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Sample records for prevent depressive symptoms

  1. Moderators of the effects of indicated group and bibliotherapy cognitive behavioral depression prevention programs on adolescents' depressive symptoms and depressive disorder onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M; Stice, Eric

    2015-12-01

    We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Moderators of the Effects of Indicated Group and Bibliotherapy Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Programs on Adolescents’ Depressive Symptoms and Depressive Disorder Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Stice, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. PMID:26480199

  3. Impact of Mano a Mano Mujer, an HIV Prevention Intervention, on Depressive Symptoms among Chilean Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Lara, Loreto; Villegas, Natalia; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda

    2012-01-01

    Background Worldwide, an in Chile, the number of women living with HIV is increasing. Depression is considered a factor that interferes with HIV prevention. Depression may reach 41% among low income Chilean women. Depressed people are less willing to participate in behaviors that protect them against HIV. Objectives To analyze the impact of Mano a Mano-Mujer (MM-M) on depressive symptoms among Chilean women. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to test the impact of MM-M, an HIV prevention intervention. The research was conducted in Santiago- Chile, a total of 400 women participated in the study (intervention group, n = 182; control group, n = 218). The intervention was guided by the social-cognitive model and the primary health model. The intervention consists of six two-hour sessions delivered in small groups. Sessions covered: HIV prevention, depression, partner's communication, and substance abuse. Face to face interviews were conducted at baseline and at 3 months follow-up Results At 3 months post-intervention, Chilean women who participated in MM-M significantly decreased their reported depressive symptoms. Conclusions MM-M provided significant benefits for women's depression symptoms. This study offers a model that address depression, a risk factor for HIV. It uses nurses as leaders for the screening of depressive symptoms and as facilitators of community interventions. PMID:22452388

  4. Influence of a Family-Focused Substance Use Preventive Intervention on Growth in Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Spoth, Richard L.; Redmond, Cleve

    2007-01-01

    Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY) is a preventive intervention that targets parenting behaviors, family interaction patterns, and adolescent substance use, factors that have been shown to predict depression among teenagers. Effects of PDFY on trajectories of self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms from 6th through 12th grade were…

  5. The impact of indicated prevention and early intervention on co-morbid eating disorder and depressive symptoms: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Depressive and eating disorder symptoms are highly comorbid. To date, however, little is known regarding the efficacy of existing programs in decreasing concurrent eating disorder and depressive symptoms. We conducted a systematic review of selective and indicated controlled prevention and early intervention programs that assessed both eating disorder and depressive symptoms. We identified a total of 26 studies. The large majority of identified interventions (92%) were successful in decreasing eating disorder symptoms. However fewer than half (42%) were successful in decreasing both eating disorder and depressive symptoms. Intervention and participant characteristics did not predict success in decreasing depressive symptoms. Indicated prevention and early intervention programs targeting eating disorder symptoms are limited in their success in decreasing concurrent depressive symptoms. Further efforts to develop more efficient interventions that are successful in decreasing both eating disorder and depressive symptoms are warranted.

  6. Evaluating depressive symptom interactions on adolescent smoking prevention program mediators: a mediated moderation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Kari-Lyn Kobayakawa; Sun, Ping; Unger, Jennifer B; Johnson, C Anderson

    2010-11-01

    Smoking prevention interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing smoking prevalence in the United States. Further work is needed to address smoking in China, where over one third of the world's current smokers reside. China, with more than 60% of the male population being smokers, also presents a unique opportunity to test cognitive processes involved in depression, social influences, and smoking. Adolescents at-risk for developing depression may process social information differently from low-risk counterparts. The Wuhan Smoking Prevention Trial was a school-based longitudinal randomized controlled trial aimed at preventing initiation and escalation of adolescent smoking behaviors. Thousand three hundred and ninety-one male seventh-grade students were assessed with a 200-item paper-and-pencil baseline survey, and it was readministered 1 year later following program implementation. Friend prevalence estimates were significantly higher among 30-day smokers and among those at highest risk for depression symptoms. The program appeared to be successful in changing the perception of friend smoking prevalence only among adolescents with a comorbidity of high scores of depression symptoms and who have experimented previously with smoking. This Program x Comorbidity interaction on perceived friend smoking prevalence was significant in predicting 30-day smoking 1 year after program implementation. This study provides evidence that those adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms may be more sensitive to social influences associated with smoking prevalence. Individual Disposition x Social Environmental Influences may be important when developing future effective prevention programming.

  7. Prodromal Symptoms and Atypical Affectivity as Predictors of Major Depression in Juveniles: Implications for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Maria; Lopez-Duran, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    Background: Given the long-term morbidity of juvenile-onset major depressive disorder (MDD), it is timely to consider whether more effort should be dedicated to its primary and secondary prevention. Methods: We reviewed studies of prodromal symptoms that may herald a first episode pediatric MDD and considered whether that literature has made an…

  8. Evaluation of a School-Based Program Aimed at Preventing Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmy, Pernilla; Jakobsson, Ulf; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral program whose target is to prevent depressive symptoms in adolescents. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pretest, posttest, and a 1-year follow-up and provides an illustrative calculation for the implementation costs of the…

  9. School-Based Prevention of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Early Adolescence: A Pilot of a Parent Intervention Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen J.; Freres, Derek R.; Lascher, Marisa; Litzinger, Samantha; Shatte, Andrew; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that school-based cognitive-behavioral interventions can reduce and prevent depressive symptoms in youth. This pilot study investigated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program for Children and Adolescents (the PRP-CA), when combined with a parent intervention…

  10. Evaluation of a school-based depression prevention program among adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms : Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge-Heesen, Karlijn W.J.; van Ettekoven, Kim M.; Rasing, Sanne P.A.; Liempd, Farina H.J.Oprins-van; Vermulst, Ad; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Creemers, Daan H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescents are at risk of developing depressive symptoms. Given the prevalence, recurrence and negative consequences of adolescent depression, it is crucial to implement prevention programs for high-risk adolescents. Prevention programs at an indicated level have shown to be successful

  11. Evaluation of a school-based depression prevention program among adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge-Heesen, K.W.J. de; Ettekoven, K.M. van; Rasing, S.P.A.; Oprins-van Liempd, F.H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Creemers, D.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescents are at risk of developing depressive symptoms. Given the prevalence, recurrence and negative consequences of adolescent depression, it is crucial to implement prevention programs for high-risk adolescents. Prevention programs at an indicated level have shown to be successful

  12. Psychosocial preventive interventions to reduce depressive symptoms in low-SES women at risk: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waerden, J.E.B. van der; Hoefnagels, C.C.J.; Hosman, C.M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Women who have low socioeconomic status (SES) or live in disadvantaged circumstances are a vulnerable group at risk for depression. Little is known about the efficacy of preventive interventions to reduce depressive symptoms in low-SES women. The aim of this study is to provide an

  13. Prevention effects on trajectories of African American adolescents' exposure to interparental conflict and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Allen W; Beach, Steven R H; Kogan, Steven M; Stanley, Scott M; Fincham, Frank D; Hurt, Tera R; Brody, Gene H

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigates the trajectory of children's exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence, its effects on adolescents' psychological adjustment, as well as the ability of a family-centered prevention program to alter this trajectory. A total of 331 African American couples with an adolescent or preadolescent child participated in a randomized control trial of the Promoting Strong African American Families program, a newly developed program targeting couple and cocaregiving processes. Using a multi-informant, latent growth curve approach, child exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence was found to be stable over a period of 2 years among families in the control group, but significantly declined among families in the treatment condition. Rates of change were significantly different between intervention and control groups based on parents' report of youth exposure to interparental conflict, but not for child's report. Structural equation models found trajectory parameters of interparental conflict predicted changes in adolescent depressive symptoms, with increasing rates of changes in conflict associated with increases in adolescent internalizing symptoms over the 2-year duration of the study. Finally, a significant indirect effect was identified linking treatment, changes in parents' reports of child exposure to interparental conflict, and adolescent depressive symptoms. The implications for research and intervention are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Impact of Mano a Mano-Mujer, an HIV prevention intervention, on depressive symptoms among Chilean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, R; Lara, L; Villegas, N; Bernales, M; Ferrer, L; Kaelber, L; Peragallo, N

    2013-04-01

    Worldwide, and in Chile, the number of women living with HIV is increasing. Depression is considered a factor that interferes with HIV prevention. Depression may reach 41% among low-income Chilean women. Depressed people are less willing to participate in behaviours that protect them against HIV. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of Mano a Mano-Mujer (MM-M), and HIV prevention intervention, on depressive symptoms among Chilean women. A quasi-experimental design was used for this study. The research was conducted in Santiago, Chile; a total of 400 women participated in the study (intervention group, n=182; control group, n=218). The intervention was guided by the social-cognitive model and the primary health care model. The intervention consists of six 2-h sessions delivered in small groups. Sessions covered: HIV prevention, depression, partner's communication, and substance abuse. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Chilean women who participated in MM-M significantly decreased, at 3 months follow up, their reported depressive symptoms. MM-M provided significant benefits for women's depression symptoms. In this study nurses participated as leaders for the screening of depressive symptoms and as facilitators of community interventions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.

  15. Subthreshold Symptoms of Depression in Preadolescent Girls Are Stable and Predictive of Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alsion; Feng, Xin; Babinski, Dara; Hinze, Amanda; Rischall, Michal; Henneberger, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of depression are investigated among 232 preadolescent girls to study if they were predictive and stable of depression. Findings show that early symptoms of depression among preadolescent girls predict depressive disorders. Implications for preventive measures are discussed.

  16. Symptoms of postpartum depression and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Daniel C; Harrison-Hohner, Jane; Coste, Sarah; Dorato, Veronica; Curet, Luis B; McCarron, David A

    2005-11-01

    Despite important health benefits, the presence of depressive symptoms may decrease the prevalence of breastfeeding. The current study assessed the relationship between depressive symptoms and breastfeeding at 6 and 12 weeks postpartum. Participants were recruited from a cohort completing a clinical trial of calcium for prevention of preeclampsia. At 6 weeks postpartum, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was completed by mail. At 12 weeks postpartum, the EPDS was completed at an outpatient visit. There was an inverse relationship between depressive symptoms and breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum (Pdepression, increased life stress, and current psychoactive medication. The results suggest that depressive symptoms early in the postpartum period may lower the prevalence of breastfeeding.

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Traumatic Events (3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People ... is a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest ...

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... few days. It is a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed ... suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression ... why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective ...

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how they got help. & ... I felt like I was such an awful person that there was no real reason for me ...

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest in activities they normally enjoyed, ... hours a day even. NARRATOR : People who are depressed can feel numb and tired all the time. ...

  3. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in emotionally distressed individuals referred for a depression prevention intervention: relationship to problem-solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasckow, J; Brown, C; Morse, J; Begley, A; Bensasi, S; Reynolds, C F

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the rates of syndromal and subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD symptom scores in participants with symptoms of emotional distress, subsyndromal depression, and a history of traumatic exposure. Participants had been referred to a study of an indicated depression prevention intervention using problem-solving therapy in primary care. We hypothesized that higher severity of PTSD symptom scores would predict poorer problem-solving skills. In addition, some reports have suggested that there are higher rates of PTSD in minority populations relative to Caucasians; thus we hypothesized that race would also predict problem-solving skills in these individuals. We examined the rates of traumatic exposure, syndromal, and subthreshold PTSD. In those exposed to trauma, we performed a multiple linear regression to examine the effects of PTSD symptoms, depression symptoms, race, age, and gender on social problem-solving skills. Of the 244 participants, 64 (26.2%) reported a traumatic event; 6/234 (2.6%) had syndromal PTSD, and 14/234 (6.0%) had subthreshold PTSD. By way of regression analysis, higher PTSD symptom scores predicted poorer problem-solving skills. In addition, racial status (Caucasian vs. African American) predicted problem-solving skills; Caucasians exhibited lower levels of problem-solving skills. Individuals presenting with subsyndromal depressive symptoms may also have a history of traumatic exposure, subthreshold and syndromal PTSD. Thus, screening these individuals for PTSD symptoms is important and may inform clinical management decisions because problem-solving skills are lower in those with more severe PTSD symptoms (even after adjusting for race, age, gender, and depressive symptoms). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Association between burnout and depressive symptoms among Turkish dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Huri

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Dentists may face burnout and depressive symptoms during their professional life. Increased burnout level can give an idea on depressive symptoms, and may provide an opportunity to identify depression earlier. Creating and raising awareness about burnout are important to avoid and prevent depression among dentists. Further longitudinal studies analyzing the effects of interdisciplinary client-centered self-management programs for dentists on depressive symptoms and burnout must be planned.

  5. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozdzik-Zelazny A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Distinction between true negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia is difficult. In the present study we seek to establish the psychological profile of depression-prone schizophrenic patients. We addressed the issue by comparing the expression of psychological indices, such as the feelings of being in control of events, anxiety, mood, and the style of coping with stress in depressive and non-depressive schizophrenics. We also analyzed the strength of the association of these indices with the presence of depressive symptoms. A total of 49 patients (18 women and 31 men, aged 23-59 were enrolled into the study, consisting of a self-reported psychometric survey. We found that the prevalence of clinically significant depression in schizophrenic patients was 61%. The factors which contributed to the intensification of depressive symptoms were the external locus of control, anxiety, gloomy mood, and the emotion-oriented coping with stress. We conclude that psychological testing may discern those schizophrenic patients who would be at risk of depression development and may help separate the blurred boundaries between depressive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... in college so I wouldn't go to classes at all. I gained a lot of weight. ... the symptoms fit, get help now. Share More Video and Audio about Depression Contact the Press Office ...

  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... a minute really to do anything that took deep concentration. I tried a journal and I tried ... give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ...

  8. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ... Contact Us U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health USA.gov The National ...

  9. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  10. Perfectionism, Shame, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…

  11. A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of a School-Based Resilience Intervention to Prevent Depressive Symptoms for Young Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Mixed Methods Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Bethany A; Shochet, Ian M; Orr, Jayne A

    2017-11-01

    Despite increased depression in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), effective prevention approaches for this population are limited. A mixed methods pilot randomised controlled trial (N = 29) of the evidence-based Resourceful Adolescent Program-Autism Spectrum Disorder (RAP-A-ASD) designed to prevent depression was conducted in schools with adolescents with ASD in years 6 and 7. Quantitative results showed significant intervention effects on parent reports of adolescent coping self-efficacy (maintained at 6 month follow-up) but no effect on depressive symptoms or mental health. Qualitative outcomes reflected perceived improvements from the intervention for adolescents' coping self-efficacy, self-confidence, social skills, and affect regulation. Converging results remain encouraging given this population's difficulties coping with adversity, managing emotions and interacting socially which strongly influence developmental outcomes.

  12. Predicting depressive symptoms in unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we review recent research literature focused on relationship between unemployment and depression, and theories emphasizing the mechanisms by which unemployment may contribute to increased levels of depression. Our research investigated depressive symptomatology and its predictors among unemployed people (N = 453 varying in length of unemployment. Results showed that self - mastery, self - esteem, financial strain, gender, intensity of job - seek behavior and length on unemployment were significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in light of current theories of unemployment and mental health and recommendations are made for practice.

  13. Prevent the blue, be true to you: Authenticity buffers the negative impact of loneliness on alcohol-related problems, physical symptoms, and depressive and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Jennifer L; Baker, Zachary G; Tou, Reese Yw

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated authenticity as a moderator of the association between loneliness and depressive symptoms, anxiety, physical symptoms, and alcohol-related problems. It was expected that loneliness and health outcomes would be negatively related and that relationship would be weaker among those higher in authenticity. Significant interactions emerged between authenticity and loneliness for each outcome such that authenticity mitigated the relationship between higher loneliness and negative health outcomes. Results suggest that authenticity may be an underutilized resource for lonely individuals and warrants future investigation. The potential implications are diverse and could be incorporated in college adjustment and health promotion programs.

  14. Screening for Trauma Exposure, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Mothers Receiving Child Welfare Preventive Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Griffing, Sascha; Tullberg, Erika; Roberts, Elizabeth; Ellis, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    The role of parental trauma exposure and related mental health symptoms as risk factors for child maltreatment for parents involved with the child welfare (CW) system has received limited attention. In particular, little is known about the extent to which mothers receiving CW services to prevent maltreatment have experienced trauma and suffered…

  15. Physical training prevents depressive symptoms and a decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuon, T; Valvassori, S S; Dal Pont, G C; Paganini, C S; Pozzi, B G; Luciano, T F; Souza, P S; Quevedo, J; Souza, C T; Pinho, R A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is commonly found in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Many studies have suggested that physical exercise can have an antidepressant effect by increasing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and may also prevent neurodegenerative disease. However, different forms of training may promote different changes in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two types of physical training on depressive-like behavior, and on the levels of proBDNF, BDNF, and its receptor, TrkB, in a mouse model of PD. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 60 days of exercise: either running on a treadmill or performing a strength exercise. PD was induced by striatal administration of 6-OHDA 24h after the last physical exercise session. Seven days after 6-OHDA injection, depressive-like behavior and apomorphine-induced rotational behavior were evaluated. The levels of proBDNF, BDNF, and TRKB were measured in the striatum and the hippocampus of mice by immunoblotting assay. The 6-OHDA-treated animals showed a significant increase in immobility time and rotational behavior compared with the control group. In addition, significant decreases in the levels of proBDNF, BDNF, and its receptor, TrkB were observed in the 6-OHDA group. Both types of physical exercise prevented depressive-like behavior and restored the levels of proBDNF, BDNF, and TrkB in the striatum and hippocampus of mice administered 6-OHDA. Our results demonstrate that exercise training was effective for neuroprotection in the striatum and the hippocampus in an experimental model of PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Edivoxetine compared to placebo as adjunctive therapy to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the prevention of symptom re-emergence in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Tina M; Dellva, Mary Anne; Waterman, Karen; Greenbaum, Michael; Poppe, Christopher; Goldberger, Celine; Ahl, Jonna; Perahia, David G

    2015-06-01

    When patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are partial responders to antidepressant therapy, adjunctive treatment with an agent that has a different mode of action may provide additional benefit. We investigated the efficacy of edivoxetine, a highly selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI), as adjunctive treatment to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the prevention of re-emergence of depressive symptoms in patients with MDD (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01299272). Adult outpatients with MDD who were partial responders to SSRI treatment (N = 1249) entered an open-label 8 week flexibly dosed (12-18 mg/day) adjunctive edivoxetine period. Patients who achieved remission (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale total score ≤10 at week 8) entered a 12 week open-label fixed-dose (12 mg or 18 mg/day) stabilization period, and those still in remission at each of weeks 18, 19, and 20 were randomized to continue treatment at the same dose of edivoxetine or switch to placebo for a 24 week double-blind withdrawal period. All patients remained on SSRI therapy throughout the study. The primary outcome was time to re-emergence of depressive symptoms during double-blind withdrawal. Two hundred and ninety-four patients were randomized to continue adjunctive edivoxetine and 292 were switched to adjunctive placebo. Comparing adjunctive edivoxetine with adjunctive placebo, differences were not significant for time to re-emergence of symptoms (Kaplan-Meier log-rank p = 0.485), rates of symptom re-emergence (9.9% vs 8.2%, p = 0.565) or rates of sustained remission (75.4% vs 76.7%, p = 0.771). Treatment-emergent adverse events were consistent with the noradrenergic mechanism of action. Edivoxetine failed to demonstrate superiority vs placebo as adjunctive treatment in the prevention of symptom re-emergence during maintenance treatment in SSRI partial responders with MDD. While no selective NRIs are approved for adjunctive

  17. Predictors of Prevention Failure in College Students Participating in Two Indicated Depression Prevention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were ...

  18. Prevention of depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescents: 42 and 54 months follow-up of the Aussie Optimism Program-Positive Thinking Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Julie; Rooney, Rosanna M; Hassan, Shari; Kane, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are the most commonly reported mental health problems amongst Australian children and adolescents. The Aussie Optimism: Program-Positive Thinking Skills (AOP-PTS) is a universal intervention program based on cognitive and behavioral strategies and aimed to prevent anxiety and depression in the middle primary school children aged 9-10 years old. 370 students randomly assigned to the intervention and control condition participated in the 42 and 54 months follow-up study. The intervention group received the AOP-PTS 10-week program and the control group received the regular health education curriculum. Students were assessed on anxiety, depression and attribution style at school whilst parents reported on their child's externalizing and internalizing problems at home. Results showed there were no significant reductions across groups in the depressive and anxiety symptoms, and attribution style at either 42 or 54 months follow-up. These findings suggest that AOP-PTS has short and medium term effects but were not sustained in longer term period. Future strategies to achieve the desirable outcomes in a longitudinal study are discussed.

  19. Prevention of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents: 42 and 54 Months Follow-Up of the Aussie Optimism Program-Positive Thinking Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eJohnstone

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and depression are the most commonly reported mental health problems amongst Australian children and adolescents. The Aussie Optimism Program: Positive Thinking Skills (AOP- PTS is a universal intervention program based on cognitive and behavioral strategies and aimed to prevent anxiety and depression in the middle primary school children aged 9-10 years old. 370 students randomly assigned to the intervention and control condition participated in the 42 and 54 months follow – up study. The intervention group received the AOP-PTS 10-week program and the control group received the regular Health Education curriculum. Students were assessed on anxiety, depression and attribution style at school whilst parents reported on their child’s externalizing and internalising problems at home. Results showed there were no significant reduction across groups in the depressive and anxiety symptoms, and attribution style at either 42 or 54 months follow-up. These findings suggest that AOP-PTS has short and medium term effects but were not sustained in longer term period. Future strategies to achieve the desirable outcomes in a longitudinal study are discussed.

  20. A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of a School-Based Resilience Intervention to Prevent Depressive Symptoms for Young Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Bethany A.; Shochet, Ian M.; Orr, Jayne A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite increased depression in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), effective prevention approaches for this population are limited. A mixed methods pilot randomised controlled trial (N = 29) of the evidence-based Resourceful Adolescent Program-Autism Spectrum Disorder (RAP-A-ASD) designed to prevent depression was conducted in…

  1. Preventing Depression in Adults With Subthreshold Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buntrock, Claudia; Berking, Matthias; Smit, Filip

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological interventions for the prevention of depression might be a cost-effective way to reduce the burden associated with depressive disorders. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a Web-based guided self-help intervention to prevent major depressive disorder (MDD......) in people with subthreshold depression (sD). METHODS: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial was conducted with follow-up at 12 months. Participants were recruited from the general population via a large statutory health insurance company and an open access website. Participants were randomized to a Web......-based guided self-help intervention (ie, cognitive-behavioral therapy and problem-solving therapy assisted by supervised graduate students or health care professionals) in addition to usual care or to usual care supplemented with Web-based psycho-education (enhanced usual care). Depression-free years (DFYs...

  2. Sleep disorders as core symptoms of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David; Wilson, Sue; Paterson, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Links between sleep and depression are strong. About three quarters of depressed patients have insomnia symptoms, and hypersomnia is present in about 40% of young depressed adults and 10% of older patients, with a preponderance in females. The symptoms cause huge distress, have a major impact on quality of life, and are a strong risk factor for suicide. As well as the subjective experience of sleep symptoms, there are well-documented changes in objective sleep architecture in depression. Mechanisms of sleep regulation and how they might be disturbed in depression are discussed. The sleep symptoms are often unresolved by treatment, and confer a greater risk of relapse and recurrence. Epidemiological studies have pointed out that insomnia in nondepressed subjects is a risk factor for later development of depression. There is therefore a need for more successful management of sleep disturbance in depression, in order to improve quality of life in these patients and reduce an important factor in depressive relapse and recurrence.

  3. Preventing Unintended Pregnancy Among Young Sexually Active Women: Recognizing the Role of Violence, Self-Esteem, and Depressive Symptoms on Use of Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Deborah B; Zhao, Huaqing; Corrado, Rachel; Mastrogiannnis, Dimitrios M; Lepore, Stephen J

    2017-04-01

    Ineffective contraceptive use among young sexually active women is extremely prevalent and poses a significant risk for unintended pregnancy (UP). Ineffective contraception involves the use of the withdrawal method or the inconsistent use of other types of contraception (i.e., condoms and birth control pills). This investigation examined violence exposure and psychological factors related to ineffective contraceptive use among young sexually active women. Young, nonpregnant sexually active women (n = 315) were recruited from an urban family planning clinic in 2013 to participate in a longitudinal study. Tablet-based surveys measured childhood violence, community-level violence, intimate partner violence, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem. Follow-up surveys measured type and consistency of contraception used 9 months later. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed violence and psychological risk factors as main effects and moderators related to ineffective compared with effective use of contraception. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that childhood sexual violence and low self-esteem were significantly related to ineffective use of contraception (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.69, confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.18-6.17, and aOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.28-0.93; respectively), although self-esteem did not moderate the relationship between childhood sexual violence and ineffective use of contraception (aOR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.08-1.84). Depressive symptoms were not related to ineffective use of contraception in the multivariate model. Interventions to reduce UP should recognize the long-term effects of childhood sexual violence and address the role of low self-esteem on the ability of young sexually active women to effectively and consistently use contraception to prevent UP.

  4. Depressive symptoms in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmez, Nasrettin; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Evensen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The present study examined if any patient characteristics at baseline predicted depressive symptoms at 10 years and whether patients prone to depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment had a different prognosis in the following years. METHOD: A total of 299 first-episode psychosis...

  5. Associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The association between depression and insulin resistance has been investigated in only a few studies, with contradictory results reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between symptoms of depression and insulin resistance varies across glucose...... established type 2 diabetes mellitus. Main outcome measures were insulin resistance defined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and symptoms of depression using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). RESULTS: In the total sample, we found a weak.......942). The association between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance was similar for men and women. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We found only weak associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance, which did not differ among different glucose metabolism subgroups or between men and women....

  6. Prevention of Depression in Subclinically Depressed Adults: Follow-Up Effects on the ‘Coping with Depression’ Course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allart-van Dam, E.; Hosman, C.M.H.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Schaap, C.P.D.R.

    2007-01-01

    People with subclinical depressive symptoms are at increased risk of depressive disorder, little is known on the prevention of depressive disorder in this population. This study evaluates the long-term preventive effects of an effective depression treatment, the Coping with Depression (CWD) course.

  7. Preventing postpartum depression: A meta-analytic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockol, Laura E.; Epperson, C. Neill; Barber, Jacques P.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis assessed the efficacy of a wide range of preventive interventions designed to reduce the severity of postpartum depressive symptoms or decrease the prevalence of postpartum depressive episodes. A systematic review identified 37 randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials in which an intervention was compared to a control condition. Differences between treatment and control conditions in the level of depressive symptoms and prevalence of depressive episodes by 6 months postpartum were assessed in separate analyses. Depressive symptoms were significantly lower at post-treatment in intervention conditions, with an overall effect size in the small range after exclusion of outliers (Hedges' g = 0.18). There was a 27% reduction in the prevalence of depressive episodes in intervention conditions by 6 months postpartum after removal of outliers and correction for publication bias. Later timing of the postpartum assessment was associated with smaller differences between intervention and control conditions in both analyses. Among studies that assessed depressive symptoms using the EPDS, higher levels of depressive symptoms at pre-treatment were associated with smaller differences in depressive symptoms by 6 months postpartum. These findings suggest that interventions designed to prevent postpartum depression effectively reduce levels of postpartum depressive symptoms and decrease risk for postpartum depressive episodes. PMID:24211712

  8. Factors associated with depressive symptoms among Filipino university students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo B Lee

    Full Text Available Depression can be prevented if its symptoms are addressed early and effectively. Prevention against depression among university students is rare in the Philippines, but is urgent because of the rising rates of suicide among the group. Evidence is needed to systematically identify and assist students with higher levels of depressive symptoms. We carried out a survey to determine the social and demographic factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among 2,436 Filipino university students. The University Students Depression Inventory with measures on lethargy, cognition-emotion, and academic motivation, was used. Six of the 11 factors analyzed were found to be statistically significantly associated with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: frequency of smoking, frequency of drinking, not living with biological parents, dissatisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. Sex, age category, course category, year level and religion were not significantly related. In identifying students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to lifestyle, financial condition, parents and peers are crucial. There is a need to carry out more surveys to develop the pool of local knowledge on student depression.

  9. Overweight status and depressive symptoms during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Belinda L; Crosnoe, Robert

    2005-01-01

    To: (a) extend previous research on the association between overweight status and depressive symptoms among adults to adolescents, (b) consider whether this association varies across social structural contexts and school context, and (c) explore additional mechanisms linking overweight status to depressive symptoms. We used survey regression procedures to analyze data from the first wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Degree of overweight was indicated by body mass index (BMI), which we calculated using self-reported height and weight information, whereas depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Data were analyzed to determine (a) the social groups in which being overweight was least common, (b) the association between overweight status and depressive symptoms, and (c) potential mediators of the association between relative weight and symptoms of depression, including dieting and self-rated health. The analytic sample contained 18,924 adolescents aged 11 to 21 years (mean age was 15.68). Approximately half the sample consisted of females (n = 9634). Adjusting for exercise and sociodemographic characteristics, we found that relative weight was associated with depressive symptoms for girls but not boys. For both, the association between overweight status and symptoms of depression was stronger among adolescents in lower grades. Dieting explained the positive association between relative weight and depressive symptoms for girls, whereas self-rated health mediated the association between relative weight and symptoms of depression for adolescents in lower grades. To fully understand both the physical and mental health consequences of adolescent obesity, the social dimension of weight must be examined.

  10. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishola Rawatlal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may increase risk for depressive symptoms or may reduce such risk. Adolescent-parent attachment, adolescent-perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates of depressive symptom presentation within this age group. Methods. Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female from each family. Adolescents were in Grade 7 (n=175 or Grade 10 (n=31. Data were collected through home interviews. The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI, Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR, Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment.  Results. Two models were examined: one with adolescent report of depressive symptoms as the outcome and a second with parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms as the outcome. The model predicting adolescent-reported depressive symptoms was significant with older age, higher levels of avoidant attachment, and higher levels of youth-reported dysfunctional family interaction associated with more depressive symptomatology. In the model predicting parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms only higher levels of dysfunctional family interaction, as reported by the parent, were associated with higher levels of internalising symptoms. Conclusion. Positive family communication, cohesion and support predictive of a secure parent-adolescent attachment relationship reduced the risk of a depressive symptom outcome. Secure adolescents were able to regulate their emotions, knowing that they could seek out secure base attachment relations

  11. Depressive Symptoms During Adolescence Predict Adulthood Obesity Among Black Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-08-24

    This study aimed to investigate gender differences in the association between baseline depressive symptoms and subsequent changes in obesity in a sample of urban Black youth in the USA. The current study followed 681 Black youth (335 male and 346 female) for up to 18 years from 1994 to 2012. All youth were selected from an economically disadvantaged urban area in MI, USA. The main independent variable was baseline depressive symptoms measured in 1994. The main outcome was change in body mass index (BMI) from 1999 to 2012, calculated based on self-reported height and weight. Scio-demographics (age, number of parents in the household, and parental employment) were covariates. Gender was the focal moderator. We used linear regressions to test the predictive role of baseline depressive symptoms on change in BMI (from 1999 to 2012) in the pooled sample, and also based on gender. Among Black females, but not Black males, baseline depressive symptoms predicted the BMI change from 1999 to 2012. The association remained significant for Black females after controlling for covariates. High depressive symptoms at baseline better predict BMI change over the next decade for female than male Black youth. As a result, detection and reduction of depressive symptoms may be a vital element of obesity prevention programs for Black females. Policies and programs that address determinants of psychological distress as a strategy to prevent obesity among female Black youth in disadvantaged neighborhoods may be especially useful.

  12. Obesity and Onset of Significant Depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Beekman, Aartjan TF; Brenes, Gretchen A; Newman, Anne B; Satterfield, Suzanne; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B; Penninx, Brenda WJH

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although several cross-sectional studies have linked obesity and depression, less is known about their longitudinal association and about the relative influence of obesity subtypes. We prospectively examined whether (abdominal) obesity increased the risk of onset of depression in a population-based sample of older persons. Method Participants were 2540 non-depressed well-functioning white and black persons, aged 70–79 years, enrolled in the Health ABC Study, an ongoing prospective community-based cohort study. Overall obesity was assessed by body mass index and percent body fat (measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), whereas abdominal obesity measures included waist circumference, sagittal diameter, and visceral fat (measured by computer tomography). Onset of significant depressive symptoms was defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression 10-item score ≥ 10 at any annual follow-up over 5 years and/or new antidepressant medication use. Persistent depression was defined as depression at two consecutive follow-up visits. Results Over 5 years, significant depressive symptoms emerged in 23.7% of initially non-depressed persons. In men, both overall (BMI: HR per SD increase=1.20, 95%CI=1.03–1.40) and abdominal obesity (visceral fat: HR per SD increase=1.19, 95%CI=1.07–1.33) predicted onset of depressive symptoms after adjustment for sociodemographics. When BMI and visceral fat were adjusted for each other, only visceral fat was significantly associated with depression onset (HR=1.18, 95%CI=1.04–1.34). Stronger associations were found for persistent depressive symptoms. No associations were found in women. Conclusion This study shows that obesity, in particular visceral fat, increases the risk of onset of significant depressive symptoms in men. These results suggest that specific mechanisms might relate visceral fat to the onset of depression. PMID:20021992

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  14. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. ...

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    Full Text Available ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ...

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and better treatments can be developed. RODOLFO : With ... shed light on causes of postpartum depression using new research model More News From the Field... Contact ...

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress ... Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress ...

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 ... items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders ( ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders ( ...

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... continues to study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and better ... are the first steps on the road to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so ...

  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression ( ... Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression ( ...

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... you change ways of thinking and behaving that may be damaging or contribute to depression. RODOLFO : I ... many people, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be the best choice. Depression can be successfully ...

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how they got help.   Watch on ... researchers are getting closer to figuring out exactly how these medications work, who benefits from them the ...

  4. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... be the best choice. Depression can be successfully treated in many people, but sometimes treatments fall short. For this reason, NIMH continues to study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and ...

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. CBT ... For many people, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be the best choice. Depression can be ...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...

  7. Maternal depressive symptoms following autism spectrum diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Warren, Zachary E

    2012-07-01

    The current study examined depressive symptoms, concerning the week following autism spectrum diagnosis and an average of 1.4 years later, in mothers (n = 75) of young children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Over three-quarters of mothers (78.7%) provided retrospective reports of clinically significant depressive symptoms regarding the week following their child's ASD diagnosis, with some 37.3% continuing to report clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up. Depressive symptoms immediately following diagnosis were not related to initial global characteristics of child functioning, but were related to reported child problem behaviors and financial barriers at follow-up. Results of this study underscore the importance of attention to caregiver distress and depression within models of autism detection and intervention.

  8. Marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard B; Mason, Tiffany M; Canlas, Jerevie M; Wang, Dahua; Nelson, David A; Hart, Craig H

    2013-08-01

    Although there is substantial evidence that low marital satisfaction is a significant risk factor for depression, little research has examined this relationship in cultures outside of the U.S. and Europe. The validity of the marital discord model of depression in Chinese culture was tested by studying 391 couples living in Beijing and Hangzhou, China. Results of structural equation modeling using an actor-partner interdependence model strategy indicated that husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction was significantly predictive of their own depressive symptoms. In addition, wives' marital satisfaction significantly predicted husbands' depressive symptoms. These results provide evidence that the marital discord model of depression is useful in understanding the role of marital dissatisfaction as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in collectivistic societies, such as China. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  9. Evaluation of depressive symptoms and sleep alterations in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Estrella, Jesús; Pérez-Benítez, Hugo; Solís-Rodríguez, Francisco; Arankowsky-Sandoval, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that sleep alterations could favor subsequent depression development. In order to identify the simultaneous occurrence of these parameters in young people, in this work we evaluated the prevalence of depressive symptoms, sleep habits, and possible sleep disturbances in college students. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and a Sleep Habits Questionnaire were applied to students registered at the Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida (mean age 20.2 +/- 2.6 years). The final sample was composed of 340 (53%) women and 298 (47%) men. Reliability of the BDI and ESS was assessed by Cronbach's alpha method. Taking 10 as ESS cut-off point, it was found that 31.6% of the students had a high level of sleepiness. Students with depressive symptoms had a greater number of days with somnolence during class (p students without symptoms. In comparison to subjects without depressive symptoms, students with those symptoms rated their sleep quality as poor (p sleep after going to bed (p sleep alterations in a large proportion of the studied subjects, which were more severe in those who showed depressive symptoms. Educating students for appropriate sleep hygiene and encouraging them to seek professional advice to treat sleep disturbances may be useful to prevent depression.

  10. Predictors of efficacy in depression prevention programmes. Meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jané Llopis, E.; Hosman, C.M.H.; Jenkins, R.B.; Anderson, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, 340 million people are affected by depression, with high comorbid, social and economic costs. AIMS: To identify potential predictors of effect in prevention programmes. METHOD: A meta-analysis was made of 69 programmes to reduce depression or depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The

  11. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Health (2 items) Military Service Members (1 item) Prevention Suicide Prevention (8 items) Research BRAIN Initiative (5 ... Health (2 items) Military Service Members (1 item) Prevention Suicide Prevention (8 items) Research BRAIN Initiative (5 ...

  12. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 2 items) Military Service Members (1 item) Prevention Suicide Prevention (8 items) Research BRAIN Initiative (5 items) ... 2 items) Military Service Members (1 item) Prevention Suicide Prevention (8 items) Research BRAIN Initiative (5 items) ...

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 2 items) Military Service Members (1 item) Prevention Suicide Prevention (8 items) Research BRAIN Initiative (5 items) Basic ... 2 items) Military Service Members (1 item) Prevention Suicide Prevention (8 items) Research BRAIN Initiative (5 items) Basic ...

  14. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Members (1 item) Prevention Suicide Prevention (8 items) Research BRAIN Initiative (5 items) Basic Research (27 items) ... Members (1 item) Prevention Suicide Prevention (8 items) Research BRAIN Initiative (5 items) Basic Research (27 items) ...

  15. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Health (2 items) Military Service Members (1 item) Prevention Suicide Prevention (8 items) Research BRAIN Initiative (5 items) ... Health (2 items) Military Service Members (1 item) Prevention Suicide Prevention (8 items) Research BRAIN Initiative (5 items) ...

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... item) Prevention Suicide Prevention (8 items) Research BRAIN Initiative (5 items) Basic Research (27 items) Clinical Research ... item) Prevention Suicide Prevention (8 items) Research BRAIN Initiative (5 items) Basic Research (27 items) Clinical Research ...

  17. Symptoms of depression in adolescents with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, D W; Austin, J K; Huster, G A

    1999-09-01

    To identify factors related to symptoms of depression in a sample of adolescents with epilepsy. Cross-sectional data were collected on 115 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years who had epilepsy. Demographic (age, gender), seizure (severity, age of onset), family (stress, resources, relationships), mother (perceptions of stigma, depression), and child (attitude toward epilepsy, satisfaction with family relationships, coping, perceptions of control) variables were assessed by questionnaire and standardized scales. Depression was measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Anxiety/Depression subscale of the Youth Self-Report. Data were analyzed by using multiple regression with depression as the dependent variable. In this sample, 23% of subjects had symptoms of depression. Significant predictors of depression as measured by the Children's Depression Inventory (R2 = 0.53) were youth's attitude toward epilepsy, youth satisfaction with family relationships, and unknown locus of control or external locus of control for socially powerful others. Adolescents' attitudes, attributions, and satisfaction with family relationships are related to depression and should be assessed in the clinical setting. The relationship between locus of control and depression fits the learned helplessness model of depression and suggests the need for interventions to promote an internal locus of control in adolescents with epilepsy.

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... at NIMH News & Events Science News Events Multimedia Social ... (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder ( ...

  19. Developmental Links Between Gaming and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuška, Jakub; Vazsonyi, Alexander T

    2017-11-15

    The current longitudinal study tested the reciprocal relationships between video game play and depressive symptoms among 9,421 adolescents from the Add Health (M age  = 16.15 years, SD = 1.64, 55% female), over 11 years (Waves 2, 3, and 4), ages 16 to 27. Based on structural equation modeling as well as latent growth models, findings indicated that (1) excessive gaming was largely transient over time, from adolescence to early adulthood; (2) excessive gaming predicted increases in depressive symptoms; and (3) in turn, depressive symptoms predicted decreases in gaming over time. Multigroup model tests by sex provided additional evidence that longitudinal relationships from excessive gaming to depressive symptoms were supported for male, but not for female youth. © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ...

  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ...

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ... items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ...

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) ... items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) ...

  4. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... alone. NARRATOR : If you have depression, telling friends, family, or someone you trust, and finding a doctor or therapist are the first steps on the road to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so don't give up. Read ...

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia ( ... Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia ( ...

  6. Immediate postpartum mood assessment and postpartum depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle L; Kroska, Emily B; Grekin, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in the early postpartum period have been associated with postpartum depressive symptoms, but the exact relationship is not well understood. This study aimed to determine if NA and PA in the immediate postpartum period predicted postpartum depressive symptoms over and above well-established predictors (previous trauma, history of depression). Participants were prospectively recruited from a Mother-Baby Unit at a large Midwestern academic medical center in the United States from April 2011 to April 2014. Participants (N=526) completed the Daily Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), a self-report measure which assessed NA and PA, within three days post-delivery. Participants then reported their depressive symptoms at two weeks (n=364) and twelve weeks postpartum (n=271). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that low PA and high NA after birth significantly predicted depressive symptoms early (at 2 weeks) and later (at 12 weeks) in the postpartum period, over and above previous traumatic experiences and history of depression. The sample was relatively homogenous, and data were from self-report instruments. The current study found NA and PA in the days immediately after birth predicted depressive symptoms at multiple time points in the postpartum period. Because the perinatal period places women at a higher risk for depressive symptomatology, prevention and early intervention are critical. Measuring affect in hospitals immediately after birth may provide a more normalized set of items that is predictive of later depression, which will allow physicians to identify those at highest risk for developing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Depressive symptoms among Jordanian youth: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Hmoud, Olimat; Alkhasawneh, Esra; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2013-02-01

    This study examines level of depression and factors associated with depression among female and male youth in Jordan. The study uses data from a cross-sectional survey conducted among a national sample of 14-25 year old youth attending educational institutions in Jordan (N = 8,129). On average, respondents reported frequently experiencing feelings of sadness (66 %), loss of joy (49 %) and loss of hope in living (43 %). Regression models demonstrated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were observed among females and among youth exposed to violence. Better parent-child relationships were associated with lower depression score. Among males depressive symptoms were associated with poor economic status, low assertiveness and a higher likelihood of alcohol use and smoking. There is a need for mental health prevention programs for youth in Jordan that enhance youth's social and emotional skills, strengthen parent-child relationships, and reduce violence in school, home and in the community.

  8. Characteristics of fathers with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, David G; Learned, Nicole; Liu, Ying-Hua; Weitzman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research shows maternal depression to be associated with poorer child outcomes, and characteristics of these mothers have been described. Recent research describes associations of paternal depressive symptoms and child behavioral and emotional outcomes, but characteristics of these fathers have not been investigated. This study describes characteristics of fathers with depressive symptoms in the USA. Utilizing data from 7,247 fathers and mothers living in households with children aged 5-17 years who participated in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2004-2006, the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 was used to assess parental depressive symptoms, the Short Form-12 was used to examine paternal and maternal physical health, the Columbia Impairment Scale was used to measure child behavioral or emotional problems, and the Children with Special Health Care Needs Screener was used to identify children with special health care needs. In multivariate analyses, poverty (AOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.05-2.22), maternal depressive symptoms (AOR 5.77; 95% CI 4.18-7.95), living with a child with special health care needs (AOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04-1.94), poor paternal physical health (AOR 3.31; 95% CI 2.50-4.38) and paternal unemployment (AOR 6.49; 95% CI 4.12-10.22) were independently associated with increased rates of paternal depressive symptoms. These are the first data that demonstrate that poverty, paternal physical health problems, having a child with special health care needs, maternal depressive symptoms, and paternal unemployment are independently associated with paternal depressive symptoms, with paternal unemployment associated with the highest rates of such problems.

  9. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 2010 2009 Multimedia by Topic Disorders Anxiety Disorders (5 items) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders ( ...

  10. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 ... Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia (2 items) Populations Children and Adolescents (26 items) Diversity ...

  11. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... such an awful person that there was no real reason for me to do anything for myself. ... fighting, fighting, fighting, fighting. NARRATOR : Depression is a real and complex illness that is not yet completely ...

  12. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. CBT can help you change ways of thinking and behaving that may be damaging or contribute to depression. RODOLFO : I had one really good therapist and ...

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... go to classes at all. I gained a lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can ... became easier. I totally think it is a lot easier when people know. I think that was ...

  14. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... good therapist and through her I think I started really thinking about that I did have depression. NARRATOR : Medications called antidepressants can also help. NIMH researchers are getting closer to figuring out exactly how these medications ...

  15. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... NIMH continues to study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and ... 443-4536 NIMHpress@nih.gov Press Resources Mental Health Information Summaries of Scientific Meetings Information about NIMH ...

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... thinking about that I did have depression. NARRATOR : Medications called antidepressants can also help. NIMH researchers are getting closer to figuring out exactly how these medications work, who benefits from them the most, and ...

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... all alone. NARRATOR : If you have depression, telling friends, family, or someone you trust, and finding a ... Scientific Meetings Information about NIMH RePORTER : Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool Expenditures and Results Recommendations for Reporting ...

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... with depression are different from those without the illness, but we aren't sure why. Scientists at the National Institute of Mental Health are studying brain images of people who ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ... closer to figuring out exactly how these medications work, who benefits from them the most, and how ...

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... for Research Progress Coalition for Research Progress Legislative Activities Research Priorities Research Priorities Home Research Areas Policies ... vary, but many depressed people lose interest in activities they normally enjoyed, have feelings of sadness, guilt, ...

  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep problems. RODOLFO : Sometimes I would sleep only 3 hours a night or cause I couldn't sleep for weeks. And then but most of the ...

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... a minute really to do anything that took deep concentration. I tried a journal and I tried ... of people who suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. ...

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... anyone. I didn't really want to do anything for myself because I felt so, I felt ... was no real reason for me to do anything for myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than just ...

  4. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... NIMH News & Events Science News Events Multimedia Social Media Press ... Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... feeling of being down in the dumps or blue for a few days. It is a serious ... focused psychotherapy does not affect effectiveness Neuroscientists shed light on causes of postpartum depression using new research ...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... NIMH continues to study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and better treatments can be developed. RODOLFO : ... Finder Publicaciones en Español Contact ...

  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... that I did have depression. NARRATOR : Medications called antidepressants can also help. NIMH researchers are getting closer ... the Field NIMH-Funded Science on EurekAlert Certain antidepressants more effective in treating youth anxiety disorder, analysis ...

  8. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... CBT. CBT can help you change ways of thinking and behaving that may be damaging or contribute ... and through her I think I started really thinking about that I did have depression. NARRATOR : Medications ...

  9. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  10. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  11. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Principal Investigators Administrative Oversight & Support Collaborations & Partnerships Join A Study News & Events News & Events Home Science News ... for myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than just a feeling of being down in the dumps or ...

  12. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... to anyone. I didn't really want to do anything for myself because I felt so, I ... there was no real reason for me to do anything for myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than ...

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and better treatments can ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  14. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... for weeks. And then but most of the time the opposite happened, where I would sleep 10, ... depressed can feel numb and tired all the time. In some cases it can even lead to ...

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    Full Text Available ... at NIMH News & Events Science News Events Multimedia Social Media Press ... Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... fighting, fighting. NARRATOR : Depression is a real and complex illness that is not yet completely understood. We ... antidepressants more effective in treating youth anxiety disorder, analysis shows 'Filter' hones GWAS results to help researchers ...

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... items) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Health (11 items) Women’s Mental Health (2 items) Military Service Members (1 item) Prevention Suicide Prevention (8 ... Health (11 items) Women’s Mental Health (2 items) Military Service Members (1 item) Prevention Suicide Prevention (8 ...

  19. Relapse prevention and residual symptoms: a closer analysis of placebo-controlled continuation studies with escitalopram in major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lönn, Sara L; Overø, Kerstin F

    2010-01-01

    -Severity of Illness scores and relapse status in 4 studies published from 2005 to 2007, 1 each in major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), were analyzed using mixed-effects model repeated measures as a function of Montgomery......OBJECTIVE: Analyses of data from 4 relapse-prevention studies with escitalopram were conducted in order to compare patients with and without residual symptoms with regard to relapse rates and global illness during double-blind, 24-week continuation periods. METHOD: Clinical Global Impressions...... > 0) and without residual symptoms (MADRS score = 0) at the start of continuation treatment were defined by how patients scored on 3 core items of the MADRS: depressed mood (observed), inner or psychic tension, and lassitude. At randomization, patients with a residual symptom were globally more ill...

  20. Relapse prevention and residual symptoms: a closer analysis of placebo-controlled continuation studies with escitalopram in major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lönn, Sara L; Overø, Kerstin F

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Analyses of data from 4 relapse-prevention studies with escitalopram were conducted in order to compare patients with and without residual symptoms with regard to relapse rates and global illness during double-blind, 24-week continuation periods. METHOD: Clinical Global Impressions......-Severity of Illness scores and relapse status in 4 studies published from 2005 to 2007, 1 each in major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), were analyzed using mixed-effects model repeated measures as a function of Montgomery...... > 0) and without residual symptoms (MADRS score = 0) at the start of continuation treatment were defined by how patients scored on 3 core items of the MADRS: depressed mood (observed), inner or psychic tension, and lassitude. At randomization, patients with a residual symptom were globally more ill...

  1. The effect of sleep pattern changes on postpartum depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Beth A; Gjerdingen, Dwenda; Schuver, Katie; Avery, Melissa; Marcus, Bess H

    2018-01-09

    Research indicates that poor sleep is associated with postpartum depression; however, little is known regarding this relationship among postpartum women who are at high for postpartum depression. This study examined the relationship between changes in self-reported sleep patterns (from six weeks to seven months postpartum) and depressive symptoms at seven months postpartum among women who were at high risk for postpartum depression. Participants (n = 122) were postpartum women who were at an increased risk for postpartum depression (personal or maternal history of depression) and had participated in a randomized exercise intervention trial. For the current trial, participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9; assessed depression) at six weeks and seven months postpartum. Overall, sleep problems significantly improved from six weeks to seven months postpartum. However, linear regression analyses indicated that worsening or minimal improvement of sleep problems were associated with higher depressive symptoms at seven month postpartum. Regarding the specific types of sleep problems, self-reported changes in sleep latency (i.e., how long it takes to fall asleep at night), daytime dysfunction (i.e., difficulty staying awake during the day), and sleep quality (i.e., subjective rating of sleep quality) were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. Sleep problems typically improve during the postpartum phase. However, postpartum women who are at high risk for postpartum depression are at an increased risk for depressive symptoms later in the postpartum phase if sleep problems worsen or show only minimal improvement over time. Therefore, at the six-week postpartum clinic visit, women should receive education regarding potential worsening of sleep patterns and strategies for preventing sleep-related problems. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT00961402 ) on August 18, 2009 prior to the start of the

  2. Prevalence of Depression and Depressive Symptoms Among Resident Physicians: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Douglas A; Ramos, Marco A; Bansal, Narinder; Khan, Rida; Guille, Constance; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Sen, Srijan

    2015-12-08

    Physicians in training are at high risk for depression. However, the estimated prevalence of this disorder varies substantially between studies. To provide a summary estimate of depression or depressive symptom prevalence among resident physicians. Systematic search of EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO for studies with information on the prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms among resident physicians published between January 1963 and September 2015. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were published in the peer-reviewed literature and used a validated method to assess for depression or depressive symptoms. Information on study characteristics and depression or depressive symptom prevalence was extracted independently by 2 trained investigators. Estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Differences by study-level characteristics were estimated using meta-regression. Point or period prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms as assessed by structured interview or validated questionnaire. Data were extracted from 31 cross-sectional studies (9447 individuals) and 23 longitudinal studies (8113 individuals). Three studies used clinical interviews and 51 used self-report instruments. The overall pooled prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms was 28.8% (4969/17,560 individuals, 95% CI, 25.3%-32.5%), with high between-study heterogeneity (Q = 1247, τ2 = 0.39, I2 = 95.8%, P depressive symptoms with the onset of residency training was 15.8% (range, 0.3%-26.3%; relative risk, 4.5). No statistically significant differences were observed between cross-sectional vs longitudinal studies, studies of only interns vs only upper-level residents, or studies of nonsurgical vs both nonsurgical and surgical residents. In this systematic review, the summary estimate of the prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms among resident physicians was 28.8%, ranging from 20.9% to 43.2% depending on the instrument used, and

  3. Depressive symptoms and cognitive performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Park, Hyuntae; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Lee, Sangyoon; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-10-01

    Many longitudinal studies have found that older adults with depressive symptoms or depression have increased risk of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationships between depressive symptoms or depression, cognitive function, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and volumetric MRI measurements in older adults. A total of 4352 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years) participated in the study. We investigated medical history and geriatric depression scale-15 (GDS-15) items to determine depression and depressive symptoms. Cognitive tests included the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), story memory, word list memory, trail-making tests, and the symbol digit substitution task. Of the 4352 participants, 570 (13%) fulfilled the criteria for depressive symptoms (GDS-15: 6 + points) and 87 (2%) were diagnosed with depression. All cognitive tests showed significant differences between the 'no depressive symptoms', 'depressive symptoms', and 'depression' groups. The 'depressive symptoms' and 'depression' groups showed lower serum BDNF (p depressive symptoms' group. The 'depressive symptoms' group exhibited greater atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe than did the 'no depressive symptoms' group (p = 0.023). These results suggest that memory, executive function, and processing speed examinations are useful to identify cognitive decline in older adults who have depressive symptoms and depression. Serum BDNF concentration and atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe may in part mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia ( ... Women’s Mental Health (2 items) Military Service Members (1 item) Prevention Suicide Prevention (8 items) Research BRAIN ...

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 1 item) Prevention Suicide Prevention (8 items) Research BRAIN Initiative (5 items) Basic Research (27 items) Clinical ... Health Services Research (4 items) Genetics (3 items) Brain Anatomy and Physiology (13 items) RDoC (5 items) ...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Prevention (8 items) Research BRAIN Initiative (5 items) Basic Research (27 items) Clinical Research and Trials (3 ... Prevention (8 items) Research BRAIN Initiative (5 items) Basic Research (27 items) Clinical Research and Trials (3 ...

  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 2010 2009 Multimedia by Topic Disorders Anxiety Disorders (5 items) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) ... Prevention Suicide Prevention (8 items) Research BRAIN Initiative (5 items) Basic Research (27 items) Clinical Research and ...

  8. Stress in romantic relationships and adolescent depressive symptoms: Influence of parental support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samantha F; Salk, Rachel H; Hyde, Janet S

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that stressful life events can play a role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms; however, there has been little research on romantic stress specifically. The relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms is particularly salient in adolescence, as adolescence often involves the onset of dating. This and other stressors are often dealt with in the context of the family. The present study examined the relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms both concurrently and prospectively, controlling for preexisting depressive symptoms. We then explored whether support from parents buffers the negative effects of romantic stress on depressive symptoms. In addition, the study sought to determine whether the benefits of support vary by parent and child gender. A community sample of 375 adolescents completed self-report measures of parental support (both maternal and paternal), romantic stress, and depressive symptoms. A behavioral measure of maternal support was also obtained. For boys and girls, romantic stress at age 15 predicted depressive symptoms at ages 15 and 18, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Perceived maternal support buffered the stress-depressive symptom relationship for both genders at age 15, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Higher perceived paternal support was associated with lower adolescent depressive symptoms; however, it did not have a buffering effect. These results have implications for the development of effective family-centered methods to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in adolescents. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 2012 2011 2010 2009 Multimedia by Topic Disorders Anxiety Disorders (5 items) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder ( ...

  10. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia (2 items) Populations Children and Adolescents (26 items) Diversity and Ethnic Groups (4 items) ...

  11. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... not yet completely understood. We do know that the brains of people with depression are different from those ... on Suicide News from the Field News from the Field NIMH-Funded Science on EurekAlert Brain's insular cortex mediates approach and avoidance responses to ...

  12. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... depressed can feel numb and tired all the time. In some cases it can even lead to thoughts of suicide. RODOLFO : It was like I had big huge weights on my legs and I was trying to swim and just kept sinking. And I'd get a little ...

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Multimedia by Topic Disorders Anxiety Disorders (5 items) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...

  14. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia (2 items) Populations Children and Adolescents (26 items) Diversity and Ethnic Groups (4 items) ...

  15. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Share More Video and Audio about Depression Contact the Press Office 301-443-4536 NIMHpress@nih.gov ... on Suicide News from the Field News from the Field NIMH-Funded Science on EurekAlert Certain antidepressants ...

  16. Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Adolescent Alcohol Use: The Mediating Role of Youth Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Stahl, Mindy; Saavedra, Lissette M.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Novak, Scott P.; Warner, Tara D.; Fishbein, Diana H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of maternal depressive symptoms on adolescent alcohol use among a sample of Latino/Latina youth aged 10 to 16 years from a high-risk community. Direct and mediating effects of youth depressive symptoms, controlling for levels of concurrent emotion dysregulation, on alcohol use were examined.…

  17. Cigarette demand among smokers with elevated depressive symptoms: an experimental comparison with low depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara; González-Roz, Alba; Reed, Derek D; Fernández-Hermida, José R

    2018-03-01

    Individuals with depression smoke more than smokers without depression. Research has shown that cigarette demand is a useful tool for quantifying tobacco reinforcement and supposes a clinical predictor of treatment outcomes. Despite previous studies examining the relative reinforcing efficacy of nicotine among different populations of smokers, to date, no study has assessed cigarette demand among individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare cigarette demand among samples of smokers with low and elevated depressive symptoms. Further, it also sought to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and the individual CPT demand indices. Participants (80 non-depressed smokers and 85 depressed smokers) completed the 19-item version of the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT). Depression symptomatology was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II). Depressed smokers needed to present at least moderate depressive symptoms as indicated by scoring ≥ 20 on the BDI-II. Depressive symptomatology and nicotine dependence were significantly associated with elasticity of demand (R 2  = 0.112; F(2, 155) = 9.756, p = ≤ 0.001). Depressive symptoms, cigarettes per day, and years of regular smoking also predicted breakpoint scores (R 2  = 0.088; F(4, 153) = 3.697, p = 0.007). As smokers with elevated depressive symptoms are less sensitive to increases in cigarette prices than those with low depressive symptomatology, future studies should consider these cigarette demand indices when designing depression-focused smoking cessation treatments. Providing this difficult-to-treat population with interventions that promote both pleasurable and alternative reinforcing activities is highly encouraged.

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... items) Social Phobia (2 items) Populations Children and Adolescents (26 items) Diversity and Ethnic Groups (4 items) Men’s Mental Health (11 items) Women’s Mental Health (2 items) Military Service Members (1 item) Prevention Suicide Prevention (8 items) Research BRAIN Initiative (5 items) ...

  19. Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Prediction from Clique Isolation, Loneliness, and Perceived Social Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Miranda; Brendgen, Mara; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Vitaro, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether clique isolation predicted an increase in depressive symptoms and whether this association was mediated by loneliness and perceived social acceptance in 310 children followed from age 11–14 years. Clique isolation was identified through social network analysis, whereas depressive symptoms, loneliness, and perceived social acceptance were assessed using self ratings. While accounting for initial levels of depressive symptoms, peer rejection, and friendlessness at age 11 years, a high probability of being isolated from cliques from age 11 to 13 years predicted depressive symptoms at age 14 years. The link between clique isolation and depressive symptoms was mediated by loneliness, but not by perceived social acceptance. No sex differences were found in the associations between clique isolation and depressive symptoms. These results suggest that clique isolation is a social risk factor for the escalation of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. Implications for research and prevention are discussed. PMID:20499155

  20. Mindful parenting and adolescent depressive symptoms: The few associations are moderated by adolescent gender and parental depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, Y.R.; Zundert, R.M.P. van; Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing depressive symptoms during adolescence is associated with various detrimental outcomes during this developmental stage and with future depression in adulthood. This finding highlights the importance to identify risk and protective factors in the development of depressive symptoms during

  1. Self-help interventions for depressive disorders and depressive symptoms: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2008-08-01

    for helpful longer-term effects was found for autogenic training, light therapy, omega 3 fatty acids, pets, and prayer. Many of the trials were poor quality and may not generalise to self-help without professional guidance. Conclusion A number of self-help interventions have promising evidence for reducing subthreshold depressive symptoms. Other forms of evidence such as expert consensus may be more appropriate for interventions that are not feasible to evaluate in randomised controlled trials. There needs to be evaluation of whether promotion to the public of effective self-help strategies for subthreshold depressive symptoms could delay or prevent onset of depressive illness, reduce functional impairment, and prevent progression to other undesirable outcomes such as harmful use of substances.

  2. Depressive symptoms and web user experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielsch, Carolin

    2018-01-01

    Background Depression, as one of the most prevalent mental disorders, is expected to become a leading cause of disability. While evidence-based treatments are not always easily accessible, Internet-based information and self-help appears as a promising approach to improve the strained supply situation by avoiding barriers of traditional offline treatment. User experience in the domain of mental problems therefore emerges as an important research topic. The aim of our study is to investigate the impact of depressive symptoms on subjective and objective measures of web user experience. Method In this two-part online study (Ntotal = 721) we investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms of web users and basic website characteristics (i.e., content, subjective and objective usability, aesthetics). Participants completed search and memory tasks on different fully-functional websites. In addition, they were asked to evaluate the given websites with standardized measures and were screened for symptoms of depression using the PHQ-9. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to determine whether depression severity affects users’ perception of and performance in using information websites. Results We found significant associations between depressive symptoms and subjective user experience, specifically of website content, usability, and aesthetics, as well as an effect of content perception on the overall appraisal of a website in terms of the intention to visit it again. Small yet significant negative effects of depression severity on all named subjective website evaluations were revealed, leading to an indirect negative effect on the intention to revisit a website via impaired content perceptions. However, objective task performance was not influenced by depressiveness of users. Discussion Depression emerges as capable of altering the subjective perception of a website to some extend with respect to the main features content, usability, and aesthetics. The

  3. Depressive symptoms and web user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielsch, Meinald T; Thielsch, Carolin

    2018-01-01

    Depression, as one of the most prevalent mental disorders, is expected to become a leading cause of disability. While evidence-based treatments are not always easily accessible, Internet-based information and self-help appears as a promising approach to improve the strained supply situation by avoiding barriers of traditional offline treatment. User experience in the domain of mental problems therefore emerges as an important research topic. The aim of our study is to investigate the impact of depressive symptoms on subjective and objective measures of web user experience. In this two-part online study ( N total  = 721) we investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms of web users and basic website characteristics (i.e., content, subjective and objective usability, aesthetics). Participants completed search and memory tasks on different fully-functional websites. In addition, they were asked to evaluate the given websites with standardized measures and were screened for symptoms of depression using the PHQ-9. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to determine whether depression severity affects users' perception of and performance in using information websites. We found significant associations between depressive symptoms and subjective user experience, specifically of website content, usability, and aesthetics, as well as an effect of content perception on the overall appraisal of a website in terms of the intention to visit it again. Small yet significant negative effects of depression severity on all named subjective website evaluations were revealed, leading to an indirect negative effect on the intention to revisit a website via impaired content perceptions. However, objective task performance was not influenced by depressiveness of users. Depression emerges as capable of altering the subjective perception of a website to some extend with respect to the main features content, usability, and aesthetics. The user experience of a website is

  4. Depressive symptoms and web user experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinald T. Thielsch

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Depression, as one of the most prevalent mental disorders, is expected to become a leading cause of disability. While evidence-based treatments are not always easily accessible, Internet-based information and self-help appears as a promising approach to improve the strained supply situation by avoiding barriers of traditional offline treatment. User experience in the domain of mental problems therefore emerges as an important research topic. The aim of our study is to investigate the impact of depressive symptoms on subjective and objective measures of web user experience. Method In this two-part online study (Ntotal = 721 we investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms of web users and basic website characteristics (i.e., content, subjective and objective usability, aesthetics. Participants completed search and memory tasks on different fully-functional websites. In addition, they were asked to evaluate the given websites with standardized measures and were screened for symptoms of depression using the PHQ-9. We used structural equation modeling (SEM to determine whether depression severity affects users’ perception of and performance in using information websites. Results We found significant associations between depressive symptoms and subjective user experience, specifically of website content, usability, and aesthetics, as well as an effect of content perception on the overall appraisal of a website in terms of the intention to visit it again. Small yet significant negative effects of depression severity on all named subjective website evaluations were revealed, leading to an indirect negative effect on the intention to revisit a website via impaired content perceptions. However, objective task performance was not influenced by depressiveness of users. Discussion Depression emerges as capable of altering the subjective perception of a website to some extend with respect to the main features content, usability, and

  5. Personality, depressive symptoms during pregnancy and their influence on postnatal depression in Spanish pregnant Spanish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Marín-Morales

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of personality factors and antenatal depressive symptomatology in postnatal depression. A prospective ex post facto design was carried out. The sample consisted of 116 women, recruited in their first trimester of pregnancy and followed up until four months postpartum. The measurement instruments used were the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS to assess postpartum depression, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI to analyse personality traits and the depression subscale of the Symptoms Check List 90 (SCL-90-R to assess depressive symptomatology in the first half of pregnancy. Socio-demographic variables (age, parity, educational level, employment status, and planned pregnancy and clinical variables (neonatal Apgar score and mode of delivery were also taken into account. A positive correlation was found between postpartum depression and depressive symptomatology in the first trimester; however after the regression analysis neuroticism was the only factor that predicted postpartum depressive symptoms, explaining 24.8% of the variance. Neuroticism significantly influences psychological health during life events such as motherhood. Due to its stable condition, personality could be assessed from the beginning of pregnancy, contributing to the care of pregnant women with high scores in neuroticism, to prevent, detect and treat early postnatal depression.

  6. Depressive Symptoms and Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Initiation Among HIV-infected Russian Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodness, Tracie M.; Palfai, Tibor P.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Coleman, Sharon M.; Bridden, Carly; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of depressive symptoms on ART initiation among Russian HIV-infected heavy drinkers enrolled in a secondary HIV prevention trial (HERMITAGE) was examined. We assessed 133 participants eligible for ART initiation (i.e., CD4 count ART at baseline. Depressive symptom severity and ART use were measured at baseline, 6- and 12-months. Association between depressive symptoms and subsequent ART initiation was evaluated using GEE logistic regression adjusting for gender, past ART use, injection drug use and heavy drinking. Depressive symptom severity was not significantly associated with lower odds of initiating ART. Cognitive depression symptoms were not statistically significant (global p=0.05); however, those with the highest level of severity had an AOR of 0.25 (95% CI: 0.09–0.71) for delayed ART initiation. Although the effect of depression severity was not significant, findings suggest a potential role of cognitive depression symptoms in decisions to initiate ART in this population. PMID:24337725

  7. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates of depressive symptom presentation within this age group. Methods. ..... sadness, feelings of tearfulness, worrying about bad things); social ..... middle childhood and early adolescence: Testing the validity of the emotion regulation model of ...

  8. Body Image Change and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Judith M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the temporal association between body image and depressive symptoms in African American, Asian American, Hispanic American, and white adolescents. Found that girls were more influenced by body image change than boys. Compared to other ethnic groups, African American girls experienced a greater increase in psychological distress as body…

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study further suggests gender differences in that for women, depressive symptoms were associated with intimate partner violence and lower perceptions of community cohesion, while for men the associations were with a mother's death and relationship conflict. Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health 2013, ...

  10. Fatigue and Depressive Symptoms in Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna; Rantanen, Taina; Era, Pertti

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is considered an important indicator of aging-related declines in health and functional abilities. Previous studies have indicated strong associations between fatigue and depressive symptoms among younger populations and in patient groups with specific diseases. However, it is not known h...

  11. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescence is characterised by change in various developmental domains including cognitive, social, affective and biological areas. These simultaneous changes can increase the vulnerability for developing symptoms of depression, known to be prevalent during mid-teens,[1] increasing the risk for negative outcomes, ...

  12. Depressive Symptoms, Academic Achievement, and Intelligence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Preiss, M.; Fráňová, Lenka

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2006), s. 57-67 ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/05/0915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : academic achievement * depressive symptoms * intelligence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.410, year: 2006

  13. Personality and risk for postpartum depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, S I; Koulouris, P; Gingnell, M; Sylvén, S M; Sundström-Poromaa, I; Ekselius, L; Papadopoulos, F C; Skalkidou, A

    2015-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common childbirth complication, affecting 10-15 % of newly delivered mothers. This study aims to assess the association between personality factors and PPD. All pregnant women during the period September 2009 to September 2010, undergoing a routine ultrasound at Uppsala University Hospital, were invited to participate in the BASIC study, a prospective study designed to investigate maternal well-being. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) while the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) was used as a diagnostic tool for major depression. Personality traits were evaluated using the Swedish Universities Scale of Personality (SSP). One thousand thirty-seven non-depressed pregnant women were included in the study. Non-depressed women reporting high levels of neuroticism in late pregnancy were at high risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDSs) at 6 weeks and 6 months after delivery, even after adjustment for confounders (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-6.5 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.9, 95 % CI 1.9-7.9). The same was true for a DSRS-based diagnosis of major depression at 6 months postpartum. Somatic trait anxiety and psychic trait anxiety were associated with increased risk for PPDS at 6 weeks (aOR = 2.1, 95 % CI 1.2-3.5 and aOR = 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.1), while high scores of mistrust were associated with a twofold increased risk for PPDS at 6 months postpartum (aOR 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.4). Non-depressed pregnant women with high neuroticism scores have an almost fourfold increased risk to develop depressive symptoms postpartum, and the association remains robust even after controlling for most known confounders. Clinically, this could be of importance for health care professionals working with pregnant and newly delivered women.

  14. Do better executive functions buffer the effect of current parental depression on adolescent depressive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich, Shiri; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Ajay K; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; Rice, Frances

    2016-07-15

    Offspring of parents with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) and especially those exposed to a current episode of parental depression have been found to be at increased risk for developing depression themselves. Exposure to a current parental depressive episode also reduces the efficacy of interventions in high risk or depressed adolescents. This highlights the need to identify protective factors for adolescents exposed to a current parental depressive episode. Executive functions serve as an important cognitive resource, involved in the ability to regulate mood and thoughts and cope with stressful events. This study examined the buffering role of two components of executive functioning, inhibitory control and mental flexibility, in the association between a current parental episode of MDD and adolescent depressive symptoms. A high-risk sample of 288 adolescent offspring of parents with recurrent major depressive disorder completed an Affective Go/No Go and a Verbal Fluency task. Parents and adolescents underwent psychiatric interviews. In the presence of a current parental depressive episode in the parent, adolescents with better inhibitory control and mental flexibility had fewer depressive symptoms after controlling for age, gender and IQ. Participants were the offspring of depressed parents and it is not clear whether the protective effects of executive functioning observed here would generalise to other populations. Executive functions may protect against adolescent depression in the presence of a parental depressive episode. It may be beneficial to target executive functions in preventive programs for individuals at high-risk for depression. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Symptoms of Major Depression in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahl, Tonje; Steinsbekk, Silje; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-02-01

    The prospective relation between physical activity and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-defined major depression in middle childhood is unknown, as is the stability of depression. We therefore aimed to (1) determine whether there are reciprocal relations between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior, on one hand, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition defined symptoms of major depressive disorder, on the other and (2) assess the extent of stability in depressive symptoms from age 6 to 10 years. A community sample of children living in Trondheim, Norway, comprising a total of 795 6-year-old children was followed up at 8 (n = 699) and 10 (n = 702) years of age. Physical activity was recorded by accelerometry and symptoms of major depression were measured through semistructured clinical interviews of parents and children. Bidirectional relationships between MVPA, sedentary activity, and symptoms of depression were analyzed through autoregressive cross-lagged models, and adjusted for symptoms of comorbid psychiatric disorders and BMI. At both age 6 and 8 years, higher MVPA predicted fewer symptoms of major depressive disorders 2 years later. Sedentary behavior did not predict depression, and depression predicted neither MVPA nor sedentary activity. The number of symptoms of major depression declined from ages 6 to 8 years and evidenced modest continuity. MVPA predicts fewer symptoms of major depression in middle childhood, and increasing MVPA may serve as a complementary method to prevent and treat childhood depression. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Vegetarian diets and depressive symptoms among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbeln, Joseph R; Northstone, Kate; Evans, Jonathan; Golding, Jean

    2018-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are associate with cardiovascular and other health benefits, but little is known about mental health benefits or risks. To determine whether self-identification of vegetarian dietary habits is associated with significant depressive symptoms in men. Self-report data from 9668 adult male partners of pregnant women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) included identification as vegetarian or vegan, dietary frequency data and the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale (EPDS). Continuous and binary outcomes were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression taking account of potential confounding variables including: age, marital status, employment status, housing tenure, number of children in the household, religion, family history of depression previous childhood psychiatric contact, cigarette and alcohol consumption. Vegetarians [n = 350 (3.6% of sample)], had higher depression scores on average than non-vegetarians (mean difference 0.96 points [95%CI + 0.53, + 1.40]) and a greater risk for EPDS scores above 10 (adjusted OR = 1.67 [95% CI: 1.14,2.44]) than non-vegetarians after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Vegetarian men have more depressive symptoms after adjustment for socio-demographic factors. Nutritional deficiencies (e.g. in cobalamin or iron) are a possible explanation for these findings, however reverse causation cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The role of bullying in depressive symptoms from adolescence to emerging adulthood: A growth mixture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan M; Mellick, William; Temple, Jeff R; Sharp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    The present study sought to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms in adolescence and emerging adulthood using a school-based sample of adolescents assessed over a five-year period. The study also examined whether bully and cyberbully victimization and perpetration significantly predicted depressive symptom trajectories. Data from a sample of 1042 high school students were examined. The sample had a mean age of 15.09 years (SD=.79), was 56.0% female, and was racially diverse: 31.4% Hispanic, 29.4% White, and 27.9% African American. Data were examined using growth mixture modeling. Four depressive symptoms trajectories were identified, including those with a mild trajectory of depressive symptoms, an increasing trajectory of depressive symptoms, an elevated trajectory of depressive symptoms, and a decreasing trajectory of depressive symptoms. Results indicated that bully victimization and cyberbully victimization differentially predicted depressive symptoms trajectories across adolescence, though bully and cyberbully perpetration did not. Limitations include reliance on self-reports of bully perpetration and a limited consideration of external factors that may impact the course of depression. These findings may inform school personnel in identifying students' likely trajectory of depressive symptoms and determining where depression prevention and treatment services may be needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Negative Life Events and Depressive Symptoms in Late Adolescence: Bonding and Cognitive Coping as Vulnerability Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Dijkstra, Arie; Gebhardt, Winnie; Maes, Stan; ter Doest, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Studied the effects of parental bonding and cognitive coping in the relationship between negative life events and depressive symptoms in 1,310 adolescents in a vocational education school. Findings show the importance of parental bonding and the even greater importance of cognitive coping strategies in preventing depressive symptoms. (SLD)

  19. Prevalence of restless legs symptoms according to depressive symptoms and depression type: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Piritta; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Koponen, Hannu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Korniloff, Katariina; Ahonen, Tiina; Vanhala, Mauno

    2018-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor disorder and it is associated with several other diseases especially mental illnesses. To analyze the relationship between the symptoms of restless legs syndrome and the severity of depressive symptoms and the prevalence of restless legs symptoms in depression subtypes. A cross-sectional study of primary care patients in the Central Finland Hospital District. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms was studied in 706 patients with increased depressive symptoms and 426 controls without a psychiatric diagnosis by using a structured questionnaire. The depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the psychiatric diagnosis was confirmed by means of a diagnostic interview (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview). The subjects with increased depressive symptoms were divided into three groups (subjects with depressive symptoms without a depression diagnosis, melancholic depression and non-melancholic depression). In the whole study population, the prevalence of restless legs symptoms increased with the severity of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms was highest in the melancholic and non-melancholic depressive patients (52 and 46%, respectively) and then in subjects with depressive symptoms without a depression diagnosis (43.4%), but the prevalence was also substantial (24.6%) in subjects without a psychiatric diagnosis. Restless legs symptoms are very common in primary care among subjects with depression, regardless of the depression type. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms increased with increasing severity of depressive symptoms, regardless of the diagnosis. These findings should be considered in clinical evaluation and treatment of patients visiting their physician due to restless legs or depressive symptoms.

  20. Physical exercises, functional capacity and depressive symptoms in Brazilian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Manuela Crispim Nascimento

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of 16 weeks of multimodal exercise on functional capacity components, general functional fitness and depressive symptoms in the elderly. Fifty-five elderly (67.3 ± 5.8 years participated inthe study. The groups were distributed according to the participation on the proposed protocol: a trained group (TG composed of 27 participants who attended at least 75% of the total generalized physical exercise sessions for16 weeks; and b control group (CG, participants who did not attend any regular physical activity program. Functional capacity was assessed using theAAHPERD battery of motor tests for elderly, which consists of five tests: coordination, flexibility, muscular resistance, agility/dynamic balance, and overall aerobic endurance. Depressive symptoms were measured using the short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15. The results showed that elderly on TG had better performance on motor tests. Depressive symptoms did not change for both groups. Thus, our results indicate that 16 weeks is sufficient to improve general functional fitness in elderly, while those who remain sedentary tend to decrease their overall physical fitness. The proposed program could not induce significant changes in the elderly with low levels ofdepressive symptoms reported for this variable. The evidence of this study allows the prediction that a generalized program can help prevent chronic diseases, reduce functional decline and produce positive effects on quality oflife.

  1. Depressive Symptoms and Risk of Postoperative Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick J; Attix, Deborah K; Weldon, B Craig; Monk, Terri G

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that elevated depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk of postoperative delirium. However, to our knowledge no previous studies have examined whether different components of depression are differentially predictive of postoperative delirium. One thousand twenty patients were screened for postoperative delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method and through retrospective chart review. Patients underwent cognitive, psychosocial, and medical assessments preoperatively. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form. Thirty-eight patients developed delirium (3.7%). Using a factor structure previously validated among geriatric medical patients, the authors examined three components of depression as predictors of postoperative delirium: negative affect, cognitive distress, and behavioral inactivity. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, education, comorbidities, and cognitive function, the authors found that greater behavioral inactivity was associated with increased risk of delirium (OR: 1.95 [1.11, 3.42]), whereas negative affect (OR: 0.65 [0.31, 1.36]) and cognitive distress (OR: 0.95 [0.63, 1.43]) were not. Different components of depression are differentially predictive of postoperative delirium among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Change in self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up after intensive multimodal psychotherapy for major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Ulrike; Ehrenthal, Johannes C; Nikendei, Christoph; Schauenburg, Henning

    2017-09-01

    Reduced self-esteem is a core symptom of depression, but few studies have investigated within-treatment change of self-esteem as a predictor of long-term outcome in depression. This study investigated change in self-esteem during 8 weeks of multimodal, psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy for 40 depressed patients and tested whether it would predict outcome 6 months after termination. Data was drawn from a randomized clinical pilot trial on day-clinic versus inpatient psychotherapy for depression. Findings supported the association between change in self-esteem and follow-up depression severity, even when controlling for within-treatment symptom change. Change in self-esteem was not related to overall symptoms and interpersonal problems at follow-up. Thus, change in self-esteem may be an important variable in preventing relapse for depression. Self-esteem is related to depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems. Improvement of self-esteem during psychotherapy correlates with improvements of symptoms and interpersonal problems. Change of self-esteem during psychotherapy predicts depressive symptoms 6 months after termination of therapy. When treating depressed patients, psychotherapists should work towards an improvement of self-esteem in order to prevent relapse. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Emotion work within eldercare and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Louise M.; Jorgensen, Anette F. B.; Thomsen, Birthe L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Danish professional caregivers have high rates of depressive symptoms. One proposed cause is exposure to emotion work. However, emotion work is usually measured by self-report which may bias results. Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the association of emotion work......, externally observed at the workplace, with self-reported depressive symptoms of professional caregivers. Design and data sources: The study was a cross-sectional observational study. Data was collected by 9 observers who assessed emotion work stressors and emotion work resources in 124 individual...... professional caregivers working in 56 work units across 10 eldercare homes. Emotion work stressors were defined as i) barriers for empathetic care, ii) taxing aggressive events, and iii) taxing non-aggressive events. Emotion work resources were defined as i) meaningful events, and ii) social interactions...

  4. Workplace sexual harassment and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Maria K.; Hansen, Jørgen V.; Aldrich, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    workplace initiatives modified the association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and level of depressive symptoms. Methods: We used data from the Work Environment and Health in Denmark cohort study (WEHD) and the Work Environment Activities in Danish Workplaces Study (WEADW) collected...... employees and supervisors in 1041 organizations within 5 occupations. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression and analyses adjusted for gender, age, occupation and socioeconomic position. Results: Exposure to workplace sexual harassment from clients or customers was statistically significantly...... no statistically significant interactions between harassment from clients and customers and any of the examined psychosocial workplace initiatives (all p > 0.05). Conclusions: The association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms differed for employees harassed by clients or customers and those...

  5. Shyness Predicts Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents : A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murberg, Terje A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relation between shyness, social support and depressive symptoms in a sample of 259 students (aged 14-16 years) in two secondary schools. Results at both time-points showed positive associations of depressive symptoms with shyness and with being female and negative associations of depressive symptoms with social support and…

  6. Trajectories of Postpartum Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Children's Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P.; Selig, James P.; Roberts, Michael C.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of new mothers experience at least some depressive symptoms. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms can greatly influence children's outcomes (e.g., emotional, cognitive, language, and social development). However, there have been relatively few longitudinal studies of how maternal depressive symptoms may influence children's…

  7. Eating disorder symptom trajectories in adolescence: effects of time, participant sex, and early adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Karina L; Crosby, Ross D; Oddy, Wendy H; Byrne, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of developmental risk for eating disorders and eating disorder symptoms. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and trajectory of five core eating disorder behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting, following strict dietary rules, and hard exercise for weight control) and a continuous index of dietary restraint and eating, weight and shape concerns, in a cohort of male and female adolescents followed from 14 to 20 years. It also aimed to determine the effect of early adolescent depressive symptoms on the prevalence and trajectory of these different eating disorder symptoms. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective cohort study that has followed participants from pre-birth to age 20 years. An adapted version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire was used to assess eating disorder symptoms at ages 14, 17 and 20 years. The Beck Depression Inventory for Youth was used to assess depressive symptoms at age 14. Longitudinal changes in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms were tested using generalised estimating equations and linear mixed models. Symptom trajectories varied according to the eating disorder symptom studied, participant sex, and the presence of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. For males, eating disorder symptoms tended to be stable (for purging, fasting and hard exercise) or decreasing (for binge eating and global symptom scores) from 14 to 17 years, and then stable to 20 years. For females, fasting and global symptom scores increased from age 14 to peak in prevalence at age 17. Rates of binge eating in females were stable from age 14 to age 17 and increased significantly thereafter, whilst rates of purging and hard exercise increased from age 14 to age 17, and then remained elevated through to age 20. Depressive symptoms at age 14 impacted on eating disorder symptom trajectories in females, but not in males. Prevention

  8. Eating disorder symptom trajectories in adolescence: effects of time, participant sex, and early adolescent depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a period of developmental risk for eating disorders and eating disorder symptoms. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and trajectory of five core eating disorder behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting, following strict dietary rules, and hard exercise for weight control) and a continuous index of dietary restraint and eating, weight and shape concerns, in a cohort of male and female adolescents followed from 14 to 20 years. It also aimed to determine the effect of early adolescent depressive symptoms on the prevalence and trajectory of these different eating disorder symptoms. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective cohort study that has followed participants from pre-birth to age 20 years. An adapted version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire was used to assess eating disorder symptoms at ages 14, 17 and 20 years. The Beck Depression Inventory for Youth was used to assess depressive symptoms at age 14. Longitudinal changes in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms were tested using generalised estimating equations and linear mixed models. Results Symptom trajectories varied according to the eating disorder symptom studied, participant sex, and the presence of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. For males, eating disorder symptoms tended to be stable (for purging, fasting and hard exercise) or decreasing (for binge eating and global symptom scores) from 14 to 17 years, and then stable to 20 years. For females, fasting and global symptom scores increased from age 14 to peak in prevalence at age 17. Rates of binge eating in females were stable from age 14 to age 17 and increased significantly thereafter, whilst rates of purging and hard exercise increased from age 14 to age 17, and then remained elevated through to age 20. Depressive symptoms at age 14 impacted on eating disorder symptom trajectories in females, but not in

  9. HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... Most people who have become recently infected with HIV will not have any symptoms. They may, however, ...

  10. Changes in Depressive Self-Schemata and Depressive Symptoms Following Cognitive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Terry M.; Dixon, David N.

    1993-01-01

    Examined effects of 6-8 sessions of Beck's cognitive therapy on mildly and moderately depressed college students' (n=31) depressive symptoms and depressive self-schemata compared to no-treatment controls (n=43). Results supported efficacy of cognitive therapy in reducing depressive symptoms and depressive self-schemata, as measured by…

  11. Language Delays and Child Depressive Symptoms: the Role of Early Stimulation in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Keith C; Cohen, Daniel; Owens, Sarah; Latimore, Tracey; Reinke, Wendy M; Burrell, Lori; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Duggan, Anne

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the role of early stimulation in the home and child language delays in the emergence of depressive symptoms. Data were from a longitudinal study of at-risk children in Hawaii (n = 587). Low learning stimulation in the home at age 3 and language delays in first grade both significantly increased risk for child depressive symptoms in third grade. Structural equation modeling supported the hypothesized path models from home learning environment at age 3 to depressive symptoms in third grade controlling for a host of correlated constructs (maternal depression, child temperament, and child internalizing symptoms). Total language skills in the first grade mediated the effect of home learning environment on depressive symptoms. The study and findings fit well with a nurturing environment perspective. Implications for understanding the etiology of child depression and for designing interventions and prevention strategies are discussed.

  12. Cross-Lagged Associations Between Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Negative Cognitive Style: The Role of Negative Life Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, K.C.M.; Kleinjan, M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has established that cognitive theory-based depression prevention programs aiming change in negative cognitive style in early adolescents do not have strong effects in universal settings. Although theories suggest that a negative cognitive style precedes depressive symptoms,

  13. Depressive symptoms and early retirement intentions among Danish eldercare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexo, Mette Andersen; Borg, Vilhelm; Sejbaek, Camilla Sandal

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression increases the risk of disability pension and represents a health related strain that pushes people out of the labour market. Although early voluntary retirement is an important alternative to disability pension, few studies have examined whether depressive symptoms incur...... early voluntary retirement. This study examined whether depressive symptoms and changes in depressive symptoms over time were associated with early retirement intentions. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional (n = 4041) and a prospective (n = 2444) population from a longitudinal study on employees...... of the Danish eldercare sector. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Major Depression Inventory and the impact of different levels of depressive symptoms (severe, moderately severe, moderate, mild and none) and changes in depressive symptoms (worsened, improved, unaffected) on early retirement intentions...

  14. A systematic review of instruments to measure depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lako, Irene M.; Bruggeman, R.; Knegtering, H.; Wiersma, D.; Schoevers, R. A.; Slooff, C. J.; Taxis, K.

    Background: Depressive symptoms require accurate recognition and monitoring in clinical practice of patients with schizophrenia. Depression instruments developed for use in depressed patients may not discriminate depressive symptoms from negative psychotic symptoms. Objective: We reviewed depression

  15. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Depressive symptoms and childhood sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carotenuto M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Marco Carotenuto,1 Maria Esposito,1 Lucia Parisi,2 Beatrice Gallai,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Antonio Pascotto,1 Michele Roccella21Sleep Clinic for Developmental Age, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, 4Department of Psychiatry, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyBackground: The relationship between sleep and mood regulation is well known, and some reports suggest a key role of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD in the development of the symptomatology of depression, even if no conclusive data are actually found in the clinical literature. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between SRBD and depressive symptoms in a population of school-aged children.Methods: The study population comprised 94 children affected by SRBD and 107 healthy children. To identify the severity of SRBD, an overnight respiratory evaluation was performed. All subjects filled out the Italian version of the Children Depression Inventory (CDI to screen for the presence of depressive symptoms.Results: The group with SRBD showed higher CDI scores than the group without SRBD, with a positive correlation found between CDI scores, apnea-hypopnea index, and oxygen desaturation index values. Logistic regression showed that an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 3 and an oxygen desaturation index ≥ 1 could be risk factors for development of depressive symptoms. According to receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the cutoff point for the apnea-hypopnea index that could cause a pathological CDI score (≥19 was >5.66, and the cutoff point for the oxygen desaturation index was >4.2. The limitations of this study are that our data are derived from one single psychometric test and not from a complete psychiatric evaluation, and our

  17. Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt

    2014-01-01

    disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent...... is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we...... in this limited population. With regard to safety in our study, melatonin treatment for three months did not cause any serious adverse effects. Finally, we systematically reviewed the literature on the prophylactic or therapeutic effect of melatonin for depression or depressive symptoms in adult patients...

  18. Cognitive-affective depression and somatic symptoms clusters are differentially associated with maternal parenting and coparenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamela, Diogo; Jongenelen, Inês; Morais, Ana; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2017-09-01

    Both depressive and somatic symptoms are significant predictors of parenting and coparenting problems. However, despite clear evidence of their co-occurrence, no study to date has examined the association between depressive-somatic symptoms clusters and parenting and coparenting. The current research sought to identify and cross-validate clusters of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms and nonspecific somatic symptoms, as well as to test whether clusters would differ on parenting and coparenting problems across three independent samples of mothers. Participants in Studies 1 and 3 consisted of 409 and 652 community mothers, respectively. Participants in Study 2 consisted of 162 mothers exposed to intimate partner violence. All participants prospectively completed self-report measures of depressive and nonspecific somatic symptoms and parenting (Studies 1 and 2) or coparenting (Study 3). Across studies, three depression-somatic symptoms clusters were identified: no symptoms, high depression and low nonspecific somatic symptoms, and high depression and nonspecific somatic symptoms. The high depression-somatic symptoms cluster was associated with the highest levels of child physical maltreatment risk (Study 1) and overt-conflict coparenting (Study 3). No differences in perceived maternal competence (Study 2) and cooperative and undermining coparenting (Study 3) were found between the high depression and low somatic symptoms cluster and the high depression-somatic symptoms cluster. The results provide novel evidence for the strong associations between clusters of depression and nonspecific somatic symptoms and specific parenting and coparenting problems. Cluster stability across three independent samples suggest that they may be generalizable. The results inform preventive approaches and evidence-based psychotherapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of depressive symptoms in obese patients with or without acanthosis nigricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueye; Chen, Jiaqi; Yang, Jie; Song, Kexiu; Wang, Xingchun; Cheng, Xiaoyun; Qu, Shen

    2015-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) has been closely associated with obesity. Depression has also been shown to be disproportionally prevalent among obese people. However, there is still a paucity of studies on the relationship between depressive symptoms and AN in obese patients. This study examined the difference in metabolic disorders and depressive symptoms between simple obesity and obesity-related AN. A total of 88 obese patients treated in our department were selected for analysis. They were divided into simple obesity (OB n=30) and obesity with acanthosis nigricans (AN n=58). A control (CON) group included 56 normal weight healthy volunteers. The self-administrated Beck Depression Inventory-II questionnaire was used. General characteristics and clinical data were collected for analysis. The frequency of depressive symptoms was recorded as 67.2% in the AN group, 43.4% in the OB group, and 3.6% in the CON group (P symptoms had higher levels of inflammatory markers than those with mild symptoms depression. Free fatty acid (FFA) and uric acid (UA) level in the AN group were significantly increased compared with the OB group (P=0.010, P=0.020). Discrimination was associated with depressive symptoms (P Obese patients had a higher risk of depressive symptoms, which were even higher in patients with AN. AN is associated with more depressive symptoms and high inflammation status. Psychological intervention should be started early to prevent further physical and pathological impairment in obese patients, especially obese patients with AN.

  20. Prevalence of symptoms of depression among patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... by both cognitive and somatic features.The somatic characteristics of depression are very similar to the symptoms of uraemia, such as anorexia, sleep disturbances, fatigue, gastrointestinal disorders.[1-3] These similarities make the recognition of a depressive disorder difficult. Symptoms suggestive of depression include:.

  1. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in men with erectile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and social phobia were rated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, while the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was used to rate depressive symptoms. Results. Thirty-three per cent of respondents had depressive symptoms, ...

  2. Longitudinal pattern of depressive symptoms around natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ellen W; Sammel, Mary D; Boorman, David W; Zhang, Rongmei

    2014-01-01

    An increased risk of depressive symptoms has been associated with the transition to menopause, but the risk of depressive symptoms in the early postmenopausal years has not been well characterized. To identify within-woman changes in depressive symptoms during a 14-year period around menopause, determine associations of a history of depression with the pattern of depressive symptoms, and evaluate the rate of change in reproductive hormones as predictors of depressive symptoms following menopause. A randomly identified, population-based sample in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, of 203 late-reproductive-age women who were premenopausal at baseline and reached natural menopause. Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The prevalence of high scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale decreased from 10 years before to 8 years after the final menstrual period (FMP), with a decrease of approximately 15% of baseline per year (odds ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.81-0.89; P menopause compared with women with no depression history. Among women who first experienced depressive symptoms approaching menopause, the risk of depressive symptoms declined after the FMP, with a significantly lower risk the second year after menopause. The risk of depressive symptoms after menopause decreased by 35% for each unit (SD) increase before the FMP in the log rate of change of follicle-stimulating hormone (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46-0.91; P = .01). The FMP was pivotal in the overall pattern of decreasing depressive symptoms in midlife women, with higher risk before and lower risk after the FMP. A history of depression strongly increased the risk both before and after menopause. Women who had no history of depression before the menopause transition had a low risk of depressive symptoms 2 or more years after the FMP.

  3. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with Weight Gain Among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies have linked depression and obesity; few have more than two assessments of depressive symptoms and adiposity to address the potential bi-directional relation between adiposity and depressive symptoms from young adulthood through old age. We test whether baseline depressive symptoms are associated with changes in weight, whether baseline adiposity is associated with changes in depressive symptoms, and whether these associations vary by sex. Methods Participants (N=2,251; 47% female) were from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling on 30 years of data, the trajectory of adiposity and depressive symptoms over adulthood was estimated from >10,000 observations (M=4.5 assessments per participant) of body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), waist circumference, and hip circumference and >10,000 observations (M=4.5 assessments per participant) of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Baseline depressive symptoms and adiposity were then tested as predictors of the trajectory of adiposity and depressive symptoms, respectively. Additional analyses tested for sex-specific associations. Results Sex moderated the association between depressive symptoms and weight gain such that women who experienced depressed affect had greater increases in BMI (binteraction=.12, SE=.04), waist (binteraction=.22, SE=.10) and hip circumference (binteraction=.20, SE=.07) across adulthood, controlling for relevant demographic and behavioral covariates. Baseline adiposity was unrelated to the trajectory of depressive symptoms (Median b=.00) for both sexes. Conclusions Women who experience symptoms of depression tend to gain more weight across adulthood than men who experience such symptoms. Whether an individual was normal weight or overweight was unrelated to changes in depressive symptoms across adulthood. PMID:22475128

  4. Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt

    2014-09-01

    Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent of the problems and the derived consequences on morbidity and mortality. Genetic predisposition to these problems is also an issue in focus. In this thesis we initially investigated whether the specific clock gene genotype PER(5/5) was associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction one week after non-cardiac surgery. We did not find any association, although this could have been due to the size of the study. Yet, if PER3(5/5) is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the risk seems to be only modestly increased and by less than 10%. Melatonin is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively

  5. Effects of organizational justice on depressive symptoms and sickness absence: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybema, Jan F; van den Bos, Kees

    2010-05-01

    A longitudinal three-wave study among a large representative sample of 1519 employees of various companies in The Netherlands examined how organizational justice (as measured by distributive and procedural justice) was related to depressive symptoms and sickness absence. It was predicted that perceived justice would contribute to lower depressive symptoms and sickness absence, whereas depressive symptoms and absenteeism in turn would contribute to lower perceptions of organizational justice. In line with the predictions, we found that both distributive and procedural justice contributed to lower depressive symptoms, and distributive justice contributed to lower sickness absence in the following year. With regard to reversed effects, sickness absence contributed to lower perceptions of distributive justice to some extent. Moreover, sickness absence was related to higher depressive symptoms a year later. This research shows the importance of justice in organizations as a means to enhance the wellbeing of people at work and to prevent absenteeism. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Resilience, lifestyle and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescence: the Young-HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrove, Marit; Romundstad, Pål; Indredavik, Marit S

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescence, their associations with lifestyle and resilience and the possibility that resilience factors can attenuate the associations between unhealthy lifestyle and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Adolescents (n = 7,639) aged 13-18 years completed a questionnaire regarding lifestyle and health. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured by the SCL-5, a five-item shortened version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Resilience factors included questions on friends and family relations and two sub-scales of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents; Family cohesion and Social competence. Of the total population, 13% reported symptoms of anxiety and depression. Resilience characteristics were associated with lower symptom levels (ORs ranging from 0.2 to 0.6), and substance use and infrequent physical activity with higher symptom levels (ORs ranging from 2.1 to 4.0). The associations with substance use were strengthened by social competence, but attenuated by family cohesion. The association with physical activity was attenuated by both social competence and family cohesion. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were frequent in adolescents and were associated with unhealthy lifestyle factors as substance use and low physical activity. Resilience characteristics seemed to protect against symptoms and markedly influenced the associations between lifestyle factors and symptoms of anxiety and depression. The importance of family and other supportive relationships should be emphasized in treatment and prevention of anxiety and depression in adolescence.

  7. Symptom Similarities and Differences in Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Sirvanli Ozen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The question if there is a valid distinction between depression and anxiety disorders remains controversial. These two disorders have various overlaps in the symptomatology and sometimes it is difficult to make a clear diagnosis. The difficulty in making a definite diagnosis destined researchers to determine the differences and the similarities between anxiety and depression. The negative affect which has multiple dimensions such as low self-esteem, negative mood and negative cognitions is seen as the common factor in both disorders. The positive affect which has been defined as the harmony and satisfaction with others and milieu, is regarded as the discriminating factor for the diagnosis of depression. Further research has characterized somatic arousal as the third dimension, a candidate to be the discriminating factor for anxiety disorders. Although phenotypic models appear to find a solution for this problem the facts that negative affect dimension is more loaded compared to the other two dimensions and predominance of negative affect on several symptom patterns prevent researchers to reach a conclusive results regarding the differences between these two disorders. In this review article, symptom similarities and differences of anxiety and depressive disorders are discussed within the frame of phenotypic models and some alternative ideas are provided for possible changes in upcoming versions of classification systems.

  8. Getting out of Depression: Teens' Self-Help Interventions to Relieve Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Barker, Ellen C.

    2006-01-01

    Most depressed adolescents do not access medical care for symptoms, yet many improve without professional intervention. While several self-help interventions have empirical support, teens' non-directed efforts to reduce symptoms are not documented. We reviewed 14 depressed adolescents' reports of attempts to reduce depressive symptoms. Results…

  9. Relationship between the prevalence of depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome. Results of the SOPKARD Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Katarzyna; Radziłłowicz, Piotr; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Pakalska-Korcala, Anna; Chwojnicki, Kamil; Piwoński, Jerzy; Ignaszewska-Wyrzykowska, Agata; Załuga, Lukasz; Mielczarek, Milena; Landowski, Jerzy; Wyrzykowski, Bogdan

    2006-05-01

    Depression is a newly recognised risk factor for ischaemic heart disease (IHD). The results of many studies show that depression may contribute to the development of components of metabolic syndrome, such as arterial hypertension, obesity and glycaemic abnormalities. Thus it may have a significant impact on IHD development and worsen the course of an already established disorder. Evaluation of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and depression among Sopot inhabitants aged 50 or 60 years. This study involved 795 consecutive inhabitants of Sopot (477 female and 318 male) who were invited in 2003 and 2004 to participate in screening examinations in the programme of primary prevention of arterial hypertension, diabetes and lipid abnormalities -- SOPKARD. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the NCEP ATP III guidelines. Beck's Depression Inventory was used for the assessment of depressive symptoms. Metabolic syndrome was recognised in 32% of participants (in 31% of women and in 33% of men). The distribution of particular elements of metabolic syndrome was as follows: elevated blood pressure was found in 63% of subjects (female -- 58%, male -- 70%), abnormal fasting glucose in 24% (female -- 21%, male -- 28%), visceral (abdominal) obesity in 33% (female -- 38%, male -- 26%), elevated triglyceride level in 34% (female - 28%, male - 42%) and decreased HDL level in 26% (female -- 28%, male -- 23%). Symptoms of depression were found in 37% of studied subjects (42% of females, 28% of males). Metabolic syndrome was observed more frequently in subjects with depressive symptoms compared to those without depressive symptoms in the whole group (35% vs 28%, p obesity was observed more frequently in males with depressive symptoms than in those without depressive symptoms (37% vs 21%, p depression more often had a higher fasting serum glucose concentration when compared to those without depression (25% vs 18%, pwomen, a high prevalence of depression symptoms was noted

  10. Factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females: the effect of bipolarity on depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park CM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chul Min Park,1 Hye-Jin Seo,2 Young-Eun Jung,3 Moon-Doo Kim,3 Seong-Chul Hong,4 Won-Myong Bahk,5 Bo-Hyun Yoon,6 Min Hee Hur,7 Jae Min Song31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, 2Department of Psychiatry, Yeonkang Hospital, Jeju, 3Department of Psychiatry, 4Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, 5Department of Psychiatry, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 6Department of Psychiatry, Naju National Hospital, Naju, 7School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, KoreaBackground: This cross-sectional study sought to identify factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, and bipolarity.Methods: Eighty-four pregnant women were recruited to complete questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, obstetric history, depressive symptoms, and bipolarity. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Bipolarity was assessed using the Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire.Results: Nineteen participants (22.6% had positive Mood Disorder Questionnaire scores, suggesting the presence of bipolarity, and were significantly more likely to score high on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Antenatal depression was associated with bad marital communication and marital dissatisfaction.Conclusion: These results suggest that spousal interactions play a significant role in antenatal depression, and pregnant women with bipolarity may be more depressed than those without bipolarity.Keywords: antenatal depression, bipolarity, pregnancy, Korea

  11. Predictors of Prevention Failure in College Students Participating in Two Indicated Depression Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were randomized to a cognitive-behavioral or relaxation training group preventive intervention. Classification tree analysis showed that older age was the strongest risk factor for persistently elevated depression. Additional risk factors were: (1) for younger students, fewer daily pleasant activities; (2) for those with higher level of pleasant activities, higher level of stressful events; and (3) for those with higher level of stressful events, lower assertiveness. Results offer directions for prevention foci, identify specific subgroups of college students to target for depression prevention efforts, and suggest that research aim to help older, non-traditional students or graduating students manage the transition from college to the work force. PMID:24714056

  12. Predictors of prevention failure in college students participating in two indicated depression prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L; Otero, Patricia

    2014-04-04

    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were randomized to a cognitive-behavioral or relaxation training group preventive intervention. Classification tree analysis showed that older age was the strongest risk factor for persistently elevated depression. Additional risk factors were: (1) for younger students, fewer daily pleasant activities; (2) for those with higher level of pleasant activities, higher level of stressful events; and (3) for those with higher level of stressful events, lower assertiveness. Results offer directions for prevention foci, identify specific subgroups of college students to target for depression prevention efforts, and suggest that research aim to help older, non-traditional students or graduating students manage the transition from college to the work force.

  13. Transactional Relations Between Marital Functioning and Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated dynamic, longitudinal associations between depressive symptoms and marital processes. Two hundred ninety-six couples reported on marital satisfaction, marital conflict, and depressive symptoms yearly for three years. Observational measures of marital conflict were also collected. Results suggested that different domains of marital functioning related to husbands’ versus wives’ symptoms. For husbands, transactional relations between marital satisfaction and depre...

  14. [Depression symptoms among Chinese students in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, S; Murase, S; Kitabatake, M

    1996-05-01

    The mental health of foreigners in Japan, which shows a prominent increase in number recently was studied. A major group of these foreigners are Korean and Chinese, as their countries and Japan historically had a close relationship. The Chinese population has shown large increases, quadrupling over a period of 10 years. This population is characterized by purpose of residence; with most of them visiting Japan to study. Using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) self rating scale, we examined depression symptoms among two groups of Chinese students studying in Japan; 71 students of Mie university (MU) and 90 students of Japanese language schools (JLS) in Mie prefecture. BDI examination revealed that 28.9% (mild; 22.2%, moderate; 3.3%, severe; 3.3%) of Chinese JLS students and 23.9% (mild; 22.5%, severe; 1.4%) of Chinese MU students were depressed. Chinese JLS students showed significantly higher total BDI scores than Chinese MU students (p < 0.05). BDI scores of item D (lack of satisfaction), J (crying spells) and S (weight loss) were also significantly elevated in Chinese JLS students (D: p < 0.01, J: p < 0.05, S: p < 0.01). These results suggest that Chinese JLS students experience more stress than Chinese MU students.

  15. Depression symptoms across cultures: an IRT analysis of standard depression symptoms using data from eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroz, E E; Bolton, P; Gross, A; Chan, K S; Michalopoulos, L; Bass, J

    2016-07-01

    Prevalence estimates of depression vary between countries, possibly due to differential functioning of items between settings. This study compared the performance of the widely used Hopkins symptom checklist 15-item depression scale (HSCL-15) across multiple settings using item response theory analyses. Data came from adult populations in the low and middle income countries (LMIC) of Colombia, Indonesia, Kurdistan Iraq, Rwanda, Iraq, Thailand (Burmese refugees), and Uganda (N = 4732). Item parameters based on a graded response model were compared across LMIC settings. Differential item functioning (DIF) by setting was evaluated using multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) models. Most items performed well across settings except items related to suicidal ideation and "loss of sexual interest or pleasure," which had low discrimination parameters (suicide: a = 0.31 in Thailand to a = 2.49 in Indonesia; sexual interest: a = 0.74 in Rwanda to a = 1.26 in one region of Kurdistan). Most items showed some degree of DIF, but DIF only impacted aggregate scale-level scores in Indonesia. Thirteen of the 15 HSCL depression items performed well across diverse settings, with most items showing a strong relationship to the underlying trait of depression. The results support the cross-cultural applicability of most of these depression symptoms across LMIC settings. DIF impacted aggregate depression scores in one setting illustrating a possible source of measurement invariance in prevalence estimates.

  16. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Depressive Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hek, Karin; Demirkan, Ayse; Lahti, Jari; Terracciano, Antonio; Teumer, Alexander; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Amin, Najaf; Bakshis, Erin; Baumert, Jens; Ding, Jingzhong; Liu, Yongmei; Marciante, Kristin; Meirelles, Osorio; Nalls, Michael A.; Sun, Yan V.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Yu, Lei; Bandinelli, Stefania; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Bennett, David A.; Boomsma, Dorret; Cannas, Alessandra; Coker, Laura H.; de Geus, Eco; De Jager, Philip L.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Purcell, Shaun; Hu, Frank B.; Rimm, Eric B.; Hunter, David J.; Jensen, Majken K.; Curhan, Gary; Rice, Kenneth; Penman, Alan D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Emeny, Rebecca; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Illig, Thomas; Kardia, Sharon; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Koenen, Karestan; Kraft, Peter; Kuningas, Maris; Massaro, Joseph M.; Melzer, David; Mulas, Antonella; Mulder, Cornelis L.; Murray, Anna; Oostra, Ben A.; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda; Petersmann, Astrid; Pilling, Luke C.; Psaty, Bruce; Rawal, Rajesh; Reiman, Eric M.; Schulz, Andrea; Shulman, Joshua M.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Smith, Albert V.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Voelzke, Henry; Widen, Elisabeth; Yaffe, Kristine; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cucca, Francesco; Harris, Tamara; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Llewellyn, David J.; Raikkonen, Katri; Tanaka, Toshiko; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Grabe, Hans J.; Launer, Lenore J.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Newman, Anne B.; Tiemeier, Henning; Murabito, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depression is a heritable trait that exists on a continuum of varying severity and duration. Yet, the search for genetic variants associated with depression has had few successes. We exploit the entire continuum of depression to find common variants for depressive symptoms. Methods: In

  17. A genome-wide association study of depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hek (Karin); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); J. Lahti (Jari); A. Terracciano; A. Teumer (Alexander); M. Cornelis (Marilyn); N. Amin (Najaf); E. Bakshis (Erin); J. Baumert (Jens); J. Ding (Jingzhong); Y. Liu (YongMei); K. Marciante (Kristin); O. Meirelles; M.A. Nalls (Michael); Y.V. Sun (Yan); N. Vogelzangs (Nicole); L. Yu (Lei); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); E.J. Benjamin (Emelia); D.A. Bennett (David); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); A. Cannas; L.H. Coker (Laura); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); P.L. de Jager (Philip); A.V. Diez-Roux (Ana); S. Purcell (Shaun); F.B. Hu (Frank); E. Rimm; D.J. Hunter (David); M.K. Jensen (Majken); G.C. Curhan (Gary); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); A.D. Penman (Alan); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); N. Sotoodehnia (Nona); R. Emeny (Rebecca); J.G. Eriksson (Johan); D.A. Evans (Denis); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M. Fornage (Myriam); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); T. Illig (Thomas); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); M. Kelly-Hayes (Margaret); M.E. Koenen (Marjorie); P. Kraft (Peter); M. Kuningas (Maris); J. Massaro (Joseph); D. Melzer (David); A. Mulas (Antonella); C.L. Mulder (Niels); A. Murray (Anna); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A. Palotie (Aarno); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); A. Petersmann (Astrid); L.C. Pilling (Luke); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); R. Rawal (R.); E.M. Reiman (Eric); A. Schulz (Ansgar); L. Shulman (Lee); A.B. Singleton (Andrew); G.D. Smith; A.R. Sutin; A.G. Uitterlinden (André); H. Völzke (Henry); E. Widen (Elisabeth); K. Yaffe (Kristine); A.B. Zonderman (Alan); F. Cucca (Francesco); T.B. Harris (Tamara); K.-H. Ladwig (Karl-Heinz); D.J. Llewellyn (David); K. Räikkönen (Katri); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); L.J. Launer (Lenore); K.L. Lunetta (Kathryn); T.H. Mosley (Thomas); A.B. Newman (Anne); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); J. Murabito (Joanne)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Depression is a heritable trait that exists on a continuum of varying severity and duration. Yet, the search for genetic variants associated with depression has had few successes. We exploit the entire continuum of depression to find common variants for depressive symptoms.

  18. Inferential Style, School Teachers, and Depressive Symptoms in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittard, Caroline M.; Pössel, Patrick; Lau, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Depressive symptoms affect around half of students at some point during college. According to the hopelessness theory of depression, making negative inferences about stressful events is a vulnerability for developing depression. Negative and socio-emotional teaching behavior can be stressors that are associated with depression in school students.…

  19. Depressive symptoms and concussions in aging retired NFL players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John

    2013-08-01

    We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression).

  20. Burnout and depressive symptoms in intensive care nurses: relationship analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Motta de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the existence of a relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms among intensive care unit nursing staff. Method: A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with 91 intensive care nurses. Data collection used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory - I. The Pearson test verified the correlation between the burnout dimension score and the total score from the Beck Depression Inventory. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze whether there is an association between the diseases. Results: Burnout was presented by 14.29% of the nurses and 10.98% had symptoms of depression. The higher the level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the lower professional accomplishment, the greater the depressive symptoms. The association was significant between burnout and depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Nurses with burnout have a greater possibility of triggering depressive symptoms.

  1. Depressive symptoms predict cancer caregivers' physical health decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kelly M; Kim, Youngmee; Carver, Charles S; Cannady, Rachel S

    2017-11-01

    Cancer caregiving has been associated with worsening health among caregivers themselves, yet demographic and psychosocial predictors of their long-term health decline are less known. This study examines changes in caregivers' physical health 2 to 8 years after their family members' cancer diagnosis and prospective predictors of that change. Caregivers (n = 664; mean age, 53.2 years) participated in a nationwide study at 2 (T1), 5 (T2), and 8 (T3) years after their family members' cancer diagnosis. Physical health (12-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey Physical Component Scale) was assessed T1 through T3 as outcome. Predictors were self-reported at T1, including caregiver demographics (age, sex, education, income, relationship to patient, and employment status), patient cancer severity (from medical records), and caregiver psychosocial factors (caregiving stress, caregiving esteem, social support, and depressive symptoms). Latent growth modeling tested predictors of caregivers' initial physical health and their physical health change across time. At T1, caregivers reported slightly better physical health than the US population (M = 51.22, P = .002), which declined over the following 6 years (M slope = -0.27, P < .001). All demographic factors, patient cancer severity, and T1 caregiving stress were related to caregivers' initial physical health (P ≤ .03). Higher depressive symptoms were unrelated to caregivers' initial physical health, but were the only significant predictor of caregivers' more rapid physical health decline (B = -0.02, P = .004). Findings highlight the unique contribution of caregivers' depressive symptoms to their physical health decline. Assessing and addressing depressive symptoms among caregivers early in the cancer survivorship trajectory may help to prevent premature health decline among this important yet vulnerable population. Cancer 2017;123:4277-4285. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  2. Depression symptoms and stressful life events among college students in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Rivera-Medina, Carmen L; Cámara-Fuentes, Luis; Suárez-Torres, Alba; Bernal, Guillermo

    2013-03-05

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is associated with stressful adaptation experiences that may increase symptoms of depression. We explored the prevalence and sex differences of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in freshmen Latino college students in Puerto Rico, and identified stressful life events that could contribute to symptoms of depression. Two thousand one hundred sixty-three freshmen college students from the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) public education system were assessed for depression symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and stressful life events using open questions. Nine percent of the sample reported depression symptoms at a moderate or severe level (BDI>20). Chi square analyses revealed a significantly higher prevalence for three of the stressful life events in females than males: relocation (10.2% females vs. 7.3% males; X(2) (1)=4.13, p=.042), break-up of a significant relationship (25.3% females vs. 17.8% males; X(2) (1)=13.76, pcollege, whereas for males a similar model without the relationship break-up variable resulted in a better fit. Freshmen college students present a broad range of depression symptoms and certain stressful life events are associated with an increased prevalence of depression symptoms. Early detection of depression and tailored prevention programs should be developed to improve both mental health and academic performance among the college population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Depressive Symptoms and Conversational Self-Focus in Adolescents' Friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A; Rose, Amanda J

    2016-01-01

    This multi-method, longitudinal study considered the interplay among depressive symptoms, aversive interpersonal behavior, and interpersonal rejection in early and middle adolescents' friendships. In particular, the study examined a newly identified interpersonal process, conversational self-focus (i.e., the tendency to redirect conversations about problems to focus on the self). Traditional interpersonal theories of depression suggest that individuals with depressive symptoms engage in aversive behaviors (such as conversational self-focus) and are rejected by others. However, in the current study, not all adolescents with depressive symptoms engaged in conversational self-focus and were rejected by friends. Instead, conversational self-focus moderated prospective relations of depressive symptoms and later friendship problems such that only adolescents with depressive symptoms who engaged in conversational self-focus were rejected by friends. These findings are consistent with current conceptualizations of the development of psychopathology that highlight heterogeneity among youth who share similar symptoms and the possibility of multifinality of outcomes.

  4. Antecedents of transition patterns of depressive symptom trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, Kandauda A S; Kwon, Josephine A; Lorenz, Frederick O; Oshri, Assaf

    2017-11-01

    This study examined (a) transition patterns from adolescent-specific depressive symptom trajectory classes to young adult-specific trajectory classes (N = 537; 15-26 years) and (b) identified risk factors associated with these transition patterns. The latent classes and transition analyses identified three transitional patterns of depressive symptom trajectories, including a deteriorating pattern (8.2%), a recovering pattern (22.5%), and a consistently low pattern (69.3%). Additionally, the results showed that contextual risk factors (i.e., negative economic events, negative romantic relationships, and low college enrolment rates) in the transition period to young adulthood were more positively associated with deteriorated or recovered transition patterns of depressive symptom trajectories than with the consistently low transition patterns even after taking into account the effects of adolescent risk factors. The identification of dynamic transition patterns in depressive symptom trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood and risk factors provide useful tools for preventive and intervention efforts. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Heterogeneous trajectories of depressive symptoms across adolescence and young adulthood have been reported. Psychosocial characteristics differentiate trajectories of depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood. What does this study add? Dynamic transition patterns of depressive symptom trajectories are found between adolescence and young adulthood. Life experiences in the transition period are uniquely associated with the transition patterns of depressive symptom trajectories even after adjusting the effects of adolescent characteristics. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  5. The Effectiveness of Aromatherapy for Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    S?nchez-Vida?a, Dalinda Isabel; Ngai, Shirley Pui-Ching; He, Wanjia; Chow, Jason Ka-Wing; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Tsang, Hector Wing-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the greatest health concerns affecting 350 million people globally. Aromatherapy is a popular CAM intervention chosen by people with depression. Due to the growing popularity of aromatherapy for alleviating depressive symptoms, in-depth evaluation of the evidence-based clinical efficacy of aromatherapy is urgently needed. Purpose. This systematic review aims to provide an analysis of the clinical evidence on the efficacy of aromatherapy for depressive symptoms...

  6. Association between religiosity and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleima Cogollo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Several studies report a significant association between religiosity and depressive symptoms among adolescents; but, other researches do not. Up to date, this relation has not investigated in adolescent students who live in a violent and low-income country. Objective: To establish the correlation between religiosity and depressive symptoms among students in Cartagena, Colombia. Method: A cross-sectional study was done with participation of adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old. Students completed two scales: the five-item form of the Francis scale of attitude toward Christianity (Francis-5, which asked about God, Jesus and prayer (higher scores suggest higher religiosity; and the WHO Well-Being Index (WHO-5 inquired depressive symptoms last two weeks (lower scores suggest higher depressive symptoms. It was accepted as a significant Pearson correlation (rho, r a coefficient value higher than 0.20. A total of 1,730 students answered the questionnaires. The mean age was 14.7 (SD = 1.2. According to gender, 912 (52.7% students were girls; and 818 (47.3%, boys. Francis-5 showed high internal consistency, coefficient alpha of 0.909; and coefficient omega of 0.910. WHO-5 presented coefficient alpha of 0.757; and omega of 0.759. The Francis-5 scores were between zero and twenty (Mean = 18.2, SD = 3.0, median = 20, mode = 20; and WHO-5 scores, between zero and fifteen (Mean = 10.2, SD = 3.1, median = 10, mode = 10. Religiosity had not significant correlation with depressive symptoms (r = 0.080. Conclusions: Religiosity is not associated with depressive symptoms among adolescent students in Cartagena, Colombia. (DUAZARY 2013 No. 1, 15 - 19Keywords: Depressive symptoms; religiosity; adolescents; students; cross-sectional studyResumenIntroducción: varios estudios informan asociación significativa entre religiosidad y síntomas depresivos en adolescentes; sin embargo, otras investigaciones no. Hasta la fecha, esta relación no se

  7. Relationship of neurotransmitters to the symptoms of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J

    2008-01-01

    A relationship appears to exist between the 3 main monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin) and specific symptoms of major depressive disorder. Specific symptoms are associated with the increase or decrease of specific neurotransmitters, which suggests that specific symptoms of depression could be assigned to specific neurochemical mechanisms, and subsequently specific antidepressant drugs could target symptom-specific neurotransmitters. Research on electroconvulsive therapy has supported a correlation between neurotransmitters and depression symptoms. A 2-dimensional model of neurotransmitter functions is discussed that describes depression as a mixture of 2 separate components--negative affect and the loss of positive affect--that can be considered in relation to the 3 amine neurotransmitters. Owing to the different methods of action of available antidepressant agents and the depression symptoms thought to be associated with dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, current treatments can be targeted toward patients' specific symptoms.

  8. Screening Internet forum participants for depression symptoms by assembling and enhancing multiple NLP methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmen, Christian; Hsiung, Robert C; Wetter, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Depression is a disease that can dramatically lower quality of life. Symptoms of depression can range from temporary sadness to suicide. Embarrassment, shyness, and the stigma of depression are some of the factors preventing people from getting help for their problems. Contemporary social media technologies like Internet forums or micro-blogs give people the opportunity to talk about their feelings in a confidential anonymous environment. However, many participants in such networks may not recognize the severity of their depression and their need for professional help. Our approach is to develop a method that detects symptoms of depression in free text, such as posts in Internet forums, chat rooms and the like. This could help people appreciate the significance of their depression and realize they need to seek help. In this work Natural Language Processing methods are used to break the textual information into its grammatical units. Further analysis involves detection of depression symptoms and their frequency with the help of words known as indicators of depression and their synonyms. Finally, similar to common paper-based depression scales, e.g., the CES-D, that information is incorporated into a single depression score. In this evaluation study, our depressive mood detection system, DepreSD (Depression Symptom Detection), had an average precision of 0.84 (range 0.72-1.0 depending on the specific measure) and an average F measure of 0.79 (range 0.72-0.9). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contingent self-esteem and vulnerability to depression: Academic contingent self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eSchöne

    2015-10-01

    corresponding hassles to predict increases in depressive symptoms. High levels of academic stress led to increases in depressive symptoms only among students who strongly based their self-esteem on academic competence. Implications for prevention and intervention of depression are discussed.

  10. Additive genetic contribution to symptom dimensions in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Rahel; Palmer, Rohan H C; Brick, Leslie A; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Beevers, Christopher G

    2016-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder with a complex genetic architecture. In this study, genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum-likelihood analysis (GREML) was used to investigate the extent to which variance in depression symptoms/symptom dimensions can be explained by variation in common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of individuals with MDD (N = 1,558) who participated in the National Institute of Mental Health Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. A principal components analysis of items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) obtained prior to treatment revealed 4 depression symptom components: (a) appetite, (b) core depression symptoms (e.g., depressed mood, anhedonia), (c) insomnia, and (d) anxiety. These symptom dimensions were associated with SNP-based heritability (hSNP2) estimates of 30%, 14%, 30%, and 5%, respectively. Results indicated that the genetic contribution of common SNPs to depression symptom dimensions were not uniform. Appetite and insomnia symptoms in MDD had a relatively strong genetic contribution whereas the genetic contribution was relatively small for core depression and anxiety symptoms. While in need of replication, these results suggest that future gene discovery efforts may strongly benefit from parsing depression into its constituent parts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women. METHODS: The study was based on SLOSH (N = 5,985), a follow-up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age from the Swedish Work Environment...... authority, support and conflicts at work are predictive of depressive symptoms in the general Swedish working population....... Survey 2003. Work demands, decision authority, support and conflicts at work were measured in 2003. Depressive symptoms were recorded in 2006 by a short version of the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). Linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: After adjusting...

  12. Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663

  13. Comparing depressive symptoms in teenage boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Fallahi Khesht-Masjedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Symptoms of depression vary between the males and females. Depressed men show behaviors such as irritability, restlessness, difficulty in concentrating, and instead of the usual behaviors. Sleep disturbance is a common symptom in depressed men. Men are less likely to go to doctors and unconsciously show other behaviors such as anger instead of the sadness. It seems that considering depression as “feminine” is a great injustice toward male patients whom their illness will not be diagnosed nor treated. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 191 depressed adolescents, 108 males and 83 females aged 13–19 years old. Data collected for 10 years from 2005 to 2015 and their depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition. Results: Depressed girls felt sadness, guilt, punishment, worthlessness, low energy and fatigue, or more asthenia, whereas depressed boys have symptoms such as irritability, depression, suicidal thoughts, or desires to reduce their pleasure. The results of t-test showed that the difference between the total scores of boys and girls with depressive disorder (16.93 is significant at 0.001. F values for feeling sad (58.13, hatred of self (12.38, suicidal thoughts or desires (12.97, restlessness (17.35, and irritability (46. 41 were significant in the 0.001. Conclusion: Experiencing depression in boys and girls according to the role of gender was different. Gender can have an effective role in showing depression symptoms in adolescents.

  14. Obsessive-Compulsive and Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Depressive Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ashley M; Carbonella, Julia Y; Arditte Hall, Kimberly A; Timpano, Kiara R

    2017-08-18

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) commonly co-occurs with depression, resulting in heightened severity and poorer treatment response. Research on the associations between specific obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and depressive symptoms has utilized measures that have not fully considered the relationship across OCS dimensions. Little is known about which factors explain the overlap between OCS and depressive symptoms. OCS and depressive symptoms may be related via depressive cognitive styles, such as rumination or dampening (i.e., down-regulating positive emotions). We evaluated the associations of OCS dimensions with depressive symptoms and cognitive styles. We also examined the indirect effects of rumination and dampening in the relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms. Participants (N = 250) completed questionnaires online. Greater depressive symptoms, rumination, and dampening were associated with greater levels of all OCS dimensions. Path analysis was utilized to examine a model including the direct effect of depressive symptoms on overall OCS and two indirect effects (through rumination and dampening). There was a significant indirect effect of depressive cognitive styles on the relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms, through rumination and dampening. Replication in a clinical sample and experimental manipulations may bear important implications for targeting depressive cognitive styles in treatments for OCD and depression.

  15. Within-person Changes in Individual Symptoms of Depression Predict Subsequent Depressive Episodes in Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Morris, Matthew C.; Garber, Judy

    2015-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined which individual symptoms of depression uniquely predicted a subsequent Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in adolescents, and whether these relations differed by sex. Adolescents (N=240) were first interviewed in grade 6 (M=11.86 years old; SD = 0.56; 54% female; 81.5% Caucasian) and then annually through grade 12 regarding their individual symptoms of depression as well as the occurrence of MDEs. Individual symptoms of depression were assessed with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and depressive episodes were assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results showed that within-person changes in sleep problems and low self-esteem/excessive guilt positively predicted an increased likelihood of an MDE for both boys and girls. Significant sex differences also were found. Within-person changes in anhedonia predicted an increased likelihood of a subsequent MDE among boys, whereas irritability predicted a decreased likelihood of a future MDE among boys, and concentration difficulties predicted a decreased likelihood of an MDE in girls. These results identified individual depressive symptoms that predicted subsequent depressive episodes in male and female adolescents, and may be used to guide the early detection, treatment, and prevention of depressive disorders in youth. PMID:26105209

  16. [An evaluation of anxiety and depression symptoms in fibromyalgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Emanuella Barros; Quintans Junior, Lucindo José; Fraga, Byanka Porto; Macieira, José Caetano; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms by verifying the association between anxiety traits, current depression and anxiety symptoms in fibromyalgia patients. Interviews were performed with 60 subjects diagnosed with fibromyalgia at the Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic at Universidade Federal de Sergipe between August 2007 and March 2008, in which two questionnaires were administered: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms was, respectively, 50% and 86% for individuals with fibromyalgia, and the mean trait-anxiety score was 59.38. An association was observed between trait and state anxiety. Anxiety and depression were frequent symptoms among patients with fibromyalgia. However, anxiety appeared as a secondary symptom to depression, appearing in a more severe form, and, therefore, this comorbidity should be more valued and studied.

  17. Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt

    2014-01-01

    investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency...... in this limited population. With regard to safety in our study, melatonin treatment for three months did not cause any serious adverse effects. Finally, we systematically reviewed the literature on the prophylactic or therapeutic effect of melatonin for depression or depressive symptoms in adult patients...... and treatment effect of melatonin in depression, depressive symptoms, cognitive disturbances and symptom clusters of cancer patients in general. In addition, more hypothesis-generating studies with regard to the genetic heritability of POCD are needed....

  18. [The effects of rumination on automatic thoughts and depressive symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Daiji; Matsunaga, Miki; Furutani, Kaichiro

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of rumination (reflective pondering and brooding) on automatic thoughts (both negative and positive) and depressive symptoms. University students (N=183; 96 men) completed the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised (ATQ-R), and Response Style Scale (RSS). We conducted a path analysis which included gender as a factor. The results revealed that brooding was associated with negative automatic thoughts. Negative automatic thoughts contributed to the aggravation of depressive symptoms. In contrast, reflective pondering was associated with positive automatic thoughts. Positive automatic thoughts contributed to the reduction of depressive symptoms. These results indicate that rumination does not affect depressive symptoms directly. We suggest that rumination affects depressive symptoms indirectly through automatic thoughts, and that there are gender differences in the influence process.

  19. Understanding the Link Between Pubertal Timing in Girls and the Development of Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-02-01

    The link between sexual maturation, or pubertal timing, in girls and adolescent depressive symptoms is well-documented, but the underlying processes remain unclear. We examined whether sexual harassment, which has previously been linked to both pubertal timing and depressive symptoms, mediates this link, using a two-wave longitudinal study including 454 girls in 7th (M age  = 13.42, SD = .53) and 8th grade (M age  = 14.42, SD = .55). Pubertal timing was linked to depressive symptoms in both age groups, and predicted an increase in depressive symptoms among the 7th graders. Sexual harassment significantly mediated the link between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms among the 7th, but not the 8th grade girls. Together, our findings suggest that one way to prevent depressive symptoms among early-maturing girls could be to address sexual harassment in preventive intervention in early adolescence.

  20. Hair cortisol levels, psychological stress and psychopathological symptoms as predictors of postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparros-Gonzalez, Rafael A; Romero-Gonzalez, Borja; Strivens-Vilchez, Helen; Gonzalez-Perez, Raquel; Martinez-Augustin, Olga; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression affects a huge number of women and has detrimental consequences. Knowing the factors associated with postpartum depression during pregnancy can help its prevention. Although there is evidence surrounding behavioral or psychological predictors of postpartum depression, there is a lack of evidence of biological forecasters. The aim of this study was to analyze the sociodemographic, obstetric, and psychological variables along with hair cortisol levels during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy that could predict postpartum depression symptoms. A sample of 44 pregnant women was assessed during 3 trimesters of pregnancy and the postpartum period using psychological questionnaires and hair cortisol levels. Participants were divided into 2 groups: a group with postpartum depression symptoms and a group with no postpartum depression symptoms. Results showed significant positive differences between groups in the first trimester regarding the Somatization subscale of the SCL-90-R (p Depression, Anxiety, and GSI subscales (p postpartum depression symptoms. In conclusion, our study provided evidence that psychopathological symptoms, pregnancy-specific stress, and hair cortisol levels can predict postpartum depression symptoms at different time-points during pregnancy. These findings can be applied in future studies and improve maternal care in clinical settings.

  1. Public attitudes towards prevention of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomerus, Georg; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Matschinger, Herbert; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2008-03-01

    Various programs for depression prevention have been shown to be effective, but preventive efforts population wide are only beginning. We examine public attitudes towards prevention of depression and beliefs about helpful preventive measures. Fully structured telephone interview with a representative population sample including people of German nationality older than 14 years (n=1016). 75.4% of the sample agreed on the possibility to prevent depression. Of those, 403 (52.6%) stated that they would take part in prevention programs, and in this group 234 (58.1%) indicated readiness to pay out of their pocket for such programs. Out of a catalogue of 37 proposed actions, psychosocial and lifestyle related measures were preferred. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors--proactive lifestyle, relying on medicine, and relaxing--inherent in public beliefs about helpfulness of preventive measures. Higher education reduced willingness, high perceived personal risk of depression and previous contact to the disease increased willingness to take part in preventive programs. The public entertains favourable attitudes and beliefs about prevention of depression that do not conflict with evidence-based programs. Our study thus encourages implementation of population based prevention programs.

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms among post-partum mothers in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Rajendra Kumar; Khatri, Resham Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Khanal, Vishnu; Sharma, Vidya Dev; Gartoula, Ritu Prasad

    2015-03-31

    Post-partum depression is a common complication of women after childbirth. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with depressive symptoms among post-partum mothers attending a child immunization clinic at a maternity hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 346 post-partum mothers at six to ten weeks after delivery using systematic random sampling. Mothers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to screen for depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the association of post-partum depressive symptoms with socio-demographic and maternal factors. The prevalence of post-partum depressive symptoms among mothers was 30%. Mothers aged 20 to 29 years were less likely to have depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.21-0.76) compared to older mothers. Similarly, mothers with a history of pregnancy-induced health problems were more likely to have depressive symptoms (aOR = 2.16; CI: 1.00-4.66) and subjective feelings of stress (aOR = 3.86; CI: 1.84-4.66) than mothers who did not. The number of post-partum mothers experiencing depressive symptoms was high; almost one-third of the participants reported having them. Pregnancy-induced health problems and subjective feelings of stress during pregnancy in the post-partum period were found to be associated with depressive symptoms among these women. Screening of depressive symptoms should be included in routine antenatal and postnatal care services for early identification and prevention.

  3. Presenting Symptoms of Women With Depression in an Obstetrics and Gynecology Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerimele, Joseph M.; Vanderlip, Erik R.; Croicu, Carmen A.; Melville, Jennifer L.; Russo, Joan; Reed, Susan D.; Katon, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the presenting symptoms of women with depression in two obstetrics and gynecology clinics, determine depression diagnosis frequency, and examine factors associated with depression diagnosis. METHODS Data were extracted from charts of women screening positive for depression in a clinical trial testing a collaborative care depression intervention. Bivariate and multivariable analyses examined patient factors associated with the diagnosis of depression by an obstetrician–gynecologist (ob-gyn). RESULTS Eleven percent of women with depression presented with a psychologic chief complaint but another 30% mentioned psychologic distress. All others noted physical symptoms only or presented for preventive care. Ob-gyns did not identify 60% of women with a depression diagnosis. Depression severity was similar in women who were or were not diagnosed by their ob-gyns. Bivariate analyses showed four factors significantly associated with depression diagnosis: reporting a psychologic symptom as the chief complaint or associated symptom (72% compared with 18.6%, P<.001), younger age (35.5 years compared with 40.8 years, P<.005), being within 12 months postpartum (13.9% compared with 2.8%, P<.005), and a primary care-oriented visit (72% compared with 30%, P<.001). Multivariable analysis showed that reporting a psychologic symptom (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 8.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.15–19.10, P<.001), a primary care oriented visit (adjusted OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.14–5.29, P=.03), and each year of increasing age (adjusted OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93–0.96, P=.02) were significantly associated with a depression diagnosis. CONCLUSION The majority of women with depression presented with physical symptoms; most women with depression were not diagnosed by their ob-gyn, and depression severity was similar in those diagnosed and those not diagnosed. PMID:23969800

  4. Working conditions and depressive symptoms in the 2003 decennial health survey: the role of the occupational category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohidon, Christine; Santin, Gaëlle; Imbernon, Ellen; Goldberg, Marcel

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the associations between depressive symptoms and some working conditions according to broad occupational categories in France. These data came from the decennial health survey conducted in 2003 in France by the National Institute for Statistics and Economics Studies (6,082 men, 5,521 women). The data collected included: depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale), psychosocial factors at work and potential confounding factors. Associations between psychosocial work factors and depressive symptoms varied, according to occupational category and sex. Time pressure was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in the less advantaged occupational categories. The lack of job control was associated with depressive symptoms only in managers and associate professionals and technicians. Only low social support was systematically associated with depressive symptoms, regardless of occupational category. These results should be taken into account to adapt strategies of mental health disorders prevention at work, for a better efficacy.

  5. Perinatal nutrition interventions and post-partum depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jacqueline F; Best, Karen; Makrides, Maria

    2017-12-15

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most prevalent mood disorder associated with childbirth. No single cause of PPD has been identified, however the increased risk of nutritional deficiencies incurred through the high nutritional requirements of pregnancy may play a role in the pathology of depressive symptoms. Three nutritional interventions have drawn particular interest as possible non-invasive and cost-effective prevention and/or treatment strategies for PPD; omega-3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), vitamin D and overall diet. We searched for meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCT's) of nutritional interventions during the perinatal period with PPD as an outcome, and checked for any trials published subsequently to the meta-analyses. Fish oil: Eleven RCT's of prenatal fish oil supplementation RCT's show null and positive effects on PPD symptoms. Vitamin D: no relevant RCT's were identified, however seven observational studies of maternal vitamin D levels with PPD outcomes showed inconsistent associations. Diet: Two Australian RCT's with dietary advice interventions in pregnancy had a positive and null result on PPD. With the exception of fish oil, few RCT's with nutritional interventions during pregnancy assess PPD. Further research is needed to determine whether nutritional intervention strategies during pregnancy can protect against symptoms of PPD. Given the prevalence of PPD and ease of administering PPD measures, we recommend future prenatal nutritional RCT's include PPD as an outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Prospective Study of Fitness, Fatness, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becofsky, Katie M.; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; Wilcox, Sara; Zhang, Jiajia; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Being overweight or obese might be a risk factor for developing depression. It is also possible that low cardiorespiratory fitness, rather than overweight or obesity, is the better predictor of depressive symptom onset. Adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (Dallas, Texas) underwent fitness and fatness assessments between 1979 and 1998 and later completed a questionnaire about depressive symptoms in 1990, 1995, or 1999. Separate logistic regression models were used to test the associations between 3 fatness measures (body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat) and the onset of depressive symptoms. Analyses were repeated using fitness as the predictor variable. Additional analyses were performed to study the joint association of fatness and fitness with the onset of depressive symptoms. After controlling for fitness, no measure of fatness was associated with the onset of depressive symptoms. In joint analyses, low fitness was more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than was fatness, regardless of the measure of fatness used. Overall, results from the present study suggest that low fitness is more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than is fatness. To reduce the risk of developing depression, individuals should be encouraged to improve their fitness regardless of body fatness. PMID:25693775

  7. Predicting outcome of internet-based treatment for depressive symptoms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmerdam, E.H.; van Straten, A.; Twisk, J.; Cuijpers, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we explored predictors and moderators of response to Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and Internet-based problem-solving therapy (PST) for depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 263 participants with moderate to severe depressive symptoms. Of those, 88 were

  8. Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking in a College Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in a college sample and (2) the role of smoking self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to abstain from smoking) in explaining the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. Methods: Predominantly first-year…

  9. Depressive Symptoms, Coping Strategies, and Disordered Eating among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBoven, Amy M.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2006-01-01

    In a 2-phase study with a total of 392 participants, depressive symptoms mediated the association between disordered eating and lower problem-solving confidence and an avoidance problem-solving style. Depressive symptoms did not mediate the association between the ability to generate competent solutions to hypothetical stressful situations and…

  10. Depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms following termination of pregnancy in South African women: A longitudinal study measuring the effects of ... The relationship between demographic characteristics, resilience and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression before, 1 month after and 3 ...

  11. Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children's Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Cole, David A.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Jacquez, Farrah; LaGrange, Beth; Bruce, Alanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive-positive and harsh-negative parenting behaviors on children's depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children's depressive symptoms. Parents provided self-reports…

  12. Substance Use, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kenneth S.; Bulmer, Sandra Minor; Troiano, Peter F.; Obiaka, Uzoma; Bonhomme, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Research on college substance use and mental illness is limited and inconsistent. Measures of substance use, and anxiety and depressive symptoms, were completed by 1,316 undergraduates within a major drug transportation corridor. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to test associations between anxious and depressive symptoms and substance…

  13. The association of depression status with menopause symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The majority of Chinese rural midlife women do not experience depression. The relationship between depression, VMS and sleep disturbances tends to change with menopausal status in Chinese rural midlife women. Keywords: depression, poor sleep, vasomotor symptoms, menopause, rural women ...

  14. Prevalence of symptoms of depression among patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Depression is the most common psychiatric illness in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Depression has been shown to affect mortality in end-stage renal disease patients. The objective of this study was to determine prevalence of depressive symptoms among CKD patients. Materials and Methods: A ...

  15. Coronary artery disease and symptoms of depression in a Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coronary artery disease and symptoms of depression in a Kenyan population. ... death. Little is known about the co-morbidity of heart disease and depression in Africa. Objective: To describe the prevalence of depression in Black Africans with and without. Coronary Artery Disease as documented on coronary angiography ...

  16. Coparenting Behaviors as Mediators between Postpartum Parental Depressive Symptoms and Toddler's Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, Hervé; Favez, Nicolas; Frascarolo, France; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum parental depression, even of mild intensity and short duration, has negative consequences on child development, including increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Studies revealed that the links between parental depression and child development are mediated by parenting difficulties. On the other hand, the mediating role of problematic family-level relationships, such as low coparenting support and high conflict between the parents, has rarely been considered, although coparenting difficulties have been linked with both increased depressive symptoms in parents and increased symptoms in toddlers. In the present study, we proposed testing a comprehensive mediation model linking parental depression, coparenting, and child symptoms. At 3 months postpartum, a convenience sample of 69 parental couples completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In addition, we assessed levels of coparenting support and conflict during a mother-father-infant play situation, the Lausanne Trilogue Play. At 18 months postpartum, both parents assessed child symptoms with the Symptom Checklist Questionnaire. The results showed that coparenting support mediated the links between parental depressive symptoms and child symptoms, but only for mothers: Maternal depressive symptoms were linked with lower coparenting support, which in turn predicted increased psychofunctional symptoms and behavior problems assessed by mothers. Although coparenting conflict behaviors were not predicted by parents' depressive symptoms, higher conflict was unexpectedly linked with fewer behavior problems assessed by both parents. The present study allowed us to unveil complex pathways between mild parental mood disturbances, family-level relationships, and child development in the first months of the child's life.

  17. Coparenting Behaviors as Mediators Between Postpartum Parental Depressive Symptoms and Toddler’s Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Tissot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum parental depression, even of mild intensity and short duration, has negative consequences on child development, including increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Studies revealed that the links between parental depression and child development are mediated by parenting difficulties. On the other hand, the mediating role of problematic family-level relationships, such as low coparenting support and high conflict between the parents, has rarely been considered, although coparenting difficulties have been linked with both increased depressive symptoms in parents and increased symptoms in toddlers. In the present study, we proposed testing a comprehensive mediation model linking parental depression, coparenting, and child symptoms. At 3 months postpartum, a convenience sample of 69 parental couples completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In addition, we assessed levels of coparenting support and conflict during a mother–father–infant play situation, the Lausanne Trilogue Play. At 18 months postpartum, both parents assessed child symptoms with the Symptom Checklist Questionnaire. The results showed that coparenting support mediated the links between parental depressive symptoms and child symptoms, but only for mothers: Maternal depressive symptoms were linked with lower coparenting support, which in turn predicted increased psychofunctional symptoms and behavior problems assessed by mothers. Although coparenting conflict behaviors were not predicted by parents’ depressive symptoms, higher conflict was unexpectedly linked with fewer behavior problems assessed by both parents. The present study allowed us to unveil complex pathways between mild parental mood disturbances, family-level relationships, and child development in the first months of the child’s life.

  18. Transformational leadership and depressive symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Fehmidah; Nielsen, Karina; Carneiro, Isabella Gomes

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between transformational leadership and depressive symptoms in employees working within healthcare. 447 employees completed a baseline survey and 274 completed a follow-up survey 18 months later. 188 completed both baseline and follow-up survey. Transformational leadership was measured using the Global Transformational Leadership Scale and depression was measured using with the Major Depression Inventory. Transformational leadership was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at baseline (beta=-0.31, ptransformational leadership style may help toward protecting employees from developing major depression.

  19. The depressive personality disorder inventory and current depressive symptoms: implications for the assessment of depressive personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Jude; Huprich, Steven K

    2011-10-01

    The Depressive Personality Disorder Inventory (DPDI; Huprich, Margrett, Barthelemy, & Fine, 1996; see Appendix) was created to assess Depressive Personality Disorder in clinical and nonclinical samples. Since its creation, the DPDI has been used in multiple studies, and the psychometric properties of the measure have generally supported its reliability, convergent validity, and construct validity; however, evidence for the measure's discriminant validity has been mixed. Specifically, the DPDI tends to correlate highly with measures of current depressive symptoms, which limits its efficacy in differentiating current depressive symptoms from a depressive personality structure. A principal components analysis of 362 individuals who completed both the DPDI and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) found that 49% of the variance was accounted for in two components. Seven items from the DPDI loaded more strongly on the first component composed of many BDI-II items. These items were removed in order to create a measure believed to assess DPD without the confounding influence of current depressive symptomology. Principal components analysis of the revised measure yielded three components, accounting for 46% of the variance. The revised DPDI was used to calculate convergent, discriminant, and construct validity coefficients from measures used in former studies. Virtually no improvement in the validity coefficients was observed. It is concluded that assessing DPD via self-report is limited in its utility.

  20. A Twin Study on Perceived Stress, Depressive Symptoms, and Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Christopher R.; Dinescu, Diana; Emery, Robert E.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Marriage is associated with reductions in both perceived stress and depressive symptoms, two constructs found to be influenced by common genetic effects. A study of sibling twins was used to test whether marriage decreases the proportion of variance in depressive symptoms accounted for by genetic and environmental effects underlying perceived stress. The sample consisted of 1,612 male and female twin pairs from the University of Washington Twin Registry. The stress-buffering role of marriage was tested relative to two unmarried groups: the never married and the divorced. Multivariate twin models showed that marriage reduced genetic effects of perceived stress on depressive symptoms, but did not reduce environmental effects. The findings suggest a potential marital trade-off for women: Access to a spouse may decrease genetic effects of perceived stress on depressive symptoms, although marital and family demands may increase environmental effects of perceived stress on depressive symptoms. PMID:28661771

  1. Unique contributions of metacognition and cognition to depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Adviye Esin; Gençöz, Tülin; Wells, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the unique contributions of "cognitions" or "metacognitions" to depressive symptoms while controlling for their intercorrelations and comorbid anxiety. Two-hundred-and-fifty-one university students participated in the study. Two complementary hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed, in which symptoms of depression were regressed on the dysfunctional attitudes (DAS-24 subscales) and metacognition scales (Negative Beliefs about Rumination Scale [NBRS] and Positive Beliefs about Rumination Scale [PBRS]). Results showed that both NBRS and PBRS individually explained a significant amount of variance in depressive symptoms above and beyond dysfunctional schemata while controlling for anxiety. Although dysfunctional attitudes as a set significantly predicted depressive symptoms after anxiety and metacognitions were controlled for, they were weaker than metacognitive variables and none of the DAS-24 subscales contributed individually. Metacognitive beliefs about ruminations appeared to contribute more to depressive symptoms than dysfunctional beliefs in the "cognitive" domain.

  2. AN EVALUATION OF ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS IN FIBROMYALGIA

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Emanuella Barros dos; Quintans Junior, Lucindo Jose; Fraga, Byanka Porto; Macieira, Jose Caetano; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms by verifying the association between anxiety traits, current depression and anxiety symptoms in fibromyalgia patients. Interviews were performed with 60 subjects diagnosed with fibromyalgia at the Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic at Universidade Federal de Sergipe between August 2007 and March 2008, in which two questionnaires were administered: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the S...

  3. Negative Experiences on Facebook and Depressive Symptoms Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Samantha R; Buka, Stephen L; Marshall, Brandon D L; Carey, Kate B; Clark, Melissa A

    2016-11-01

    To examine whether negative Facebook (FB) experiences were independently associated with depressive symptoms among young adults in a longitudinal family cohort. Negative FB experiences were measured by type (e.g., bullying or meanness, unwanted contact, misunderstandings, or any), recency, number of experiences, and severity of upset. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for sibling correlation; adjusted models were constructed for each negative FB experience measure accounting for sex, race/ethnicity, social support, adolescent depressive symptoms, parental psychological distress, average monthly income, educational attainment, and employment. In a sample of 264 young adults, all negative FB experience measures were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. There is a clear association between negative FB experience and depressive symptoms. Future work should examine: (1) whether negative FB experiences cause incident depression or exacerbate preexisting depression; and (2) who is most prone to being upset by negative FB experiences. With further research, recommendations for limiting or altering FB use among high-risk subpopulations could be useful in reducing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical neuroprediction: Amygdala reactivity predicts depressive symptoms 2 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Whitney I; Hyde, Luke W; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Monk, Christopher S

    2016-06-01

    Depression is linked to increased amygdala activation to neutral and negatively valenced facial expressions. Amygdala activation may be predictive of changes in depressive symptoms over time. However, most studies in this area have focused on small, predominantly female and homogenous clinical samples. Studies are needed to examine how amygdala reactivity relates to the course of depressive symptoms dimensionally, prospectively and in populations diverse in gender, race and socioeconomic status. A total of 156 men from predominately low-income backgrounds completed an fMRI task where they viewed emotional facial expressions. Left and right amygdala reactivity to neutral, but not angry or fearful, facial expressions relative to a non-face baseline at age 20 predicted greater depressive symptoms 2 years later, controlling for age 20 depressive symptoms. Heightened bilateral amygdala reactivity to neutral facial expressions predicted increases in depressive symptoms 2 years later in a large community sample. Neutral facial expressions are affectively ambiguous and a tendency to interpret these stimuli negatively may reflect to cognitive biases that lead to increases in depressive symptoms over time. Individual differences in amygdala reactivity to neutral facial expressions appear to identify those at most risk for a more problematic course of depressive symptoms across time. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Depressive Symptoms and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Zocca, Jaclyn M.; Field, Sara E.; Drinkard, Bart; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Adolescent depressive symptoms have been associated with reduced physical activity. However, existing studies have relied on questionnaire measures of physical activity, which may not necessarily reflect actual energy expenditures. We sought to evaluate the relationship between depressive symptoms and objectively-measured cardiorespiratoryfitness among severely obese adolescents. Methods One hundred thirty-four obese (body mass index [BMI; kg/m2] ≥ 95th percentile) adolescent girls and boys (ages 12–17 years) reported their depressive symptoms on the Children’s Depression Inventory. Adolescents also participated in a maximal cycle ergometry exercise test to measure cardiorespiratory fitness. Body composition was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. Results Among the 103 adolescents who reached maximal exertion, those with elevated depressive symptoms (16%) displayed poorer cardiorespiratory fitness than those without elevated depressive symptoms (VO2max 1873.2 ± 63.6 vs. 2012.9 ± 28.6 mL/min, p Symptoms of anhedonia also were related to lower fitness (p obese adolescents, elevated depressive symptoms are associated with poorer objectively-measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Future experimental tests should investigate whether cardiorespiratory fitness acts as a mediator of adolescent depressive symptoms’ impact on obesity or obesity-related health co-morbidities. PMID:22188839

  6. Exploring the Relations between Parent Depressive Symptoms, Family Religious Involvement, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Test of Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lisa M.; Caroline R. Newman

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous research, the current study examined the relations between parent depressive symptoms, family religious involvement, and adolescent depressive symptoms in a convenience sample of 74 parent-adolescent dyads of southern U.S. families. We used hierarchical regression analysis to explore whether family religious involvement…

  7. Enhancing depression screening to identify college students at risk for persistent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan M; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Pettit, Jeremy W

    2015-03-15

    Depressive symptoms in college students are prevalent and are associated with considerable academic impairment. Many universities have implemented depressive symptom screening programs and the number of students identified as in need of services following screening greatly exceeds available mental health resources. The present study sought to refine depressive symptom screening programs by identifying predictors of a persistent course of depressive symptoms and developing cut-scores for accurately identifying students who will experience a persistent symptom course. Students (n=262) who reported elevated depressive symptoms both an initial screening and baseline assessment (n=150) were invited to participate in telephone-based follow-up assessments 4, 8, and 12 months post-baseline. Two depressive symptom courses were identified: a persistently elevated depressive symptoms course and a decreasing depressive symptoms course. Baseline social disconnection and negative feedback-seeking both significantly predicted membership in the persistently elevated depressive symptoms course. Cut-scores that robustly discriminated between the two symptom courses were identified. The present sample was predominantly female and Hispanic; the four-month spacing of assessments may have resulted in a failure to identify individuals who experience brief, yet impairing, recurrent depressive episodes. These findings can inform approaches to identifying college students most in need of mental health services for depressive symptoms based on the presence of social disconnection and/or negative feedback-seeking. Screening cut-points on social disconnection and negative feedback-seeking measures can reduce the number of cases identified as needing mental health services while retaining the majority of cases who will experience a persistent depressive symptom course. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic and inflammatory markers: associations with individual depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, F; Milaneschi, Y; de Jonge, P; Giltay, E J; Penninx, B W J H

    2017-09-11

    Literature has shown that obesity, metabolic syndrome and inflammation are associated with depression, however, evidence suggests that these associations are specific to atypical depression. Which of the atypical symptoms are driving associations with obesity-related outcomes and inflammation is unknown. We evaluated associations between individual symptoms of depression (both atypical and non-atypical) and body mass index (BMI), metabolic syndrome components and inflammatory markers. We included 808 persons with a current diagnosis of depression participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (67% female, mean age 41.6 years). Depressive symptoms were derived from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses adjusting for sex, age, educational level, depression severity, current smoking, physical activity, anti-inflammatory medication use, and statin use were performed. Increased appetite was positively associated with BMI, number of metabolic syndrome components, waist circumference, C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α. Decreased appetite was negatively associated with BMI and waist circumference. Psychomotor retardation was positively associated with BMI, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and insomnia with number of metabolic syndrome components. Increased appetite - in the context of a depressive episode - was the only symptom that was associated with both metabolic as well as inflammatory markers, and could be a key feature of an immuno-metabolic form of depression. This immuno-metabolic depression should be considered in clinical trials evaluating effectiveness of compounds targeting metabolic and inflammatory pathways or lifestyle interventions.

  9. Associations Between Sleep Characteristics, Seasonal Depressive Symptoms, Lifestyle, and ADHD Symptoms in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlenga, D.; van der Heijden, K.B.; Breuk, M.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Lie, M.E.H.; Boonstra, A. M.; Swaab, H.J.T.; Kooij, J.J.S

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations between ADHD symptoms, seasonal depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and health. Method: Adult ADHD patients (n = 202) and controls (n = 189) completed the ASESA questionnaire involving lifestyle, eating pattern, and physical and psychological health, and

  10. The effect of sleep pattern changes on postpartum depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Beth A.; Gjerdingen, Dwenda; Schuver, Katie; Avery, Melissa; Marcus, Bess H.

    2018-01-01

    Background Research indicates that poor sleep is associated with postpartum depression; however, little is known regarding this relationship among postpartum women who are at high for postpartum depression. This study examined the relationship between changes in self-reported sleep patterns (from six weeks to seven months postpartum) and depressive symptoms at seven months postpartum among women who were at high risk for postpartum depression. Methods Participants (n = 122) were postpartum wo...

  11. Correlates of irritability in college students with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne; Bakow, Brianna R; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Cassiello, Clair; Mulligan, Maura; Cusin, Cristina; Farabaugh, Amy

    2013-11-01

    Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with significant personal and societal burden. There is accumulating evidence for the presence of a subtype of depression characterized by the presence of irritability that is associated with increased morbidity, risk for suicidal ideation, and functional impairments in adults. Little is known about the features of depressive symptoms with and without irritability among young adults in college. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the presentation of college students with depressive symptoms and irritability. Two-hundred eighty-seven undergraduate college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability were compared across several psychiatric and functional outcome variables. Independent samples t-tests or logistic regressions were conducted for each outcome variable using the irritability item of the Beck Depression Inventory as a dichotomous grouping variable. Analyses were conducted separately for the men and the women. Both male and female students with depressive symptoms and severe irritability reported a greater severity of depressive symptoms compared with their peers with no or mild irritability. In the women, the presence of irritability was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety, whereas in the men, it was associated with increased likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, including compulsive use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drugs. The male and female college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability did not differ on severity of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, or cognitive functioning. The findings from this study suggest that depressive symptoms and irritability may characterize a subtype of college students who have a greater symptom burden and with the potential need for more aggressive and prompt treatment.

  12. Do depressive symptoms explain associations between binge eating symptoms and later psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Heron, Kristin E

    2016-12-01

    Prospective associations between binge eating symptoms (i.e., objective overeating [OOE] and loss of control [LOC] eating) and psychosocial functioning during emerging adulthood were examined using data from the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We examined associations between OOE and LOC eating and psychosocial functioning variables with and without adjusting for concurrent depressive symptoms. Analyses revealed that OOE at Wave 3 (ages 18-28) was associated with depressive symptoms, social isolation, weight perception, and perceived attractiveness seven years later at Wave 4 (ages 25-35) and LOC eating at Wave 3 was associated with later depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts, weight perception, social isolation, number of close friends, and sleep difficulty. Analyses adjusted for depressive symptoms at Wave 3 revealed that OOE at Wave 3 was associated with social isolation and perceived attractiveness at Wave 4 and LOC eating at Wave 3 was associated with later depressive symptoms, isolation, number of close friends, and sleep difficulty. Results show that binge eating symptoms are prospectively associated with psychosocial impairment during emerging adulthood even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Rather than simply screening for depressive symptoms, results highlight the utility of screening for binge eating symptoms as these symptoms are independently associated with psychosocial impairment in emerging adults. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Mother-Child Conflict and Its Moderating Effects on Depression Outcomes in a Preventive Intervention for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jami F.; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on mother-child conflict as an outcome and moderator of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a preventive intervention for depression. Forty-one adolescents (average age = 13.37, SD = 1.19) with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Adolescents…

  14. Testing Mediators of Intervention Effects in Randomized Controlled Trials: An Evaluation of Three Depression Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a new 5-step method for testing mediators hypothesized to account for the effects of depression prevention programs. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, at-risk teens with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

  15. Prevention of late-life Depression in Primary Care: Do we know where to begin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoevers, R.; Smit, H.F.E.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Cuijpers, P.; Dekker, J.J.M.; van Tilburg, W.; Beekman, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study attempted to compare two models for selective (people at elevated risk) and indicated (those with subsyndromal depressive symptoms) prevention and to determine the optimal strategy for prevention of late-life depression. METHOD: Onset was assessed at 3 years with the Geriatric

  16. Pediatric obesity: Causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shumei; Xue, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric or childhood obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Approximately 43 million individuals are obese, 21-24% children and adolescents are overweight, and 16-18% of individuals have abdominal obesity. The prevalence of obesity is highest among specific ethnic groups. Obesity increases the risk of heart diseases in children and adults. Childhood obesity predisposes the individual to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, liver and kidney diseases and causes reproductive dysfunction in adults. Obesity in children is a major health concern of the developed world. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey has reported that the prevalence of obesity is on the increase in all the pediatric age groups, in males and females, and in various ethnic and racial groups. Factors, such as eating habits, genetics, environment, metabolism, and lifestyle play an important role in the development of obesity. Over 90% of obesity cases are idiopathic and less than 10% are associated with genetic and hormonal causes. Obesity occurs when the body consumes more calories than it burns, through overeating and underexercising. The symptoms of obesity include breathing disorders, sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, certain types of cancer such as prostate, bowel, breast and uterine, coronary heart disease, diabetes (type 2 in children), depression, liver and gallbladder problems, gastro-esophageal reflux disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, stroke, and joint diseases such as osteoarthritis, pain in knees and lower back. Environmental, behavioral such as consumption of convenience foods, genetic, and family factors contribute to pediatric obesity. Obesity can be countered through lower calorie consumption, weight loss and diet programs, as well as increased physical activity. A number of endogenous molecules including leptin, hypothalamic melanocortin 4 receptor

  17. Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Young Athletes Using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Weber

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Elite young athletes have to cope with multiple psychological demands such as training volume, mental and physical fatigue, spatial separation of family and friends or time management problems may lead to reduced mental and physical recovery. While normative data regarding symptoms of anxiety and depression for the general population is available (Hinz and Brähler, 2011, hardly any information exists for adolescents in general and young athletes in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess overall symptoms of anxiety and depression in young athletes as well as possible sex differences. The survey was carried out within the scope of the study “Resistance Training in Young Athletes” (KINGS-Study. Between August 2015 and September 2016, 326 young athletes aged (mean ± SD 14.3 ± 1.6 years completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD Scale. Regarding the analysis of age on the anxiety and depression subscales, age groups were classified as follows: late childhood (12–14 years and late adolescence (15–18 years. The participating young athletes were recruited from Olympic weight lifting, handball, judo, track and field athletics, boxing, soccer, gymnastics, ice speed skating, volleyball, and rowing. Anxiety and depression scores were (mean ± SD 4.3 ± 3.0 and 2.8 ± 2.9, respectively. In the subscale anxiety, 22 cases (6.7% showed subclinical scores and 11 cases (3.4% showed clinical relevant score values. When analyzing the depression subscale, 31 cases (9.5% showed subclinical score values and 12 cases (3.7% showed clinically important values. No significant differences were found between male and female athletes (p ≥ 0.05. No statistically significant differences in the HADS scores were found between male athletes of late childhood and late adolescents (p ≥ 0.05. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing questionnaire based indicators of symptoms of anxiety and depression in young

  18. Reducing suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms in depressed older primary care patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Martha L; Ten Have, Thomas R; Reynolds, Charles F; Katz, Ira I; Schulberg, Herbert C; Mulsant, Benoit H; Brown, Gregory K; McAvay, Gail J; Pearson, Jane L; Alexopoulos, George S

    2004-03-03

    Suicide rates are highest in late life; the majority of older adults who die by suicide have seen a primary care physician in preceding months. Depression is the strongest risk factor for late-life suicide and for suicide's precursor, suicidal ideation. To determine the effect of a primary care intervention on suicidal ideation and depression in older patients. Randomized controlled trial known as PROSPECT (Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial) with patient recruitment from 20 primary care practices in New York City, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh regions, May 1999 through August 2001. Two-stage, age-stratified (60-74, > or =75 years) depression screening of randomly sampled patients; enrollment included patients who screened positive and a random sample of screened negative patients. This analysis included patients with a depression diagnosis (N = 598). Treatment guidelines tailored for the elderly with care management compared with usual care. Assessment of suicidal ideation and depression severity at baseline, 4 months, 8 months, and 12 months. Rates of suicidal ideation declined faster (P =.01) in intervention patients compared with usual care patients; at 4 months, in the intervention group, raw rates of suicidal ideation declined 12.9% points (29.4% to 16.5%) compared with 3.0% points (20.1% to 17.1% in usual care [P =.01]). Among patients reporting suicidal ideation, resolution of ideation was faster among intervention patients (P =.03); differences peaked at 8 months (70.7% vs 43.9% resolution; P =.005). Intervention patients had a more favorable course of depression in both degree and speed of symptom reduction; group difference peaked at 4 months. The effects on depression were not significant among patients with minor depression unless suicidal ideation was present. Evidence of the intervention's effectiveness in community-based primary care with a heterogeneous sample of depressed patients introduces new challenges related to

  19. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Depressive Symptoms among Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Virgini, Vanessa S

    2016-01-01

    adults aged 70-82 years with pre-existing cardiovascular disease or known cardiovascular risk factors, TSH and free T4 levels were measured at baseline and repeated after 6 months to define persistent thyroid function status. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms, assessed with the Geriatric...... on the association of persistent subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depression, subclinical hypothyroidism was not associated with increased depressive symptoms among older adults at high cardiovascular risk. Persistent subclinical hyperthyroidism might be associated with increased depressive symptoms, which......BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with depressive symptoms in cross-sectional studies, but prospective data and data on subclinical hyperthyroidism are scarce. METHODS: In the Leiden sub-study of the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) among...

  20. Residual Effects of Restless Sleep over Depressive Symptoms on Chronic Medical Conditions: Race by Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Sonnega, Amanda; Pepin, Renee; Leggett, Amanda

    2017-02-01

    Sleep and depression are comorbid problems that contribute to the development of chronic medical conditions (CMC) over time. Although racial and gender differences in the bidirectional associations between sleep, depression, and CMC are known, very limited information exists on heterogeneity of the residual effects of sleep problems over depressive symptoms on CMC across race by gender groups. Using a life-course perspective, the present study compared race by gender groups for residual effects of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC. We used data from waves 1 (year 1986), 4 (year 2001), and 5 (year 2011) of the Americans' Changing Lives Study (ACL). The study followed 294 White men, 108 Black men, 490 White women, and 237 Black women for 25 years. Restless sleep, depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale [CES-D]), and number of chronic medical conditions (hypertension, diabetes, chronic lung disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and arthritis) were measured in 1986, 2001, and 2011. We employed multi-group cross-lagged modeling, with chronic medical conditions as the outcome and race by gender as the groups. Major group differences were found in the residual effect of restless sleep on CMC over depressive symptoms across race by gender groups. Restless sleep in 2001 predicted CMC 10 years later in 2011 among Black women (standardized adjusted B = .135, P  .05). Race by gender heterogeneity in the residual effect of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC over 25 years suggests that comorbid poor sleep and depressive symptoms differently contribute to development of multi-morbidity among subpopulations based on the intersection of race and gender. Thus, interventions that try to prevent comorbid sleep problems and depression as a strategy to prevent medical conditions may benefit from tailoring based on the intersection of race and gender.

  1. Residual Effects of Restless Sleep over Depressive Symptoms on Chronic Medical Conditions: Race by Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Sonnega, Amanda; Pepin, Renee; Leggett, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep and depression are comorbid problems that contribute to the development of chronic medical conditions (CMC) over time. Although racial and gender differences in the bidirectional associations between sleep, depression, and CMC are known, very limited information exists on heterogeneity of the residual effects of sleep problems over depressive symptoms on CMC across race by gender groups. Aim Using a life-course perspective, the present study compared race by gender groups for residual effects of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC. Methods We used data from waves 1 (year 1986), 4 (year 2001), and 5 (year 2011) of the Americans’ Changing Lives Study (ACL). The study followed 294 White men, 108 Black men, 490 White women, and 237 Black women for 25 years. Restless sleep, depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale [CES-D]) and number of chronic medical conditions (hypertension, diabetes, chronic lung disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and arthritis) were measured in 1986, 2001, and 2011. We employed multi-group cross-lagged modeling, with chronic medical conditions as the outcome, and race by gender as the groups. Results Major group differences were found in the residual effect of restless sleep on CMC over depressive symptoms across race by gender groups. Restless sleep in 2001 predicted CMC 10 years later in 2011 among Black women (Standardized Adjusted B=.135, P 0.05). Conclusion Race by gender heterogeneity in the residual effect of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC over 25 years suggests that comorbid poor sleep and depressive symptoms differently contribute to development of multi-morbidity among subpopulations based on the intersection of race and gender. Thus, interventions that try to prevent comorbid sleep problems and depression as a strategy to prevent medical conditions may benefit from tailoring based on the intersection of race and gender. PMID:26823066

  2. Identification of depressive symptoms during postpartum in adolescent mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Agustinho Cardillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study objectives were to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescent mothers and to characterize them regarding sociodemographic, behavioral and mental health aspects. An observational study, descriptive and cross-sectional, developed in health units with 72 adolescent mothers through the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. Within the participants, 20.8% presented depressive symptoms by the EPDS. The most frequent questions referred to the feelings of guilt, anxiety, and ideas to self-harm. We highlighted the feelings of guilt (60% and feelings of not being worth living (40%. Most participants (73.3% did not recognize to be depressed. The results show the importance to have an individualized prenatal, when is possible to know vulnerabilities, psychosocial and family aspects, to include tracking of depressive symptoms in the anamnesis and, to use it the attention network, the reference and the counter-reference.

  3. Prenatal Maternal Depressive Symptoms Predict Early Infant Health Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, S S; Luecken, L J; Rystad, I A; Lin, B; Crnic, K A; Gonzales, N A

    2018-02-09

    Recent research suggests that health disparities among low-SES and ethnic minority populations may originate from prenatal and early life exposures. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms have been linked to poorer infant physical health, yet prenatal depressive symptoms not been thoroughly examined in relation to infant health. In a prospective study of low-income Mexican American mothers and their infants, women (N = 322, median age 27.23, IQR = 22.01-32.54) completed surveys during pregnancy (median gestation 39.50, IQR = 38.71-40.14 weeks) and 12 weeks after birth. We investigated (1) if prenatal depressive symptoms predicted infant physical health concerns at 12 weeks of age, (2) whether these associations occurred above and beyond concurrent depressive symptoms, and (3) if birth weight, gestational age, and breastfeeding were mediators of prenatal depression predicting subsequent infant health. Higher prenatal depressive symptoms were associated with more infant physical health concerns at 12 weeks (p prenatal depressive symptoms and an elevated risk of poor health evident shortly after birth. These findings underscore the importance of the prenatal period as a possible sensitive period for infants' health, and the need for effective interventions for depression during pregnancy to mitigate potentially teratogenic effects on the developing fetus and reduce risks for later health concerns.

  4. Depressive symptoms and gait dysfunction in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandler, Tamar C; Wang, Cuiling; Oh-Park, Mooyeon; Holtzer, Roee; Verghese, Joe

    2012-05-01

    Assess the association between depressive symptoms (not meeting the criteria for major depression) and gait dysfunction in older adults. Cross-sectional study. Einstein Aging Study, a community-based longitudinal aging study. Six hundred ten nondemented and nondepressed community-residing adults age 70 and older. Depressive symptoms measured using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. To obtain a comprehensive assessment of gait, eight individual quantitative gait parameters were assessed: velocity (cm/s), stride length (cm), cadence (steps/min), swing phase (seconds), stance phase (seconds), double support phase (seconds), stride length variability (SD of stride length), and swing time variability (SD of swing time). Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to study the association of depressive symptoms with gait, adjusting for potential confounders including demographic variables, medical illnesses, and clinical gait abnormalities. Increased level of depressive symptoms was associated with worse velocity, stride, and swing time variability. The relationship of the remaining five gait variables with depressive symptoms was not significant in the fully adjusted models. Higher levels of depressive symptoms are associated with worse performance in specific quantitative gait variables in community-residing older adults.

  5. The relationship between sleep quality and depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dağ, Begüm; Kutlu, Fatma Yasemin

    2017-06-12

    While poor sleep quality and sleep problems are signs of depression in adolescents, depressive symptoms among this age group further deteriorate sleep quality. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between sleep quality and depressive symptoms in adolescents of 14 to 20 years of age. This study was conducted with a descriptive and cross-sectional research design. The sample group consisted of 313 adolescents in İstanbul, Turkey. The data were collected using a questionnaire form, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The mean BDI score of the adolescents was 12.99 ± 8.94 (range: 0-53) and 4.8% had severe depressive symptoms. The global PSQI score of the adolescents was 4.69 ± 2.87 (range: 0-16) and 63.6% had good sleep quality, whereas the remaining 36.4% had poor sleep quality. There was a moderate positive correlation between BDI and PSQI scores. The factors affecting the quality of sleep of adolescents were mild and moderate-severe depressive symptom level, smoking, and the presence of sleep problems in a family member. This study shows a relationship between sleep quality and depressive symptom levels of adolescents. The findings of the current research will contribute to the development of school wellbeing programs that will be prepared with the aim of improving sleep quality and reducing depressive symptoms.

  6. Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in elderly people. Longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterniti, Sabrina; Verdier-Taillefer, Marie-Hélène; Dufouil, Carole; Alpérovitch, Annick

    2002-11-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with cognitive decline in elderly people, but the nature of their temporal relationship remains equivocal. To test whether depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline in elderly people with normal cognition. The Center for Epidemiologic Study depression scale (CES-D) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were used to evaluate depressive symptomatology and cognitive functioning, respectively. A sample of 1003 persons aged 59-71 years and with a MMSE score of 26 or over was selected. Cognitive decline was defined as a drop of at least 3 points on the MMSE at 4-year follow-up. Baseline high levels of depressive symptoms predicted a higher risk of cognitive decline at 4-year follow-up. The MMSE score of participants with depression was more likely to fall below 26 at 2-year follow-up and to remain below at 4-year follow-up than the MMSE score of those without depressive symptoms. Persistent but not episodic depressive episodes were associated with cognitive decline. High levels of depressive symptoms, when persistent, are associated with cognitive decline in a sample of elderly people.

  7. Depression Symptom Patterns and Social Correlates among Chinese Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine and compare the depression symptoms pattern and social correlates in three groups: foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. This study used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES. The study sample consists of 599 Chinese Americans (468 for the foreign-born and 121 for the US-born and 4032 non-Hispanic whites. Factor analysis was used to examine the depression symptom patterns by each subgroup. Four depression symptoms dimensions were examined: negative affect, somatic symptoms, cognitive symptoms, and suicidality. Logistic regression was used to investigate the effects of sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, and education, physical health condition, and social relational factors (supports from and conflict with family and friends on specific types of depression symptoms separately for the three subgroups. The findings showed little differences in depression symptom patterns but clear variation in the social correlates to the four depression dimensions across the three ethnocultural groups, foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. Clinicians should take into account the sociocultural factors of patients when making diagnosis and suggesting treatments. In addition, psychiatrists, psychologists, or other mental health service providers should offer treatment and coping suggestions based on the specific symptom dimensions of patients, and patients’ ethnocultural backgrounds.

  8. Depression Symptom Patterns and Social Correlates among Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin

    2018-01-16

    The aim of this study is to examine and compare the depression symptoms pattern and social correlates in three groups: foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. This study used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES). The study sample consists of 599 Chinese Americans (468 for the foreign-born and 121 for the US-born) and 4032 non-Hispanic whites. Factor analysis was used to examine the depression symptom patterns by each subgroup. Four depression symptoms dimensions were examined: negative affect, somatic symptoms, cognitive symptoms, and suicidality. Logistic regression was used to investigate the effects of sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, and education), physical health condition, and social relational factors (supports from and conflict with family and friends) on specific types of depression symptoms separately for the three subgroups. The findings showed little differences in depression symptom patterns but clear variation in the social correlates to the four depression dimensions across the three ethnocultural groups, foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. Clinicians should take into account the sociocultural factors of patients when making diagnosis and suggesting treatments. In addition, psychiatrists, psychologists, or other mental health service providers should offer treatment and coping suggestions based on the specific symptom dimensions of patients, and patients' ethnocultural backgrounds.

  9. Family-Based Psychoeducation Programs for Prevention of Depression in Adolescents with Depressed Parents: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Basogul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the effects of family-based psychoeducation programs to the prevention depression for children of depressed parents and investigates participant, intervention, provider, and research designs. Family-based psychoeducation programs described by articles in several national and international databases were reviewed. Five studies were identified using this approach and are included in this review. The adolescents who participated in Family-Based Psychoeducation programs reported a significant decrease in symptoms of depression, internalizing and externalizing symptoms and increase in secondary control coping. Moreover, it was noted that there was an increase in positive parental skills and a moderate effect for episodes of depression of the parents who participated in the programs. Studies evaluating effects of family-based psychoeducation programs have indicated positive results to the prevention depression for children of depressed parents. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 265-279

  10. The Role of Masculinity and Depressive Symptoms in Predicting Suicidal Ideation in Homeless Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuchi, Matthew C

    2018-02-20

    Men's suicide rates may be influenced by difficulties recognizing externalizing depressive symptoms in men that adhere to hegemonic masculine gender role norms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of externalizing depressive symptoms, internalizing depressive symptoms, and hegemonic masculinity in predicting the existence and severity of suicidal ideation. Homeless men (n = 94) completed questionnaires at a resource center in the Rocky Mountain West US. Internalizing symptoms predicted the existence of suicidal ideation, and both externalizing and internalizing symptoms predicted increased severity of suicidal ideation. The masculine norms violence and playboy were correlated with men's suicidal ideation. An externalizing-internalizing model of predicting suicide in men and men's adherence to certain masculine gender role norms may be valuable to further efforts in suicide assessment and prevention.

  11. Distribution of Total Depressive Symptoms Scores and Each Depressive Symptom Item in a Sample of Japanese Employees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Tomitaka

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we reported that the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D in a general population is stable throughout middle adulthood and follows an exponential pattern except for at the lowest end of the symptom score. Furthermore, the individual distributions of 16 negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibit a common mathematical pattern. To confirm the reproducibility of these findings, we investigated the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores and 16 negative symptom items in a sample of Japanese employees.We analyzed 7624 employees aged 20-59 years who had participated in the Northern Japan Occupational Health Promotion Centers Collaboration Study for Mental Health. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D. The CES-D contains 20 items, each of which is scored in four grades: "rarely," "some," "much," and "most of the time." The descriptive statistics and frequency curves of the distributions were then compared according to age group.The distribution of total depressive symptoms scores appeared to be stable from 30-59 years. The right tail of the distribution for ages 30-59 years exhibited a linear pattern with a log-normal scale. The distributions of the 16 individual negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibited a common mathematical pattern which displayed different distributions with a boundary at "some." The distributions of the 16 negative symptom items from "some" to "most" followed a linear pattern with a log-normal scale.The distributions of the total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items in a Japanese occupational setting show the same patterns as those observed in a general population. These results show that the specific mathematical patterns of the distributions of total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items can be reproduced in an occupational population.

  12. Effect of Anti-inflammatory Treatment on Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Karl Ole; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    -controlled trials assessing the efficacy and adverse effects of pharmacologic anti-inflammatory treatment in adults with depressive symptoms, including those who fulfilled the criteria for depression. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD...... investigated cytokine inhibitors (n=2,004). The pooled effect estimate suggested that anti-inflammatory treatment reduced depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.57 to -0.11; I2=90%) compared with placebo. This effect was observed in studies including patients with depression (SMD, -0.54; 95% CI, -1.......08 to -0.01; I2=68%) and depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.27; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.01; I2=68%). The heterogeneity of the studies was not explained by differences in inclusion of clinical depression vs depressive symptoms or use of NSAIDs vs cytokine inhibitors. Subanalyses emphasized the antidepressant...

  13. Maternal depressive symptoms and child obesity in low-income urban families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Rachel S; Velazco, Nerissa K; Briggs, Rahil D; Racine, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and child weight status, obesity-promoting feeding practices, and activity-related behaviors in low-income urban families. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of mothers with 5-year-old children receiving pediatric care at a federally qualified community health center. We used regression analyses to examine the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms (trichotomized: none, mild, moderate to severe) and 1) child weight status; 2) obesity-promoting feeding practices, including mealtime practices and feeding styles; and 3) activity-related behaviors, including sleep time, screen time, and outdoor playtime. The sample included 401 mother-child pairs (78.3% response rate), with 23.4% of mothers reporting depressive symptoms (15.7% mild, 7.7% moderate to severe). Mothers with moderate to severe depressive symptoms were more likely to have overweight and obese children than mothers without depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 2.62; 95% confidence interval 1.02-6.70). Children of mildly depressed mothers were more likely to consume sweetened drinks and to eat out at restaurants and were less likely to eat breakfast than children of nondepressed mothers. Mothers with depressive symptoms were less likely to set limits, to use food as a reward, to restrict their child's intake, and to model healthy eating than nondepressed mothers. Children with depressed mothers had less sleep and outdoor playtime per day than children of nondepressed mothers. Maternal depressive symptoms are associated with child overweight and obese status and with several obesity-promoting practices. These results support the need for maternal depression screening in pediatric obesity prevention programs. Further research should explore how to incorporate needed mental health support. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 5-HTTLPR Moderates the Effect of Relational Peer Victimization on Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjet, Corina; Thompson, Renee J.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Relational peer victimization is associated with internalizing symptoms. Compared to boys, girls are more likely to be both relationally victimized by peers and distressed by the victimization. While previous studies have reported that a functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderates the effect of stressful life events on depressive symptoms, the present study is the first to evaluate the interaction of this polymorphism with relational peer victimization to predict level of depressive symptoms in young girls. Methods Participants were 78 girls ages 10 to 14 who had no current or past Axis I disorder. Girls were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR; peer victimization was assessed with the Social Experiences Questionnaire, and depressive symptoms with the Children's Depression Inventory. Results The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism alone did not predict level of depressive symptoms; the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and relational peer victimization, however, was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms. Follow-up analyses indicated that peer victimization significantly predicted level of depressive symptoms only for girls who were homozygous for the short allele, and not for girls homozygous for the long allele or who were heterozygous for the short and long alleles. Conclusions The findings support the diathesis-stress model of depression: having two 5-HTTLPR short alleles confers vulnerability to depressive symptoms in adolescent girls when they experience relational peer victimization. These findings also suggest that relational peer victimization, at least for girls with genetic vulnerability, is a significant source of stress and should be recognized in the monitoring and prevention of bullying. PMID:19754661

  15. Sex differences in patterns of relations between family interactions and depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smojver-Azić, Sanja; Bezinović, Petar

    2011-08-15

    To gain insight into the relations between protective/risk family interactions and depressive symptoms in adolescent boys and girls. A self-reported cross-sectional survey was conducted on a representative sample of 1191 secondary school students (617 girls and 574 boys) aged from 14 to 19 years, with a median of 16, from all secondary schools in the Primorsko-goranska County, Croatia in January and February 2010. Students reported their depressive symptoms, perceptions about the relationship with their mother and father, family activities, and parents' conflict resolution strategies. Data were analyzed by hierarchical multiple regression to calculate the effects of family supportive and harmful interactions on depressive symptoms in girls and boys. Depressive symptoms were reported often and very often by 19.1% of girls and 15.8% of boys. Girls' assessment of the family relations was significantly more positive than boys', including the assessment of family activities, constructive family conflict resolution, or father's and mother's warmth and affection. Multiple correlation analysis revealed that the examined family variables accounted for 16.3% of the variance of depressive symptoms in boys and for 17.2% in girls. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed a difference in the relation of family variables and depressive symptoms between boys and girls. Depressive symptoms in girls were more linked to the lack of protective family factors (9.9% of the explained variance in girls vs. 5.5% in boys), while depressive symptoms in boys were more linked to the existence of harmful family factors (10.8% of the explained variance in boys vs.7.3% in girls). Family activities and the father's warmth and affection have a higher significance for girls than for boys, while destructive parental conflict and the mother's aggression and hostility are equally significant for both girls and boys. These results indicate the targets for family-based preventive and intervention

  16. Vilazodone in the treatment of major depressive disorder: efficacy across symptoms and severity of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif; Sambunaris, Angelo; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam; Robinson, Donald S

    2014-03-01

    Vilazodone is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. To assess the efficacy of vilazodone across a range of symptoms and severities of depression, data from two phase III, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were pooled for analysis. Overall improvement in depressive symptoms measured using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was statistically significant (Pdepression subgroups, with no consistent pattern associated with depression severity. These findings support the efficacy of vilazodone across a broad range of depressive symptoms and severities for the treatment of major depressive disorder.

  17. The effect of MElatonin on Depressive symptoms, Anxiety, CIrcadian and Sleep disturbances in patients after acute coronary syndrome (MEDACIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael Tvilling; Isbrand, Anders; Andersen, Ulla Overgaard

    2017-01-01

    -wake disturbances are frequent. The objective of the MEDACIS trial is to investigate whether prophylactic treatment with melatonin has a preventive effect on depression, depressive and anxiety symptoms, sleep, and circadian disturbances following ACS. METHODS/DESIGN: "The effect of MElatonin and Depressive symptoms...... melatonin or placebo for a 12-week period. Development and severity of depressive symptoms will be evaluated using Major Depression Inventory every 2 weeks with the purpose of investigating the potential preventive effect of melatonin on depressive symptoms. DISCUSSION: Previously, only selective serotonin....... In this regard, melatonin may have advantages due to its low toxicity as well as its proven anxiolytic and hypnotic effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02451293 . Registered on 12 May 2015. EudraCT nr. 2015-002116-32....

  18. Stress sensitivity interacts with depression history to predict depressive symptoms among youth: prospective changes following first depression onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technow, Jessica R; Hazel, Nicholas A; Abela, John R Z; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2015-04-01

    Predictors of depressive symptoms may differ before and after the first onset of major depression due to stress sensitization. Dependent stressors, or those to which characteristics of individuals contribute, have been shown to predict depressive symptoms in youth. The current study sought to clarify how stressors' roles may differ before and after the first depressive episode. Adolescents (N = 382, aged 11 to 15 at baseline) were assessed at baseline and every 3 months over the course of 2 years with measures of stressors and depressive symptoms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted every 6 months to assess for clinically significant depressive episodes. Hierarchical linear modeling showed a significant interaction between history of depression and idiographic fluctuations in dependent stressors to predict prospective elevations of symptoms, such that dependent stressors were more predictive of depressive symptoms after onset of disorder. Independent stressors predicted symptoms, but the strength of the association did not vary by depression history. These results suggest a synthesis of dependent stress and stress sensitization processes that might maintain inter-episode depressive symptoms among youth with a history of clinical depression.

  19. Longitudinal change instead of baseline testosterone predicts depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kische, Hanna; Pieper, Lars; Venz, John; Klotsche, Jens; März, Winfried; Koch-Gromus, Uwe; Pittrow, David; Lehnert, Hendrik; Silber, Sigmund; Stalla, G K; Zeiher, Andreas M; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Haring, Robin

    2018-03-01

    The association between total testosterone (T) and depression mostly relies on single sex hormone assessment and remains inconclusive. Thus, we investigated the comparative predictive performance of baseline T and change in T with development of depressive symptoms and incident depressive episodes. We used data from 6493 primary care patients (2653 men and 3840 women) of the DETECT study (Diabetes Cardiovascular Risk-Evaluation: Targets and Essential Data for Commitment of Treatment), including four-year follow-up, repeated immunoassay-based measurement of serum T and depressive symptoms assessed by the Depression Screening Questionnaire (DSQ). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of baseline T and one-year change in T with prevalent and incident depression were investigated using age- and multivariable-adjusted regression models. Baseline T showed no association with prevalent or incident depressive symptoms and episodes in both sexes. In men, a positive change in T (higher T at one-year follow-up compared to baseline) was associated with a lower burden of depressive symptoms (β-coefficient per unit change in T: -0.17; 95% CI: -0.31 to -0.04) and lower risk of incident depressive symptoms (odds ratio per unit change in T: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.72-0.98) at four-year follow-up. In women, the association of T change with incident depressive episodes was rendered non-significant after multivariable adjustment. The present study observed a sex-specific inverse association of T change, but not baseline T, with increased depressive symptom burden in men. Future studies should assess longitudinal changes in sex hormone status as predictor of adverse health outcomes related to low T. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexual self-schema and depressive symptoms after prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Carpenter, Kristen M

    2015-04-01

    The years following prostate cancer treatment are characterized by changes in sexual functioning and risk for depressive symptoms. Sexual self-schema (SSS) is a cognitive generalization about sexual aspects of the self that are associated with sexual behavior, affect, and the processing of sexually relevant information. This study tested if men's SSS moderates the impact of sexual morbidity on depressive symptoms. Men (N = 66) treated for localized prostate cancer in the preceding 2 years were assessed at T1 and 4 months later (T2). Questionnaires included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Sexual Self-schema Scale for Men, Sexual Experience Scale, and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite. Regressions controlled for age, sexual activity, and T1 depressive symptoms revealed no significant effect of SSS on depressive symptoms; however, better sexual functioning was related to fewer depressive symptoms (B = -0.25, p < 0.05). Results showed significant interactions between SSS and sexual outcomes. Among men with high SSS, poor sexual functioning was associated with increased depressive symptoms; loss of sexual function was particularly distressing. There was no significant effect of sexual functioning. Among men with high SSS, there was an inverse relationship between sexual engagement and depressive symptoms. Among men with lower SSS, greater frequency of sexual behavior was associated with increased depressive symptoms. SSS may be an important individual difference in determining the impact of sexual morbidity on psychological adjustment. Men high on SSS are more vulnerable to psychological consequences of lower sexual functioning and less engagement in sexual activities. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Anxiety and depression symptoms in recurrent painful renal lithiasis colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.H.M.P. Diniz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001, anxiety trait (P = 0.005 and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95%CI = 1.31-10.62. The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5% of respondents with moderate and 6% with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002 and depression (P < 0.001 and the number of recurrent colic episodes (anxiety-state: P = 0.016 and anxiety-trait: P < 0.001. These data suggest an association between recurrent renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.

  2. Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms in Canadian Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A; Gorter, Jan Willem; Boyle, Michael H

    2015-11-01

    We identified courses of depressive symptoms in an epidemiological sample of emerging adults. We used latent class growth modeling to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms measured by the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during a 14-year follow-up of 2825 Canadian youths aged 10 to 25 years enrolled in the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth between 1994 and 2009. After adjustment for youth, parent, and family factors, the 3 distinct trajectories of depressive symptoms were minimal (55%; CES-D  18). All trajectories exhibited a parallel course, with peak symptoms at 15 to 17 years of age. Subclinical and clinical symptoms were more common than minimal symptoms in female youths and in respondents with lower self-concept, lower socioeconomic status, poorer interpersonal relations, and chronic health conditions (P < .01). Among emerging adults, trajectories of depressive symptoms do not trend upward or downward, and variables associated with identified trajectories demonstrated dose-response effects that agreed with vulnerability-stress theories of depression.

  3. Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms in Canadian Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Jan Willem; Boyle, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We identified courses of depressive symptoms in an epidemiological sample of emerging adults. Methods. We used latent class growth modeling to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms measured by the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during a 14-year follow-up of 2825 Canadian youths aged 10 to 25 years enrolled in the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth between 1994 and 2009. Results. After adjustment for youth, parent, and family factors, the 3 distinct trajectories of depressive symptoms were minimal (55%; CES-D  18). All trajectories exhibited a parallel course, with peak symptoms at 15 to 17 years of age. Subclinical and clinical symptoms were more common than minimal symptoms in female youths and in respondents with lower self-concept, lower socioeconomic status, poorer interpersonal relations, and chronic health conditions (P < .01). Conclusions. Among emerging adults, trajectories of depressive symptoms do not trend upward or downward, and variables associated with identified trajectories demonstrated dose–response effects that agreed with vulnerability–stress theories of depression. PMID:26378840

  4. Cardiometabolic dysregulation and cognitive decline: potential role of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Norbert; Deschênes, Sonya S; Burns, Rachel J; Danna, Sofia M; Franco, Oscar H; Ikram, M Arfan; Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Tiemeier, Henning

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have examined associations of cardiometabolic factors with depression and cognition separately. Aims To determine if depressive symptoms mediate the association between cardiometabolic factors and cognitive decline in two community studies. Data for the analyses were drawn from the Rotterdam Study, the Netherlands (n = 2940) and the Whitehall II study, UK (n = 4469). Mediation analyses suggested a direct association between cardiometabolic factors and cognitive decline and an indirect association through depression: poorer cardiometabolic status at time 1 was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms at time 2 (standardised regression coefficient 0.07 and 0.06, respectively), which, in turn, was associated with greater cognitive decline between time 2 and time 3 (standardised regression coefficient of -0.15 and -0.41, respectively). Evidence from two independent cohort studies suggest an association between cardiometabolic dysregulation and cognitive decline and that depressive symptoms tend to precede this decline. Declaration of interest None.

  5. RELATIONSHIP OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY EFFECTS AND HOMEWORK IN AN INDICATED PREVENTION OF DEPRESSION INTERVENTION FOR NON-PROFESSIONAL CAREGIVERS (.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Patricia; Vázquez, Fernando L; Hermida, Elisabet; Díaz, Olga; Torres, Ángela

    2015-06-01

    Activities designed to be performed outside of the intervention are considered an essential aspect of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, these have received little attention in interventions aimed at individuals with subclinical depressive symptoms who do not yet meet diagnostic criteria for depression (indicated prevention). In this study, the completion of tasks given as homework and their relationship with post-treatment depressive symptoms was with relation to an indicated prevention of depression intervention. Eighty-nine female non-professional caregivers recruited from an official registry completed an intervention involving 11 homework tasks. Tasks performed were recorded and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Among caregivers, 80.9% completed 9-11 tasks. The number of tasks performed was associated with post-treatment depressive symptoms, with 9 being optimal for clinically significant improvement. These findings highlight the relationship between homework and post-treatment depressive symptoms.

  6. Development of health and depressive symptoms among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Johan Hviid; Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    with poorer SRH and more depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Self-rated health and depressive symptoms changed to the worse among Danish adolescents from age 15 to 18 years. Negative changes in several lifestyle factors were found to accompany the deterioration of health. This result stresses the intrinsic......While the existence of social inequality in health in childhood as well as among adults is well established, research of mechanisms underlying this inequality is still sparse. The study aim was to report on the development of self-rated health and depressive symptoms from age 15 to18 years......) deteriorated slightly in adolescents (-0.24; 95% CI = -0.28 to -0.19) across all socioeconomic status (SES) groups and depressive symptoms increased (0.64; 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.75). High household income was protective for decrease in SRH (0.62; 0.43 - 0.91). Negative life-style changes were associated...

  7. Subclinical depressive symptoms during late midlife and structural brain alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Sørensen, Lauge; Rozing, Maarten

    2018-01-01

    at age 51, 56, and 59 years, magnetic resonance imaging was performed at age 59. All data processing was performed using the Freesurfer software package except for the texture-scores that were computed using in-house software. Structural brain alterations and associations between depressive symptoms......We explored whether depressive symptoms measured three times during midlife were associated with structural brain alterations quantified using magnetic resonance imaging measurements of volume, cortical thickness, and intensity texture. In 192 men born in 1953 with depressive symptoms measured...... and brain structure outcomes were tested using Pearson's correlation, t test, and linear regression. Depressive symptoms at age 51 showed clear inverse correlations with total gray matter, pallidum, and hippocampal volume with the strongest estimate for hippocampal volume (r = -.22, p 

  8. Motor control assessment of community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Eduardo Antunes Bicalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMSThe purpose of this study was to investigate how depressive symptoms mediate different motor control requirements in elderlies and to assess the concurring effects fomented by the interaction between aging and depressive symptoms, providing indirect measures of brain functionality. METHODS Sixty-eight elderlies were paired in terms of age and gender and were equally distributed into depressed and nondepressed groups, according to their score on the Beck Depression Questionnaire. The participants performed the Grooved Pegboard Test placing and withdrawing pegs while execution time and error rate were measured. RESULTS This investigation revealed that depressive symptoms exert a broad effect upon motor control, although that the symptom intensity, as well as the interaction between aging and depression intensity, were exclusively correlated with withdrawal task, suggesting that there is a greater effect upon motor acts with higher frontal lobe requirements. CONCLUSION The discrimination of motor control aspects provides a valuable contribution for the understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of the interaction between aging and depression as it represents an indirect measure of cerebral dysfunction. Further, these findings may still have clinical implications, as they can promote more rational approaches to the elaboration of preventive measures that help maintain the functional capability of depressed elderlies.

  9. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    OpenAIRE

    Lipps, Garth; Lowe, Gillian A; Gibson, Roger C; Halliday, Sharon; Morris, Amrie; Clarke, Nelson; Wilson, Rosemarie N

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academ...

  10. Associations of dietary intake and plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid with prenatal depressive symptoms in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Mie; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Yatsuki, Yuko; Murayama, Ryoko; Severinsson, Elisabeth; Haruna, Megumi

    2015-06-01

    The association between depression and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid, continues to gain focus. In this study, we examined whether dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid were associated with depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Healthy Japanese women with singleton pregnancies were recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo between 2010 and 2012. The depressive-symptom group included participants with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores greater than eight. Of the 329 participants, 19 (5.8%) had depressive symptoms. Lower plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration was significantly associated with prenatal depressive symptoms. Women with depressive symptoms had a higher rate of pregnancy-associated nausea than those with non-depressive symptoms (52.6% vs 28.7%, respectively). Although we adjusted for the presence of pregnancy-associated nausea, dietary fatty acid intake was not associated with depressive symptoms in the multiple logistic regression analyses. Further large studies would be required to examine any preventive effect of dietary fatty acid intake on depressive symptoms among pregnant women. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Soybeans or Soybean Products Consumption and Depressive Symptoms in Older Residents in Rural Northeast China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S; Guo, X; Yang, H; Zheng, L; Sun, Y

    2015-11-01

    Depression is one of the most common mental disorders among elderly subjects. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the association between soybeans consumption and depressive symptoms among older residents in rural Northeast China. Cross-sectional study. A representative sample of the rural Northeast residents. This survey was conducted from July 2012 to August 2013 which randomly selected and examined a total of 1717 residents aged ≥ 65 years from the rural Northeast China. All participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Information on demographic and lifestyle characteristics and blood biochemical indexes were collected by well-trained personnel. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in the elderly was 8.9%. Women had significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than men (13.3% vs.4.6%, Psoybeans ≥4times/week had statically lower possibility to have depressive symptoms than those rarely consuming (3.6%vs. 12.5%, Psoybeans or soybean products [OR (95%CI): 0.36 (0.15,0.87) for 2-3times/week and OR (95%CI):0.50 (0.34,0.74) for ≥4times/week] significantly decreased the risk of depressive symptoms among elderly in rural Northeast China. Women had significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than men in rural China. Individuals who rarely consume soybeans or soybean products are more likely to suffer depressive symptoms. Rural elderly residents should be cautiously screened to prevent or treat depression.

  12. The associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkens, L.H.H.; Strien, T. van; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Visser, M.; Lä hteenmä ki, L.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite - with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. Methods: Data were collected in Denmark

  13. Associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkens, L.H.H.; Strien, T. van; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Visser, M.; Lähteenmäki, L.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite - with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. Methods: Data were collected in Denmark

  14. Associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkens, L.H.H.; van Strien, T.; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, Brenda; Visser, Marjolein; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite-with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. METHODS: Data were collected in Denmark (n =

  15. The Effectiveness of Aromatherapy for Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Shirley Pui-Ching; He, Wanjia; Chow, Jason Ka-Wing; Tsang, Hector Wing-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the greatest health concerns affecting 350 million people globally. Aromatherapy is a popular CAM intervention chosen by people with depression. Due to the growing popularity of aromatherapy for alleviating depressive symptoms, in-depth evaluation of the evidence-based clinical efficacy of aromatherapy is urgently needed. Purpose. This systematic review aims to provide an analysis of the clinical evidence on the efficacy of aromatherapy for depressive symptoms on any type of patients. Methods. A systematic database search was carried out using predefined search terms in 5 databases: AMED, CINHAL, CCRCT, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Outcome measures included scales measuring depressive symptoms levels. Results. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included and two administration methods for the aromatherapy intervention including inhaled aromatherapy (5 studies) and massage aromatherapy (7 studies) were identified. Seven studies showed improvement in depressive symptoms. Limitations. The quality of half of the studies included is low, and the administration protocols among the studies varied considerably. Different assessment tools were also employed among the studies. Conclusions. Aromatherapy showed potential to be used as an effective therapeutic option for the relief of depressive symptoms in a wide variety of subjects. Particularly, aromatherapy massage showed to have more beneficial effects than inhalation aromatherapy. PMID:28133489

  16. Driving in mild cognitive impairment: The role of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratis, Ion N; Andronas, Nikos; Kontaxopoulou, Dionysia; Fragkiadaki, Stella; Pavlou, Dimosthenis; Papatriantafyllou, John; Economou, Alexandra; Yannis, George; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G

    2017-07-04

    Previous studies indicate a negative association between depression and driving fitness in the general population. Our goal was to cover a gap in the literature and to explore the link between depressive symptoms and driving behavior in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) through the use of a driving simulator experiment. Twenty-four individuals with MCI (mean age = 67.42, SD = 7.13) and 23 cognitively healthy individuals (mean age = 65.13, SD = 7.21) were introduced in the study. A valid driving license and regular car use served as main inclusion criteria. Data collection included a neurological/neuropsychological assessment and a driving simulator evaluation. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Significant interaction effects indicating a greater negative impact of depressive symptoms in drivers with MCI than in cognitively healthy drivers were observed in the case of various driving indexes, namely, average speed, accident risk, side bar hits, headway distance, headway distance variation, and lateral position variation. The associations between depressive symptoms and driving behavior remained significant after controlling for daytime sleepiness and cognition. Depressive symptoms could be a factor explaining why certain patients with MCI present altered driving skills. Therefore, interventions for treating the depressive symptoms of individuals with MCI could prove to be beneficial regarding their driving performance.

  17. Effects of Square-Stepping Exercise on balance and depressive symptoms in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Rodrigues Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was analyze the effects of Square-Stepping Exercise (SSE on depressive symptoms, balance and functional mobility in older adults. Participants were distributed into two groups: Trained Group (TG, who performed a 16-week intervention with SSE and Control Group (CG, who performed only evaluations. The Berg Balance Scale and Time Up and Go Test (TUG constituted the evaluation protocol to verify balance and functional mobility. Geriatric Depression Scale-short form (GDS-15 was applied for measure depressive symptoms. Evaluations were realized pre and post 16-week. Significant improvements were observed in the TG with the maintenance of GDS-15 scores and on the time to perform the TUG test which reflects better functional mobility than the CG. This could lead to conclude that the SSE is an important tool for improve balance, prevent falls and decrease depression symptoms.

  18. Association between hearing loss and depressive symptoms in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Andréa Krüger; Freitas, Cíntia de La Rocha; Soldera, Cristina Loureiro Chaves; Bós, Angelo José Gonçalves; Santos, Ana Maria Pujol Vieira dos; Dornelles, Sílvia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Hearing loss causes difficulties in speech understanding, which leads away from the family and social environment. This isolation may be associated with depressive disorders. Type of study: clinical prospective. Objective: To determine the association between hearing loss and depression in a group of non-institutionalized elderly. Method: The sample consisted of individuals aged over 60 years, undergoing complete audiological evaluation and screening for depressive symptoms with...

  19. Depressive symptoms in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S; Andersen, Christina M; Denollet, Johan

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and co-morbid depression are at greater risk of poor quality of life and premature death. We examined if treatment expectations predict depressive symptoms 12months post implant. METHODS: First-time implant patients from...

  20. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms among Urban Adolescents of South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, Rani; Subbaiah, Karunanidhi

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to find the prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents studying in schools in Chennai. Settings and Design: The study was a school based cross-sectional survey in which data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire from adolescents studying in classes X, XI and XII. Material: Beck Depression Inventory…

  1. Depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged ≥60 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factor associations were tested using Pearson's χ2 tests and logistic regression. Results. There were 1 008 respondents (mean (standard deviation) age 68.9 (7.4) years), of whom 503 (49.1%) did not meet criteria for depressive symptoms. Of the 505 (50.1%) respondents who met the CES-D 10 criteria for depressive ...

  2. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Depression in adolescents is a matter of concern because of its high prevalence, potential recurrence and impairment of functioning in the affected individual. The study sought to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Nairobi (Kenya) public secondary schools; make a ...

  3. Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Do Learning Difficulties Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether learning difficulties play a role in depressive symptoms, 658 Finnish adolescents were asked to complete scales for depression three times during the transition to post-comprehensive education. They also reported on their learning difficulties and feelings of inadequacy as a student. The results showed that learning difficulties…

  4. Symptom Dimensions of Depression and Anxiety and the Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppino, Floriana S.; Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Bouvy, Paul F.; Giltay, Erik J.; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: To investigate the association between depression and anxiety symptoms and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), using a dimensional approach. The association between depression and anxiety, on the one hand, and the MetSyn as a cluster or its individual components, on the other hand, is

  5. Predictors of Depressive Symptoms among Inpatient Substance Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Naelys; Green, Diane; Horton, Eloise G.

    2009-01-01

    The existing literature indicates high comorbidity rates between depressive disorders and substance abuse disorders. Despite these elevated rates, there is limited empirical work devoted to understanding predictors of depressive symptoms among substance abusers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of spirituality, believing in God's…

  6. Depressive Symptoms Before, During, and After Delirium: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Scott; Rustad, James K; Catalano, Glenn; Stern, Theodore A; Kozel, F Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Delirium and depression are often thought of as mutually exclusive conditions. However, several studies cite depression as a risk factor for delirium whereas others note that patients with delirium often manifest depressive symptoms. Whether these depressive symptoms persist after delirium resolves remains unclear. This article reviews published studies that have investigated the relationship between depression and delirium. Literature searches on PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and PsycInfo were conducted using search criteria "delirium" AND "depress⁎" as keywords or MeSH terms. Of 722 search results, 10 prospective cohort studies were identified for inclusion. These studies were categorized regarding the time of assessment for depressive symptoms. Included studies varied greatly (regarding their index population, their methods of assessment, and their timing of assessments). Of the studies, 3 involved patients undergoing hip fracture repair. They demonstrated more severe depressive symptoms both during delirium and after delirium ended. Conversely, the other studies did not find any statistically significant correlations between the 2 conditions. The literature suggests a correlation between depression and delirium in patients with hip fracture. Whether other specific populations have higher comorbidity is unclear. Unfortunately, studies varied widely in their methods, precluding a meta-analysis. Nonetheless, our review provides a foundation for future research. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Depressive symptoms and weight in midlife women: the role of stress eating and menopause status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Dana R; Dautovich, Natalie D

    2017-10-01

    Obesity is prevalent in midlife women and contributes to poor health outcomes. Understanding mechanisms leading to weight gain in this population is of importance for prevention and intervention. The current study investigated the association between depressive symptoms and weight in midlife women by examining stress eating as a mediator between depressive symptoms and weight; and menopause status as a moderator of the associations of depressive symptoms, stress eating, and weight. An archival analysis was performed using data from the Midlife in the United States II study. The sample consisted of 815 premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Measures included the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form, a coping questionnaire, and body mass index. Moderated mediation analyses were conducted with ordinary least squares path analyses using Hayes' PROCESS macro. Controlling for covariates, depressive symptoms were not directly associated with weight (b = -0.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.4, 0.1). However, stress eating was a significant mediator between depressive symptoms and weight (b = 0.3, 95% CI 0.06, 0.3).The mediation was conditional on menopausal stage (b = 0.2, 95% CI 0.05, 0.4), with depressive symptoms and stress eating significantly associated in postmenopausal, not premenopausal women (b = 0.3, 95% CI 0.2, 0.5). Both stress eating and menopause status significantly contributed to the depressive symptom-weight association. Psychosocial factors play an important role in the association between depressive symptoms and weight, and the results highlight the need to focus on both behavioral factors, and also menopause status, when identifying who is at risk for the development of poor weight outcomes.

  8. Depressive Symptoms and Conversational Self-Focus in Adolescents’ Friendships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.; Rose, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    This multi-method, longitudinal study considered the interplay among depressive symptoms, aversive interpersonal behavior, and interpersonal rejection in early and middle adolescents’ friendships. In particular, the study examined a newly identified interpersonal process, conversational self-focus (i.e., the tendency to redirect conversations about problems to focus on the self). Traditional interpersonal theories of depression suggest that individuals with depressive symptoms engage in aversive behaviors (such as conversational self-focus) and are rejected by others. However, in the current study, not all adolescents with depressive symptoms engaged in conversational self-focus and were rejected by friends. Instead, conversational self-focus moderated prospective relations of depressive symptoms and later friendship problems such that only adolescents with depressive symptoms who engaged in conversational self-focus were rejected by friends. These findings are consistent with current conceptualizations of the development of psychopathology that highlight heterogeneity among youth who share similar symptoms and the possibility of multifinality of outcomes. PMID:25640911

  9. Depressive symptoms associated with hereditary Alzheimer's disease: a case description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mónica Yicette Sánchez; Vargas, Paula Alejandra Osorio; Ramos, Lucero Rengifo; Velandia, Rafael Alarcón

    The authors describe a family group studied by the Centro de Biología Molecular y Biotecnología, and the Clínica de la Memoria, las Demencias y el Envejecimiento (Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Colombia), and evaluate the association of depressive symptoms with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This family presented a hereditary pattern for AD characterized by an early onset of dementia symptoms, a long preclinical depressive course, and, once the first symptoms of dementia appeared, a rapid progression to severe cognitive function impairment. The authors found a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in this family and propose that the symptoms could be an important risk factor for developing AD in the presence of other risk factors such as the APOE E4 allele.

  10. The scars of childhood adversity: minor stress sensitivity and depressive symptoms in remitted recurrently depressed adult patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Kok

    Full Text Available Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily stress and its predictive value on prospectively assessed depressive symptoms in recurrently depressed patients.Daily stress was assessed in recurrently depressed adult patients, enrolled into two randomized trials while remitted. The reported intensity and frequency of dependent and independent daily stress was assessed at baseline. Independent stress is externally generated, for example an accident happening to a friend, while dependent stress is internally generated, for example getting into a fight with a neighbor. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed with childhood adversity, independent and dependent daily stress as predictor variables of prospectively measured depressive symptoms after three months of follow-up (n = 138.We found that childhood adversity was not significantly associated with a higher frequency and intensity of daily stress. The intensity of both independent and dependent daily stress was predictive of depressive symptom levels at follow-up (unadjusted models respectively: B = 0.47, t = 2.05, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 0.02-0.92; B = 0.29, t = 2.20, p = 0.028, 95% CI = 0.03-0.55. No associations were found between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms at follow-up.No evidence was found supporting stress sensitization due to the experience of childhood adversity in this recurrently depressed but remitted patient group. Nevertheless, our research indicates that daily stress might be a target for preventive treatment.Trial A: Nederlands Trial Register NTR1907 Trial B: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2503.

  11. Attributional style and depressive symptoms in a male prison sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Sullivan, Danny J.; O’Sullivan, Maura E.; O’Connell, Brendan D.; O’Reilly, Ken; Sarma, Kiran M.

    2018-01-01

    The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI). Severity of self-reported depressive symptoms in the present sample was comparable to other prison and clinical samples, but higher than community samples. Participants were more severely affected by depressive symptoms than anxiety. The original attributional dimensions (i.e. internal, stable, and global) predicted a significant amount of variance in depression, but the model was not significant after controlling for anxiety. A subsequent regression model, comprising attributional dimensions for both negative events and positive events including a measure of ‘uncontrollability’, accounted for 35% of the variance in depression and the model retained significance while controlling for anxiety. An attributional model of depression may be relevant to the prison population and could provide a valid insight into the development and treatment of depressive symptoms in prisoners. The findings are interpreted in relation to previous research and implications for theory, clinical practice, and rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:29444084

  12. Freqency of depressive symptoms among grammar school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Vesel

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available On a sample of 180 pupils (90 boys, 90 girls of Grammar school Kočevje a frequency of depressive symptoms among adolescents has been researched as well as the impact of gender, learning achievements and age on a depressive reaction phenomenon. A Depressive Moods Scale (Vesel, 1999 has been used, which is very reliable (0,93. A factor analysis has shown that it measures one common factor - depressive reactions, which illustrate 31 % variance. It has been established that one third of pupils are experiencing depressive symptoms frequently or very frequently. Disappointment with oneself because of one's own mistakes is the most frequent, then concentration difficulties and rambling of thoughts, which have been frequently or very frequently experienced by 40 % of pupils. Among five groups of depressive symptoms, cognitive and emotional ones are the most frequent. A high score on the Depressive Moods Scale has been achieved by 10 % of boys and 32 % of girls included in our sample, which shows that girls have more difficulties in experiencing depressive reactions, while learning achievements as well as age do not seem to have any impact on differences in experiencing depressive reactions.

  13. Sleep Disturbance Predicts Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depressive Symptoms: A Cohort Study of Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fang; Zhou, Ya; Liu, Xianchen

    2017-07-01

    To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between sleep disturbance and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms in a large cohort of adolescents exposed to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. Participants were 1,573 adolescents (mean age at initial survey = 15.0 years, SD = 1.3 years; 46% male) in the Wenchuan Earthquake Adolescent Health Cohort (WEAHC) in Dujiangyan, China, 20 km away from the east epicenter. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Self-Rating Scale, and Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children were used to assess participants' sleep, PTSD symptoms, and depressive symptoms, respectively, at 12 months (T12m) and 24 months (T24m) after the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12, 2008. At T12m and T24m, 38.3% and 37.5% of participants reported sleep disturbance, 22.5% and 14.0% reported PTSD symptoms, and 41.0% and 38.3% reported depressive symptoms, respectively. The prevalence rates of PTSD and depressive symptoms at T12m and T24m significantly increased with sleep disturbance and short sleep duration. After adjusting for demographics, earthquake exposure, and PTSD/depressive symptoms at T12m, sleep disturbance at T12m was significantly associated with increased risk for PTSD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.80; 95% CI, 1.17-2.75) and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.14-2.02) at T24m. Furthermore, sleep disturbance predicted the persistence of PTSD (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.43-3.85) and depressive symptoms (OR = 2.41; 95% CI, 1.80-3.24). Sleep disturbance, PTSD, and depressive symptoms were prevalent and persistent in adolescents at 12 and 24 months after exposure to the Wenchuan earthquake. Sleep disturbance predicts the development and persistence of PTSD and depressive symptoms. Early assessment and treatment of sleep disturbance may be an important strategy for prevention and intervention of PTSD and depression in adolescent trauma survivors. © Copyright 2017 Physicians

  14. Coping strategies as mediator variables between explanatory styles and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Sanjuan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to analyze the relationships among explanatory styles, coping strategies and depressive symptoms. Path analyses conducted with data of 234 individuals showed that Negative Explanatory Style (tendency to explain negative outcomes through internal, stable, and global causes had both a positive direct effect on depressive symptoms, and an indirect effect on them through the use of avoidant strategies. On the contrary, Enhancing Explanatory Style (tendency to explain positive outcomes through internal, stable, and global causes had negative direct and indirect effects on these symptoms, but in this case, the indirect effect occurs through the use of problem solving and positive cognitive restructuring coping and the non-use of avoidant strategies. As a whole, the results suggest that to prevent the onset of depressive symptoms or to reduce them once they appear, enhancing explanatory style and problem solving and positive cognitive restructuring strategies should be promoted.

  15. Depressive symptoms and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in women after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaers, Stefanie; Waschke, Melanie; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the course of psychological problems in women from late pregnancy to six months postpartum, the rates of psychiatric, especially depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms and possible related antecedent variables. During late pregnancy, one to three days postpartum, six weeks and six months postpartum, 47 of the 60 participating women completed a battery of questionnaires including the General Health Questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and the PTSD Symptom Scale. In general, most women recovered from psychiatric and somatic problems over the period of investigation. However, depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms in particular were not found to decline significantly. Six weeks postpartum, 22% of the women had depressive symptoms, with this figure remaining at 21.3% six months postpartum. In addition, 6% of the women studied reported clinically significant PTSD symptoms at six weeks postpartum with 14.9% reporting such symptoms at six months postpartum. The most important predictor for depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms was the block variable "anxiety in late pregnancy". Other predictors were the variables "psychiatric symptoms in late pregnancy", "critical life events" and the "experience of delivery". The results of our study show a high prevalence rate of psychiatric symptoms in women after childbirth and suggest, besides the experience of the delivery itself, a vulnerability or predisposing history that makes the development of psychiatric symptoms after childbirth more probable.

  16. Genetic Predictors of Depressive Symptoms in the Look AHEAD Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffery, Jeanne M; Papandonatos, George D; Faulconbridge, Lucy F; Erar, Bahar; Peter, Inga; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Anderson, Andrea; Wadden, Thomas A; Wing, Rena R

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have found elevated depressive symptoms among individuals with Type 2 diabetes, yet the mechanisms remain unclear. We examined whether genetic loci previously associated with depressive symptoms predict depressive symptoms among overweight/obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes or change in depressive symptoms during behavioral weight loss. The Illumina CARe iSelect (IBC) chip and Cardiometabochip were characterized in 2118 overweight or obese participants with Type 2 diabetes from Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), a randomized trial to determine the effects of intensive life-style intervention and diabetes support and education on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Primary analyses focused on baseline Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores and depressive symptom change at 1 year. Of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six loci, three a priori SNPs in two loci (chromosome 5: rs60271; LBR: rs2230419, rs1011319) were associated with baseline BDI scores, but in the opposite direction of prior research. In joint analysis of 90,003 IBC and Cardiometabochip SNPs, rs1543654 in the region of KCNE1 predicted change in BDI scores at Year 1 in diabetes support and education (β = -1.05, standard error [SE] = 0.21, p = 6.9 × 10(-7)) at the level of chip-wide significance, while also showing a nominal association with baseline BDI (β = 0.35, SE = 0.16, p = .026). Adjustment for antidepressant medication and/or limiting analyses to non-Hispanic white individuals did not meaningfully alter results. Previously reported genetic associations with depressive symptoms did not replicate in this cohort of overweight/obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes. We identified KCNE1 as a potential novel locus associated with depressive symptoms.

  17. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipps, Garth; Lowe, Gillian A; Gibson, Roger C; Halliday, Sharon; Morris, Amrie; Clarke, Nelson; Wilson, Rosemarie N

    2012-09-21

    The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Vincent.

  18. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipps Garth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs. Nearly half (52.1% of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p  Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Vincent.

  19. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St

  20. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may ...

  1. Pattern of somatic symptoms in anxiety and depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the pattern of somatic symptoms in anxiety and depressive disorders. Design: Cross Sectional Comparative study Place of Study: Department of Psychiatry Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Duration of Study: From May to November 2002. Patients and Methods: Patients were divided in Group I of anxiety and group II of depression. Fifty patients considered in each group by convenience sampling. The organic basis of their symptoms was ruled out. The patterns of their somatic symptoms and other information like educational and economic status were recorded on Semi Structured Proforma. The patient's diagnosis was made on schedule based ICD-10 research criteria. The severity of anxiety and depression was assessed by using HARS and HDRS respectively. The pattern of somatic symptoms in both groups was then analyzed by the urdu version of Bradford Somatic Inventory. Patterns of somatic complaints were then analyzed by chi square test. Results: Out of 100 patients we placed 50 each in group I (anxiety) and group II (Depression). Males were higher in depression whereas females were higher in anxiety disorder group. P-value for headache was 0.017 while in rest of the somatic symptoms it was insignificant ranging from 0.4 to 1. Conclusion: We found that the patterns of somatic symptoms are present in both the groups of anxiety and depression like symptoms related to musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal system were commonly observed in cases of depression whereas symptoms related to autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system is more significantly somatized in patients of anxiety. A larger sample is required for further studies to get better results. (author)

  2. Maternal depressive symptoms, toddler emotion regulation, and subsequent emotion socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Universal Adolescent Depression Prevention Programs: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Teresa D.

    2013-01-01

    Although the subject of adolescent depression has gained significant attention, little is being done in the way of primary prevention. The purpose of this article is to conduct a review of the literature through the lens of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework. This review was conducted utilizing several…

  4. Preseason Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms and Prospective Injury Risk in Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Moreland, Jennifer J; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen

    2017-07-01

    Psychological risk factors are increasingly recognized as important in sport-related injury prevention. Understanding how these psychological factors may affect the risk of injuries could help design effective prevention programs. To determine the effect of reported preseason anxiety and depressive symptoms on the risk of injuries during a prospective season in a cohort of collegiate athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Collegiate athletes participating in 4 men's sports and 5 women's sports from 2 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I universities were enrolled and prospectively followed during the 2007-2011 seasons. Preseason anxiety and depressive symptoms were measured at enrollment. Injuries occurring during the season were reported by certified athletic trainers. The injury incidence rate was calculated as the total number of injuries divided by the total number of athlete-exposures (ie, games and practices). Of 958 enrolled athletes (response rate of 90.3%), 389 (40.6%) athletes sustained a total of 597 injuries. At preseason, 276 (28.8%) athletes reported anxiety symptoms, and 208 (21.7%) reported depressive symptoms. Among athletes reporting any of these symptoms, 48.5% (n = 158) reported having both anxiety and depressive symptoms. Athletes with preseason anxiety symptoms had a significantly higher injury incidence rate compared with athletes without anxiety symptoms (rate ratio [RR], 2.3; 95% CI, 2.0-2.6), adjusting for age, race, body mass index, history of injuries 12 months before baseline, and university attended, and this was observed for both male and female athletes. Only male athletes who reported co-occurring preseason depressive and anxiety symptoms had a significantly increased injury risk (RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.6-2.6) compared with male athletes who reported no co-occurring symptoms. However, no such increase in the injury risk was observed among female athletes or male athletes who reported preseason depressive

  5. Depressive symptoms and the risk of incident delirium in older hospitalized adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvay, Gail J; Van Ness, Peter H; Bogardus, Sidney T; Zhang, Ying; Leslie, Douglas L; Leo-Summers, Linda S; Inouye, Sharon K

    2007-05-01

    To determine whether specific subsets of symptoms from the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), assessed at hospital admission, were associated with the incidence of delirium. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of patients from the Delirium Prevention Trial. General medicine service at Yale New Haven Hospital, March 25, 1995, through March 18, 1998. Four hundred sixteen patients aged 70 and older who were at intermediate or high risk for delirium and were not taking antidepressants at hospital admission. Depressive symptoms were assessed GDS, and daily assessments of delirium were obtained using the Confusion Assessment Method. Of the 416 patients in the analysis sample, 36 (8.6%) developed delirium within the first 5 days of hospitalization. Patients who developed delirium reported 5.7 depressive symptoms on average, whereas patients without delirium reported an average of 4.2 symptoms. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, it was found that depressive symptoms assessing dysphoric mood and hopelessness were predictive of incident delirium, controlling for measures of physical and mental health. In contrast, symptoms of withdrawal, apathy, and vigor were not significantly associated with delirium. These findings suggest that assessing symptoms of dysphoric mood and hopelessness could help identify patients at risk for incident delirium. Future studies should evaluate whether nonpharmacological treatment for these symptoms reduces the risk of delirium.

  6. Age- and gender-specific prevalence and risk factors for depressive symptoms in the elderly: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaesmer, H; Riedel-Heller, S; Braehler, E; Spangenberg, L; Luppa, M

    2011-10-01

    Information on the prevalence and risk factors for depressive disorders in old age is of considerable interest for the assessment of future needs of the health care system. The aim of the study is to determine age- and gender-specific prevalence of major depression (MD), minor depression (MiD), and depressive symptoms, and to analyze risk factors associated with depressive symptoms. A representative sample of the German population of 1,659 individuals aged 60 to 85 years were visited at home and answered self-rating questionnaires. Depressive symptoms and syndromes (MD, MiD) were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Factors associated with depressive symptoms were determined with linear regression models for the total sample and for men and women separately. Depressive symptoms were found in 28.7% of the participants, while 6.6% were affected by MD or MiD. The highest prevalence of MD and depressive symptoms was found in the oldest age groups. MiD showed an unsteady course across age groups in both sexes. In the total sample as well as in the male subsample, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with increasing age, lower household income, an increasing number of medical conditions, and lower social support. In women only, the number of medical conditions and lacking social support were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms are common in old age and occur on a spectrum ranging from very mild forms to MD. The potential modifiability of a number of risk factors for depressive symptoms opens possibilities of secondary prevention such as treatment of chronic diseases as well as support in requirements of daily living.

  7. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  8. BMI and depressive symptoms: the role of media pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J; Cotter, Elizabeth W; Snipes, Daniel J; Benotsch, Eric G

    2013-12-01

    Obese and overweight individuals experience higher risk for depression and emotional distress. One factor that may contribute to depression in obese or overweight individuals is exposure to unrealistic images in the media. Indeed, overall media consumption is associated with body image dissatisfaction in adolescents and young adults. Despite these compelling links, prior work has not examined the mediating effect of media pressures on the link between BMI and depression. In the present study, young adults (N = 743) completed an online survey assessing demographic information, perceived pressure from the media to conform to a certain body standard, and symptoms of depression. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated a direct effect of BMI on media pressure, a direct effect of media pressure on depressive symptoms, and an indirect effect of BMI on depressive symptoms mediated by media pressures. Findings indicate that higher BMI levels are associated with greater depressive symptoms when there is greater perceived media pressure on body image. Results suggest the need for clinicians to assess media consumption and perceived pressure to conform to physical appearance standards in individuals who are obese or overweight as well as individuals at risk for eating disorders. © 2013.

  9. Informational coping style and depressive symptoms in family decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Ronald L; Daly, Barbara J; Douglas, Sara L; Clochesy, John M

    2010-09-01

    Overwhelmed family decision makers of chronically critically ill patients must comprehend vital information to make complex treatment decisions that are consistent with patients' preferences. Exploration of informational coping styles of family decision makers may yield evidence for tailored communication practices supporting the psychological and informational needs of family decision makers. To describe patterns in the demographic characteristics and informational coping styles of family decision makers; to assess differences in informational satisfaction, role stress, and depressive symptoms between family decision makers classified as monitors and as blunters; and to describe the predictive associations between informational coping styles, informational satisfaction, and role stress on depressive symptoms in family decision makers. A secondary data analysis of 210 family decision makers of cognitively impaired patients who required 3 days or more of mechanical ventilation. On enrollment, decision makers completed the abbreviated Miller Behavioral Style Scale to assess informational coping styles, the Critical Care Family Satisfaction Survey's informational subscale to assess informational satisfaction, a single-item measure of role stress, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale to assess depressive symptoms. No associations emerged between demographic characteristics and informational coping styles of family decision makers. Monitors had higher depression scores than did blunters. Both information coping style and informational satisfaction influenced depressive symptoms; however, role stress was the most significant predictor. Family decision makers classified as monitors were at higher risk for depression than were those who seem to avoid information. Targeting monitors with additional psychological and informational support may mitigate their psychological impairment.

  10. Depressive Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning in Preadolescent Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita McCabe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to determine the percentage of children “at-risk” of depression or evidencing clinical levels of depression. In addition, the study examined how the “at-risk” and the clinical groups differed from children who demonstrated no depressive symptoms on positive and negative affect, four aspects of self-concept, and peer ratings of popularity. Respondents were 510 children (270 boys 240 girls who ranged in age from 7 to 13 years (mean = 9.39. The results demonstrated that 23% of children were either in the “at-risk” or clinical range of depression. Children in both the clinical and the “at-risk” range demonstrated higher negative affect but lower positive affect and lower self-concepts than children in the normal range. However, children's peers only differentiated between the “clinical” and “normal” groups. It is harder for peers, and other informants such as teachers and parents, to detect the problems of children with elevated depressive symptoms but who do not meet the diagnostic criteria. It is important to implement intervention programs for children who evidence depression symptoms, as well as “at-risk” children. “At-risk” children with elevated levels of depressive symptoms may be more disadvantaged, as their problems are less likely to be detected and treated.

  11. Relapse Prevention in Major Depressive Disorder: Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Versus an Active Control Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, Amanda J.; Gross, James J.; Visvanathan, Pallavi D.; Kumar, Niketa; Palfrey, Amy; Ford, Brett Q.; Dimidjian, Sona; Shirk, Stephen; Holm-Denoma, Jill; Goode, Kari M.; Cox, Erica; Chaplin, William; Mauss, Iris B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) versus an active control condition (ACC) for depression relapse prevention, depressive symptom reduction, and improvement in life satisfaction. Method Ninety-two participants in remission from Major Depressive Disorder with residual depressive symptoms were randomized to either an 8-week MBCT or a validated ACC that is structurally equivalent to MBCT and controls for non-specific effects (e.g., interaction with a facilitator, perceived social support, treatment outcome expectations). Both interventions were delivered according to their published manuals. Results Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no differences between MBCT and ACC in depression relapse rates or time to relapse over a 60-week follow-up. Both groups experienced significant and equal reductions in depressive symptoms and improvements in life satisfaction. A significant quadratic interaction (group x time) indicated that the pattern of depressive symptom reduction differed between groups. The ACC experienced immediate symptom reduction post-intervention and then a gradual increase over the 60-week follow-up. The MBCT group experienced a gradual linear symptom reduction. The pattern for life satisfaction was identical but only marginally significant. Conclusions MBCT did not differ from an ACC on rates of depression relapse, symptom reduction, or life satisfaction, suggesting that MBCT is no more effective for preventing depression relapse and reducing depressive symptoms than the active components of the ACC. Differences in trajectory of depressive symptom improvement suggest that the intervention-specific skills acquired may be associated with differential rates of therapeutic benefit. This study demonstrates the importance of comparing psychotherapeutic interventions to active control conditions. PMID:26371618

  12. Relapse prevention in major depressive disorder: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy versus an active control condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, Amanda J; Gross, James J; Visvanathan, Pallavi D; Kumar, Niketa; Palfrey, Amy; Ford, Brett Q; Dimidjian, Sona; Shirk, Stephen; Holm-Denoma, Jill; Goode, Kari M; Cox, Erica; Chaplin, William; Mauss, Iris B

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) versus an active control condition (ACC) for depression relapse prevention, depressive symptom reduction, and improvement in life satisfaction. Ninety-two participants in remission from major depressive disorder with residual depressive symptoms were randomized to either an 8-week MBCT or a validated ACC that is structurally equivalent to MBCT and controls for nonspecific effects (e.g., interaction with a facilitator, perceived social support, treatment outcome expectations). Both interventions were delivered according to their published manuals. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no differences between MBCT and ACC in depression relapse rates or time to relapse over a 60-week follow-up. Both groups experienced significant and equal reductions in depressive symptoms and improvements in life satisfaction. A significant quadratic interaction (Group × Time) indicated that the pattern of depressive symptom reduction differed between groups. The ACC experienced immediate symptom reduction postintervention and then a gradual increase over the 60-week follow-up. The MBCT group experienced a gradual linear symptom reduction. The pattern for life satisfaction was identical but only marginally significant. MBCT did not differ from an ACC on rates of depression relapse, symptom reduction, or life satisfaction, suggesting that MBCT is no more effective for preventing depression relapse and reducing depressive symptoms than the active components of the ACC. Differences in trajectory of depressive symptom improvement suggest that the intervention-specific skills acquired may be associated with differential rates of therapeutic benefit. This study demonstrates the importance of comparing psychotherapeutic interventions to active control conditions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Job stress and depressive symptoms among Japanese fire fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Yasuaki; Ueno, Takeji; Hashimoto, Yoshihiro

    2007-06-01

    Associations between job stresses, as assessed by theoretical job stress model and depressive symptoms among fire fighters have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study is to clarify the factors of job stress that influence the depressive symptoms in Japanese fire fighters. The subjects involved 1,672 fire fighters from a local government. The questionnaire comprised age, gender, job type, job class, martial status, smoking, and drinking habit, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) generic job questionnaire. A group showing depressive symptoms (CES-D > or = 16) included 373 subjects (22.3%). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, high variance in workload, high intergroup conflict, high role conflict, and low self-esteem had significantly higher odds ratio for depressive symptoms. High variance in workload, high intergroup conflict, high role conflict, and low self-esteem were significantly related to depressive symptoms among Japanese fire fighters. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify the influence of these stress factors on other health outcomes, and to elucidate whether alleviation of these stress factors improve the mental health among fire fighters.

  14. Longitudinal analyses of adoptive parents' expectations and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foli, Karen J; Lim, Eunjung; South, Susan C

    2017-12-01

    Grounded in a theoretical model specific to adoptive parents, we examined the relationship between parental expectations and depressive symptoms across time. Assessments of 129 adoptive parents of 64 children were performed at three time points before and after placement of an adopted child with the family: 4-6 weeks pre-placement and 4-6 weeks and 5-6 months post-placement. Expectations were assessed in four dimensions: expectations of self as parents, of the child, of family and friends, and of society. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Associations between parental expectations and depressive symptoms were analyzed, and longitudinal multilevel modeling was conducted to explore influences on expectations over time. Parental expectations changed from pre- to post-placement. With the exception of expectations of self as parent, adoptive parents' pre-adoption expectations were affirmed in the post-adoption time periods. In each expectation dimension, higher affirmation of expectations was correlated with decreased depressive symptoms before and after placement of a child. While parental expectations are not unique to adoptive parents, the essence and characteristics of certain expectations are unique to these parents. When working with adoptive parents, nurses who care for families should assess expectations both pre- and post-placement with awareness of their relationship to depressive symptoms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Association between body image dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorela Flores-Cornejo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the association between body image dissatisfaction (BID and depressive symptoms in adolescents from a school in Lima, Peru. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed through a census of 875 high-school students, aged 13 to 17 years, from a school in Lima. Participants completed a survey containing the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Data regarding demographics, alcohol and tobacco use, self-esteem, and family history of depression were also obtained. To identify associated factors, Poisson regression with robust variance was used. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Of the 875 adolescents, 55.8% were male. The mean age was 14.1±1.5 years. Depressive symptoms were observed in 19.9% of participants. An association between BID and depressive symptoms was found. Alcohol and tobacco use were also associated with the outcome of interest. Conclusions: Teens who had BID were 3.7 times more likely to report depressive symptoms. Additionally, those who used tobacco or alcohol were 1.5 and 1.4 times more likely to have depressive symptoms, respectively. Further studies targeting other populations and using longitudinal designs are recommended.

  16. Association between body image dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Cornejo, Fiorela; Kamego-Tome, Mayumi; Zapata-Pachas, Mariana A; Alvarado, German F

    2017-01-01

    To determine the association between body image dissatisfaction (BID) and depressive symptoms in adolescents from a school in Lima, Peru. A cross-sectional study was performed through a census of 875 high-school students, aged 13 to 17 years, from a school in Lima. Participants completed a survey containing the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Data regarding demographics, alcohol and tobacco use, self-esteem, and family history of depression were also obtained. To identify associated factors, Poisson regression with robust variance was used. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Of the 875 adolescents, 55.8% were male. The mean age was 14.1±1.5 years. Depressive symptoms were observed in 19.9% of participants. An association between BID and depressive symptoms was found. Alcohol and tobacco use were also associated with the outcome of interest. Teens who had BID were 3.7 times more likely to report depressive symptoms. Additionally, those who used tobacco or alcohol were 1.5 and 1.4 times more likely to have depressive symptoms, respectively. Further studies targeting other populations and using longitudinal designs are recommended.

  17. Perceived Emotional Intelligence as a predictor of Depressive Symptoms after a one year follow-up during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gomez-Baya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research to date has identified various risk factors in the emergence of depressive disorders in adolescence. There are very few studies, however, which have analyzed the role of perceived emotional intelligence in depressive symptoms longitudinally during adolescence. This work aimed to analyze longitudinal relationships between perceived emotional intelligence and depressive symptoms in adolescence, developing an explanatory model of depression following a one-year follow-up. A longitudinal study was carried out with two waves separated by one year, with a sample of 714 Spanish adolescents. The instruments consisted of self-report measures of depressive symptoms and perceived emotional intelligence. Results underlined gender differences in depressive symptoms and emotional intelligence, and indicated that greater emotional intelligence was associated with a lower presence of depressive symptoms after a oneyear follow-up. A multiple partial mediation model was developed to explain longitudinally depressive symptoms based on perceived emotional intelligence skills and depressive symptoms. These contributions underscore the need to design programs to prevent depression in adolescence through the promotion of emotional intelligence.

  18. Sexual orientation identity change and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany

    2015-03-01

    Several new studies have documented high rates of sexual identity mobility among young adults, but little work has investigated the links between identity change and mental health. This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,727) and employs multivariate regression and propensity score matching to investigate the impact of identity change on depressive symptoms. The results reveal that only changes in sexual identity toward more same-sex-oriented identities are associated with increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, the negative impacts of identity change are concentrated among individuals who at baseline identified as heterosexual or had not reported same-sex romantic attraction or relationships. No differences in depressive symptoms by sexual orientation identity were found among respondents who reported stable identities. Future research should continue to investigate the factors that contribute to the relationship between identity change and depression, such as stigma surrounding sexual fluidity. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  19. Maternal depressive symptoms in childhood and risky behaviours in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Ioakeimidi, Sofia

    2018-03-01

    Longitudinal patterns of maternal depressive symptoms have yet to be linked to risky behaviours, such as substance use or violence, in early adolescence, when such behaviours may be particularly detrimental. This study was carried out to do this. Using data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, it modelled the effect of trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms at child ages 3, 5, 7 and 11 years on antisocial behaviour and delinquency at age 11 years (N = 12,494). It also explored their role in predicting moral judgement and attitudes to alcohol at age 11, important predictors of delinquent or antisocial behaviour and alcohol use, respectively. Latent class analysis showed four longitudinal types of maternal depressive symptoms (chronically high, consistently low, moderate-accelerating and moderate-decelerating). Maternal symptom typology predicted antisocial behaviour in males and attitudes to alcohol in females, even after adjusting for youth's age and pubertal status and after correcting for confounding. Specifically, compared to males growing up with never-depressed mothers, those exposed to chronically high or accelerating maternal depressive symptoms were more likely to report engaging in loud and rowdy behaviour, alcohol use and bullying. Females exposed to chronically high maternal depressive symptoms were more likely than those growing up with never-depressed mothers to support the view that alcohol use is harmless. While causal conclusions cannot be drawn, these findings suggest that preventing or treating maternal depressive symptoms in childhood may be a useful approach to reducing future externalising and health-risk behaviours in offspring.

  20. Factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among international university students in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B; Maria, Madelene Sta; Estanislao, Susana; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Over the years, the number of international university students has been increasing in the Philippines. Depression tends to be common among this demographic sector, because of the varying challenges and expectations associated with studying abroad. Depression can be prevented if its symptoms, particularly those at higher levels, are identified and addressed early and effectively. This survey examined the social and demographic factors that are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. One hundred twenty-six international university students were interviewed using the University Students Depression Inventory. Of the 13 factors analyzed, 3 were found with statistically significant associations with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: level of satisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. In identifying international students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to their financial condition and primary group relationships can be considered. There is a need to carry out more studies to confirm this initial evidence. The findings can help guide further discourse, research and program to benefit international students with higher levels of depressive symptoms.

  1. Maternal prenatal depressive symptoms, nicotine addiction, and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Suezanne Tangerose; Blazer, Dan G; Orr, Caroline A

    2012-07-01

    Maternal smoking is a key preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes, such as low birthweight. In many areas of the United States, including Eastern North Carolina, rates of prenatal smoking are high. Prenatal depressive symptoms are associated with maternal smoking, but there remains much to learn about this relationship, especially among Black women, who have double the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes of White women. In the study reported in this paper, we investigated the relationship between maternal prenatal depressive symptoms with smoking behaviors, beliefs and attitudes, environmental factors which promote smoking and nicotine addiction. Pregnant women were enrolled in the study at the first prenatal visit to the clinics of the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Family Medicine of the Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University. An interviewer administered a questionnaire to each woman about smoking, smoking-related attitudes, knowledge, beliefs and behaviors, nicotine addiction, and home environmental factors that encourage smoking. The CES-D was used to measure depressive symptoms. We used the cut-point score of 23 or greater to indicate elevated depressive symptoms, which is thought to represent major depressive disorder. The sample consisted of 810 Black women, of whom 18% were smokers. CES-D score was associated with nicotine addiction, not thinking of quitting smoking, and not expecting support from family and friends if they decided to quit. Prenatal depressive symptoms may be a barrier to smoking cessation.

  2. Maternal Avoidant Coping Mediates the Effect of Parenting Stress on Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeger, Christine M; Gondoli, Dawn M; Morrissey, Rebecca A

    2013-10-01

    We examined maternal avoidant coping as a mediator between maternal parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Three years of self-report data were collected from 173 mothers, beginning when mothers' adolescents were in 6th grade and aged 11-13 years. Utilizing longitudinal path analysis, results indicated that avoidant coping at time two mediated the association between parenting stress at time one and depressive symptoms at time three. Additionally, the reverse direction of effects was examined, revealing that the relation between parenting stress and avoidant coping was unidirectional, while the relation between avoidant coping and depressive symptoms was bidirectional. Our results suggest that during early adolescence, mothers who experience more stress in the parenting role are more likely to engage in higher levels of avoidant coping when faced with parenting problems. In turn, a mother's long-term avoidant reactions to parenting problems may predict increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, our findings of a bidirectional relation between avoidant coping and depressive symptoms suggest that prior levels of depression might serve as a barrier to efficient and effective coping. The present study may inform preventive intervention efforts aimed at decreasing the use of avoidance in response to parenting stressors by increasing adaptive parental coping with stressors, and providing appropriate support and resources for parents.

  3. Apathy, alexithymia, and depressive symptoms: Points of convergence and divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Rebecca E; Mather, Molly A; Santorelli, Gennarina D; Santospago, Breanna P

    2016-10-30

    This study determined convergence and divergence in the constructs of alexithymia, apathy, and depressive symptoms. Understanding of similarities and differences between these constructs will improve diagnostic accuracy for clinical and research purposes. Community-dwelling participants (N=622, M age=35.6 years, SD=13.1) completed online measures of alexithymia, depression, and apathy; 12.2% were alexithymic, 37.8% reported significant depressive symptoms, and 24.9% reported significant apathy. Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFAs) determined the best factor structure for the apathy, alexithymia, and depressive symptoms was comprised of three factors and accounted for 45.1% of item variance. The Depression, Apathy, and Alexithymia factors were defined most strongly by item content that is at the core of each construct. Depression was defined most highly by items assessing sadness, low self-esteem, and loneliness. The strongest item loadings for Alexithymia were difficulty identifying and describing feelings. Apathy was characterized by poor motivation, low interest, and lack of initiative. However, each of these core and defining features had significant cross-loadings on one of the other two factors. Negative affect shared variance with Apathy, low motivation shared variance with Depression, and difficulty describing and identify feelings shared variance with Depression and Apathy. Clinical and research implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among immigrant-origin adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena

    2013-07-01

    Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Depressive Symptoms among Dementia Caregivers: The Role of Mediating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Jane L; Mezzacappa, Catherine; Heeren, Timothy; Yaffe, Kristine; Fredman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare depressive symptoms between caregivers to persons with dementia and other illnesses, and determine whether caregiver role captivity and care recipient disruptive behaviors mediate this association. Design Prospective cohort study of older women in four U.S. communities followed from 1999 to 2009. Setting Home-based interviews. Participants 345 caregiving participants from the Caregiver-Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Measurements Caregiver status based on self-report of performing one or more instrumental or basic activities of daily living for care recipient. Depressive symptoms measured using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Scores of 16 or greater represented high depressive symptoms. Caregiver role captivity and care recipient problematic behaviors measured using validated instruments. Results Approximately one-third of the caregivers cared for a person with dementia. High depressive symptoms were more common among dementia caregivers (22.8% vs. 11.2%, p caregiver role captivity and care recipient problematic behaviors. In adjusted results, high depressive symptoms was associated with middle and highest tertiles of role captivity (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] 5.01, 95% CI 2.31-11.05 and 9.41, 95% CI 3.95-22.40 for the middle and highest tertiles, respectively) and care recipient problematic behaviors (AOR 2.52 95% CI 1.02-6.19 and 5.26, 95% CI 2.00-13.8 for each tertile, respectively). Conclusions Older caregivers to persons with dementia are at increased risk of high depressive symptoms. Targeting problematic behaviors among dementia patients and addressing aspects of dementia care that result in role captivity may ameliorate caregiver depression. PMID:23567432

  6. Acculturation and Depressive Symptoms among Turkish Immigrants in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Morawa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO, and orientation towards the host culture (HC. Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI. Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9, while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7. Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3 reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001. In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001, lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001, and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001 were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9. Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health.

  7. Exploring Associations between Problematic Internet Use, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance among Southern Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yafei; Chen, Ying; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p sleep disturbance and depression was of greater importance for sleep disturbance than problematic Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:26985900

  8. Mothers’ Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms Across Mexican-Origin Adolescent Daughters’ Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Harvey-Mendoza, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    This study draws from a life-course perspective in examining trajectories of mothers’ depressive symptoms across their adolescent daughters’ adjustment to parenthood in 204 Mexican-origin families using latent class growth analysis. Four distinct trajectories were identified based on mothers’ depressive symptoms prior to the birth and 10 and 24 months postpartum. Two trajectories were characterized by stable levels of depressive symptoms but were differentiated in their levels of symptoms (i.e., High/Stable and Low/Stable). The remaining two trajectories were characterized by changes from pre- to post-birth, with one group exhibiting increases in depressive symptoms (i.e., Low/Post-Birth Increase) and the other group characterized by decreases in depressive symptoms (i.e., Low/Post-Birth Decrease). Consistent with a risk and resilience perspective, mothers with more disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances and fewer intrapersonal resources (i.e., self-esteem, ethnic identity affirmation) were more likely to be members of the High/Stable group. In addition, daughters of mothers in the High/Stable group were more likely to have lower self-esteem as compared to daughters in the other three groups. Collectively, these findings suggested that the High/Stable group was at risk for adjustment difficulties from the third trimester to two years postpartum. In contrast, membership in the Low/Post-Birth Decrease trajectory group was associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem for mothers and daughters. Findings point to the need to identify mothers who are at risk for depressive symptoms during their adolescent daughters’ pregnancy and offer prevention and intervention programs that reduce risks and enhance protective factors. PMID:23750520

  9. Ethnic Variation in the Cross-sectional Association between Domains of Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    The degree by which depressive symptoms and clinical depression reflect each other may vary across populations. The present study compared Blacks and Whites for the magnitude of the cross-sectional associations between various domains of depressive symptoms and endorsement of clinical disorders of depression. Data came from the National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003. We included 3570 Black (African-Americans) and 891 Non-Hispanic Whites. Predictors were positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems measured using the 12-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Outcomes were lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD), lifetime major depressive episode (MDE), 12-month MDE, 30-day MDE, and 30-day major depressive disorder with hierarchy (MDDH) based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Logistic regression models were applied in the pooled sample as well as Blacks and Whites. Regarding CES-D, Blacks had lower total scores, positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems compared to Whites (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Blacks also had lower odds of meeting criteria for lifetime MDD and MDE, 12-month MDE, and 30-day MDE and MDDH (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). For most depressive diagnoses, ethnicity showed a positive and significant interaction with the negative affect and interpersonal problems domains, suggesting stronger associations for Blacks compared to Whites. The CES-D total score and CES-D positive affect domain did not interact with ethnicity on CIDI-based depressive diagnoses. Stronger associations between multiple domains of depressive symptoms and clinical depression may be due to higher severity of depression among Blacks, when they endorse the CIDI criteria for the disorder. This finding may explain some of previously observed ethnic differences in social, psychological, and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and clinical depression in the general population as

  10. Fewer self-reported depressive symptoms in young adults exposed to maternal depressed mood during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohsel, Katrin; Holz, Nathalie E; Hohm, Erika; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-02-01

    Depressed mood is prevalent during pregnancy, with accumulating evidence suggesting an impact on developmental outcome in the offspring. However, the long-term effects of prenatal maternal depression regarding internalizing psychopathology in the offspring are as yet unclear. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, prenatal maternal depressed mood was assessed at the child's age of 3 months. In a sample of n=307 offspring, depressive symptoms were obtained via questionnaire at the ages of 19, 22, 23 and 25 years. At age 25 years, diagnoses of depressive disorder were obtained using a diagnostic interview. In a subsample of currently healthy participants, voxel-based morphometry was conducted and amygdala volume was assessed. In n=85 young adults exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood, no significantly higher risk for a diagnosis of depressive disorder was observed. However, they reported significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms. This association was especially pronounced when prenatal maternal depressed mood was present during the first trimester of pregnancy and when maternal mood was depressed pre- as well as postnatally. At an uncorrected level only, prenatal maternal depressed mood was associated with decreased amygdala volume. Prenatal maternal depressed mood was not assessed during pregnancy, but shortly after childbirth. No diagnoses of maternal clinical depression during pregnancy were available. Self-reported depressive symptoms do not imply increased, but rather decreased symptom levels in young adults who were exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood. A long-term perspective may be important when considering consequences of prenatal risk factors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. PTSD symptoms and suicide risk in veterans: Serial indirect effects via depression and anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Jessica M; Hirsch, Jameson K; Britton, Peter C

    2017-05-01

    Suicide rates are higher in veterans compared to the general population, perhaps due to trauma exposure. Previous literature highlights depressive symptoms and anger as contributors to suicide risk. PTSD symptoms may indirectly affect suicide risk by increasing the severity of such cognitive-emotional factors. A sample of community dwelling veterans (N=545) completed online surveys, including the PTSD Checklist-Military Version, Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, Multidimensional Health Profile-Psychosocial Functioning, and Differential Emotions Scale -IV. Bivariate and serial mediation analyses were conducted to test for direct and indirect effects of PTSD symptoms on suicide risk. In bivariate analyses, PTSD symptoms, depression, anger, and internal hostility were positively related to suicide risk. In serial mediation analyses, there was a significant total effect of PTSD symptoms on suicide risk in both models. PTSD symptoms were also indirectly related to suicidal behavior via depression and internal hostility, and via internal hostility alone. Anger was not a significant mediator. Our cross-sectional sample was predominantly White and male; prospective studies with diverse veterans are needed. Our findings may have implications for veteran suicide prevention. The effects of PTSD and depression on anger, particularly internal hostility, are related to suicide risk, suggesting a potential mechanism of action for the PTSD-suicide linkage. A multi-faceted therapeutic approach, targeting depression and internal hostility, via cognitive-behavioral techniques such as behavioral activation and cognitive restructuring, may reduce suicide risk in veterans who have experienced trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Emotional Distress Following Childbirth: An Intervention to Buffer Depressive and PTSD Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Di Blasio; Sarah Miragoli; Elena Camisasca; Angela Maria Di Vita; Rosalia Pizzo; Laura Pipitone

    2015-01-01

    Childbirth for some women is a negative experience associated with depressive and post-traumatic symptoms. The preventive actions focusing on helping mothers to cope with negative emotions experienced after childbirth are strongly recommended. It is also recommended both to intervene early and on all women to avoid the risk that these symptoms can worsen in the months after childbirth. The intervention described in the current study is focalized on the elaboration of post-partum negative thou...

  13. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenia and dopamine and serotonin gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitl, Vjekoslav; Štefanović, Mario; Karlović, Dalibor

    2017-07-03

    Although depressive symptoms seem to be frequent in schizophrenia they have received significantly less attention than other symptom domains. As impaired serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission is implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and schizophrenia this study sought to investigate the putative association between several functional gene polymorphisms (SERT 5-HTTLPR, MAO-A VNTR, COMT Val158Met and DAT VNTR) and schizophrenia. Other objectives of this study were to closely examine schizophrenia symptom domains by performing factor analysis of the two most used instruments in this setting (Positive and negative syndrome scale - PANSS and Calgary depression rating scale - CDSS) and to examine the influence of investigated gene polymorphisms on the schizophrenia symptom domains, focusing on depressive scores. A total of 591 participants were included in the study (300 schizophrenic patients and 291 healthy volunteers). 192 (64%) of schizophrenic patients had significant depressive symptoms. Genotype distribution revealed no significant differences regarding all investigated polymorphisms except the separate gender analysis for MAO-A gene polymorphism which revealed significantly more allele 3 carriers in schizophrenic males. Factor analysis of the PANSS scale revealed the existence of five separate factors (symptom domains), while the CDSS scale revealed two distinct factors. Several investigated gene polymorphisms (mostly SERT and MAO-A, but also COMT) significantly influenced two factors from the PANSS (aggressive/impulsive and negative symptoms) and one from the CDSS scale (suicidality), respectively. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients may be influenced by functional gene polymorphisms, especially those implicated in serotonergic neurotransmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Social Network Status and Depression among Adolescents: An Examination of Social Network Influences and Depressive Symptoms in a Chinese Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Janet; Johnson, C Anderson; Leventhal, Adam; Milam, Joel; Pentz, Mary Ann; Schwartz, David; Valente, Thomas W

    2011-01-01

    Despite the well established influence of peer experiences on adolescent attitudes, thoughts, and behaviors, surprisingly little research has examined the importance of peer context and the increased prevalence of depressive symptoms accompanying the transition into adolescence. Examination of social networks may provide some insight into the role of peers in the vulnerability of some adolescents to depression. To address this issue, we leveraged an existing sample of 5,563 Chinese 10(th) graders to incorporate social network data into a multilevel regression model of depressive symptoms. We found that, in this sample, being nominated as a friend was more important than being nominated as most liked. Social network centrality was significantly associated with depression; those adolescents who were less connected were more likely to suffer from depression. The risk of depression for those who were marginal members of classroom social networks was substantial. These findings suggest that a social network perspective could help to increase the effectiveness of programs aimed at preventing adolescent depression.

  15. Mediating Effect of Social Participation on the Relationship between Incontinence and Depressive Symptoms in Older Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniel W L; Bai, Xue; Guo, Aimei

    2017-05-01

    Urinary and fecal incontinence affect older women's social participation and mental health. This study examined the relationship between incontinence severity and depressive symptoms, focusing on the mediating effect of social participation, based on secondary analysis of structured interview data collected in December 2010 from 467 women age 60 and over in mainland China. Incontinence was significantly and positively associated with depressive symptoms but negatively associated with social participation. Social participation was significantly and negatively associated with depressive symptoms and fully mediated the relationship between incontinence and depressive symptoms. These findings can inform mental health interventions for incontinent older women, including preventing and responding to depressive symptoms by promoting social participation. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  16. The therapeutic or prophylactic effect of exogenous melatonin against depression and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt Hansen, Melissa; Danielsen, A K; Hageman, I

    2014-01-01

    Circadian- and sleep disturbances may be central for understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. The effect of melatonin on depression/depressive symptoms has been investigated previously. This systematic review assesses the current evidence of a therapeutic- and prophylactic...... effect of melatonin in adult patients against depression or depressive symptoms. A search was performed in The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO for published trials on November 14th 2013. Inclusion criteria were English language, RCTs or crossover trials. Our outcome was measurement...... meta-analyses. Melatonin doses varied from 0.5-6 mg daily and the length of follow-up varied from 2 weeks to 3.5 years. Three studies were done on patients without depression at inclusion, two studies in patients with depression and five studies included a mixture. Six studies showed an improvement...

  17. Relations between dietary restraint, depressive symptoms, and binge eating; A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, S.T.P.; Stice, E.; Bekker, M.H.J.; Strien, T. van; Croon, M.A.; Heck, G.L. van

    2006-01-01

    Temporal relations between dietary restraint, depressive symptoms, and binge eating are tested through three competing models that demonstrate the relationship between future binge eating, dietary restraint and depressive symptoms. The pattern of relations and effect sizes suggest that depressive

  18. Relapse prevention and residual symptoms: a closer analysis of placebo-controlled continuation studies with escitalopram in major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lönn, Sara L; Overø, Kerstin F

    2010-01-01

    -Severity of Illness scores and relapse status in 4 studies published from 2005 to 2007, 1 each in major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), were analyzed using mixed-effects model repeated measures as a function of Montgomery...... picture emerged regarding whether patients with residual symptoms had a higher relapse rate. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of residual symptoms is associated with significantly worse overall illness severity in all 4 diagnostic groups and with a higher (although not significantly) risk of relapse for patients...

  19. Perfectionism and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Leever, Brooke A.; Noggle, Chad A.; Lapsley, Daniel K.

    2007-01-01

    The "Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale" (AMPS; K.G. Rice & K.J. Preusser, 2002) was developed on samples of 9- to 11-year-old children. A primary purpose of the current research was to examine whether the AMPS could be useful in studies of adolescents, and in particular, studies of adolescent depression. This study of 145 early adolescents…

  20. Prevalence of Antenatal Depressive Symptoms and Associated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: Antenatal depression is one of the common problems during pregnancy with a magnitude of 20% to 30% globally. It can negatively endanger women's and off springs lives. As there are scarce reports on this area in Northern Ethiopia, it is important to carry out different studies ...

  1. Prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antenatal depression is one of the common problems during pregnancy with a magnitude of 20% to 30% globally. It can negatively endanger women's and off springs lives. As there are scarce reports on this area in Northern Ethiopia, it is important to carry out different studies that explore the magnitude of the ...

  2. Poor Dissociation of Patient-Evaluated Apathy and Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Progress Njomboro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Apathy has traditionally been conceptualised as part of depression. The appropriateness of this conceptualisation has now been questioned, with the realization that apathy constitutes a distinct neuropsychiatric condition, with separate rehabilitation and patient-care implications to depression. Research on the relationship between apathy and depression has, however, produced mixed results. One reason for this inconsistency may lie behind who does the apathy evaluation. In this study we investigated whether the relationship between apathy and depression would differ when apathy was evaluated by the patients or an informant. A total of 49 brain damaged patients were assessed on self- and informant-rated Apathy Evaluation Scales. The relationship between the apathy scores and depressive symptoms was then investigated. Patient-rated, and not informant-rated apathy significantly correlated with depression. We discuss the implication of these results on the relationship between the two neuropsychiatric conditions and also in relation to the utility of patient self-evaluations in apathy.

  3. Generalized atherosclerosis, cognitive decline, and depressive symptoms in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkers, D J; Stek, M L; van der Mast, R C; de Craen, A J M; Le Cessie, S; Jolles, J; Westendorp, R G J; Gussekloo, J

    2005-07-12

    Atherosclerosis may be linked to cognitive decline and depression in old age. The Leiden 85-Plus Study is a prospective population-based study of 599 subjects from age 85 onward. The generalized atherosclerotic burden was rated by the number of cardiovascular pathologies at baseline, as assessed by history taking from treating physicians and EKG. Cardiovascular pathologies included myocardial infarction, angina pectoris or myocardial ischemia, claudicatio intermittens, and arterial surgery. Global cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination), attention (Stroop Test), processing speed (Letter Digit Coding Test), immediate recall memory (Word Learning Test-Immediate Recall), delayed recall memory (Word Learning Test-Delayed Recall), and depressive symptoms (15-item Geriatric Depression Scale) were assessed each year from ages 85 through 90. The prospective associations between both the generalized atherosclerosis rating and stroke with cognitive function and depressive symptoms were analyzed by linear mixed models adjusted for sex and level of education. During follow-up, there was a significant cognitive decline and a significant increase of depressive symptoms. At baseline, a history of stroke was correlated with lower global cognitive function, slower processing speed, impaired immediate and delayed recall memory, and more depressive symptoms. In addition, a higher generalized atherosclerosis rating was correlated with impaired global cognitive function, lower attention, and a slower processing speed at baseline. During follow-up, a higher generalized atherosclerosis rating was associated with an accelerated decline of immediate recall memory and delayed recall memory. In contrast, there was no relation between the generalized atherosclerosis rating and depressive symptoms, either in the cross-sectional analysis or in the prospective analysis. In the population at large, generalized atherosclerosis contributes to cognitive decline in old age but not to

  4. Bidirectional Associations Between Cannabis Use and Depressive Symptoms From Adolescence Through Early Adulthood Among At-Risk Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Sean R.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Weaver, Chelsea M.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have established a relationship between cannabis use and affective problems among adolescents and young adults; however, the direction of these associations remains a topic of debate. The present study sought to examine bidirectional associations between cannabis use and depressive symptoms, specifically testing the validity of two competing hypotheses: the cannabis effect hypothesis, which suggests that cannabis use contributes to the onset of later depressive symptoms; and the self-medication hypothesis, which posits that individuals increase their use of a substance to alleviate distressing psychological symptoms. Method: Participants in this study were 264 low-socioeconomic-status males assessed at ages 17, 20, and 22. Cross-lag panel models were fit to test bidirectional associations between cannabis use frequency and depressive symptoms across the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. In addition, analyses were conducted within two high-risk subsamples to examine whether associations between cannabis use frequency (ranging from never used to daily use) and depressive symptoms differed among regular cannabis users (used cannabis more than once per week) or subjects reporting at least mild levels of depressive symptoms. Results: Cannabis use and depressive symptoms were concurrently correlated. Cannabis use predicted increases in later depressive symptoms, but only among the mild-depression subsample. Depressive symptoms predicted only slight increases in later cannabis use, among the subsample of regular cannabis users. Conclusions: Temporal patterns of cannabis use and depressive symptoms provide evidence for the cannabis effect but limited evidence for the self-medication hypothesis. Adolescents higher in depressive symptoms may be vulnerable to the adverse psychological effects of using cannabis. Results are discussed in terms of implications for basic research, prevention, and intervention. PMID:26997187

  5. Bidirectional Associations Between Cannabis Use and Depressive Symptoms From Adolescence Through Early Adulthood Among At-Risk Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Sean R; Shaw, Daniel S; Weaver, Chelsea M; Forbes, Erika E

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have established a relationship between cannabis use and affective problems among adolescents and young adults; however, the direction of these associations remains a topic of debate. The present study sought to examine bidirectional associations between cannabis use and depressive symptoms, specifically testing the validity of two competing hypotheses: the cannabis effect hypothesis, which suggests that cannabis use contributes to the onset of later depressive symptoms; and the self-medication hypothesis, which posits that individuals increase their use of a substance to alleviate distressing psychological symptoms. Participants in this study were 264 low-socioeconomic-status males assessed at ages 17, 20, and 22. Cross-lag panel models were fit to test bidirectional associations between cannabis use frequency and depressive symptoms across the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. In addition, analyses were conducted within two high-risk subsamples to examine whether associations between cannabis use frequency (ranging from never used to daily use) and depressive symptoms differed among regular cannabis users (used cannabis more than once per week) or subjects reporting at least mild levels of depressive symptoms. Cannabis use and depressive symptoms were concurrently correlated. Cannabis use predicted increases in later depressive symptoms, but only among the mild-depression subsample. Depressive symptoms predicted only slight increases in later cannabis use, among the subsample of regular cannabis users. Temporal patterns of cannabis use and depressive symptoms provide evidence for the cannabis effect but limited evidence for the self-medication hypothesis. Adolescents higher in depressive symptoms may be vulnerable to the adverse psychological effects of using cannabis. Results are discussed in terms of implications for basic research, prevention, and intervention.

  6. Social protection spending and inequalities in depressive symptoms across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiedz, Claire L; Mitchell, Richard J; Shortt, Niamh K; Pearce, Jamie R

    2016-07-01

    Common mental disorders are an increasing global public health concern. The least advantaged in society experience a greater burden of mental illness, but inequalities in mental health vary by social, political, and economic contexts. This study investigates whether spending on different types of social protection alters the extent of social inequality in depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the 2006 and 2012 cross-sectional waves of the European Social Survey, which included 48,397 individuals from 18 European countries. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D 8). Statistical interactions between country-level social protection spending and individuals' education level, employment and family status were explored using multilevel regression models. Higher spending on active labour market programmes was related to narrower inequality in depressive symptoms by education level. Compared to men with high education, the marginal effect of having low education was 1.67 (95 % CI, 1.46-1.87) among men in countries with lower spending and 0.85 (95 % CI, 0.66-1.03) in higher spending countries. Single parents exhibited fewer depressive symptoms, as spending on family policies increased. Little evidence was found for an overall association between spending on unemployment benefits and employment-related inequalities in depressive symptoms, but in 2012, unemployment spending appeared beneficial to mental health among the unemployed. Greater investment in social protection may act to reduce inequalities in depressive symptoms. Reductions in spending levels or increased conditionality may adversely affect the mental health of disadvantaged social groups.

  7. Impact of depressive symptoms on outcome of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita de Paula Eduardo Garavello

    Full Text Available Abstract There is no consensus in the medical literature about the impact of depressive symptoms on the evolution of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Objective: To compare the evolution of AD patients, with and without depressive symptoms, in terms of cognition, functionality and caregiver stress. Methods: The study entailed 2 stages: an initial retrospective stage involving review of medical charts of patients with mild and moderate AD. Patients were divided according to the presence or absence of depressive symptoms, defined by medical interview and questions on depressed mood from the CAMDEX (Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. Twenty-nine patients were evaluated, 37.9% with depression (Group D+ and 62.1% without depression (Group D-. The groups were compared regarding demographic and medical characteristics, cognitive and functional performance, presence of apathy as a separate symptom, and caregiver stress, using standardized tests and questionnaires. In the second transversal step, the same tools were reapplied after 2 to 4 years of follow-up, and evolution for the two groups was compared. Results: The two groups were highly homogeneous in demographic and clinic characteristics, as well as in length of follow-up, and presented no significant difference in cognitive or functional evaluation at the time of diagnoses or after follow-up. Only caregiver stress was greater in Group D+ at the two time points (p<0.001. Conclusions: No differences in the evolution of AD patients with or without depressive symptoms were evident. Nevertheless, these symptoms were associated to emotional burden of caregivers.

  8. Depressive symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Maria Mendonça da Cunha

    Full Text Available Objective.To assess the presence of depressive symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease in the preoperative period for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Methods. A cross-sectional study with 63 hospitalized patients prior to CABG. Two instruments were used for data collection; one for the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and the other to evaluate the presence of depressive symptoms, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results. The mean age was 58 years; most were male (60.3%; with a partner (81% low educational level (71.4% attended school through elementary school. Among the patients, 36.5% were classified with dysphoria, and 25.4% had some degree of depression (6.3% mild, 17.5% moderate, and 1.6% severe. The group of patients with lower educational level presented higher depressive symptoms. Conclusion. Six of every ten patients with coronary artery disease showed dysphoria or some degree of depression. The results of this study can support the planning of nursing care for patients before and after CABG, as well as the development of public health policies to ensure complete, quality care for these patients, understanding depression as a variable that can interfere with recovery after cardiac surgery.

  9. Marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms among Chinese older couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianrong; Wang, Dahua; Li, Chunhua; Miller, Richard B

    2014-01-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders among older people. Consistent with the Marital Discord Model of Depression (MDMD), research in Western cultures has found that marital distress is one of the risk factors for depression among older adults. However, the effect of marital distress on depression among older adults has not been examined in a collectivistic society, such as China. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms in a sample of Chinese older adults. Considering the dyadic nature of the data, the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used to test for the actor and partner effects. The study investigated 139 older couples who were recruited from communities in Beijing, the capital of China. The Lock-Wallace Marital Adjustment and the CES-D scales were administered to the participants. The results indicated that neither of the actor effects was significant. One of the partner effects was significant, with the husbands' marital satisfaction predicting their wives' depressive symptoms. The MDMD was only partially supported among older couples in China. An asymmetrical pattern of cross-spouse effects was found, suggesting that the husbands' perception of marital dissatisfaction could significantly predict their wives' depressive symptoms.

  10. Reasons for tubal sterilisation, regret and depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreffler, Karina M.; Greil, Arthur L.; McQuillan, Julia; Gallus, Kami L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between sterilisation reasons, regret, and depressive symptoms. Study Design Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White US women ages 25–45 who participated in the National Survey of Fertility Barriers (NSFB) and reported a tubal sterilisation surgery were included in the sample for this study (n=837). Logistic regression was used to examine how characteristics of the sterilisation surgery (reasons for sterilisation, time since sterilisation, and new relationship since sterilisation) are associated with the odds of sterilisation regret, and linear regression was used to examine associations between sterilisation regret, sociodemographic factors, and depressive symptoms. Results Findings revealed that 28 percent of U.S. women who have undergone tubal sterilisation report regret. Time since sterilisation and having a reason for sterilisation other than simply not wanting (more) children (e.g., situational factors, health problems, encouragement by others, and other reasons) are associated with significantly higher odds of sterilisation regret. Finally, sterilisation regret is significantly associated with depressive symptoms after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusion Sterilisation regret is relatively common among women who have undergone tubal sterilisation, and regret is linked to elevated, but not necessarily clinical depressive symptoms. The reasons for sterilisation can have important implications for women’s sterilisation regret and associated depressive symptoms. PMID:28133405

  11. Depressive symptoms and momentary affect: the role of social interaction variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranceanu, Ana-Maria; Gallo, Linda C; Bogart, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal functioning may be one important factor in the development and course of depression symptomatology. This study used ecological momentary assessment to test the associations among depressive symptoms, social experiences and momentary affect in women. Middle-aged women (N=108, M age: 41.6 years, 81% White) completed diary questions on handheld computers for 2 days. Diary items assessed social (conflictive versus supportive) and affective (negative versus positive) experiences at random times during the day. Women also completed a self-report measure of recent depressive symptoms. Multilevel modeling analyses showed that higher levels of symptoms of depression were related to higher negative affect and lower positive affect both directly and indirectly, through experiences of social conflict. Depressive symptoms were not significantly related to socially supportive interactions. In an alternative model testing the reverse association, neither positive nor negative affect significantly predicted social experiences. Generalizability is limited by the homogenous small sample and strict inclusionary criteria (working full-time or part-time, cohabitating or married, healthy). Due to the cross sectional nature of the data as well as the manner in which social and affective experiences were assessed, definitive conclusions regarding the temporal associations among depression symptoms, social functioning, and affect are not possible. Results are consistent with prior reports suggesting the salience of socially conflictive experiences, and the role of affect, in the etiology and maintenance of depression symptoms. Interventions that attempt to decrease socially conflictive experiences via cognitive-behavioral skills training, whereas concomitantly targeting positive and negative affect, could help prevent the development of full-blown depressive episodes in vulnerable individuals.

  12. Symptoms of depression as possible markers of bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Franco

    2006-05-01

    Underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis of bipolar-II disorder (BP-II) as a major depressive disorder (MDD) are frequently reported. The study aim was to find which symptoms of depression could be possible cross-sectional markers of BP-II, in order to reduce underdiagnosing BP-II. Consecutive 379 BP-II and 271 MDD major depressive episode (MDE) outpatients were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Hypomania Interview Guide, and the Family History Screen, by a senior psychiatrist in a private practice. Inside-MDE hypomanic symptoms (elevated mood and increased self-esteem always absent by definition) were systematically assessed. Mixed depression was defined as an MDE plus 3 or more inside-MDE hypomanic symptoms, a definition validated by Akiskal and Benazzi. The MDE symptoms significantly more common in BP-II versus MDD were weight gain, increased eating, hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation, worthlessness, and diminished ability to concentrate. The inside-MDE hypomanic symptoms significantly more common in BP-II were distractibility, racing/crowded thoughts, irritability, psychomotor agitation, more talkativeness, increased risky and goal-directed activities. Multiple logistic regression showed that hypersomnia, racing/crowded thoughts, irritability, and psychomotor agitation were independent predictors of BP-II. Irritability had the most balanced combination of sensitivity and specificity predicting BP-II. Psychomotor agitation had the highest specificity but the lowest sensitivity. Racing/crowded thoughts had the highest sensitivity but the lowest specificity. These symptoms had a similar positive predictive value (PPV) for BP-II, which was around 70% (PPV is more clinically useful than sensitivity and specificity), which in turn was similar to the PPV of mixed depression and atypical depression (two diagnostic clinical markers of BP-II). All possible combinations of these symptoms had a PPV similar to that of the individual symptoms. The

  13. Association between obesity and depressive symptoms in Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Gerardo A; Kolovos, Spyros; Chiarotto, Alessandro; Bosmans, Judith E; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga P

    2018-04-19

    Obesity and depression are among the leading causes of disability in Mexico, but their association has not been explored yet. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between obesity and depression in Mexican population. We used data from the health and nutrition survey (ENSANUT 2012), which is representative of the Mexican population. Obesity was determined using the body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity by measuring waist circumference. Depressive symptoms were reported using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale Short-Form (CES-D-SF, scale 0-21). Regression analyses were performed between obesity and depression, adjusting for gender, age, living with a partner, education, and diabetes history. Obese women had 1.28 (95% CI 1.07-1.53) times the odds of having depression in comparison with normal-weight women, whereas no association was found for men (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.74-1.19). A significant association between BMI and depressive symptoms score (β = 0.05, 95% CI 0.02-0.07) was present in women, but no association was found for men (β = - 0.02, 95% CI - 0.05 to 0.00). There was a statistically significant association between waist circumference and depression scores again for women (β = 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.04) but not for men (β = 0.00, 95% CI - 0.01 to 0.01). No associations were found between abdominal obesity and depression for both genders. No association was found between different obesity severity levels and depression for both genders. Obesity was associated with depression in Mexican women, whereas no association was found between obesity and depression in men.

  14. [Depressive symptoms and personality characteristics: phenomenology of affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rose, Cristina; Fioravanti, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate the relationship between different patterns of symptoms and personality characteristics in a group of 100 patients diagnosed with depression. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was used as the personality descriptor by the adoption of a multiaxial interpretative technique (Diamond's Axes). These descriptive variables were correlated with the symptoms referred to by the patients and subsequently underwent factor analysis, the method used for the principal components. Four "types" of patients were identified as "different" for symptoms and personality descriptors. In particular, the most important correlations were: anxiety and development of somatic symptoms; low self confidence and autistic behaviour; anger and impulsive behaviour; aggressive behaviour. Our results show the relevance of underlying personality characteristics in the presence of depressive symptoms. This relationship seems relevant also for the prediction of likely complications.

  15. Depressive symptoms among adolescents and older adults in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; González-Forteza, Catalina; Jiménez-Tapia, Alberto; Gallo, Joseph J; Wagner, Fernando A

    2014-06-01

    Determine the structure of depressive symptoms among adolescents and older adults through the person-centered approach of latent class analysis (LCA). The study is based on data from two independent samples collected in Mexico City (2,444 adolescents and 2,223 older adults) which included the revised version of the CES-D. The presence or absence of depressed mood (dysphoria), diminished pleasure (anhedonia), drastic change in weight, sleep problems, thinking and concentration difficulties, excessive or inappropriate guilt, fatigue, psychomotor agitation/retardation, and suicide ideation were used in LCA to determine the structure of depressive symptoms for adolescents and older adults. Adolescents reported higher excessive or inappropriate guilt compared to older adults, while older adults had higher proportions of anhedonia, sleep problems, fatigue, and psychomotor agitation/retardation. Similar proportions were found in other symptoms. The LCA analysis showed the best fit with four latent classes (LC): LC 1, "symptoms suggestive of major depressive episode (MDE)" with prevalence of 5.9 % (n = 144) and 10.3 % (n = 230) among adolescents and older adults, respectively; LC 2, "probable MDE symptoms" 18.2 % (n = 446) and 23.0 % (n = 512); LC 3, "possible MDE" 27.7 % (n = 676) and 21.8 % (n = 485); LC 4, "without significant depressive symptoms" 48.2 % (n = 1,178) and 44.8 % (n = 996). The differences in item thresholds between the two groups (adolescents vs. older adults) were statistically significant (Wald test = 255.684, df = 1, p < 0.001). This study documented important similarities and differences in the structure of depressive symptoms between adolescents and older adults that merit acknowledgment, further study, and consideration of their potential clinical and public health implications.

  16. Design and rationale for a randomized controlled trial to reduce readmissions among patients with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Suzanne E; Martin, Jessica M; Krizman, Katherine; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Culpepper, Larry; Stewart, Sabrina K; Brown, Jennifer Rose; Jack, Brian W

    2015-11-01

    The Re-Engineered Discharge (Project RED) reduces 30-day readmission rates by 30%. However, our data indicates that for patients displaying depressive symptoms during hospitalization, Project RED is less effective in preventing unplanned readmission. We aim to examine the effectiveness of RED-D, a modified brief Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol delivered as a post-discharge extension of the Re-Engineered Discharge, in reducing 30-day readmissions rates and emergency department (ED) use as well as depressive symptoms for medical patients with comorbid depressive symptoms. This paper details the study design and implementation of an ongoing, federally funded randomized controlled trial of our post-discharge mental health intervention, RED-D, compared to the RED plus usual care. This research has two primary objectives: (1) to determine whether RED-D delivered telephonically by a mental health professional immediately following discharge is effective in reducing hospital readmission and emergency department use for patients displaying depressive symptoms during their inpatient stay, and (2) to examine whether this approach yields a clinically significant reduction in depressive symptoms. We intend to recruit 1200 participants randomized to our intervention, RED-D (n=600), and to RED plus usual care (n=600). Hospitalized patients with depressive symptoms are at increased risk for 30-day readmission. We aim to conduct a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of RED-D, our post-discharge modified brief CBT intervention compared to RED alone in reducing readmissions and depressive symptoms for this at-risk population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Employees' negative and positive work-home interaction and their association with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, Anika; Jung, Julia; Pfaff, Holger; Driller, Elke

    2013-05-01

    Depression is the leading cause of disability and high costs worldwide. One possibility for preventing depression in the workplace, which has received little consideration so far, is the promotion of a successful balance between work and personal life. The aim of this study was to investigate employees' negative and positive work-home interaction and their association with depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the micro- and nanotechnology sector in Germany. A stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using data from N = 213 employees. The results suggest that while negative work-home interaction is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms, positive work-home interaction is correlated with a lower risk. Neither positive nor negative interaction in the home-to-work direction demonstrated a significant association with depressive symptoms. When attempting to prevent mental illnesses, such as depression, it is important to develop strategies aimed at reducing conflict between work and personal life and promoting a positive exchange between these two domains. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Exploring Associations between Problematic Internet Use, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance among Southern Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yafei; Chen, Ying; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2016-03-14

    The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for prevention and intervention efforts.

  19. Is there an association between depressive and urinary symptoms during and after pregnancy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, G. van de; Brummen, H.J. van; Bruinse, H.W.; Heintz, A.P.M.; Vaart, C.H. van der

    2007-01-01

    Depressive symptoms and urinary symptoms are both highly prevalent in pregnancy. In the general population, an association is reported between urinary symptoms and depressive symptoms. The association of depressive and urinary symptoms has not yet been assessed in pregnancy. In this study, we

  20. Fathers' mental health as a protective factor in the relationship between maternal and child depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gere, Martina K; Hagen, Kristine A; Villabø, Marianne A; Arnberg, Kasper; Neumer, Simon-Peter; Torgersen, Svenn

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between parental and child depressive symptoms has been found to be stronger for mothers than for fathers. Does this mean that fathers' mental health is less important in the context of child depressive symptoms? The goal of the current study is to test whether the degree of fathers' depressive symptoms moderate the relationship between mothers' and children's depressive symptoms. Our knowledge about such interaction effects between mothers' and fathers' symptoms is limited. We examined depressive symptoms in 190 children (age 7-13, 118 boys) referred to child community clinics and their parents. Mothers and fathers reported on their own and their child's depressive symptoms, whereas children only reported on their own symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed significant interaction effects of mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms on mother- and father-reported child depressive symptoms, while no effects were found for child reports. When fathers reported few depressive symptoms for themselves, no relationship between mothers' and children's depressive symptoms was observed. The more depressive symptoms in fathers, the stronger the relationship between mothers' and children's symptoms. Fathers' mental health may be a protective factor in the relationship between mothers' and children's depressive symptoms. Thus, researchers and practitioners would benefit from considering not only depressive symptoms in mothers, but also in fathers, when examining and working with child depressive symptoms. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. (Cost-effectiveness of family meetings on indicated prevention of anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders of primary family caregivers of patients with dementia: design of a randomized controlled trial

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    Gillissen Freek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dementia is a major public health problem with enormous costs to society and major consequences for both patients and their relatives. Family members of persons with dementia provide much of the care for older adults with dementia in the community. Caring for a demented relative is not easy and fraught with emotional strain, distress, and physical exhaustion. Family caregivers of dementia patients have an extremely high risk developing affective disorders such as major depression and anxiety disorder. Family meetings appear to be among the most powerful psychosocial interventions to reduce depression in caregivers. An American landmark study reported substantial beneficial effects of a multifaceted intervention where family meetings had a central place on depression in family caregivers as well as on delay of institutionalization of patients. These effects were not replicated in other countries yet. We perform the first trial comparing only structured family meetings with significant others versus usual care among primary family caregivers of community dwelling demented patients and measure the effectiveness on both depression and anxiety in the primary caregiver, both on disorder and symptom levels. Methods/design In this randomized controlled trial effectiveness as well as cost-effectiveness of family meetings is evaluated. The intervention group receives four family meetings with family and close friends of the primary family caregiver of a community dwelling patient with a clinical diagnosis of dementia. Dyads of patients and their primary caregiver are followed up to one year after baseline assessment. The main outcome measures are the incidence of anxiety and depressive disorders assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI and the severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in caregivers is measured by validated self report instruments: the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES

  2. Associations of depression and depressive symptoms with preeclampsia: results from a Peruvian case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Pedro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia involves endothelial dysfunction, platelet dysfunction/activation and sympathetic over-activity similar to cardiovascular disorders (CVD. Depression, an independent risk factor for progression of CVD, was found to be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia among Finnish women. We examined the relation between depression/depressive symptoms and preeclampsia risk among Peruvian women. Methods The study included 339 preeclamptic cases and 337 normotensive controls. Depression and depressive symptoms during pregnancy were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated from logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of moderate depression was 11.5% among cases and 5.3% among controls. The corresponding figures for moderate-severe depression were 3.5% for cases and 2.1% for controls. Compared with non-depressed women, those with moderate depression had a 2.3-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (95% CI: 1.2–4.4, while moderate-severe depression was associated with a 3.2-fold (95% CI: 1.1–9.6 increased risk of preeclampsia. Associations of each of the 9-items of the PHQ-9 depression screening module with preeclampsia risk were also observed. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with the only other published report on this topic. Collectively, available data support recent calls for expanded efforts to study and address depression among pregnant women.

  3. Associations of depression and depressive symptoms with preeclampsia: results from a Peruvian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chunfang; Sanchez, Sixto E; Lam, Nelly; Garcia, Pedro; Williams, Michelle A

    2007-09-27

    Preeclampsia involves endothelial dysfunction, platelet dysfunction/activation and sympathetic over-activity similar to cardiovascular disorders (CVD). Depression, an independent risk factor for progression of CVD, was found to be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia among Finnish women. We examined the relation between depression/depressive symptoms and preeclampsia risk among Peruvian women. The study included 339 preeclamptic cases and 337 normotensive controls. Depression and depressive symptoms during pregnancy were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from logistic regression models. The prevalence of moderate depression was 11.5% among cases and 5.3% among controls. The corresponding figures for moderate-severe depression were 3.5% for cases and 2.1% for controls. Compared with non-depressed women, those with moderate depression had a 2.3-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (95% CI: 1.2-4.4), while moderate-severe depression was associated with a 3.2-fold (95% CI: 1.1-9.6) increased risk of preeclampsia. Associations of each of the 9-items of the PHQ-9 depression screening module with preeclampsia risk were also observed. Our findings are consistent with the only other published report on this topic. Collectively, available data support recent calls for expanded efforts to study and address depression among pregnant women.

  4. Employment status, depressive symptoms, and waist circumference change in midlife women: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Segawa, Eisuke; Janssen, Imke; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Thurston, Rebecca C; Lewis, Tené T; Kravitz, Howard M

    2014-03-01

    Changes in employment status have shown inconsistent associations with adiposity. This study tested whether the presence of elevated depressive symptoms explains variability in the time-varying association between employment status and central adiposity. Employment status, depressive symptoms, and waist circumference (WC) were assessed annually over 10 years in a multiethnic sample of 3220 midlife women enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Linear mixed-effects models tested time-varying associations of employment status, depressive symptoms, and their interaction with WC. WC increases were greatest during the years of combined nonemployment and elevated depressive symptoms (1.00 cm/y) and lowest in the years of full-time employment and elevated depressive symptoms (0.25 cm/y), compared with the years of full-time employment and nonelevated depressive symptoms (0.51 cm/y). Employment status was unrelated to WC in years without elevated depressive symptoms. The pattern of results was unchanged when analyses were restricted to preretirement observations and did not vary according to WC at baseline or ethnicity/race. Identifying and managing depressive symptoms in midlife women who are not working may help prevent increases in central adiposity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Depressive Symptoms and Change in Abdominal Obesity Among Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Beekman, Aartjan TF; Newman, Anne B; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B; Penninx, Brenda WJH

    2012-01-01

    Context Depression has been hypothesized to result in abdominal obesity through the accumulation of visceral fat. No large study has tested this hypothesis longitudinally. Objective To examine whether depressive symptoms predict an increase in abdominal obesity in a large population-based sample of well-functioning older persons. Design The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study, with 5 years of follow-up. Setting Community-dwelling older persons residing in the areas surrounding Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee. Participants 2088 well-functioning white and black persons aged 70–79 years. Main Outcome Measures Baseline depression was defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) score of ≥ 16. At baseline and after 5 years, overall obesity measures included body mass index and percent body fat (measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry). Abdominal obesity measures included waist circumference, sagittal diameter, and visceral fat (measured by computed tomography). Results After adjustment for sociodemographics, lifestyle, diseases and overall obesity, baseline depression was associated with a 5-year increase in sagittal diameter (β=.054, p=.01) and visceral fat (β=.080, p=.001). Conclusions This study shows that depressive symptoms result in an increase in abdominal obesity, independent of overall obesity, suggesting that there may be specific pathophysiological mechanisms which link depression with visceral fat accumulation. These results might also help explain why depression increases risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19047525

  6. The Influence of Discrimination on Inmigrant Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: What Buffers its Detrimental Effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cristini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the link between perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, cultural identity and social support at school reported by immigrant adolescents. Participants were 214 mostly male, immigrant adolescents in grades 9 through 13 of high schools in two small cities in northern Italy. Results showed that discrimination has a significant detrimental effect on psychological well-being of foreign-born adolescents. Additionally, the current study outlined that the only protective factor for depressive symptoms, among the analyzed variables concerning cultural identity and school social support, was social support from teachers. None of the analyzed moderators buffered the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms reported by immigrant adolescents. These results have implications for preventive interventions for immigrant adolescents and suggest a protective role for teachers. Future research should detect strategies to reduce discrimination and prejudice toward immigrant adolescents and detect factors that may buffer detrimental effects of discrimination on psychological well-being.

  7. Parenting styles and emerging adult depressive symptoms in Cebu, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Rebecca S; Mendelson, Tamar; Surkan, Pamela J; Bass, Judith K; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Hindin, Michelle J

    2018-04-01

    Incidence of depressive disorders and symptoms increases during the transition to adulthood. The parenting relationship is a potential target for interventions to reduce risk for depression in offspring during this time period, and a four-category typology of parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, and neglectful) has been found to correlate with offspring psychological functioning. The majority of studies, however, have examined this four-category parenting style typology in Western populations. We used the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS) from the Philippines to assess associations between parenting styles reported by offspring at age 18 and depressive symptoms reported by offspring at age 21 ( N = 1,723). Using adjusted linear regression models, we found that authoritarian and neglectful mothering styles were positively associated with daughters' depressive symptoms, whereas authoritarian mothering was negatively associated with sons' depressive symptoms. Findings suggest both cross-cultural similarities and variability in positive parenting. Results may have implications for family-based depression prevention interventions in the Philippines.

  8. Depression symptoms are persistent in Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitworth, Stephanie; Bruce, David; Starkstein, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    was associated with consistently higher BMI over time, but not with changes in HbA1c or self‐monitoring of blood glucose. Conclusions A subset of individuals with Type 2 diabetes is at risk of depression symptoms that remain elevated over time. Younger, overweight individuals with a history of depression may......Aims To describe the long‐term trajectories of depression symptom severity in people with Type 2 diabetes, and to identify predictors and associates of these trajectories. Methods A community‐dwelling cohort of 1201 individuals with Type 2 diabetes from the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II...... benefit from early and intensive depression management and ongoing follow‐up as part of routine Type 2 diabetes care....

  9. Social relations, depressive symptoms, and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin Rosenkilde; Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Aims We examined whether social relations are associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and furthermore, whether social relations modify the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM. We hypothesized that the risk of developing T2DM would be lower...... for individuals with stronger social relations compared to those with weaker social relations, and that the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM would be attenuated for those with stronger social relations. Methods Non-diabetic participants (n = 7662) of the “English Longitudinal Study...... of developing T2DM; however, this effect is largely explained by known diabetes risk factors. No evidence was found that stronger social relations reduce the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM....

  10. Effects of changes in depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning on physical disability in home care elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lydia W; Conwell, Yeates

    2009-02-01

    This study sought to investigate the effect of changes in depression status on physical disability in older persons receiving home care, examine whether the effect is due to concomitant changes in cognitive status, and test whether affective state and cognitive ability interact to influence physical disability. Multilevel analyses were conducted using longitudinal data collected about every 3 months from older participants in Michigan's community-based long-term care programs (N = 13,129). The data set provided an average of nine repeated measures of depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning, and physical disability. We estimated the lag effects of within-person changes in depression and cognitive status, and their interaction, on physical disability measured by activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), controlling for health-related events that occurred in the interim. Changes between not having and having depressive symptoms, including subsyndromal symptoms, are critical to physical disability for home care elders. The effects are independent of concomitant changes in cognitive status, which also have significant adverse effects on physical disability. There is some evidence that improvement of depression buffers the adverse effect of cognitive decline on IADL disability. Providers should monitor changes in depression and cognitive status in home care elders. Early detection and treatment of subthreshold depression, as well as efforts to prevent worsening of cognitive status in home care elders, may have a meaningful impact on their ability to live at home.

  11. A study of the relationship between depression symptom and physical performance in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang Chool

    2015-12-01

    Depression is a general public health problem; there is an association between regular exercise or vigorous physical activity and depression. Physical activity has positive physical, mental, and emotional effects. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between depression symptom and physical performance in elderly women. A total of 173 elderly women aged 65 to 80 participated in this study. We evaluated elderly women using the 6-min walk, grip-strength, 30-sec arm curl, 30-sec chair stand, 8-foot up and go, back scratch, and chair sit and reach, and unipedal stance, measured the body mass index (BMI), and depression symptom assessed using Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-K). The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, paired t-tests, and simple linear regression using IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 21.0. There were significant correlations between GDS-K and the 6-min walk, 30-sec chair stand, 30-sec arm curl, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, and grip strength tests (Ptest, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go test, and grip strength test performances. Physical performance factors were strongly associated with depression symptom, suggesting that physical performance improvements may play an important role in preventing depression.

  12. The moderating role of relationship skills education on depressive symptoms in fathers with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L; Dede Yildirim, Elif

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on couple-focused prevention intervention models that target family level processes, we used complier average causal effect (CACE) estimates to determine whether relationship skills education moderated the association between fathers' depressive symptoms assessed when their children were 15-months-old and again when their children were 36-months-old. The sample consisted of low-income Hispanic American, European American, and African American fathers (N = 2,540) from the Building Strong Families Study. Fathers from 8 sites across the United States were randomly assigned to either a treatment group who were offered relationship skills education or a control group. Paternal age and family residential stability predicted fathers' utilization of intervention services. Relationship skills education moderated the association between depressive symptoms at 15 months and depressive symptoms at 36 months. The impact of dosage of relationship skills education on depressive symptoms was inconsistent and dependent on percentage of receipt of relationship skills education classes. Data are interpreted in the context of the efficacy of intervention programs for tempering depressive symptoms in low-income fathers with young children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Risk Factors for Substance Misuse and Adolescents' Symptoms of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siennick, Sonja E; Widdowson, Alex O; Woessner, Mathew K; Feinberg, Mark E; Spoth, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    Depressive symptoms during adolescence are positively associated with peer-related beliefs, perceptions, and experiences that are known risk factors for substance misuse. These same risk factors are targeted by many universal substance misuse prevention programs. This study examined whether a multicomponent universal substance misuse intervention for middle schoolers reduced the associations between depressive symptoms, these risk factors, and substance misuse. The study used data from a place-randomized trial of the Promoting School-Community-University Partnerships to Enhance Resilience model for delivery of evidence-based substance misuse programs for middle schoolers. Three-level within-person regression models were applied to four waves of survey, and social network data from 636 adolescents followed from sixth through ninth grades. When adolescents in control school districts had more symptoms of depression, they believed more strongly that substance use had social benefits, perceived higher levels of substance misuse among their peers and friends, and had more friends who misused substances, although they were not more likely to use substances themselves. Many of the positive associations of depressive symptoms with peer-related risk factors were significantly weaker or not present among adolescents in intervention school districts. The Promoting School-Community-University Partnerships to Enhance Resilience interventions reduced the positive associations of adolescent symptoms of depression with peer-related risk factors for substance misuse. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Emotional Distress Following Childbirth: An Intervention to Buffer Depressive and PTSD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasio, Paola; Miragoli, Sarah; Camisasca, Elena; Di Vita, Angela Maria; Pizzo, Rosalia; Pipitone, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Childbirth for some women is a negative experience associated with depressive and post-traumatic symptoms. The preventive actions focusing on helping mothers to cope with negative emotions experienced after childbirth are strongly recommended. It is also recommended both to intervene early and on all women to avoid the risk that these symptoms can worsen in the months after childbirth. The intervention described in the current study is focalized on the elaboration of post-partum negative thoughts and emotion through a writing task, with the purpose to help new mothers to reflect, understand, evaluate and, thus, reformulate the stressful situation with new beliefs and emotions. 176 women aged from 19 to 43 years (M = 31.55, SD = 4.58) were assessed for depression and PTSD in the prenatal phase (T1). In about 96 hours after childbirth they were randomly assigned to either "Making Sense condition" (MS: in which they wrote about the thoughts and emotions connected with delivery and childbirth) or "Control-Neutral condition" (NC: in which they wrote about the daily events in behavioural terms) and then reassessed for depression and PTSD (T2). A follow up was conducted 3 months later (T3) to verify depression and posttraumatic symptoms. The results showed that depressive symptoms decreased both at 96 hours and at 3 months as a result of making-sense task. Regarding the posttraumatic symptoms the positive effect emerged at three months and not at 96 hours after birth.

  15. Emotional Distress Following Childbirth: An Intervention to Buffer Depressive and PTSD Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Blasio

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Childbirth for some women is a negative experience associated with depressive and post-traumatic symptoms. The preventive actions focusing on helping mothers to cope with negative emotions experienced after childbirth are strongly recommended. It is also recommended both to intervene early and on all women to avoid the risk that these symptoms can worsen in the months after childbirth. The intervention described in the current study is focalized on the elaboration of post-partum negative thoughts and emotion through a writing task, with the purpose to help new mothers to reflect, understand, evaluate and, thus, reformulate the stressful situation with new beliefs and emotions. 176 women aged from 19 to 43 years (M = 31.55, SD = 4.58 were assessed for depression and PTSD in the prenatal phase (T1. In about 96 hours after childbirth they were randomly assigned to either “Making Sense condition” (MS: in which they wrote about the thoughts and emotions connected with delivery and childbirth or “Control-Neutral condition” (NC: in which they wrote about the daily events in behavioural terms and then reassessed for depression and PTSD (T2. A follow up was conducted 3 months later (T3 to verify depression and posttraumatic symptoms. The results showed that depressive symptoms decreased both at 96 hours and at 3 months as a result of making-sense task. Regarding the posttraumatic symptoms the positive effect emerged at three months and not at 96 hours after birth.

  16. Defining subgroups of low socioeconomic status women at risk for depressive symptoms: The importance of perceived stress and cumulative risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waerden, J.E.B. van der; Hoefnagels, C.C.J.; Hosman, C.M.H.; Jansen, M.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Most disadvantaged women are exposed to risk factors for depression, but not all necessarily have an identical risk for this mental health problem. A better prediction of which low socioeconomic status (SES) women are most at risk for depressive symptoms can help target preventive

  17. Depressive symptoms in mothers of prematurely born infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Margaret Shandor; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Schwartz, Todd A; Scher, Mark

    2007-02-01

    This longitudinal, descriptive study described the level of depressive symptoms in mothers of preterm infants from birth through 27 months corrected age and examined factors associated with depressive symptoms. The framework for the study was guided by an ecological developmental systems perspective and an adaptation of the Preterm Parental Distress Model. In this model, we hypothesize that a mother's emotional distress to the birth and parenting of a prematurely born child is influenced by personal and family factors, severity of the infant's health status, and illness-related stress and worry. Participants were 102 mothers of preterm infants who were off the ventilator and not otherwise dependent on major technology at enrollment. Mean depressive symptoms scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during hospitalization were high and more than half the mothers (63%) had scores of > or =16 indicating risk of depression. Depressive scores declined over time until 6 months and then were fairly stable. Unmarried mothers, mothers of infants who were rehospitalized, and mothers who reported more maternal role alteration stress during hospitalization and worry about the child's health had more depressive symptoms through the first year. Mothers who reported more parental role alteration stress during hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] = 1.570, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.171-2.104) and more worry about the child's health (OR = 2.350, 95% CI: 1.842-2.998) were more likely to experience elevated CES-D scores that put them at risk of depression. Also, mothers of rehospitalized infants had decreasing odds of elevated CES-D scores over time (OR = 0.982 per week, 95% CI: 0.968-0.996). Findings have implications for the support of mothers during hospitalization and in the early years of parenting a preterm infant.

  18. Dietary supplements for preventing postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brendan J; Murray, Linda; Beckmann, Michael M; Kent, Terrence; Macfarlane, Bonnie

    2013-10-24

    Postnatal depression is a medical condition that affects many women and the development of their infants. There is a lack of evidence for treatment and prevention strategies that are safe for mothers and infants. Certain dietary deficiencies in a pregnant or postnatal woman's diet may cause postnatal depression. By correcting these deficiencies postnatal depression could be prevented in some women. Specific examples of dietary supplements aimed at preventing postnatal depression include: omega-3 fatty acids, iron, folate, s-adenosyl-L-methionine, cobalamin, pyridoxine, riboflavin, vitamin D and calcium. To assess the benefits of dietary supplements for preventing postnatal depression either in the antenatal period, postnatal period, or both. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2013). Randomised controlled trials, involving women who were pregnant or who had given birth in the previous six weeks, who were not depressed or taking antidepressants at the commencement of the trials. The trials could use as intervention any dietary supplementation alone or in combination with another treatment compared with any other preventive treatment, or placebo, or standard clinical care. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed the risk of bias for the two included studies. Two review authors extracted data and the data were checked for accuracy. We included two randomised controlled trials.One trial compared oral 100 microgram (µg) selenium yeast tablets with placebo, taken from the first trimester until birth. The trial randomised 179 women but outcome data were only provided for 85 women. Eighty-three women were randomised to each arm of the trial. Sixty-one women completed the selenium arm, 44 of whom completed an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). In the placebo arm, 64 women completed the trial, 41 of whom completed an EPDS. This included study (n = 85) found selenium had an effect

  19. Prevalence and factors associated with depression symptoms among school-going adolescents in Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalugya-Sserunjogi, Joyce; Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Ovuga, Emilio; Kiwuwa, Steven M; Musisi, Seggane; Nakimuli-Mpungu, Etheldreda

    2016-01-01

    establish. Limited resources and the lack of collateral information precluded the assessment of a number of potential factors that could be associated with adolescent depression. The MINI-KID was administered to only 74 out of 109 students who scored ≥19 on the CDI since 35 students could not be traced again due to limited resources at the time. Significant depression symptoms are prevalent among school-going adolescents and may progress to full-blown depressive disorders. Culturally sensitive psychological interventions to prevent and treat depression among school-going adolescents are urgently needed.

  20. Childhood Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms: Trajectories, Relationship, and Association with Subsequent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James; Bullard, Lisa; Wagener, Alexandra; Leong, Pek Kuan; Snyder, John; Jenkins, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The development of child anxiety and depressive symptoms from mean ages 5.3 to 9.3 years was examined in a community sample of 133 girls and 134 boys, using parent and teacher ratings. Reliable individual differences in anxiety and depressive symptoms at mean age 5.3 and in their change to mean age 9.3 were observed, with significant correlations…

  1. CBT for children with depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, Alexandra; Ost, Lars-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric depression entails a higher risk for psychiatric disorders, somatic complaints, suicide, and functional impairment later in life. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is recommended for the treatment of depression in children, yet research is based primarily on adolescents. The present meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of CBT in children aged 8-12 years with regard to depressive symptoms. We included randomized controlled trials of CBT with participants who had an average age of  ≤ 12 years and were diagnosed with either depression or reported elevated depressive symptoms. The search resulted in 10 randomized controlled trials with 267 participants in intervention and 256 in comparison groups. The mean age of participants was 10.5 years. The weighted between-group effect size for CBT was moderate, Cohen's d = 0.66. CBT outperformed both attention placebo and wait-list, although there was a significant heterogeneity among studies with regard to effect sizes. The weighted within-group effect size for CBT was large, d = 1.02. Earlier publication year, older participants, and more treatment sessions were associated with a larger effect size. In conclusion, the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of pediatric depression symptoms was supported. Differences in efficacy, methodological shortcomings, and lack of follow-up data limit the present study and indicate areas in need of improvement.

  2. Symptom Dimensions of Anxiety Following Myocardial Infarction : Associations With Depressive Symptoms and Prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Annelieke M.; Heideveld, Anne; Martens, Elisabeth J.; de Jonge, Peter; Denollet, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Differential associations of symptom dimensions with prognosis in myocardial infarction (MI) patients have been shown for depression, but no studies have focused on anxiety dimensions. The aim of this study was to assess the association between somatic and psychological symptoms of

  3. Associations of depression and depressive symptoms with preeclampsia: results from a Peruvian case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Pedro; Lam Nelly; Sanchez Sixto E; Qiu Chunfang; Williams Michelle A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Preeclampsia involves endothelial dysfunction, platelet dysfunction/activation and sympathetic over-activity similar to cardiovascular disorders (CVD). Depression, an independent risk factor for progression of CVD, was found to be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia among Finnish women. We examined the relation between depression/depressive symptoms and preeclampsia risk among Peruvian women. Methods The study included 339 preeclamptic cases and 337 normotens...

  4. Testing specificity among parents' depressive symptoms, parenting, and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Meredith A; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A; Compas, Bruce E

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at-risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15 years old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Association between hearing loss and depressive symptoms in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing loss causes difficulties in speech understanding, which leads away from the family and social environment. This isolation may be associated with depressive disorders. Type of study: clinical prospective. Objective: To determine the association between hearing loss and depression in a group of non-institutionalized elderly. Method: The sample consisted of individuals aged over 60 years, undergoing complete audiological evaluation and screening for depressive symptoms with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS. Results: We evaluated 54 elderly, 26 (48.1% were female and 28 (51.9% males. It was found that 39 (72.2% had hearing thresholds change, and 17 (31.5% with mild hearing loss and 22 (40.7% with moderate hearing loss. Were evident signs of depression in 25 elderly (46.3%, and 22 (40.7% had hearing loss. Data analysis showed an association between hearing loss and depression (p = 0.016. Although not significant (p = 0.18, the association between the degree of hearing loss was positive in relation to the severity of the signs of depression. Conclusion: In elderly people surveyed, there was a strong association between hearing loss and signs of depression and tendency to be an association between the degree of hearing loss and the severity of the signs of depression.

  6. Investigating Environmental Links between Parent Depression and Child Depressive/Anxiety Symptoms Using an Assisted Conception Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T.; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Links between maternal and offspring depression symptoms could arise from inherited factors, direct environmental exposure, or shared adversity. A novel genetically sensitive design was used to test the extent of environmental links between maternal depression symptoms and child depression/anxiety symptoms, accounting for inherited…

  7. Depressive symptoms and academic performance of North Carolina college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P; Thompson, Michael E; Huber, Larissa R Brunner; Arif, Ahmed A

    2012-01-01

    Depression negatively affects cognitive functioning and, consequently, academic performance. Studies of this association have yielded conflicting results and have not fully considered other factors that may play a role in academic performance. This study examines the relation between depression and academic performance in students at a large urban university in North Carolina. We analyzed data from student responses to the 2008 cross-sectional National College Health Assessment to create categories of depressive symptomatology. E-mail invitations to participate in the assessment were sent to 8,000 students at the university in an effort to obtain at least 900 responses, the minimum number considered valid for a campus of its size. We analyzed the responses of the 1,280 undergraduates who completed the survey. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between depressive symptoms and academic performance in this group. Students in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of depressive symptomatology had increased, though statistically non-significant, odds of having a lower cumulative grade average, even after adjustment for age, sex, year in school, race/ethnicity, substance use, and level of credit-card debt. This difference was most pronounced among students in the second quartile of depressive symptomatology. This cross-sectional study did not allow for evaluation of causality. In addition, the self-report nature of this questionnaire could have led to some inaccuracy in reporting. Students reporting even a small number of depressive symptoms may be at increased risk for academic problems.

  8. Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Toddler Emotion Regulation, and Subsequent Emotion Socialization

    OpenAIRE

    Premo, Julie E.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between...

  9. Weight, gender, and depressive symptoms in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewis, Alexandra A; Han, Seung Yong; SturtzSreetharan, Cindi L

    2017-07-08

    Obesity consistently predicts depression risk, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Body concerns are proposed as key. South Korean society is characterized by extremely high levels of explicit weight stigma, possibly the highest globally. Using cross-sectional Korean 2014 National Health Examination Survey (KNHANES) data, we test this proposition in a nationally representative sample of South Korean adults (N = 5,632). Depressive symptoms (outcome variable), was based on the PHQ-9. Weight status (predictor variable), was based on direct measures of height and weight converted to BMI. Weight concern was self-reported. Mediation analyses tested how weight concern mediated the influence of weight status on depressive symptoms for women and men. Current weight status influenced depressive symptoms in Korean adults, but not always directly. Concerns of being "fat" mediated that relationship. The effect increased significantly as BMI increased within "normal" and overweight/obese categories for women, and in overweight/obese categories for men. Even though women classified as underweight were significantly more depressed than those in other weight categories, there was no similar mediation effect related to weight concerns. For South Koreans, the stress of adhering to social norms and avoiding stigma related to body weight seems to explain the relationship between higher body weight and more depressive symptoms. Women are more vulnerable overall, but men are not immune. This study demonstrates that body concerns help explain why weight predicts depression, and more broadly supports the proposition that widespread weight-related stigma is a potentially major, if unrecognized, driver of population-level health disparities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Body image and depressive symptoms in person suffering from psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Monika; Rzepa, Teresa; Szramka-Pawlak, Beata; Żaba, Ryszard

    2017-12-30

    The purpose of the research study was specifying the relationship between severity of psoriasis and body image and self-reported depressive symptoms, taking into account the differences between the sexes. The research study involved 54 psoriasis patients, including 30 men and 24 women aged from 19 to 82. The level of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory, and body image - using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. The disease severity was objectively assessed using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. The female psoriasis patients were more critical of their appearance than the men (p< 0.01), and at the same time they were more appearance-oriented (p< 0.05). The men rated their fitness level (p< 0.01) and care for good physical condition (p< 0.01) higher than the women. The women showed less satisfaction with their body parts than the men (p< 0.01) and more fear of obesity (p< 0.05) and overweight (p< 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found between men and women with regard to general evaluation of body image and self-reported depressive symptoms. Moreover, it was established that in the case of both women and men there was a correlation between lowered mood and psoriasis severity (R = 0.416), as well as body image (R = - 0.282). In relation to individual scales, there was a statistically significant relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms and appearance evaluation (R = - 0.519), health evaluation (R = - 0.585), satisfaction with body parts (R = - 0.462), as well as appearance orientation (R = 0.425). Distortion of body image is correlated with self-reported depressive symptoms in psoriasis patients.

  11. Acute Pain and Depressive Symptoms: Independent Predictors of Insomnia Symptoms among Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn; Kozachik, Sharon; Smith, Michael T; Budhathoki, Chakra; Haywood, Carlton

    2016-02-01

    No studies to date have systematically investigated insomnia symptoms among adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the prevalence of insomnia symptoms and (2) identify biopsychosocial predictors in community-dwelling adults with SCD. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 263 African American adults with SCD (aged 18 years or older). Measures included the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Center for Epidemiologic Studies in Depression scale, Urban Life Stress Scale, Brief Pain Inventory, and a chronic pain item. SCD genotype was extracted from the medical record. A slight majority (55%) of the sample reported clinically significant insomnia symptomatology (ISI ≥ 10), which suggests that insomnia symptoms are prevalent among community-dwelling African American adults with SCD. While insomnia symptoms were associated with a number of biopsychosocial characteristics, depressive symptoms and acute pain were the only independent predictors. Given the high number of participants reporting clinically significant insomnia symptoms, nurses should screen for insomnia symptoms and explore interventions to promote better sleep among adults with SCD, with an emphasis on recommending treatment for pain and depression. In addition, current pain and depression interventions in this population could add insomnia measures and assess the effect of the intervention on insomnia symptomatology as a secondary outcome. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Impact of Depressive Symptoms in Adults with ADHD Symptoms on Family Function and ADHD Symptoms of Their Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Jae-Won; Chun, Duk Hee; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2014-01-01

    Objective People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit considerable impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. The present study aimed to examine the patterns of associations between ADHD symptoms, depression, and family functioning. Methods The sample consisted of 1,022 adults randomly selected from a district in Seoul, South Korea. Several self-assessment scales were utilized to rate ADHD symptoms (both past and current), current symptoms of depressi...

  13. Cognitive Flexibility in Juvenile Anorexia Nervosain Relation to Comorbid Symptoms of Depression, Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms and Duration of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rößner, Anne; Juniak, Izabela; van Noort, Betteke Maria; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Kappel, Viola

    2017-09-01

    Whereas the evidence in adolescents is inconsistent, anorexia nervosa (AN) in adults is characterized by weak cognitive flexibility. This study investigates cognitive flexibility in adolescents with AN and its potential associations with symptoms of depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and duration of illness. 69 patients and 63 age-matched healthy controls (HC) from 9 till 19 years of age were assessed using the Trail-Making Test (TMT) and self-report questionnaires. In hierarchical regression analyses, set-shifting ability did not differ between AN and HC, whereas AN patients reported significantly higher rates of depression symptoms and OCD symptoms. Age significantly predicted set-shifting in the total sample. Only among AN patients aged 14 years and older did set-shifting decline with increasing age. The presence of AN with depression or OCD symptoms or the duration of illness do not influence cognitive flexibility in children and adolescents. Early interventions may be helpful to prevent a decline in cognitive flexibility in adolescent AN with increasing age.

  14. Depressive Symptoms in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogon, Amy J; Matheson, Matthew B; Flynn, Joseph T; Gerson, Arlene C; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan L; Hooper, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    To assess depression in children with chronic kidney disease and to determine associations with patient characteristics, intellectual and educational levels, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Subjects aged 6-17 years from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort study completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence, Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II-Abbreviated, and the Pediatric Inventory of Quality of Life Core Scales 4.0. Regression analyses determined associations of CDI score and depression status with subject characteristics, intellectual and educational levels, and HRQoL. A joint linear mixed model and Weibull model were used to determine the effects of CDI score on longitudinal changes in glomerular filtration rate and time to renal replacement therapy. A total of 344 subjects completed the CDI. Eighteen (5%) had elevated depressive symptoms, and another 7 (2%) were being treated for depression. In adjusted analyses, maternal education beyond high school was associated with 5% lower CDI scores (estimate, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99). Depression status was associated with lower IQ (99 vs 88; P = .053), lower achievement (95 vs 77.5; P Children with depression had lower psychoeducational skills and worse HRQoL. Identifying and treating depression should be evaluated as a means of improving the academic performance and HRQoL of children with chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Exercise on Mild-to-Moderate Depressive Symptoms in the Postpartum Period: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Ashley P; Boulé, Normand G; Sivak, Allison; Davenport, Margie H

    2017-06-01

    To examine the influence of exercise on depressive symptoms and the prevalence of depression in the postpartum period. A structured search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Sport Discus, Ovid's All EBM Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases was performed with dates from the beginning of the databases until June 16, 2016. The search combined keywords and MeSH-like terms including, but not limited to, "exercise," "postpartum," "depression," and "randomized controlled trial." Randomized controlled trials comparing postpartum exercise (structured, planned, repetitive physical activity) with the standard care for which outcomes assessing depressive symptoms or depressive episodes (as defined by trial authors) were assessed. Trials were identified as prevention trials (women from the general postpartum population) or treatment trials (women were classified as having depression by the trial authors). Effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Hedges' g method and standardized mean differences in postintervention depression outcomes were pooled using a random-effects model. Across all 16 trials (1,327 women), the pooled standardized mean difference was -0.34 (95% CI -0.50 to -0.19, I=37%), suggesting a small effect of exercise among all postpartum women on depressive symptoms. Among the 10 treatment trials, a moderate effect size of exercise on depressive symptoms was found (standardized mean difference-0.48, 95% CI -0.73 to -0.22, I=42%). In six prevention trials, a small effect (standardized mean difference-0.22, 95% CI -0.36 to -0.08, I=2%) was found. In women with depression preintervention, exercise increased the odds of resolving depression postintervention by 54% (odds ratio 0.46, Mantel-Haenszel method, 95% CI 0.25-0.84, I=0%). The trials included in this meta-analysis were small and some had methodologic limitations. Light-to-moderate intensity aerobic exercise improves mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms and increases the likelihood that

  16. Cannabis exacerbates depressive symptoms in rat model induced by reserpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadrawy, Yasser A; Sawie, Hussein G; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Hosny, Eman N

    2017-05-01

    Cannabis sativa is one of the most widely recreational drugs and its use is more prevalent among depressed patients. Some studies reported that Cannabis has antidepressant effects while others showed increased depressive symptoms in Cannabis users. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of Cannabis extract on the depressive-like rats. Twenty four rats were divided into: control, rat model of depression induced by reserpine and depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis sativa extract (10mg/kg expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol). The depressive-like rats showed a severe decrease in motor activity as assessed by open field test (OFT). This was accompanied by a decrease in monoamine levels and a significant increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in the cortex and hippocampus. Na + ,K + -ATPase activity increased in the cortex and decreased in the hippocampus of rat model. In addition, a state of oxidative stress was evident in the two brain regions. This was indicated from the significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. No signs of improvement were observed in the behavioral and neurochemical analyses in the depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis extract. Furthermore, Cannabis extract exacerbated the lipid peroxidation in the cortex and hippocampus. According to the present findings, it could be concluded that Cannabis sativa aggravates the motor deficits and neurochemical changes induced in the cortex and hippocampus of rat model of depression. Therefore, the obtained results could explain the reported increase in the depressive symptoms and memory impairment among Cannabis users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Depressive Symptoms, Self-Esteem and Perceived Parent-Child Relationship in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babore, Alessandra; Trumello, Carmen; Candelori, Carla; Paciello, Marinella; Cerniglia, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Early adolescence represents a critical developmental period both from a psychological and a psychopathological point of view. During this period, one of the most common disorders that frequently arise is represented by depression, that tends to become chronic and may produce many subsequent psychosocial impairments. The present study aimed to analyze characteristics of depressive symptoms in an Italian sample of early adolescents, and to explore their connections with self-esteem levels and perceived maternal and paternal emotional availability. 594 adolescents (50% females) with a mean age of 12.11 years (SD = 0.98) were administered the Children's Depression Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the maternal and the paternal forms of the Lum Emotional Availability of Parents. Findings highlighted a slightly higher, though not statistically significant, level of depressive symptoms in girls than in boys. Regression analysis showed that, as far as predictors of depression, self-esteem was the most relevant one, followed by maternal and paternal emotional availability. Our results strongly suggested to plan intervention programs aimed at monitoring early adolescents' self-esteem and supporting relationship with both parents, in order to prevent the emergence of depressive symptoms.

  18. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M

    2015-07-01

    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF EXPRESSIVE WRITING ON POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION AND POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS SYMPTOMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasio, Paola Di; Camisasca, Elena; Caravita, Simona Carla Silvia; Ionio, Chiara; Milani, Luca; Valtolina, Giovanni Giulio

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated whether an Expressive Writing intervention decreased depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after childbirth. 113 women (M age = 31.26 yr., SD = 4.42) were assessed at Time 1 for depression (Beck Depression Inventory) and PTS (Perinatal PTSD Questionnaire) in the first days after childbirth, then randomized to either expressive writing or neutral writing conditions and reassessed at Time 2, 3 months later. The results (ANCOVAs, regression models) show that at 3 mo. depressive and posttraumatic symptoms were lower in women who performed the expressive writing task than in the neutral writing group. Moreover, the intervention condition was associated significantly with decreased depression at the high and at the mean levels of baseline depression at Time 1. Regarding PTSD, the results showed that the intervention condition was linked significantly to reductions of the symptoms at all levels of baseline PTSD. Mainly, these outcomes suggest that Expressive Writing can be a helpful early and low-cost universal intervention to prevent postpartum distress for women.

  20. Trajectories of Depression Symptoms among Older Youths Exiting Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Michelle R.; McMillen, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th…

  1. Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in menopausal arab women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in menopausal arab women: Shedding more light on a complex relationship. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about ...

  2. Depressive symptoms among children whose parents have serious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    children's physical development is particularly pertinent in LAMICs, where environmental threats to child wellbeing such as malnutrition and poor sanitation are more common.[8]. Depressive symptoms among children whose parents have serious mental illness: Association with children's threat- related beliefs about mental ...

  3. Serotonin Transporter Gene, Depressive Symptoms, and Interleukin-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Shaoyong; Zhao, Jinying; Bremner, J. Douglas; Miller, Andrew H.; Tang, Weining; Bouzyk, Mark; Snieder, Harold; Novik, Olga; Afzal, Nadeem; Goldberg, Jack; Vaccarino, Viola

    2009-01-01

    Background-We explored the relationship of genetic variants of the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4, a key regulator of the serotonergic neurotransmission, with both depressive symptoms and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Methods and Results-We genotyped 20 polymorphisms in 360 male twins (mean

  4. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  5. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  6. Undergraduate Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Catherine; Morgan, George; Anderson, Sharon K.; Morris, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of college students' physical activity and gender on depressive and suicidal symptoms. Method: The National College Health Assessment survey was administered to college students nationwide. Data were analyzed with 4x2 ANOVAs and Games-Howell post hoc tests when appropriate. Results: More frequent physical activity…

  7. Depression, anxiety symptoms and substance use amongst sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sex work is a high-risk occupation for mental health problems as sex workers are vulnerable to high rates of violence, sexual coercion, stigma and HIV. Aim: To determine the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and substance use in sex workers.Method: A crosssectional questionnaire survey of all ...

  8. Associations among Asian Americans' Enculturation, Emotional Experiences, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y. Joel; Tran, Kimberly K.; Lai, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Using a computer-based text analysis of 218 Asian Americans' writing samples, the authors found that enculturation as well as use of negative emotion and positive emotion words were associated with depressive symptoms. Enculturation was also found to moderate the relation between use of negative emotion words and cognitive--affective depressive…

  9. Self-Esteem, Depressive Symptoms, and Adolescents' Sexual Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Rudolph, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    We examine whether self-esteem and depressive symptoms influence sexual onset when important controls such as age, dating, race, and income are examined. Analyses are based on the first two waves of the restricted-use sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We examine adolescents who reported at wave 1 that they had not had…

  10. Shame, Guilt, and Depressive Symptoms: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmoon; Thibodeau, Ryan; Jorgensen, Randall S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical work has facilitated the drawing of sharp conceptual distinctions between shame and guilt. A clear view of these distinctions has permitted development of a research literature aimed at evaluating the differential associations of shame and guilt with depressive symptoms. This study quantitatively summarized the…

  11. Racial Socialization Experiences and Symptoms of Depression among Black Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gwendolyn Y.; Stevenson, Howard C.

    2006-01-01

    Ecological barriers like racism and discrimination can weigh heavily on the shifting emotions of adolescents. We investigated the relationship of racial socialization experiences to the depression symptoms of 160 Black adolescents, including lethargy, low self-esteem, cognitive difficulties, social introversion, irritability, guilt, pessimism, sad…

  12. Depressive symptoms after a sexual assault among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: 84.3% (95% CI: 78.1-90.3) women were found to have high levels of depressive symptoms, but lower levels were found among women raped in circumstances in which there was a lesser likelihood of blame such as those raped by strangers rather than intimate partners (Odds Ratio: (OR) 0.28 (95% Confidence ...

  13. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

  14. Parenting and Early Adolescent Internalizing: The Importance of Teasing Apart Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…

  15. Atypical depressive symptoms and obesity in a national sample of older adults with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Yu, Kar-Ming

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study are to present findings on the rate of obesity associated with classic, atypical, and undifferentiated depression by comparing with those without depression in a nationally representative sample of United States older adults. The authors used data from the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), which included 10,557 adults 60 years of age and older. Chi-square tests were used to compare classic, atypical, and undifferentiated as well as nondepressed control in sociodemographic characteristics. Then, logistic regressions adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics were used to evaluate associations of rate of current obesity (defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) > 30) across the three depressive groups (classic, atypical, and undifferentiated depression) and nondepressed control. Lifetime, current, and past depression were examined. Significant differences were found between atypical and classic depression in sex, age, marital status, race, and personal income. After adjusting for sex, age, marital status, race, and personal income, the rate of obesity was significantly greater for respondents with atypical depression than respondents with classic, undifferentiated depression, or without depression. Same results were found in lifetime, current, and past depression. Our findings suggest that the heterogeneity of depression should be considered when examining the effect of depression on obesity in old age. Prevention measures should be designed and delivered to older adults with atypical depression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The association between depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and inflammation in major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Benros, Michael E; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association between IL-6 and CRP with depressive items and cognitive function. We included 112 outpatients with major depression from an exercise trial and 57 healthy controls. IL-6, high sensitive CRP (hsCRP), and cognitive function were assessed in all...... subjects. After baseline assessment, patients were randomised to either a 3months exercise intervention or an exercise control group. Post-intervention IL-6, hsCRP, depressive symptoms, and cognitive function were reassessed in the patient group. IL-6 and hsCRP were significantly increased in depressed...... patients compared to healthy controls (p=0.02 and 0.04). These differences were no longer significant after adjustment for lifestyle associated variables. We found no association between immune markers and specific depressive symptoms at baseline or as change over time. Regarding the cognitive tests, IL-6...

  17. The feelings club: randomized controlled evaluation of school-based CBT for anxious or depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassis, Katharina; Wilansky-Traynor, Pamela; Farzan, Nas; Kleiman, Valery; Parker, Kevin; Sanford, Mark

    2010-10-01

    Children with anxious or depressive symptoms are at risk of developing internalizing disorders and their attendant morbidity. To prevent these outcomes, school-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been developed, but few studies include active control conditions. We evaluated a preventive CBT program targeting internalizing symptoms relative to an activity contrast condition post-intervention and at 1-year follow-up. One thousand one hundred and thirty-nine children from Grades 3-6 from a diverse sample of schools, were screened with the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children and Children's Depression Inventory. Those with t>60 on either measure were offered participation in a randomized 12-week trial, school-based group CBT versus a structured after-school activity group of equal duration. We explored several therapeutic elements as potential predictors of change. One hundred and forty-eight children participated (84 boys, 64 girls; 78 CBT, 70 contrast; 57% Caucasian) and 145 completed the program. Self-reported anxious and depressive symptoms decreased significantly over time (η(2)=.15 and .133, respectively), with no group by time interaction. There was a trend toward fewer children meeting diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder on the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule at 1-year post-CBT than post-contrast (6/76 versus 12/69). Positive reinforcement of child behavior was associated with change in anxiety symptoms; checking homework was understood with change in depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that children with internalizing symptoms may benefit from both school-based CBT and structured activity programs. Replication, longer follow-up, and further studies of therapeutic elements in child CBT are indicated. ISRCTN Registry identifier: ISRCTN88858028, url: http://www.controlled-trials.com/. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. The association between workplace bullying and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Eszter; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the depressive symptoms of the bullied respondents differed according to who the perpetrator was. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from two representative cohorts: the Danish Working Environment Cohort Study...... (DWECS 2010) and the Work and Health Study (WH 2012). After excluding respondents not having a leader, or being self-employed, assisting spouses, and those reporting multiple perpetrators in WH 2012, the statistical analysis included 2478 bullied individuals. We compared respondents reporting being...... bullied by their (1) leader, (2) subordinates, (3) clients / customers / patients / students, or (4) colleagues, respectively. The occurrence of depressive symptoms was measured by the Major Depression Inventory (MDI). RESULTS: The most frequent perpetrator of bullying was clients (41.5 %) in DWECS 2010...

  19. Effectiveness of group CBT in treating adolescents with depression symptoms: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Bernardo; Massei, Micaela; Arimatea, Emidio; Moltedo-Perfetti, Andrés

    2016-01-20

    Depression is among the most common psychological disorders of adolescents. Its management is based on pharmacological treatment, psychological therapy, or a combination thereof. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most extensively tested intervention for adolescent depression. A PubMed search was conducted for randomized controlled trials (RCT) of the efficacy of CBT in treating adolescents with depressive symptoms published in 2005-2015. Keywords were "cognitive behavioral therapy", "group therapy", "depression" and "adolescent". Of the 23 papers that were retrieved, only six met all inclusion criteria. Three of them reported a significant reduction in depressive symptom severity after either individual or group (G)-CBT compared with the control group, even with a small number of CBT sessions (six rather than 10-12), with a medium or medium-to-large effect size. One study reported improved self-awareness and a significantly greater increase in perceived friend social support compared with bibliotherapy and check with brochure. Two studies reported clinical symptom reduction without significant differences compared with the control group (activity contrast). This review highlighted primarily that very few RCT have applied CBT in adolescents; moreover, it confirmed the effectiveness of G-CBT, especially as psychotherapy, although it was not always superior to other interventions (e.g. other activities in prevention programs). Comparison showed that G-CBT and group interpersonal psychotherapy were both effective in reducing depressive symptoms. Successful G-CBT outcomes were related to the presence of peers, who were an important source of feedback and support to observe, learn, and practice new skills to manage depressive symptoms and improve social-relational skills.

  20. Teen Depression and Suicide: Effective Prevention and Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Teen depression and suicidal behaviors are intricately intertwined, with untreated depression being a leading cause of adolescent suicide. Most depressed or suicidal teens tend to show warning signs and possess specific risk factors. A key component to preventing teen depression is for adults to remain aware of such warning signs and risk factors…

  1. Ethnic Variation in the Cross-sectional Association between Domains of Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe degree by which depressive symptoms and clinical depression reflect each other may vary across populations. The present study compared Blacks and Whites for the magnitude of the cross-sectional associations between various domains of depressive symptoms and endorsement of clinical disorders of depression. MethodsData came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL, 2001–2003. We included 3,570 Black (African Americans, and 891 Non-Hispanic Whites. Predictors were positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems measured using the 12-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Outcomes were lifetime MDD, lifetime MDE, 12 month MDE, 30 days MDE, and 30 days MDDH based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Logistic regression models were applied in the pooled sample, as well as Blacks and Whites.ResultsRegarding CES-D, Blacks had lower total scores, positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems compared to Whites (p < 0.05 for all comparisons. Blacks also had lower odds of meeting criteria for lifetime MDD and MDE, 12 month MDE, and 30 days MDE and MDDH (p < 0.05 for all comparisons. For most depressive diagnoses, ethnicity showed a positive and significant interaction with the negative affect and interpersonal domains, suggesting stronger associations for Blacks compared to Whites. CES-D total and CES-D positive affect did not interact with ethnicity on CIDI based diagnoses.ConclusionStronger associations between multiple domains of depressive symptoms and clinical MDD may be due to higher severity of depression among Blacks, when they endorse the disorder. This finding may explain some of previously observed ethnic differences in social, psychological, and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and clinical depression in the general population as well as clinical settings.

  2. Close Friends’ Psychopathology as a Pathway from Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults’ close friends’ psychological symptoms, and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. Method A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants’ mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure prior to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20’s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about their own psychopathology at age 20. Results Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends’ psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms two to five years later. Conclusions Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood, and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity. PMID:24871609

  3. Rumination, anxiety, depressive symptoms and subsequent depression in adolescents at risk for psychopathology: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Paul O; Croudace, Tim J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2013-10-08

    A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p = 0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p depressive and anxiety symptoms. High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression.

  4. Rumination, anxiety, depressive symptoms and subsequent depression in adolescents at risk for psychopathology: a longitudinal cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. Methods Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. Results We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p = 0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p depressive and anxiety symptoms. Conclusion High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression. PMID:24103296

  5. An Investigation into the Role of Coping in Preventing Depression associated with Perfectionism in Preadolescent Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silja M Dry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between self oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and maladaptive and adaptive coping strategies and their collective impact on depression symptoms were examined in the context of a randomised controlled universal trial of the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills intervention. 541 children aged 8 to 12 completed a battery of self reports, of which responses for measures of depression symptoms, perfectionism and coping strategies were examined for the purposes of this study. Structural equation modelling tested whether coping mediated the effects of perfectionism on depression indicated that socially prescribed perfectionism had both a direct and indirect relationship with depression symptoms through a moderate association with maladaptive coping. Implications for prevention of depression were discussed and recommendations for future research were proposed.

  6. A prospective study of overeating, binge eating, and depressive symptoms among adolescent and young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Hayley H; Haines, Jess; Austin, S Bryn; Field, Alison E

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the temporal relationship between depressive symptoms and overeating and binge eating among adolescent and young adult females in the United States. We investigated incident overeating, binge eating, and depressive symptoms among 4,798 females in the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective cohort study of adolescents and young adults throughout the United States. Participants who reported at least monthly episodes of eating a very large amount of food in a short amount of time in the past year, but not experiencing a loss of control, were classified as overeaters. Those who reported a loss of control while overeating were classified as binge eaters. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the McKnight Risk Factor Survey. Participants were followed between 1999 and 2003. Generalized estimating equations were used for lagged analysis with time-varying covariates. Analyses were adjusted for age, age at menarche, body mass index, and follow-up time. Females reporting depressive symptoms at baseline were two times more likely than their peers to start overeating (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4, 2.5) and binge eating (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.7, 3.0) during the follow-up. Similarly, females engaging in overeating (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.1, 3.4) or binge eating (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.2, 2.9) at baseline were two times more likely than their peers to develop depressive symptoms during the follow-up. These results indicate that it is important to consider depressive symptoms in overeating and binge eating prevention and treatment initiatives targeting adolescent and young adult females. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Growth Mixture Modeling of Depression Symptoms Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapson Gomez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM was used to investigate the longitudinal trajectory of groups (classes of depression symptoms, and how these groups were predicted by the covariates of age, sex, severity, and length of hospitalization following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI in a group of 1074 individuals (696 males, and 378 females from the Royal Hobart Hospital, who sustained a TBI. The study began in late December 2003 and recruitment continued until early 2007. Ages ranged from 14 to 90 years, with a mean of 35.96 years (SD = 16.61. The study also examined the associations between the groups and causes of TBI. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale within 3 weeks of injury, and at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months post-injury. The results revealed three groups: low, high, and delayed depression. In the low group depression scores remained below the clinical cut-off at all assessment points during the 24-months post-TBI, and in the high group, depression scores were above the clinical cut-off at all assessment points. The delayed group showed an increase in depression symptoms to 12 months after injury, followed by a return to initial assessment level during the following 12 months. Covariates were found to be differentially associated with the three groups. For example, relative to the low group, the high depression group was associated with more severe TBI, being female, and a shorter period of hospitalization. The delayed group also had a shorter period of hospitalization, were younger, and sustained less severe TBI. Our findings show considerable fluctuation of depression over time, and that a non-clinical level of depression at any one point in time does not necessarily mean that the person will continue to have non-clinical levels in the future. As we used GMM, we were able to show new findings and also bring clarity to contradictory past findings on depression and TBI. Consequently, we recommend the use

  8. TEMPORARY WORK AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS: A PROPENSITY SCORE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie; DeHaney, Suzanne; Ciampi, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Recent decades have seen a tremendous increase in the complexity of work arrangements, through job sharing, flexible hours, career breaks, compressed work weeks, shift work, reduced job security, and part-time, contract and temporary work. In this study, we focus on one specific group of workers that arguably most embodies nonstandard employment, namely temporary workers, and examine the consequences of this type of employment on depressive symptoms. This study aims to estimate the effect of being a temporary worker on depressive symptom severity. Accounting for the possibility of mental health selection into temporary work through propensity score analysis, we isolate the direct effects of temporary work on depressive symptoms with varying lags of time since exposure. We use prospective data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), which has followed, longitudinally, from 1979 to the present, a nationally representative cohort of American men and women between 14 and 22 years of age in 1979. Three propensity score models were estimated, to capture the effect of different time lags (immediately following exposure, and 2 and 4 years post exposure) between the period of exposure to the outcome. The only significant effects were found among those who had been exposed to temporary work in the two years preceding the outcome measurement. These workers report 1.803 (95% CI 0.552; 3.055) additional depressive symptoms from having experienced this work status (than if they had not been exposed). Moreover, this difference is both statistically and substantively significant, as it represents a 50% increase from the average level of depressive symptoms in this population. PMID:20371142

  9. Reciprocal associations between depressive symptoms and disordered eating among adolescent girls and boys: a multiwave, prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Fátima; Wichstrøm, Lars; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Symptoms of depression and eating disorders increase during adolescence, particularly among girls, and they tend to co-occur. Despite this evidence, there is meager research on whether depression increases the risk of future eating pathology, or vice versa, and we do not know whether these processes are different for adolescent girls and boys. Accordingly, this study explored the prospective reciprocal associations between depressive symptoms and disordered eating at different time points from preadolescence to mid-adolescence and tested the moderator effect of gender on these associations. A community-based sample of Spanish youth (N = 942, 49 % female) was assessed at ages of approximately 10-11 (T1), 12-13 (T2), 14-15 (T3), and 16-17 (T4) years. The bidirectional relationships between depressive symptoms and disordered eating were estimated in an autoregressive cross-lagged model with latent variables. A unidirectional, age-specific association between depressive symptoms at T1 and disordered eating at T2 was found. No other significant cross-lagged effect emerged, but the stability of the constructs was considerable. Gender did not moderate any of the links examined. Regardless of gender, the transition from childhood to adolescence appears to be a key period when depressive symptoms foster the development of disordered eating. These findings suggest that early prevention and treatment of depression targeting both girls and boys may result in lower levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescence.

  10. Sex Differences in the Relationship between Sleep Behavior, Fish Consumption, and Depressive Symptoms in the General Population of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supartini, Atin; Oishi, Taro; Yagi, Nobuyuki

    2017-07-14

    Sleep, fish consumption, and depression have a close relationship; however, the role of sex differences in sleep, fish consumption, and depression research is not yet well-established. This study aimed to examine whether the impact of bedtime, sleep-onset latency, sleep duration, sleep quality, and fish consumption on depressive symptoms differed in women and men. An online survey was conducted in South Korea with a stratified random sample of 600 participants between the ages of 20 and 69, whose gender and age were proportional to estimates of Korea's general population. The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms with a cut-off score of 16. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was applied to evaluate sleep timing, sleep-onset latency, sleep duration, and sleep quality. Our results indicated that late bedtime and short sleep duration were independently associated with depressive symptoms in women. Sleep-onset latency and poor sleep quality were independently associated with increased prevalence of depressive symptoms in both men and women. Higher fish consumption was significantly associated with decreased prevalence of depressive symptoms in men only. Our findings suggested the importance of a different approach for men and women in terms of promoting healthy sleep habits. In addition, higher fish consumption may be beneficial in the primary prevention of depression in Korean men. Further research is needed to confirm the findings from this cross-sectional study.

  11. Differences in depressive symptoms between Korean and American outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Walker, Rosemary S; Inamori, Aya; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Baer, Lee; Clain, Alisabet; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have revealed that East-Asian populations experience fewer depressive symptoms than American populations do. However, it is unclear whether this difference applies to clinical patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This present study included 1592 Korean and 3744 American outpatients who were 18 years of age or older and met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. criteria for single or recurrent episodes of nonpsychotic MDD, and evaluated their symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form. Korean patients scored significantly lower for guilt and depressed mood items, and higher for hypochondriasis and suicidality items than American patients did, after adjusting for total Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. Conversely, no significant differences were found in quality and function of daily life between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that Korean patients experienced less frequent depressed mood and guilt, including verbal and nonverbal expression of depressed mood [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.23] and feelings of punishment (AOR = 0.036, 95% CI 0.025-0.054) when compared with Americans after adjusting for age and sex. Conversely, Korean patients experienced more frequent suicidality and hypochondriasis, including suicidal ideas or gestures (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.60-2.76) and self-absorption of hypochondriasis (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.70-2.20). In conclusion, decreased expression of depressed mood and guilt may cause underdiagnosis of MDD in Korean patients. Early diagnosis of and intervention for depression and suicide may be delayed because of this specific cross-cultural difference in depression symptoms.

  12. Depression symptoms associated with cannabis dependence in an adolescent American Indian community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, David A; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2012-01-01

    Depression and substance use disorders, including cannabis dependence, arise during adolescence, are frequently comorbid, and represent major health burdens in the general US population. Yet little is known about the association of depression symptoms with cannabis and other substance use and use disorders in Native American adolescents. To investigate the comorbidity of cannabis use and depression symptoms in Native American adolescents. This study used the Children's Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (Adolescent Version) to obtain lifetime DSM-III-R diagnoses from a community sample of 202 (98 boys, 104 girls) American Indian adolescents living on contiguous reservations. Thirteen percent of boys and 38% of girls had a lifetime DSM-III-R major depression disorder (MDD) independent of substance use. Fifteen percent of boys and 41% of girls had a major depression episode (MDE) either coincident with or independent of cannabis use. MDE and several individual depression symptoms were significantly associated with cannabis dependence in boys but not in girls. The median ages of onset of MDE were the same in the boys and girls who had experienced both depression and cannabis use. These findings suggest that the association of depression with cannabis dependence is more significant in boys than girls in this population of adolescents. Understanding comorbidity between depression and cannabis use is important in order to disentangle the etiological relationship between the two and also for designing more effective treatment and prevention strategies, particularly in Native Americans who are at high risk for both disorders. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  13. The Technostress: definition, symptoms and risk prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Chiappetta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of Web 2.0 and Social media, a radical change in the world of communication and information flows has occurred, that have crossed space and time limits. The new technology, with its rapid evolution marked by the access to the digital world through the Smartphone invention, resulted in a sharp acceleration of the rhythms of life and work. On the other hand a massive pervasiveness of digital technology in the professional and personal rhythms has been recorded. Technostress, defined for the first time in 1984, is a syndrome that occurs when the person, subjected to information overload and continuous contact with most digital devices, develops a state of stress, or an abnormal response characterized by specific symptoms at the cardiocirculatory, mental and neurological levels. The repercussions of Technostress invest business and relational sphere causing absenteeism, loss of professional effectiveness, conflict and isolation. In 2007, the syndrome has been recognized as an occupational disease: this requires that in all workplace where a frequently use of digital technologies (ICT, publishing etc. does exist, there is the needto include Technostress in the document of work-related risk assessment. This application is essential to put in place adequate protection and prevention measures, such as increased training of employees on the harmful effect of Technostress and implementation of specific strategies for managing symptoms.

  14. [The relationship among depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms in a sample of university students in northern Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Ramírez, Mónica Teresa; Landero Hernández, René; García-Campayo, Javier

    2009-02-01

    To determine how anxiety, depression, and somatic symptoms are related in a sample of university students in northern Mexico. An exploratory study was conducted through self-administered questionnaires applied to a convenience sample of 506 psychology students at two universities in Monterrey, in the state of Nuevo León, Mexico. To evaluate somatic symptoms, the Patient Health Questionnaire was used; for depression, the Beck Depression Inventory; and for anxiety, the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents. Spearman's correlation was used to determine to what extent the associations among the variables were significant. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare anxiety and depression levels between groups of students organized by severity of somatic symptoms. Of the participants, 129 (25.5%) presented somatic symptoms that were of medium intensity or severe; just 4 (0.8%) had severe depression; and only 2 (0.4%) students presented anxiety levels over 75% of the scale maximum. The severity of somatic symptoms increased in step with anxiety and depression levels. The somatic symptoms occurring most frequently and of greatest concern among the study sample were: headache, menstrual pain, and backache, as well as feeling tired and having difficulty sleeping. The direct association between the severity of somatic symptoms and depression and anxiety was confirmed. It is recommended that all treatment and/or prevention programs addressing one of these conditions, include the other two as well. Programs specifically aimed at university youth should be implemented.

  15. The relationship between depressive symptoms and obstructive sleep apnea in pediatric populations: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Elif; Sedky, Karim; Bennett, David S

    2013-11-15

    A higher incidence of depressive disorders and symptoms has been suggested among children suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Yet, the extent to which OSA is related to increased depression is unclear. To evaluate (a) the relationship between depressive symptoms and OSA in pediatric populations, and (b) the efficacy of adenotonsillectomy (AT) for decreasing depressive symptoms among children with OSA. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms and OSA, and the efficacy of AT for decreasing depressive symptoms. Studies reporting depressive symptoms of children with OSA through January 2013 were included. Eleven studies assessed depressive symptoms in both children diagnosed with OSA (n = 894) and a comparison group (n = 1,096). A medium relationship was found between depressive symptoms and OSA (Hedges' g = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.22-0.64; p = 0.0005). Addressing the second question, 9 studies (n = 379 children) examined depressive symptoms pre- and post-AT. A medium improvement in depressive symptoms was found at follow-up (Hedge's g = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.20-0.62; p ≤ 0.001). Our findings suggest that depressive symptoms are higher among children with OSA. Therefore, patients with depressive symptomatology should receive screening for sleep disordered breathing. Treatment of OSA with AT might decrease clinical symptoms of depression, reduce pharmacotherapy, improve sleep patterns, and promote better health.

  16. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for depression and depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania S. Grigoriou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a mental disorder with a high prevalence among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD. It is reported that depression afflicts approximately 20-30% of this patient population, being associated, amongst other, with high mortality rate, low adherence to medication and low perceived quality of life. There is a variety of medications known to be effective for the treatment of depression but due to poor adherence to treatment as well as due to the high need for medications addressing other ESRD comorbidities, depression often remains untreated. According to the literature, depression is under-diagnosed and undertreated in the majority of the patients with chronic kidney disease. In the current review the main pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches and research outcomes for the management of depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients are discussed.

  17. Synchrony of change in depressive symptoms, health status, and quality of life in persons with clinical depression

    OpenAIRE

    Diehr, Paula H; Derleth, Ann M; McKenna, Stephen P; Martin, Mona L; Bushnell, Donald M; Simon, Gregory; Patrick, Donald L

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about longitudinal associations among measures of depression, mental and physical health, and quality of life (QOL). We followed 982 clinically depressed persons to determine which measures changed and whether the change was synchronous with change in depressive symptoms. Methods Data were from the Longitudinal Investigation of Depression Outcomes (LIDO). Depressive symptoms, physical and mental health, and quality of life were measured at baseline, 6 weeks...

  18. Black- White Differences in Predictive Validity of Depressive Symptoms for Subsequent Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan eMoazen Zadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBlack- White differences are shown in psychosocial and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder (MDD. The current longitudinal study compared Blacks and Whites for the association between baseline depressive symptoms and subsequent risk of MDD 15 years later. MethodsData came from the Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL Study that followed 3,361 individuals (2,205 Whites and 1,156 Blacks from 1986 to 2001. Predictor was baseline depressive symptoms measured using an 11-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D in 1986. Outcome was 12 month MDD measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI at 2001. Covariates included baseline socio-demographics, financial difficulty, chronic medical conditions, and self-rated health (SRH measured at 1986. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between baseline CES-D score and CIDI-based MDD 15 years later net of demographics, SES, CMCs and SRH. The models were applied in the pooled sample, as well as Blacks and Whites. We also reported data on reliability and factor structure of CES-D based on ethnicity. ResultsAccording to the logistic regression models, baseline CES-D scores were predictive of subsequent CIDI- based 12 month MDD 15 years later among Whites but not Blacks. Ethnic differences in predictive validity of CES-D scores on MDD could not be attributed to the ethnic differences in reliability of the CES-D which was even higher for Blacks than Whites. ConclusionBlack–White differences exist in the association between baseline depressive symptoms and subsequent risk of MDD over 15 years. Ethnic differences in the longitudinal link between baseline CES-D and subsequent risk of MDD among Blacks may explain some of the Black - White differences in social, psychological, and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and depression. Future research is still needed to compare Blacks and Whites for confirmatory

  19. Differential association of concurrent, baseline, and average depressive symptoms with cognitive decline in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Vonetta M; Resnick, Susan M; Zonderman, Alan B

    2008-04-01

    The impact of depressive symptoms on cognitive decline in older adults remains unclear due to inconsistent findings in the literature. It is also unclear whether effects of depressive symptoms on cognitive decline vary with age. This study investigated the effect of concurrent, baseline, and average depressive symptoms on cognitive functioning and decline, and examined the interactive effect of age and depressive symptoms on cognition. Prospective observational design with examination of cognitive performance and depressive symptoms at 1- to 2-year intervals for up to 26 years. Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, National Institute on Aging. One thousand five hundred eighty-six dementia-free adults 50 years of age and older. Scores over time on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and measures of learning and memory, attention and executive functions, verbal and language abilities, visuospatial functioning, and general cognitive status. Increased depressive symptoms were associated with poor cognitive functioning and cognitive decline in multiple domains. Concurrent, baseline, and average depressive symptoms had differential associations with cognition. Average depressive symptoms, a measure of chronic symptoms, seemed to show the most widespread effects on cognitive abilities. Effects of depressive symptoms on some frontal functions were greater with advancing age. Depressive symptoms are associated with poor cognitive functioning and cognitive decline, particularly with advancing age. The widespread impact of average depressive symptoms on cognition suggests that clinicians should consider the chronicity of depressive symptoms when evaluating cognitive functioning in older adults.

  20. Correlations between sexual dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiao-Fan; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Wen, Jung-Kwang; Liu, Chia-Yih; Hung, Ching-I

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of correlation between sexual dysfunction and depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and to identify the dimension most predictive of sexual dysfunction. One-hundred and thirty-five outpatients with MDD were enrolled and were treated with open-label venlafaxine 75 mg daily for one month. The Arizona Sexual Experience Scale-Chinese Version (ASEX-CV), Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were administered at baseline and at one-month follow-up and the improvement percentage (IP) of each scale posttreatment was calculated. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the dimension most predictive of the total ASEX-CV score. Seventy subjects (20 men, 50 women) completed the one-month pharmacotherapy and the four scales. The depression subscale of the HADS was most strongly correlated with the ASEX-CV scale and was the only subscale to independently predict the total ASEX-CV score at the two points. However, the somatic subscale of the DSSS was not correlated with any ASEX-CV item. At the endpoint, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms were significantly improved (IP 48.5% to 26.0%); however, very little improvement was observed in the total ASEX-CV score (IP -1.6%). The severity of sexual dysfunction among patients with MDD was most correlated with the severity of the depressive dimension, but not the severity of the somatic dimension. Further studies are indicated to explore the relationships between sexual dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms.

  1. Preventing Depression in Adolescence through Social and Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicher, Hannelore; Matischek-Jauk, Marlies

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a major and increasingly frequent health problem among young people (WHO, 2017). Adolescence is a peak time for the first onset of depression (Seeley & Lewinsohn, 2008). However despite discovering high prevalence rates among young people in recent studies , teachers tend to overlook depressive symptoms in adolescents, while…

  2. Depressive symptoms in Chinese factory workers in Nagasaki, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Ye, Zhaojia; Takamura, Noboru; Tomita, Masato; Osaki, Makoto; Honda, Sumihisa

    2009-08-01

    The number of foreign workers in Japan, especially temporary workers, has been increasing recently. However, little is known about the mental health status of the foreign workers working temporarily in Japan. We examined the depressive symptoms in 81 Chinese factory workers and attempted to identify the determining factors. The subjects were requested to complete individual questionnaires on sociodemographic variables (sex, age group, and residence period in Japan), working condition variables (number of working days per week and working hours per day), health administration variables (health checkups and health education), a social support variable (interpreters at workplace), and health behavior variables (alcohol consumption, current smoking, and regular exercise). The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was used to measure the depressive symptoms. Of all the subjects, 95% and 84% received health checkups and health education, respectively, at their workplaces. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that long working hours per day were significantly associated with high CES-D score. Further, we found that older age (30-49 yr) was marginally associated with high CES-D score. Health administration considering working time and age would be important for decreasing depressive symptoms among foreign workers.

  3. Lower Serum Zinc and Higher CRP Strongly Predict Prenatal Depression and Physio-somatic Symptoms, Which All Together Predict Postnatal Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roomruangwong, Chutima; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Mahieu, Boris; Nowak, Gabriel; Maes, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Pregnancy and delivery are associated with activation of immune-inflammatory pathways which may prime parturients to develop postnatal depression. There are, however, few data on the associations between immune-inflammatory pathways and prenatal depression and physio-somatic symptoms. This study examined the associations between serum zinc, C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin at the end of term and prenatal physio-somatic symptoms (fatigue, back pain, muscle pain, dyspepsia, obstipation) and prenatal and postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms as measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), and Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Zinc and haptoglobin were significantly lower and CRP increased at the end of term as compared with non-pregnant women. Prenatal depression was predicted by lower zinc and lifetime history of depression, anxiety, and premenstrual tension syndrome (PMS). The latter histories were also significantly and inversely related to lower zinc. The severity of prenatal EDPS, HAMD, BDI, STAI, and physio-somatic symptoms was predicted by fatigue in the first and second trimesters, a positive life history of depression, anxiety, and PMS, and lower zinc and higher CRP. Postnatal depressive symptoms are predicted by prenatal depression, physio-somatic symptoms, zinc and CRP. Prenatal depressive and physio-somatic symptoms have an immune-inflammatory pathophysiology, while postnatal depressive symptoms are highly predicted by prenatal immune activation, prenatal depression, and a lifetime history of depression and PMS. Previous episodes of depression, anxiety disorders, and PMS may prime pregnant females to develop prenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms via activated immune pathways.

  4. Stress, Sleep and Depressive Symptoms in Active Duty Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Han-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chou, Yu-Ching; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Huang, San-Yuan; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    The military is a unique occupational group and, because of this, military personnel face different kinds of stress than civilian populations. Sleep problems are an example. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep problems, depression level and coping strategies among military personnel. In this cross-sectional study, military personnel completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Jalowiec Coping Scale. An evaluation of the test scores showed that officers had better sleep quality and fewer depressive symptoms than enlisted personnel. Military personnel with higher educational levels and less physical illness also had fewer depressive symptoms. Officers and noncommissioned officers preferred problem-focused strategies. Those with higher Beck Depression Inventory and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores and those who drank alcohol frequently preferred affective-focused strategies. Our results revealed that sleep quality, physical illness and alcohol consumption were associated with the mental health of military personnel. Treating these factors may improve the mental health of military personnel and enhance effective coping strategies. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporary work and depressive symptoms in South Korean workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W; Kim, T-H; Lee, T-H; Ju, Y J; Chun, S Y; Park, E-C

    2017-08-01

    In many countries, including South Korea, labour market changes have led to an increase in unstable, temporary jobs. There is evidence that workers in such jobs may experience poorer mental health than those in more stable employment. To investigate the association between temporary employment and depressive symptoms in South Korean workers. We analysed data from the 2010-2014 Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS). Employment type was categorized into workers paid per day of labour (day labourers), those on short-term contracts (fixed-term workers) and permanent workers. The association between employment type and depressive symptoms, measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D 11), was examined using the generalized estimating equation model. A total of 3756 workers aged 20-59 were included in the 2010 baseline population. Day labourers had the highest mean CES-D 11 score, followed by fixed-term workers and permanent workers. With the day labourer group as reference, fixed-term workers (β: -1.5027, P < 0.001) and permanent workers (β: -2.1848, P < 0.001) showed statistically significant decreases in depression scores. Compared with day labourers, fixed-term workers and permanent workers had progressively lower depression scores. The findings of this study suggest that mental health inequalities based on employment type exist in South Korea. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Exercise Reduces Depressive Symptoms in Adults with Arthritis: Evidential Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, George A.; Kelley, Kristi S.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Determine whether evidential value exists that exercise reduces depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. METHODS Using data from a previous meta-analysis of 29 published studies that included 2449 participants (1470 exercise, 979 control) with fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus, a novel, recently developed method, p-curve, was used to assess for evidential value and rule out selective reporting of statistically significant findings regarding exercise and depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. Using the method of Stouffer, z-scores were used to test for selective-reporting bias with alpha (p) values ≤0.05 considered statistically significant. In addition, average power of the tests included in p-curve, adjusted for publication bias, was calculated. RESULTS Fifteen of 29 studies (51.7%) with exercise and depression results were statistically significant (p < 0.05) while 73.3% had p-values < 0.025. None of the results were statistically significant with respect to exercise increasing depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. Statistically significant right-skew to rule out selective reporting was found (z = −5.28, p = 0.99). The relative frequencies of p-values were 66.7% at 0.01, 6.7% each at 0.02 and 0.03, 13.3% at 0.04 and 6.7% at 0.05. The average power of the tests included in p-curve, corrected for publication bias, was 69%. Diagnostic plot results revealed that the observed power estimate was a better fit than the alternatives. CONCLUSION Evidential value results provide additional support that exercise improves depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. PMID:26587845

  7. Depressive symptoms, vascular risk factors, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchsinger, José A; Honig, Lawrence S; Tang, Ming-Xin; Devanand, Devangere P

    2008-09-01

    Depressive symptoms in the elderly are associated with an increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. We sought to determine whether the association between depressive symptoms and AD is explained by a history of vascular risk factors and stroke. Five hundred and twenty-six elderly persons from New York City without dementia at baseline were followed for a mean of 5 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM). Incident AD was ascertained using standard criteria. Diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, current smoking and stroke were ascertained by self-report. Proportional hazards regression was used to relate HAM scores to incident AD. HAM scores were higher in persons with hypertension, heart disease, and stroke, which in turn were related to higher AD risk. AD risk increased with increasing HAM scores as a continuous logarithmically transformed variable (HR for one point increase=1.4; 95% CI=1.1,1.8) and as a categorical variable (HR for HAM >or= 10=3.4; 95% CI=1.5,8.1; p for trend=0.004 with HAM=0 as the reference). These results were virtually unchanged after adjustment for vascular risk factors and stroke, individually (HR for HAM >or= 10=3.4; 95% CI=1.5,8.1; p for trend = 0.004), and in a composite measure (HR for HAM >or= 10=3.0; 95% CI=1.2,7.8; p for trend=0.02). The prospective relation between depressive symptoms and AD is not explained by a history of vascular risk factors and stroke, suggesting that other mechanisms may account for this association.

  8. Illness Perception and Depressive Symptoms among Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study in Clinical Settings in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suira; Dhungana, Raja Ram; Subba, Usha Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to assess the relationship between illness perception and depressive symptoms among persons with diabetes. Method. This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted among 379 type 2 diabetic patients from three major clinical settings of Kathmandu, Nepal. Results. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 44.1% (95% CI: 39.1, 49.1). Females (p perception and depressive symptoms among diabetic patients. Study finding indicated that persons living with diabetes in Nepal need comprehensive diabetes education program for changing poor illness perception, which ultimately helps to prevent development of depressive symptoms.

  9. Depressive Symptoms Predict Major Depressive Disorder after 15 Years among Whites but Not Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Assari, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Black-White differences are shown in psychosocial and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder (MDD). The current longitudinal study compared Blacks and Whites for the association between baseline depressive symptoms and subsequent risk of MDD after 15 years. Data were obtained from the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study that included 3,361 individuals (2,205 Whites and 1,156 Blacks) from 1986 to 2001. Baseline depressive symptoms measured using an 11-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) in 1986 were predictors. The outcome of 12-month MDD was measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in 2001. Covariates such as baseline socio-demographics (SES), financial difficulty, chronic medical conditions (CMC), and self-rated health (SRH) were measured in 1986. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between baseline CES-D score and CIDI-based MDD after 15 years net of demographics, SES, CMC, and SRH. The models were applied in the pooled sample, as well as in Blacks and Whites. Data on reliability and factor structure of CES-D based on ethnicity were also reported. In the pooled sample, we found an interaction between race and baseline depressive symptoms, suggesting a stronger effect of baseline depressive symptoms on the subsequent risk of MDD for Whites compared with that of Blacks. Such an interaction was significant net of socioeconomic and health status. Based on our ethnic-specific models, among Whites but not Blacks, baseline CES-D score was predictive of the subsequent risk of MDD after 15 years, net of SES and health at baseline. Black-White differences in the predictive role of CES-D scores on MDD could not be attributed to the ethnic differences in the reliability of the CES-D, which was even higher for Blacks compared with those of Whites. Loadings of the CES-D positive affect items were reverse among Blacks compared to Whites. Black

  10. Couple comorbidity and correlates of postnatal depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers in the first two weeks following delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anding, Jana Eos; Röhrle, Bernd; Grieshop, Melita; Schücking, Beate; Christiansen, Hanna

    2016-01-15

    Postnatal depression affects a significant number of parents; however, its co-occurrence in mothers and fathers has not been studied extensively. Identifying predictors and correlates of postnatal depressive symptoms can help develop effective interventions. Questionnaires on several socio-demographic and psychosocial factors were administered to 276 couples within two weeks after birth. Depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). After calculating the correlation coefficient between mothers and fathers' EPDS scores, univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify significant correlates of postnatal depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Prevalence of maternal and paternal postnatal depressive symptoms was 15.9% (EPDS>12) and 5.4% (EPDS>10), respectively. There was a moderate positive correlation between mothers and fathers' EPDS scores (r=.30, pparental stress was the strongest predictor for maternal and paternal postnatal depressive symptoms. Pregnancy- and birth-related distress and partners' EPDS scores were also associated with depressive symptoms in both parents. Relationship satisfaction was only inversely related with fathers' EPDS scores, while mothers' EPDS scores were additionally associated with critical life events, history of childhood violence, and birth-related physiological complaints. Since information about participation rates (those who declined) is unavailable, we cannot rule out sampling bias. Further, some psychosocial factors were assessed using single items. Since co-occurrence of depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers is high, developing and evaluating postnatal depression interventions for couples may be beneficial. Interventions to reduce parenting stress may help prevent parental postnatal depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Symptoms and risk factors of depression during and after the football career of elite female players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Birgit; Dvořák, Jiří; Junge, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Background The mental health of elite athletes has received increasing attention in recent years, but no study has evaluated the career–time prevalence of depression, and very few have analysed risk factors of mental health problems during or after the career. Methods 157 (response rate 64.1%) female players who played in the German First League answered an anonymous online survey on details of their football career, stressful and helpful conditions, depression and need of psychotherapeutic support during and after the football career. Results The career–time prevalence of depression symptoms was 32.3%. Significant differences in the average depression score were observed for playing positions (F=2.75; pfootball. Furthermore, it seems very important to educate coaches, physicians, physiotherapists and club managers to recognise and prevent mental health problems of their players. PMID:27900184

  12. Childhood hunger and depressive symptoms in adulthood: Findings from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Leinsalu, Mall

    2018-01-15

    Several studies have linked childhood hunger to an increased risk for later depression. However, as yet, there has been little research on this relation in adults of all ages or whether there are sex differences in this association. The current study examined these issues using data from a national population-based sample. Data were analyzed from 5095 adults aged 25-84 collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006. Information was obtained on the frequency of going to bed hungry in childhood and on depressive symptoms using the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between hunger and depression while controlling for other demographic, socioeconomic and health-related variables. In a fully adjusted model, going to bed hungry in childhood either sometimes or often was associated with significantly increased odds for depressive symptoms. When the analysis was stratified by sex the association was more evident in men where any frequency of childhood hunger was linked to adult depression while only women who had experienced hunger often had higher odds for depressive symptoms in the final model. Data on childhood hunger were retrospectively reported and may have been affected by recall bias. We also lacked information on potentially relevant variables such as other childhood adversities that might have been important for the observed associations. Childhood hunger is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms among adults. Preventing hunger in childhood may be important for mental health across the life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Symptoms of depression and anxiety after the disclosure of the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormont, Eric; Jamart, Jacques; Jacques, Denis

    2014-12-01

    Many people fear that the disclosure of the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD) to patients will prompt depressive symptoms or catastrophic reactions. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the modification of anxiety and depressive symptoms 3 months after the disclosure of the diagnosis of AD. A total of 100 consecutive newly diagnosed patients with AD (mild or moderate stage) and their caregivers were included. The evolution of symptoms of depression and anxiety was assessed with the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (Zung SDS) and the depression item of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-d) and the anxiety item of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-a). After 3 months, the caregivers were asked their opinions on the global effect of the disclosure using a Likert-type scale. At 3 months, there was no significant change in the mean NPI-d (P = .87) and Zung SDS (P = .18) and a significant reduction in the NPI-a (P = .05). The NPI-d worsened in 22% of patients, improved in 22%, and remained unchanged in 56%. The NPI-a worsened in 12% of patients, improved in 33%, and remained unchanged in 54%. The caregivers rated the global effect of the disclosure as negative in 8%, neutral in 71%, and positive in 21% of patients. None of the patients or their proxies reported suicide attempts or catastrophic reactions. The disclosure of AD is safe in most cases and may improve anxiety. Symptoms of depression and anxiety worsen only in a minority of patients. The fear of depression or catastrophic reaction should not prevent clinicians to disclose the diagnosis of AD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Interaction between pre- and post-migration factors on depressive symptoms in new migrants to Hong Kong from Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Wong, Winky K F; Chow, Nelson W S

    2011-10-01

    The goal of the current study is to examine the role of poor migration planning as a moderator for the effects of two post-migration factors, namely acculturation stress and quality of life, on symptoms of depression. Using a random sample of 347 Hong Kong new migrants from a 1-year longitudinal study, we used multiple regression analyses to examine both the direct and interaction effects of poorly planned migration, acculturation stress, and quality of life on depressive symptoms. Although poorly planned migration did not predict depressive symptoms at 1-year follow-up, it did exacerbate the detrimental effect of the two post-migration factors, namely high stress or low quality of life (both also measured at baseline) on depressive symptoms at this stage. Our results indicate that preventive measures must be developed for new immigrants in Hong Kong, especially for those who were not well prepared for migration.

  15. Infidelity and separations precipitate major depressive episodes and symptoms of nonspecific depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, A; O'Leary, K D

    2000-10-01

    This study examined whether humiliating marital events (HMEs; husbands' infidelity, threats of marital dissolution) precipitated Major Depressive Episodes (MDEs) when controlling for marital discord. Participants were 25 women who recently experienced an HME and 25 control women who did not experience an HME. Both groups reported similar levels of marital discord. Results indicated that HME participants were 6 times more likely to be diagnosed with an MDE than control participants. These results remained even after controlling for family and lifetime histories of depression. HME participants also reported significantly more symptoms of nonspecific depression and anxiety than control participants. However, HME and control participants did not report significantly different numbers of anhedonic depression and anxious arousal symptoms. The research and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Depressive symptoms, chronic pain, and falls in older community-dwelling adults: The MOBILIZE Boston Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, L.H.P.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Jones, R.N.; Leveille, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether overall depressive symptoms and symptom clusters are associated with fall risk and to determine whether chronic pain mediates the relationship between depression and fall risk in aging. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Boston, Massachusetts, and surrounding

  17. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type and adolescent functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship

  18. Peer victimization during adolescence: concurrent and prospective impact on symptoms of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapinski, Lexine A; Araya, Ricardo; Heron, Jon; Montgomery, Alan A; Stallard, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Peer victimization is ubiquitous across schools and cultures, and has the potential for long-lasting effects on the well-being of victims. To date, research has focused on the consequences of peer victimization during childhood but neglected adolescence. Peer relationships and approval become increasingly important during adolescence; thus, peer victimization at this age may have a damaging psychological impact. Participants were 5030 adolescents aged 11-16 recruited from secondary schools in the UK. Self-report measures of victimization and symptoms of anxiety and depression were administered on three occasions over a 12-month period. Latent growth models examined concurrent and prospective victimization-related elevations in anxiety and depression symptoms above individual-specific growth trajectories. Peer victimization was associated with a concurrent elevation of 0.64 and 0.56 standard deviations in depression and anxiety scores, respectively. There was an independent delayed effect, with additional elevations in depression and anxiety (0.28 and 0.25 standard deviations) six months later. These concurrent and prospective associations were independent of expected symptom trajectories informed by individual risk factors. Adolescent peer victimization was associated with immediate and delayed elevations in anxiety and depression. Early intervention aimed at identifying and supporting victimized adolescents may prevent the development of these disorders.

  19. Influence of symptoms of depression and anxiety on injury hazard among collegiate American football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingzhen; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Ying; Covassin, Tracey; Heiden, Erin O; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of depression and anxiety symptoms on the prospective injury hazard among collegiate American football athletes. An open cohort of intercollegiate football players (n = 330) from two Division I universities were enrolled and followed during the 2008-2010 seasons. Of 330 enrolled players, 121 (36.7%) sustained at least one injury during the participation period. A total of 66 players (20.0%) reported experiencing symptoms of depression and 109 (33.0%) reported anxiety at the time of enrollment. Depression was associated with increased likelihood of injury (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65, 1.98). Anxiety had an opposite effect and was protective from injury hazard (HR= 0.79, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.93). Football players who experienced depression at enrollment were 10% less likely to remain injury-free than those who did not have depressive symptoms. Evidence from this study suggests injury prevention efforts need to include strategies targeting psychological risk factors.

  20. The incidence and predictors of depressive and anxiety symptoms in older adults with vision impairment: a longitudinal prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesterbeek, Thomas J; van der Aa, Hilde P A; van Rens, Ger H M B; Twisk, Johannes W R; van Nispen, Ruth M A

    2017-07-01

    confirms that depression and anxiety symptoms fluctuate over time. It is of great importance that low vision rehabilitation staff monitor older adults with vision impairment who are most vulnerable for developing these symptoms, based on the risk factors that were found in this study, to be able to offer early interventions to prevent and treat mental health problems in this population. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  1. Does Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Predict Levels of Depressive Symptoms during Emerging Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Michael C; Pettit, Jeremy W; Waxmonsky, James G; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the development and course of depressive symptoms through emerging adulthood among individuals with a childhood history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to examine if a history of ADHD in childhood significantly predicted depressive symptoms during emerging adulthood (i.e., ages 18-25 years), including the initial level of depressive symptoms, continued levels of depressive symptoms at each age year, and the rate of change in depressive symptoms over time. 394 participants (205 with ADHD and 189 without ADHD; 348 males and 46 females) drawn from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) completed annual self-ratings of depressive symptoms between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Childhood history of ADHD significantly predicted a higher initial level of depressive symptoms at age 18, and higher levels of depressive symptoms at every age year during emerging adulthood. ADHD did not significantly predict the rate of change in depressive symptoms from age 18 to age 25. Childhood history of ADHD remained a significant predictor of initial level of depressive symptoms at age 18 after controlling for comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, but not after controlling for concurrent ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. Participants with childhood histories of ADHD experienced significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than non-ADHD comparison participants by age 18 and continued to experience higher, although not increasing, levels of depressive symptoms through emerging adulthood. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  2. Pilot trial of a dissonance-based cognitive-behavioral group depression prevention with college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M

    2016-07-01

    Conduct a pilot trial testing whether a new cognitive-behavioral (CB) group prevention program that incorporated cognitive-dissonance change principles was feasible and appeared effective in reducing depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder onset relative to a brochure control condition in college students with elevated depressive symptoms. 59 college students (M age = 21.8, SD = 2.3; 68% female, 70% White) were randomized to the 6-session Change Ahead group or educational brochure control condition, completing assessments at pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up. Recruitment and screening methods were effective and intervention attendance was high (86% attended all 6 sessions). Change Ahead participants showed medium-large reductions in depressive symptoms at posttest (M d = 0.64), though the effect attenuated by 3-month follow-up. Incidence of major depression onset at 3-month follow-up was 4% for Change Ahead participants versus 13% (difference ns). Change Ahead appears highly feasible and showed positive indications of reduced acute phase depressive symptoms and MDD onset relative to a minimal intervention control in this initial pilot. Given the brevity of the intervention, its apparent feasibility, and the lack of evidence-based depression prevention programs for college students, continued evaluation of Change Ahead appears warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Associations of Parent-Child Anxious and Depressive Symptoms when a Caregiver Has a History of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Christina J. M.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Potts, Jennifer; Haker, Kelly; Champion, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the associations between parent and child anxious and depressive symptoms controlling for co-occurring symptoms in both. One hundred and four families participated, including 131 9-15 year old children considered at risk for anxiety and/or depression due to a history of depression in a parent. Parents and children completed…

  4. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  5. Cross-cultural and social diversity of prevalence of postpartum depression and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbreich, Uriel; Karkun, Sandhya

    2006-04-01

    The prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) is currently considered to be 10-15%. Most studies were performed with a brief unidimensional instruments (mostly the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-EPDS) with focus on depression and not on other symptoms and disorders. Most cited studies were conducted in Western economically developed countries. We reviewed the literature on prevalence of postpartum depression and depressive symptoms in a wide range of countries. 143 studies were identified reporting prevalence in 40 countries. It is demonstrated that there is a wide range of reported prevalence of PPD ranging from almost 0% to almost 60%. In some countries like Singapore, Malta, Malaysia, Austria and Denmark there are very few reports of PPD or postpartum depressive symptoms, whereas in other countries (e.g. Brazil, Guyana, Costa Rica, Italy, Chile, South Africa, Taiwan and Korea) reported postpartum depressive symptoms are very prevalent. We believe that the widely cited mean prevalence of PPD-10-15% is not representative of the actual global prevalence and magnitude of the problem, due to the wide range of reports. The variability in reported PPD might be due to cross-cultural variables, reporting style, differences in perception of mental health and its stigma, differences in socio-economic environments (e.g. poverty, levels of social support or its perception, nutrition, stress), and biological vulnerability factors. The elucidation of the underlying processes of this variability as well as the diversity of postpartum normal versus abnormal expressions of symptoms may contribute to better understanding of the diversified ante, peri- and postpartum phenomena.

  6. Coping and Suicidal Ideations in Women with Symptoms of Postpartum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Doucet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the relationship between coping mechanisms and suicidal ideations among women who experience symptoms of postpartum depression. Design This exploratory descriptive study used secondary data from a study of women who experienced symptoms of postpartum depression. Participants Convenience and purposive sampling were used to obtain the community sample of 40 women who experienced symptoms of postpartum depression. Methods Binary logistic regression was employed to explore emotion-focused coping, avoidance-focused coping, problem-focused coping, and religious coping as predictors of suicidal ideations. Results Approximately 27% of the sample reported suicidal ideations within the past seven days. The results showed that lower levels of emotion-focused coping and higher levels of avoidance-focused and religious coping predicted suicidal ideations in participants. Problem-focused coping did not predict suicidal ideations. Conclusion Overall, our findings provide support for the importance of coping mechanisms as predictors of suicidal ideations among women who experience symptoms of postpartum depression. The results illustrate the need for health professionals to conduct routine assessments on coping strategies and thoughts of suicide when caring for postpartum women, as well as the need to integrate coping approaches in the prevention and treatment of suicidal ideations.

  7. Baseline Depressive Symptoms Predict Subsequent Heart Disease; A 20-Year Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moghani Lankarani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression is common among patients with heart disease. Depression is also associated with worse outcomes among patients with heart disease. Fewer studies have shown whether or not baseline depressive symptoms predict subsequent heart disease in general population.

  8. Differential reporting of depressive symptoms across distinct clinical subpopulations: What DIFference does it make?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, R.B.; Wardenaar, K.J.; Kessler, R.C.; Penninx, B.W.; Meijer, R.R.; de Jonge, P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact of differences in depressive symptom reporting across clinical groups (healthcare setting, chronic illness, depression diagnosis and anxiety diagnosis) on clinical interpretability and comparability of depression scores. Methods: Participants from the Netherlands

  9. Differential Associations Between Specific Depressive Symptoms and Cardiovascular Prognosis in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Petra W.; Whooley, Mary A.; Martens, Elisabeth J.; Na, Beeya; van Melle, Joost P.; de Jonge, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms and cardiovascular prognosis. Background Depression in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) is associated with poor cardiac prognosis. Whether certain depressive

  10. Anxiety and depression symptoms and migraine: a symptom-based approach research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Mario Fernando Prieto; Mercante, Juliane P P; Tobo, Patricia R; Kamei, Helder; Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety and mood disorders have been shown to be the most relevant psychiatric comorbidities associated with migraine, influencing its clinical course, treatment response, and clinical outcomes. Limited information is available on how specific anxiety and depression symptoms are related to migraine. Symptoms-based approach, a current trend in mental health research, may improve our understanding in migraine comorbidity. The purpose of this study was to analyze how anxiety and depression aspects are related to migraine through a symptom-based approach. We studied 782 patients from the general population who completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing demographics, headache features, anxiety and depression symptoms. A binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the association between all four ratings in GAD-7 (anxiety) and PHQ-9 (depression) scales subitems as covariates, and migraine vs no headache as the outcome. The leading Odd Ratios (OR) observed in individuals with migraine relative to those without migraine were anxiety related, "Not being able to stop or control worrying" on a daily basis [OR (CI 95%)] 49.2 (13.6-178.2), "trouble relaxing" 25.7 (7.1-92.6), "Feeling nervous, anxious or on edge" on a daily basis 25.4 (6.9-93.8), and "worrying too much about different things" 24.4 (7.7-77.6). Although the hallmark symptoms of depression are emotional (hopelessness and sadness), the highest scores found were physical: apetite, fatigue, and poor sleep. Irritability had a significant increase in migraine risk [OR 3.8 (1.9-7.8) if experienced some days, 7.5 (2.7-20.7) more than half the days, and 22.0 (5.7-84.9) when experienced nearly every day]. Anxiety was more robustly associated with increase in migraine risk than depression. Lack of ability to properly control worrying and to relax are the most prominent issues in migraine psychiatric comorbidity. Physical symptoms in depression are more linked to migraine than emotional symptoms. A

  11. The Role of Body Image in the Link Between ADHD and Depression Symptoms Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Morse, Melanie; Flory, Kate

    2018-03-01

    Given the link between negative body image and depression symptoms, body image may affect the association between ADHD and depression symptoms. We evaluated the degree to which a variety of body image constructs mediated the association between ADHD and depression symptoms. Participants were undergraduate psychology students ( N = 627, age: M = 20.23, SD = 1.40, 60% female, 47% European American) who completed an online assessment. Results indicated that ADHD symptoms were indirectly associated with increased depression symptoms, and that negative evaluation of physical appearance, overweight preoccupation, and body dissatisfaction mediated the association between ADHD and depression symptoms. ADHD symptoms were also directly associated with increased depression symptoms. Body image appears to play a role in the association between ADHD and depression symptoms for college students. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  12. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and its correlates among medical students in China: a national survey in 33 universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiong-Fei; Wen, Ying; Zhao, Yun; Hu, Jun-Mei; Li, Si-Qi; Zhang, Shao-Kai; Li, Xiang-Yun; Chang, Hong; Xue, Qing-Ping; Zhao, Zhi-Mei; Gu, Yan; Li, Chang-Chang; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Chun-Xia; Fu, Christine

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a national survey among medical students in China to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and explore associated risk factors based on an established questionnaire composed of demographic information, life events in the past four weeks before survey, and the validated Chinese version of the 21-item Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean age of enrolled 9010 students was 20.7 (standard deviation: 1.6) years. BDI scores indicated that 19.9% had depressive symptoms