring system are characterized by higher reproducibility than the contact measurements. The low reproducibility of contact measurements may be connected with the inaccuracy of the selected coordinate measuring machine and the measuring probe, the measurement parameters and environmental conditions in the laboratory where the coordinate measuring machine is located. Moreover, the paper presents the possible application of results of conducted investigations. The results of non-contact measurements can be used in the simulation studies of grinding processes. The simulations may reduce the costs of machining processes.

  3. Alternative methods to model frictional contact surfaces using NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Elongated (slotted) holes have been used extensively for the integration of equipment into Spacelab racks. In the past, this type of interface has been modeled assuming that there is not slippage between contact surfaces, or that there is no load transfer in the direction of the slot. Since the contact surfaces are bolted together, the contact friction provides a load path determined by the normal applied force (bolt preload) and the coefficient of friction. Three alternate methods that utilize spring elements, externally applied couples, and stress dependent elements are examined to model the contacted surfaces. Results of these methods are compared with results obtained from methods that use GAP elements and rigid elements.

  4. Analytical approach for predicting three-dimensional tire-pavement contact load

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hernandez, JA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available regression parameters, applied load, and distance along the contact length was proposed to represent the contact load in the vertical and transverse directions. An analysis was performed on the measurements to obtain the regression parameters, and a...

  5. Observance of hand washing procedures performed by the medical personnel before patient contact. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Garus-Pakowska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as well as the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations, medical staff are obliged to decontaminate the skin of the hands before every single patient contact. Materials and Methods: The study was performed by quasi-observation among the group of 188 medical staff (nurses and physicians working in three selected hospitals of the Łódź province. The procedure of hand washing and disinfection performed directly before the patient contact according to the CDC and WHO recommendations were observed. The results was subject to statistical analysis (p < 0.05. Results: During 1544 hours of observation 4101 activities requiring hand washing were recorded. The medical staff obeyed the hand washing procedure before the patient contact only in 5.2% of the situations. There was no activity observed before which hand hygiene was maintained in 100% of cases. Observance of hand hygiene depended signifi cantly on the type of the performed activity, the professional group, and the workload index. A decrease in percentage observance of hand hygiene according to the time of the day was found to be of statistical signifi cance. The mean time of hand washing was 8.5 s for physicians and 6.6 s for nurses. Conclusion: The level of observance of hand washing procedures among the medical staff prior to the patient contact appears to be alarmingly below the expectations.

  6. Predictive models for moving contact line flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rame, Enrique; Garoff, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Modeling flows with moving contact lines poses the formidable challenge that the usual assumptions of Newtonian fluid and no-slip condition give rise to a well-known singularity. This singularity prevents one from satisfying the contact angle condition to compute the shape of the fluid-fluid interface, a crucial calculation without which design parameters such as the pressure drop needed to move an immiscible 2-fluid system through a solid matrix cannot be evaluated. Some progress has been made for low Capillary number spreading flows. Combining experimental measurements of fluid-fluid interfaces very near the moving contact line with an analytical expression for the interface shape, we can determine a parameter that forms a boundary condition for the macroscopic interface shape when Ca much les than l. This parameter, which plays the role of an "apparent" or macroscopic dynamic contact angle, is shown by the theory to depend on the system geometry through the macroscopic length scale. This theoretically established dependence on geometry allows this parameter to be "transferable" from the geometry of the measurement to any other geometry involving the same material system. Unfortunately this prediction of the theory cannot be tested on Earth.

  7. Best Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document for the Production of Chlor-alkali. Industrial Emissions Directive 2010/75/EU (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control)

    OpenAIRE

    BRINKMANN Thomas; GINER SANTONJA GERMAN; SCHORCHT Frauke; ROUDIER Serge; DELGADO SANCHO Luis

    2014-01-01

    The BAT reference document entitled ‘Production of Chlor-alkali’ forms part of a series presenting the results of an exchange of information between EU Member States, the industries concerned, non-governmental organisations promoting environmental protection, and the Commission, to draw up, review and, where necessary, update BAT reference documents as required by Article 13(1) of the Directive 2010/75/EU on industrial emissions. This document is published by the European Commission pursuant ...

  8. Direct, Indirect, Total, and Overall Effectiveness of the Rotavirus Vaccines for the Prevention of Gastroenteritis Hospitalizations in Privately Insured US Children, 2007–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Panozzo, Catherine A.; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Pate, Virginia; Weber, David J.; Jonsson Funk, Michele; Stürmer, Til; Brookhart, M. Alan

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate how direct, indirect, total, and overall effectiveness estimates and absolute benefits of rotavirus vaccines vary through the years following vaccine introduction. Privately insured US children in a large claims database were followed from age 8 months until they 1) experienced a hospitalization for rotavirus or acute gastroenteritis; 2) lost continuous health plan enrollment; 3) turned 20 months of age; or 4) reached the end of the study period. Vaccine effectiveness estimates...

  9. Crucial elements in suicide prevention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Ways of conceptualizing suicide prevention are reviewed briefly, and the preventive model: Universal, Selected, and Indicated prevention (USI) is chosen as the structure for the literature review, and the discussion. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward entire population; select...

  10. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  11. Homotopy classification of contact foliations on open contact manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    64

    Abstract. We give a homotopy classification of foliations on open contact manifolds whose leaves are contact ... The inverse images of FN under an f ∈ Trα(M, FN ), namely f−1FN , is a contact foliation on (M,α). ..... Let Γ be the graph of H; then the image of ϕ is contained in Γ. By Lemma 3.2 there exists a diffeomorphism Φ ...

  12. Electric Arc Furnace as a Source of Emission of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans in Perspective of the Council Directive 96/61 EC Concerning Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofilić, T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As the accumulation of PCDDs/Fs in the natural environment poses a great threat, and the pollution of the environment with these highly toxic compounds from various emitters needs to be prevented, many countries have conducted an inventory of industrial sources and their emissions in order to obtain better insight into the share of particular sources in the total emission of PCDDs/Fs and to develop strategies to reduce these emissions.Metallurgical processes like sintering of iron ore, production of steel and non-ferrous and light metals from scrap material belong to a group of stationary PCDDs/Fs emitters and their share in the total PCDDs/Fs emission into the environment is very significant. The relative significance of particular metallurgical processes varies from country to country, depending on the nature of a particular process, installed capacities and annual output levels.As the modern approach to observing the environment includes preventive measures, as opposed to corrective post-event measures that were common practice in the past, the owners/operators of metallurgical processes are developing and introducing pollution monitoring and surveillance systems, based on which they take appropriate measures.One of the frequently applied measures is to build and implement the ISO 14001 environmental management system that very efficiently runs production processes along with maintenance of environmental protection on a daily basis. Since the adoption of the ISO 14001 environmental management system is a voluntary decision to be made by each organization, in 1996 the European Union adopted, for the purpose of environmental protection and pollution prevention, the Directive 96/61 EC or IPPC Directive on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC requiring from industrial installations, depending on their type and output level, to obtain environmental permits to run production processes using best available techniques, thus maintaining

  13. Establishing an upper bound on contact resistivity of ohmic contacts to n-GaN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, Paul; Bertness, Kris A; Harvey, Todd; Sanford, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Contact resistivity ρ c is an important figure of merit in evaluating and improving the performance of electronic and optoelectronic devices. Due to the small size, unique morphology, and uncertain transport properties of semiconductor nanowires (NWs), measuring ρ c of contacts to NWs can be particularly challenging. In this work, Si-doped n-GaN NWs were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Four-contact structures with 20 nm Ti/200 nm Al contacts were fabricated on individual NWs by photolithography, and the contacts were annealed to achieve ohmic behavior. Two-point resistances R 23  and four-point collinear resistances R 23collinear  were measured between the middle two contacts on each NW. These resistances were then modeled by taking into account the non-uniform distribution of current flow along the length of each contact. Contrary to the assumption that the resistance difference R 23 −R 23collinear  is equal to the total contact resistance R c , the distributed-current-flow contact model shows that R 23 −R 23collinear  ≪ R c when ρ c is sufficiently small. Indeed, the measured R 23 −R 23collinear  was so small in these devices that it was within the measurement uncertainty, meaning that it was not possible to directly calculate ρ c from these data. However, it was possible to calculate an upper bound on ρ c for each device based on the largest possible value of R 23 −R 23collinear . In addition, we took into account the large uncertainties in the NW transport properties by numerically maximizing ρ c with respect to the uncertainty range of each measured and assumed parameter in the contact model. The resulting upper limits on ρ c ranged from 4.2 × 10 −6  to 7.6 × 10 −6  Ω cm 2 , indicating that 20 nm Ti/200 nm Al is a good choice of ohmic contact for moderately-doped n-GaN NWs. The measurement and numerical analysis demonstrated here offer a general approach to modeling ohmic contact resistivity via NW four

  14. [Vital contact with reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravagnan, L M

    1976-12-01

    From the standpoint of existential phenomenology, the contact with reality lies in the very phocus of theory, being closely related to another basic conception: that of being-in-the-world. In order to ratify those conceptions, the author reviews some concepts imported from Kurt Lewin's Field Theory, among which: a) vital psychological space, embedding the subject and in close interchange with him; b) intrapsychic regions, having, to a certain extent, autonomous functions, but being related to each other and integrated into the higher unity of the subject. As both systems are interdependent, any modification of the equilibrium of one of them reverberates into the other's, and changes the general conditions of both of them. Reviewing, at the same time, Minkowski's views on schizophrenia, the author sets forth the production of an inner world that becomes autonomous and possesses a degree of reality that overwhelms the true outer world. There is not only the splitting from reality, but the creation of a whole fantastic field, in which the individual participates with all his vital availability. Both views lead to a similar contention: that in some pathological states, the primal link man-real world, is replaced by a new inner correspondence, focused on the imaginary and having effects similar to those of the real world.

  15. Contact Lens Related Corneal Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, KY; Agarwal, P

    2010-01-01

    A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are: overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. Th...

  16. Emotional Satisfaction of Customer Contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Güngör, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    For marketing and customer services researchers and professionals who are interested in customer contacts, customer satisfaction and loyalty issues. Contact centers are playing a pivotal role in customer services of the 21st century. Nevertheless, despite their growing importance and presence, contact centers are increasingly becoming the center for customer frustration, and frequently associated with negative comments in the media. Therefore, this research explores the Emotional, Cognitive, ...

  17. Serious electronic games as behavioural change interventions in healthcare-associated infections and infection prevention and control: a scoping review of the literature and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Kyratsis, Yiannis; Iwami, Michiyo; Rawson, Timothy M; Holmes, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of improvement initiatives in infection prevention and control (IPC) has often proven challenging. Innovative interventions such as 'serious games' have been proposed in other areas to educate and help clinicians adopt optimal behaviours. There is limited evidence about the application and evaluation of serious games in IPC. The purposes of the study were: a) to synthesise research evidence on the use of serious games in IPC to support healthcare workers' behaviour change and best practice learning; and b) to identify gaps across the formulation and evaluation of serious games in IPC. A scoping study was conducted using the methodological framework developed by Arksey and O'Malley. We interrogated electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase Classic + Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cochrane, Google Scholar) in December 2015. Evidence from these studies was assessed against an analytic framework of intervention formulation and evaluation. Nine hundred sixty five unique papers were initially identified, 23 included for full-text review, and four finally selected. Studies focused on intervention inception and development rather than implementation. Expert involvement in game design was reported in 2/4 studies. Potential game users were not included in needs assessment and game development. Outcome variables such as fidelity or sustainability were scarcely reported. The growing interest in serious games for health has not been coupled with adequate evaluation of processes, outcomes and contexts involved. Explanations about the mechanisms by which game components may facilitate behaviour change are lacking, further hindering adoption.

  18. African Journal of Psychiatry: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Andrew Thomas Division of Psychiatry, Department of Neurosciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, SOUTH AFRICA Email: inhouse@iafrica.com ...

  19. Mitigation of epidemics in contact networks through optimal contact adaptation *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mina; Scoglio, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal control problem formulation to minimize the total number of infection cases during the spread of susceptible-infected-recovered SIR epidemics in contact networks. In the new approach, contact weighted are reduced among nodes and a global minimum contact level is preserved in the network. In addition, the infection cost and the cost associated with the contact reduction are linearly combined in a single objective function. Hence, the optimal control formulation addresses the tradeoff between minimization of total infection cases and minimization of contact weights reduction. Using Pontryagin theorem, the obtained solution is a unique candidate representing the dynamical weighted contact network. To find the near-optimal solution in a decentralized way, we propose two heuristics based on Bang-Bang control function and on a piecewise nonlinear control function, respectively. We perform extensive simulations to evaluate the two heuristics on different networks. Our results show that the piecewise nonlinear control function outperforms the well-known Bang-Bang control function in minimizing both the total number of infection cases and the reduction of contact weights. Finally, our results show awareness of the infection level at which the mitigation strategies are effectively applied to the contact weights. PMID:23906209

  20. Mitigation of epidemics in contact networks through optimal contact adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mina; Scoglio, Caterina

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents an optimal control problem formulation to minimize the total number of infection cases during the spread of susceptible-infected-recovered SIR epidemics in contact networks. In the new approach, contact weighted are reduced among nodes and a global minimum contact level is preserved in the network. In addition, the infection cost and the cost associated with the contact reduction are linearly combined in a single objective function. Hence, the optimal control formulation addresses the tradeoff between minimization of total infection cases and minimization of contact weights reduction. Using Pontryagin theorem, the obtained solution is a unique candidate representing the dynamical weighted contact network. To find the near-optimal solution in a decentralized way, we propose two heuristics based on Bang-Bang control function and on a piecewise nonlinear control function, respectively. We perform extensive simulations to evaluate the two heuristics on different networks. Our results show that the piecewise nonlinear control function outperforms the well-known Bang-Bang control function in minimizing both the total number of infection cases and the reduction of contact weights. Finally, our results show awareness of the infection level at which the mitigation strategies are effectively applied to the contact weights.