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  1. A Study on Herbal Finish to Prevent Bed Sore Using Mangifera indica and Triphala Dried Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiruthika Deivasigamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available “Bed sores” owe their name to the observation that patients who were bedridden and not properly repositioned would often develop ulcerations or sores on their skin, typically over bony prominences. These bed sores, which result from prolonged pressure, are also called “decubitus ulcers,” “pressure sores,” “skin breakdown,” and “pressure ulcers.” They are associated with adverse health outcomes and high treatment costs. This study focuses on developing herbal finish to prevent bed sores. For this purpose, functional finishing was utilized to produce a bedsore preventing fabric. Plain weave cotton fabric was dyed by using herbal extracts, dried, and then cured. Two samples in different ratios (1 : 2 and 2 : 1 of two herbal extracts (Mangifera indica and Triphala dried fruits were prepared with and without binder (chitosan. Air permeability, wicking ability, Drop Test for absorbency, and antibacterial properties were examined for those samples. Based on the results, fabric dyed with Mangifera indica and Triphala dried fruits in the ratio of 2 : 1 with chitosan is determined as the most promising combination for the final product.

  2. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

  3. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be ... play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure sores among ...

  4. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  5. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores ... sores? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  6. Preventing Pressure Sores

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    Full Text Available ... Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing ...

  7. Preventing Pressure Sores

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    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure ...

  8. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OTR/L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, ... do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in ... play_arrow What are the six stages of a pressure sore and how ...

  9. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries ... LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By ...

  10. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from ... Rosenberg, PsyD Understanding SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa ...

  11. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hours? play_arrow What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? play_arrow What are the ... for someone with a spinal cord injury to do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow Why is ...

  12. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  13. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a pressure sore? play_arrow What are the causes of pressure sores in people with spinal cord injuries? play_arrow Why are pressure sores so serious? play_arrow What is "sepsis," and why is it dangerous? play_arrow How ...

  14. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What parts of the body are most likely to develop pressure sores? play_arrow Is ... daily skin inspections? play_arrow What are the most important things for someone with a spinal cord ...

  15. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New ... not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found ...

  16. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow How long is the typical healing time for a pressure sore? play_arrow Why do ... com is an informational and support website for families facing spinal cord injuries. The website does not ...

  17. Preventing Pressure Sores

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    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... Nurse Specialist, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago play_arrow What is a pressure sore? play_arrow What are ...

  18. Pressure sores: an operant conditioning approach to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malament, I R; Dunn, M E; Davis, R

    1975-04-01

    A training system for the prevention of pressure sores has been designed to teach the paralytic person to relieve pressure intermittently from his ischium while sitting in a wheelchair. The system automates the training of wheelchair pushups, and conditions the person into exercising, based upon modified avoidance learning procedures. Results indicate that the paralytic person can be trained to pushup intermittently and efficiently using this system, thus reducing the incidence of pressure sore formation. Further long-term study is needed to assess the effectiveness of the training system as a preventative program for pressure sores.

  19. Spotlight on Psoriasis: Preventing Patches of Itchy, Sore Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe August 2016 Print this issue Spotlight on Psoriasis Preventing Patches of Itchy, Sore Skin En español ... Sun Damage Sun and Skin Wise Choices Avoid Psoriasis Triggers Factors that may trigger psoriasis or make ...

  20. Stretching to prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Robert D; de Noronha, Marcos; Kamper, Steven J

    2011-07-06

    Many people stretch before or after engaging in athletic activity. Usually the purpose is to reduce risk of injury, reduce soreness after exercise, or enhance athletic performance. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2007. The aim of this review was to determine effects of stretching before or after exercise on the development of delayed-onset muscle soreness. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (to 10 August 2009), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2010, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to 8th February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to 8th February 2010), CINAHL (1982 to 23rd February 2010), SPORTDiscus (1949 to 8th February 2010), PEDro (to 15th February 2010) and reference lists of articles. Eligible studies were randomised or quasi-randomised studies of any pre-exercise or post-exercise stretching technique designed to prevent or treat delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). For the studies to be included, the stretching had to be conducted soon before or soon after exercise and muscle soreness had to be assessed. Risk of bias was assessed using The Cochrane Collaboration's 'Risk of bias' tool and quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE. Estimates of effects of stretching were converted to a common 100-point scale. Outcomes were pooled in fixed-effect meta-analyses. Twelve studies were included in the review. This update incorporated two new studies. One of the new trials was a large field-based trial that included 2377 participants, 1220 of whom were allocated stretching. All other 11 studies were small, with between 10 and 30 participants receiving the stretch condition. Ten studies were laboratory-based and other two were field-based. All studies were exposed to either a moderate or high risk of bias. The quality of evidence was low to moderate.There was a high degree of consistency of results across studies. The pooled estimate showed that pre-exercise stretching reduced soreness at one

  1. Antioxidants for preventing and reducing muscle soreness after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Rogerson, David; Soltani, Hora; Costello, Joseph T

    2017-12-14

    Muscle soreness typically occurs after intense exercise, unaccustomed exercise or actions that involve eccentric contractions where the muscle lengthens while under tension. It peaks between 24 and 72 hours after the initial bout of exercise. Many people take antioxidant supplements or antioxidant-enriched foods before and after exercise in the belief that these will prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of antioxidant supplements and antioxidant-enriched foods for preventing and reducing the severity and duration of delayed onset muscle soreness following exercise. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, SPORTDiscus, trial registers, reference lists of articles and conference proceedings up to February 2017. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of all forms of antioxidant supplementation including specific antioxidant supplements (e.g. tablets, powders, concentrates) and antioxidant-enriched foods or diets on preventing or reducing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). We excluded studies where antioxidant supplementation was combined with another supplement. Two review authors independently screened search results, assessed risk of bias and extracted data from included trials using a pre-piloted form. Where appropriate, we pooled results of comparable trials, generally using the random-effects model. The outcomes selected for presentation in the 'Summary of findings' table were muscle soreness, collected at times up to 6 hours, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post-exercise, subjective recovery and adverse effects. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. Fifty randomised, placebo-controlled trials were included, 12 of which used a cross-over design. Of the 1089 participants, 961 (88.2%) were male and 128 (11.8%) were female. The age range for

  2. Diabetes: Good Diabetes Management and Regular Foot Care Help Prevent Severe Foot Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation and diabetes: How to protect your feet Good diabetes management and regular foot care help prevent severe foot sores that ... and may require amputation. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes complications can include nerve damage and poor blood ...

  3. Prevention of pressure sores by identifying patients at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Jensen, O; Kvorning, S A

    1982-01-01

    The risk of pressure sores developing in patients admitted with acute conditions was assessed by a simple risk score system based on age, reduced mobility, incontinence, pronounced emaciation, redness over bony prominences, unconsciousness, dehydration, and paralysis in a prospective clinical study....... During seven months in 1977, 600 of 3571 patients were classified as at risk. Of these 35 (5.8%) developed sores compared with five (0.2%) of those not at risk. The results of this study compared with those over the same period in 1976 show that close observation of at-risk patients and early detection...

  4. Ketorolac Tromethamine Spray Prevents Postendotracheal-Intubation-Induced Sore Throat after General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Postoperative sore throat is one of the major complaints of general anesthesia in the postanesthesia care unit. This prospective study investigated the preventive effect of ketorolac tromethamine spray in postendotracheal-intubation-induced sore throat after general anesthesia. Methods. Surgical patients undergoing general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were recruited from a medical center. Patients were randomly assigned to group K (treated with 5% ketorolac tromethamine spray or group D (treated with distilled water spray. Before intubation, each endotracheal tube was sprayed with the appropriate solution by physicians over the 20 cm length of the cuff. Each group comprised 95 patients fitting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for whom complete data sets were collected. The intensity of the sore throat was measured at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h after surgery, and data were compared. Results. The two groups had similar characteristics. Postoperative sore throat was significantly less frequent in group K than in group D (p<0.001 and the pain intensity was significantly lower in group K than in group D at each time point (all p<0.001. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that preanesthesia 5% ketorolac tromethamine spray could effectively decrease postendotracheal-intubation-induced sore throat in patients undergoing general anesthesia.

  5. Herbs and natural supplements in the prevention and treatment of delayed-onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meamarbashi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Unaccustomed and intense eccentric exercise is a common cause of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). There are multiple remedies for the treatment of DOMS, but its clinical and laboratory pieces of evidence are scarce. Currently, the treatments proposed for DOMS are numerous and include pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, stretching, massage, nutritional supplements, and other alternatives. To find a holistic treatment with effective pain relief and minimum side effects, complementary and alternative medicine, including herbal therapies, plays a main role. In this review, the existing published studies investigating the efficacy of herbal and natural supplementation therapies for the prevention or treatment of side effects, symptoms, and signs of DOMS are summarized. Previous studies have documented the efficacy of herbal therapies to treat pain, inflammation, as well as laboratory and clinical side effects of DOMS. The use of herbs in DOMS seems safer and has lower side effects than pharmacotherapy. However, the potential for side effects and drug interactions should be considered.

  6. Whole-Body Vibration and the Prevention and Treatment of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminian-Far, Atefeh; Hadian, Mohammad-Reza; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Talebian, Saeed; Bakhtiary, Amir Hoshang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Numerous recovery strategies have been used in an attempt to minimize the symptoms of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been suggested as a viable warm-up for athletes. However, scientific evidence to support the protective effects of WBV training (WBVT) on muscle damage is lacking. Objective: To investigate the acute effect of WBVT applied before eccentric exercise in the prevention of DOMS. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 32 healthy, untrained volunteers were randomly assigned to either the WBVT (n  =  15) or control (n  =  17) group. Intervention(s): Volunteers performed 6 sets of 10 maximal isokinetic (60°/s) eccentric contractions of the dominant-limb knee extensors on a dynamometer. In the WBVT group, the training was applied using a vibratory platform (35 Hz, 5 mm peak to peak) with 100° of knee flexion for 60 seconds before eccentric exercise. No vibration was applied in the control group. Main Outcome Measure(s): Muscle soreness, thigh circumference, and pressure pain threshold were recorded at baseline and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14 days postexercise. Maximal voluntary isometric and isokinetic knee extensor strength were assessed at baseline, immediately after exercise, and at 1, 2, 7, and 14 days postexercise. Serum creatine kinase was measured at baseline and at 1, 2, and 7 days postexercise. Results: The WBVT group showed a reduction in DOMS symptoms in the form of less maximal isometric and isokinetic voluntary strength loss, lower creatine kinase levels, and less pressure pain threshold and muscle soreness (P < .05) compared with the control group. However, no effect on thigh circumference was evident (P < .05). Conclusions: Administered before eccentric exercise, WBVT may reduce DOMS via muscle function improvement. Further investigation should be undertaken to ascertain the effectiveness of WBVT in

  7. Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which ...

  8. Cold-water immersion (cryotherapy for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bleakley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many strategies are in use with the intention of preventing or minimizing delayed onset muscle soreness and fatigue after exercise. Cold-water immersion, in water temperatures of less than 15 °C, is currently one of the most popular interventional strategies used after exercise. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of cold-water immersion in the management of muscle soreness after exercise. SEARCH METHODS: In February 2010, we searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library (2010, Issue 1, Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL, British Nursing Index and archive (BNI, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro. We also searched the reference lists of articles, handsearched journals and conference proceedings and contacted experts. In November 2011, we updated the searches of Central (2011, Issue 4, Medline (up to November Week 3 2011, Embase (to 2011 Week 46 and CINAHL (to 28 November 2011 to check for more recent publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing the effect of using cold-water immersion after exercise with: passive intervention (rest/no intervention, contrast immersion, warm-water immersion, active recovery, compression, or a different duration/dosage of cold-water immersion. Primary outcomes were pain (muscle soreness or tenderness (pain on palpation, and subjective recovery (return to previous activities without signs or symptoms. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three authors independently evaluated study quality and extracted data. Some of the data were obtained following author correspondence or extracted from graphs in the trial reports. Where possible, data were pooled using the fixed-effect model. MAIN RESULTS: Seventeen small trials were included, involving a total of 366 participants. Study quality was low. The temperature, duration and

  9. Cold-water immersion (cryotherapy) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Chris; McDonough, Suzanne; Gardner, Evie; Baxter, G David; Hopkins, J Ty; Davison, Gareth W

    2012-02-15

    Many strategies are in use with the intention of preventing or minimising delayed onset muscle soreness and fatigue after exercise. Cold-water immersion, in water temperatures of less than 15°C, is currently one of the most popular interventional strategies used after exercise. To determine the effects of cold-water immersion in the management of muscle soreness after exercise. In February 2010, we searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library (2010, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), British Nursing Index and archive (BNI), and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). We also searched the reference lists of articles, handsearched journals and conference proceedings and contacted experts.In November 2011, we updated the searches of CENTRAL (2011, Issue 4), MEDLINE (up to November Week 3 2011), EMBASE (to 2011 Week 46) and CINAHL (to 28 November 2011) to check for more recent publications. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing the effect of using cold-water immersion after exercise with: passive intervention (rest/no intervention), contrast immersion, warm-water immersion, active recovery, compression, or a different duration/dosage of cold-water immersion. Primary outcomes were pain (muscle soreness) or tenderness (pain on palpation), and subjective recovery (return to previous activities without signs or symptoms). Three authors independently evaluated study quality and extracted data. Some of the data were obtained following author correspondence or extracted from graphs in the trial reports. Where possible, data were pooled using the fixed-effect model. Seventeen small trials were included, involving a total of 366 participants. Study quality was low. The temperature, duration and frequency of cold-water immersion varied between the different trials as did the exercises and settings. The

  10. Herbs and natural supplements in the prevention and treatment of delayed-onset muscle soreness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Meamarbashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  Unaccustomed and intense eccentric exercise is a common cause of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS. There are multiple remedies for the treatment of DOMS, but its clinical and laboratory pieces of evidence are scarce. Currently, the treatments proposed for DOMS are numerous and include pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, stretching, massage, nutritional supplements, and other alternatives. To find a holistic treatment with effective pain relief and minimum side effects, complementary and alternative medicine, including herbal therapies, plays a main role.Methods: In this review, the existing published studies investigating the efficacy of herbal and natural supplementation therapies for the prevention or treatment of side effects, symptoms, and signs of DOMS are summarized.Results: Previous studies have documented the efficacy of herbal therapies to treat pain, inflammation, as well as laboratory and clinical side effects of DOMS.Conclusion: The use of herbs in DOMS seems safer and has lower side effects than pharmacotherapy. However, the potential for side effects and drug interactions should be considered.

  11. What is the best support surface in prevention and treatment, as of 2012, for a patient at risk and/or suffering from pressure ulcer sore? Developing French guidelines for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, D; Rochet, J-M; Ribinik, P; Barrois, B; Passadori, Y; Michel, J-M

    2012-10-01

    The use of support surfaces in the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers prevention is an important part of care for a patient at risk and/or suffering from sore(s). Define which support surfaces to use in prevention and treatment of at-risk and/or pressure sore patients. A systematic review of the literature querying the several Pascal Biomed, PubMed and Cochrane Library databases from 2000 through 2010. RESULTS (GRADE A): In prevention, a structured foam mattress is more efficient than a standard hospital mattress. An alternating pressure mattress is more effective than a visco-elastic mattress limiting the occurrence heel pressure ulcers, but those that do occur are more serious. A low-air-loss bed is more efficient than a mixed pulsating air mattress in prevention of heel pressure ulcers. Some types of sheepskin can reduce sacral pressure ulcer incidence in orthopedic patients. Use of an overlay on an operating table limits the occurrence of peroperative and postoperative pressure ulcers. An air-fluidized bed improves pressure ulcer healing. The data in the literature are not always relevant and do not suffice to dictate a clinician's choices. We are compelled to recognize the methodological limitations of many studies, the lack of corporate interest in conducting such studies and the relatively small number of available trials. However, the effectiveness of some support surfaces reaches a sufficient level of evidence, especially when they are associated with postural, hydration and nutritional measures. Support surfaces are recommended in prevention and treatment of patients at risk and/or already suffering from pressure ulcer, and their use should constitute part of an overall preventive or curative strategy. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. The effect of topical thiocolchicoside in preventing and reducing the increase of muscle tone, stiffness, and soreness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Marco; Sisti, Davide; Benelli, Piero; Fernández-Peña, Eneko; Calcabrini, Cinzia; Rocchi, Marco B.L.; Lanata, Luigi; Bagnasco, Michela; Tonti, Andrea; Vilberto, Stocchi; Sestili, Piero

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In professional road cyclists, the majority of overuse injuries affect the lower limbs and are mostly represented by contractures or muscle shortening, characterized by an increase of tone and stiffness and a variation of elasticity. Treatment and prevention of these specific conditions may include physical, supplementary, and pharmacologic support. The aim of this real-life study was to determine: first, the alterations of tone, stiffness, elasticity, and soreness of rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in top class cyclists engaged in 3 multistage races, and second, whether any variable in the management of the athletes may affect the prevention and/or reduction of such alterations. Twenty-three professional cyclists competing in 3 international, cycling stage races were assessed. Athletes could receive, upon the approval of the medical staff, physical, dietary, and/or pharmacological management which could include treatments with topical over-the-counter myorelaxants to prevent and/or reduce muscle contractures. MyotonPro was used to daily measure tone, stiffness, and elasticity in RF and BF in relaxed and contracted state after every stage. In parallel, BF and RF soreness was also assessed with a Likert scale. All athletes received the same general massage management; none of them received dietary supplements; some of the athletes were treated with a topical myorelaxant thiocolchicoside (TCC 0.25%) foam 3 times daily. TCC was identified as the only variable able to affect these muscle parameters in the cyclists. Tone, stiffness (regardless of the state), and soreness significantly increased over time either in BF or RF in all athletes. In the group of athletes that used TCC (n = 11; TCC+) the increase in tone, stiffness, and soreness was significantly lower than in the group not receiving TCC (n = 12; No-TCC). Elasticity varied coherently with tone and stiffness. A very intense and protracted sport activity increases muscular tone

  13. A pragmatic randomised trial of stretching before and after physical activity to prevent injury and soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamtvedt, Gro; Herbert, Robert D; Flottorp, Signe; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan; Håvelsrud, Kari; Barratt, Alex; Mathieu, Erin; Burls, Amanda; Oxman, Andrew D

    2010-11-01

    To determine the effects of stretching before and after physical activity on risks of injury and soreness in a community population. Internet-based pragmatic randomised trial conducted between January 2008 and January 2009. International. A total of 2377 adults who regularly participated in physical activity. Participants in the stretch group were asked to perform 30 s static stretches of seven lower limb and trunk muscle groups before and after physical activity for 12 weeks. Participants in the control group were asked not to stretch. Participants provided weekly on-line reports of outcomes over 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were any injury to the lower limb or back, and bothersome soreness of the legs, buttocks or back. Injury to muscles, ligaments and tendons was a secondary outcome. Stretching did not produce clinically important or statistically significant reductions in all-injury risk (HR=0.97, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.13), but did reduce the risk of experiencing bothersome soreness (mean risk of bothersome soreness in a week was 24.6% in the stretch group and 32.3% in the control group; OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.82). Stretching reduced the risk of injuries to muscles, ligaments and tendons (incidence rate of 0.66 injuries per person-year in the stretch group and 0.88 injuries per person-year in the control group; HR=0.75, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.96). Stretching before and after physical activity does not appreciably reduce all-injury risk but probably reduces the risk of some injuries, and does reduce the risk of bothersome soreness. anzctr.org.au 12608000044325.

  14. Mouth sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders Cancer of the mouth Infections such as hand-foot-mouth disease Weakened immune system -- for example, if you have ... Names Aphthous stomatitis; Herpes simplex; Cold sores Images Hand-foot-mouth disease Mouth sores Fever blister References Daniels TE, Jordan ...

  15. Canker Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be a connection between canker sores and stress . If you get canker sores around exam time or some other big event in your life, it may be a sign of how much stress you're under. Mouth injuries (like biting the ...

  16. Preventive effects of 10-day supplementation with saffron and indomethacin on the delayed-onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meamarbashi, Abbas; Rajabi, Ali

    2015-03-01

    Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) often occurs after unaccustomed eccentric exercise and reduces exercise performance. We aimed to study the preventive effects of saffron and indomethacin on the biochemical and functional indicators of DOMS after 1-session eccentric exercise. A 10-day, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pretest-posttest design. Controlled research laboratory. Thirty-nine nonactive male university students randomly divided into saffron (n = 12), indomethacin (n = 12), and control (n = 15) groups. Saffron group received 1 capsule containing dried saffron powder (n = 12, 300 mg/d), indomethacin group received 75 mg indomethacin (n = 12, 25 mg thrice a day), and control group (n = 15) received placebo capsules, 1 week before and 3 days after eccentric exercise. Ten days before and 24, 48, and 72 hours after muscle soreness protocol, the maximum isometric and isotonic forces, plasma creatine kinase (CK), plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), perceived pain, knee range of movement, and thigh circumference were measured. Muscle soreness protocol was performed with a weight load equal to 80% of the maximum isotonic force in 4 sessions with 20 repetitions and 3-minute rest in between. This study shows that 10-day supplementation with 300 mg saffron significantly decreased the CK and LDH concentrations (P < 0.0001). In the saffron group, there was no decline in maximum isometric and isotonic forces after eccentric exercise, but a significant decline in the isometric force was observed in the control group (P < 0.0001). No pain was reported in the saffron group, whereas the indomethacin group experienced pain before 72 hours (P < 0.001). Results obtained from the current novel research indicate a strong preventive effect of 10-day supplementation with saffron on the DOMS. The saffron can be used to prevent DOMS and alleviate the DOMS symptoms.

  17. Use of polyurethane foam inside plaster casts to prevent the onset of heel sores in the population at risk. A controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Cristiana; Loro, Loretta; Tremosini, Morena; Mini, Sandra; Pignotti, Elettra; Bigoni, Ombretta; Guzzo, Giuseppe; Bellini, Laura; Trofa, Carmela; Di Cataldo, Anna M; Guzzi, Marilena

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of polyurethane foam in contact with the heel inside a plaster cast to decrease the rate of pressure sores in the population at most risk. The rate of pressure sores caused by the plaster cast is reported to be 14-15% in the paediatric population, 33.3% in patients having undergone chemotherapy for bone tumours and 43% in orthopaedic patients who already have sore skin when the cast is applied (grade 1 lesion) to the heel. Controlled clinical trial. From November 2007-January 2009, all consecutive subjects requiring lower limb casts having undergone chemotherapy and/or presenting heel soreness received polyurethane foam in contact with the skin of the heel before applying the cast. The results were compared with those of patients with the same risk factors but were not administered the foam and were enrolled from May 2005-August 2006. In total, 156 patients were enrolled, 85 in the control group and 71 in the experimental group. In the experimental group, 2 of the 56 patients (3.6%) with sore skin developed a pressure sore compared with 21 of 49 (42.9%) in the control group without polyurethane foam (p polyurethane foam in contact with the skin of the heel inside a plaster cast prevents the formation of pressure sores. This study provides evidence that using polyurethane foam to prevent sores even inside plaster casts in populations at most risk is a simple and cost-effective strategy and decreases the discomfort, pain and risks in these patients. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Cold Sore

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain Headache Cold sore Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  19. Canker Sore

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health basics Canker sore Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  20. Canker Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may suggest allergy testing. Q: Is there a cure for canker sores? A: Not yet. However, therapies are available to decrease pain, shorten the time of the ulcers, and even reduce how often they occur. These ...

  1. Cold Sore

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may reduce how often they return. Symptoms A cold sore usually passes through several stages: Tingling and itching. Many people feel an itching, burning or tingling sensation around their lips for a day or so ...

  2. Canker sore

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... swab. Follow by dabbing a small amount of Milk of Magnesia on the canker sore afterward. Repeat these steps ... Rinse your mouth with a mixture of half Milk of Magnesia and half Benadryl liquid allergy medicine. Swish mixture ...

  3. Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Joseph T; Baker, Philip R A; Minett, Geoffrey M; Bieuzen, Francois; Stewart, Ian B; Bleakley, Chris

    2015-09-18

    Recovery strategies are often used with the intention of preventing or minimising muscle soreness after exercise. Whole-body cryotherapy, which involves a single or repeated exposure(s) to extremely cold dry air (below -100 °C) in a specialised chamber or cabin for two to four minutes per exposure, is currently being advocated as an effective intervention to reduce muscle soreness after exercise. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the British Nursing Index and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database. We also searched the reference lists of articles, trial registers and conference proceedings, handsearched journals and contacted experts.The searches were run in August 2015. We aimed to include randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared the use of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) versus a passive or control intervention (rest, no treatment or placebo treatment) or active interventions including cold or contrast water immersion, active recovery and infrared therapy for preventing or treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We also aimed to include randomised trials that compared different durations or dosages of WBC. Our prespecified primary outcomes were muscle soreness, subjective recovery (e.g. tiredness, well-being) and adverse effects. Two review authors independently screened search results, selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted and cross-checked data. Where appropriate, we pooled results of comparable trials. The random-effects model was used for pooling where there was substantial heterogeneity. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. Four laboratory-based randomised controlled trials were included. These reported results for 64

  4. Sore Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2014-01-01

    for you, too, now. Furthermore I write in the beginning: “The characteristics of digital images and the use Orlan makes of them, as well as the crisis in representation that she and the media mark, are linked with the notion of 'sore society’. Why is there a displacement from representation towards...

  5. To Compare the Effect of Vibration Therapy and Massage in Prevention of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiyaz, Shagufta; Veqar, Zubia; Shareef, M.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of vibration therapy and massage in prevention of DOMS. Methods: Pre-test and Post-test Control-Group Design was used, 45 healthy female non athletic Subjects were recruited and randomly distributed to the three groups (15 subject in each group). After the subject’s initial status was measured experimental groups received vibration therapy (50 Hz vibration for five minutes) or massage therapy (15 minutes) intervention and control group received no treatment, just prior to the eccentric exercise. Subjects were undergoing the following measurements to evaluate the changes in the muscle condition: muscle soreness (pain perception), Range of Motion (ROM), Maximum Isometric Force (MIF), Repetition maximum (RM), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Cretain Kinase (CK) level. All the parameters except LDH, CK and 1RM were measured before, immediately post intervention, immediately post exercise, 24 hours post exercise, 48 hours post exercise and 72 hours post exercise. LDH, CK and 1 RM were measured before and 48 hours post exercise. Result: Muscle soreness was reported to be significantly less for experimental (vibration and massage) group (p=0.000) as compared to control group at 24, 48, and 72 hours of post-exercise. Experimental and control group did not show any significant difference in MIF immediate (p=0.2898), 24 hours (p=0.4173), 48 hours (p=0.752) and 72 hours (p=0.5297) of post-exercise. Range of motion demonstrated significant recovery in experimental groups in 48 hours (p=0.0016) and 72 hours (p=0.0463). Massage therapy showed significant recovery in 1RM (p=0.000) compared to control group and vibration therapy shows significantly less LDH level (p=0.000) 48 hours of post exercise compare to control group. CK at 48 hours of post exercise in vibration group (p=0.000) and massage group showed (p=0.002) significant difference as compared to control group. Conclusion: Vibration therapy and massage are equally effective in

  6. 60: EVIDENCE-BASED NURSING IN THE WOUND BED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilnezhad, Mahdieh; Rasooli, Alehe Seyyed; Sedghivash, Saba; Vatani, Parisa

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Pressure sores are areas of tissue in the elderly or patients who can no independently change their situation happening pressure sores significant financial burden on health care systems impose a negative impact on quality of life and their frequency. Change the status of patients in hospitals or long-term care for the prevention of pressure ulcers is a common strategy. Methods We searched the data base in COCHRANE, MEDLIBE, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, PUBMED, and UP TO DATE with keywords evidence base and nursing bed sore following evidence obtained: Results The study Qinhongzhang et al. (2015) called massage therapy to prevent bed sores showed that currently there is no credible study that shows that massage therapy can help to prevent bed sores. Study Brigidgillespie et al. (2014) “The movement to preven pressure sores showed that the movement of the patient from position 30 degrees every 3 hours instead of the standard 90 degrees every 6 hours to waste energy and time nurses a significant impact on the evolution of the treatment of patients. Chichfengchen study et al. (2014) as phototherapy for the treatment of pressure ulcers showed that the group treated with ultraviolet radiation completing the treatment period shorter than the control group (p=0.003). Conclusion According to findings from the EBN seen, non-drug, non-invasive nursing interventions can have a preventive effect on pressure sores.

  7. Bed Bug Prevention, Detection and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tips in this brochure include inspecting and cleaning second-hand furniture, inspection and prevention in hotel rooms, recognizing bites, integrated pest management, safe pesticide use, signs of infestation, and using mattress and box spring encasements.

  8. Compression garments to prevent delayed onset muscle soreness in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Xavier; Til, Lluís; Drobnic, Franchek; Turmo, Antonio; Montoro, José Bruno; Valero, Oliver; Artells, Rosa

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a compression garment as DOMS prevention. This was accomplished by provoking a DOMS in 15 athletes, running on a treadmill at 73% of their maximal aerobic velocity, during 40 minutes with a 10% negative slope; wearing the compression garments on one thigh, protected thigh (PT), and not in the contralateral thigh, control thigh (CT). A clinical and MRI diagnosis of DOMS was performed. Biopsies in both vastus lateralis were done, and the amount and severity of the DOMS was estimated by measuring intracellular albumin, and lymphocytes CD3+ and neutrophils intra/interfibrilar infiltrates, 48h after the induced damaging exercise. There was less total injury in the PT than in the CT, a 26.7% average. These data indicate that this compression garment is an effective method to reduce the histological injury in DOMS.

  9. Preventing Pressure Sores

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    ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

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  7. Preventing Pressure Sores

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  9. Cochrane review: Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Joseph T; Baker, Philip Ra; Minett, Geoffrey M; Bieuzen, Francois; Stewart, Ian B; Bleakley, Chris

    2016-01-14

    Delayed-onset muscle soreness, or 'DOMS', affects many people after exercise and can impair future performance. It usually peaks one to four days after exercise and several strategies are used to overcome it. The effectiveness and safety of many of these strategies applied and promoted is unknown. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Canker Sores (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sign of an immune system problem. Even emotional stress could be a factor. One study of college students showed that they had more canker sores during stressful periods, such as around exam time. Who Gets Canker Sores? About 1 in ...

  11. Pressure sores in spinal cord injury: Active intervention saves costs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. Pressure sores are a predictable consequence of poorly managed spinal cord-injured patients. Not only do pressure sores contribute to the morbidity, but also add significantly to the medical/nursing management, cost and admission stay, limiting optimal bed utilisation. This intervention study assesses the impact ...

  12. Genital sores - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Genital sores - male URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  13. Pharyngitis - sore throat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in some cases: Strep throat is caused by group A streptococcus. Less commonly, bacterial diseases such as gonorrhea and chlamydia can cause sore throat. Most cases of pharyngitis occur ... illness often spreads among family members and close contacts.

  14. Comparison of illumigene Group A Streptococcus Assay with Culture of Throat Swabs from Children with Sore Throats in the New Zealand School-Based Rheumatic Fever Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Arlo; Bissessor, Liselle; Farrell, Elizabeth; Shulman, Stanford T; Zheng, Xiaotian; Lennon, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis is a particularly important condition in areas of New Zealand where the incidence of acute rheumatic fever remains unacceptably high. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of GAS pharyngitis are cornerstones of the Rheumatic Fever Prevention Programme, but these are hindered by the turnaround time of culture. Tests with excellent performance and rapid turnaround times are needed. For this study, throat swabs (Copan ESwabs) were collected from schoolchildren self-identifying with a sore throat. Samples were tested by routine culture and the illumigene GAS assay using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Discrepant results were resolved by retesting of the same specimen by an alternative molecular assay. Seven hundred fifty-seven throat swab specimens were tested by both methods. The performance characteristics of the illumigene assay using culture on blood agar as the "gold standard" and following discrepancy analysis were as follows: sensitivity, 82% and 87%, respectively; specificity, 93% and 98%, respectively; positive predictive value, 61% and 88%, respectively; and negative predictive value, 97% and 97%, respectively. In our unique setting of a school-based throat swabbing program, the illumigene assay did not perform quite as well as described in previous reports. Despite this, its improved sensitivity and rapid turnaround time compared with those of culture are appealing. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Top Ten Tips to Prevent or Control Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confirm you have bed bugs rather than other insects (if needed, show to your local extension agent trained in pest control), assess Integrated Pest Management (IPM) options before considering pesticide, try mattress encasements, and more.

  16. Taking Care of Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Taking Care of Pressure Sores [Download this pamphlet: "Taking Care of Pressure ... may not show up right away. Stages of pressure sores and how to care for them: STAGE ...

  17. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Cold Sores in Children: About the Herpes Simplex Virus Page Content ​A child's toddler and ... Cold sores (also called fever blisters or oral herpes) start as small blisters that form around the ...

  18. The effect of topical thiocolchicoside in preventing and reducing the increase of muscle tone, stiffness, and soreness: A real-life study on top-level road cyclists during stage competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Marco; Sisti, Davide; Benelli, Piero; Fernández-Peña, Eneko; Calcabrini, Cinzia; Rocchi, Marco B L; Lanata, Luigi; Bagnasco, Michela; Tonti, Andrea; Vilberto, Stocchi; Sestili, Piero

    2017-07-01

    In professional road cyclists, the majority of overuse injuries affect the lower limbs and are mostly represented by contractures or muscle shortening, characterized by an increase of tone and stiffness and a variation of elasticity. Treatment and prevention of these specific conditions may include physical, supplementary, and pharmacologic support. The aim of this real-life study was to determine: first, the alterations of tone, stiffness, elasticity, and soreness of rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in top class cyclists engaged in 3 multistage races, and second, whether any variable in the management of the athletes may affect the prevention and/or reduction of such alterations.Twenty-three professional cyclists competing in 3 international, cycling stage races were assessed. Athletes could receive, upon the approval of the medical staff, physical, dietary, and/or pharmacological management which could include treatments with topical over-the-counter myorelaxants to prevent and/or reduce muscle contractures. MyotonPro was used to daily measure tone, stiffness, and elasticity in RF and BF in relaxed and contracted state after every stage. In parallel, BF and RF soreness was also assessed with a Likert scale.All athletes received the same general massage management; none of them received dietary supplements; some of the athletes were treated with a topical myorelaxant thiocolchicoside (TCC 0.25%) foam 3 times daily. TCC was identified as the only variable able to affect these muscle parameters in the cyclists. Tone, stiffness (regardless of the state), and soreness significantly increased over time either in BF or RF in all athletes. In the group of athletes that used TCC (n = 11; TCC+) the increase in tone, stiffness, and soreness was significantly lower than in the group not receiving TCC (n = 12; No-TCC). Elasticity varied coherently with tone and stiffness.A very intense and protracted sport activity increases muscular tone, stiffness, and

  19. Research on preventive technologies for bed-separation water hazard in China coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Herong; Tong, Shijie; Qiu, Weizhong; Lin, Manli

    2018-03-01

    Bed-separation water is one of the major water hazards in coal mines. Targeted researches on the preventive technologies are of paramount importance to safe mining. This article studied the restrictive effect of geological and mining factors, such as lithological properties of roof strata, coal seam inclination, water source to bed separations, roof management method, dimensions of mining working face, and mining progress, on the formation of bed-separation water hazard. The key techniques to prevent bed-separation water-related accidents include interception, diversion, destructing the buffer layer, grouting and backfilling, etc. The operation and efficiency of each technique are corroborated in field engineering cases. The results of this study will offer reference to countries with similar mining conditions in the researches on bed-separation water burst and hazard control in coal mines.

  20. Delayed onset muscle soreness: is massage effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nicole

    2013-10-01

    Despite the widespread occurrence of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), there is little consensus as to the exact cause or which treatments may be most effective at alleviating symptoms. Greater understanding of DOMS can give sports medicine and fitness professionals an opportunity to help prevent or speed recovery of this performance limiting condition. This article will review the DOMS literature, including the potential role of psychosocial factors and explore studies which involve massage therapy as a treatment modality. Articles from PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and references from articles are included in this review. Search words and phrases included delayed onset muscle soreness, repeated bout effect, massage effectiveness, exercise induced muscle damage, and eccentric exercise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibody to P. falciparum in pregnancy varies with intermittent preventive treatment regime and bed net use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth H Aitken

    Full Text Available Antibodies towards placental-binding P. falciparum are thought to protect against pregnancy malaria; however, environmental factors may affect antibody development.Using plasma from pregnant Malawian women, we measured IgG against placental-binding P. falciparum parasites by flow cytometry, and related results to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp regime, and bed net use. Bed net use was associated with decreased antibody levels at mid-pregnancy but not at 1 month post partum (1 mpp. At 1 mpp a more intensive IPTp regime was associated with decreased antibody levels in primigravidae, but not multigravidae.Results suggest bed nets and IPTp regime influence acquisition of pregnancy-specific P. falciparum immunity.

  2. Muscle soreness and delayed-onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Paul B; Ruby, Deana; Bush-Joseph, Charles A

    2012-04-01

    Immediate and delayed-onset muscle soreness differ mainly in chronology of presentation. Both conditions share the same quality of pain, eliciting and relieving activities and a varying degree of functional deficits. There is no single mechanism for muscle soreness; instead, it is a culmination of 6 different mechanisms. The developing pathway of DOMS begins with microtrauma to muscles and then surrounding connective tissues. Microtrauma is then followed by an inflammatory process and subsequent shifts of fluid and electrolytes. Throughout the progression of these events, muscle spasms may be present, exacerbating the overall condition. There are a multitude of modalities to manage the associated symptoms of immediate soreness and DOMS. Outcomes of each modality seem to be as diverse as the modalities themselves. The judicious use of NSAIDs and continued exercise are suggested to be the most reliable methods and recommended. This review article and each study cited, however, represent just one part of the clinician's decisionmaking process. Careful affirmation of temporary deficits from muscle soreness is not to be taken lightly, nor is the advisement and medical management of muscle soreness prescribed by the clinician.

  3. Decubitus grade IV (deep pressure sore) with intact skin in a patient with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, C.C.W.; Zeilstra, J.T.; van Voorst Vader, P.C.; Kardaun, S.H.; Leeman, F.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Even with intact skin the possibility of pressure sores should not be dismissed. Early recognition of a pressure sore is important for adequate treatment and prevention of progression. Multidisciplinary intervention is essential. A wheelchair patient with spinal cord injury is described, who

  4. What role can nurse leaders play in reducing the incidence of pressure sores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Pressure sores have plagued the nursing profession for many years as a major health care problem in terms of a patient's suffering and financial cost. Pressure sores are increasingly common in hospitalized patients in the United States with a 63% increase from 1993 to 2003. The nurse leader is accountable for the occurrence of pressure sores, a nurse-sensitive indicator, by a scorecard which is benchmarked against other facilities. The nurse leader must take a systematic approach in the prevention of pressure sores, with the strategy being consistent and motivating to the staff in order to improve patient outcome. The chief nursing officer, the unit manager, and the bedside nurse must all collaborate to prevent tissue injury in patients at risk for developing pressure sores and to promote wound healing in patients with existing breakdown.

  5. Pressure sores in spinal cord injury: Active intervention saves costs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-07-22

    Jul 22, 2008 ... interrogated for all cervical spine injuries. Patients were identified retrospectively for the period April 2003 to May 2006 and divided into 4 groups according to the level of intervention they received to prevent pressure sores. Group A. These were the first 100 patients with cervical injuries managed in the unit ...

  6. IntermIttent PreventIve treatment and Bed nets uPtake among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prenatal exposure to malaria parasites lowers development of protective immunity in infants, shortening the time to a first incidence of malaria and increased frequency of malaria in the first two years of life(4,5). Because of these increased risks, prevention of malaria during pregnancy is crucial for both the mother and infant.

  7. Teens, Tweets, and Tanning Beds: Rethinking the Use of Social Media for Skin Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, Ashley E; Brindis, Claire D; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Junn, Alexandra; Pagoto, Sherry; Wehner, Mackenzie; Linos, Eleni

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is rising in the U.S., and melanoma, the deadliest form, is increasing disproportionately among young white women. Indoor tanning is a modifiable risk factor for all skin cancers and continues to be used at the highest rates in young white women. Adolescents and young adults report personal appearance-based reasons for using indoor tanning. Previous research has explored the influences on tanning bed use, including individual factors as well as relationships with peers, family, schools, media influences, legislation, and societal beauty norms. Adolescents and young adults also have high rates of social media usage, and research is emerging on how best to utilize these platforms for prevention. Social media has the potential to be a cost-effective way to reach large numbers of young people and target messages at characteristics of specific audiences. Recent prevention efforts have shown that comprehensive prevention campaigns that include technology and social media are promising in reducing rates of indoor tanning among young adults. This review examines the literature on psychosocial influences on indoor tanning among adolescents and young adults, and highlights ways in which technology and social media can be used for prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Teens, Tweets, and Tanning Beds: Rethinking the Use of Social Media for Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, Ashley E.; Brindis, Claire D.; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Junn, Alexandra; Pagoto, Sherry; Wehner, Mackenzie; Linos, Eleni

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is rising in the U.S., and melanoma, the deadliest form, is increasing disproportionately among young white women. Indoor tanning is a modifiable risk factor for all skin cancers and continues to be used at the highest rates in young white women. Adolescents and young adults report personal appearance–based reasons for using indoor tanning. Previous research has explored the influences on tanning bed use, including individual factors as well as relationships with peers, family, schools, media influences, legislation, and societal beauty norms. Adolescents and young adults also have high rates of social media usage, and research is emerging on how best to utilize these platforms for prevention. Social media has the potential to be a cost-effective way to reach large numbers of young people and target messages at characteristics of specific audiences. Recent prevention efforts have shown that comprehensive prevention campaigns that include technology and social media are promising in reducing rates of indoor tanning among young adults. This review examines the literature on psychosocial influences on indoor tanning among adolescents and young adults, and highlights ways in which technology and social media can be used for prevention efforts. PMID:28818251

  9. Sore throat management in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, P; Williamson, I

    1996-06-01

    This paper discusses primary care management of sore throat in the context of recent national 'consensus' guidelines from the Drugs and Therapeutics Bulletin. The guidelines advise taking a throat swab, using typical clinical features where swabs are not available, and suggest that antibiotics shorten the duration of symptoms and prevent complications. Systematic reviews and individual studies indicate that the evidence for prescribing antibiotics for most presentations of sore throat in general practice is marginal, and the benefits are probably outweighed by the likely costs of antibiotics. Using clinical scorecards or symptom clusters to identify individuals who would benefit from treatment is insensitive with low predictive value, although inexpensive. Using throat swabs as a gold standard for diagnosis is inappropriate since they are neither very specific nor sensitive, and will greatly increase costs of management. The relative lack of evidence for the efficacy of antibiotics and for the use of throat swabs from primary care research, and also an unbalanced perspective of dangers and complications related predominantly to a secondary care setting, underlines the problem of achieving valid consensus guidelines. Guidelines not firmly based on evidence appropriate to the intended setting are more likely to be received sceptically and hinder getting research into practice.

  10. Rotational bed therapy to prevent and treat respiratory complications: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhill, David R; Imhoff, Michael; McLean, Barbara; Waldmann, Carl

    2007-01-01

    Immobility is associated with complications involving many body systems. To review the effect of rotational therapy (use of therapeutic surfaces that turn on their longitudinal axes) on prevention and/or treatment of respiratory complications in critically ill patients. Published articles evaluating prophylaxis and/or treatment were reviewed. Prospective randomized controlled trials were assessed for quality and included in meta-analyses. A literature search yielded 15 nonrandomized, uncontrolled, or retrospective studies. Twenty prospective randomized controlled trials on rotational therapy were published between 1987 and 2004. Various types of beds were studied, but few details on the rotational parameters were reported. The usual control was manual turning of patients by nurses every 2 hours. One animal investigation and 12 clinical trials addressed the effectiveness of rotational therapy in preventing respiratory complications. Significant benefits were reported in the animal study and 4 of the trials. Significant benefits to patients were reported in 2 of another 4 studies focused on treatment of established complications. Researchers have examined the effects of rotational therapy on mucus transport, intrapulmonary shunt, hemodynamic effects, urine output, and intracranial pressure. Little convincing evidence is available, however, on the most effective rotation parameters (eg, degree, pause time, and amount of time per day). Meta-analysis suggests that rotational therapy decreases the incidence of pneumonia but has no effect on duration of mechanical ventilation, number of days in intensive care, or hospital mortality. Rotational therapy may be useful for preventing and treating respiratory complications in selected critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation.

  11. Characteristics and associated factors in patient falls, and effectiveness of the lower height of beds for the prevention of bed falls in an acute geriatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, M D; Alonso, J; Miñana, J C; Arche, J M; Díaz, J M; Vazquez, F

    2013-01-01

    Whereas several studies about patient falls have provided data for long-term healthcare institutions, less information is available for acute care centres. The objective was to analyze the characteristics of the patient falls and associated factors, and the effectiveness of the lower beds' height to reduce the frequency and the harms of the patient falls in an acute geriatric hospital. A descriptive and retrospective study using a mandatory safety incident report, the IHI Global Trigger Tool, and the claims related to patient falls between 2007 and 2011 in a 200-bed university-associated geriatric hospital. The falls rate was 5.4 falls per 1000 patient days (1.3% of falls led to fractures) and there was exitus in 6 patients (0.6%). Nearly half of the falls ocurred during the night shift (42.4%). By wards, falls were more frequent in acute geriatric wards (42.9%). A 7.5% of patients had a fall before admission. 3 (0.2%) claims due to possible clinical negligence were found. A reduction (28.3%) of bed falls with the lower height of the bed and a 1.88 times less falls with harm (RR 0.53; CI 95% 0.83-0.34) (p=0.006) was observed. The prevention of patient falls is an important task in geriatric units with a potential reduction of harms and costs, some measures such as the lower height of the bed showed a significant reduction of the falls. Copyright © 2012 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Cullum, N; McInnes, E; Bell-Syer, SE; Legood, R

    2004-01-01

    : Pressure ulcers (also known as bedsores, pressure sores, decubitus ulcers) are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue due to pressure, shear or friction. They are common in the elderly and immobile and costly in financial and human terms. Pressure-relieving beds, mattresses and seat cushions are widely used as aids to prevention in both institutional and non-institutional settings. : This systematic review seeks to answer the following questions: to what extent do press...

  13. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    McInnes, E; Bell-Syer, SE; Dumville, JC; Legood, R; Cullum, NA

    2008-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcers (also known as bedsores, pressure sores, decubitus ulcers) are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue due to pressure, shear or friction. They are common in the elderly and immobile and costly in financial and human terms. Pressure-relieving beds, mattresses and seat cushions are widely used as aids to prevention in both institutional and non-institutional settings. Objectives This systematic review seeks to answer the following questions: (1) t...

  14. Prevention of Bed Agglomeration Problems in a Fluidized Bed Boiler by Finding the Trigging Value of Sewage Sludge Dosage Added to Combustion of Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kajsa; Gervind, Pernilla

    2009-07-01

    Agglomeration of bed sand is a common problem during combustion of biofuels with high ash content in fluidized bed boilers. Former studies have shown that co-combustion of biofuels with sewage sludge increases the agglomeration temperature. Sewage sludge has a low heating value and high ash content. It would therefore be better to use sludge as an additive to the combustion than as a co-combusted biofuel. In this study the trigging value of sludge addition to the combustion of some biofuel was investigated. The effect of adding sludge with different precipitation chemicals, iron sulphate and aluminium sulphate, was investigated. The biofuels used for the experiments were bark, refused derived fuel (RDF) and a mixture of wood and straw, 75/25 % on energy basis. All experiments were carried out in a laboratory scale fluidized bed reactor. Analyses of chemical composition of bed sand and SEM/EDX analyses were performed after the combustion. Eventually agglomeration tests were performed in order to find the agglomeration temperature of the samples. Some of the samples sintered during the combustion and were not tested for the agglomeration temperature. SEM/EDX showed that all samples of bed sand contained sand particles with more or less coatings. In some cases the coatings seemed to consist of one dense inner layer and one more porous outer layer. From SEM/EDX and chemical composition analyses it was found that the total amount of phosphorous in the bed sand samples was increased with an increased addition of sludge in all experiments. The concentration of phosphorous was especially higher in the outer layers/coatings. It was also found that elements from the sludge seem to get caught by a sticky layer at the bed sand surface and form a non-sticky or less sticky layer that prevents agglomeration. The total amount of aluminium was increased with an increased addition of sludge for the wood/straw samples, while it increased with an increased amount of combusted fuel for

  15. An audit of the physiotherapy management of paraplegic patients with sacral pressure sores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pather

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pressure sores are the most common complication post spinal cord injury that requires patients to be on bed rest. Patient bed rest delay rehabilitation and may lead to other complications associated with immobility. This study sought to establish the treatment interventions physiotherapists provide to patients with sacral pressure sores and the factors that they consider when deciding whether the patient should receive physiotherapy in the ward or gym. Methods: This was a questionnaire based survey of physiotherapists working in spinal cord injury rehabilitation units in South Africa. The self-designed questionnaire was sent to all the main spinal rehabilitation units in the country (14 located in Gauteng, Kwa-Zulu Natal, Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Free State provinces. Results: Thirty-nine physiotherapists from a total of 51 completed the questionnaires (76% response rate. The most common treatment practice for patients with sacral pressure sores was bed rest (98%. The most common physio-therapy practices (70% included were upper limb muscle strengthening, upper and lower limb passive movements, positioning into prone and side lying and passive stretching. The choice of treatment environment was influenced by doctors’ orders and the size, grade and duration of the pressure sores. Conclusion: Direct involvement in pressure sore management in South Africa seem to be less than in other parts of the world. If we are to minimise the pressure sore impact, it appears like we need more focus on gait re-education and standardised ADL programmes and patient treatment in the gym to possibly maximise healing and rehabilitation.

  16. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) prevents the prostanoid imbalance in mesenteric bed of fructose-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peredo, Horacio A; Mayer, Marcos; Faya, Ileana R; Puyó, Ana M; Carranza, Andrea

    2008-10-01

    In previous studies we reported an altered prostanoid (PR) release-pattern in mesenteric vessels in fructose (F)-overloaded rats, an experimental model of insulin resistance and hypertension. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its precursor Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) are the most abundant circulating steroid hormones produced by the adrenal and recent studies in both cells and animals suggest that DHEA may have acute non-genomic actions that mimic both metabolic and vascular actions of insulin. This study was to analyze in F-overloaded rats, the effects of DHEA treatment on arterial blood pressure and the PR production in mesenteric vessels and aorta. Male 6 week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided in four groups: a control group (C), a DHEA (30 mg/kg/sc/48 h)-treated group (D), a fructose (10% w/v in drinking water)-fed group (F), and both treatments simultaneously group (FD). The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by tail cuff method and glycemia and triglyderidemia were measured by enzymatic assays. The mesenteric beds of all groups were dissected, and incubated in Krebs solution. The PR released were measured by HPLC. F overload increased SBP and triglyceridemia and decreased the mesenteric vasodilatory PR release. DHEA treatment prevented the increment in SBP and triglyceridemia and decreased vasoconstrictor PR in F-treated rats. DHEA normalize the PGI(2)/TX ratio, diminished in F-overloaded rats, through the decrease in thromboxane (TX) production and this could be one of the mechanisms by which DHEA prevented the slight hypertension in F-animals.

  17. Factors Associated with Shin Soreness in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Kathryn H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    To identify factors which cause shin soreness in athletes, 25 injured exercisers and a control group of 25 uninjured exercisers were studied. Methodology and results are presented and analyzed. Differences in calcium intake between the two groups is cited as a key factor in causing shin soreness. (JL)

  18. Systematic reviews of wound care management: (5) beds; (6) compression; (7) laser therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, electrotherapy and electromagnetic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullum, N; Nelson, E A; Flemming, K; Sheldon, T

    2001-01-01

    Chronic wounds such as leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers and pressure sores are common in both acute and community healthcare settings. The prevention and treatment of these wounds involves many strategies: pressure-relieving beds, mattresses and cushions are universally used as measures for the prevention and treatment of pressure sores; compression therapy in a variety of forms is widely used for venous leg ulcer prevention and treatment; and a whole range of therapies involving laser, ultrasound and electricity is also applied to chronic wounds. This report covers the final three reviews from a series of seven. To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost- effectiveness of: (1) pressure-relieving beds, mattresses and cushions for pressure sore prevention and treatment; (2) compression therapy for the prevention and treatment of leg ulcers; (3) low-level laser therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, electrotherapy and electromagnetic therapy for the treatment of chronic wounds. METHODS - DATA SOURCES: Nineteen electronic databases, including MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL), were searched. Relevant journals, conference proceedings and bibliographies of retrieved papers were handsearched. An expert panel was also consulted. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which evaluated these interventions were eligible for inclusion in this review if they used objective measures of outcome such as wound incidence or healing rates. RESULTS - BEDS, MATTRESSES AND CUSHIONS FOR PRESSURE SORE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT: A total of 45 RCTs were identified, of which 40 compared different mattresses, mattress overlays and beds. Only two trials evaluated cushions, one evaluated the use of sheepskins, and two looked at turning beds/kinetic therapy. RESULTS - COMPRESSION FOR LEG ULCERS: A total of 24 trials reporting 26 comparisons were included (two of prevention and 24 of treatment strategies). RESULTS - LOW-LEVEL LASER THERAPY, THERAPEUTIC

  19. How to prevent runaways in trickle-bed reactors for Pygas hydrogenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Kronberg, Alexandre E.

    2002-01-01

    In the past, several runaways have occurred in Trickle-Bed Reactors (TBR) used for the hydrogenation of pyrolysis gasoline as produced in ethylene cracking installations. This phenomenon has been studied in the framework of a special program in the Netherlands, which is administered by the National

  20. Perceived Muscle Soreness in Recreational Female Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, D; Smith, K; Smeltzer, C; Young, K; Burns, S

    The purpose of this study was to determine if rating of perceived exertion correlated with perceived muscle soreness during delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in female runners. This study examined the pre and post running economy measures and perceived muscle soreness before and after a 30-min downhill run (DHR) at -15% grade and 70% of the subjects predetermined maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 peak). Six female recreational runners (mean age = 24.5) performed level running at 65%, 75%, and 85% of their VO2 peak prior to DHR (baseline economy runs), as well as, immediately following and 4 successive days after the DHR. Subjective response related to perceived muscle soreness increased significantly from a mean of 2 (pre DHR) to 62 (2 days post DHR) on a scale of 1-100. Creatine kinase levels and oxygen consumption increased post DHR compared to pre DHR. Rating of perceived exertion did not change between the economy runs performed prior to or at any point after the DHR. Perceived muscle soreness is a better tool than the RPE scale to monitor exercise intensity for recreational female runners during periods of DOMS and running economy is adversely affected by DOMS.

  1. Development of Marjolin's ulcer following successful surgical treatment of chronic sacral pressure sore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, M.A.; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2008-01-01

    of surgical excision and successful closure of the wound, the patient developed Marjolin's ulcer 2.5 years later. Yet it illustrates the primary importance of preventing the development pressure sores, of aggressive (surgical) therapy with healing when they do arise and of taking frequent biopsies...

  2. Cocoa-based protein and carbohydrate drink decreases perceived soreness after exhaustive aerobic exercise: a pragmatic preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrier, Nicole M; Vairo, Giampietro L; Bagshaw, Dee; Lekan, Jaimy M; Bordi, Peter L; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this pragmatic preliminary analysis was to examine the effectiveness of a cocoa-based protein and carbohydrate prototype drink on skeletal muscle damage and perceived soreness after exhaustive exercise. A repeated-measures experimental design was used. Common biomarkers indicative of skeletal muscle damage included creatine kinase (CK), urinary isoprostanes and inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, C-Reactive Protein [CRP]). Self-reported perception of postexercise soreness was also evaluated. Seven men participated in an exercise session consisting of a 30-minute run on a declined treadmill (-10% grade). Running speed was adjusted accordingly so that participants consistently maintained 75% maximal heart rate. Drinks were ingested immediately after exercise, 2 hours postexercise, and before bed. Blood draws were sampled 30, 60, 120, and 360 minutes postexercise; urine was collected 24 and 48 hours postexercise. A perceived soreness questionnaire was administered 24 and 48 hours postexercise. The test drink had no effect on IL-6, CK, IL-8, CRP, or urinary isoprostanes (p > 0.05). However, the drink decreased the change in perceived soreness from 24 to 48 hours (p = 0.03). Consuming the drink after exercise resulted in a mean change of 2.6 +/- 6 compared to 13.7 +/- 10 for the control. In summary, the drink was effective in decreasing the level of self-reported perceived soreness after exhaustive exercise.

  3. Jet lag prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000719.htm Jet lag prevention To use the sharing features on this page, ... Headache Irritability Stomach upset Sore muscles Tips for Prevention Before your trip: Get plenty of rest, eat ...

  4. Time in bed, sleep quality and associations with cardiometabolic markers in children : the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, Nina E.; Smit, Henriette A.; Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H.; De Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H.

    We investigated associations of time in bed and multiple sleep quality characteristics with cardiometabolic markers in children. Data from the prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy study, a population-based prospective birth-cohort study started in 1996-1997 in the Netherlands, were

  5. Comparison of different heat modalities for treating delayed-onset muscle soreness in people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Batt, Jennifer; Bollinger, Jennifer N; Jensen, Mark C; Maru, Elyse H; Al-Nakhli, Hani H

    2011-06-01

    Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a serious problem for people who do not exercise on a regular basis. Although the best preventive measure for diabetes and for maintaining a low hemoglobin A1c is exercise, muscle soreness is common in people with diabetes. For people with diabetes, DOMS is rarely reported in exercise studies. One hundred twenty subjects participated in three groups (young, older, and type 2 diabetes) and were examined to evaluate the soreness in the abdominal muscles after a matched exercise bout using a p90x exercise video (Beachbody LLC, Los Angeles, CA) for core fitness. Next, three heating modalities were assessed on how well they could reduce muscle soreness: ThermaCare(®) (Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Richmond, VA) heat wraps, hydrocollator heat wraps, and a chemical moist heat wrap. The results showed that people with diabetes were significantly sorer than age-matched controls (P soreness for the people with diabetes was 73.3 ± 16.2 mm, for the older group was 56.1 ± 15.1 mm, and for the younger group was 41.5 ± 9.3 mm; these differences were significant (analysis of variance, P soreness after applying the modalities was using moist heat, both immediately after the modality and up to 2 days after the exercise. Right after the modality, moist heat reduced pain by 52.3% in the older subjects compared with 30.5% in the subjects with diabetes and 33.3% in the younger subjects. Skin blood flow in the abdominal area before exercise was greatest in the younger subjects and lower in the subjects with diabetes after heat application. Skin temperature at rest and after exercise was greatest in the diabetes group. Muscle soreness following exercise was greatest in people with diabetes, and the best modality of the three studied to reduce this type of soreness was chemical moist heat.

  6. Influence of vibration on some of functional markers of delayed onset muscle soreness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Sahebazamani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to the effect of vibration on some of functional markers of delayed onset muscle soreness. Methodology: 30 college males with mean age of 21.2, were selected and were divided into two groups randomly. A vibrator was used to apply 50?Hz vibration for 1 min in the VT group, while no vibration was applied in the non?VT group. Then, Both groups performed five sets (10 repetitions per set of the eccentric contractions , at 85% of one repetition maximum (1- RM. Range of motion at elbow jount Circomference of nondominant elbow and Muscle soreness were recorded before, after, 24, 48, 72, 96 (hr after eccentric contractions. Statistical Result: The results showed vibration training do show positive effects on Range of motion at elbow joint and Muscle soreness and Circomference of nondominant elbow (p> 0.05.  Discussion: A comparison by experimental groups indicates that VT before eccentric exercise may prevent and control DOMS.  Key words: Eccntric exercise,Delayed onset muscle soreness, Range of motion, vibration training.  

  7. Effects of intravenous diclofenac on postoperative sore throat in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of intravenous diclofenac on postoperative sore throat in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery at Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi: A prospective, randomized, double blind controlled trial.

  8. The ′reading man flap′ for pressure sore reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatis Sapountzis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The treatment of pressure sores represents a significant challenge to health care professionals. Although, pressure wound management demands a multidisciplinary approach, soft tissue defects requiring reconstruction are often considered for surgical management. Myocutaneous and fasciocutaneous flaps can provide stable coverage of pressure sores. Purpose: Here, we describe our experience using a recent fasciocutaneous flap, which is named ′reading man′ flap, in sacral, ischial, and trochanteric pressure sores. Materials and Methods: During a period of 1 year the authors operated 16 patients, 11 men, and 5 women, using the reading man flap. The ages of the patients ranged from 24 to 78 years. The location of pressure sores was 8 sacral, 5 ischial, and 3 trochanteric pressure sores. The mean size of pressure sores was 8 cm × 9 cm. Results: All pressure sores covered bt the Reading Man flap healed asymptomatically. After follow-up of 2-8 months, no recurrences were encountered and no further surgical intervention was required. Conclusion: The reading man flap was found to be a useful technique for the closure of pressure sore in different anatomic locations. The advantage of tension-free closure and the minimal additional healthy skin excision made this flap a useful tool in pressure sore reconstructions.

  9. Effects of ibuprofen topical gel on muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldahl, Robert D; Keadle, Justin; Rouzier, Pierre A; Pearl, Dennis; Clarkson, Priscilla M

    2010-03-01

    Muscle soreness is a common symptom after novel exercise and may influence exercise adherence. This study examined the effect of an ibuprofen topical gel and the effect of age and sex on muscle soreness after a gym exercise. One hundred and six participants completed six sets of 10 repetitions of the elbow and knee flexor muscles. Thirty-six hours after exercise, participants were randomized to apply an ibuprofen topical gel or placebo treatment to the affected muscle groups. Soreness evaluations were taken each hour for the first 6 h (36-42 h), then at 48, 60, 66, 72, 84, 90, 96, and 108 h after exercise. Subjects then returned to the laboratory after 3 wk and repeated the same study protocol with the opposite arm/leg and treatment. We found no significant differences in soreness between the active ibuprofen gel and the placebo treatment and no difference in effectiveness between men and women or between older and younger subjects. For the placebo groups, there was no sex differences in muscle soreness; however, when the data were analyzed by dividing participants into young (18-29 yr) and old (40-65 yr) cohort, the old cohort reported significantly less soreness in response to the elbow flexion exercise than the young cohort (P soreness after an unaccustomed gym exercise. Furthermore, our results show that there is no sex difference in the soreness response and that older subjects have less soreness in response to a similar exercise stimulus as young subjects.

  10. High Intensity Resistive and Rowing Exercise Countermeasures Do Not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following 70 Days of Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Laurie, Steven S.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Platts, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    More than 60% of US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions (greater than 5 months) were unable to complete a 10-min 80 deg head-up tilt test on landing day. This high incidence of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance may be related to limitations of the inflight exercise hardware that prevented high intensity training. PURPOSE: This study sought to determine if a countermeasure program that included intense lower-body resistive and rowing exercises designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 days of 6 deg head-down tilt bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, also would protect against post- BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: Sixteen males participated in this study and performed no exercise (Control, n=10) or performed an intense supine exercise protocol with resistive and aerobic components (Exercise, n=6). On 3 days/week, exercise subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and a 30-min continuous bout of rowing (greater than or equal to 75% max heart rate). On 3 other days/week, subjects performed only high-intensity, interval-style rowing. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80 deg head-up tilt test performed 2 days (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using a carbon monoxide rebreathing technique on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). RESULTS: Following 70 days of BR, tilt tolerance time decreased significantly in both the Control (BR-2: 15.0 +/- 0.0, BR70: 9.9 +/- 4.6 min, mean +/- SD) and Exercise (BR-2: 12.2 +/- 4.7, BR70: 4.9 +/- 1.9 min) subjects, but the decreased tilt tolerance time was not different between groups (Control: -34 +/- 31, Exercise: -56 +/- 16%). Plasma volume also decreased (Control: -0.56 +/- 0.40, Exercise: -0.48 +/- 0.33 L) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups (Control: -18 +/- 11%, Exerciser: -15 +/-1 0%). CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm previous reports

  11. [Cold-water immersion versus passive therapy to decrease delayed onset muscular soreness: a CAT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera Eguía, Raúl Alberto; Ibacache Palma, Alejandro

    2014-06-12

    Late onset muscle soreness, also known as delayed onset muscle soreness, is a painful musculoskeletal condition that may occur 24-48 and up to 72 hours after the completion of unusual physical or high intensity exercise involving eccentric muscle activity. In the field of physical rehabilitation, immersion in cold water is a common intervention mainly used in sports medicine, to minimize delayed onset muscle soreness and promote recovery after exercise. To assess the validity and applicability of the results regarding the effectiveness of immersion in cold water after high intensity exercise and answer the following question: In subjects who exercise regularly, can cold-water immersion compared to passive therapy (rest) reduce late-onset muscle soreness? The article "Cold Water Immersion (cryotherapy) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise," a Cochrane systematic review authored by Bleakley et al (2012), was analyzed. Immersion in cold water can decrease delayed onset of muscle pain after high intensity exercise. Twenty-four hours after the intervention, the mean standardized difference was -0.55 (95% CI: -0.84 to -0.27); 48 hours after, the mean standardized difference was -0.66 (95% CI: -0.97 to -0.35); 72 hours after, the mean standardized difference was -0.93 (95% CI: -1.36 to -0.51) and up to 96 hours after, mean standardized difference was -0.58 (95% CI: -1.00 to -0.16). Despite the methodological limitations present in the studies included in the systematic review analyzed, we found the recommendation for cold water immersion (cryotherapy) reasonable in individuals with late muscle pain caused by high intensity sports.

  12. Cold-water immersion versus passive therapy to decrease delayed onset muscular soreness: a CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Alberto Aguilera Eguía

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Late onset muscle soreness, also known as delayed onset muscle soreness, is a painful musculoskeletal condition that may occur 24-48 and up to 72 hours after the completion of unusual physical or high intensity exercise involving eccentric muscle activity. In the field of physical rehabilitation, immersion in cold water is a common intervention mainly used in sports medicine, to minimize delayed onset muscle soreness and promote recovery after exercise. Objective To assess the validity and applicability of the results regarding the effectiveness of immersion in cold water after high intensity exercise and answer the following question: In subjects who exercise regularly, can cold-water immersion compared to passive therapy (rest reduce late-onset muscle soreness? Methods The article "Cold Water Immersion (cryotherapy for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise," a Cochrane systematic review authored by Bleakley et al (2012, was analyzed. Results Immersion in cold water can decrease delayed onset of muscle pain after high intensity exercise. Twenty-four hours after the intervention, the mean standardized difference was -0.55 (95% CI: -0.84 to -0.27; 48 hours after, the mean standardized difference was -0.66 (95% CI: -0.97 to -0.35; 72 hours after, the mean standardized difference was -0.93 (95% CI: -1.36 to -0.51 and up to 96 hours after, mean standardized difference was -0.58 (95% CI: -1.00 to -0.16. Conclusion Despite the methodological limitations present in the studies included in the systematic review analyzed, we found the recommendation for cold water immersion (cryotherapy reasonable in individuals with late muscle pain caused by high intensity sports.

  13. Laser homeostatics on delayed onset muscle soreness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, T C Y; Fu, D R; Liu, X G; Tian, Z X

    2011-01-01

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and its photobiomodulation were reviewed from the viewpoint of function-specific homeostasis (FSH) in this paper. FSH is a negative-feedback response of a biosystem to maintain the function-specific fluctuations inside the biosystem so that the function is perfectly performed. A stressor may destroy a FSH. A stress is a response of a biosystem to a stressor and may also be in stress-specific homeostasis (StSH). A low level light (LLL) is so defined that it has no effects on a function in its FSH or a stress in its StSH, but it modulate a function far from its FSH or a stress far from its StSH. For DOMS recovery, protein metabolism in the Z-line streaming muscular cell is the essential process, but the inflammation, pain and soreness are non-essential processes. For many DOMS phenomena, protein metabolism in the Z-line streaming muscular cell is in protein metabolism-specific homeostasis (PmSH) so that there are no effects of LLL although the inflammation can be inhibited and the pain can be relieved. An athlete or animal in the dysfunctional conditions such as blood flow restriction and exercise exhaustion is far from PmSH and the protein metabolism can be improved with LLL.

  14. Are recurrent denture-related sores associated with the risk of oral cancer? A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Drovandi Braga Rotundo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the hypothesis that recurrent denture-related sores association may be associated with the risk of oral cancer. Methods: We conducted a hospital-based case-control study comprising 71 new cases of oral cancer in two hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil, and 240 controls without cancer, recruited from outpatient units of the same hospitals. All cases had histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma in anatomic sites of the mouth that may be specifically consi-dered at risk of sores by ill-fitting dentures. Denture-related sores were assessed by the self-report of recurrent oral sores due to the use of ill-fitting complete removable dental prosthesis. Associations were assessed by multivariate logistic regression conditioned on socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics. Results: The association between ill-fitting dentures and oral cancer was statistically significant in the multivariate model: odds ratio 3.98; 95% confidence interval 1.06 - 14.96. The specific assessment of association between tumors in the lower jaw and sores by mandibular dentures confirmed this result: odds ratio 6.39; 95% confidence interval 1.49 - 29.52. Conclusion: The potential contribution of denture-related sores to oral carcinogenesis still fuels controversies. This study reinfor-ces the hypothesis that recurrent denture-related sores may be associated with the risk of oral cancer. Results reported here also suggest that an appropriate application and monitoring of dental prosthesis represent a non-negligible scope for cancer prevention.

  15. Pharyngitis and sore throat: A review | Somro | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharyngitis is a sore throat caused by inflammation of the back of the throat. It is one of the most common reasons for visits to family physicians. Throat may be scratchy and swallowing can be painful. Usually, a sore throat is the sign of another illness, such as a cold or the flu. In this review article, epidemiology, national ...

  16. Should young adults with sore throat be treated with antibiotics?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-23

    Apr 23, 1983 ... group with sore throat was 23,0 years and that of the control group 22,2 years. The agreement between the clinical prediction and the labora- tory findings of the presence of streptococcus for the 62 patients with sore throat is depicted in Table I, which shows that the clinical predictions were correct in 26 ...

  17. Effects of intravenous diclofenac on postoperative sore throat in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of intravenous diclofenac sodium on the occurrence and severity of postoperative sore throat. Methods: ... Conclusion: Intravenous diclofenac sodium does not reduce the occurrence or severity of postoperative sore throat. .... 8.4% sodium bicarbonate-also a colourless liquid- was added to ...

  18. Does Postexercise Static Stretching Alleviate Delayed Muscle Soreness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buroker, Katherine C.; Schwane, James A.

    1989-01-01

    Because many experts recommend stretching after exercise to relieve muscle soreness, 23 subjects performed a 30-minute step test to induce delayed muscle soreness. There was neither temporary relief of pain immediately after stretching nor a reduction in pain during the 3-day postexercise period. (Author/SM)

  19. Factors in delayed onset muscular soreness of man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M F; Hollander, A P; Huijing, P A

    In this study 11 subjects performed exercise resulting in delayed onset muscular soreness in m. gastrocnemius with one leg, the experimental leg. The other leg served as control. Pre-exercise and 24, 48 and 72 h postexercise, soreness perception, resting EMG level of m. gastrocnemius, and volume and

  20. Gargling with Ketamine Attenuates the Postoperative Sore Throat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rudra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative sore throat (POST is a common complication of anaesthesia with endotracheal tube that affects patient satisfaction after surgery. Therefore, this complication remains to be resolved in patients undergoing endotra-cheal intubation. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of ketamine gargles with placebo in prevent-ing POST after endotracheal intubation. Forty patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia were randomized into: Group C, water 30 ml; Group K, ketamine 50 mg in water 29 ml. Patients were asked to gargle this mixture for 40 seconds, 5 minutes before induction of anaesthesia. POST was graded at 4, 8 and 24 hours after operation on a four-point scale (0-3. In the Control group POST occurred more frequently, when compared with patients belonging to Ketamine group, at 4, 8, and 24 hours and significantly more patients suffered severe POST in Control group at 8 and 24 hours compared with Ketamine group (P< 0.05. We demonstrated that gargling with ketamine significantly attenuated POST, with no drug-related side effects were observed.

  1. Comparative study between benzydamine hydrochloride gel, lidocaine 5% gel and lidocaine 10% spray on endotracheal tube cuff as regards postoperative sore throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhemar, Nashwa Abdallah; El-Agwany, Ahmed Samy; Radi, Wafaa Kamel; El-Hady, Sherif Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    throat where incidence increased but not the severity in relation to 5% lidocaine gel. Applying 5% lidocaine on the endotracheal tube cuff does not prevent postoperative sore throat but its application is better than lidocaine 10% spray or saline. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Using a Medical Intranet of Things System to Prevent Bed Falls in an Acute Care Hospital: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguera, Henri U; Wise, Diana; Ng, Chun Yin; Tso, Han-Wen; Chiang, Wan-Lin; Hutchinson, Aimee M; Galvin, Tracy; Hilborne, Lee; Hoffman, Cathy; Huang, Chi-Cheng; Wang, C Jason

    2017-05-04

    Hospitalized patients in the United States experience falls at a rate of 2.6 to 17.1 per 1000 patient-days, with the majority occurring when a patient is moving to, from, and around the bed. Each fall with injury costs an average of US $14,000. The aim was to conduct a technology evaluation, including feasibility, usability, and user experience, of a medical sensor-based Intranet of things (IoT) system in facilitating nursing response to bed exits in an acute care hospital. Patients 18 years and older with a Morse fall score of 45 or greater were recruited from a 35-bed medical-surgical ward in a 317-bed Massachusetts teaching hospital. Eligible patients were recruited between August 4, 2015 and July 31, 2016. Participants received a sensor pad placed between the top of their mattress and bed sheet. The sensor pad was positioned to monitor movement from patients' shoulders to their thighs. The SensableCare System was evaluated for monitoring patient movement and delivering timely alerts to nursing staff via mobile devices when there appeared to be a bed-exit attempt. Sensor pad data were collected automatically from the system. The primary outcomes included number of falls, time to turn off bed-exit alerts, and the number of attempted bed-exit events. Data on patient falls were collected by clinical research assistants and confirmed with the unit nurse manager. Explanatory variables included room locations (zones 1-3), day of the week, nursing shift, and Morse Fall Scale (ie, positive fall history, positive secondary diagnosis, positive ambulatory aid, weak impaired gait/transfer, positive IV/saline lock, mentally forgets limitations). We also assessed user experience via nurse focus groups. Qualitative data regarding staff interactions with the system were collected during two focus groups with 25 total nurses, each lasting approximately 1.5 hours. A total of 91 patients used the system for 234.0 patient-days and experienced no bed falls during the study period

  3. Using a Medical Intranet of Things System to Prevent Bed Falls in an Acute Care Hospital: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Diana; Ng, Chun Yin; Tso, Han-Wen; Chiang, Wan-Lin; Hutchinson, Aimee M; Galvin, Tracy; Hilborne, Lee; Hoffman, Cathy; Huang, Chi-Cheng; Wang, C Jason

    2017-01-01

    Background Hospitalized patients in the United States experience falls at a rate of 2.6 to 17.1 per 1000 patient-days, with the majority occurring when a patient is moving to, from, and around the bed. Each fall with injury costs an average of US $14,000. Objective The aim was to conduct a technology evaluation, including feasibility, usability, and user experience, of a medical sensor-based Intranet of things (IoT) system in facilitating nursing response to bed exits in an acute care hospital. Methods Patients 18 years and older with a Morse fall score of 45 or greater were recruited from a 35-bed medical-surgical ward in a 317-bed Massachusetts teaching hospital. Eligible patients were recruited between August 4, 2015 and July 31, 2016. Participants received a sensor pad placed between the top of their mattress and bed sheet. The sensor pad was positioned to monitor movement from patients’ shoulders to their thighs. The SensableCare System was evaluated for monitoring patient movement and delivering timely alerts to nursing staff via mobile devices when there appeared to be a bed-exit attempt. Sensor pad data were collected automatically from the system. The primary outcomes included number of falls, time to turn off bed-exit alerts, and the number of attempted bed-exit events. Data on patient falls were collected by clinical research assistants and confirmed with the unit nurse manager. Explanatory variables included room locations (zones 1-3), day of the week, nursing shift, and Morse Fall Scale (ie, positive fall history, positive secondary diagnosis, positive ambulatory aid, weak impaired gait/transfer, positive IV/saline lock, mentally forgets limitations). We also assessed user experience via nurse focus groups. Qualitative data regarding staff interactions with the system were collected during two focus groups with 25 total nurses, each lasting approximately 1.5 hours. Results A total of 91 patients used the system for 234.0 patient-days and experienced

  4. Bed rest during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Belizán JM, Bergel E. Bed rest in singleton pregnancies for preventing preterm birth. Cochrane Database ... and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for Fertility, ...

  5. Time course of muscle soreness following different types of exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J

    2001-01-01

    Background Post-exercise muscle soreness is a dull, aching sensation that follows unaccustomed muscular exertion. Primarily on the basis of previous laboratory-based research on eccentric exercise, soreness is usually said to follow an inverted U-shaped curve over time, peaking 24 – 48 hours after exercise. As such, it is often described as "delayed-onset" muscle soreness. In a study of long-distance runners, soreness seemed to peak immediately and then reduce gradually over time. The study is a secondary analysis of clinical trial data that aims to determine whether the time course of soreness following a natural exercise, long-distance running, is different from that following a laboratory-based exercise, bench-stepping. Methods This is a reanalysis of data from three previous clinical trials. The trials included 400 runners taking part in long-distance races and 82 untrained volunteers performing a bench-stepping test. Subjects completed a Likert scale of muscle soreness every morning and evening for the five days following their exercise. Results Interaction between trial and time is highly significant, suggesting a different time course of soreness following running and bench-stepping. 45% of subjects in the bench-stepping trial experienced peak soreness at the third or fourth follow-up (approximately 36 – 48 hours after exercise) compared to only 14% of those in the running trial. The difference between groups is robust to multivariate analysis incorporating possible confounding variables. Conclusion Soreness in runners following long-distance running follows a different time course to that in untrained individuals undertaking bench-stepping. Research on exercise taking place in the laboratory context does not necessarily generalize to exercise undertaken by trained athletes when engaged in their chosen sport. PMID:11701094

  6. [Reduction of pressure sores during prone positioning of ventilated intensive care patients by the prone-head support system: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebio, Michael; Katz-Papatheophilou, Elfriede; Heindl, Werner; Gelbmann, Herbert; Burghuber, Otto C

    2005-02-01

    Prone positioning in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome is a well-known method to improve oxygenation. The aim of our study was to evaluate a new device for prone positioning, the prone-head support system (PHS system), with regard to reduction of cutaneous pressure sores. In a pilot study we randomized 8 patients with ARDS in two groups: 180 degrees standard prone positioning (group without mask) and prone positioning with the PHS system (group with mask). The PHS system consists of a facemask support, which is connected to an adapted air suspension bed. The patients of both groups were intermittently proned for several days. We evaluated the pressure sores on head and neck before turning the patients prone for the first time and after each period of prone positioning. We documented the quantity, the size, the type and the localization of the pressure sores. There was no significant difference in the mean duration of prone positioning (27.1+/-14.7 hours in the group with mask versus 24.5+/-18.7 h in the group without mask). In the group with mask there were 1.5+/-0.8 new pressure sores by each proning, whereas in the group without mask there were 2.37+/-1.6 new pressure sores, which was lower, but not significantly. The overall area of pressure sores (798 mm2 versus 3184 mm2, p=0.004), the area of pressure sores per patient (199.5+/-104.7 mm2 versus 796+/-478 mm2, p=0.03) and the increase of the area of pressure sores per proning (79.8+/-52.0 mm2 versus 398.0+/-214.3 mm2, p=0.004) were significantly lower in the group with mask in comparison to the group without mask. The lips were the most effected localization in both groups. The pressure sores in the group with mask were less severe and showed a homogenous distribution in comparison to the group without mask. Blisters dominated in the group with mask in comparison to erosions, necrosis and ulcers in the group without mask. The PHS system with its face mask is able to reduce the extent and the

  7. Kinetic bed therapy to prevent nosocomial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Anthony; Gray, Hilary; Laupland, Kevin B; Zuege, Danny J

    2006-01-01

    Nosocomial pneumonia is the most important infectious complication in patients admitted to intensive care units. Kinetic bed therapy may reduce the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. The objective of this study was to investigate whether kinetic bed therapy reduces the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia and improves outcomes in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. We searched Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and AMED for studies, as well as reviewed abstracts of conference proceedings, bibliographies of included studies and review articles and contacted the manufacturers of medical beds. Studies included were randomized or pseudo-randomized clinical trials of kinetic bed therapy compared to standard manual turning in critically ill mechanically ventilated adult patients. Two reviewers independently applied the study selection criteria and extracted data regarding study validity, type of bed used, intensity of kinetic therapy, and population under investigation. Outcomes assessed included the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia, mortality, duration of ventilation, and intensive care unit and hospital length of stay. Fifteen prospective clinical trials were identified, which included a total of 1,169 participants. No trial met all the validity criteria. There was a significant reduction in the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia (pooled odds ratio (OR) 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28 to 0.53), but no reduction in mortality (pooled OR 0.96, 95%CI 0.66 to 1.14), duration of mechanical ventilation (pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.14 days, 95%CI, -0.29 to 0.02), duration of intensive care unit stay (pooled SMD -0.064 days, 95% CI, -0.21 to 0.086) or duration of hospital stay (pooled SMD 0.05 days, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.27). While kinetic bed therapy has been purported to reduce the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients, the overall body of evidence is insufficient to support this

  8. Muscular soreness following prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D; Nicholas, C W; Williams, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running on soreness and markers of muscle damage. Sixteen males took part in the study, half of whom were assigned to a running group and half to a resting control group. The exercise protocol involved 90 min of intermittent shuttle running and walking (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test: LIST), reflecting the activity pattern found in multiple-sprint sports such as soccer. Immediately after exercise, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, and values remained above baseline for 48 h (P < 0.05). Median peak activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase occurred 24 h post-exercise and were 774 and 43 U x l(-1), respectively. The intensity of general muscle soreness, and in the specific muscles investigated, was greater than baseline for 72 h after the shuttle test (P < 0.05), peaking 24-48 h post-exercise (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness was not correlated with either creatine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase activity. Soreness was most frequently reported in the hamstrings. Neither soreness nor serum enzyme activity changed in the controls over the 4 day observation period. It appears that unaccustomed performance of prolonged intermittent shuttle running produces a significant increase in both soreness and markers of muscle damage.

  9. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation on Postresistance Exercise Muscle Soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Grant M; Gann, Joshua J; Huber, Stefan R; Andre, Thomas L; La Bounty, Paul M; Bowden, Rodney G; Gordon, Paul M; Grandjean, Peter W

    2016-07-21

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of fish oil supplementation on the magnitude and time-course of postresistance exercise muscle soreness. This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Nonresistance trained females were randomized into one of two groups: fish oil supplementation (6 g/day; 5:1 eicosapentaenoic acid to docosahexaenoic acid (EPA:DHA)) or placebo (6 g/day corn/soy oil). After consuming the supplements for one week, participants underwent a single bout of resistance exercise consisting of 10 sets to failure of elbow flexion and leg extension machines. Muscle soreness was measured daily over the next week via grounded visual analog scale while participants continued to consume their assigned supplement. At 48 hours and one week postexercise, soreness during functional movements and limb circumferences were measured. The fish oil group perceived less static and functional muscle soreness than placebo, although the differences were not statistically significant. Effect sizes for resistance exercise-induced static and functional soreness responses were 33 to 42% lower in fish oil versus placebo without changes in upper arm and thigh circumferences. Supplementing the diet with 6 g per day of fish oil may alleviate muscle soreness experienced after resistance training in young untrained females.

  10. WISE 2005: Aerobic and resistive countermeasures prevent paraspinal muscle deconditioning during 60-day bed rest in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jacquelyn A; Macias, Brandon R; Schneider, Suzanne M; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Chang, Douglas G; Hargens, Alan R

    2016-05-15

    Microgravity-induced lumbar paraspinal muscle deconditioning may contribute to back pain commonly experienced by astronauts and may increase the risk of postflight injury. We hypothesized that a combined resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure protocol that included spinal loading would mitigate lumbar paraspinal muscle deconditioning during 60 days of bed rest in women. Sixteen women underwent 60-day, 6° head-down-tilt bed rest (BR) and were randomized into control and exercise groups. During bed rest the control group performed no exercise. The exercise group performed supine treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNP) for 3-4 days/wk and flywheel resistive exercise for 2-3 days/wk. Paraspinal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured using a lumbar spine MRI sequence before and after BR. In addition, isokinetic spinal flexion and extension strengths were measured before and after BR. Data are presented as means ± SD. Total lumbar paraspinal muscle CSA decreased significantly more in controls (10.9 ± 3.4%) than in exercisers (4.3 ± 3.4%; P Earth may mitigate spinal deconditioning during long-duration space travel.

  11. Combined V-Y Fasciocutaneous Advancement and Gluteus Maximus Muscle Rotational Flaps for Treating Sacral Sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyun Ho; Choi, Eun Jeong; Moon, Suk Ho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Oh, Deuk Young

    2016-01-01

    The sacral area is the most common site of pressure sore in bed-ridden patients. Though many treatment methods have been proposed, a musculocutaneous flap using the gluteus muscles or a fasciocutaneous flap is the most popular surgical option. Here, we propose a new method that combines the benefits of these 2 methods: combined V-Y fasciocutaneous advancement and gluteus maximus muscle rotational flaps. A retrospective review was performed for 13 patients who underwent this new procedure from March 2011 to December 2013. Patients' age, sex, accompanying diseases, follow-up duration, surgical details, complications, and recurrence were documented. Computed tomography was performed postoperatively at 2 to 4 weeks and again at 4 to 6 months to identify the thickness and volume of the rotational muscle portion. After surgery, all patients healed within 1 month; 3 patients experienced minor complications. The average follow-up period was 13.6 months, during which time 1 patient had a recurrence (recurrence rate, 7.7%). Average thickness of the rotated muscle was 9.43 mm at 2 to 4 weeks postoperatively and 9.22 mm at 4 to 6 months postoperatively (p = 0.087). Muscle thickness had not decreased, and muscle volume was relatively maintained. This modified method is relatively simple and easy for reconstructing sacral sores, provides sufficient padding, and has little muscle donor-site morbidity.

  12. The effect of caffeine ingestion on delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Caitlin F; Hatfield, Disa L; Riebe, Deborah A

    2013-11-01

    The beneficial effects of caffeine on aerobic activity and resistance training performance are well documented. However, less is known concerning caffeine's potential role in reducing perception of pain and soreness during exercise. In addition, there is no information regarding the effects of caffeine on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine ingestion on muscle soreness, blood enzyme activity, and performance after a bout of elbow flexion/extension exercise. Nine low-caffeine-consuming males (body mass: 76.68 ± 8.13 kg; height: 179.18 ± 9.35 cm; age: 20 ± 1 year) were randomly assigned to ingest either caffeine or placebo 1 hour before completing 4 sets of 10 bicep curls on a preacher bench, followed by a fifth set in which subjects completed as many repetitions as possible. Soreness and soreness on palpation intensity were measured using three 0-10 visual analog scales before exercise, and 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after exercise. After a washout period, subjects crossed over to the other treatment group. Caffeine ingestion resulted in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower levels of soreness on day 2 and day 3 compared with placebo. Total repetitions in the final set of exercise increased with caffeine ingestion compared with placebo. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion immediately before an upper-body resistance training out enhances performance. A further beneficial effect of sustained caffeine ingestion in the days after the exercise bout is an attenuation of DOMS. This decreased perception of soreness in the days after a strenuous resistance training workout may allow individuals to increase the number of training sessions in a given time period.

  13. Videos, Webinars, Blogs Related to Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    These tools provide practical insight on issues such as integrated pest management (IPM) for schools, bed bug bites, how carpet beetles can help, bed bugs as hitchhikers, and preventing and controlling infestations.

  14. Parental contribution to over prescription of antibiotics for sore throat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Antibiotics are often prescribed by physicians for sore throat in children because of the danger of post streptococcal complications. The role of the parents in over prescription of antibiotics is less well known. Objective: To evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practice of parents to antibiotic prescription for ...

  15. Sacral pressure sore reconstruction – the pedicled superior gluteal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. All flaps survived completely with no complications in 9 patients. One patient had a haematoma below the flap that was easily drained. No recurrence of the bedsore occurred during follow-up. Conclusion. We suggest that the pedicled SGAP fasciocutaneous flap is a reliable surgical option for sacral pressure sore ...

  16. Medicinal Plants for Healing Sores and Wounds among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is based on a study that aimed at documenting the ethno-knowledge on the usage of plants healing wounds and sores at the rural areas around uNgoye forest as well as document the methods of preparation and dosage forms of medicinal plants used by people around Ungoye forest. The survey was conducted ...

  17. Prevalence and management of sore throats and tonsillitis in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sore throat is a common presentation in paediatric emergency and sick bays in schools. It is associated with acute upper respiratory tract infection, and recurrent episodes of infection may result in recurrent tonsillitis which may be complicated by sleep disorders, rheumatic heart disease and acute glomerulonephritis.

  18. Validity and reliability of the Pressure Sore Status Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates-Jensen, B M; Vredevoe, D L; Brecht, M L

    1992-11-01

    There is not yet a universal system for describing the status of pressure sores. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of an instrument developed by the researchers for evaluation of pressure sores, the Pressure Sore Status Tool (PSST). This study was part of a larger study, which included development of a theoretical model for creation of items for the PSST. A nine-member expert judge panel established content validity of items on the instrument. Data were analyzed using a content of validity index (average index for tool = .91) and judges' comments were used to modify two items on the PSST. Two Enterostomal Therapy (ET) nurses independently used the revised tool to rate 20 pressure sores on ten adult medical-surgical patients, at two observation times. Interrater reliability was established at r = .91 for first observation and r = .92 for the second observation (p < .001). Intrarater reliability was r = .99 for rater one and r = .96 for rater two (p < .001). Future research will focus on refinement and further reliability testing of the instrument.

  19. Sore throat · vaginal discharge · labial ulcer · Dx?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravelli, Ashley; Bhatnagar, Rupal; Ashaye, Adelola

    2016-06-01

    The patient complained of worsening vaginal pain and increased vaginal discharge, but reported resolution of her back and chest pain. She also said that a week earlier, she'd had a fever that reached 104° F and a sore throat. She denied urinary frequency/urgency, sexual activity, or sexual abuse.

  20. Fever, sore throat and myalgia | Ive | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 20-year-old man presented with a severely sore throat and myalgia, which were unresponsive to antibiotics. He was admitted to a regional hospital with an ongoing painful throat, generalised myalgia, fever and a transient, recurring, salmon-pink rash on his hands and trunk. He did not respond to ceftriaxone and had a ...

  1. Effects of delayed-onset muscle soreness on masticatory function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, E.; Lobbezoo, F.; Fueki, K.; Naeije, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to clarify the effects of experimentally provoked delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in the jaw-closing muscles on subjective and objective measures of masticatory function. Twenty-one dentate female subjects, without pain-related signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders,

  2. Recommendations for the Avoidance of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the possible causes of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), which include buildup of lactic acid in muscle, increased intracellular calcium concentration, increased intramuscular inflammation, and muscle fiber and connective tissue damage. Proposed methods to reduce DOMS include warming up before exercise and performing repeated bouts…

  3. The use of thermal infra-red imaging to detect delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nakhli, Hani H; Petrofsky, Jerrold S; Laymon, Michael S; Berk, Lee S

    2012-01-22

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), also known as exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD), is commonly experienced in individuals who have been physically inactive for prolonged periods of time, and begin with an unexpected bout of exercise, but can also occur in athletes who exercise beyond their normal limits of training. The symptoms associated with this painful phenomenon can range from slight muscle tenderness, to severe debilitating pain. The intensity of these symptoms and the related discomfort increases within the first 24 hours following the termination of the exercise, and peaks between 24 to 72 hours post exercise. For this reason, DOMS is one of the most common recurrent forms of sports injury that can affect an individual's performance, and become intimidating for many. For the last 3 decades, the DOMS phenomenon has gained a considerable amount of interest amongst researchers and specialists in exercise physiology, sports, and rehabilitation fields. There has been a variety of published studies investigating this painful occurrence in regards to its underlying mechanisms, treatment interventions, and preventive strategies. However, it is evident from the literature that DOMS is not an easy pathology to quantify, as there is a wide amount of variability between the measurement tools and methods used to quantify this condition. It is obvious that no agreement has been made on one best evaluation measure for DOMS, which makes it difficult to verify whether a specific intervention really helps in decreasing the symptoms associated with this type of soreness or not. Thus, DOMS can be seen as somewhat ambiguous, because many studies depend on measuring soreness using a visual analog scale (VAS), which is a subjective rather than an objective measure. Even though needle biopsies of the muscle, and blood levels of myofibre proteins might be considered a gold standard to some, large variations in some of these blood proteins have been documented, in addition

  4. Changes in neutrophil count, creatine kinase and muscle soreness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2.4±0.1) being higher than run 2. (1.6±0.1). Peak soreness occurred at 48 h for run 1 (3.8±0.4) and at 24 h for run 2 (2.3±0.3). M. tibialis anterior (Fig. 3C): There was a significant bout effect (p=0.0001), with run 1 (2.3±0.1) being higher than run.

  5. Ear Acupuncture for Acute Sore Throat: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ear acupuncture for acute sore throat. A randomized controlled trial...Auncular Acupuncture is a low risk option for acute pain control •Battlefield acupuncture (BFA) IS a specific auncular acupuncture technique •BFA IS...Strengths: Prospect1ve RCT •Weaknesses Small sample stze. no sham acupuncture performed, patients not blinded to treatment •Th1s study represents an

  6. Modulation in voluntary neural drive in relation to muscle soreness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringard, A.; Puchaux, K.; Noakes, T. D.; Perrey, S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether (1) spinal modulation would change after non-exhausting eccentric exercise of the plantar flexor muscles that produced muscle soreness and (2) central modulation of the motor command would be linked to the development of muscle soreness. Ten healthy subjects volunteered to perform a single bout of backward downhill walking exercise (duration 30 min, velocity 1 ms−1, negative grade −25%, load 12% of body weight). Neuromuscular test sessions [H-reflex, M-wave, maximal voluntary torque (MVT)] were performed before, immediately after, as well as 1–3 days after the exercise bout. Immediately after exercise there was a −15% decrease in MVT of the plantar flexors partly attributable to an alteration in contractile properties (−23% in electrically evoked mechanical twitch). However, MVT failed to recover before the third day whereas the contractile properties had significantly recovered within the first day. This delayed recovery of MVT was likely related to a decrement in voluntary muscle drive. The decrease in voluntary activation occurred in the absence of any variation in spinal modulation estimated from the H-reflex. Our findings suggest the development of a supraspinal modulation perhaps linked to the presence of muscle soreness. PMID:17978834

  7. Pressure-induced referred pain is expanded by persistent soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-García, V; Palsson, T S; Herrero, P; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2016-05-01

    Several chronic pain conditions are accompanied with enlarged referred pain areas. This study investigated a novel method for assessing referred pain. In 20 healthy subjects, pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded and pressure stimuli (120% PPT) were applied bilaterally for 5 and 60 seconds at the infraspinatus muscle to induce local and referred pain. Moreover, PPTs were measured bilaterally at the shoulder, neck, and leg before, during, and after hypertonic saline-induced referred pain in the dominant infraspinatus muscle. The pressure and saline-induced pain areas were assessed on drawings. Subsequently, delayed onset muscle soreness was induced using eccentric exercise of the dominant infraspinatus muscle. The day-1 assessments were repeated the following day (day 2). Suprathreshold pressure stimulations and saline injections into the infraspinatus muscle caused referred pain to the frontal aspect of the shoulder/arm in all subjects. The 60-second pressure stimulation caused larger referred pain areas compared with the 5-second stimulation (P soreness side (P soreness, indicating that the referred pain area may be a sensitive biomarker for sensitization of the pain system.

  8. Effectiveness of using wearable vibration therapy to alleviate muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Darryl J

    2017-03-01

    To examine the acute and short-term effect of a wearable vibration device following strenuous eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Physically active males (n = 13) performed vibration therapy (VT) and control following eccentric exercise. The arms were randomised and counterbalanced, separated by 14 days. 15 min of VT (120 Hz) was applied immediately and 24, 48, and 72 h after eccentric exercise while the contralateral arm performed no VT (control). Muscle (isometric and concentric) strength, range of motion, electromyography (EMG), muscle soreness and creatine kinase were taken pre-exercise, immediately and 24, 48, and 72 h post-eccentric exercise. Additionally, the acute effect of VT of muscle strength, range of motion, EMG, muscle soreness was also investigated immediately after VT. In the short-term VT was able to significantly reduce the level of biceps brachii pain at 24 h (p soreness, creatine kinase and improved range of motion; however, there was no improvement of muscle strength recovery compared to control following eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors.

  9. Fusobacterium necrophorum as the cause of recurrent sore throat: comparison of isolates from persistent sore throat syndrome and Lemierre's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Antonia; Wren, M W D; Gal, Michaela

    2005-11-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum is a well established cause of Lemierre's disease (LD); a syndrome characterised by severe sore throat, septicaemia, multiple abscesses and jugular vein thrombosis. There is no published data concerning the role of F. necrophorum in recurrent sore throats. As the result of an index case of persistent sore throat attributable to this organism being diagnosed in our laboratory, a subsequent case controlled study (not yet published) isolated F. necrophorum from 21% (P=0.0001) of cases of persistent, recurrent and chronic sore throats. The object of this study was to compare isolates of F. necrophorum from cases of systemic disease with isolates from cases of persistent sore throat syndrome (PSTS) to ascertain whether strains of similar type were responsible for both throat and systemic disease or whether different strains were involved in these presentations. Throat swabs were cultured on GN anaerobe medium (Oxoid) and incubated at 37 degrees C for 5 days. Seventeen PSTS isolates were identified phenotypically. These were compared to 17 strains isolated from blood cultures which were referred to the Anaerobe Reference Unit, (ARU) cardiff, using enterogenic repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). The control strains Fusobacterium necrophorum ssp. necrophorum (JCM 3718(T)) and Fusobacterium necrophorum ssp. funduliforme (JCM 3724(T)) from the Japanese Collection of Microrganisms (JCM) were tested in parallel with the clinical isolates. At least 12 separate types were identified. Four of 17 PSTS isolates and seven of 17 blood culture isolates grouped together with the F. necrophorum ssp. funduliforme control strain. There were also similarities between other proposed strains and clinical types but no comparison with the F. necrophorum ssp. necrophorum control. These results show that clinical disease caused by F. necrophorum has a wider spectrum than first anticipated. Similar strains are able to cause either

  10. Cold-water immersion versus passive therapy to decrease delayed onset muscular soreness: a CAT

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Alberto Aguilera Eguía; Alejandro Ibacache Palma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Late onset muscle soreness, also known as delayed onset muscle soreness, is a painful musculoskeletal condition that may occur 24-48 and up to 72 hours after the completion of unusual physical or high intensity exercise involving eccentric muscle activity. In the field of physical rehabilitation, immersion in cold water is a common intervention mainly used in sports medicine, to minimize delayed onset muscle soreness and promote recovery after exercise. Objective To ass...

  11. Evaluating the effects of pentoxifylline administration on experimental pressure sores in rats by biomechanical examinations

    OpenAIRE

    Velaei, Kobra; Bayat, Mohammad; Torkman, Giti; Rezaie, Fatemealsadat; Amini, Abdollah; Noruzian, Mohsen; Tavassol, Azaedh; Bayat, Mehernoush

    2012-01-01

    This study used a biomechanical test to evaluate the effects of pentoxifylline administration on the wound healing process of an experimental pressure sore induced in rats. Under general anesthesia and sterile conditions, experimental pressure sores generated by no. 25 Halsted mosquito forceps were inflicted on 12 adult male rats. Pentoxifylline was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 50 mg/kg daily from the day the pressure sore was generated, for a period of 20 days. At the end of 20 da...

  12. Distal limb cast sores in horses: risk factors and early detection using thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levet, T; Martens, A; Devisscher, L; Duchateau, L; Bogaert, L; Vlaminck, L

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence-based data on the prevalence, outcome and risk factors of distal limb cast sores, and no objective tool has been described for the early detection of cast sores. To investigate the prevalence, location, outcome and risk factors of cast sores after application of a distal limb cast and to determine whether static thermography of the cast is a valuable tool for the assessment of sores. A prospective study was conducted on horses treated with a distal limb cast. At each cast removal, cast sores were graded as superficial sores (SS), deep dermal sores (DS) or full thickness skin ulcerations (FS). In several cases, a thermographic evaluation of the cast was performed immediately prior to removal and differences in temperature (AT) between the coolest point of the cast and 2 cast regions predisposed for sore development (dorsoproximal mc/mtIII and palmar/plantar fetlock) were calculated. Mean +/- s.d. total casting time of 70 horses was 31 +/- 18 days. Overall, 57 legs (81%) developed at least SS. Twenty-four legs (34%) ultimately developed DS and one horse had an FS. Multivariable analysis showed that the severity of sores was positively associated with increasing age (OR: 1.111, P = 0.028), a normal (vs. swollen) limb (OR: 3387, P = 0.023) and an increase in total casting time (OR per week: 1.363, P = 0.002). The thermographic evaluation (35 casts) revealed that the severity of sores was positively associated with increasing deltaT (OR: 2.100, P = 0.0005). The optimal cut-off values for the presence of SS and DS were set at, respectively, deltaT = 23 and 43 degrees C. Distal limb cast is a safe coaptation technique with increasing risk of developing sores with time. Thermography is a valuable and rapid clinical tool to monitor the development of cast sores.

  13. Risk factors for pressure sores in adult patients with myelomeningocele – a questionnaire-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frøslie Kathrine

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myelomeningocele (MMC is a part of a complex neural tube defect and a disorder of the cerebrospinal fluid system. Pressure sores are a frequent complication for patients with MMC. Little is known about the risk factors for pressure sores in adults with MMC. The aim of this study was to investigate an association between the presence of pressure sores and other patient characteristics, in order to develop an improved strategy for the management of sores. Methods A structured questionnaire regarding sores, medical condition, function and living factors was designed and sent to the 193 patients with MMC registered in the year 2003 at TRS, a National Centre for Rare Disorders in Norway. Results Out of 193 total, 87 patients participated and 71 patients (82% reported sores; 26 (30% at the time of the interview and 45 (52% during the last 5 years. Sores were mostly localized on toes and feet and occurred exclusively in regions with reduced or missing sensibility. A significant association was found between sores and memory deficit (p = 0.02, Arnold Chiari malformation (p = 0.02 and a record of previous sores (p = 0.004. Sores were not significantly associated with hydrocephalus, syringomyelia, nutrition, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, employment or living together with other persons. Some patients (18, 21% reported skin inspection by others and the remainder relied on self-inspection. Conclusion Patients with sensory deficit, memory problems, and Arnold Chiari malformation had a higher risk of having pressure sores. This patient group needs improved skin inspection routines and sore treatment.

  14. The characteristics of bed agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion of eucalyptus bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaivatamaset, Pawin; Tia, Suvit

    2015-01-01

    The bed agglomeration behaviors were investigated experimentally when eucalyptus bark was burning tested in a laboratory scale fluidized bed reactor. The focuses of this work were the influences of operating conditions and bed materials on the bed agglomeration tendency and the elucidation in the behaviors of fuel inorganic elements and the governing mode of the agglomeration. It was found that the defluidization caused by the bed agglomeration was clearly detectable from the decrease in measured bed pressure. The growth of bed particle and accumulation of agglomerates during combustion provided the partial to complete defluidization. The defluidization was promoted by the increase of bed temperature and bed particle size, and the decrease of fluidizing air velocity. The SEM-EDS analyses revealed that the bed agglomeration was mainly attributed to the formation of potassium silicate compounds as liquid phase during the combustion. This was initiated by the chemical reaction between the bed particle and the released ash constituents. In this study, the inorganic migration from fuel particle to bed particle was likely dominated by the condensation/reaction. The thermodynamic examination by ternary phase diagram analysis corroborated that the liquid phase formation of the ash derived materials controlled the agglomeration. The alumina sand prevented the bed agglomeration since it was inactive in the formation of viscous molten substances during combustion at the observed temperatures. - Highlights: • The behaviors of bed agglomeration were studied during the fluidized bed combustion of eucalyptus bark. • The increase in bed temperature and sand size, and the decrease of air velocity promoted bed defluidization. • The formation of molten potassium silicate compounds conduced to the bed agglomeration. • Condensation/reaction was the dominant inorganic migration mechanism from fuel particle to bed particle. • The alumina sand prevented effectively the bed

  15. Vibration Therapy in Management of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veqar, Zubia; Imtiyaz, Shagufta

    2014-06-01

    Both athletic and nonathletic population when subjected to any unaccustomed or unfamiliar exercise will experience pain 24-72 hours postexercise. This exercise especially eccentric in nature caused primarily by muscle damage is known as delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). This damage is characterized by muscular pain, decreased muscle force production, reduce range of motion and discomfort experienced. DOMS is due to microscopic muscle fiber tears. The presence of DOMS increases risk of injury. A reduced range of motion may lead to the incapability to efficiently absorb the shock that affect physical activity. Alterations to mechanical motion may increase strain placed on soft tissue structures. Reduced force output may signal compensatory recruitment of muscles, thus leading to unaccustomed stress on musculature. Differences in strength ratios may also cause excessive strain on unaccustomed musculature. A range of interventions aimed at decreasing symptoms of DOMS have been proposed. Although voluminous research has been done in this regard, there is little consensus among the practitioners regarding the most effective way of treating DOMS. Mechanical oscillatory motion provided by vibration therapy. Vibration could represent an effective exercise intervention for enhancing neuromuscular performance in athletes. Vibration has shown effectiveness in flexibility and explosive power. Vibration can apply either local area or whole body vibration. Vibration therapy improves muscular strength, power development, kinesthetic awareness, decreased muscle sore, increased range of motion, and increased blood flow under the skin. VT was effective for reduction of DOMS and regaining full ROM. Application of whole body vibration therapy in postexercise demonstrates less pressure pain threshold, muscle soreness along with less reduction maximal isometric and isokinetic voluntary strength and lower creatine kinase levels in the blood.

  16. Ear Acupuncture for Acute Sore Throat: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, David A; Crawford, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Sore throat is a common cause of pain in outpatient encounters. Battlefield auricular acupuncture (the placing of needles in specific points in the ear) is a modality used to treat acute pain associated with a variety of ailments. The aim of our study was to determine whether auricular acupuncture reduces pain, medication usage, and missed work hours when added to standard therapy in adult patients with acute sore throat. We conducted an unblinded, pragmatic, randomized controlled trial among adult, nonpregnant patients presenting to an Air Force family medicine clinic with pain from acute sore throat. A total of 54 patients were followed for 48 hours after treatment. Patients receiving auricular acupuncture reported lower pain scores than those who did not at 15 minutes (6.0 [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.4-6.6] vs 2.6 [95% CI, 1.7-3.5]; P vs 2.5 [95% CI, 1.6-3.4]; P = .0005), and 24 hours (4.1 [95% CI, 3.3-4.9] vs 1.3 [95% CI, 1.0-2.8]; P = .0006). They also reported taking fewer cumulative doses of pain medication at 6 hours (1.07 [95% CI, 0.69-1.45] vs 0.39 [95% CI, 0.2-0.58]; P = .003), 24 hours (2.63 [95% CI, 1.95-3.31] vs 1.37 [95% CI, 0.92-1.82]; P = .004), and 48 hours (4.07 [95% CI, 2.9-5.24] vs 2.19 [95% CI, 1.44-2.94]; P = .009). There was no difference in time missed from work between the auricular acupuncture and standard therapy groups. Compared with usual treatment, battlefield auricular acupuncture was associated with reduced sore throat pain for 24 hours and decreased use of pain medication for up to 48 hours. There was no apparent effect on hours missed from work. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  17. Combined effect of branched-chain amino acids and taurine supplementation on delayed onset muscle soreness and muscle damage in high-intensity eccentric exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Miyazaki, Teruo; Ishikura, Keisuke; Nagayama, Hisashi; Komine, Shoichi; Nakata, Yoshio; Maeda, Seiji; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Ohmori, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation for preventing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and muscle damage induced by eccentric exercise, their findings have been inconclusive. Since taurine has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, the present study investigated the combined effect of BCAA and taurine on DOMS and muscle damage. Methods Thirty-six untrained male subjects (22.5???3.8 years) were assigned to fou...

  18. Convergent evidence for construct validity of a 7-point likert scale of lower limb muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, Franco M; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the construct validity of the 7-point Likert scale of muscle soreness, assessing its relationship with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). An additional aim was to examine its sensitivity as measure of symptom of eccentric-contraction muscle damage. Correlational study. Self-administered questionnaires collected in field setting. Twenty-six soccer players. 4-week preseason training camp, which included high-intensity plyometric training sessions. Players self-reported the perceived muscle soreness of the lower limbs using the VAS (criterion measure) and the 7-point Likert scale of muscle soreness. Significant individual correlations were found between the 2 muscle soreness scales (mean r=0.80+/-0.07; range, 0.65 to 0.94). The correlation using the pooled data was 0.81. No significant muscle soreness scale x time interaction was found for standardized measures of muscle soreness (P=0.98). The main factor for time (24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after the first plyometric training session) was significant (P=0.0001). Effect sizes for the changes in the Likert and VAS absolute scores during the first 96 hours were similar (partial eta=0.13). The results of this study provide further convergent evidence for the construct validity of the 7-point Likert scale of muscle soreness. The 2 scales showed similar sensitivity to muscle soreness caused by eccentric contractions during the first 96 hours after plyometric exercises.

  19. Wellness, muscle soreness and neuromuscular performance during a training week in volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Francisco; Simões, Mário; Matos, Bruno; Smith, Tiaki B; Driller, Matthew

    2017-10-24

    The purpose of the current study is to analyse the acute effects of volleyball training and to compare the responses of different perceptual and neuromuscular measures to overall training load. The training load, wellness, neuromuscular performance and perceptual measures of soreness of 13 highly-trained volleyball athletes (18 ± 1 years; 187.1 ± 7.0 cm; 84.3 ± 10.3 kg) representing the Portugal under-19 national team were monitored during a training week. Perceptual fatigue was obtained in the morning of every training day from a 5-item wellness questionnaire (sleep, soreness, mood, fatigue, stress) and a muscle soreness questionnaire surveying 9 different muscle sites from each side of the body. Neuromuscular performance was obtained from a countermovement jump (CMJ) on the morning of training day's 1, 2, 4 and 5. Small effect sizes in CMJ's were observed on days 4 and 5 when compared to baseline. Wellness items were affected by training, with the fatigue item and the total score being the most affected. Muscle soreness increased from day 2 until day 5 in comparison to baseline across various muscle sites and regions. Nevertheless, responses in soreness were different from muscle sites, average of muscle sites and a single question of muscle soreness. Volleyball training elicits meaningful changes in physiological and perceptual measures of fatigue and muscle soreness, as evident from day 2 until the last training day of the week. Muscle soreness scores obtained from different muscle sites may provide important information to coaches.

  20. The effects of game and training loads on perceptual responses of muscle soreness in Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul G; Hopkins, Will G

    2013-05-01

    Australian Football is an intense team sport played over ~120 min on a weekly basis. To determine the effects of game and training load on muscle soreness and the time frame of soreness dissipation, 64 elite Australian Football players (age 23.8 ± 1.8 y, height 183.9 ± 3.8 cm, weight 83.2 ± 5.0 kg; mean ± SD) recorded perceptions of muscle soreness, game intensity, and training intensity on scales of 1-10 on most mornings for up to 3 competition seasons. Playing and training times were also recorded in minutes. Data were analyzed with a mixed linear model, and magnitudes of effects on soreness were evaluated by standardization. All effects had acceptably low uncertainty. Game and training-session loads were 790 ± 182 and 229 ± 98 intensity-minutes (mean ± SD), respectively. General muscle soreness was 4.6 ± 1.1 units on d 1 postgame and fell to 1.9 ± 1.0 by d 6. There was a small increase in general muscle soreness (0.22 ± 0.07-0.50 ± 0.13 units) in the 3 d after high-load games relative to low-load games. Other soreness responses showed similar timelines and magnitudes of change. Training sessions made only small contributions to soreness over the 3 d after each session. Practitioners should be aware of these responses when planning weekly training and recovery programs, as it appears that game-related soreness dissipates after 3 d regardless of game load and increased training loads in the following week produce only small increases in soreness.

  1. Ultrasound Findings of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Victor; Jacobson, Jon A; Fessell, David P; Mautner, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this series was to retrospectively characterize the ultrasound findings of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The Institutional Review Board approved our study, and informed consent was waived. A retrospective search of radiology reports using the key phrase "delayed-onset muscle soreness" and key word "DOMS" from 2001 to 2015 and teaching files was completed to identify cases. The sonograms were reviewed by 3 fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists by consensus. Sonograms were retrospectively characterized with respect to echogenicity (hypoechoic, isoechoic, or hyperechoic), distribution of muscle involvement, and intramuscular pattern (focal versus diffuse and well defined versus poorly defined). Images were also reviewed for muscle enlargement, fluid collection, muscle fiber disruption, and increased flow on color or power Doppler imaging. There were a total of 6 patients identified (5 male and 1 female). The average age was 22 years (range, 7-44 years). Of the 6 patients, there were a total of 11 affected muscles in 7 extremities (1 bilateral case). The involved muscles were in the upper extremity: triceps brachii in 27% (3 of 11), biceps brachii in 18% (2 of 11), brachialis in 18% (2 of 11), brachioradialis in 18% (2 of 11), infraspinatus in 9% (1 of 11), and deltoid in 9% (1 of 11). On ultrasound imaging, the abnormal muscle was hyperechoic in 100% (11 of 11), well defined in 73% (8 of 11), poorly defined in 27% (3 of 11), diffuse in 73% (8 of 11), and focal in 27% (3 of 11). Increased muscle size was found in 82% (9 of 11) and minimal hyperemia in 87.5% (7 of 8). The ultrasound findings of DOMS include hyperechoic involvement of an upper extremity muscle, most commonly appearing well defined and diffuse with increased muscle size and minimal hyperemia. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. Prevention of Pressure Ulcers Among People With Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groah, Suzanne L; Schladen, Manon; Pineda, Cynthia G; Hsieh, Ching-Hui J

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the literature on the effectiveness of bed and wheelchair positioning and repositioning in the prevention of pressure ulcers (PUs) in both the spinal cord injury (SCI) and non-SCI populations. Systematic review. PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE were queried with the subject heading terms "pressure sore," "pressure ulcer," "position or turn in bed, wheelchair," "pressure relief," and "pressure release." All study design types that assessed the effectiveness of bed and wheelchair positioning and pressure relief maneuvers in any patient group and in any setting were sought. Three independent reviewers extracted and summarized details of eligible trials using a standardized method. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of each trial using the American Academy of Neurology guidelines. When reviewers were not able to reach consensus, a third independent reviewer served as tiebreaker. We identified 2820 publications, of which 49 met inclusion criteria. Of these publications, the subject population was 2834 (923 persons with SCI, 717 persons without SCI, and 1194 healthy control subjects). Among studies examining pressure related to position or repositioning in bed or sitting, procedures for measuring skin pressure and metabolism were highly variable by anatomic location, measurement technique, outcome measure, study site, participant characteristics, and description of position/turning for bed and seated interventions. Numerous factors can influence tissue interface pressures, and no prospective studies had been performed to determine a causal relationship between interface pressure and skin breakdown. Several studies suggest that skin response to pressure differs between subjects with and without SCI. Conflicting results and insufficient evidence for optimal bed and seated positioning and turning and pressure relief maneuvers to prevent PUs in both SCI and non-SCI populations were limiting factors. Although there is no clear

  3. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  4. [Primary investigation on fumigation and moxibustion in treatment ulcer and sore of yin syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chao-Jun; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Ma, Jing; Li, Pin-Chuan; Liu, Xian-Zhou; Yin, Yue; Tian, Ying

    2011-09-01

    To explore the fumigation and moxibustion therapy in treatment of ulcer and sore of yin syndrome. The fumigation and moxibustion therapy is the combination of fumigation and moxibustion, in which, smoking fumigation is provided with warming effect and the actions as moxibustion. This therapy works on the efficacy of both fumigation and moxibustion. In treatment, different herbal medicines can be selected flexibly, acting on dispersing yin and rescuing yang. The fumigation and moxibustion therapy can drain toxin and remove ulcer and sore. It contributes to the treatment of boils and chronic sores of yin syndrome and promotes wound healing.

  5. Evaluation of the effectiveness of kinesiotaping in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness of the biceps brachii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguszewski Dariusz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available biological regeneration in athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the application of lymphatic kinesiotaping in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness of biceps brachii.

  6. A review of nutritional intervention on delayed onset muscle soreness. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jooyoung; Lee, Joohyung

    2014-12-01

    This review is focused on the effect of nutritional intervention on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that occurs after exercise. In general, high force eccentric contractions and/or unaccustomed exercise result in DOMS attributed to reduction in performance such as muscle strength and range of motion (ROM) for both athletes and non-athletes. Nutritional intervention is one of the preventive or therapeutic ways to reduce DOMS. Previous research studies have suggested the following nutrition intervention: caffeine, omega-3 fatty acids, taurine, polyphenols, and so on. Nutritional intervention with these nutrients before and after exercise was reported to be effective in reducing DOMS. These nutritional interventions have also been reported to affect inflammatory responses and oxidative stress leading to DOMS reduction. However, other studies have reported that these nutritional interventions have no effect on DOMS. It is suggested that intake of proper nutrition intervention can effectively reduce DOMS after exercise and quickly help an athlete return to exercise or training program. In addition, nutritional intervention may help both athletes and non-athletes who engage in physical therapy or rehabilitative programs after surgery or any injurious events.

  7. Delayed onset muscle soreness: Involvement of neurotrophic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumura, Kazue; Taguchi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is quite a common consequence of unaccustomed strenuous exercise, especially exercise containing eccentric contraction (lengthening contraction, LC). Its typical sign is mechanical hyperalgesia (tenderness and movement related pain). Its cause has been commonly believed to be micro-damage of the muscle and subsequent inflammation. Here we present a brief historical overview of the damage-inflammation theory followed by a discussion of our new findings. Different from previous observations, we have observed mechanical hyperalgesia in rats 1-3 days after LC without any apparent microscopic damage of the muscle or signs of inflammation. With our model we have found that two pathways are involved in inducing mechanical hyperalgesia after LC: activation of the B2 bradykinin receptor-nerve growth factor (NGF) pathway and activation of the COX-2-glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) pathway. These neurotrophic factors were produced by muscle fibers and/or satellite cells. This means that muscle fiber damage is not essential, although it is sufficient, for induction of DOMS, instead, NGF and GDNF produced by muscle fibers/satellite cells play crucial roles in DOMS.

  8. Bed care for patients in palliative settings: considering risks to caregivers and bed surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala, Guy

    2015-02-01

    Ensuring patients are comfortable in bed is key to effective palliative care, but when moving and positioning patients in bed, health professionals face an occupational risk of injury. The turning and positioning (TAP) system is a new method of moving patients in bed, that evidence has shown to reduce the risk of injury to caregivers. Providing the correct bed surface is another aspect of bed care essential to the comfort of the palliative patient, and to aid wound prevention and treatment. It is important to take a patient-centred approach when considering the most appropriate bed surface patients. This article provides an overview and discussion of these two aspects of bed care for palliative patients.

  9. Heat exchanger support apparatus in a fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Carl W.

    1982-01-01

    A heat exchanger is mounted in the upper portion of a fluidized combusting bed for the control of the temperature of the bed. A support, made up of tubes, is extended from the perforated plate of the fluidized bed up to the heat exchanger. The tubular support framework for the heat exchanger has liquid circulated therethrough to prevent deterioration of the support.

  10. Specific and cross over effects of massage for muscle soreness: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Kenneth; Sundstrup, Emil; Søndergaard, Stine D; Behm, David; Brandt, Mikkel; Særvoll, Charlotte A; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-02-01

    Muscle soreness can negatively interfere with the activities of daily living as well as sports performance. In the working environment, a common problem is muscle tenderness, soreness and pain, especially for workers frequently exposed to unilateral high repetitive movements tasks. The aim of the study is therefore to investigate the acute effect of massage applied using a simple device Thera-band roller Massager on laboratory induced hamstring muscle soreness, and the potential cross over effect to the non-massaged limb. 22 healthy untrained men (Mean age 34 +/- 7 years; mean height 181.7 +/- 6.9 cm; mean weight 80.6 +/- 6.4 kg; BMI: 24.5 +/- 1.3) with no prior history of knee, low back or neck injury or other adverse health issues were recruited. Participants visited the researchers on two separate occasions, separated by 48 hours, each time providing a soreness rating (modified visual analog scale 0-10), and being tested for pressure pain threshold (PPT) and active range of motion (ROM) of the hamstring muscles. During the first visit, delayed onset muscular soreness of the hamstring muscles was induced by 10 x 10 repetitions of the stiff-legged dead-lift. On the second visit participants received either 1) 10 minutes of roller massage on one leg, while the contralateral leg served as a cross over control, or 2) Resting for 10 minutes with no massage at all. Measurement of soreness, PPT and ROM were taken immediately before and at 0, 10, 30 and 60 min. after treatment. There was a significant group by time interaction for soreness (p soreness and increasing PPT compared with the control group. There was no group by time interaction for ROM (p = 0.18). At 10 min. post massage there was a significant reduction in soreness of the non-massaged limb in the cross over control group compared to controls but this effect was lost 30 minutes post massage. Massage with a roller device reduces muscle soreness and is accompanied by a higher PPT of the affected muscle. 2c

  11. Laboratory experiment demonstrating the way in which a steam barrier prevents the dissolution of salt buried in a flooded packed bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.

    1977-01-01

    We have conducted a laboratory experiment to demonstrate a way in which a solid material can be prevented from dissolving in water. The differential solubility of salt (NaCl) in steam vs water is exploited. As long as the temperature of the area and water surrounding the salt is maintained above the boiling point of water, the salt cannot dissolve. This phenomenon, known as the thermal barrier, has far-reaching implications for preventing the dispersal of contaminants present near groundwater sources

  12. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  13. The Effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Post-Exercise Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGRATH, Ryan P; Whitehead, James R; Caine, Dennis J

    Until recently, the scientific community believed that post-exercise stretching could reduce delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), but recent reviews of studies on the topic have concluded that pre- or post-exercise static stretching has no effect on mitigating DOMS. However, the effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) post-exercise stretching on preventing DOMS has not been adequately studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of post-exercise PNF stretching on DOMS. Young adult participants (N=57) were randomly assigned to a PNF stretching group (n=19), a static stretching group (n=20), and to a no-stretching control group (n=18). All participants completed exercise designed to induce DOMS prior to post-exercise experimental stretching protocols. Participants rated their soreness level on a pain scale 24 and 48 hours post-exercise. A 3 × 2 mixed ANOVA showed there was an effect for time ( p <.01). Post hoc testing revealed that DOMS pain significantly decreased ( p <.05) from 24 to 48 hours post-exercise for the PNF and control groups, but not for the static stretching group. Other analyses revealed a significant correlation ( r =.61, p <.01) between the pre- and post-exercise stretch scores and the 48 hour post-exercise pain score for the PNF group. Consistent with the results of previous research on post-exercise static stretching, these results indicate that post-exercise PNF stretching also does not prevent DOMS. However, the correlation analysis suggests it is possible the pre-stretch muscle contractions of the post-exercise PNF protocol may have placed a load on an already damaged muscle causing more DOMS for some participants.

  14. The Effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Post-Exercise Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGRATH, RYAN P.; WHITEHEAD, JAMES R.; CAINE, DENNIS J.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the scientific community believed that post-exercise stretching could reduce delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), but recent reviews of studies on the topic have concluded that pre- or post-exercise static stretching has no effect on mitigating DOMS. However, the effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) post-exercise stretching on preventing DOMS has not been adequately studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of post-exercise PNF stretching on DOMS. Young adult participants (N=57) were randomly assigned to a PNF stretching group (n=19), a static stretching group (n=20), and to a no-stretching control group (n=18). All participants completed exercise designed to induce DOMS prior to post-exercise experimental stretching protocols. Participants rated their soreness level on a pain scale 24 and 48 hours post-exercise. A 3 × 2 mixed ANOVA showed there was an effect for time (p<.01). Post hoc testing revealed that DOMS pain significantly decreased (p<.05) from 24 to 48 hours post-exercise for the PNF and control groups, but not for the static stretching group. Other analyses revealed a significant correlation (r=.61, p<.01) between the pre- and post-exercise stretch scores and the 48 hour post-exercise pain score for the PNF group. Consistent with the results of previous research on post-exercise static stretching, these results indicate that post-exercise PNF stretching also does not prevent DOMS. However, the correlation analysis suggests it is possible the pre-stretch muscle contractions of the post-exercise PNF protocol may have placed a load on an already damaged muscle causing more DOMS for some participants. PMID:27182398

  15. Curcumin supplementation likely attenuates delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Lesley M; Rowlands, David S; Fazakerly, Ruth; Kellett, John

    2015-08-01

    Oral curcumin decreases inflammatory cytokines and increases muscle regeneration in mice. To determine effects of curcumin on muscle damage, inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in humans. Seventeen men completed a double-blind randomized-controlled crossover trial to estimate the effects of oral curcumin supplementation (2.5 g twice daily) versus placebo on single-leg jump performance and DOMS following unaccustomed heavy eccentric exercise. Curcumin or placebo was taken 2 d before to 3 d after eccentric single-leg press exercise, separated by 14-d washout. Measurements were made at baseline, and 0, 24 and 48-h post-exercise comprising: (a) limb pain (1-10 cm visual analogue scale; VAS), (b) muscle swelling, (c) single-leg jump height, and (d) serum markers of muscle damage and inflammation. Standardized magnitude-based inference was used to define outcomes. At 24 and 48-h post-exercise, curcumin caused moderate-large reductions in pain during single-leg squat (VAS scale -1.4 to -1.7; 90 %CL: ±1.0), gluteal stretch (-1.0 to -1.9; ±0.9), squat jump (-1.5 to -1.1; ± 1.2) and small reductions in creatine kinase activity (-22-29 %; ±21-22 %). Associated with the pain reduction was a small increase in single-leg jump performance (15 %; 90 %CL ± 12 %). Curcumin increased interleukin-6 concentrations at 0-h (31 %; ±29 %) and 48-h (32 %; ±29 %) relative to baseline, but decreased IL-6 at 24-h relative to post-exercise (-20 %; ±18 %). Oral curcumin likely reduces pain associated with DOMS with some evidence for enhanced recovery of muscle performance. Further study is required on mechanisms and translational effects on sport or vocational performance.

  16. The usefulness of a clinical 'scorecard' in managing patients with sore throat in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of a clinical scorecard in managing sore throat in general practice. Design: Validation study of scorecard for sore throat with a throat swab culture used as the 'gold standard'. Setting: A solo family practice in rural New South Wales, Australia Participants: Patients attending with sore throat. Methods Patients from the age of 5 years and above presenting with the main symptom of a sore throat, and who have not had any antibiotic treatment in the previous two weeks, were invited to participate in the study. The doctor completed a scorecard for each patient participating and took a throat swab for culture. Adult patients (> 16 yrs) were asked to complete a patient satisfaction questionnaire, while guardians accompanying children (5 yr to scorecard to differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial sore throat. 2. Patients' trust in the scorecard. Results The scorecard has a sensitivity of 93.33%, a specificity of 63.16%, a positive predictive value of 50% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The sensitivity is better than other sore throat scorecards that have been published but with a slightly lower specificity. There was a high level of patient trust in the scorecard was (85.8% agreement). Patients also trusted their doctor's judgement based on the scorecard (90.6% agreement). Conclusions As the scorecard has a high sensitivity but only a moderate specificity, this means that it is more reliable for negative results, i.e. when the result suggests a viral infection. When the result favours a bacterial sore throat, then a high sensitivity can mean that there are a number of false positives. GPs can be confident in withholding antibiotics when the scorecard indicates a viral infection. PMID:20670439

  17. The usefulness of a clinical 'scorecard' in managing patients with sore throat in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Tony Mo; Schattner, Peter

    2010-07-29

    To evaluate the usefulness of a clinical scorecard in managing sore throat in general practice. Validation study of scorecard for sore throat with a throat swab culture used as the 'gold standard'. A solo family practice in rural New South Wales, AustraliaParticipants: Patients attending with sore throat. Patients from the age of 5 years and above presenting with the main symptom of a sore throat, and who have not had any antibiotic treatment in the previous two weeks, were invited to participate in the study. The doctor completed a scorecard for each patient participating and took a throat swab for culture. Adult patients (> 16 yrs) were asked to complete a patient satisfaction questionnaire, while guardians accompanying children (5 yr to scorecard to differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial sore throat.2. Patients' trust in the scorecard. The scorecard has a sensitivity of 93.33%, a specificity of 63.16%, a positive predictive value of 50% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The sensitivity is better than other sore throat scorecards that have been published but with a slightly lower specificity.There was a high level of patient trust in the scorecard was (85.8% agreement). Patients also trusted their doctor's judgement based on the scorecard (90.6% agreement). As the scorecard has a high sensitivity but only a moderate specificity, this means that it is more reliable for negative results, i.e. when the result suggests a viral infection. When the result favours a bacterial sore throat, then a high sensitivity can mean that there are a number of false positives. GPs can be confident in withholding antibiotics when the scorecard indicates a viral infection.

  18. International sore throat guidelines and international medical graduates: a mixed methods systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Karen J; Ward, Erin; Arroll, Bruce

    2016-03-01

    AIM To examine national and international guidelines on sore throat management and subsequently, to explore the phenomenon of international medical graduates working in general and rural practice in New Zealand. METHOD Two separate systematic reviews were conducted that resulted in a contingent methodology. Contingent methodologies involve syntheses of data that are derived sequentially. The initial review for this study examined international sore throat guidelines and their key points. The results of this initial review resulted in the theory that international medical graduates may be unaware of the New Zealand specific sore throat guidelines and the problem of acute rheumatic fever in this country. The subsequent review examined the phenomenon of international medical graduates working in general or rural practice in New Zealand. Data sources were Medline, Google Scholar, Trip Database, and NHS Evidence, Embase and Scopus. Electronic databases were searched for relevant data published January 2000-December 2013. Additional hand searches found key references from articles and websites. RESULTS International guidelines for the management of sore throats differ from New Zealand guidelines. Of resource rich countries, New Zealand has the second highest number of international medical graduates: they may not use New Zealand specific sore throat guidelines. DISCUSSION Acute rheumatic fever is virtually eradicated in most resource rich countries. Rheumatic fever rates of among indigenous Māori and Pacifika people in New Zealand have failed to reduce over the last three decades. Knowledge and actions of international medical graduates in relation to sore throat management needs investigating. KEYWORDS Sore throats; acute rheumatic fever; clinical guidelines; international medical graduates; mixed methods review.

  19. The usefulness of a clinical 'scorecard' in managing patients with sore throat in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare Tony MO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of a clinical scorecard in managing sore throat in general practice. Design: Validation study of scorecard for sore throat with a throat swab culture used as the 'gold standard'. Setting: A solo family practice in rural New South Wales, Australia Participants: Patients attending with sore throat. Methods Patients from the age of 5 years and above presenting with the main symptom of a sore throat, and who have not had any antibiotic treatment in the previous two weeks, were invited to participate in the study. The doctor completed a scorecard for each patient participating and took a throat swab for culture. Adult patients (> 16 yrs were asked to complete a patient satisfaction questionnaire, while guardians accompanying children (5 yr to Main outcome measures: 1. Ability of a new scorecard to differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial sore throat. 2. Patients' trust in the scorecard. Results The scorecard has a sensitivity of 93.33%, a specificity of 63.16%, a positive predictive value of 50% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The sensitivity is better than other sore throat scorecards that have been published but with a slightly lower specificity. There was a high level of patient trust in the scorecard was (85.8% agreement. Patients also trusted their doctor's judgement based on the scorecard (90.6% agreement. Conclusions As the scorecard has a high sensitivity but only a moderate specificity, this means that it is more reliable for negative results, i.e. when the result suggests a viral infection. When the result favours a bacterial sore throat, then a high sensitivity can mean that there are a number of false positives. GPs can be confident in withholding antibiotics when the scorecard indicates a viral infection.

  20. The volume of goal shooting during training can predict shoulder soreness in elite female water polo players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Keane; Kefford, Tamara; Mosler, Andrea; Lebedew, Alexis; Lyons, Keith

    2013-05-01

    Examine the association between measures shoulder soreness and the goal shooting volume in high performance women's water polo. Seven national level female water polo players were monitored across two training camps (squad selection and team game-based). Performance analysis coded all shots for each athlete during the training camps and the shoulder soreness information was gathered through an athlete self-rating survey. Residual maximal likelihood analysis was used to predict shoulder soreness. It was shown that 74% (p=0.013) of shoulder soreness was explained by the volume of goal shooting during training (R(2) 0.743) with greater soreness associated with less rest time between shots (p=0.032). Greater levels of shoulder soreness were reported in the squad selection training camp compared to team game-based camp (p=0.002) with 29% of this shoulder soreness prediction based on individual athlete differences. Shoulder soreness increased with a greater number of shots in conjunction with less rest. Monitoring athletes on an individual basis seemed the most appropriate method of identifying increased shoulder soreness. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  2. Acute effects of massage or active exercise in relieving muscle soreness: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars L; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Christoffer H; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Topp, Robert; Behm, David G

    2013-12-01

    Massage is commonly believed to be the best modality for relieving muscle soreness. However, actively warming up the muscles with exercise may be an effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of massage with active exercise for relieving muscle soreness. Twenty healthy female volunteers (mean age 32 years) participated in this examiner-blind randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01478451). The participants performed eccentric contractions for the upper trapezius muscle on a Biodex dynamometer. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) presented 48 hours later, at which the participants (a) received 10 minutes of massage of the trapezius muscle or (b) performed 10 minutes of active exercise (shoulder shrugs 10 × 10 reps) with increasing elastic resistance (Thera-Band). First, 1 treatment was randomly applied to 1 shoulder while the contralateral shoulder served as a passive control. Two hours later, the contralateral resting shoulder received the other treatment. The participants rated the intensity of soreness (scale 0-10), and a blinded examiner took measures of pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the upper trapezius immediately before treatment and 0, 10, 20, and 60 minutes after treatment 48 hours posteccentric exercise. Immediately before treatment, the intensity of soreness was 5.0 (SD 2.2) and PPT was 138 (SD 78) kPa. In response to treatment, a significant treatment by time interaction was found for the intensity of soreness (p soreness and increased PPT (i.e., reduced pain sensitivity). For both types of treatment, the greatest effect on perceived soreness occurred immediately after treatment, whereas the effect on PPT peaked 20 minutes after treatment. In conclusion, active exercise using elastic resistance provides similar acute relief of muscle soreness as compared with that using massage. Coaches, therapists, and athletes can use either active warm-up or massage to reduce DOMS acutely, for example, to prepare

  3. The effect of pomegranate juice supplementation on strength and soreness after eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombold, Justin R; Reinfeld, Ari S; Casler, James R; Coyle, Edward F

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if pomegranate juice supplementation improved the recovery of skeletal muscle strength after eccentric exercise in subjects who routinely performed resistance training. Resistance trained men (n = 17) were randomized into a crossover design with either pomegranate juice or placebo. To produce delayed onset muscle soreness, the subjects performed 3 sets of 20 unilateral eccentric elbow flexion and 6 sets of 10 unilateral eccentric knee extension exercises. Maximal isometric elbow flexion and knee extension strength and muscle soreness measurements were made at baseline and 2, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 168 hours postexercise. Elbow flexion strength was significantly higher during the 2- to 168-hour period postexercise with pomegranate juice compared with that of placebo (main treatment effect; p = 0.031). Elbow flexor muscle soreness was also significantly reduced with pomegranate juice compared with that of placebo (main treatment effect; p = 0.006) and at 48 and 72 hours postexercise (p = 0.003 and p = 0.038, respectively). Isometric strength and muscle soreness in the knee extensors were not significantly different with pomegranate juice compared with those using placebo. Supplementation with pomegranate juice attenuates weakness and reduces soreness of the elbow flexor but not of knee extensor muscles. These results indicate a mild, acute ergogenic effect of pomegranate juice in the elbow flexor muscles of resistance trained individuals after eccentric exercise.

  4. The Efficacy of Sustained Heat Treatment on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Berk, Lee; Bains, Gurinder; Khowailed, Iman Akef; Lee, Haneul; Laymon, Michael

    2017-07-01

    To assess the impact of heat applied for 8 hours immediately after or 24 hours after exercise on delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in large skeletal muscle groups measured by subjective and objective means. Cross-sectional repeated measure design study. Research laboratory. Three groups of 20 subjects, age range 20 to 40 years. Squats were conducted in three 5-minute bouts to initiate DOMS; 3 minutes of rest separated the bouts. One group had heat applied immediately after exercise, and a second group had heat applied 24 hours after exercise. A third group was the control group where no heat was applied. Visual analog pain scales, muscle strength of quads, range of motion of quads, stiffness of quads (Continuous Passive Motion machine), algometer to measure quadriceps soreness, and blood myoglobin. The most significant outcome was a reduction in soreness in the group that had low-temperature heat wraps applied immediately after exercise (P soreness, heat applied just after exercise seems very effective in reducing soreness. Unlike cold, it increases flexibility of tissue and tissue blood flow. For joint, it is still probably better to use cold to reduce swelling.

  5. Environmental protection stability of river bed and banks using convex, concave, and linear bed sills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Alireza; Noori, Lila Khaje

    2010-12-01

    River bed scourings are a major environmental problem for fish and aquatic habitat resources. In this study, to prevent river bed and banks from scouring, different types of bed sills including convex, concave and linear patterns were installed in a movable channel bed in a laboratory flume. The bed sills were tested with nine different arrangements and under different flow conditions. To find the most effective bed sill pattern, the scouring depth was measured downstream of the bed sill for a long experimental duration. The scour depth was measured at the middle and at the end of each experimental test for different ratios of the arch radius to the channel width [r/w]. The experimental results indicated that the convex pattern with r/w=0.35 produced minimum bed scouring depth at the center line whereas the concave pattern with r/w=0.23 produced the minimum scour depth at the wall banks. Therefore, the convex pattern was the most effective configuration for prevention of scouring at the center line of the river while the concave pattern was very effective to prevent scouring at the river banks. These findings can be suggested to be used in practical applications.

  6. The use of a soft denture liner for chronic residual ridge soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J D; Clark, L L

    1985-07-01

    Chronic residual ridge soreness in patients with complete dentures can be caused by various factors. A differential diagnosis between physiologic or anatomic problems (or both) and functional deficiencies in the patient's present dentures must be made. The functional deficiencies can often be eliminated easily, whereas physiologic and anatomic problems may be more difficult to correct, especially in the geriatric patient. If the functional deficiencies in the patient's dentures have been corrected and surgical procedures are not a viable alternative, placement of a long-term resilient liner can often resolve the chronic residual ridge soreness that is present in denture patients. Properly placed and properly cared for silicone or silicone rubber resilient denture liners can provide comfort for over 70% of patients with chronic residual ridge soreness for 3 to 5 years and often longer.

  7. Acute effects of massage or active exercise in relieving muscle soreness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    healthy female volunteers (mean age 32 years) participated in this examiner-blind randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01478451). The participants performed eccentric contractions for the upper trapezius muscle on a Biodex dynamometer. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) presented 48 hours......Massage is commonly believed to be the best modality for relieving muscle soreness. However, actively warming up the muscles with exercise may be an effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of massage with active exercise for relieving muscle soreness. Twenty...... later, at which the participants (a) received 10 minutes of massage of the trapezius muscle or (b) performed 10 minutes of active exercise (shoulder shrugs 10 × 10 reps) with increasing elastic resistance (Thera-Band). First, 1 treatment was randomly applied to 1 shoulder while the contralateral...

  8. Risk of developing pressure sore in ALS patients: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J-H; Wu, S-C; Chen, H-J; Kao, C-H; Tseng, C-H; Tsai, C-H

    2018-03-06

    Prior investigations with few cases have disclosed lack of pressure sore (PrS) formation was characteristic in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. However, studies with larger samples are lacking to ascertain this concept. To investigate whether patients with ALS have higher risk of PrS. Utilizing a Taiwan National Insurance claims dataset with 23 million participants, we extracted 514 ALS patients and 2,056 controls from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2008. Both groups were followed up until PrS occurrence during study period (2000-2011). The PrS risk was calculated with Cox proportional regression model. The ALS patients had a greater PrS risk (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 8.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.90-15.9, P ALS women (aHR = 26.6, 95% CI = 9.05-78.2, P ALS men (aHR = 4.38, 95% CI = 1.99-9.68, P ALS was linked with a much greater PrS risk (aHR = 27.7, 95% CI = 5.79-132, P ALS is discovered to be correlated with an enhanced PrS risk. For PrS prevention, it is needed to pay more attention to the management of the ALS patients, particularly in women and those with relatively younger age. Further investigations are needed to confirm the findings in this study. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Cold Vs. Heat After Exercise-Is There a Clear Winner for Muscle Soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold S; Khowailed, Iman Akef; Lee, Haneul; Berk, Lee; Bains, Gurinder S; Akerkar, Siddhesh; Shah, Jinal; Al-Dabbak, Fuad; Laymon, Mike S

    2015-11-01

    Because of the differences in the exercise type, temperature, and timing of the use of cold and heat after exercise in different studies, there is no clear conclusion as to the efficacy of either modality on reducing delayed onset muscle soreness. One hundred subjects at similar fitness levels were examined. They accomplished leg squats for 15 minutes and heat and cold were applied after or 24 hours after exercise using ThermaCare heat or cold wraps. Measurements obtained were strength, the force to passively move the knee, analog visual pain scales, and blood myoglobin. Control subjects lost 24% strength after exercise. Subjects with heat or cold just after exercise only lost 4% strength (p < 0.01). For strength recovery, cold applied after 24 hours was better than heat at 24 hours. Heat or cold applied after exercise was significantly better to prevent elastic tissue damage (p < 0.01), whereas heat and cold immediately after exercise caused no loss in muscle myoglobin and heat or cold after 24 hours showed no less muscle damage from myoglobin than in control subjects. Myoglobin in the control and heat and cold 24-hour groups averaged 135.1% of the baseline data but averaged 106.1% of baseline in the immediate heat and cold groups. For reducing pain, control subjects showed a significant amount of pain the days after exercise. But cold immediately after exercise or 24 hours later was superior to heat in reducing pain. In conclusion, both cold and heat appear to be efficacious in reducing muscle damage after exercise.

  10. No Effect of Acupuncture in the Relief of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Johannes; Niederer, Daniel; Auerbach, Kerstin; Bernhörster, Marcus; Hübscher, Markus; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2016-11-01

    Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a common symptom in people participating in exercise, sport, or recreational physical activities. Several remedies have been proposed to prevent and alleviate DOMS. A five-arm randomized controlled study was conducted to examine the effects of acupuncture on eccentric exercise-induced DOMS of the biceps brachii muscle. Participants were recruited through convenience sampling of students and general public. Participants were randomly allocated to needle, laser, sham needle, sham laser acupuncture, and no intervention. Outcome measures included pressure pain threshold (PPT), pain intensity (visual analog scale), and maximum isometric voluntary force. Delayed-onset muscle soreness was induced in 60 participants (22 females, age 23.6 ± 2.8 years, weight 66.1 ± 9.6 kg, and height 171.6 ± 7.9 cm). Neither verum nor sham interventions significantly improved outcomes within 72 hours when compared with no treatment control (P > 0.05). Acupuncture was not effective in the treatment of DOMS. From a mechanistic point of view, these results have implications for further studies: (1) considering the high-threshold mechanosensitive nociceptors of the muscle, the cutoff for PPT (5 kg/cm) chosen to avoid bruising might have led to ceiling effects; (2) the traditional acupuncture regimen, targeting muscle pain, might have been inappropriate as the DOMS mechanisms seem limited to the muscular unit and its innervation. Therefore, a regionally based regimen including an intensified intramuscular needling (dry needling) should be tested in future studies, using a higher cutoff for PPT to avoid ceiling effects.

  11. A new flap alternative for trochanteric pressure sore coverage: distal gluteus maximus musculocutaneous advancement flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisanci, Mustafa; Sahin, Ismail; Eski, Muhitdin; Alhan, Dogan

    2015-02-01

    Management of long-term bedridden patients experiencing pressure sores still represents a surgical challenge due to limited flap alternatives and high recurrence rates after the treatment. Fasciocutaneous, musculocutaneous, local perforator-based flaps, and free flaps have all been used for treatment of trochanteric pressure sores. This study presents a new use of distal gluteus maximus (GM) muscle as an advancement musculocutaneous flap for coverage of trochanteric pressure sores in 7 patients. The technique involves design of a long V-shaped skin island over the distal fibers of the GM muscle, beginning from the inferoposterior wound edge and extending inferomedially, almost parallel to the gluteal crease. After its harvest as an island flap on the distal fibers of the GM muscle, the skin paddle can be advanced onto the trochanteric defect, whereas the muscle itself is rotated after severing its insertion to femur. If a second triangular skin island is designed on the proximal fibers of GM muscle to cover an associated sacral defect, 2 coexisting pressure sores can be reconstructed concomitantly with 2 skin paddles on a single muscle belly at 1 surgical setting. Of the 7 patients, 3 had 3 (bilateral trochanteric and sacral), 2 had 2 (sacral and trochanteric), and 2 had 1 (only trochanteric) pressure sores. All ulcers were closed successfully and all of the flaps survived totally without any complication except the one in which we experienced minimal wound dehiscence in the early postoperative period. Conclusively, our current surgical method provided a reliable coverage for trochanteric pressure sores although it was technically straightforward and fast. Additionally, it offers simultaneous closure of 2 pressure ulcers with 2 skin islands on a single muscle flap.

  12. Effects of Zingiber cassumunar (Plai cream) in the treatment of delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimmanakorn, Nuttaset; Manimmanakorn, Apiwan; Boobphachart, Disaphon; Thuwakum, Worrawut; Laupattarakasem, Wiroon; Hamlin, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of Zingiber cassumunar (Plai cream) in either 7% or 14% concentration on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Seventy-five untrained healthy volunteers (28 males and 47 females), performed 4 sets of 25 eccentric repetitions of the dominant quadriceps muscle on an isokinetic dynamometry machine. Participants were then randomized into 3 groups: 14% Plai cream, 7% Plai cream and placebo cream. Two grams of the cream (strips of 5-cm long) were gently rubbed into the quadriceps muscles for 5 min immediately following the exercise and every 8 h thereafter for 7 d in all groups. Muscle soreness, muscle strength, jump height, thigh circumference and creatine kinase were measured before and after eccentric exercise. Compared to the placebo cream the 14% Plai cream substantially reduced muscle soreness over the 7 d by -82% (95% CI = -155% to -6%, P = 0.03), but had similar muscle soreness effects to 7% Plai cream (-34%, -96% to 27%, P = 0.2). Compared to the placebo cream the 7% Plai cream resulted in a small non-significant reduction in muscle soreness levels over the following 7 d (-40%, -116% to 36%, P = 0.3). Compared to placebo cream there was little effect of Plai cream (7% or 14%) on muscle strength, jump height, thigh circumference or creatine kinase concentration. Using 14% Plai cream over a 7-day period substantially reduced muscle soreness symptoms compared to 7% Plai cream or a placebo cream. The authors suggest that the administration of 14% Plai cream is a useful alternative in the management of DOMS. Thai Clinical Trial Registry TCTR20140215001.

  13. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Wen, Xiujun

    2011-04-11

    The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We conducted telephone interviews of staff from 77 Health and Epidemic Prevention Stations in six Chinese cities in November 2010. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)) are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide "Four-Pest Elimination" campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests) were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts). Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000-2010), there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999-2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons), hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong) experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates). There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  14. Comparative immune study on cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with single and multiple sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qadhi, Ban Noori; Musa, Israa Salim; Al-Mulla Hummadi, Yassir Mustafa Kamal

    2015-09-01

    Ninety-five Iraqi patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania tropica at AL-Karama Hospital in Baghdad were included in this study. Sixty patients were with single sore and the remaining with multiple sores. The study also included 10 atopic patients and 30 healthy individuals as a control group. Cellular and humoral immune response at different stages of the disease activity (early and late) were evaluated by estimation of serum IFN-γ, IL-4 and total IgE antibodies using ELISA kits while, the detection of specific anti leishmanial IgE antibodies was done manually. Specific IgE antibodies were only detected in early CL (<2 months) patients 68 (71.57 %) while, were not detected in late CL, atopic and healthy controls 30 (100 %). The results also showed a positive relationship between this antibody and the number of sores. Th-2 predominates during the early stage of the disease then shifts to Th-1 that proceed in the late stage, but both cytokines increased in CL patients in comparison to control group. The immune response of CL infection is possibly regulated by both Th-1 and Th-2. Multiple sores patients showed an increase of anti leishmanial IgE (0.120 ± 0.014), total IgE (120.7 ± 39.58 IU/ml), IFN-γ (87.4 ± 30.52 pg/ml) and IL-4 (63.70 ± 20.32 pg/ml) levels than single sore patients with mean value of 0.108 ± 0.14, 92.3 ± 35.23 IU/ml, 47.2 ± 27.80 pg/ml and 51.04 ± 15.0 pg/ml respectively. It can be presented also as ratio of INF-γ/IL-4 = 1.37 which is greater than those for single sore 0.9. These results indicated that the immune response of multiple sores patient's is higher than that with single sores.

  15. TREATMENT OF SORE THROAT IN CHILDREN OVER 5 YEARS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Grechukha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sore throat is a frequent complaint of children. Another aspect considered in this article is the issue of untimely and groundless prescription of antibacterial therapy to children, as it may result both in allergic reactions and toxic effect on the body in whole. Children of all age groups are rather sensitive to pain. In case of an acute complaint, there must be an effective drug, which may safely be used in children. The article examines various pharmaceutical forms of drugs for sore throat treatment and appraises their advantages, disadvantages and usability in children over 5 years of age in detail.

  16. The Festering Sore of Corruption in Africa and its Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article interrogates, in theoretical cum descriptive fashion, the nexus between corruption and democracy, using sub- Saharan Africa as a research backdrop. Drawing mainly from secondary data and leaning towards a modernisation theoretical framework, it argues that the festering sore of corruption has produced ...

  17. Interleukin-6 and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Do Not Vary during the Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Morgan E.; Berg, Kris E.; Meendering, Jessica R.; Llewellyn, Tamra L.; French, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Jeremy E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a difference in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and delayed onset muscles soreness (DOMS) exists in two different phases of the menstrual cycle. Nine runners performed one 75-min high-intensity interval running session during the early follicular (EF) phase and once during the midluteal (ML) phase of the…

  18. Pattern of Pressure Sores in Spinal Injured Patients with in the First ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Before 2006, all our spinal injured patients were nursed on conventional form mattress without pressure redistributing support surface. Pressure sore was a common complication and was a major contributing factor to prolonged hospitalization. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of pressure ...

  19. Effects of whole-body vibration after eccentric exercise on muscle soreness and muscle strength recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timon, Rafael; Tejero, Javier; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Crespo, Carmen; Olcina, Guillermo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not a single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise can reduce muscle soreness and enhance muscle recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty untrained participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a vibration group (n=10) and control group (n=10). Participants performed eccentric quadriceps training of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 120% 1RM, with 4 min rest between sets. After that, the vibration group received 3 sets of 1 min whole body vibration (12 Hz, 4 mm) with 30 s of passive recovery between sets. Serum creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen, muscle soreness (visual analog scale) and muscle strength (peak isometric torque) were assessed. [Results] Creatine kinase was lower in the vibration group than in the control group at 24 h (200.2 ± 8.2 vs. 300.5 ± 26.1 U/L) and at 48 h (175.2 ± 12.5 vs. 285.2 ± 19.7 U/L) post-exercise. Muscle soreness decreased in vibration group compared to control group at 48 h post-exercise (34.1 ± 11.4 vs. 65.2 ± 13.2 mm). [Conclusion] Single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise reduced delayed onset muscle soreness but it did not affect muscle strength recovery.

  20. Muscle fascicle behavior during eccentric cycling and its relation to muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñailillo, Luis; Blazevich, Anthony J; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2015-04-01

    A single bout of eccentric exercise confers a protective effect against muscle damage and soreness in subsequent eccentric exercise bouts, but the mechanisms underpinning this effect are unclear. This study compared vastus lateralis (VL) muscle-tendon behavior between two eccentric cycling bouts to test the hypothesis that muscle-tendon behavior would be different between bouts and would be associated with the protective effect. Eleven untrained men (27.1 ± 7.0 yr) performed two bouts of eccentric cycling (ECC1 and ECC2) separated by 2 wk for 10 min at 65% of maximal concentric workload (191.9 ± 44.2 W) each. Muscle soreness (by visual analog scale) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque of the knee extensors were assessed before and 1-2 d after exercise. Using ultrasonography, VL fascicle length and angle changes during cycling were assessed, and tendinous tissue (TT) length changes were estimated. VL EMG amplitude, crank torque, and knee joint angles were measured during cycling. Soreness was greater (P soreness after ECC2 than ECC1; thus, changes in muscle-tendon behavior may be an important mechanism underpinning the protective effect.

  1. Neutrophilia and an Anti-Inflammatory Drug as Markers of Inflammation in Delayed Muscle Soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucille L.; And Others

    This study reexamined the concept that delayed muscle soreness (DMS) is a form of inflammatory pain. This was accomplished by having 32 male volunteers perform exercise known to induce DMS and then assess the total and differential white blood cell changes. In addition, an anti-inflammatory drug, idomethacin, was administered to determine whether…

  2. Delayed onset muscle soreness after inspiratory threshold loading in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Sunita; Sheel, A William; Road, Jeremy D; Reid, W Darlene

    2010-03-01

    Skeletal muscle damage occurs following high-intensity or unaccustomed exercise; however, it is difficult to monitor damage to the respiratory muscles, particularly in humans. The aim of this study was to use clinical measures to investigate the presence of skeletal muscle damage in the inspiratory muscles. Ten healthy subjects underwent 60 minutes of voluntary inspiratory threshold loading (ITL) at 70% of maximal inspiratory pressure. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures, delayed onset muscle soreness on a visual analogue scale and plasma creatine kinase were measured prior to ITL, and at repeated time points after ITL (4, 24 and 48 hours post-ITL). Delayed onset muscle soreness was present in all subjects 24 hours following ITL (intensity = 22 +/- 6 mm; significantly higher than baseline p = 0.02). Muscle soreness was reported primarily in the anterior neck region, and was correlated to the amount of work done by the inspiratory muscles during ITL (r = 0.72, p = 0.02). However, no significant change was observed in maximal inspiratory or expiratory pressures or creatine kinase. These findings suggest that an intense bout of ITL results in muscle soreness primarily in the accessory muscles of inspiration, however, may be insufficient to cause significant muscle damage in healthy adults.

  3. Is myofascial pain in temporomandibular disorder patients a manifestation of delayed-onset muscle soreness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutris, M.; Lobbezoo, F.; Sümer, N.C.; Atis, E.S.; Türker, K.S.; Naeije, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In a study to the possible role of overuse of the jaw muscles in the pathogenesis of jaw muscle pain, we used a protocol involving concentric and eccentric muscle contractions to provoke a state of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in the jaw muscles of healthy individuals. We tested

  4. Can Muscle Soreness After Intensive Work-related Activities Be Predicted?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, Remko; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; van der Schans, Cees P.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: It is currently unknown whether specific determinants are predictive for developing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) after heavy work-related activities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether personal characteristics and performance measures are predictive for onset,

  5. Delayed onset muscle soreness: No pain, no gain? The truth behind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was proposed by Armstrong in 1984,3 and has continued to be validated and refined by researchers in more .... 2014;12(3):112-120. 15. Hilbert JE, Sforzo GA, Swensen T. The effects of massage on delayed onset muscle soreness. Br J Sports Med. 2003;37(1):72-75. 16. Bloomer RJ. The role of nutritional supplements in ...

  6. Pulsed Ultrasound Does Not Affect Recovery From Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Shankar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effects of pulsed Ultrasound (US in recovery from Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS. Methods: Twelve healthy male athletes (mean age 23.83±1.697 year performed an eccentric exercise protocol of non-dominant elbow flexors to induce muscle soreness on 2 occasions separated by 3 weeks. Subjects in experimental group received pulsed US (1 MHz, intensity 0.8 W/cm2, mark space ratio 1:10, whereas control group received sham US after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. Perception of muscle soreness, active ROM and muscle strength were the parameters measured at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h with the help of VAS, manual goniometer and JONEX muscles master instrument respectively. Results: Post hoc t test analysis revealed significant differences (p <0.05 between 0 h and 72 h in the parameter of ROM (t = 6.18 and muscle power (t = 2.54 as well as between 24 h and 48 h in the parameter of muscle soreness (t = 3.13 in control group. Similar differences were also observed in the experimental group. No significant inter-group differences at α level of 0.05 was observed in any parameter at any level. Conclusion: The pattern of recovery from DOMS was not influenced by the application of pulsed Ultrasound at the parameters discussed here.

  7. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    resistance. Difficulties of control were noted in our surveys of dormitories in which crowded living, seasonal worker migration, and financial constraints contributed to control failures. This study supports the following conclusions: (1 the bed bug infestation in China dramatically decreased following the campaigns from 1960 to the early 1980s; (2 In our survey of Health and Epidemics Prevention Stations, no bed bug cases were reported in Beijing and Shanghai for the past 12 months, but complaints were reported in Guangzhou, Lanzhou, Urumqi, and Shenzhen; (3 Current bed bug infestations primarily are reported in crowded living environments or transient environments such as worker dormitories and military dormitories. These findings suggest that community-wide bed bug monitoring and control campaigns are necessary for effective control of bed bug infestations as a societal response.

  8. Fluid-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.; Schoebotham, N.

    1981-02-01

    In Energy Equipment Company's two-stage fluidized bed system, partial combustion in a fluidized bed is followed by burn-off of the generated gases above the bed. The system can be retrofitted to existing boilers, and can burn small, high ash coal efficiently. It has advantages when used as a hot gas generator for process drying. Tests on a boiler at a Cadbury Schweppes plant are reported.

  9. Management of patients with sore throats in relation to guidelines: an interview study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, Katarina; Strandberg, Eva Lena; Gröndal, Hedvig; Brorsson, Annika; Thulesius, Hans; André, Malin

    2014-12-01

    To explore how a group of Swedish general practitioners (GPs) manage patients with a sore throat in relation to current guidelines as expressed in interviews. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse semi-structured interviews. Swedish primary care. A strategic sample of 25 GPs. Perceived management of sore throat patients. It was found that nine of the interviewed GPs were adherent to current guidelines for sore throat and 16 were non-adherent. The two groups differed in terms of guideline knowledge, which was shared within the team for adherent GPs while idiosyncratic knowledge dominated for the non-adherent GPs. Adherent GPs had no or low concerns for bacterial infections and differential diagnosis whilst non-adherent GPs believed that in patients with a sore throat any bacterial infection should be identified and treated with antibiotics. Patient history and examination was mainly targeted by adherent GPs whilst for non-adherent GPs it was often redundant. Non-adherent GPs reported problems getting patients to abstain from antibiotics, whilst no such problems were reported in adherent GPs. This interview study of sore throat management in a strategically sampled group of Swedish GPs showed that while two-thirds were non-adherent and had a liberal attitude to antibiotics one-third were guideline adherent with a restricted view on antibiotics. Non-adherent GPs revealed significant knowledge gaps. Adherent GPs had discussed guidelines within the primary care team while non-adherent GPs had not. Guideline implementation thus seemed to be promoted by knowledge shared in team discussions.

  10. Fluidized bed incinerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Johnson, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A fluidized bed incinerator is being developed for burning rad contaminated solid and liquid waste materials. In situ neutralization of acid gases by the bed material, catalytic afterburning, and gas filtration are used to produce a clean flue gas without the use of aqueous scrubbing

  11. The Role of Psychological Factors in the Perception of Postneedling Soreness and the Influence of Postneedling Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pintado-Zugasti, Aitor; López-López, Almudena; González Gutiérrez, Jose Luis; Pecos-Martín, Daniel; Rodríguez-Fernández, Ángel Luis; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel María; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Fernández-Carnero, Josue

    2017-04-01

    Myofascial trigger point dry needling is frequently associated with postneedling soreness, which can generate patient dissatisfaction and reduced treatment adherence. Psychological factors may influence the perception of postneedling soreness and the effectiveness of postneedling soreness treatments. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, pain anxiety, and fear of pain are significant predictors of postneedling soreness over time; and to analyze whether the relationships between psychological variables and postneedling soreness vary as a function of the postneedling soreness intervention, which included ischemic compression, placebo or control (without treatment). Repeated-measures observational study nested within a randomized controlled trial. University community. Healthy volunteers (N = 90; 40 men and 50 women) 18 to 39 years of age (mean ± standard deviation 22 ± 3 years). Catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, pain anxiety, and fear of pain were evaluated as possible predictors of postneedling pain before dry needling in a latent myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle. Participants were then divided into a treatment group that received ischemic compression as a postneedling intervention, a placebo group that received sham ischemic compression, and a control group that did not receive any treatment. Pain during needling and postneedling soreness were quantified using a visual analogue scale during needling, after treatment, and at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours. A multilevel analysis revealed that individuals who exhibited more catastrophic thinking showed less postneedling soreness intensity immediately after needling in all participants (β = -0.049). Pain-related anxiety was linked to greater immediate postneedling soreness in the compression condition (β = 0.057). Finally, participants who exhibited more catastrophic thinking showed a slower rate of decline in postneedling soreness levels over

  12. Application of a high density adsorbent in expanded bed adsorption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... allowed the passage of cells or cell particle with concomitant adsorption of target protein (Jahic et al.,. 2006). Stable expanded bed is critical to the overall pro- cess performance (Jahic et al., 2006), a well performing adsorbent will prevent bed instability and give high breakthrough capacity (Anspach et al., ...

  13. Effects of cryotherapy on muscle damage markers and perception of delayed onset muscle soreness after downhill running: A Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rossato

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Use of cryotherapy after exercise with eccentric contractions was effective to reestablish the level of biochemical markers of muscle damage and reduce muscle soreness and pain perception in subjects submitted to downhill running.

  14. Influence of ginger and cinnamon intake on inflammation and muscle soreness endued by exercise in Iranian female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women for six weeks did not show any significant change in the IL-6 level, but showed a decrease in muscle soreness in the cinnamon and ginger groups.

  15. Cold Sore, Cold Soul? An Examination of Orolabial Herpes in Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C. HOLLIDAY

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sociocultural phenomenon of herpes is attributed to two strains of the herpes simplex virus: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 causes orolabial cold sores while herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 is typically identified in genital lesions, though both viruses may cause clinically similar signs and symptoms anywhere in or on the body. While these infections are extremely prevalent and typically benign, media sources such as film have perpetuated a negative public perception of the disease. Thus, a large portion of society continues to associate these conditions with sexual misconduct and moral failing. Despite decades of available antiviral therapy to shorten and suppress outbreaks, movies continue to exploit herpes for degradation and for humor. Portrayal of genital herpes in films is avoided in order to avert unnecessary and grotesque nude scenes, so depictions of cold sores are preferred. This article analyzes the use of orolabial herpes lesions in selected English language films released from 1984-2012.

  16. Therapeutic Effect of External Application of Ligustrazine Combined with Holistic Nursing on Pressure Sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Junzhi; Han, Lin; Gong, Fen

    2016-08-15

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of external application of ligustrazine combined with holistic nursing on pressure sores, as well as the underlying mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS From February 2014 to March 2015, a total of 32 patients with Phase II and Phase III pressure sores were enrolled and randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The clinical data were comparable between the 2 groups. In addition to holistic nursing, the patients in the experimental group received 4 weeks of continuous external application of ligustrazine, whereas patients in the control group received compound clotrimazole cream. Therapeutic effect and healing time were recorded. HaCaT cells were used as an in vitro model for mechanism analysis of the effect of ligustrazine in treating pressure sores. After culturing with different concentrations of ligustrazine or the inhibitor of AKT (LY294002) for 72 h, cell viability, clone formation numbers, and levels of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), p-AKT, and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were determined. RESULTS Compared to the control group, the total effective rate in the experimental group was significantly higher, and the healing time was significantly reduced. Cell viability and clone formation numbers were significantly upregulated by ligustrazine in a dose-dependent manner. Both the cell viability and clone formation numbers were significantly inhibited by application of LY294002. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that ligustrazine combined with holistic nursing is an effective treatment of pressure sores. The protective effect may be associated with the promotion of cell growth by activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  17. Cold Sore, Cold Soul? An Examination of Orolabial Herpes in Film

    OpenAIRE

    Alex C. HOLLIDAY; Amanda SALIH; Richard F. Jr. WAGNER

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The sociocultural phenomenon of herpes is attributed to two strains of the herpes simplex virus: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes orolabial cold sores while herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is typically identified in genital lesions, though both viruses may cause clinically similar signs and symptoms anywhere in or on the body. While these infections are extremely prevalent and typically benign, media sources such as film have perpetuated a negative public percep...

  18. Efficiency of Magnetic Field Treatment on Pressure Sores in Bedridden Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Özdemir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure sores are an important source of complications in patients who are immobilized and bedridden. We aimed to investigate the efficiency of magnetic field treatment in pressure sores. Material and Methods: This was a randomized, double blind controlled design study. 20 patients in the study group received magneto-therapy, once a day for 30 minutes and with 150G, keeping to the BTL09 magnetotherapy device’s program. In the control group, 20 patients received the dressing only once a day. The surface areas of the pressure sores were evaluated at the onset of the treatment (1st day, and on the 7th and 15th days.Results: When within group comparisons were conducted, a significant difference was observed between the 1st and 7th day, 7th and 15th day, and 1st and 15th day measures in both the groups in terms of the scar area. The average healing time for the treatment group was 10.80±4.06 (6-20 days, and the average healing time for the control group was 18.85±9.75 (5-32 days. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (z=-2.114, p=0.034. Also, there was a significant difference in the scar area between the two groups in the 15th day measure (z=-3.818, p=0.000.Conclusion: The healing process of the tissue can be accelerated.with the use of magnetotherapy in the treatment of pressure sores of stage II and III,

  19. Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Muscle Soreness and Inflammation During Recovery From Strenuous Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yen Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although parties or get-togethers with alcoholic beverages after sporting competitions are popular, studies on the effects of alcohol ingestion after strenuous exercise on muscle damage and inflammation in non-drinkers’ are few and ambiguous. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alcohol ingestion during recovery from an acute bout of exercise on muscle soreness and inflammatory markers in regular exercisers who do not regularly consume alcohol. Male participants (n = 15 completed two bouts of exercise on a rowing ergometer for 2000 m in a randomized fashion. All participants ingested 5 mL of alcoholic (AL or placebo (PL beverage per kg of body weight within 10 min post-exercise. Blood samples for blood alcohol, creatine kinase (CK, C-reactive protein (CRP, and interleukin (IL-6 concentrations were collected pre-exercise (T0, and at 1 (T1, 3 (T2, and 24 h (T3 post-ingestion. Self-reported muscle soreness was assessed at the same time points. Lactate levels were measured before exercise and within 1 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness was significantly lower in the AL than the PL trials at T3 (p < 0.05. Although CK, IL-6 and CRP levels were significantly higher during recovery than before exercising, there was no significant difference between the AL and PL trials. In addition, no significant difference in lactate concentrations between the two trials was evident in the 1 h after exercise. For regular exercisers, the alcoholic beverage ingested did not increase CK, IL-6, or CRP compared to their placebo trial, despite attenuated muscle soreness. Comparisons between drinkers and non-drinkers of high fitness ingesting permissible alcohol doses should be performed in the future.   Keywords: alcohol, inflammation, strenuous exercise, muscle damage

  20. Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness and Perceived Exertion After Blood Flow Restriction Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, Christopher R; Warmington, Stuart A

    2017-11-01

    Brandner, CR, and Warmington, SA. Delayed onset muscle soreness and perceived exertion after blood flow restriction exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3101-3108, 2017-The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptual responses to resistance exercise with heavy loads (80% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), light loads (20% 1RM), or light loads in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR). Despite the use of light loads, it has been suggested that the adoption of BFR resistance exercise may be limited because of increases in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and perceived exertion. Seventeen healthy untrained males participated in this balanced, randomized cross-over study. After 4 sets of elbow-flexion exercise, participants reported ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), with DOMS also recorded for 7 days after each trial. Delayed onset muscle soreness was significantly greater for low-pressure continuous BFR (until 48 hours postexercise) and high-pressure intermittent BFR (until 72 hours postexercise) than for traditional heavy-load resistance exercise and light-load resistance exercise. In addition, RPE was higher for heavy-load resistance exercise and high-pressure intermittent BFR than for low-pressure continuous BFR, with all trials greater than light-load resistance exercise. For practitioners working with untrained participants, this study provides evidence to suggest that to minimize the perception of effort and postexercise muscle soreness associated with BFR resistance exercise, continuous low-pressure application may be more preferential than intermittent high-pressure application. Importantly, these perceptual responses are relatively short-lived (∼2 days) and have previously been shown to subside after a few exercise sessions. Combined with smaller initial training volumes (set × repetitions), this may limit RPE and DOMS to strengthen uptake and adherence and assist in program progression for muscle hypertrophy and gains in strength.

  1. Application of skin traction for surgical treatment of grade IV pressure sore: a clinical report of 160 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Jiang, Z; Chen, Z; Wang, D

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective clinical study. To assess the method of primary surgical closure of pressure sores developed by the Ruixin Hospital for burns. Nanjing, China. The study included 235 grade IV pressure sores of 160 patients, M:F = 119:41. Their age ranged from 19 to 93 years (mean = 47.4, s.d. ± 15.7). The primary disease was spinal cord injury in 141 patients (88.1%). The location of sore spread over ischial, sacrococcygeal and trochanteric regions. The largest pressure sore measured 15 × 25 cm(2). The time from onset of sore to admission ranged from 3 months to 22 years (mean = 35.5 months, s.d. ± 55.8). Local preoperative preparation included external skin traction using adhesive tapes, wound cleaning and change of dressing. General condition was checked and improved by supportive measures. Operation procedures included thorough debridement, excision of hidden minor scars, mobilizing opposing skin flaps and meticulous haemostasis before closure. Skin traction continued after the operation until the wound was healed. All but 10 sores healed primarily. These 10 sores healed after a revision. The length of stay in hospital ranged from 20 to 140 days (mean = 45.1 days, s.d. ± 21.1). Follow-up period was 2-51 months (mean = 22 months, s.d. ± 12.5). Two ischial sores recurred owing to long sitting. They were cured with the same method. Three illustrative cases are presented. The method is simple and enjoys a high success rate with a short stay in hospital and hence is cost effective. The recurrence is rare.

  2. Effects of Suspended Moxibustion on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness: A Randomized Controlled Double-Blind Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Meng, Dong Xiaosheng, Wang Xuhui, Wang Xu, Zhang Xijin

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of suspended moxibustion upon tender point on delayed onset muscle soreness. The study was a randomized double-blind controlled trial with 50 subjects in each group. Subjects in moxibustion group received suspended moxibustion upon tender point (by palpation) twice. The controls received no treatment. Each subject received treatments twice, 24 hr and 48 hr after the delayed onset muscle soreness induction. The measurements of Pain Vis...

  3. The impact of a pre-loaded multi-ingredient performance supplement on muscle soreness and performance following downhill running

    OpenAIRE

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Ward, Emery G; Bach, Christopher W; Arciero, Paul J; McKune, Andrew J; Panton, Lynn B

    2015-01-01

    The effects of multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS) on perceived soreness, strength, flexibility and vertical jump performance following eccentric exercise are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of MIPS (NO-Shotgun?) pre-loaded 4?weeks prior to a single bout of downhill running (DHR) on muscle soreness and performance. Trained male runners (n?=?20) were stratified by VO2max, strength, and lean mass into two groups; MIPS (n?=?10) ingested one serving dail...

  4. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on delayed-onset muscle soreness in biceps brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hye-Seon; Kang, Sun-Young; Park, Joo-Hee; Lee, Hyun-Sook

    2015-02-01

    to compare the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy and sham treatment on DOMS-related variables in elbow flexors at 24, 48 and 72 h after delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) induction exercise. randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Yonsei University laboratory. In total, 30 healthy male college students. Muscle soreness, peak torque, median frequency (MDF) and electromechanical delay (EMD) during isometric contraction at 24, 48 and 72 h after DOMS induction exercise. Overall, the application of the PEMF was found to be effective in reducing the physiological deficits associated with DOMS, including improved recovery of perceived muscle soreness, MDF, and EMD during isometric contraction. Our results did not show that PEMF treatment was mechanically more effective for isometric peak torque generation compared to the sham group. this study indicates that PEMF may be useful as a modality to reduce DOMS symptoms. However, further well-designed experiments are required to determine optimal treatment dosage and duration, and to investigate the physiological and clinical mechanisms of PEMF on DOMS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy and Postoperative Sore Throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhe, Gajal; Sharma, Surendra Mohan

    2018-01-01

    The use of nitrous oxide and carboperitoneum in laparoscopic cholecystectomy lead to increase in endotracheal tube cuff pressure. It may impair tracheal mucosal perfusion with subsequent tracheal damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cuff pressure and incidence of post-operative sore throat in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In this prospective observational study, 128 patients aged 18-65 years of American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status I and II undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled and allocated alternately into two groups, Study Group (Maintenance of anesthesia with sevoflurane 1-2%, oxygen/nitrous oxide mixture; 40/60), Control Group (Maintenance of anesthesia with sevoflurane 1-2%, oxygen/air mixture; 40/60) were analysed and comapared. Each group contained 64 patients. Aneroid manometer was used to monitor cuff pressure. Volume of air used to inflate the cuff, baseline cuff pressure, comparison of intraoperative cuff pressure and incidence of post-operative sore throat were measured. The study results demonstrated higher cuff pressure in study group at all times after the creation of carboperitoneum (p=0.00) with increased incidence of sore throat(p=0.004). Increase in endotracheal tube cuff pressure was noted with the use of nitrous oxide in laparoscopic cholecystectomy with subsequent post-operative airway complication. Monitoring of cuff pressure is simple, noninvasive and efficient way of achieving therapeutic cuff pressure of 20-30 cm of H2O and thus recommends its use.

  6. The affect on delayed onset muscle soreness recovery for ultrasound with bee venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Kyun; Kim, Myung Chul

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether ultrasound alone or ultrasound with bee venom is effective in treating delayed onset muscle soreness of the biceps brachii muscle, using the visual analogue scale, range of motion test (flexion and extension), and serum creatine kinase level. [Subjects] Twenty women participated in this study. [Methods] Repeated eccentric contractions were used to induce delayed onset muscle soreness in the elbow flexor of the subjects. The subjects were randomized to be treated with ultrasound alone or ultrasound with bee venom. We evaluated the effects of treatments in the 2 groups. Individual subjects were assessed using the visual analogue scale, range of motion test, and serum creatine kinase level. The assessment parameters were evaluated 4 times: before exercise and 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. [Results] The visual analogue scale scores were significantly different before and after the experiment in both the group treated with ultrasound and the group treated with ultrasound and bee venom. The difference in elbow flexion and extension before and after the experiment was significantly different in both groups. No significant difference was found in the serum creatine kinase levels before and after the experiment. [Conclusion] Treatment with ultrasound and bee venom is effective for managing delayed onset muscle soreness.

  7. Influence of ginger and cinnamon intake on inflammation and muscle soreness endued by exercise in Iranian female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza; Feizi, Awat; Hariri, Mitra; Darvishi, Leila; Barani, Azam; Taghiyar, Maryam; Shiranian, Afshin; Hajishafiee, Maryam

    2013-04-01

    Ginger rhizomes (rich in gingerols, shogaols, paradols and zingerone) have been used in Asia for the treatment of asthma, diabetes, and pain, and have shown potent anti-inflammatory attributes. Common spices such as Cinnamon (including cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehydeis) are used in food and many studies have focused on its anti-inflammatory components. Intense exercise can result in an inflammatory response to cell damage and also muscle soreness. The efficacy of dietary ginger and cinnamon as anti-inflammatory agents and their effectiveness in reducing muscle soreness has been investigated in limited studies on humans. Therefore, we have studied the effects of dietary ginger and cinnamon on inflammation and muscle soreness in Iranian female taekwondo players. Sixty healthy, trained women, aged 13-25 years, were enrolled in the six-week investigation and randomly categorized into three groups (cinnamon, ginger or placebo) and received 3 g of ginger, cinnamon or placebo powder each day, depending on the group they belonged to. The IL-6 level and Likert Scale of Muscle Soreness were evaluated at the beginning and the end of the study and compared among the groups. Forty-nine of the participants completed the six-week intervention. There were no significant changes in the IL-6 cinnamon and ginger group when compared with the placebo group, whereas, there was a significant fall in muscle soreness in the cinnamon group and placebo (P soreness in the cinnamon and ginger groups.

  8. Effects of Suspended Moxibustion on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness: A Randomized Controlled Double-Blind Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ding; Xiaosheng, Dong; Xuhui, Wang; Xu, Wang; Xijin, Zhang

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of suspended moxibustion upon tender point on delayed onset muscle soreness. The study was a randomized double-blind controlled trial with 50 subjects in each group. Subjects in moxibustion group received suspended moxibustion upon tender point (by palpation) twice. The controls received no treatment. Each subject received treatments twice, 24 hr and 48 hr after the delayed onset muscle soreness induction. The measurements of Pain Visual Analog Scale, maximum isometric muscle strength and circumference were made immediately after delayed onset muscle soreness induction, before and after every treatment session and 72 hr after delayed onset muscle soreness induction. There were no significantly statistical differences between two groups at all measurement time points on maximum isometric muscle strength and circumference. However, the Pain Visual Analog Scale scores after first treatment session and 72 hr after delayed onset muscle soreness induction in moxibustion group was less than the control group, with significant difference (p soreness. However, results need to be cautiously interpreted because of the pilot character of this study. The suspended moxibustion has a potential effect of pain relief on DOMS from the analysis of the data of this study. A large sample size trial is needed to confirm the effect of the suspended moxibustion on DOMS in the future.

  9. Enuresis (Bed-Wetting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Symptoms of enuresis Enuresis is when an older child (age 7 or older) wets the bed at night ... feel guilt and embarrassment. It’s true that your child should take responsibility for bedwetting. He or she could do this ...

  10. Particle fuel bed tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Savino, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Gas-cooled reactors, using packed beds of small diameter coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. The particulate fuel used in the tests was 800 microns in diameter, consisting of a thoria kernel coated with 200 microns of pyrocarbon. Typically, the bed of fuel particles was contained in a ceramic cylinder with porous metallic frits at each end. A dc voltage was applied to the metallic frits and the resulting electric current heated the bed. Heat was removed by passing coolant (helium or hydrogen) through the bed. Candidate frit materials, rhenium, nickel, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide were unaffected, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost weight and strength. Zirconium-carbide particles were tested at 2000 K in H 2 for 12 hours with no visible reaction or weight loss

  11. Innovative rock bed construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.

    1983-06-01

    A general discussion of the use of rock beds for heating and cooling thermal storage is particularized for design and construction in Phoenix, Arizona. The rock bed parameters for three two-story condominium apartments constructed in 1982 are discussed, including sizing criteria and original construction details. A revised construction method using gabions that are self-supporting chain link cylinders provided a much more economical construction method as well as other advantages of speed and structural flexibility.

  12. The Open Sore of Football: Aggressive Violent Behavior and Hooliganism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumusgul Osman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aggression and violence have been a customary part of life that mankind has had to live with from the beginning of time; it has been accepted by society even though it expresses endless negativity. Aggression and violence can find a place in sports events and football games because of the social problems of the audience watching the competitions or games, which sometimes fall into the category of hooliganism. Turkey is one of the countries that should consider this problem to be a serious social problem. Even during 2014 and 2015, a relatively short period of time, there were significant hazardous acts committed by hooligans. In February 2014, one supporter was killed after a game between Liverpool and Arsenal in England; in March 2014, a game between Trabzonspor and Fenerbahce was left half-finished because of violent acts in the stadium that caused players in the pitch to believe that they could not leave stadium alive, although they finally left after a few hours; in another incident in March 2014, one supporter was killed after a game between Helsingborg and Djugarden in Sweden; in November 2014, one supporter was killed and 14 supporters were injured before the game between Atletico Madrid and Deportivo in Spain. These are all examples of aggression, violence, and hooliganism in football. This paper aims to discuss aggression, violence, and hooliganism in football, especially in recent years, and investigate what can be done to prevent these acts from occurring again in the future by examining them in hindsight.

  13. Effect of Caffeine on Perceived Soreness and Functionality Following an Endurance Cycling Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Aaron R; Tucker, Matthew A; Butts, Cory L; McDermott, Brendon P; Vingren, Jakob L; Kunces, Laura J; Lee, Elaine C; Munoz, Colleen X; Williamson, Keith H; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Ganio, Matthew S

    2017-03-01

    Caldwell, AR, Tucker, MA, Butts, CL, McDermott, BP, Vingren, JL, Kunces, LJ, Lee, EC, Munoz, CX, Williamson, KH, Armstrong, LE, and Ganio, MS. Effect of caffeine on perceived soreness and functionality following an endurance cycling event. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 638-643, 2017-Caffeine can reduce muscle pain during exercise; however, the efficacy of caffeine in improving muscle soreness and recovery from a demanding long-duration exercise bout has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine intake on ratings of perceived muscle soreness (RPMS) and perceived lower extremity functionality (LEF) following the completion of a 164-km endurance cycling event. Before and after cycling RPMS (1-to-6; 6 = severe soreness) and LEF (0-to-80; 80 = full functionality) were assessed by questionnaires. Subjects ingested 3 mg/kg body mass of caffeine or placebo pills in a randomized, double-blind fashion immediately after the ride and for the next 4 mornings (i.e., ∼800 hours) and 3 afternoons (i.e., ∼1200 hours). Before each ingestion, RPMS and LEF were assessed. Afternoon ratings of LEF were greater with caffeine ingestion the first day postride (65.0 ± 6.1 vs. 72.3 ± 6.7; for placebo and caffeine, respectively; p = 0.04), but at no other time points (p > 0.05). The caffeine group tended to have lower overall RPMS in the afternoon versus placebo (i.e., main effect of group; 1.1 ± 0.2 vs. 0.5 ± 0.2; p = 0.09). Afternoon RPMS for the legs was significantly lower in the caffeine group (main effect of caffeine; 1.3 ± 0.2 vs. 0.5 ± 0.3; p = 0.05). In conclusion, ingesting caffeine improved RPMS for the legs, but not LEF in the days following an endurance cycling event. Athletes may benefit from ingesting caffeine in the days following an arduous exercise bout to relieve feelings of soreness and reduced functionality.

  14. Effect of Intracuff Lidocaine on Postoperative Sore Throat and the Emergence Phenomenon: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Fai; Lin, Yu-Cih; Tsai, Hsiao-Chien; Chen, Ta-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative sore throat and other airway morbidities are common and troublesome after endotracheal tube intubation general anesthesia (ETGA). We propose lidocaine as endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff inflation media to reduce the postintubation-related emergence phenomenon. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases systematically for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have investigated the outcome of intracuff lidocaine versus air or saline in patients receiving ETGA. Using a random-effects model, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relative risks (RRs) and mean difference (MD) of the incidence and intensity of relevant adverse outcomes. Results We reviewed nineteen trials, which comprised 1566 patients. The incidence of early- and late-phase postoperative sore throat (POST), coughing, agitation, hoarseness, and dysphonia decreased significantly in lidocaine groups, with RRs of 0.46 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31 to 0.68), 0.41 (95% CI: 0.25 to 0.66), 0.43 (95% CI: 0.31 to 0.62), 0.37 (95% CI: 0.25 to 0.55), 0.43 (95% CI: 0.29 to 0.63), and 0.19 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.5), respectively, when compared with the control groups. The severity of POST also reduced significantly (mean difference [MD] -16.43 mm, 95% CI: -21.48 to -11.38) at 1 h and (MD -10.22 mm, 95% CI: -13.5 to -6.94) at 24 h. Both alkalinized and non-alkalinized lidocaine in the subgroup analyses showed significant benefits in emergence phenomena prevention compared with the control. Conclusion Our results indicate that both alkalinized and non-alkalinized intracuff lidocaine may prevent and alleviate POST and postintubation-related emergence phenomena. PMID:26288276

  15. Season-long increases in perceived muscle soreness in professional rugby league players: role of player position, match characteristics and playing surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Ben D; Twist, Craig; Haigh, Julian D; Brewer, Clive; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2016-01-01

    Rugby League (RL) is a high-impact collision sport characterised by repeated sprints and numerous high-speed impacts and consequently players often report immediate and prolonged muscle soreness in the days after a match. We examined muscle soreness after matches during a full season to understand the extent to which match characteristics influence soreness. Thirty-one elite Super League players provided daily measures of muscle soreness after each of the 26 competitive fixtures of the 2012 season. Playing position, phase of the season, playing surface and match characteristics were recorded from each match. Muscle soreness peaked at day 1 and was still apparent at day 4 post-game with no attenuation in the magnitude of muscle soreness over the course of the season. Neither playing position, phase of season or playing surface had any effects on the extent of muscle soreness. Playing time and total number of collisions were significantly correlated with higher ratings of muscle soreness, especially in the forwards. These data indicate the absence "contact adaptations" in elite rugby players with soreness present throughout the entire season. Strategies must now be implemented to deal with the physical and psychological consequences of prolonged feeling of pain.

  16. Bed bug deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes Kenneth F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/121

  17. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Jammali-Blasi, Asmara; Bell-Syer, Sally E M; Dumville, Jo C; Middleton, Victoria; Cullum, Nicky

    2015-09-03

    Pressure ulcers (i.e. bedsores, pressure sores, pressure injuries, decubitus ulcers) are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue. They are common in the elderly and immobile, and costly in financial and human terms. Pressure-relieving support surfaces (i.e. beds, mattresses, seat cushions etc) are used to help prevent ulcer development. This systematic review seeks to establish:(1) the extent to which pressure-relieving support surfaces reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers compared with standard support surfaces, and,(2) their comparative effectiveness in ulcer prevention. In April 2015, for this fourth update we searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 15 April 2015) which includes the results of regular searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials, published or unpublished, that assessed the effects of any support surface for prevention of pressure ulcers, in any patient group or setting which measured pressure ulcer incidence. Trials reporting only proxy outcomes (e.g. interface pressure) were excluded. Two review authors independently selected trials. Data were extracted by one review author and checked by another. Where appropriate, estimates from similar trials were pooled for meta-analysis. For this fourth update six new trials were included, bringing the total of included trials to 59.Foam alternatives to standard hospital foam mattresses reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in people at risk (RR 0.40 95% CI 0.21 to 0.74). The relative merits of alternating- and constant low-pressure devices are unclear. One high-quality trial suggested that alternating-pressure mattresses may be more cost effective than alternating-pressure overlays in a UK context.Pressure-relieving overlays on the operating table reduce postoperative pressure ulcer incidence

  18. The Safety of Hospital Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K.; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients’ ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients’ use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated. PMID:28462302

  19. Supplementation with a polyphenolic blend improves post-exercise strength recovery and muscle soreness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli A. Herrlinger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise can initiate a cascade of inflammatory and oxidative stress–related events leading to delayed onset muscle soreness. Polyphenols possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: The current study examined the effects of a proprietary polyphenolic blend (PB, containing catechins and theaflavins, on exercise performance and recovery following an eccentric exercise challenge. Design: Male participants (18–35 years of age received placebo or PB at a low dose (PB-L, 1,000 mg/d or high dose (PB-H, 2,000 mg/d for 13 weeks. During the 13th week of supplementation, participants completed an eccentric exercise (40 min downhill treadmill run followed by a strength assessment (peak torque on isokinetic leg extensions pre-exercise, and 24, 48, and 96 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness (subjective questionnaire, markers of muscle stress (cortisol and creatine phosphokinase [CK], and antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma [FRAP] were also assessed. Results: PB-H attenuated the decrease in peak torque observed in the placebo group from pre-exercise to 48 h (p=0.012 and 96 h (p=0.003 post-exercise. At 48 h post-exercise, PB-H reduced whole body and hamstring soreness (p=0.029 versus placebo. Chronic consumption of PB improved serum FRAP (p=0.039. As expected, serum cortisol and CK increased from pre- to post-exercise in all groups; however, by 96 h, cortisol and CK levels returned to pre-exercise levels following PB supplementation. At 96 h, the change in cortisol from pre- to post-exercise was significantly greater in placebo versus PB-H (p=0.039. Conclusion: These findings show that chronic consumption of PB improved antioxidant status, reduced markers of muscle stress, and promoted strength recovery post-exercise.

  20. Supplementation with a polyphenolic blend improves post-exercise strength recovery and muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrlinger, Kelli A; Chirouzes, Diana M; Ceddia, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Exercise can initiate a cascade of inflammatory and oxidative stress-related events leading to delayed onset muscle soreness. Polyphenols possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The current study examined the effects of a proprietary polyphenolic blend (PB), containing catechins and theaflavins, on exercise performance and recovery following an eccentric exercise challenge. Male participants (18-35 years of age) received placebo or PB at a low dose (PB-L, 1,000 mg/d) or high dose (PB-H, 2,000 mg/d) for 13 weeks. During the 13th week of supplementation, participants completed an eccentric exercise (40 min downhill treadmill run) followed by a strength assessment (peak torque on isokinetic leg extensions) pre-exercise, and 24, 48, and 96 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness (subjective questionnaire), markers of muscle stress (cortisol and creatine phosphokinase [CK]), and antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma [FRAP]) were also assessed. PB-H attenuated the decrease in peak torque observed in the placebo group from pre-exercise to 48 h (p=0.012) and 96 h (p=0.003) post-exercise. At 48 h post-exercise, PB-H reduced whole body and hamstring soreness (p=0.029) versus placebo. Chronic consumption of PB improved serum FRAP (p=0.039). As expected, serum cortisol and CK increased from pre- to post-exercise in all groups; however, by 96 h, cortisol and CK levels returned to pre-exercise levels following PB supplementation. At 96 h, the change in cortisol from pre- to post-exercise was significantly greater in placebo versus PB-H (p=0.039). These findings show that chronic consumption of PB improved antioxidant status, reduced markers of muscle stress, and promoted strength recovery post-exercise.

  1. Massage Alleviates Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness after Strenuous Exercise: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianmin; Li, Linjin; Gong, Yuxiang; Zhu, Rong; Xu, Jiake; Zou, Jun; Chen, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of massage on alleviating delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) and muscle performance after strenuous exercise. Method: Seven databases consisting of PubMed, Embase, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI and Wanfang were searched up to December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible and the outcomes of muscle soreness, performance (including muscle maximal isometric force (MIF) and peak torque) and creatine kinase (CK) were used to assess the effectiveness of massage intervention on DOMS. Results: Eleven articles with a total of 23 data points (involving 504 participants) satisfied the inclusion criteria and were pooled in the meta-analysis. The findings demonstrated that muscle soreness rating decreased significantly when the participants received massage intervention compared with no intervention at 24 h (SMD: -0.61, 95% CI: -1.17 to -0.05, P = 0.03), 48 h (SMD: -1.51, 95% CI: -2.24 to -0.77, P < 0.001), 72 h (SMD: -1.46, 95% CI: -2.59 to -0.33, P = 0.01) and in total (SMD: -1.16, 95% CI: -1.60 to -0.72, P < 0.001) after intense exercise. Additionally, massage therapy improved MIF (SMD: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.21-0.90, P = 0.002) and peak torque (SMD: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.04-0.71, P = 0.03) as total effects. Furthermore, the serum CK level was reduced when participants received massage intervention (SMD: -0.64, 95% CI: -1.04 to -0.25, P = 0.001). Conclusion: The current evidence suggests that massage therapy after strenuous exercise could be effective for alleviating DOMS and improving muscle performance.

  2. EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON THE AMOUNT OF PERCEIVED PAIN, JOINT RANGE OF MOTION AND EDEMA AFTER DELAYED MUSCLE SORENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabalaeifar Sara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed onset muscle soreness usually occurs after doing a new unusual physical activity, especially when, associated with repeated eccentric contractions and then it gradually disappears. There is not an extensive agreement in the case of treatment method of soreness signs quick reduction. This research was carried out with the aim of investigation caffeine consumption effect to find a good way in order to reduce the signs of delayed onset muscle soreness. In this semi-experimental with Double-blind design, 16 female volleyball player with an age average of 22.5+2.5 in 2 homogeneous 8 subject control and experimental group were studied. In this research, the effect of caffeine existing in coffee in 5 stages (24h before exercise, 12h before, immediately before exercise, after exercise and 12h after it and 1mg per 1kg of body weight on amount of perceived pain and range of motion of the joint and edema due to delay onset muscle soreness because of 50 jumps and lands of a 1 meter stage was investigated. The results showed that caffeine consumption has a meaningful effect on reduction of all the expressed signs after eccentric contractions. So it is recommended that physio thrapysts, doctors and athletes use this method to reduce delayed onset muscle soreness consequences after the injury.

  3. Interferential therapy effect on mechanical pain threshold and isometric torque after delayed onset muscle soreness induction in human hamstrings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Clarice S; Lanferdini, Fábio J; Kolberg, Carolina; Silva, Marcelo F; Vaz, Marco A; Partata, Wania A; Zaro, Milton A

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the acute effect of interferential current on mechanical pain threshold and isometric peak torque after delayed onset muscle soreness induction in human hamstrings. Forty-one physically active healthy male volunteers aged 18-33 years were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: interferential current group (n = 21) or placebo group (n = 20). Both groups performed a bout of 100 isokinetic eccentric maximal voluntary contractions (10 sets of 10 repetitions) at an angular velocity of 1.05 rad · s(-1) (60° · s(-1)) to induce muscle soreness. On the next day, volunteers received either an interferential current or a placebo application. Treatment was applied for 30 minutes (4 kHz frequency; 125 μs pulse duration; 80-150 Hz bursts). Mechanical pain threshold and isometric peak torque were measured at four different time intervals: prior to induction of muscle soreness, immediately following muscle soreness induction, on the next day after muscle soreness induction, and immediately after the interferential current and placebo application. Both groups showed a reduction in isometric torque (P interferential current group showed a significant increase in pain threshold (P = 0.002) with no changes in isometric torque. The results indicate that interferential current was effective in increasing hamstrings mechanical pain threshold after eccentric exercise, with no effect on isometric peak torque after treatment.

  4. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids attenuate muscle soreness and improve muscle protein synthesis after eccentric contractions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Mimura, Masako; Inoue, Yoshiko; Sugita, Mayu; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2015-06-01

    Eccentric exercise results in prolonged muscle weakness and muscle soreness, which are typical symptoms of muscle damage. Recovery from muscle damage is related to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids (LEAAs) stimulate muscle protein synthesis via activation of the mTOR pathway. Therefore, we investigated the effect of LEAAs on muscle protein synthesis and muscle soreness after eccentric contractions (EC). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-11 weeks old) were administered an LEAA solution (AminoL40; containing 40 % leucine and 60 % other essential amino acids) at 1 g/kg body weight or distilled water (control) 30 min before and 10 min after EC. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle was exposed to 500 EC by electrical stimulation under anesthesia. The fractional synthesis rate (FSR; %/h) in the TA muscle was measured by incorporating L-[ring-(2)H5] phenylalanine into skeletal muscle protein. Muscle soreness was evaluated by the paw withdrawal threshold using the Randal-Selitto test with some modifications from 1 to 3 days after EC. The FSR in the EC-control group (0.147 ± 0.016 %/h) was significantly lower than in the sedentary group (0.188 ± 0.016 %/h, p soreness. Furthermore, AminoL40 administration alleviated the decreased paw withdrawal threshold. These findings suggest that LEAA supplementation improves the rate of muscle protein synthesis and ameliorates muscle soreness after eccentric exercise.

  5. The impact of a pre-loaded multi-ingredient performance supplement on muscle soreness and performance following downhill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Ward, Emery G; Bach, Christopher W; Arciero, Paul J; McKune, Andrew J; Panton, Lynn B

    2015-01-01

    The effects of multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS) on perceived soreness, strength, flexibility and vertical jump performance following eccentric exercise are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of MIPS (NO-Shotgun®) pre-loaded 4 weeks prior to a single bout of downhill running (DHR) on muscle soreness and performance. Trained male runners (n = 20) were stratified by VO2max, strength, and lean mass into two groups; MIPS (n = 10) ingested one serving daily of NO-Shotgun® for 28 days and 30 min prior to all post-testing visits, Control (CON; n = 10) consumed an isocaloric maltodextrin placebo in an identical manner as MIPS. Perceived soreness and performance measurements (strength, flexibility, and jump height) were tested on 6 occasions; 28 days prior to DHR, immediately before DHR (PRE), immediately post (POST) DHR, 24, 48, and 72 hr post-DHR. Perceived soreness significantly increased (p soreness, muscle damage, strength, flexibility, or jump performance compared to an isocaloric placebo in trained male runners following a single bout of DHR.

  6. Bed Prism Spectacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2018-01-01

    We only became aware of the existence of bed prism spectacles when a student brought them to the classroom and asked us about how they work. The device proved to be a fertile source of curiosity among the students, and, to be properly understood, it required us to develop a comparison between reflection in a typical mirror and total internal…

  7. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mattress end Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information "Hospital beds are found in nearly all patient care settings or environments," says Joan Ferlo Todd, RN, a senior nurse-consultant at the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH). " ...

  8. Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health ...

  9. Sore Throat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health ...

  10. Sore Throats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inquiries Find an ENT News About Us Our Campaigns Foundation Governance Diversity Honorary Awards & Lectures Employment Opportunities Renting Space Advocacy Medicare Advocacy Legislative & Political Affairs ENT PAC foundation Guidelines Patient Health Quality ...

  11. Mouth Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for infections to develop. People who consume alcohol, smokers, smokeless tobacco users, chemotherapy or radiation patients, bone ... dentures. Oral cancer —It may appear as a white or red patch of tissue in the mouth, ...

  12. Canker Sore

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attacks healthy cells in your mouth instead of pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria HIV/AIDS, which ... seem to irritate your mouth. These may include nuts, chips, pretzels, certain spices, salty foods and acidic ...

  13. Cold Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Pregnancy and Oral Health Periodontal Disease and Pregnancy Research suggests a link between pre-term delivery, low birthweight babies, and gingivitis. More Men: Looking for a Better Job? Start ...

  14. Effects of winter military training on energy balance, whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Martini, Svein; Spitz, Marissa G; Thrane, Ingjerd; McGraw, Susan M; Blatny, Janet-Martha; Castellani, John W; Rood, Jennifer C; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; Gundersen, Yngvar; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2014-12-01

    Physiological consequences of winter military operations are not well described. This study examined Norwegian soldiers (n = 21 males) participating in a physically demanding winter training program to evaluate whether short-term military training alters energy and whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and performance. Energy expenditure (D2(18)O) and intake were measured daily, and postabsorptive whole-body protein turnover ([(15)N]-glycine), muscle damage, soreness, and performance (vertical jump) were assessed at baseline, following a 4-day, military task training phase (MTT) and after a 3-day, 54-km ski march (SKI). Energy intake (kcal·day(-1)) increased (P soreness increased and performance decreased progressively (P < 0.05). The physiological consequences observed during short-term winter military training provide the basis for future studies to evaluate nutritional strategies that attenuate protein loss and sustain performance during severe energy deficits.

  15. The Effect of Zinc Lozenge on Postoperative Sore Throat: A Prospective Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhang, Borzoo; Grondin, Lydia

    2018-01-01

    Postoperative sore throat (POST) is commonly seen after endotracheal intubation, and oral zinc prevents oral mucositis associated with chemotherapy. This study is designed to evaluate the effects of administration of zinc lozenges on POST. Seventy-nine patients undergoing low- or moderate-risk surgery with endotracheal intubation were randomly assigned into 2 groups: Control group received placebo and zinc group received 40-mg zinc lozenges 30 minutes preoperatively. Patients were assessed for incidence and severity (4-point scale, 0-3) of POST at 0, 2, 4, and 24 hours postoperatively. The primary outcome was incidence of POST at 4 hours after surgery. The secondary outcomes were the incidence of POST at 0, 2, and 24 hours and the severity of POST. At 4 hours, there was a significantly lower incidence of POST in the zinc group, 7%, than the control group, 29% (P = .046). The incidence of POST at 0 hour was 0% in zinc group and 24% in control group (P = .004). The highest incidence of POST occurred at the second hour after surgery, with the rate of 10% in the zinc group and 34% in the control group (P = .0495). The incidence of POST at 24 hours was 13% in zinc group and 24% in control group (not significant). The severity of POST was significantly lower in the zinc group for mild (P = .003) and moderate (P = .004) POST. The administration of a single dose of 40-mg zinc lozenge 30 minutes preoperatively is effective to reduce both incidence of POST in the first 4 hours and severity of mild and moderate POST in the immediate postoperative period.

  16. VA National Bed Control System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA National Bed Control System records the levels of operating, unavailable and authorized beds at each VAMC, and it tracks requests for changes in these levels....

  17. Comparative study of patients suffering sore throat after general anesthesia using laryngeal mask airway and cuffed pharyngeal tube in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassani V

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Post-operative sore throat is one of the most common complications and complaints of patients after general anesthesia especially in operations that need endotracheal intubations. Its causes are: size of endotracheal tube and type of its cuff, inadequate airway humidification, trauma during intubation and suctioning, high flow of inspiratory gases, surgical manipulation of airway and adjacent organs, ect. Use of instruments with less invasion to upper respiratory tract, for example, face mask and airway, LMA or CPT are methods, used for decreasing the rate of post-operative sore throat. This study was performed to compare the rate of sore throat after general anesthesia between Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA and Cuffed Pharyngeal Tube (CPT. From the patients, 120 ASA: PS-I cases, were selected, who were candidates for elective surgery of Orthopedics, Urology, General surgery and Gynecology in Hazrat Rasool-Akram Hospital Complex in the year 2000. Their operation were performed in supine position and did not need muscle relaxation and the patients had spontaneous breathing. Duration of surgery was less than 2 hours. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups: LMA was used for one group and CPT for others. Immediately after operation, in the recovery room and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours after removing the tube, the patients were asked about sore throat and the results were recorded in the related sheets. The results was 31.7 percent of patients in group LMA and 0 percent of patients in group CPT, had sore throat. There were significant difference between groups (LMA and CPT in presentation of sore throat (P<0.001.

  18. Changes in serum creatine kinase, leg muscle tightness, and delayed onset muscle soreness after a full marathon race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojima, Michio; Noma, Kensuke; Torii, Suguru

    2016-06-01

    Muscle tightness (MT) is believed to be an important cause of injury for runners. This study evaluated the change of serum creatine kinase (CK), MT in the leg muscles, and delayed onset muscle soreness after running. We evaluated 11 college students who completed a full marathon race. Participants completed a questionnaire on the right quadriceps muscle soreness. The CK activity and MT (iliopsoas, rectus femoris, hamstrings, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles) were measured. The time points for CK measurements were before; immediately after; and at 1, 2, and 5 days after the race. The time points for MT measurements were the same as for CK except MT was not measured one day after the race. The time points for muscle soreness analysis were before the race and then every morning and night for 5 days after the race. Long-distance running led to significant increases in CK, MT, and muscle soreness. The CK levels peaked day 1 after the race. MT of iliopsoas peaked on day 5; of rectus femoris immediately after the race; and of hamstrings, gastrocnemius, and soleus on day 2. muscle soreness peaked at night on day 1. MT did not decrease to the pre-race levels on day 5. There were no significant changes but CK tended to correlate with the peak of MT of the rectus femoris (r=0.55, P=0.082) and hamstrings (r=0.57, P=0.065). Long-distance running may cause muscle fiber microdamage that may consequently increase CK, MT, and muscle soreness.

  19. Dual-dermal-barrier fashion flaps for the treatment of sacral pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chuang, Shiow-Shuh

    2015-02-01

    The sacral region is one of the most vulnerable sites for the development of pressure sores. Even when surgical reconstruction is performed, there is a high chance of recurrence. Therefore, the concept of dual-dermal-barrier fashion flaps for sacral pressure sore reconstruction was proposed. From September 2007 to June 2010, nine patients with grade IV sacral pressures were enrolled. Four patients received bilateral myocutaneous V-Y flaps, four patients received bilateral fasciocutaneous V-Y flaps, and one patient received bilateral rotation-advanced flaps for sacral pressure reconstruction. The flaps were designed based on the perforators of the superior gluteal artery in one patient's reconstructive procedure. All flaps' designs were based on dual-dermal-barrier fashion. The mean follow-up time was 16 months (range = 12-25). No recurrence was noted. Only one patient had a complication of mild dehiscence at the middle suture line, occurring 2 weeks after the reconstructive surgery. The dual-dermal fashion flaps are easily duplicated and versatile. The study has shown minimal morbidity and a reasonable outcome.

  20. Watermelon juice: potential functional drink for sore muscle relief in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona-Díaz, Martha P; Alacid, Fernando; Carrasco, María; Martínez, Ignacio; Aguayo, Encarna

    2013-08-07

    l-Citrulline is an excellent candidate to reduce muscle soreness, and watermelon is a fruit rich in this amino acid. This study investigated the potential of watermelon juice as a functional drink for athletes. An in vitro study of intestinal absorption of l-citrulline in Caco-2 cells was performed using unpasteurized (NW), pasteurized (80 °C for 40 s) watermelon juice (PW) and, as control, a standard of l-citrulline. l-citrulline bioavailability was greater when it was contained in a matrix of watermelon and when no heat treatment was applied. In the in vivo experiment (maximum effort test in a cycloergometer), seven athletes were supplied with 500 mL of natural watermelon juice (1.17 g of l-citrulline), enriched watermelon juice (4.83 g of l-citrulline plus 1.17 g from watermelon), and placebo. Both watermelon juices helped to reduce the recovery heart rate and muscle soreness after 24 h.

  1. Efficacy of massage on muscle soreness, perceived recovery, physiological restoration and physical performance in male bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Lam, Eddie T C; Shariat, Ardalan; Shaw, Ina; Shaw, Brandon S; Tamrin, Shamsul B M

    2016-01-01

    It is believed that sport massage after intensive exercise might improve power and perceptual recovery in athletes. However, few studies have been done in this area. This study aimed to examine the effect of massage on the performance of bodybuilders. Thirty experienced male bodybuilders were randomly assigned to either a massage group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). Both groups performed five repetition sets at 75-77% of 1RM of knee extensor and flexor muscle groups. The massage group then received a 30-min massage after the exercise protocol while the control group maintained their normal passive recovery. Criteria under investigation included: plasma creatine kinase (CK) level, agility test, vertical jump test, isometric torque test, and perception of soreness. All variables were measured over 6 time periods: baseline, immediately after the DOMS inducing protocol, right after the massage, and 24, 48, and 72 h after the massage. Both groups showed significant (P soreness levels. The massage group in general demonstrated a better recovery rate. As such, a post-exercise massage session can improve the exercise performance and recovery rate in male bodybuilders after intensive exercise.

  2. Fish oil supplementation reduces markers of oxidative stress but not muscle soreness after eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Patrick; Chappell, Andrew; Jenkinson, Alison McE; Thies, Frank; Gray, Stuart R

    2014-04-01

    Due to the potential anti-inflammatory properties of fish-derived long chain n-3 fatty acids, it has been suggested that athletes should regularly consume fish oils-although evidence in support of this recommendation is not clear. While fish oils can positively modulate immune function, it remains possible that, due to their high number of double bonds, there may be concurrent increases in lipid peroxidation. The current study aims to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage. Twenty males underwent a 6-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled supplementation trial involving two groups (fish oil or placebo). After supplementation, participants undertook 200 repetitions of eccentric knee contractions. Blood samples were taken presupplementation, postsupplementation, immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hr postexercise and muscle soreness/maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) assessed. There were no differences in creatine kinase, protein carbonyls, endogenous DNA damage, muscle soreness or MVC between groups. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were lower (p < .05) at 48 and 72 hr post exercise and H2O2 stimulated DNA damage was lower (p < .05) immediately postexercise in the fish oil, compared with the control group. The current study demonstrates that fish oil supplementation reduces selected markers of oxidative stress after a single bout of eccentric exercise.

  3. [Are antioxidant supplements effective in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness? A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia-Luján, Ramón; De Paz Fernández, José Antonio; Costa Moreira, Osvaldo

    2014-10-05

    In recent years, antioxidant supplements have become popular to counter the effects of free radicals and muscle damage symptoms, including delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). To conduct a systematic review in different databases to determine the effects of antioxidant supplements on DOMS. We conducted a search in databases; Cochrane, Pubmed, Scopus and SportDiscus and Web of Science (WOS). The words and acronyms used were; Delayed onset muscle soreness, exercise induced muscle damage, DOMS, EIMD, antioxidant and oxidative stress. 54 articles were identified of which 48 were retreived, all in English, 17 related to vitamin C and E, supplements polyphenolic correspond to fourteen, eleven other antioxidant supplements and six to commercial supplements, all of them used to diminish the DOMS and other variables. Both vitamins and commercial supplements have low effectiveness in reducing DOMS, while polyphenols and other antioxidant supplements show moderate to good effectiveness in combating DOMS. However, most of the studies have effectiveness in reducing other symptoms of muscle damage besides helping in the post-exercise recovery. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Postneedling soreness after deep dry needling of a latent myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle: Characteristics, sex differences and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pintado-Zugasti, Aitor; Rodríguez-Fernández, Ángel Luis; Fernandez-Carnero, Josue

    2016-04-27

    Postneedling soreness is considered the most frequent secondary effect associated to dry needling. A detailed description of postneedling soreness characteristics has not been previously reported. (1) to assess the intensity and duration of postneedling soreness and tenderness after deep dry needling of a trapezius latent myofascial trigger point (MTrP), (2) to evaluate the possible differences in postneedling soreness between sexes and (3) to analyze the influence on postneedling soreness of factors involved in the dry needling process. Sixty healthy subjects (30 men, 30 women) with latent MTrPs in the upper trapezius muscle received a dry needling intervention in the MTrP. Pain and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were assessed during a 72 hours follow-up period. Repeated measures analysis of covariance showed a significant effect for time in pain and in PPT. An interaction between sex and time in pain was obtained: women exhibited higher intensity in postneedling pain than men. The pain during needling and the number of needle insertions significantly correlated with postneedling soreness. Soreness and hyperalgesia are present in all subjects after dry needling of a latent MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle. Women exhibited higher intensity of postneedling soreness than men.

  5. Nail bed onychomatricoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Tianwen; Wang, Gang

    2014-10-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare tumor originating from the nail matrix, and, in rare conditions, from the ventral aspect of the proximal nailfold. Here we report a rare case of a 51-year-old man presenting with melanonychia mainly involving the distal nail plate. Histopathologic examination showed typical findings of onychomatricoma mainly involving the nail bed, while the nail matrix was largely uninvolved. We also identified fungal infection in a focal area of the distal nail plate. Our findings indicate that onychomatricoma can develop in the surrounding epithelial tissue of the nail unit, including the nail bed, and suggest that fungal infection may represent a secondary phenomenon of onychomatricoma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  7. Design and Evaluation of a Pressure and Temperature Monitoring System for Pressure Ulcer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farve Daneshvar Fard

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pressure ulcers are tissue damages resulting from blood flow restriction, which occurs when the tissue is exposed to high pressure for a long period of time. These painful sores are common in patients and elderly, who spend extended periods of time in bed or wheelchair. In this study, a continuous pressure and temperature monitoring system was developed for pressure ulcer prevention. Materials and Methods The monitoring system consists of 64 pressure and 64 temperature sensors on a 40×50 cm2 sheet. Pressure and temperature data and the corresponding maps were displayed on a computer in real-time. Risk assessment could be performed by monitoring and recording absolute pressure and temperature values, as well as deviations over time. Furthermore, a posture detection procedure was proposed for sitting posture identification. Information about the patient’s movement history may help caregivers make informed decisions about the patient’s repositioning and ulcer prevention strategies. Results Steady temporal behaviour of the designed system and repeatability of the measurements were evaluated using several particular tests. The results illustrated that the system could be utilized for continuous monitoring of interface pressure and temperature for pressure ulcer prevention. Furthermore, the proposed method for detecting sitting posture was verified using a statistical analysis. Conclusion A continuous time pressure and temperature monitoring system was presented in this study. This system may be suited for pressure ulcer prevention given its feasibility for simultaneous monitoring of pressure and temperature and alarming options. Furthermore, a method for detecting different sitting postures was proposed and verified. Pressure ulcers in wheelchair-bound patients may be prevented using this sitting posture detection method.

  8. Prevention of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotegut, Chad A

    2016-12-01

    Preeclampsia is a common complication of pregnancy that is associated with an increased risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Currently, delivery is the only cure for preeclampsia; therefore, effective prevention and treatment options for this condition are sorely needed. In the current issue of the JCI, Mirzakhani et al. report the findings of the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART), a well-conducted large, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of preeclampsia. Though vitamin D supplementation had no effect on the risk of preeclampsia, reduced maternal serum vitamin D levels did correlate with preeclampsia risk. Mirzakhani and colleagues identified a number of gene pathways that are differentially regulated among women with low serum vitamin D levels who develop preeclampsia. These results indicate that further research on the role of vitamin D in preeclampsia is warranted.

  9. A Spouted Bed Reactor Monitoring System for Particulate Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Wendt; R. L. Bewley; W. E. Windes

    2007-06-01

    Conversion and coating of particle nuclear fuel is performed in spouted (fluidized) bed reactors. The reactor must be capable of operating at temperatures up to 2000°C in inert, flammable, and coating gas environments. The spouted bed reactor geometry is defined by a graphite retort with a 2.5 inch inside diameter, conical section with a 60° included angle, and a 4 mm gas inlet orifice diameter through which particles are removed from the reactor at the completion of each run. The particles may range from 200 µm to 2 mm in diameter. Maintaining optimal gas flow rates slightly above the minimum spouting velocity throughout the duration of each run is complicated by the variation of particle size and density as conversion and/or coating reactions proceed in addition to gas composition and temperature variations. In order to achieve uniform particle coating, prevent agglomeration of the particle bed, and monitor the reaction progress, a spouted bed monitoring system was developed. The monitoring system includes a high-sensitivity, low-response time differential pressure transducer paired with a signal processing, data acquisition, and process control unit which allows for real-time monitoring and control of the spouted bed reactor. The pressure transducer is mounted upstream of the spouted bed reactor gas inlet. The gas flow into the reactor induces motion of the particles in the bed and prevents the particles from draining from the reactor due to gravitational forces. Pressure fluctuations in the gas inlet stream are generated as the particles in the bed interact with the entering gas stream. The pressure fluctuations are produced by bulk movement of the bed, generation and movement of gas bubbles through the bed, and the individual motion of particles and particle subsets in the bed. The pressure fluctuations propagate upstream to the pressure transducer where they can be monitored. Pressure fluctuation, mean differential pressure, gas flow rate, reactor

  10. Penicillin for acute sore throat : randomised double blind trial of seven days versus three days treatment or placebo in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S; Sachs, APE; Ruijs, GJHM; Gubbels, JW; Hoes, AW; de Melker, RA

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess whether treatment with penicillin for three days and the traditional treatment for seven days were equally as effective at accelerating resolution of symptoms in patients with sore throat compared with placebo. Design Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Setting 43

  11. Prophylactic Effects of Lidocaine or Beclomethasone Spray on Post-Operative sore Throat and Cough after Orotracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Banihashem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Post-operative sore throat and cough are common complications of endotracheal intubation. These conditions may be very distressing for the patient and may lead to unpleasant memories. This study was performed in order to determine whether beclomethasone and lidocaine spray could reduce the frequency of post-operative sore throat and hoarseness after tracheal extubation.  Materials and Methods: Ninety women (18–60 years of age with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA physical status I or II and undergoing elective mastoidectomy were randomized into three groups of 30 patients. The endotracheal tubes in each group were sprayed with 50% beclomethasone, 10% lidocaine hydrochloride, or normal saline (control group before endotracheal intubation. Patients were examined for sore throat (none, mild, moderate, or severe, cough, and hoarseness at 1 and 24 h after extubation.  Results: There was a significantly lower incidence and severity of post-operative sore throat in the beclomethasone group than the lidocaine and control groups (P

  12. [Efficacy of bFGF atomization inhalation on postoperative sore throat following oral and maxillofacial surgery under general anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Jiang, Yin-Hua; Xiao, Jian; Li, Xiao-Kun

    2016-08-01

    To observe the effect of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) atomization inhalation on postoperative sore throat following oral and maxillofacial operation under general anethesia. Forty patients in whom oral and maxillofacial operation trachea was removed under general anesthesia were randomly divided into treatment and control groups; the treatment group received bFGF 35000IU + normal saline 20 mL, compression inhalation, day 1, every 20min, continued for 3 d; the control group was given normal saline 5 mL + dexamethasone 5 mg + gentamicin 80000 U + chymotrypsin 4000 U, compression inhalation, twice a day, every 20 min, continued for 3 d. Occurrence of postoperative sore throat 12 h after operation was recorded and visual analog scale (VAS) of sore throat (swallowing) 12,24,48,72 h after operation was measured. SPSS l4.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. The incidence of sore throat in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group (Poral and maxillofacial surgery after endotracheal intubation.

  13. The effect of passive stretching on delayed onset muscle soreness, and other detrimental effects following eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Vestergaard-Poulsen, P; Kanstrup, I.L.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure if passive stretching would influence delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), dynamic muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase concentration (CK) and the ratio of phosphocreatine to inorganic phosphate (PCr/P(i)) following eccentric exercise. Seven healthy...

  14. Understanding and predicting bed humidity in fluidized bed granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinhui; Cunningham, John; Winstead, Denita

    2008-04-01

    Bed humidity is a critical parameter that needs to be controlled in a fluidized bed granulation to ensure reliability. To predict and control the bed humidity during the fluidized bed granulation process, a simple model based on the mass conservation of moisture was developed. The moisture mass balance model quantitatively simulates the effects of spray rate, binder solution concentration, airflow rate, inlet air temperature, and dew point on the bed humidity. The model was validated by a series of granulations performed in different scale granulators including Glatt GPCG-1, GPCG-15, and GPCG-60. Good agreement was observed between the theoretical prediction and the measured loss on drying (LOD). The model developed in the current work enables us to choose the appropriate parameters for the fluidized bed granulation and can be used as a valuable tool in process scaling-up. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  15. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  16. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  17. Effects of therapeutic massage on gait and pain after delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun-Ho; Kim, Min-Jeong; Yang, Hyuk-Jin; Lee, Yu-Jin; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2014-04-01

    Unfamiliar or sudden exercise can induce delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) within 12-24 h. So, several researchers have reported various interventions to treat DOMS. Massage is generally known to eliminate muscle fatigue. However, effect of massage after DOMS is still not clear. We investigated whether the massage is effective on pain and gait after DOMS. The participants were divided into a control group (n= 10) with DOMS and an experimental group (n= 11) with the massage treated after DOMS. We induced DOMS by taking isotonic exercise with going up and down 20 times in 5-story building. We applied the massage and assessment on gastrocnemius of dominant foot. The change of gait and pain was assessed using gaitrite and algometer. In the present results, the massage on gastrocnemius after DOMS showed significant difference in pain (Psoreness.

  18. Particle bed reactor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  19. Nebulized ketamine decreases incidence and severity of post-operative sore throat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Ahuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Post-operative sore throat (POST occurs in 21-65% of patients. Ketamine used earlier as gargle for reducing POST has limitations. The aim of this study was to see if nebulised ketamine reduces POST. Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomised, placebo-control, and double-blind controlled trial. After written informed consent, 100 patients belonging to American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I-II in the age group 20-60 years, of either sex undergoing surgery under general anaesthesia (GA were enrolled. Patients were randomised into two groups; group saline (S received saline nebulisation 5.0 ml and group ketamine (K received ketamine 50 mg (1.0 ml with 4.0 ml of saline nebulisation for 15 min. GA was induced 10 min after completion of nebulisation in the patients. The POST and haemodynamic monitoring were done pre-nebulization, pre-induction, on reaching post-anaesthesia care unit, and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h post-operatively. POST was graded on a four-point scale (0-3. Results: The overall incidence of POST was 33%; 23 patients (46% in saline and 10 patients (20% in ketamine group experienced POST (Fisher′s exact P = 0.01. The use of ketamine nebulization attenuated POST at 2 h and 4 h post-operatively (P < 0.05. The primary outcome was incidence of POST at 4 h; 13 patients in group S versus 4 patients in group K (P = 0.03 experienced POST at 4 h. The moderate sore throat occurred in 6 patients in group S and none in group K at 2 h, post-operatively (P = 0.02. Conclusion: Ketamine nebulization significantly attenuated the incidence and severity of POST, especially in the early post-operative period, with no adverse effects.

  20. Nebulized ketamine decreases incidence and severity of post-operative sore throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Vanita; Mitra, Sukanya; Sarna, Rashi

    2015-01-01

    Post-operative sore throat (POST) occurs in 21-65% of patients. Ketamine used earlier as gargle for reducing POST has limitations. The aim of this study was to see if nebulised ketamine reduces POST. We conducted a prospective, randomised, placebo-control, and double-blind controlled trial. After written informed consent, 100 patients belonging to American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I-II in the age group 20-60 years, of either sex undergoing surgery under general anaesthesia (GA) were enrolled. Patients were randomised into two groups; group saline (S) received saline nebulisation 5.0 ml and group ketamine (K) received ketamine 50 mg (1.0 ml) with 4.0 ml of saline nebulisation for 15 min. GA was induced 10 min after completion of nebulisation in the patients. The POST and haemodynamic monitoring were done pre-nebulization, pre-induction, on reaching post-anaesthesia care unit, and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h post-operatively. POST was graded on a four-point scale (0-3). The overall incidence of POST was 33%; 23 patients (46%) in saline and 10 patients (20%) in ketamine group experienced POST (Fisher's exact P = 0.01). The use of ketamine nebulization attenuated POST at 2 h and 4 h post-operatively (P < 0.05). The primary outcome was incidence of POST at 4 h; 13 patients in group S versus 4 patients in group K (P = 0.03) experienced POST at 4 h. The moderate sore throat occurred in 6 patients in group S and none in group K at 2 h, post-operatively (P = 0.02). Ketamine nebulization significantly attenuated the incidence and severity of POST, especially in the early post-operative period, with no adverse effects.

  1. Effects of acupuncture on symptoms and muscle function in delayed-onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübscher, Markus; Vogt, Lutz; Bernhörster, Marcus; Rosenhagen, Andreas; Banzer, Winfried

    2008-10-01

    This study was done to investigate the effects of a standardized acupuncture treatment on symptoms and muscle function in exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). A prospective, randomized, controlled, observer and subject-blinded trial was undertaken. Twenty-two (22) healthy subjects (22-30 years; 10 males and 12 females) were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: real acupuncture (deep needling at classic acupuncture points and tender points; n = 7), sham-acupuncture (superficial needling at nonacupuncture points; n = 8), and control (no needling; n = 7). DOMS of the nondominant elbow-flexors was experimentally induced through eccentric contractions until exhaustion. The outcome measures were pain perception (visual analogue scale; VAS; range: 0-10 cm), mechanical pain threshold (MPT; pressure algometer), and maximum isometric voluntary force (MIVF; force transducer). Treatment was applied immediately, 24 and 48 hours after DOMS induction. Measurements of MPT and MIVF were made prior to DOMS induction as well as before and after every treatment session. VAS data were acquired after DOMS induction as well as pre- and post-treatment. Final pain, MPT, and MIVF measurements were performed 72 hours after DOMS induction. Following nonparametric testing, there were no significant differences between groups in outcome measures at baseline. After 72 hours, pain perception (VAS) was significantly lower in the acupuncture group compared to the sham acupuncture and control subjects. However, the mean MPT and MIVF scores were not significantly different between groups. Although acupuncture seemed to have no effects on mechanical pain threshold and muscle function, it proved to reduce perceived pain arising from exercise-induced muscle soreness.

  2. Acute effects of ginger extract on biochemical and functional symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinzadeh, Khadijeh; Daryanoosh, Farhad; Baghdasar, Parvin Javad; Alizadeh, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and pain induced by delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) as a result of eccentric exercise (EE) or unaccustomed activity cause some difficulties in exercise for athletes. The purpose of this study was to survey the effect of ginger extract on biochemical and functional symptom of delayed onset muscle soreness. In a quasi-experimental study, 36 healthy female subjects, who were recruited by intra dormitory calls, randomly divided into 3 groups, including: ginger intake 1 hour before exercise (GIBE), ginger intake immediately after exercise (GIAE) and placebo group (PL). Subjects consumed capsules contain 60 mg of ginger extract (equivalent of 2 g dried ginger powder) or placebo before and after exercise. The exercise protocol consisted of a 20 minute step test using a 46cm step at a rate of 15 steps per minute. The blood samples were taken before, 1, 24 and 48 hour after exercise to assay creatine kinase (CK) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Muscle pain scores, isometric strength and circumference of thigh muscle, and hip range of motion were recorded at mentioned times. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measure was used to determine the differences between groups. The results showed a significant reduction of pain in GIBE compared to GIAE after 24 and 48h of EE and GIAE compared to PL (p<0.05). IL-6 changed significantly in GIBE compared to PL (p<0.05) after 1, 24, and 48h after EE. The other factors didn't change meaningfully. The finding of this study suggests that 2 grams of ginger may have anti-inflammation and analgesic effect on DOMS.

  3. TENS attenuates repetition-induced summation of activity-related pain following experimentally induced muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankovsky-Arnold, Tsipora; Wideman, Timothy H; Larivière, Christian; Sullivan, Michael J L

    2013-11-01

    This study sought to determine whether repetition-induced summation of activity-related pain (RISP) could be demonstrated in healthy individuals in response to experimentally induced musculoskeletal pain. This study also assessed the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on RISP. The relation between the index of RISP and psychological factors such as catastrophizing and fear of pain was also explored. The sample consisted of 56 healthy (35 women, 21 men) participants who underwent 2 testing sessions, separated by 24 hours. In the first session, musculoskeletal pain was induced with a delayed-onset muscle soreness protocol. During the second session, participants were randomly assigned to the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation or placebo condition and were asked to rate their pain as they lifted a series of 18 weighted canisters. An index of RISP was derived as the change in pain ratings across repeated lifts. Approximately 25% of participants showed evidence of RISP. Results also revealed that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation attenuated the RISP effect. Psychological measures (fear of pain, catastrophizing) were not significantly correlated with the index of RISP, but the index of RISP was significantly correlated with a measure of physical tolerance. Discussion addresses the clinical implications of the findings as well as the potential mechanisms underlying RISP. This study showed that RISP could be demonstrated in healthy individuals in response to experimentally induced musculoskeletal pain with delayed-onset muscle soreness. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation led to a significant reduction in RISP. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Soreness-related changes in three-dimensional running biomechanics following eccentric knee extensor exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Max R; Peel, Shelby A; Schilling, Brian K; Melcher, Dan A; Bloomer, Richard J

    2017-06-01

    Runners often experience delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), especially of the knee extensors, following prolonged running. Sagittal knee joint biomechanics are altered in the presence of knee extensor DOMS but it is unclear how muscle soreness affects lower limb biomechanics in other planes of motion. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of knee extensor DOMS on three-dimensional (3D) lower limb biomechanics during running. Thirty-three healthy men (25.8 ± 6.8 years; 84.1 ± 9.2 kg; 1.77 ± 0.07 m) completed an isolated eccentric knee extensor damaging protocol to elicit DOMS. Biomechanics of over-ground running at a set speed of 3.35 m s -1 ±5% were measured before eccentric exercise (baseline) and, 24 h and 48 h following exercise in the presence of knee extensor DOMS. Knee flexion ROM was reduced at 48 h (P = 0.01; d = 0.26), and peak knee extensor moment was reduced at 24 h (P = 0.001; d = 0.49) and 48 h (P  0.05). Peak positive ankle and knee joint powers and, peak negative knee joint power were all reduced from baseline to 24 h and 48 h (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that knee extensor DOMS greatly influences sagittal knee joint angular kinetics and, reduces sagittal power production at the ankle joint. However, knee extensor DOMS does not affect frontal and transverse plane lower limb joint biomechanics during running.

  5. Foam Rolling for Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness and Recovery of Dynamic Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcey, Gregory E. P.; Bradbury-Squires, David J.; Kawamoto, Jon-Erik; Drinkwater, Eric J.; Behm, David G.; Button, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: After an intense bout of exercise, foam rolling is thought to alleviate muscle fatigue and soreness (ie, delayed-onset muscle soreness [DOMS]) and improve muscular performance. Potentially, foam rolling may be an effective therapeutic modality to reduce DOMS while enhancing the recovery of muscular performance. Objective: To examine the effects of foam rolling as a recovery tool after an intense exercise protocol through assessment of pressure-pain threshold, sprint time, change-of-direction speed, power, and dynamic strength-endurance. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 8 healthy, physically active males (age = 22.1 ± 2.5 years, height = 177.0 ± 7.5 cm, mass = 88.4 ± 11.4 kg) participated. Intervention(s): Participants performed 2 conditions, separated by 4 weeks, involving 10 sets of 10 repetitions of back squats at 60% of their 1-repetition maximum, followed by either no foam rolling or 20 minutes of foam rolling immediately, 24, and 48 hours postexercise. Main Outcome Measure(s): Pressure-pain threshold, sprint speed (30-m sprint time), power (broad-jump distance), change-of-direction speed (T-test), and dynamic strength-endurance. Results: Foam rolling substantially improved quadriceps muscle tenderness by a moderate to large amount in the days after fatigue (Cohen d range, 0.59 to 0.84). Substantial effects ranged from small to large in sprint time (Cohen d range, 0.68 to 0.77), power (Cohen d range, 0.48 to 0.87), and dynamic strength-endurance (Cohen d = 0.54). Conclusions: Foam rolling effectively reduced DOMS and associated decrements in most dynamic performance measures. PMID:25415413

  6. Whole-Body Vibration While Squatting and Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbs, Nicole C; Black, Christopher D; Garner, John

    2015-12-01

    Research into alleviating muscle pain and symptoms in individuals after delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) has been inconsistent and unsuccessful in demonstrating a useful recovery modality. To investigate the effects of short-term whole-body vibration (WBV) on DOMS over a 72-hour period after a high-intensity exercise protocol. Randomized controlled clinical trial. University laboratory. Thirty women volunteered to participate in 4 testing sessions and were assigned randomly to a WBV group (n = 16; age = 21.0 ± 1.9 years, height = 164.86 ± 6.73 cm, mass = 58.58 ± 9.32 kg) or a control group (n = 14; age = 22.00 ± 1.97 years, height = 166.65 ± 8.04 cm, mass = 58.69 ± 12.92 kg). Participants performed 4 sets to failure of single-legged split squats with 40% of their body weight to induce muscle soreness in the quadriceps. The WBV or control treatment was administered each day after DOMS. Unilateral pressure-pain threshold (PPT), range of motion (ROM), thigh circumference, and muscle-pain ratings of the quadriceps were collected before and for 3 days after high-intensity exercise. Each day, we collected 3 sets of measures, consisting of 1 measure before the WBV or control treatment protocol (pretreatment) and 2 sets of posttreatment measures. We observed no interactions for PPT, thigh circumference, and muscle pain (P > .05). An interaction was found for active ROM (P = .01), with the baseline pretreatment measure greater than the measures at baseline posttreatment 1 through 48 hours posttreatment 2 in the WBV group. For PPT, a main effect for time was revealed (P .05). The WBV treatment approach studied did not aid in alleviating DOMS after high-intensity exercise. Further research is needed in various populations.

  7. Foam rolling for delayed-onset muscle soreness and recovery of dynamic performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcey, Gregory E P; Bradbury-Squires, David J; Kawamoto, Jon-Erik; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G; Button, Duane C

    2015-01-01

    After an intense bout of exercise, foam rolling is thought to alleviate muscle fatigue and soreness (ie, delayed-onset muscle soreness [DOMS]) and improve muscular performance. Potentially, foam rolling may be an effective therapeutic modality to reduce DOMS while enhancing the recovery of muscular performance. To examine the effects of foam rolling as a recovery tool after an intense exercise protocol through assessment of pressure-pain threshold, sprint time, change-of-direction speed, power, and dynamic strength-endurance. Controlled laboratory study. University laboratory. A total of 8 healthy, physically active males (age = 22.1 ± 2.5 years, height = 177.0 ± 7.5 cm, mass = 88.4 ± 11.4 kg) participated. Participants performed 2 conditions, separated by 4 weeks, involving 10 sets of 10 repetitions of back squats at 60% of their 1-repetition maximum, followed by either no foam rolling or 20 minutes of foam rolling immediately, 24, and 48 hours postexercise. Pressure-pain threshold, sprint speed (30-m sprint time), power (broad-jump distance), change-of-direction speed (T-test), and dynamic strength-endurance. Foam rolling substantially improved quadriceps muscle tenderness by a moderate to large amount in the days after fatigue (Cohen d range, 0.59 to 0.84). Substantial effects ranged from small to large in sprint time (Cohen d range, 0.68 to 0.77), power (Cohen d range, 0.48 to 0.87), and dynamic strength-endurance (Cohen d = 0.54). Foam rolling effectively reduced DOMS and associated decrements in most dynamic performance measures.

  8. The Effect of Gender and Menstrual Phase on Serum Creatine Kinase Activity and Muscle Soreness Following Downhill Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuyse, Tanja; Bosch, Andrew N

    2017-02-23

    Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity reflects muscle membrane disruption. Oestrogen has antioxidant and membrane stabilising properties, yet no study has compared the CK and muscle soreness (DOMS) response to unaccustomed exercise between genders when all menstrual phases are represented in women. Fifteen eumenorrhoeic women (early follicular, EF ( n = 5); late follicular, LF ( n = 5); mid-luteal, ML ( n = 5) phase) and six men performed 20 min of downhill running (-10% gradient) at 9 km/h. Serum CK activity and visual analogue scale rating of perceived muscle soreness were measured before, immediately, 24-h, 48-h and 72-h after exercise. The 24-h peak CK response (relative to pre-exercise) was similar between women and men (mean change (95% confidence interval): 58.5 (25.2 to 91.7) IU/L; 68.8 (31.3 to 106.3) IU/L, respectively). However, serum CK activity was restored to pre-exercise levels quicker in women (regardless of menstrual phase) than men; after 48-h post exercise in women (16.3 (-4.4 to 37.0) IU/L; 56.3 (37.0 to 75.6) IU/L, respectively) but only after 72-h in men (14.9 (-14.8 to 44.6) IU/L). Parallel to the CK response, muscle soreness recovered by 72-h in men. Conversely, the women still reported muscle soreness at 72-h despite CK levels being restored by 48-h; delayed recovery of muscle soreness appeared mainly in EF and LF. The CK and DOMS response to downhill running is gender-specific. The CK response recovers quicker in women than men. The CK and DOMS response occur in concert in men but not in women. The DOMS response in women is prolonged and may be influenced by menstrual phase.

  9. Variability of Bed Drag on Cohesive Beds under Wave Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgar Safak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law, a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10 - 4 m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  10. Prediction of bed level variations in nonuniform sediment bed channel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B R Andharia

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... have been undertaken for measurements of bed and water levels in an aggrading channel due to overloading of nonuniform sediments ..... 2.4 Thickness of active bed layer. The mixing zone of sediment remaining in contact with the flow is referred as active layer (ABL). The thickness and particle size ...

  11. Variability of bed drag on cohesive beds under wave action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Ilgar

    2016-01-01

    Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law), a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10 -4">−4 m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold) with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  12. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also consider factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  13. Turning patients over in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000426.htm Turning patients over in bed To use the sharing features on this page, ... Patient The following steps should be followed when turning a patient: If you can, raise the bed to a level that reduces back strain for ...

  14. The Effects of Eccentric Contraction Duration on Muscle Strength, Power Production, Vertical Jump, and Soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike, Jonathan N; Cole, Nathan; Herrera, Chris; VanDusseldorp, Trisha; Kravitz, Len; Kerksick, Chad M

    2017-03-01

    Mike, JN, Cole, N, Herrera, C, VanDusseldorp, T, Kravitz, L, and Kerksick, CM. The effects of eccentric contraction duration on muscle strength, power production, vertical jump, and soreness. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 773-786, 2017-Previous research has investigated the effects of either eccentric-only training or comparing eccentric and concentric exercise on changes related to strength and power expression, but no research to date has investigated the impact of altering the duration of either the concentric or the eccentric component on these parameters. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the duration of eccentric (i.e., 2-second, 4-second vs. 6-second) muscle contractions and their effect on muscle strength, power production, vertical jump, and soreness using a plate-loaded barbell Smith squat exercise. Thirty college-aged men (23 ± 3.5 years, 178 ± 6.8 cm, 82 ± 12 kg, and 11.6 ± 5.1% fat) with 3.0 ± 1.0 years of resistance training experience and training frequency of 4.3 ± 0.9 days per week were randomized and assigned to 1 of 3 eccentric training groups that incorporated different patterns of contraction. For every repetition, all 3 groups used 2-second concentric contractions and paused for 1 second between the concentric and eccentric phases. The control group (2S) used 2-second eccentric contractions, whereas the 4S group performed 4-second eccentric contractions and the 6S group performed 6-second eccentric contractions. All repetitions were completed using the barbell Smith squat exercise. All participants completed a 4-week training protocol that required them to complete 2 workouts per week using their prescribed contraction routine for 4 sets of 6 repetitions at an intensity of 80-85% one repetition maximum (1RM). For all performance data, significant group × time (G × T) interaction effects were found for average power production across all 3 sets of a squat jump protocol (p = 0.04) while vertical jump did not reach

  15. Marine oil dietary supplementation reduces delayed onset muscle soreness after a 30 km run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baum K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Klaus Baum,1 Richard D Telford,2 Ross B Cunningham,3 1Trainingsinstitut Prof Baum, Köln, Germany; 2College of Medicine, Biology, and Environment, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 3The Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Objective: Runners are prone to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS during long distance training. This especially holds for unaccustomed training volumes at moderate to high intensities. We investigated the effects of a marine oil complex, PCSO-524®, derived from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel (formulated as Lyprinol® and Omega XL® on DOMS after a 30 km training run. Methods: Initially, peak oxygen uptake of 32 distance runners (4 female, 28 male; median age 45 years, range 28–53 was measured on a treadmill with a 1.5 km hour-1 increase every 4 minutes starting from 8.5 km hour-1. At least 1-week after this initial test, they participated in a 30 km road run at a speed corresponding to about 70% of their individual peak oxygen uptake on a flat terrain. Before and after (0, 24, and 48 hours the run, blood concentration of creatine kinase (CK were measured and pain sensation was determined (pain scale from 0 = no pain to 10 = extremely painful. Runners were then matched in pairs based on maximal CK and peak oxygen uptake, and allocated randomly into two different groups. One group was supplemented with 400 mg per day of PCSO-524® for 11 weeks, the other group with an olive oil placebo. After that period, CK and pain sensations were remeasured following a second 30 km run at the same speed and on the same terrain. Results: The general pattern of soreness in the PCSO-524® supplemented group was reduced by 1.1 units (standard error 0.41 compared to the placebo (P < 0.05, the effects being greater in lesser trained runners (P < 0.05. CK levels were positively associated with pain sensation (P < 0.05, but trends toward lower CK in the

  16. Marine oil dietary supplementation reduces delayed onset muscle soreness after a 30 km run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Klaus; Telford, Richard D; Cunningham, Ross B

    2013-01-01

    Objective Runners are prone to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) during long distance training. This especially holds for unaccustomed training volumes at moderate to high intensities. We investigated the effects of a marine oil complex, PCSO-524®, derived from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel (formulated as Lyprinol® and Omega XL®) on DOMS after a 30 km training run. Methods Initially, peak oxygen uptake of 32 distance runners (4 female, 28 male; median age 45 years, range 28–53) was measured on a treadmill with a 1.5 km hour−1 increase every 4 minutes starting from 8.5 km hour−1. At least 1-week after this initial test, they participated in a 30 km road run at a speed corresponding to about 70% of their individual peak oxygen uptake on a flat terrain. Before and after (0, 24, and 48 hours) the run, blood concentration of creatine kinase (CK) were measured and pain sensation was determined (pain scale from 0 = no pain to 10 = extremely painful). Runners were then matched in pairs based on maximal CK and peak oxygen uptake, and allocated randomly into two different groups. One group was supplemented with 400 mg per day of PCSO-524® for 11 weeks, the other group with an olive oil placebo. After that period, CK and pain sensations were remeasured following a second 30 km run at the same speed and on the same terrain. Results The general pattern of soreness in the PCSO-524® supplemented group was reduced by 1.1 units (standard error 0.41) compared to the placebo (P < 0.05), the effects being greater in lesser trained runners (P < 0.05). CK levels were positively associated with pain sensation (P < 0.05), but trends toward lower CK in the PCSO-524® group, which were also more pronounced in the lesser trained runners, were not statistically significant. Conclusion Pain sensations experienced by distance runners following a 30 km run were reduced by supplementation with the marine oil complex PCSO-524®, an effect which was greater in lesser trained

  17. Blood flow after contraction and cuff occlusion is reduced in subjects with muscle soreness after eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza-Silva, Eduardo; Wittrup Christensen, Steffan; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) occur within 1-2 days after eccentric exercise but the mechanism mediating hypersensitivity is unclear. This study hypothesized that eccentric exercise reduces the blood flow response following muscle contractions and cuff occlusion, which may result...... anterior muscle. All measures were done bilaterally at day-0 (pre-exercise), day-2 and day-6 (post-exercise). Subjects scored the muscle soreness on a Likert scale for 6 days. Results: Eccentric exercise increased Likert scores at day-1 and day-2 compared with day-0 (P... in accumulated algesic substances being a part of the sensitization in DOMS. Methods: Twelve healthy subjects (5 women) performed dorsiflexion exercise (5 sets of 10 repeated eccentric contractions) in one leg, while the contralateral leg was the control. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the tibialis...

  18. Kinesiology Tape does not Affect Serum Creatine Kinase Level and Quadriceps Activity during Recovery from Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

    OpenAIRE

    Naoko Aminaka; Tiffany Fohey; Attila Kovacs; Roksana Zak

    2017-01-01

    Background: Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) causes muscle damage and edema that can hinder performance and increase risks for secondary injuries. Kinesiology Tape (KT) may be an effective modality for aiding in recovery, however, no study has investigated the effects of KT on the physiological biomarkers such as serum creatine kinase (CK) level, concurrently with measures of performance and function, during recovery from DOMS. Objective: Investigate the effects of KT on serum CK level, e...

  19. EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT DOSAGE OF BCAA SUPPLEMENTATION ON SERUM INDICES OF MUSCLE DAMAGE AND SORENESS IN SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Mohamad-Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigation of the effects of two different dose of BCAA supplementation on serum indices of muscle damage and soreness in soccer players. 30 male soccer players (age: 20.2+-0.6 yr participated as subjects in this study. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups (double-blind design. All subjects performed lower- body resistance exercise (6 sets, 10 repetitions, 70% 1RM. The BCAA was given at doses of 200 and 450 mg.kg -1 BW for supplemental groups 1 and 2, respectively, 30 minutes before and after to exercise tests and carbohydrate was given at dose of 200 mg.kg -1 BW for placebo group. To identify enzymes activity (IU/L, venous blood samples were collected 30 min prior to exercise and at 24 and 48 hrs post exercise. Data were statistically analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and Bonfferoni test. Baseline CK, CK-MB and muscle soreness were determined 30 minutes before the exercise test. Baseline serum values for CK, CK-MB and baseline muscle soreness were not different between groups in the 30 minutes before the exercise test (p>0/05. However, there were significant increases between the pre-exercise and post-exercise values for CK, CK-MB and muscle soreness from 24 hrs to 48 hrs post-test (p<0/05, but there were no significant differences between two groups (p< 0.05(. These results suggested that two different dosages of BCAA supplementation did not affect muscle damage and muscle sureness during resistance exercise bout in soccer players.

  20. A comparison of topical menthol to ice on pain, evoked tetanic and voluntary force during delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Pramod; Grover, Varun; Topp, Robert; Behm, David G

    2012-06-01

    Pain can adversely affect muscle functioning by inhibiting muscle contractions. Delayed onset muscle soreness was used as a tool to ascertain whether a topical menthol-based analgesic or ice was more effective at reducing pain and permitting greater muscular voluntary and evoked force. Sixteen subjects were randomized to receive either a topical gel containing 3.5% menthol or topical application of ice to the non-dominant elbow flexors two days following the performance of an exercise designed to induce muscle soreness. Two days later, DOMS discomfort was treated with a menthol based analgesic or ice. Maximum voluntary contractions and evoked tetanic contractions of the non-dominant elbow flexors were measured at baseline prior to inducing muscle soreness (T1), two days following inducing DOMS after 20 (T2), 25 (T3) and 35 (T4) minutes of either menthol gel or ice therapy. Pain perception using a 10-point visual analog scale was also measured at these four data collection points. Treatment analysis included a 2 way repeated measures ANOVA (2 × 4). Delayed onset muscle soreness decreased (p = 0.04) voluntary force 17.1% at T2 with no treatment effect. Tetanic force was 116.9% higher (p<0.05) with the topical analgesic than ice. Pain perception at T2 was significantly (p=0.02) less with the topical analgesic versus ice. Compared to ice, the topical menthol-based analgesic decreased perceived discomfort to a greater extent and permitted greater tetanic forces to be produced. Level 2b.

  1. The effect of kinesio taping versus stretching techniques on muscle soreness, and flexibility during recovery from nordic hamstring exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Tarik; Yagmur Gunes, Gokce; Dogan, Hanife; Ucar, Ilyas; Willems, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of static stretching, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching, or kinesio taping (KT) on muscle soreness and flexibility during recovery from exercise. Sixty-five females were randomly assigned to four groups: PNF stretching (n = 15), static stretching (n = 16), KT (n = 17), and control (n = 17). All participants performed nordic hamstring exercise (5 sets of 8 repetitions). In all groups, hamstring flexibility at 24 h and 48 h was not changed from baseline (p > .05). The muscle soreness was measured higher at 48 h post-exercise compared with baseline in the control group (p = .04) and at 24 h post-exercise compared with baseline in the PNF group (p  .05). The KT application and pre-exercise stretching have no contribute to flexibility at 24 h and 48 h after exercise, but may attenuate muscle soreness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Influence of Oral L-Glutamine Supplementation on Muscle Strength Recovery and Soreness Following Unilateral Knee Extension Eccentric Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Zachary; Bagnall, Nicholas; Kimmerly, Derek S

    2015-10-01

    The study aimed to examine the effects that L-glutamine supplementation has on quadriceps muscle strength and soreness ratings following eccentric exercise. It was hypothesized that glutamine ingestion would quicken the recovery rate of peak force production and decrease muscle soreness ratings over a 72-hr recovery period. Sixteen healthy participants (8♀/8♂; 22 ± 4 years) volunteered in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. Supplement conditions consisted of isoenergetic placebo (maltodextrin, 0.6 g·kg-1·day-1) and L-glutamine (0.3 g·kg-1·day-1 + 0.3 g·kg-1·day-1 maltodextrin) ingestion once per day over 72 hr. Knee extensor peak torque at 0°, 30°, and 180° per second and muscle soreness were measured before, immediately following, 24, 48, and 72 hr posteccentric exercise. Eccentric exercise consisted of 8 sets (10 repetitions/set) of unilateral knee extension at 125% maximum concentric force with 2-min rest intervals. L-glutamine resulted in greater relative peak torque at 180°/sec both immediately after (71 ± 8% vs. 66 ± 9%), and 72 hr (91 ± 8% vs. 86 ± 7%) postexercise (all, p exercise. The effect of L-glutamine on muscle force recovery may be greater in men than women.

  3. Cold water immersion in the management of delayed-onset muscle soreness: is dose important? A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Philip D; Ferris, Roisin; Bleakley, Chris M

    2014-11-01

    Cold Water Immersion (CWI) is commonly used to manage delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) resulting from exercise. Scientific evidence for an optimal dose of CWI is lacking and athletes continue to use a range of a treatment protocols and water temperatures. To compare the effectiveness of four different water immersion protocols and a passive control intervention in the management of DOMS. Randomised controlled trial with blinded outcome assessment. University Research Laboratory. 50 healthy participants with laboratory induced DOMS randomised to one of five groups: Short contrast immersion (1 min 38 °C/1 min 10 °C × 3), Short intermittent CWI (1 min × 3 at 10 °C); 10 min CWI in 10 °C; 10 min CWI in 6 °C; or control (seated rest). muscle soreness, active range of motion, pain on stretch, muscle strength and serum creatine kinase. 10 min of CWI in 6 °C was associated with the lowest levels of muscle soreness and pain on stretch however values were not statistically different to any of the other groups. There were no statistically significant differences between groups for any other outcomes. Altering the treatment duration, water temperature or dosage of post exercise water immersion had minimal effect on outcomes relating to DOMS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparison of muscle damage, soreness and performance following a simulated contact and non-contact team sport activity circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tarveen K R; Guelfi, Kym J; Landers, Grant; Dawson, Brian; Bishop, David

    2011-09-01

    The aim was to compare the effect of a simulated team sport activity circuit (reflective of the activity demands of Australian football) either with or without body 'contact' on muscle soreness, damage, and performance when the circuit was repeated 48 h later. Eleven male, team-sport athletes completed a 'non-contact' (NCON) and a 'contact' (CON) version of the team sport activity circuit in a crossover design with at least 1 week between trials. The effect of CON and NCON on repeated 15m sprint and vertical jump performance was assessed by completing the same version of the circuit 48 h after the initial trial. The effect on perceived soreness and blood markers of muscle damage and inflammation was also determined. Subsequent performance was affected to a greater extent by CON, with both best and mean sprint times significantly slower 48h following CON (psoreness and pressure sensitivity were elevated following both NCON and CON (psoreness was greater with CON (p=0.012). Both CON and NCON resulted in elevated serum creatine kinase, myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase, while c-reactive protein increased following CON but not NCON. In conclusion, Greater perceived soreness and decrements in performance of the simulated team sport activity circuit when repeated 48 h later were observed following CON. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of an artificial playing surface on injury risk and perceptions of muscle soreness in elite Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S; Trewartha, G; Kemp, S P T; Michell, R; Stokes, K A

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study investigated the influence of an artificial playing surface on injury risk and perceptions of muscle soreness in elite English Premiership Rugby Union players. Time loss (from 39.5 matches) and abrasion (from 27 matches) injury risk was compared between matches played on artificial turf and natural grass. Muscle soreness was reported over the 4 days following one match played on each surface by 95 visiting players (i.e., normally play on natural grass surfaces). There was a likely trivial difference in the overall injury burden relating to time-loss injuries between playing surfaces [rate ratio = 1.01, 90% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-1.38]. Abrasions were substantially more common on artificial turf (rate ratio = 7.92, 90% CI: 4.39-14.28), although the majority of these were minor and only two resulted in any reported time loss. Muscle soreness was consistently higher over the 4 days following a match on artificial turf in comparison with natural grass, although the magnitude of this effect was small (effect sizes ranging from 0.26 to 0.40). These results suggest that overall injury risk is similar for the two playing surfaces, but further surveillance is required before inferences regarding specific injury diagnoses and smaller differences in overall injury risk can be made. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Resveratrol exerts no effect on inflammatory response and delayed onset muscle soreness after a marathon in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laupheimer, M W; Perry, M; Benton, S; Malliaras, P; Maffulli, N

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated whether the inflammatory response and delayed onset of muscle soreness after a marathon are altered by resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid antioxidant. Design: Double blind placebo-controlled randomised pilot study. Setting: London Marathon. Participants: Marathon race participants Interventions: 7 healthy male athletes were randomised to receive Resveratrol (600 mg Resveratrol daily for 7 days immediately before the marathon) or a placebo. Main Outcome Measurements: Blood samples taken 48 hours before and 18–32 hours after the marathon were analysed for white blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). A VAS score was taken at the same times as the blood samples to assess delayed onset muscle soreness. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of changes occurring between pre- and post- tests for WBC, CRP or VAS. Conclusions: There were no differences in immune response or delayed onset muscle soreness between resveratrol and placebo after a marathon. Further investigations are needed with longer treatment time and higher doses, analysing additional parameters such interleukins for a possible effect of resveratrol on the inflammatory response due to extensive exercise. To avoid a type II error, 17 subjects in each group would be required. PMID:25147765

  7. Influence of fatigue, stress, muscle soreness and sleep on perceived exertion during submaximal effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Monoem; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Castagna, Carlo; Hambli, Mourad; Hue, Olivier; Chamari, Karim

    2013-07-02

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the Hooper's Index variations (i.e., self-ratings of fatigue, stress, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and sleep) on rating of perceived exertion during a 10 min submaximal exercise training session (RPE-10 min) and then check the stability and the internal consistency of RPE-10 min. Seventeen junior soccer players took part in this study. The individual Hooper's indices taken before each training session were correlated with RPE-10 min during a constant intensity and duration effort (10 min) using Pearson product moment correlation. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to assess the internal consistency of the RPE-10 min. All individual correlations between RPE-10 min and quality of sleep and quantity of fatigue, stress, and DOMS were non-significant (p>0.05). No significant correlations were resulted between RPE-10 min and Hooper's Index in all athletes. The ICC of RPE-10 min was 0.77 thus demonstrating internal consistency. The results of the present study demonstrated the objectivity and utility of RPE as a psychological tool for monitoring training during traditional soccer training. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep are not major contributors of perceived exertion during traditional soccer training without excessive training loads. It seems that psychobiological factors other than fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep may have mediated the 10 min exercise perceptual intensity. © 2013.

  8. Stress and body condition in a population of largemouth bass: implications for red-sore disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, G.W. (Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC); Hazen, T.C.

    1980-09-01

    The body conditions, K = 10/sup 5/(weight, g)/(standard length)/sup 3/, and various hematological characters were examined for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) taken from Par Pond, a reservoir heated by effluent from a nuclear production reactor at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Largemouth bass with K less than 2.0 had significantly lower (P < 0.05) hematocrits, hemoglobin concentrations, total red blood cell counts, total white blood cell counts, and lymphocyte fractions, and significantly higher granulocyte fractions and cortisol concentrations, than those with K greater than 2.0; monocyte, thrombocyte, and reticulocyte fractions were not different between the two K-factor groupings. When data were pooled, all blood variables except the reticulocyte fraction were significantly correlated with K. Hematocrit, the lymphocyte fraction, and cortisol concentration account for 20.5% of the variation in K. These data support a previous hypothesis that elevated water temperature promotes stress. Stress within the Par Pond largemouth bass population may play an important role in the epizootiology of red-sore disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila.

  9. Pilot study on the effect of grounding on delayed-onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dick; Chevalier, Gaétan; Hill, Michael

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether there are markers that can be used to study the effects of grounding on delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Eight (8) healthy subjects were exposed to an eccentric exercise that caused DOMS in gastrocnemius muscles of both legs. Four (4) subjects were grounded with electrode patches and patented conductive sheets connected to the earth. Four (4) control subjects were treated identically, except that the grounding systems were not connected to the earth. Complete blood counts, blood chemistry, enzyme chemistry, serum and saliva cortisols, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy and pain levels were taken at the same time of day before the eccentric exercise and 24, 48, and 72 hours afterwards. Parameters consistently differing by 10% or more, normalized to baseline, were considered worthy of further study. Parameters that differed by these criteria included white blood cell counts, bilirubin, creatine kinase, phosphocreatine/inorganic phosphate ratios, glycerolphosphorylcholine, phosphorylcholine, the visual analogue pain scale, and pressure measurements on the right gastrocnemius. In a pilot study, grounding the body to the earth alters measures of immune system activity and pain. Since this is the first intervention that appears to speed recovery from DOMS, the pilot provides a basis for a larger study.

  10. Delayed-onset muscle soreness does not influence occlusal sensitivity and position sense of the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, R; Lobbezoo, F; Michelotti, A; Orfanou, C; Koutris, M

    2017-09-01

    Masticatory muscle-pain patients often complain about sensorimotor changes, but the effects of pain on the psychophysical properties remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) on the jaw's position sense (PS) and occlusal sensitivity (OS). In all, 12 participants underwent intense concentric-eccentric jaw exercises. Self-reported muscle fatigue and pain, pain-free maximum mouth opening (MMO), pain pressure thresholds (PPTs) at right and left masseter and right and left anterior temporalis, maximum voluntary bite force (MVBF), PS and OS were recorded before, immediately after, 24 h, 48 h and 1 week after the exercises. Data were analysed with repeated measures anova. Pain and fatigue increased significantly after the exercises, while fatigue also increased 24 h afterwards. Time and site had a significant effect for PPTs, not for MVBF. MMO decreased significantly 24 h after the exercises. OS and PS did not change significantly. Experimentally induced DOMS does not influence the psychophysical properties of the masticatory system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  12. Pressure Ulcer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis (anticipated pubicstion date - mid-2009) Purpose A pressure ulcer, also known as a pressure sore, decubitus ulcer, or bedsore, is defined as a localized injury to the skin/and or underlying tissue occurring most often over a bony prominence and caused by pressure, shear, or friction, alone or in combination. (1) Those at risk for developing pressure ulcers include the elderly and critically ill as well as persons with neurological impairments and those who suffer conditions associated with immobility. Pressure ulcers are graded or staged with a 4-point classification system denoting severity. Stage I represents the beginnings of a pressure ulcer and stage IV, the severest grade, consists of full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, and or muscle. (1) In a 2004 survey of Canadian health care settings, Woodbury and Houghton (2) estimated that the prevalence of pressure ulcers at a stage 1 or greater in Ontario ranged between 13.1% and 53% with nonacute health care settings having the highest prevalence rate (Table 1). Executive Summary Table 1: Prevalence of Pressure Ulcers* Setting Canadian Prevalence,% (95% CI) Ontario Prevalence,Range % (n) Acute care 25 (23.8–26.3) 23.9–29.7 (3418) Nonacute care† 30 (29.3–31.4) 30.0–53.3 (1165) Community care 15 (13.4–16.8) 13.2 (91) Mixed health care‡ 22 (20.9

  13. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Russell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  14. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control is very important whether you are considering hiring a professional or planning to do it yourself. Controlling bed ... control methods, as others may cause serious harm. Hiring a pest management professional is a good option in many cases, but ...

  15. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  16. Operating characteristics of rotating beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyvani, M.; Gardner, N.C.

    1988-01-01

    Vapor-liquid contacting in high gravitational fields offers prospects for significant reductions in the physical size, capital, and operating costs of packed towers. Pressure drops, power requirements, mass transfer coefficients and liquid residence time distributions are reported for a rotating bed separator. The beds studied were rigid, foamed aluminum, with specific surface areas ranging from 650 to 3000 m{sup 2}/m{sup 2}. Gravitational fields were varied from 50 to 300g.

  17. Industrial production of enzyme-modified wool fibers for machine-washable bed coverings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenting, H.B.M.; Broekman, H.; Guebitz, G.M.; Kokol, V.; Shen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Enzyme technology is explored on wool fibers to prevent shrinkage and consolidation behavior during washing of woolen bed coverings using normal household machine conditions. Enzyme modification of wool fibers after two different pretreatments has been realized on industrial scale. Enlarged

  18. Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, and Toxicological Evaluation of Traditional Herbs Used to Treat Sore Throat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifa Mehreen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antibacterial activities of 29 traditional medicinal plants used in respiratory ailments were assessed on multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the sore throat patients and two reference strains. The methanolic, n-hexane, and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar well diffusion assay. Bioactive fractions of effective extracts were identified on TLC coupled with bioautography, while their toxicity was determined using haemolytic assay against human erythrocytes. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of effective extracts was also performed. Methanolic extract of 18 plants showed antimicrobial activity against test strains. Adhatoda vasica (ZI = 17–21 mm, MIC: 7.12–62.5 μg/mL, Althaea officinalis (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 15.62–31.25 μg/mL, Cordia latifolia (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 12.62–62.5 μg/mL, Origanum vulgare (ZI = 20–22 mm, MIC: 3–15.62 μg/mL, Thymus vulgaris (ZI = 21–25 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL, and Ziziphus jujuba (ZI = 14–20 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL showed significant antibacterial activity. Alkaloid fractions of Adhatoda vasica, Cordia latifolia, and Origanum vulgare and flavonoid fraction of the Althaea officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Thymus Vulgaris, and Ziziphus jujuba exhibited antimicrobial activity. Effective plant extracts show 0.93–0.7% erythrocyte haemolysis. The results obtained from this study provide a scientific rationale for the traditional use of these herbs and laid the basis for future studies to explore novel antimicrobial compounds.

  19. Ice‐water immersion and delayed‐onset muscle soreness: a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellwood, Kylie Louise; Brukner, Peter; Williams, David; Nicol, Alastair; Hinman, Rana

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine if ice‐water immersion after eccentric quadriceps exercise minimises the symptoms of delayed‐onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Design A prospective randomised double‐blind controlled trial was undertaken. 40 untrained volunteers performed an eccentric loading protocol with their non‐dominant leg. Interventions Participants were randomised to three 1‐min immersions in either ice water (5±1°C) or tepid water (24°C). Main outcome measures Pain and tenderness (visual analogue scale), swelling (thigh circumference), function (one‐legged hop for distance), maximal isometric strength and serum creatine kinase (CK) recorded at baseline, 24, 48 and 72 h after exercise. Changes in outcome measures over time were compared to determine the effect of group allocation using independent t tests or Mann–Whitney U tests. Results No significant differences were observed between groups with regard to changes in most pain parameters, tenderness, isometric strength, swelling, hop‐for‐distance or serum CK over time. There was a significant difference in pain on sit‐to‐stand at 24 h, with the intervention group demonstrating a greater increase in pain than the control group (median change 8.0 vs 2.0 mm, respectively, p = 0.009). Conclusions The protocol of ice‐water immersion used in this study was ineffectual in minimising markers of DOMS in untrained individuals. This study challenges the wide use of this intervention as a recovery strategy by athletes. PMID:17261562

  20. Effect of hydrotherapy on the signs and symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaile, Joanna; Halson, Shona; Gill, Nicholas; Dawson, Brian

    2008-03-01

    This study independently examined the effects of three hydrotherapy interventions on the physiological and functional symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Strength trained males (n = 38) completed two experimental trials separated by 8 months in a randomised crossover design; one trial involved passive recovery (PAS, control), the other a specific hydrotherapy protocol for 72 h post-exercise; either: (1) cold water immersion (CWI: n = 12), (2) hot water immersion (HWI: n = 11) or (3) contrast water therapy (CWT: n = 15). For each trial, subjects performed a DOMS-inducing leg press protocol followed by PAS or one of the hydrotherapy interventions for 14 min. Weighted squat jump, isometric squat, perceived pain, thigh girths and blood variables were measured prior to, immediately after, and at 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Squat jump performance and isometric force recovery were significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) at 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise following CWT and at 48 and 72 h post-exercise following CWI when compared to PAS. Isometric force recovery was also greater (P < 0.05) at 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise following HWI when compared to PAS. Perceived pain improved (P < 0.01) following CWT at 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Overall, CWI and CWT were found to be effective in reducing the physiological and functional deficits associated with DOMS, including improved recovery of isometric force and dynamic power and a reduction in localised oedema. While HWI was effective in the recovery of isometric force, it was ineffective for recovery of all other markers compared to PAS.

  1. Interferential therapy: lack of effect upon experimentally induced delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minder, P M; Noble, J G; Alves-Guerreiro, J; Hill, I D; Lowe, A S; Walsh, D M; Baxter, G D

    2002-09-01

    This study was designed to assess the analgesic effects of interferential therapy (IFT) on experimentally induced muscular pain under randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled conditions. After ethical approval and written consent were obtained, 40 healthy human volunteers (20 males: 20 females) aged 18-25 years were recruited and randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups (n = 10 per group: male = female): IFT 1, IFT 2, control or placebo. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was induced in the elbow flexors of the non-dominant arm of each subject using a single bout of eccentric exercises to exhaustion. Measurements of isometric peak torque, resting angle, mechanical pain threshold and visual analogue scales were performed at set time points. Treatment was applied for 30 min daily over the biceps brachii muscle, for five consecutive days, according to group allocation. IFT 1 received 10-20 Hz, whilst subjects in IFT 2 were treated with 80-100 Hz (bi-pole; carrier frequency: 4 kHz; pulse duration: 125 microseconds). For the placebo group, the procedure was identical to that in the active treatment groups; however, no interferential current was delivered. The control group received no treatment. No significant between group difference was identified at any time point (P > or = 0.14). However, some inconsistent, yet significant differences in daily treatment effects, interactive effects and effects over time were detected. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that application of IFT at the parameters used here, had no overall beneficial effect on DOMS.

  2. Prophylactic Effects of Sauna on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness of the Wrist Extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamwong, Peanchai; Paungmali, Aatit; Pirunsan, Ubon; Joseph, Leonard

    2015-06-01

    High-intensity of exercise or unaccustomed eccentric exercise can cause the phenomenon of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage (EIMD) which usually results in cramps, muscle strain, impaired muscle function and delayed-onset muscle soreness. This study investigated the prophylactic effects of sauna towards the symptoms associated with muscle damage from eccentric exercises of wrist extensor muscle group. A total of twenty-eight subjects (mean age 20.9 years old, SD = 1.6) were randomly divided into the sauna group (n = 14) and the control group (n = 14). In the sauna group, subjects received sauna before eccentric exercise of the wrist extensor. The eccentric exercises were conducted on the non-dominant arm by using an isokinetic dynamometer. Pain Intensity (PI), Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) and passive range of motion of wrist flexion (PF-ROM) and extension (PE-ROM) were measured as pain variables. Grip Strength (GS) and Wrist Extension Strength (WES) were measured as variables of wrist extensor muscle function. All the measurements were performed at baseline, immediately after and from 1st to 8th days after the exercise-induced muscle damage. The sauna group significantly demonstrated a lower deficit in ROM (passive flexion and passive extension), GS and WES following exercise than that of the control group (P < 0.05). Sauna application prior to the exercise-induced muscle damage demonstrated effectiveness in reduction of sensory impairment (PF-ROM and PE-ROM) and improvement of muscle functions (GS, and WES) in wrist extensor muscle group.

  3. Delayed-onset muscle soreness: a pilot study to assess analgesic study design features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Neil; Desjardins, Paul J.; Cosca, Evelyn B.; Parulan, Cherri; Arriaga, Anne; Poole, Kelly C.; Batz, Dan M.; Chang, Phoebe D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Based on a thorough review of the available literature in the delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) model, we identified multiple study design characteristics that are considered to be normative in acute pain research but have not been followed in a majority of published DOMS experiments. We designed an analgesic investigation using the DOMS model that both complied with current scientifically accepted standards for the conduct of analgesic studies and demonstrated reasonable assay sensitivity. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject study compared the efficacy of topical diclofenac sodium 1% with a matching placebo in reducing pain associated with DOMS. After exercise, subjects reporting DOMS received topical diclofenac sodium gel 1% (DSG 1%) applied to one leg and placebo to the other every 6 hours for 48 hours. Pain intensity was assessed at rest, upon standing, and when walking in the 48 hours after initial drug application (T0). The primary end point was the reduction in pain intensity (SPID 24) on walking. Subjects receiving DSG 1% had less pain while walking compared with those receiving placebo at 24 hours (SPID 24 = 34.9 [22.9] and 23.6 [19.4], respectively; P = 0.032). This investigation used experimental techniques that have been vetted in the field of exercise physiology and superimposed techniques that are considered to be best practice in the field of analgesic research. Over time and with the help of colleagues in both fields of study, similar investigations will validate design features that impact the assay sensitivity of analgesic end points in DOMS models. In addition, the study confirmed the analgesic efficacy of topical DSG 1% over placebo in subjects experiencing DOMS. PMID:25633158

  4. The Effects of Pre-Exercise Ginger Supplementation on Muscle Damage and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Melissa D; Zavorsky, Gerald S; Smoliga, James M

    2015-06-01

    Ginger possesses analgesic and pharmacological properties mimicking non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. We aimed to determine if ginger supplementation is efficacious for attenuating muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) following high-intensity resistance exercise. Following a 5-day supplementation period of placebo or 4 g ginger (randomized groups), 20 non-weight trained participants performed a high-intensity elbow flexor eccentric exercise protocol to induce muscle damage. Markers associated with muscle damage and DOMS were repeatedly measured before supplementation and for 4 days following the exercise protocol. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed one repetition maximum lift decreased significantly 24 h post-exercise in both groups (p < 0.005), improved 48 h post-exercise only in the ginger group (p = 0.002), and improved at 72 (p = 0.021) and 96 h (p = 0.044) only in the placebo group. Blood creatine kinase significantly increased for both groups (p = 0.015) but continued to increase only in the ginger group 72 (p = 0.006) and 96 h (p = 0.027) post-exercise. Visual analog scale of pain was significantly elevated following eccentric exercise (p < 0.001) and was not influenced by ginger. In conclusion, 4 g of ginger supplementation may be used to accelerate recovery of muscle strength following intense exercise but does not influence indicators of muscle damage or DOMS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Manual therapy ameliorates delayed-onset muscle soreness and alters muscle metabolites in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Susumu; Takamoto, Kouichi; Nakamura, Tomoya; Sakai, Shigekazu; Matsuda, Teru; Taguchi, Toru; Mizumura, Kazue; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-02-01

    Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) can be induced by lengthening contraction (LC); it can be characterized by tenderness and movement-related pain in the exercised muscle. Manual therapy (MT), including compression of exercised muscles, is widely used as physical rehabilitation to reduce pain and promote functional recovery. Although MT is beneficial for reducing musculoskeletal pain (i.e. DOMS), the physiological mechanisms of MT remain unclear. In the present study, we first developed an animal model of MT in DOMS; LC was applied to the rat gastrocnemius muscle under anesthesia, which induced mechanical hyperalgesia 2-4 days after LC. MT (manual compression) ameliorated mechanical hyperalgesia. Then, we used capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (CE-TOFMS) to investigate early effects of MT on the metabolite profiles of the muscle experiencing DOMS. The rats were divided into the following three groups; (1) normal controls, (2) rats with LC application (LC group), and (3) rats undergoing MT after LC (LC + MT group). According to the CE-TOFMS analysis, a total of 171 metabolites were detected among the three groups, and 19 of these metabolites were significant among the groups. Furthermore, the concentrations of eight metabolites, including branched-chain amino acids, carnitine, and malic acid, were significantly different between the LC + MT and LC groups. The results suggest that MT significantly altered metabolite profiles in DOMS. According to our findings and previous data regarding metabolites in mitochondrial metabolism, the ameliorative effects of MT might be mediated partly through alterations in metabolites associated with mitochondrial respiration. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  6. Delayed-onset muscle soreness: a pilot study to assess analgesic study design features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Neil; Desjardins, Paul J; Cosca, Evelyn B; Parulan, Cherri; Arriaga, Anne; Poole, Kelly C; Batz, Dan M; Chang, Phoebe D

    2015-06-01

    Based on a thorough review of the available literature in the delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) model, we identified multiple study design characteristics that are considered to be normative in acute pain research but have not been followed in a majority of published DOMS experiments. We designed an analgesic investigation using the DOMS model that both complied with current scientifically accepted standards for the conduct of analgesic studies and demonstrated reasonable assay sensitivity. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject study compared the efficacy of topical diclofenac sodium 1% with a matching placebo in reducing pain associated with DOMS. After exercise, subjects reporting DOMS received topical diclofenac sodium gel 1% (DSG 1%) applied to one leg and placebo to the other every 6 hours for 48 hours. Pain intensity was assessed at rest, upon standing, and when walking in the 48 hours after initial drug application (T0). The primary end point was the reduction in pain intensity (SPID 24) on walking. Subjects receiving DSG 1% had less pain while walking compared with those receiving placebo at 24 hours (SPID 24 = 34.9 [22.9] and 23.6 [19.4], respectively; P = 0.032). This investigation used experimental techniques that have been vetted in the field of exercise physiology and superimposed techniques that are considered to be best practice in the field of analgesic research. Over time and with the help of colleagues in both fields of study, similar investigations will validate design features that impact the assay sensitivity of analgesic end points in DOMS models. In addition, the study confirmed the analgesic efficacy of topical DSG 1% over placebo in subjects experiencing DOMS.

  7. The effect of training load on neuromuscular performance, muscle soreness and wellness during an in-season non-competitive week in elite rugby athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Francisco; Healey, Phil; Smith, Tiaki B; Driller, Matthew

    2017-06-08

    In the elite Rugby setting, it is critical to understand the effects of training load on the levels of fatigue, soreness and readiness of the athletes. The training load, wellness, neuromuscular markers of fatigue and various perceptual measures of soreness of 16 elite Rugby athletes were monitored during a training week. Training load was obtained for field training sessions, extra conditioning and gym-based sessions. Perceptual fatigue was obtained every morning from a 5-item wellness questionnaire and a questionnaire on the muscle soreness of 9 different muscle sites from each side of the body. Neuromuscular performance was obtained from a countermovement jump. Although the training performed on day 4 had a significantly (psoreness and neuromuscular performance were more adversely effected after the cumulative workloads of days 1 and 2. Moreover, the effect of training load on muscle soreness was only evident in the lower body muscles. Data from the present study also suggest that two days off training are adequate for complete recovery from a high load training week in elite Rugby athletes. There were no significant differences in soreness ratings between left and right sides for any of the 9 muscles sites. There was a clear effect of training load on soreness and neuromuscular fatigue, with greater fatigue following two training days in a row when compared to a single training day. Monitoring soreness from different lower body muscle sites may provide important information that relates to the fatigue levels of Rugby athletes and therefore it is recommended to be included as part of the training load monitoring protocol.

  8. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent possible reexposure and reinfestation. Bedding and clothing worn or used next to the skin anytime during the 3 days before treatment should be machine washed and dried using the hot water and hot dryer cycles or be dry-cleaned. ...

  9. Particle motion in fluidised beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, M.G.

    1999-07-01

    Gas fluidised beds are important components in many process industries, e.g. coal combustors and granulators, but not much is known about the movement of the solids. Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) enables the movement of a single, radioactive tracer particle to be followed rapidly and faithfully. Experiments were carried out in columns sized between 70 and 240mm. diameter, operating in the bubbling regime at ambient process conditions using particles of group B and D (Geldart Classification). Particle motion was tracked and the data applied to models for particle movement at the gas distributor as well as close to other surfaces and to models for particle circulation in beds of cohesive particles. In the light of these data, models for particle and bubble interaction, particle circulation, segregation, attrition, erosion, heat transfer and fluidised bed scale-up rules were reassessed. Particle motion is directly caused by bubble motion, and their velocities were found to be equal for particles travelling in a bubble. PEPT enables particle circulation to be measured, giving a more accurate correlation for future predictions. Particle motion follows the scale-up rules based on similarities of the bubble motion in the bed. A new group of parameters was identified controlling the amount of attrition in fluidised beds and a new model to predict attrition is proposed. (author)

  10. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  11. Effects of protein supplements on muscle damage, soreness and recovery of muscle function and physical performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Lieberman, Harris R; McLellan, Tom M

    2014-05-01

    Protein supplements are frequently consumed by athletes and recreationally-active individuals, although the decision to purchase and consume protein supplements is often based on marketing claims rather than evidence-based research. To provide a systematic and comprehensive analysis of literature examining the hypothesis that protein supplements enhance recovery of muscle function and physical performance by attenuating muscle damage and soreness following a previous bout of exercise. English language articles were searched with PubMed and Google Scholar using protein and supplements together with performance, exercise, competition and muscle, alone or in combination as keywords. Inclusion criteria required studies to recruit healthy adults less than 50 years of age and to evaluate the effects of protein supplements alone or in combination with carbohydrate on performance metrics including time-to-exhaustion, time-trial or isometric or isokinetic muscle strength and markers of muscle damage and soreness. Twenty-seven articles were identified of which 18 dealt exclusively with ingestion of protein supplements to reduce muscle damage and soreness and improve recovery of muscle function following exercise, whereas the remaining 9 articles assessed muscle damage as well as performance metrics during single or repeat bouts of exercise. Papers were evaluated based on experimental design and examined for confounders that explain discrepancies between studies such as dietary control, training state of participants, sample size, direct or surrogate measures of muscle damage, and sensitivity of the performance metric. High quality and consistent data demonstrated there is no apparent relationship between recovery of muscle function and ratings of muscle soreness and surrogate markers of muscle damage when protein supplements are consumed prior to, during or after a bout of endurance or resistance exercise. There also appears to be insufficient experimental data

  12. Study of the Effectiveness of Vibration in Reduction of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Resulting after Therapeutic Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayam-Bashi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS is a common strain resulting during therapeutic exercise with eccentric contractions. This pain can result in loss of interest by the patient and eventually in cancellation of the routine. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether vibration could have an affect on delayed onset muscle soreness. We hypothesized that the vibration training would decrease DOMS. Methods: Subjects comprised of 30 male athletes aged 18-26 years. The athletes were involved in regular sports activities since at least three years. Subjects were assigned randomly into two VT (n=15 and Non-VT (n=15 groups. The measurements included the flexed knee angle (FANG, pressure pain threshold (PPT, muscle soreness (SOR of right quadriceps muscle and maximal isometric force (MIF of both quadriceps muscles together (Base-line. A vibrator was used to apply 50 Hz vibration on the left and right quadriceps muscles for 1 min in the VT group. Then both groups trained eccentric exercise. All parameters were determined again 24 hours post-exercise (After- activity. Results: All subjects showed a loss in MIF, decrease in PPT, FANG and increase in SOR 24h after eccentric exercise (p=0/000. But the parameters were statistically significantly different in the VT and Non-VT groups [MIF (p=0/000, PPT (p=0/001, FANG (p=0/02, SOR (p=0/003]. Conclusion: Therapeutic exercise with eccentric contractions results in DOMS, but vibration training before exercise is effective and beneficial in decreasing DOMS.

  13. The Effect of Pharyngeal Packing during Nasal Surgery on the Incidence of Post Operative Nausea, Vomiting, and Sore Throat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karbasfrushan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nausea and vomiting after ear, nose and throat (ENT surgery is one of the most common and notable problems facing anesthesiologists in this area. This study was conducted to determine the effect of a pharyngeal pack on the severity of nausea, vomiting, and sore throat among patients after ear, pharynx, and throat surgeries.   Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical study was performed in 140 patients (61 men and 79 women; age range, 20–40 years who had undergone nasal surgery in 2010. Patients were divided into two groups: the first group were treated using a pharyngeal pack (case group and the second group were managed without a pharyngeal pack (control group. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney U test. SPSS software was used for data analysis.   Results: The mean severity of nausea and vomiting in the two groups was 2.057, 1.371 and 1.100, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. However, the mean severity of sore throat was 1.714 in the group with the pharyngeal pack and 1.385 in the group without pharyngeal pack (P=0.010.   Conclusion:  Not only does a pharyngeal pack in ENT surgery not reduce the extent and severity of nausea and vomiting, but it also increases the severity of sore throat in patients when leaving the recovery room and discharging hospital.

  14. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of acetaminophen extended release for treatment of post-marathon muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Mary Jane; Lavins, B Joseph; Cooper, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of acetaminophen extended release (ER) caplets to placebo in treating muscle soreness after a marathon. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of participants ≥ 18 years old, who completed a marathon and experienced muscle soreness rated at least 4 on a 0-to-10 numerical rating scale. The intent-to-treat efficacy analysis included 610 participants. Participants were screened for eligibility before the marathon, and reported to the study tent after the marathon. On confirming eligibility, participants were randomly assigned to 4 days of 3-times-daily treatment of either acetaminophen ER 1300 mg (n=307) or placebo (n=303). Participants treated with acetaminophen ER reported a significantly (Psoreness on the day of the marathon (day 1) (-0.79) than did placebo (-0.36). In addition, the adjusted mean average interference with sleep was significantly lower for acetaminophen ER (2.14) than for placebo (2.52, P=0.0046). The adjusted mean overall satisfaction with treatment was significantly higher for acetaminophen ER (5.38) than for placebo (4.64, P=0.0060). Adverse events were reported by 3.7% of participants, with no clinically important difference between treatment groups. No serious adverse events were reported. Acetaminophen ER 1300 mg, a nonprescription drug, was an effective treatment for post-race muscle soreness on the day of the marathon. In addition, acetaminophen ER provided benefit for interference with sleep and overall satisfaction with treatment, and was generally well tolerated.

  15. Effects of Aroma Gargling, Cold Water Gargling, and Wet Gauze Application on Thirst, Halitosis, and Sore Throat of Patients After Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyung Eun; Song, Ae Ran; Sok, Sohyune R

    This study compared and examined the effects of aroma gargling, cold water gargling, and wet gauze application on thirst, halitosis, and sore throat in patients after spine surgery. A quasiexperimental pretest/posttest control group design was employed. Samples were total 70 patients (aroma gargling: 24 samples, cold gargling: 24 samples, and wet gauze: 22 samples) after spine surgery in K Hospital in Seoul, Korea. The aroma gargle solution as an experimental intervention was prepared by blending peppermint, tea tree, and lemon oils at a ratio of 1:2:2. A 60 cc of aroma gargle solution was used 3 times for 15 to 20 seconds. The visual analog scale was used to measure the degrees of thirst and sore throat, and a portable device was used to examine the degree of halitosis. There were significant differences in the degrees of thirst, halitosis, and sore throat according to interaction between group and duration. In the comparison among 3 groups, aroma gargling provided better oral health by decreasing thirst, halitosis, and sore throat for patients with spine surgery. Aroma gargling can be utilized as an effective nursing intervention for decreasing thirst, halitosis, and sore throat for patients with spine surgery in clinical practice. Results suggest, therefore, that health professionals should consider an array of methods including aroma gargling for patients after spine surgery.

  16. Effect of a concentric warm-up exercise on eccentrically induced soreness and loss of function of the elbow flexor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Stephen A; van Someren, Ken A; Howatson, Glyn

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of concentric warm-up exercise on eccentrically induced changes in muscle strength, range of motion, and soreness of the elbow flexors. Ten resistance-exercise naive participants performed intermittent incremental eccentric actions (42 in total) of the elbow flexor muscles of each arm to induce muscle damage. The arms of each participant were randomly assigned either to a pre-eccentric exercise warm-up involving intermittent concentric exercise (warm-up) or no prior exercise (control). Strength, range of motion, and ratings of soreness were recorded before and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 days after exercise. Strength, range of motion, and soreness during muscular movements changed over time (P at most 0.01; Cohen's d at least 0.51, medium). There was an interaction (P soreness was reduced for the warm-up group, while the muscle was flexed, extended, and relaxed compared with control (P soreness after eccentric-exercise-induced muscle damage and might allow higher intensities of training to be performed.

  17. Host-Seeking Behavior in the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernard R. Lewis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The reemergence of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, has recently spawned a frenzy of public, media, and academic attention. In response to the growing rate of infestation, considerable work has been focused on identifying the various host cues utilized by the bed bug in search of a meal. Most of these behavioral studies examine movement within a confined environment, such as a Petri dish. This has prevented a more complete understanding of the insect’s host-seeking process. This work describes a novel method for studying host-seeking behavior, using various movement parameters, in a time-lapse photography system. With the use of human breath as an attractant, we qualitatively and quantitatively assessed how bed bugs navigate their environment between its harborage and the host. Levels of behavioral activity varied dramatically between bed bugs in the presence and absence of host odor. Bed bugs demonstrated not simply activation, but attraction to the chemical components of breath. Localized, stop-start host-seeking behavior or alternating periods of movement and pause were observed among bed bugs placed in the environment void of human breath, while those exposed to human breath demonstrated long range, stop-start host-seeking behavior. A more comprehensive understanding of bed bug host-seeking can lead to the development of traps and monitors that account for unique subtleties in their behavior. The time-lapse photography system uses a large, artificial environment and could also be employed to study other aspects of the insect’s behavioral patterns.

  18. Particle Bed Reactor scaling relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.; Araj, K.; Horn, F.L.; Ludewig, H.; Benenati, R.

    1987-01-01

    Scaling relationships for Particle Bed Reactors (PBRs) are discussed. The particular applications are short duration systems, i.e., for propulsion or burst power. Particle Bed Reactors can use a wide selection of different moderators and reflectors and be designed for such a wide range of power and bed power densities. Additional design considerations include the effect of varying the number of fuel elements, outlet Mach number in hot gas channel, etc. All of these variables and options result in a wide range of reactor weights and performance. Extremely light weight reactors (approximately 1 kg/MW) are possible with the appropriate choice of moderator/reflector and power density. Such systems are very attractive for propulsion systems where parasitic weight has to be minimized

  19. Fluidized-bed nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmett, E.S.; Kunze, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    A reactor vessel containing a fluidized-bed region of particulate material including both a neutron-moderating and a fertile substance is described. A gas flow including fissile material passes through the vessel at a sufficient rate to fluidize the particulate material and at a sufficient density to support a thermal fission reaction within the fluidized-bed region. The high-temperature portion of a heat transfer system is located within the fluidized-bed region of the reactor vessel in direct contact with the fluidized particles. Heat released by fission is thereby transferred at an enhanced rate to a coolant circulating within the heat transfer system. Fission products are continuously removed from the gas flow and supplemental fissile material added during the reactor operation. (U.S.)

  20. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A "randomized"/stratified, single-blinded, parallel-group study. OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate 3 structurally different mattresses relative influence on patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In several advertisements, it is proclaimed that certain...... using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...

  1. Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness: Temporal Assessment With Quantitative MRI and Shear-Wave Ultrasound Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agten, Christoph A; Buck, Florian M; Dyer, Linda; Flück, Martin; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Rosskopf, Andrea B

    2017-02-01

    The objective of our study was to assess delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) over time using quantitative MRI and shear-wave ultrasound (US) elastography. Five male (mean age ± SD, 39.6 ± 4.6 years) and five female (30.6 ± 13.5 years) volunteers underwent 1.5-T MRI before and after (15 minutes, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days) performing unilateral eccentric resistance exercise of the elbow flexor muscles. The MRI examinations included fluid-sensitive, DWI, and diffusion-tensor imaging sequences of the distal upper arm. Muscle edema, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA) were assessed. US of the brachialis muscle was performed before and after (15 minutes, 12 hours, 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 7 days) exercise to measure mean shear-wave velocity (SWV). Pain and muscle tightness were assessed. For men, muscle edema was moderate and peaked 3 days after exercise; for women, muscle edema was mild and peaked 1-3 days after exercise. ADC was highest 3 days after exercise in men (mean, 1809.22 × 10 -6 mm 2 /s; before exercise, 1529.88 × 10 -6 mm 2 /s) and women (1741.90 × 10 -6 mm 2 /s; before exercise, 1475.80 × 10 -6 mm 2 /s). FA dropped from 361.00 in men and 389.00 in women before exercise to a minimum of 252.12 and 321.28, respectively, 3 days after exercise. Mean SWV increased after exercise in men (before exercise, 3.00 ± 0.30 m/s; peak [15 minutes after exercise], 4.04 ± 0.90 m/s) and women (before, 2.82 ± 0.40 m/s; peak [1 day after exercise], 3.23 ± 0.40 m/s) and subsequently returned to normal. In men, the ADC values of the brachialis muscle positively correlated with mean SWV (r = 0.92, p = 0.028). FA negatively correlated with pain in men (r = -0.993, p = 0.001) Muscle edema outlasted clinical symptoms in most volunteers. FA inversely correlates with pain and may be a useful imaging parameter for assessment of DOMS. Shear-wave US elastography shows a temporary increase of muscle stiffness after DOMS-inducing exercise but does not

  2. TRPV1 and TRPV4 play pivotal roles in delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Ota

    Full Text Available Unaccustomed strenuous exercise that includes lengthening contraction (LC often causes tenderness and movement related pain after some delay (delayed-onset muscle soreness, DOMS. We previously demonstrated that nerve growth factor (NGF and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF are up-regulated in exercised muscle through up-regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX-2, and they sensitized nociceptors resulting in mechanical hyperalgesia. There is also a study showing that transient receptor potential (TRP ion channels are involved in DOMS. Here we examined whether and how TRPV1 and/or TRPV4 are involved in DOMS. We firstly evaluated a method to measure the mechanical withdrawal threshold of the deep tissues in wild-type (WT mice with a modified Randall-Selitto apparatus. WT, TRPV1-/- and TRPV4-/- mice were then subjected to LC. Another group of mice received injection of murine NGF-2.5S or GDNF to the lateral gastrocnemius (LGC muscle. Before and after these treatments the mechanical withdrawal threshold of LGC was evaluated. The change in expression of NGF, GDNF and COX-2 mRNA in the muscle was examined using real-time RT-PCR. In WT mice, mechanical hyperalgesia was observed 6-24 h after LC and 1-24 h after NGF and GDNF injection. LC induced mechanical hyperalgesia neither in TRPV1-/- nor in TRPV4-/- mice. NGF injection induced mechanical hyperalgesia in WT and TRPV4-/- mice but not in TRPV1-/- mice. GDNF injection induced mechanical hyperalgesia in WT but neither in TRPV1-/- nor in TRPV4-/- mice. Expression of NGF and COX-2 mRNA was significantly increased 3 h after LC in all genotypes. However, GDNF mRNA did not increase in TRPV4-/- mice. These results suggest that TRPV1 contributes to DOMS downstream (possibly at nociceptors of NGF and GDNF, while TRPV4 is located downstream of GDNF and possibly also in the process of GDNF up-regulation.

  3. Combined effect of branched-chain amino acids and taurine supplementation on delayed onset muscle soreness and muscle damage in high-intensity eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Miyazaki, Teruo; Ishikura, Keisuke; Nagayama, Hisashi; Komine, Shoichi; Nakata, Yoshio; Maeda, Seiji; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Ohmori, Hajime

    2013-11-06

    Previous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation for preventing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and muscle damage induced by eccentric exercise, their findings have been inconclusive. Since taurine has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, the present study investigated the combined effect of BCAA and taurine on DOMS and muscle damage. Thirty-six untrained male subjects (22.5 ± 3.8 years) were assigned to four groups (placebo + placebo [placebo], BCAA + placebo, placebo + taurine, and BCAA + taurine [combined]) and given a combination of 3.2 g BCAA (or placebo) and 2.0 g taurine (or placebo), three times a day, for two weeks prior to and three days after eccentric elbow flexor exercises. DOMS and muscle damage in the biceps brachii were subjectively and objectively evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS), upper arm circumference (CIR), and blood parameters (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], aldolase, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]). In the combined group, VAS and 8-OHdG two days after exercise, CIR two and three days after exercise and LDH from one to three days after exercise were significantly lower than the placebo group. The area under the curve from before exercise to four days later for CIR, LDH, and aldolase was also significantly lower in the combined group than in the placebo group. A combination of 3.2 g BCAA and 2.0 g taurine, three times a day, for two weeks prior to and three days after exercise may be a useful nutritional strategy for attenuating exercise-induced DOMS and muscle damage.

  4. Combined effect of branched-chain amino acids and taurine supplementation on delayed onset muscle soreness and muscle damage in high-intensity eccentric exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation for preventing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and muscle damage induced by eccentric exercise, their findings have been inconclusive. Since taurine has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, the present study investigated the combined effect of BCAA and taurine on DOMS and muscle damage. Methods Thirty-six untrained male subjects (22.5 ± 3.8 years) were assigned to four groups (placebo + placebo [placebo], BCAA + placebo, placebo + taurine, and BCAA + taurine [combined]) and given a combination of 3.2 g BCAA (or placebo) and 2.0 g taurine (or placebo), three times a day, for two weeks prior to and three days after eccentric elbow flexor exercises. DOMS and muscle damage in the biceps brachii were subjectively and objectively evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS), upper arm circumference (CIR), and blood parameters (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], aldolase, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]). Results In the combined group, VAS and 8-OHdG two days after exercise, CIR two and three days after exercise and LDH from one to three days after exercise were significantly lower than the placebo group. The area under the curve from before exercise to four days later for CIR, LDH, and aldolase was also significantly lower in the combined group than in the placebo group. Conclusion A combination of 3.2 g BCAA and 2.0 g taurine, three times a day, for two weeks prior to and three days after exercise may be a useful nutritional strategy for attenuating exercise-induced DOMS and muscle damage. PMID:24195702

  5. Apparatus and process for controlling fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1985-10-01

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  6. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  7. Impact of thermal loading and other water quality parameters on the epizootiology of red-sore disease in centrarchids. Progress report, December 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1978-07-01

    The implications from these studies are varied, sometimes clear and sometimes less so, for many of the results have raised new and even more critical questions. Thus, our data clearly show that Aeromonas hydrophila is the etiological agent for red-sore disease. Furthermore, they suggest that the effects of temperature are twofold, first in increasing the density of the pathogen in the water column and then in affecting the physiology of the host organism to such an extent as to increase the probability of acquiring the pathogen. On the other hand, organic loading, suggested by other investigators as being important in red-sore disease, was not identified as being significant in the present study. However, if organic loading, or any of its consequences, can be shown to induce stress, then it may be as important in other systems as temperature is in Par Pond. Thus it is quite conceivable that it (organic loading), or some other water quality parameter, may create conditions conducive to increasing densities of A. hydrophila while simultaneously producing water quality characteristics which would lead to stress in fish, and then to increasing the probability of fish acquiring red-sore disease. An enigmatic observation (see Hazen, 1978, for details) is that A. hydrophila has been recovered from a variety of habitats throughout the U.S., yet red-sore disease is known to occur only in the southeast. This peculiar distribution pattern raises several important questions regarding the epizootiology of red-sore, not the least of which is the possibility of there existing differentially virulent strains of A. hydrophila and/or more or less susceptible populations of potential hosts in various parts of the country. Other significant questions are related to the variability in amplitude of red-sore disease from one year to the next among bass in Par Pond, the mode of entry of the pathogen into largemouth bass, and the basic, cellular mechanisms of stress in largemouth bass.

  8. Impact of thermal loading and other water quality parameters on the epizootiology of red-sore disease in centrarchids. Progress report, December 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1978-07-01

    The implications from these studies are varied, sometimes clear and sometimes less so, for many of the results have raised new and even more critical questions. Thus, our data clearly show that Aeromonas hydrophila is the etiological agent for red-sore disease. Furthermore, they suggest that the effects of temperature are twofold, first in increasing the density of the pathogen in the water column and then in affecting the physiology of the host organism to such an extent as to increase the probability of acquiring the pathogen. On the other hand, organic loading, suggested by other investigators as being important in red-sore disease, was not identified as being significant in the present study. However, if organic loading, or any of its consequences, can be shown to induce stress, then it may be as important in other systems as temperature is in Par Pond. Thus it is quite conceivable that it (organic loading), or some other water quality parameter, may create conditions conducive to increasing densities of A. hydrophila while simultaneously producing water quality characteristics which would lead to stress in fish, and then to increasing the probability of fish acquiring red-sore disease. An enigmatic observation (see Hazen, 1978, for details) is that A. hydrophila has been recovered from a variety of habitats throughout the U.S., yet red-sore disease is known to occur only in the southeast. This peculiar distribution pattern raises several important questions regarding the epizootiology of red-sore, not the least of which is the possibility of there existing differentially virulent strains of A. hydrophila and/or more or less susceptible populations of potential hosts in various parts of the country. Other significant questions are related to the variability in amplitude of red-sore disease from one year to the next among bass in Par Pond, the mode of entry of the pathogen into largemouth bass, and the basic, cellular mechanisms of stress in largemouth bass

  9. The effects of thermal softening of double-lumen endobronchial tubes on postoperative sore throat, hoarseness and vocal cord injuries: a prospective double-blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, J-H; Cho, C W; Hong, D M; Jeon, Y; Bahk, J-H

    2016-02-01

    It is well known that thermal softening of polyvinyl chloride tracheal tubes reduces nasal damage during nasotracheal intubation. We hypothesized that thermal softening of double-lumen endobronchial tubes (DLTs) may be effective for reducing airway injury. This randomized double-blind study was performed to investigate whether thermal softening of DLTs decreased postoperative sore throat, hoarseness or vocal cord injuries. Patients (n=140) undergoing one lung anaesthesia were randomized into two groups (n=70 each) depending on whether the DLT was softened by warming or not before tracheal intubation. The DLTs were placed in warm saline [40(1)°C] in the thermal softening group or in room temperature saline in the control group for 10 min. The vocal cords were examined by using flexible laryngoscopy immediately after extubation. Sore throat and hoarseness were evaluated for three postoperative days. The primary outcomes were the incidence of sore throat, hoarseness, and vocal cord injuries. Sore throat and vocal cord injuries occurred less frequently in the thermal softening group than in the control group [14/70 vs 27/70, risk ratio (95% CI): 0.52 (0.30-0.90), P=0.025 for sore throat; 15/70 vs 27/70, risk ratio (95% CI): 0.56 (0.32-0.95), P=0.042 for vocal cord injuries]. However, the incidence of hoarseness was comparable between the two groups. Tracheal intubation with DLTs softened by warming decreased the postoperative incidence of sore throat and vocal cord injuries. Therefore, thermal softening of DLTs before intubation seems to be helpful in reducing airway injuries associated with DLT intubation. NCT 01626365. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Blood flow after contraction and cuff occlusion is reduced in subjects with muscle soreness after eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Silva, E; Christensen, S W; Hirata, R P; Larsen, R G; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2018-01-01

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) occurs within 1-2 days after eccentric exercise, but the mechanism mediating hypersensitivity is unclear. This study hypothesized that eccentric exercise reduces the blood flow response following muscle contractions and cuff occlusion, which may result in accumulated algesic substances being a part of the sensitization in DOMS. Twelve healthy subjects (five women) performed dorsiflexion exercise (five sets of 10 repeated eccentric contractions) in one leg, while the contralateral leg was the control. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the tibialis anterior muscle was recorded. Blood flow was assessed by ultrasound Doppler on the anterior tibialis artery (ATA) and within the anterior tibialis muscle tissue before and immediately after 1-second MVC, 5-seconds MVC, and 5-minutes thigh cuff occlusion. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded on the tibialis anterior muscle. All measures were done bilaterally at day 0 (pre-exercise), day 2, and day 6 (post-exercise). Subjects scored the muscle soreness on a Likert scale for 6 days. Eccentric exercise increased Likert scores at day 1 and day 2 compared with day 0 (Pcontraction/occlusion blood flow (~16%, Peccentric contractions decreased vessel diameter, impaired the blood flow response, and promoted hyperalgesia. Thus, the results suggest that the blood flow reduction may be involved in the increased pain response after eccentric exercise. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effects of a combined protein and antioxidant supplement on recovery of muscle function and soreness following eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Stephen J; Bloom, Samuel; Matias, Alexs; Morrow, Noelle; Martins, Natalya; Roh, Yookee; Ebenstein, Daniel; O'Brien, Gabriel; Escudero, Daniela; Brito, Kevin; Glickman, Leah; Connelly, Scott; Arciero, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    An acute bout of eccentric contractions (ECC) cause muscle fiber damage, inflammation, impaired muscle function (MF) and muscle soreness (MS). Individually, protein (PRO) and antioxidant (AO) supplementation may improve some aspects of recovery from ECC, though have yet to be combined. We sought to determine if combined PRO and AO supplementation (PRO + AO) improves MS and MF following damaging ECC over PRO alone. Sixty sedentary college-aged males participated in a randomized, single-blind, parallel design study of peak isometric torque (PIMT), peak isokinetic torque (PIKT), thigh circumference (TC), and muscle soreness (MS) of knee extensor muscles measured at baseline, immediately after and 1, 2, 6, and 24 h after completion of 100 maximal ECC. Immediately, 6 h, and 22 h post-ECC, participants consumed either: carbohydrate control (CHO; n  = 14), PRO ( n  = 16), or PRO + AO ( n  = 17). At baseline MS, TC, MF, macro- and micro-nutrient intakes, and total work during the ECC were not different between groups ( p  > 0.05). PIMT and PIKT (both -25%∆), TC (~1%∆) and MS (~35%∆) all changed with time ( p   CHO, p   PRO & CHO, p  < 0.05). Our results suggest PRO facilitates recovery of muscle function within 24 h following ECC, and addition of AO ameliorates MS more than PRO or CHO alone.

  12. Intramuscular Perfusion Response in Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS): A Quantitative Analysis with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Marion; Heiss, Rafael; Swoboda, Bernd; Gelse, Kolja; Freiwald, Jürgen; Grim, Casper; Nagel, Armin; Uder, Michael; Wildner, Dane; Hotfiel, Thilo

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse intramuscular perfusion response in ultrastructural muscle lesions, by applying contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to a delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) model. Results of this analysis were compared to high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI T2-weighted sequences. 14 healthy participants were recruited. Average perfusion parameters, represented as Peak enhancement (contrast agent inflow) and wash-in area under curve (WiAUC) of the gastrocnemius (GM) and soleus muscle (SM) were assessed before (baseline) and 60 h after inducing DOMS by eccentric exercise. Additionally, conventional ultrasound, high-resolution 3T MRI, creatine kinase level, range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joint, calf circumference and muscle soreness data were collected. Perfusion quantification revealed a statistically significant increase of intramuscular perfusion, corresponding to an increase in peak enhancement of 129.6% (p=0.0031) and in WiAUC of 115.2% (p=0.0107) in the gastrocnemius muscle at post-intervention. At follow-up, the MRI investigations showed intramuscular oedema for GM in all participants corresponding to a significant rise in T2 signal intensity (p=0.001) and in T2 time value (p=0.005). CEUS seems to be able to detect intramuscular perfusion changes and therefore may contribute to gaining deeper insight into the histopathology, inflammatory reactions and regeneration processes of ultrastructural muscle lesions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Soreness during non-music activities is associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems: an observational study of 731 child and adolescent instrumentalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ranelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Question: Is exposure to non-music-related activities associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems in young instrumentalists? Is non-music-activity-related soreness associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems in this group of instrumentalists? Design: Observational study using a questionnaire and physical measures. Participants: 859 instrumentalists aged 7 to 17 years from the School of Instrumental Music program. Results: Of the 731 respondents who completed the questionnaire adequately, 412 (56% experienced instrument-playing problems; 219 (30% had symptoms severe enough to interfere with normal playing. Children commonly reported moderate exposure to non-music-related activities, such as watching television (61%, vigorous physical activity (57%, writing (51% and computer use (45%. Greater exposure to any non-music activity was not associated with playing problems, with odds ratios ranging from 1.01 (95% CI 0.7 to 1.5 for watching television to 2.08 (95% CI 0.5 to 3.3 for intensive hand activities. Four hundred and seventy eight (65% children reported soreness related to non-music activities, such as vigorous physical activity (52%, writing (40%, computer use (28%, intensive hand activities (22%, electronic game use (17% and watching television (15%. Non-music-activity-related soreness was significantly associated with instrument playing problems, adjusting for gender and age, with odds ratios ranging from 2.6 (95% CI 1.7 to 3.9 for soreness whilst watching television, to 4.3 (95% CI 2.6 to 7.1 for soreness during intensive hand activities. Conclusion: Non-music-activity-related soreness co-occurs significantly with playing problems in young instrumentalists. The finding of significant co-occurrence of music and non-music-related soreness in respondents in this study suggests that intervention targets for young instrumentalists could include risk factors previously identified in the general child and adolescent

  14. Protecting Your Home from Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your home: Inspect the luggage rack in your hotel room for bed bugs. Check secondhand furniture, beds, ... Grants January 19, 2017 Web Snapshot No FEAR Act Data Privacy Privacy and Security Notice Connect. Data. ...

  15. EPA-Registered Bed Bug Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat your bed bug infestation. Foggers and bug bombs should not be used as the only method ... effective but take some time to kill the population); or Bed bugs’ becoming resistant to a specific ...

  16. The Relationship Between Training Load and Injury, Illness and Soreness: A Systematic and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Michael K; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-06-01

    Clinically it is understood that rapid increases in training loads expose an athlete to an increased risk of injury; however, there are no systematic reviews to qualify this statement. The aim of this systematic review was to determine training and competition loads, and the relationship between injury, illness and soreness. The MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL and EMBASE databases were searched using a predefined search strategy. Studies were included if they analysed the relationship between training or competition loads and injury or illness, and were published prior to October 2015. Participants were athletes of any age or level of competition. The quality of the studies included in the review was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The level of evidence was defined as strong, 'consistent findings among multiple high-quality randomised controlled trials (RCTs)'; moderate, 'consistent findings among multiple low-quality RCTs and/or non-randomised controlled trials (CCTs) and/or one high-quality RCT'; limited, 'one low-quality RCT and/or CCTs, conflicting evidence'; conflicting, 'inconsistent findings among multiple trials (RCTs and/or CCTs)'; or no evidence, 'no RCTs or CCTs'. A total of 799 studies were identified; 23 studies met the inclusion criteria, and a further 12 studies that were not identified in the search but met the inclusion criteria were subsequently added to the review. The largest number of studies evaluated the relationship between injuries and training load in rugby league players (n = 9) followed by cricket (n = 5), football (n = 3), Australian Football (n = 3), rugby union (n = 2),volleyball (n = 2), baseball (n = 2), water polo (n = 1), rowing (n = 1), basketball (n = 1), swimming (n = 1), middle-distance runners (n = 1) and various sports combined (n = 1). Moderate evidence for a significant relationship was observed between training loads and injury incidence in the majority of studies (n = 27, 93

  17. Relationship between physical exercise, muscle damage and delayed-onset muscle soreness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Foschini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between physical exercise involving muscle damage and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS. A literature review of national and international periodicals was carried out. Muscle structures (membranes, Z-line, sarcomeres, T tubules and myofi brils can become damaged as a result of an imposed mechanical overload. Of greatest note are exercises requiring strength, particularly when muscular action is eccentric. Damage to skeletal musculature can be analyzed by direct methods (muscle biopsy or magnetic resonance or by indirect methods (maximum voluntary movement, subjective pain perception scales, analysis of enzyme and protein concentrations in blood. Creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, myosin heavy chain fragments, troponin-I and myoglobin can be used as indirect markers of muscle damage. Both DOMS and muscle damage can be infl uenced by the type of activity, with emphasis on eccentric muscle movements, type of exercise, velocity of the movement, interval period between series, the level of individual fi tness, this last primarily affecting beginners. When myotrauma occurs, muscle damage repair is initiated by leukocytes migrating to the injured area, although, the histamines, prostaglandins, kinins and K+ produced by neutrophils and macrophages stimulate free nerve endings in the muscle, causing the DOMS. Despite this apparent relationship between muscle damage and DOMS, it is not possible toestablish a linear relationship between these two variables, since published data are divergent. RESUMO O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar as relações do exercício físico com o dano muscular e dor muscular de início tardio (DMIT. Para tanto, foi realizada uma revisão de literatura de periódicos nacionais e internacionais. O dano muscular pode ocorrer em estruturas musculares (membranas, linha Z, sarcolema, túbulos T e miofi brilas em função da sobrecarga mec

  18. Physiological and Functional Alterations after Spaceflight and Bed Rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Miller, Chris A; Kofman, Igor S; Reschke, Millard F; Taylor, Laura C; Lawrence, Emily L; Wood, Scott J; Laurie, Steven S; Lee, Stuart M C; Buxton, Roxanne E; May-Phillips, Tiffany R; Stenger, Michael B; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L; Ryder, Jeffrey W; Feiveson, Alan H; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2018-04-03

    Exposure to microgravity causes alterations in multiple physiological systems, potentially impacting the ability of astronauts to perform critical mission tasks. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight on functional task performance and to identify the key physiological factors contributing to their deficits. A test battery comprised of 7 functional tests and 15 physiological measures was used to investigate the sensorimotor, cardiovascular and neuromuscular adaptations to spaceflight. Astronauts were tested before and after 6-month spaceflights. Subjects were also tested before and after 70 days of 6° head-down bed rest, a spaceflight analog, to examine the role of axial body unloading on the spaceflight results. These subjects included Control and Exercise groups to examine the effects of exercise during bed rest. Spaceflight subjects showed the greatest decrement in performance during functional tasks that required the greatest demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium which was paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests that assessed postural and dynamic gait control. Other changes included reduced lower limb muscle performance and increased heart rate to maintain blood pressure. Exercise performed during bed rest prevented detrimental change in neuromuscular and cardiovascular function, however, both bed rest groups experienced functional and balance deficits similar to spaceflight subjects. Bed rest data indicates that body support unloading experienced during spaceflight contributes to postflight postural control dysfunction. Further, the bed rest results in the Exercise group of subjects confirm that resistance and aerobic exercises performed during spaceflight can play an integral role in maintaining neuromuscular and cardiovascular function, which can help in reducing decrements in functional performance. These results indicate that a countermeasure to mitigate postflight postural control dysfunction is

  19. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

    1995-07-25

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

  20. Designing a CR Test bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Buthler, Jakob Lindbjerg; Tonelli, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    with their own set up, since the potential costs and efforts could not pay back in term of expected research results. Software Defined Radio solutions offer an easy way to communication researchers for the development of customized research test beds. While several hardware products are commercially available......Research on intelligent and reconfigurable wireless systems is in continuous evolution. Nevertheless, in order to fix some keystones, more and more researchers are entering the idea of research-oriented test beds. Unfortunately, it is very difficult for a wide number of research groups to start......, the software is most of the times open source and ready to use for third party users. Even though the software solution developers claim complete easiness in the development of custom applications, in reality there are a number of practical hardware and software issues that research groups need to face, before...

  1. Review of acute cancer beds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2012-01-01

    A review of admissions to cancer services at University Hospital Galway (UHG) was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of hospital usage. All cancer specialty patients admitted from 26-28 May 2009 were reviewed (n = 82). Chi square tests, Exact tests, and One-way ANOVA were utilised to analyse key issues emerging from the data. Fifty (61%) were classified as emergencies. Twenty three (67%) occupied a designated cancer bed with 24 (30%) in outlying non-oncology wards. The mean length of stay was 29.3 days. Possible alternatives to admission were identified for 15 (19%) patients. There was no evidence of discharge planning for 50 (60%) admissions. There is considerable potential to make more appropriate utilisation of UHG for cancer patients, particularly in terms of reducing bed days and length of stay and the proportion of emergency cancer admissions, and further developing integrated systems of discharge planning.

  2. Device for measuring bed pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulin, B.M.; Chubar, V.G.

    1979-03-05

    The invention refers to studies in wells and is designed for piezomeasurements for the processes of undergrond leaching out associated with the movement of fluids of variable density to the productive beds. The purpose of he invention is to increase the accuracy of measurements of bed pressure by reducing the influence of changes of fluid density in the well. The goal is achieved because the device is equipped with a piezometric pipe arranged in the well and filled with liquid whose density is less than the density of the solution, and the transformer of the level is installed in the pipe. The pipe can have a throttle. A drawing and description of the proposed device are presented.

  3. Conventional radiology. Mobile installations in medical environment: radiographies in bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document presents the different procedures, the different types of specific hazards, the analysis of risks, their assessment and the preventive methods with regard to radioprotection in the case of mobile installations used in a medical environment to perform radiographies on patients lying on a bed. It indicates and describes the concerned personnel, the course of procedures, the hazards, the identification of the risk associated with ionizing radiation, the risk assessment and the determination of exposure levels, the strategy aimed at controlling the risk (risk reduction, technical measures concerning the installation or the personnel, teaching and information, prevention, incident), the different measures of medical monitoring, the assessment of risk control, and other risks

  4. THE BAUXITES AND JELAR - BEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Sakač

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor bauxite deposits and occurrences were formed in technically disturbed environments in the middle part of the Adriatic geotectonic unit in Dinarides, contemporary with the clastic Jelar-beds in the Late Lutetian time. Uneven chemical composition of these Eocene bauxites, their sporadic occurrences in developed paleorelief as well as characteristic petrographic composition of the immediate overlying rocks point out at different genetical conditions (the paper is published in Croatian.

  5. Dynometer test bed (fact sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Dell, K.

    2000-04-24

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Dynamometer Test Bed is one of a kind. It offers wind industry engineers a unique opportunity to conduct lifetime endurance tests on a wide range of wind turbine drivetrains and gearboxes at various speeds, using low or high torque. By testing full-scale wind turbines, engineers from NREL and industry hope to understand the impact of various wind conditions with the goal of improving hardware design.

  6. Advances in fluidized bed technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutanen, K.

    1992-01-01

    Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) has advanced into industrial cogeneration and utility-scale electric generation. During the 1980's AFBC became the dominant technology in the United States for power generation systems fired with solid fuels. Development of pressurized fluidized bed combustion/gasification (PFB/G) has grown rapidly from small bench-scale rigs to large pilot and demonstration plants. AFBC as large as 160 MWe in capacity are now in operation, while pressurized combustion systems generating 80 MWe have started up two years ago. The major driving forces behind development of fluidized bed technologies are all the time strictening emission control regulations, need for fuel flexibility, repowering of older power plants and need for higher efficiency in electricity generation. Independent power producers (IPP) and cogenerators were the first ones in the United States who accepted AFBC for wide commercial use. Their role will be dominant in the markets of the 1990's also. Developers of AFBC systems are working on designs that reduce investment costs, decrease emissions and offer even higher reliability and availability in utility-scale applications while developers of PFBC/G work on designs that increase plant efficiencies, allow modular construction, decrease emissions further and reduce the cost of generating power. This paper presents technological background, commercial status, boiler performance, emissions and future developments for both AFBC and PFBC/G systems

  7. Natural gas in coal beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, A.I.; Voytov, G.I.

    1983-01-01

    The special importance is noted of the problem of computing and careful use of the energy raw material, coal, oil and natural gases. An examination is made of the mechanism for the formation of carboniferous gases in the beds with the use of the model of coal macromolecule. A schematic section is presented for the coal field and plan for vertical gas zonality. The change in chemical composition of the natural gases with depth is governed by the countermovement of the natural gases: from top to bottom the gases of the earth's atmosphere move, mainly oxygenand nitrogen, from bottom to top, the gases of metamorphic and deep origin. Constant isotope composition of the carbon in the fossil coals is noted. The distribution of the quanitity deltaC/sup 13/ of carbon in the fossil coals of the Donets basin is illustrated. The gas content of the coal beds and gas reserves are discussed. The flowsheet is shown for the unit for degasification of the coal bed before the cleaning face.

  8. Importance of diagnostic laboratory methods of beta hemolytic streptococcus group A in comparison with clinical findings in the diagnosis of streptococcal sore throat and unnecessary antibacterial therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiman Eini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus Pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS is the most important cause of bacterial pharyngitis in children and adolescents. Acute pharyngitis is one of the most common conditions in all ages but it is most common in children. Over diagnosis of acute pharyngitis represents one of the major causes of antibiotic abuse. The goal of this study is to make an estimate of the frequency of group A streptococcus in sore throat patients in Farshchian hospital emergency department and clinic in Hamadan. Methods: For estimation of the clinical features role in diagnosis of streptococcal sore throat, we took samples of 100 patients with average age of 32.96±29.86 years with sore throat. We took samples from pharynx and used standard methods of bacteriology in order to detect streptococcus. Results: Group A Streptococcus (GAS accounts for 3 percent of all cases of pharyngitis. Clinically, all of the patients had sore throat. The percent breakdowns are as follows: 30% had exudate, 78% had fever, 8% had lymphadenopathy and 7.7 percent of exudative pharyngitis was streptococcal. The cost for unnecessary antibiotic therapy for every single patient who had negative pharynx culture was approximately 32160 Rails. Conclusion: The low frequency of streptococcus pharyngitis in treated patients reveal that diagnosis based on clinical features is not reliable. We recommend use of other diagnostic methods such as Rapid Antigen Detection Tests (RATs. Only reliable and scientific protocols for antibiotic to therapy.

  9. Linear and nonlinear analyses of multi-channel mechanomyographic recordings reveal heterogeneous activation of wrist extensors in presence of delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst A; Samani, Afshin

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we applied multi-channel mechanomyographic (MMG) recordings in combination with linear and nonlinear analyses to investigate muscular and musculotendinous effects of high intensity eccentric exercise. Twelve accelerometers arranged in a 3 × 4 matrix over the dominant elbow muscles were used to detect MMG activity in 12 healthy participants. Delayed onset muscle soreness was induced by repetitive high intensity eccentric contractions of the wrist extensor muscles. Average rectified values (ARV) as well as percentage of recurrence (%REC) and percentage of determinism (%DET) extracted from recurrence quantification analysis were computed from data obtained during static-dynamic contractions performed before exercise, immediately after exercise, and in presence of muscle soreness. A linear mixed model was used for the statistical analysis. The ARV, %REC, and %DET maps revealed heterogeneous MMG activity over the wrist extensor muscles before, immediately after, and in presence of muscle soreness (Psoreness compared with before exercise (Psoreness. Recurrence quantification analysis can be suggested as a tool for detection of MMG changes in presence of muscle soreness. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of pulsating electrostatic field application on the development of delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) symptoms after eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatterer, Hannes; Peters, Philippe; Philippe, Marc; Burtscher, Martin

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to establish whether pulsating electrostatic field application, shown to increase blood flow and metabolic activity and to function as an ion pump, is able to reduce muscle pain after exercise-induced muscle damage. [Subjects and Methods] Seven participants (4 males, 3 females) performed two sessions of downhill running separated by at least 4 weeks. After the running sessions, participants were either treated for 45 min with a pulsating electrostatic field (field intensity, 9000 V; current, soreness score, creatine kinase, and jump ability were assessed before and up to 48 hours after running. [Results] Twenty-four and 48 hours after the downhill running, the muscle soreness score tended to be less increased after pulsating electrostatic field administration when compared with the sham setting (changes in muscle soreness score: 3.7±1.6 vs. 5.7±2.2 after 24 h and 3.1±2.0 vs. 5.4±3.2 after 48 h, respectively). No further differences were detected. [Conclusion] The outcomes show that a pulsating electrostatic field might be a promising treatment to reduce muscle soreness after exercise-induced muscle damage. However, further studies are needed to confirm the present outcomes and to establish the mechanism by which a pulsating electrostatic field may reduce muscle pain.

  11. Bed agglomeration characteristics of palm shell and corncob combustion in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaivatamaset, Pawin; Sricharoon, Panchan; Tia, Suvit

    2011-01-01

    Bed particle agglomeration was studied experimentally in an atmospheric laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor using quartz sand as bed material. Palm shell and corncob were tested. The objectives of the study were (i) to describe the contributions of the biomass ash properties and the operating conditions on the bed agglomeration tendency in term of the bed defluidization time (t def ) and the extent of potassium accumulation in the bed (K/Bed) and (ii) to further elucidate the ash inorganic behaviors and the governing bed agglomeration mechanisms. Defluidization caused by the bed agglomeration was experienced in all experiments during combustion of these biomasses, as a consequence of the presence of potassium in biomass. The experimental results indicated that biomass ash characteristics were the significant influence on the bed agglomeration. The increasing bed temperature, bed particle size and static bed height and the decreasing fluidizing air velocity enhanced the bed agglomeration tendency. The SEM/EDS analyses on the agglomerates confirmed that the agglomeration was attributed to the formation of potassium silicate liquid enriched on the surface of quartz sand particles in conjunction with the high surface temperature of the burning biomass char particles. Thermodynamic examination based on the phase diagram analysis confirmed that the molten phase formation was responsible for the agglomeration. In this study, the high molten ash fraction resulting from the high potassium content in biomass promoted the agglomeration and thus defluidization. - Highlights: → Palm shell and corncob of Thailand are tested their bed agglomeration behaviors during fluidized bed combustion. → The increase of bed temperature, bed particle size and static bed height and the decrease of air velocity enhance bed agglomeration. → The formation of ash derived potassium silicate melts enriched on sand surface is the key process. → The collision between char and sand

  12. Head of the bed elevation angle recorder for intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krefft, Maciej; Zamaro-Michalska, Aleksandra; Zabołotny, Wojciech M.; Zaworski, Wojciech; Grzanka, Antoni; Łazowski, Tomasz; Tavola, Mario; Siewiera, Jacek; Mikaszewska-Sokolewicz, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a recording system optimized for long term measurement of bed headrest elevation angle in the Intensive Care Unit. The continuous monitoring of this parameter allows to find the correlation between the patient's position in bed and the risk of the Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP), a very serious problem in therapy of critically ill patients. Recorder might be be an important tool to evaluate the "care bundles" - sets of preventive procedures recommended for treatment of patients in the ICU.

  13. Soreness during non-music activities is associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems: an observational study of 731 child and adolescent instrumentalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranelli, Sonia; Straker, Leon; Smith, Anne

    2014-06-01

    Is exposure to non-music-related activities associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems in young instrumentalists? Is non-music-activity-related soreness associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems in this group of instrumentalists? Observational study using a questionnaire and physical measures. 859 instrumentalists aged 7 to 17 years from the School of Instrumental Music program. Of the 731 respondents who completed the questionnaire adequately, 412 (56%) experienced instrument-playing problems; 219 (30%) had symptoms severe enough to interfere with normal playing. Children commonly reported moderate exposure to non-music-related activities, such as watching television (61%), vigorous physical activity (57%), writing (51%) and computer use (45%). Greater exposure to any non-music activity was not associated with playing problems, with odds ratios ranging from 1.01 (95% CI 0.7 to 1.5) for watching television to 2.08 (95% CI 0.5 to 3.3) for intensive hand activities. Four hundred and seventy eight (65%) children reported soreness related to non-music activities, such as vigorous physical activity (52%), writing (40%), computer use (28%), intensive hand activities (22%), electronic game use (17%) and watching television (15%). Non-music-activity-related soreness was significantly associated with instrument playing problems, adjusting for gender and age, with odds ratios ranging from 2.6 (95% CI 1.7 to 3.9) for soreness whilst watching television, to 4.3 (95% CI 2.6 to 7.1) for soreness during intensive hand activities. Non-music-activity-related soreness co-occurs significantly with playing problems in young instrumentalists. The finding of significant co-occurrence of music and non-music-related soreness in respondents in this study suggests that intervention targets for young instrumentalists could include risk factors previously identified in the general child and adolescent population, as well as music-specific risk factors. This is an

  14. Clinical evaluation of an automated turning bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, H I; Langemo, D; Hanson, D; Olson, B; Hunter, S

    1999-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess client comfort and sleep quality, client physiologic response (skin and respiratory status), the effect on the need for caregiver assistance, and cost when using an automated turning bed. Nonexperimental, evaluative study. Twenty-four adult home or long-term care resident subjects who had a degenerative disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, cerebral palsy, or back surgery. Each subject agreed to use the automated turning bed for four weeks. Researchers completed a demographic survey and skin assessment, and assessed each subject for pressure ulcer risk and for the need of assistance of a care giver for turning before and after the four weeks of using the turning bed. Subjects rated the turning bed in terms of comfort and sleep quality. Subjects rated the turning bed as more comfortable than their own bed and expressed satisfaction at the pain relief attained when on the turning bed. While using the turning bed, there was a significant improvement in sleep quality. No skin breakdown or deterioration in respiratory status occurred. Fewer subjects required the assistance of a caregiver for turning when on the turning bed. This automated turning bed shows great promise in meeting a need for patients with limited mobility whether they are homebound or in a residential community. Future studies that further investigate use of the turning bed for postoperative back patients while still in the acute care setting are indicated. Replicative studies with a larger sample size are also indicated.

  15. Pomegranate Supplementation Accelerates Recovery of Muscle Damage and Soreness and Inflammatory Markers after a Weightlifting Training Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Achraf; Turki, Mouna; Chtourou, Hamdi; Hammouda, Omar; Trabelsi, Khaled; Kallel, Choumous; Abdelkarim, Osama; Hoekelmann, Anita; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ayadi, Fatma; Driss, Tarak; Souissi, Nizar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural Pomegranate juice supplementation on performance and acute and delayed responses of muscle soreness and biomarkers of muscle damage after a weightlifting training session. Nine elite weightlifters (21±0.5 years) performed two Olympic-Weightlifting-sessions after either placebo (PLA) or natural pomegranate juice (POMj) supplementations. Heart rate, blood pressure and blood samples (hematological parameters, muscle damage and C-reactive protein (CRP)) were collected at rest, 3min and 48h after each session. Weightlifting performance, RPE, and DOMS were also assessed after each training session. T-test showed higher performance (+8.30%) and lower RPE values (-4.37%) using POMj supplementation (p0.05). Additionally, during the 48h following the training session, POMj improved the recovery kinetic of SBP (pweightlifters are advised to use natural POMj during intensive training program and competition to accelerate muscle recovery. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02697903.

  16. Effect of Oral Dexamethasone Without Immediate Antibiotics vs Placebo on Acute Sore Throat in Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Gail Nicola; Hay, Alastair D; Moore, Michael V; Jawad, Sena; Williams, Nicola; Voysey, Merryn; Cook, Johanna; Allen, Julie; Thompson, Matthew; Little, Paul; Perera, Rafael; Wolstenholme, Jane; Harman, Kim; Heneghan, Carl

    2017-04-18

    Acute sore throat poses a significant burden on primary care and is a source of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. Corticosteroids could be an alternative symptomatic treatment. To assess the clinical effectiveness of oral corticosteroids for acute sore throat in the absence of antibiotics. Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial (April 2013-February 2015; 28-day follow-up completed April 2015) conducted in 42 family practices in South and West England, enrolled 576 adults recruited on the day of presentation to primary care with acute sore throat not requiring immediate antibiotic therapy. Single oral dose of 10 mg of dexamethasone (n = 293) or identical placebo (n = 283). Primary: proportion of participants experiencing complete resolution of symptoms at 24 hours. Secondary: complete resolution at 48 hours, duration of moderately bad symptoms (based on a Likert scale, 0, normal; 6, as bad as it could be), visual analog symptom scales (0-100 mm; 0, no symptom to 100, worst imaginable), health care attendance, days missed from work or education, consumption of delayed antibiotics or other medications, adverse events. Among 565 eligible participants who were randomized (median age, 34 years [interquartile range, 26.0-45.5 year]; 75.2% women; 100% completed the intervention), 288 received dexamethasone; 277, placebo. At 24 hours, 65 participants (22.6%) in the dexamethasone group and 49 (17.7%) in the placebo group achieved complete resolution of symptoms, for a risk difference of 4.7% (95% CI, -1.8% to 11.2%) and a relative risk of 1.28 (95% CI; 0.92 to 1.78; P = .14). At 24 hours, participants receiving dexamethasone were not more likely than those receiving placebo to have complete symptom resolution. At 48 hours, 102 participants (35.4%) in the dexamethasone group vs 75 (27.1%) in the placebo group achieved complete resolution of symptoms, for a risk difference of 8.7% (95% CI, 1.2% to 16.2%) and a relative risk of 1.31 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1

  17. Initial diagnosis of anemia from sore mouth and improved classification of anemias by MCV and RDW in 30 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shin-Yu; Wu, Hong-Cheng

    2004-12-01

    Thirty patients with a wide range of sore mouth that led to the diagnosis of iron deficiency in 12 patients, pernicious anemia in 8 patients, combined deficiency of iron and vitamin B12 in 2 patients, and anemia of chronic disease in 8 patients were investigated. The oral signs and symptoms included glossitis, glossodynia, angular cheilitis, recurrent oral ulcer, oral candidosis, diffuse erythematous mucositis, and pale oral mucosa. The values of hemoglobin in 30 patients varied from normal to severe life-threatening levels, but none had developed generalized symptoms sufficiently advanced to arouse suspicions of anemia before they visited the Oral Medicine Clinic. The aim of this paper is to describe a retrospective study of 30 patients with oral changes as the initial manifestation of nutritional deficiency or anemia of chronic diseases. Improved diagnosis and classification of anemia based on the mean and heterogeneity of red cell size will be discussed.

  18. Effects of cryotherapy on muscle damage markers and perception of delayed onset muscle soreness after downhill running: A Pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rossato; E. de Souza Bezerra; D.A. de Ceselles Seixas da Silva; T. Avila Santana; W. Rafael Malezam; F.P. Carpes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of cryotherapy on markers of muscle damage, as well as the perception of muscle soreness caused by eccentric exercise after downhill running. Methods: Ten participants (age = 26 ± 5 year, height = 173 ± 8 cm and body mass = 70 ± 4 kg) performed two running trials on a treadmill tilted –6.6%, separated by one-week period. Cryotherapy (∼15 °C for 30 minutes) was conducted after one of the trials of exercise. Blood samples were analyzed for markers of mus...

  19. Prevention and Control of Bed Bugs in Residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the 21st century, as they invade mainly urban areas. We had a 30+ year "vacation" from ... identified by the longer hairs along the lateral edges near the head. A specialist should examine the ...

  20. Effects of spray and stretch on postneedling soreness and sensitivity after dry needling of a latent myofascial trigger point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pintado Zugasti, Aitor; Rodríguez-Fernández, Ángel L; García-Muro, Francisco; López-López, Almudena; Mayoral, Orlando; Mesa-Jiménez, Juan; Fernández-Carnero, Josue

    2014-10-01

    To investigate (1) the effect of spray and stretch versus control on reducing postneedling soreness of 1 latent myofascial trigger point (MTrP) and (2) whether higher levels of psychological distress are associated with increased postneedling pain intensity. A 72-hour follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial. University community. Healthy volunteers (N=70; 40 men, 30 women) aged 18 to 36 years (mean age, 21±4y) with latent MTrP in 1 upper trapezius muscle. All subjects received a dry needling application over the upper trapezius muscle. Then, participants were randomly divided into 2 groups: an intervention group, which received spray and stretch over the needled trapezius muscle, and a control group, which did not receive any intervention. Visual analog scale (at postneedling, posttreatment, and 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72h after needling), pressure pain threshold (at preneedling, postneedling, and 24 and 48h after needling). Psychological distress was evaluated by using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Repeated-measures analysis of variance demonstrated a significant interaction between group and time (F3,204.8=3.19; P.05). Repeated measures of covariance showed that none of the psychological covariates affected these results. Somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility were significantly correlated (P<.05) with postneedling pain intensity. Repeated-measures analysis of variance did not show a significant effect of spray and stretch on mechanical hyperalgesia (F2.6,175=1.9; P=.131; ηp(2)=.02). The spray and stretch had a short-term (<6h) effect in reducing postneedling soreness of a latent MTrP. Pressure pain threshold did not significantly change after spray and stretch. Psychological factors are related to postneedling pain. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased technetium uptake is not equivalent to muscle necrosis: scintigraphic, morphological and intramuscular pressure analyses of sore muscles after exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, A. G.; Friden, J.; Hargens, A. R.; Lang, G. H.; Thornell, L. E.

    1993-01-01

    A scintigraphic technique employing technetium pyrophosphate uptake was used to identify the area of skeletal muscle damage in the lower leg of four runners 24 h after an ultramarathon footrace (160 km). Most of the race had been run downhill which incorporated an extensive amount of eccentric work. Soreness was diffuse throughout the posterior region of the lower leg. In order to interpret what increased technetium uptake reflects and to express extreme endurance related damages, a biopsy was taken from the 3-D position of abnormal uptake. In addition, intramuscular pressures were determined in the deep posterior compartment. Scintigraphs revealed increased technetium pyrophosphate uptake in the medial portion of the gastrocnemius muscle. For 3698 fibres analysed, 33 fibres (1%) were necrotic, while a few other fibres were either atrophic or irregular shaped. A cluster of necrotic fibres occurred at the fascicular periphery for one subject and fibre type grouping occurred for another. Ultrastructural analysis revealed Z-line streaming near many capillaries and variously altered subsarcolemmal mitochondria including some with paracrystalline inclusions. The majority of the capillaries included thickened and irregular shaped endothelial cells. Intramuscular pressures of the deep posterior compartment were slightly elevated (12-15 mmHg) for three of the four subjects. Increased technetium uptake following extreme endurance running does not just reflect muscle necrosis but also subtle fibre abnormalities. Collectively, these pathological findings are attributed to relative ischaemia occurring during the race and during pre-race training, whereas, intramuscular pressure elevations associated with muscle soreness are attributed to mechanical stress caused by extensive eccentric work during the race.

  2. Effects of Light-Emitting Diode Therapy on Muscle Hypertrophy, Gene Expression, Performance, Damage, and Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, Cleber; Bertucci, Danilo; Schiavinato, Josiane; Reiff, Rodrigo; Araújo, Amélia; Panepucci, Rodrigo; Matheucci, Euclides; Cunha, Anderson Ferreira; Arakelian, Vivian Maria; Hamblin, Michael R.; Parizotto, Nivaldo; Bagnato, Vanderlei

    2016-01-01

    Ferraresi C, Bertucci D, Schiavinato J, Reiff R, Araújo A, Panepucci R, Matheucci E, Cunha AF, Arakelian VM, Hamblin MR, Parizotto N, Bagnato V: Effects of light-emitting diode therapy on muscle hypertrophy, gene expression, performance, damage, and delayed-onset muscle soreness: case-control study with a pair of identical twins. Objective The aim of this study was to verify how a pair of monozygotic twins would respond to light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) or placebo combined with a strength-training program during 12 weeks. Design This case-control study enrolled a pair of male monozygotic twins, allocated randomly to LEDT or placebo therapies. Light-emitting diode therapy or placebo was applied from a flexible light-emitting diode array (λ = 850 nm, total energy = 75 J, t = 15 seconds) to both quadriceps femoris muscles of each twin immediately after each strength training session (3 times/wk for 12 weeks) consisting of leg press and leg extension exercises with load of 80% and 50% of the 1-repetition maximum test, respectively. Muscle biopsies, magnetic resonance imaging, maximal load, and fatigue resistance tests were conducted before and after the training program to assess gene expression, muscle hypertrophy and performance, respectively. Creatine kinase levels in blood and visual analog scale assessed muscle damage and delayed-onset muscle soreness, respectively, during the training program. Results Compared with placebo, LEDT increased the maximal load in exercise and reduced fatigue, creatine kinase, and visual analog scale. Gene expression analyses showed decreases in markers of inflammation (interleukin 1β) and muscle atrophy (myostatin) with LEDT. Protein synthesis (mammalian target of rapamycin) and oxidative stress defense (SOD2 [mitochondrial superoxide dismutase]) were up-regulated with LEDT, together with increases in thigh muscle hypertrophy. Conclusions Light-emitting diode therapy can be useful to reduce muscle damage, pain, and atrophy, as

  3. AIDS Impact special issue 2009: HIV prevention through sport: the case of the Mathare Youth Sport Association in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Delva , Wim; Michielsen , Kristien; Meulders , Bert; Groeninck , Sandy; Wasonga , Edwin; Ajwang , Pauline; Temmerman , Marleen; Vanreusel , Bart

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Sport has become a popular tool for HIV prevention, based on claims that it can foster life skills that are necessary to translate knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions into actual behaviour. Empirical evidence of the effectiveness of sport-based HIV prevention programmes is, however, sorely lacking. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional survey assessing sexual behaviour and the determinants thereof among 454 youth of the Mathare Youth Sport Association (MYSA)...

  4. Pain relief of sore throat with a new anti-inflammatory throat lozenge, ibuprofen 25 mg: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouroubi, Athmane; Donazzolo, Yves; Donath, Franck; Eccles, Ron; Russo, Marc; Harambillet, Nadine; Gautier, Stéphanie; Montagne, Agnès

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a new oromucosal ibuprofen form, ibuprofen 25 mg lozenge, in single and repeat dosing for up to 4 days, to the matched placebo, in the treatment of acute sore throat pain in adults. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients with non-streptococcal sore throat and signs of moderate-to-severe associated pain (≥5 on the objective Tonsillo-Pharyngitis Assessment 21-point scale and ≥60 mm on the subjective 0-100 mm visual analogue Sore Throat Pain Intensity Scale [STPIS]) were assigned ibuprofen 25 mg (n=194) or matching placebo (n=191) lozenge treatment. Efficacy was assessed (at the investigating centre up to 2 hours after first dosing, then on an ambulatory basis) by parameters derived from patient's scores on scales of pain relief, pain intensity, and global efficacy assessment. The primary efficacy end-point was the time-weighted TOTal PAin Relief (TOTPAR) over 2 hours after first dosing using the Sore Throat Relief Scale (STRS). Safety and local tolerability were assessed. Ibuprofen 25 mg was superior to placebo on numerous pain relief parameters; TOTPAR was significantly higher with ibuprofen 25 mg over 2 hours after first dosing (Ppain (n=128), after an average 4 days (Prelief of sore throat pain and is as well tolerated as placebo. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01785862. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Safety of Hospital Beds: Ingress, Egress, and In-Bed Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Janice M; Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients' ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients' use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated.

  6. Particle bed reactor scaling relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovik, G.; Araj, K.; Horn, F. L.; Ludewig, H.; Benenati, R.

    The Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) concept can be used in several applications both as part of a power generating system or as a direct propulsion unit. In order to carry out optimization studies of systems involving a PBR, it is necessary to know the variation of the critical mass with pertinent system parameters such as weight, size, power level and thrust level. A parametric study is presented for all the practical combinations of fuel and moderating material. The PBR is described, the practical combinations of materials and dimensions are discussed, and an example is presented.

  7. On partial fluidization in rotating fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, J.; Pfeffer, R.; Tardos, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    In a rotating fluidized bed, unlike in a conventional fluidized bed, the granules are fluidized layer by layer from the (inner) free surface outward at increasing radius as the gas velocity is increased. This is a very significant and interesting phenomenon and is extremely important in the design of these fluidized beds. The phenomenon was first suggested in a theoretical analysis and recently verified experimentally in the authors' laboratory. However, in the first paper, the equations presented are too cumbersome and the influence of bed thickness is not clearly stated. In this note the authors present simplified equations, based on that paper, for the pressure drop and the minimum fluidizing velocities in a rotating fluidized bed. Experimental data are also shown and compared with the theoretical model, and the effect of bed thickness is shown. Furthermore, an explanation for the observation of a maximum in the pressure drop vs. velocity curve instead of the plateau derived by Chen is proposed

  8. Gruppebaseret behandling af BED - et faseopdelt behandlingstilbud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laust, Jakob; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Titel: Afrapportering vedr. SATS-puljemidler til behandling og erfaringsopsamling vedr. BED for perioden 1. marts 2013 – 1. maj 2015. Baggrund: Binge Eating Disorder (BED), på dansk tvangsoverspisning, er en udbredt, men overset spiseforstyrrelse med alvorlige psykiske, fysiske og sociale...... konsekvenser. BED blev i 2013 optaget i DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) som en selvstændig diagnose og BED forventes medtaget i den forestående revision af det internationale diagnose system, ICD-11. Sundhedsstyrelsen gav på denne baggrund satspuljemidler til erfaringsopsamling...... vedr. BED. I den forbindelse ansøgte Ambulatorium for Spiseforstyrrelser på Psykoterapeutisk Center Stolpegård ovenstående midler til at udvikle en ambulant, primært psykoterapeutisk gruppebehandling til patienter med moderat til svær BED med fokus på såvel spiseforstyrrelse såvel som overvægt. Metode...

  9. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Arthur C.; Zboray, James A.

    1980-01-01

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

  10. Gas filtration in binary fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, J. (Univ. de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain)); Guardiola, J.; Romero, A. (Univ. de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain))

    1992-12-01

    A systematic experimental study of aerosol filtration in a binary fluidized bed of dielectric material is carried out. Measurements of the collection efficiency when such parameters as gas velocity, bed height, collecting mixture, and column diameter are varied over a wide range have been made. Experimental evidence is given to show that charges generated naturally by triboelectrification of the bed dielectric particles can considerably increase the efficiency of such beds. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a proper choice of the fluidized mixture can significantly improve the performance of such filters.

  11. Piroxicam fails to reduce myocellular enzyme leakage and delayed onset muscle soreness induced by isokinetic eccentric exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-L. Croisier

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS following intense eccentric muscle contraction could be due to increased production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, ten healthy male subjects were studied. Using a double-blind randomized crossover design, each subject performed two isokinetic tests separated by a period of at least 6 weeks: once with placebo, and once with piroxicam (Feldene®. They were given one capsule containing either placebo or piroxicam (20 mg per day for 6 days with initial doses given starting 3 days prior to isokinetic testing. Exercise consisted of eight stages of five maximal contractions of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups of both legs separated by 1 min rest phases, on a Kin Trex device at 60°/s angular velocity. The subjective presence and intensity of DOMS were evaluated using a visual analogue scale immediately after, and 24 and 48 h after each test. The mean plasma concentration of PGE2 measured at rest and after exercise was significantly lower in the group treated with piroxicam (p < 0.05. However, statistical analysis (two-way ANOVA test revealed that exercise did not cause any significant change of mean plasma PGE2 over time in either of the two groups. Eccentric work was followed by severe muscle pain in extensor and flexor muscle groups. Maximal soreness was noted 48 h postexercise. Serum creatine kinase activity and the serum concentration of myoglobin increased significantly, and reached peak values 48 h after exercise in both experimental conditions (p < 0.001. By paired t-test, it appeared that there were no significant differences in the serum levels of these two markers of muscle damage between the two groups at any time point. We conclude that: (1 oral administration of piroxicam fails to reduce muscle damage and DOMS caused by strenuous eccentric exercise; and (2 the hypothetical role of increased PGE2 production in eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage, DOMS, and reduced

  12. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  13. Particle Bed Reactor engine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, S.; Feddersen, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) based propulsion system being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. A PBR engine is a light weight, compact propulsion system which offers significant improvement over current technology systems. Current performance goals are a system thrust of 75,000 pounds at an Isp of 1000 sec. A target thrust to weight ratio (T/W) of 30 has been established for an unshielded engine. The functionality of the PBR, its pertinent technology issues and the systems required to make up a propulsion system are described herein. Accomplishments to date which include hardware development and tests for the PBR engine are also discussed. This paper is intended to provide information on and describe the current state-of-the-art of PBR technology. 4 refs

  14. Particle Bed Reactor engine technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S.; Feddersen, R.

    1992-03-01

    This paper discusses the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) based propulsion system being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. A PBR engine is a light weight, compact propulsion system which offers significant improvement over current technology systems. Current performance goals are a system thrust of 75,000 pounds at an Isp of 1000 sec. A target thrust to weight ratio (T/W) of 30 has been established for an unshielded engine. The functionality of the PBR, its pertinent technology issues and the systems required to make up a propulsion system are described herein. Accomplishments to date which include hardware development and tests for the PBR engine are also discussed. This paper is intended to provide information on and describe the current state-of-the-art of PBR technology.

  15. Building Controls Virtual Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-01

    The Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) is a modular software environment that is based on the Ptolemy II software environment. The BCVTB can be used for design and analysis of heterogenous systems, such as building energy and controls systems. Our additions to Ptolemy II allow users to Couple to Ptolemy II simulation software such as EnergyPlus, MATLAB/Simulink or Dymola for data exchange during run-time. Future versions of the BCVTS will also contain an interface to BACnet which is a communication protocol for building Control systems, and interfaces to digital/analog converters that allow communication with controls hardware. Through Ptolemy II, the BCVTB provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run- time.

  16. Hybrid Molten Bed Gasifier for High Hydrogen Syngas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, David [Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2017-05-23

    was stable over the full oxygen to fuel firing range (0.8 to 1.05 of fuel gas stoichiometry) and with all fuel gases (natural gas and two syngas compositions), with steam, and without steam. The lower Btu content of the syngases presented no combustion difficulties. The molten bed was stable throughout testing. The molten bed was easily established as a bed of molten glass. As the composition changed from glass cullet to cullet with slag, no instabilities were encountered. The bed temperature and product syngas temperature remained stable throughout testing, demonstrating that the bed serves as a good heat sink for the gasification process. Product syngas temperature measured above the bed was stable at ~1600ºF. Testing found that syngas quality measured as H2/CO ratio increased with decreasing oxygen to fuel gas stoichiometric ratio, higher steam to inlet carbon ratio, higher temperature, and syngas compared with natural gas. The highest H2/CO ratios achieved were in the range of 0.70 to 0.78. These values are well below the targets of 1.5 to 2.0 that were expected and were predicted by modeling. The team, however, is encouraged that the HMB process can and will achieve H2/CO ratios up to 2.0. Changes needed include direct injection of coal into the molten bed of slag to prevent coal particle bypass into the product gas stream, elevation of the molten bed temperature to approximately 2500ºF, and further decrease of the oxygen to fuel gas ratio to well below the 0.85 minimum ratio used in the testing in this project.

  17. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE [number sign]FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0[sub 2] absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0[sub 2] absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m[sub 2]/m[sub 3]. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m[sub 2], gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m[sub 2], and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  18. Manual for computing bed load transport using BAGS (Bedload Assessment for Gravel-bed Streams) Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Pitlick; Yantao Cui; Peter Wilcock

    2009-01-01

    This manual provides background information and instructions on the use of a spreadsheet-based program for Bedload Assessment in Gravel-bed Streams (BAGS). The program implements six bed load transport equations developed specifically for gravel-bed rivers. Transport capacities are calculated on the basis of field measurements of channel geometry, reach-average slope,...

  19. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  20. Exercise Effects on the Course of Gray Matter Changes Over 70 Days of Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelmans, V.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.; DeDios, Y. E.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, P. A.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight affects posture control, locomotion, and manual control. The microgravity environment is an important causal factor for spaceflight induced sensorimotor changes through direct effects on peripheral changes that result from reduced vestibular stimulation and body unloading. Effects of microgravity on sensorimotor function have been investigated on earth using bed rest studies. Long duration bed rest serves as a space-flight analogue because it mimics microgravity in body unloading and bodily fluid shifts. It has been hypothesized that the cephalad fluid shift that has been observed in microgravity could potentially affect central nervous system function and structure, and thereby indirectly affect sensorimotor or cognitive functioning. Preliminary results of one of our ongoing studies indeed showed that 70 days of long duration head down-tilt bed rest results in focal changes in gray matter volume from pre-bed rest to various time points during bed rest. These gray matter changes that could reflect fluid shifts as well as neuroplasticity were related to decrements in motor skills such as maintenance of equilibrium. In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers both inand post-flight we are currently conducting a study that investigates the potential preventive effects of exercise on gray matter and motor performance changes that we observed over the course of bed rest. Numerous studies have shown beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on brain structure and cognitive performance in healthy and demented subjects over a large age range. We therefore hypothesized that an exercise intervention in bed rest could potentially mitigate or prevent the effects of bed rest on the central nervous system. Here we present preliminary outcomes of our study.

  1. Supplementation with a Polyphenol-Rich Extract, TensLess®, Attenuates Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness and Improves Muscle Recovery from Damages After Eccentric Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Cindy; Freitas, Tomás T; Martínez-Noguera, Francisco J; Laurent, Caroline; Gaillet, Sylvie; Chung, Linda H; Alcaraz, Pedro E; Cases, Julien

    2017-11-01

    High-intensity exercises are known to provoke delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Delayed onset muscle soreness typically occurs within the first 24 h, peaks between 24 and 72 h, and can last as long as 5-7 days post-exercise. Delayed onset muscle soreness is a multifactorial process involving both mechanical and biochemical components, associated with clinical features that may limit range of motion, and athletes seek for effective recovery strategies to optimize future training sessions. TensLess ® is a food supplement developed to help manage post-exercise recovery. The supplement has been investigated on 13 recreationally active athletes of both sex, during a randomized, double-blind, and crossover clinical investigation, including a 3-week washout period. The clinical investigation was based on the study of TensLess ® effects for DOMS management and on the reduction of associated muscle damages following an eccentric exercise protocol. Supplementation with TensLess ® induced significant decrease in DOMS perception (-33%; p = 0.008) as of the first 24 h; this was significantly correlated with a lowered release of muscle damage-associated biomarkers, namely myoglobin, creatinine, and creatine kinase, for the whole length of the recovery period. Taken together, these positive results clearly indicate that post-exercise supplementation with TensLess ® may preserve myocytes and reduce soreness following eccentric exercise-induced damages, and, accordingly, significantly shorten muscle recovery. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Flue Gas Emissions from Fluidized Bed Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramer, E.A.; Valk, M.

    1995-01-01

    During the past decades fluidized bed coal combustion was developed as a technology for burning coal in an effective way meeting the standards for pollution control. During the earlier years of research on fluidized bed combustion, the potential for limiting the S02 emission by adding limestone to

  3. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Single Cards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and the signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  4. Determination of true bed thickness using folded bed model and borehole data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.S.; Velasquillo-Martinez, L.G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J.M.; Murillo-Muneton, G. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Garcia-Hernandez, J. [Petroleos Mexicanos Exploracion y Produccion, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Nieto-Samaniego, A.F. [Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Univ., Veracruz (Mexico). Centro de Geociencias

    2007-11-15

    The actual thickness of a given formation perpendicular to the bedding plane is known as the true bed thickness. Petroleum engineers rely on information regarding true bed thickness, particularly in dipping beds and in deviated holes because reservoir volume and isochore maps depend on these properties and not on the measured thickness. True bed thickness can be estimated from information gathered from well logs such as the dipmeter and borehole images. However, when deviations and dips exceed 10 degrees, corrections are needed. In this paper, a folded bed model was proposed to calculate the true bed thickness in the subsurface utilizing well log data. The value of true bed thickness (t) was shown to depend on the angle and the direction of the dip of the measured formation, as well as the drift angle and azimuth of the borehole. A case study from the Cantarell oil field in the southern Gulf of Mexico, offshore Campeche, was used to test the folded bed method. The model was shown to yield more uniform spatial change of the values of t, compared to the monoclinal bed model that often overestimates the average value of t. The maximum relative deviation of t from the monoclinal bed model reached 22.3 per cent and the maximum absolute deviation of t reached 34.5 m. The key factors that influence the values of t were found to be the bed dip, the dip difference between the top and base of the bed and the deviated angle of the well. The folded bed model yielded fewer changed values of the true bed thickness. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  5. Does Bedding Affect the Airway and Allergy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Siebers

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Various cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that synthetic bedding is associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema while feather bedding seems to be protective. Synthetic bedding items have higher house dust mite allergen levels than feather bedding items. This is possibly the mechanism involved although fungal and bacterial proinflammatory compounds and volatile organic compounds may play a role. In this review we present and discuss the epidemiological evidence and suggest possible mechanisms. Primary intervention studies are required to show whether feather bedding is protective for the development of childhood asthma and allergic diseases while secondary intervention studies are required to potentially reduce symptoms and medication use in subjects with established disease.

  6. Continuous austempering fluidized bed furnace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, M.N. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-09-23

    The intended objective of this project was to show the benefits of using a fluidized bed furnace for austenitizing and austempering of steel castings in a continuous manner. The division of responsibilities was as follows: (1) design of the fluidized bed furnace--Kemp Development Corporation; (2) fabrication of the fluidized bed furnace--Quality Electric Steel, Inc.; (3) procedure for austempering of steel castings, analysis of the results after austempering--Texas A and M University (Texas Engineering Experiment Station). The Department of Energy provided funding to Texas A and M University and Kemp Development Corporation. The responsibility of Quality Electric Steel was to fabricate the fluidized bed, make test castings and perform austempering of the steel castings in the fluidized bed, at their own expense. The project goals had to be reviewed several times due to financial constraints and technical difficulties encountered during the course of the project. The modifications made and the associated events are listed in chronological order.

  7. A New Option for the Reconstruction of Primary or Recurrent Ischial Pressure Sores: Hamstring-Adductor Magnus Muscle Advancement Flap and Direct Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burm, Jin Sik; Hwang, Jungil; Lee, Yung Ki

    2018-04-01

    Owing to the high recurrence rates of ischial pressure sores, surgeons should consider the possibility of future secondary flap surgery during flap selection. The purpose of this article is to present a new surgical option for the reconstruction of primary or recurrent ischial pressure sores using a simple hamstring-adductor magnus advancement flap and direct closure. After horizontal fusiform skin excision, complete bursa excision and ischiectomy were performed. The tenomuscular origin of the adductor magnus and the conjoined tenomuscular origin of the biceps femoris long head and semitendinosus were isolated and completely detached from the inferior border of the ischial tuberosity. They were then advanced in a cephalad direction without detachment of the distal tendon or muscle and securely affixed to the sacrotuberous ligament. The wound was directly closed without further incision or dissection. Twelve ischial pressure sores (6 primary and 6 recurrent; 12 patients) were surgically corrected. The follow-up period was 12 to 65 months. All patients healed successfully without early postoperative complications, such as hematoma, seroma, infection, wound dehiscence, or partial necrosis. Late complications included wound disruption 5 weeks after surgery that spontaneously healed in 1 case and recurrence 3 years later in another case. The new surgical option presented herein, which involves hamstring-adductor magnus advancement flap and direct closure, is a simple and reliable method for providing sufficient muscle bulk to fill the dead space and proper padding to the bone stump while preserving the main vascular perforators and pedicles as well as future surgical options.

  8. The Efficacy of Dynamic Contract-Relax Stretching on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness Among Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanfei; Feng, Beibei; Chen, Kedi; Andersen, Lars L; Page, Phil; Wang, Yuling

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of dynamic contract-relax stretching on delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in the calf muscle of healthy individuals. Randomized clinical trial. Research laboratory. Three groups of 16 healthy participants (n = 48) were recruited by convenience sampling. Three sets of resisted bilateral heel-raising exercises until exhaustion were conducted to initiate DOMS. Participants were randomly allocated into control group without any interventions, dynamic contract-relax stretching (DS), or static stretching (SS) groups. Dynamic contract-relax stretching and SS groups performed DS and SS, respectively, on the dominant leg twice a day for 5 consecutive days (before time points of outcome measurements at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours postexercise, respectively). Muscle soreness, lower leg girth, pressure pain threshold (PPT), range of motion (ROM), and muscle strength were measured before exercise, immediately after, and at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours postexercise. There was a significant effect of time in all outcome measures including muscle soreness, lower leg girth, PPT, ROM, and muscle strength; however, there were no significant group differences or group by time interactions. The effect of DS on relieving DOMS in the calf muscle is insignificant in this study. Further evidence is needed to prove the efficacy of DS on DOMS. Stretching is commonly recommended before and after exercise; however, this study showed no significant impact of DS or SS in treating DOMS.

  9. Effect of compression garments on delayed-onset muscle soreness and blood inflammatory markers after eccentric exercise: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jieun; Kim, Jooyoung; Lee, Joohyung

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how compression garments, applied after eccentric exercise, can affect delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and inflammatory markers. Sixteen healthy male university students enrolled in this study and were randomly assigned to either the compression garment group (CG, n=8) or control group (CON, n=8). All participants performed two sets of eccentric exercise using elbow flexor with 25 repetitions per set on a modified preacher curl machine. Maximal isometric strength was measured before exercise and immediately, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr after eccentric exercise. Muscle soreness was measured before exercise and 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr after eccentric exercise. Creatine kinase (CK) activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were also measured before exercise and 3, 6, 24, and 48 hr after exercise. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. The CG group reported faster recovery of maximal isometric strength following exercise ( P soreness during the recovery period than the control group ( P 0.05). In conclusion, wearing compression garments during the postexercise period can be an effective way to reduce DOMS and accelerate the recovery of muscle function.

  10. AAL Middleware Infrastructure for Green Bed Activity Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Palumbo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a service-oriented middleware platform for ambient assisted living and its use in two different bed activity services: bedsore prevention and sleeping monitoring. A detailed description of the middleware platform, its elements and interfaces, as well as a service that is able to classify some typical user's positions in the bed is presented. Wireless sensor networks are supposed to be widely deployed in indoor settings and on people's bodies in tomorrow's pervasive computing environments. The key idea of this work is to leverage their presence by collecting the received signal strength measured among fixed general-purpose wireless sensor devices, deployed in the environment, and wearable ones. The RSS measurements are used to classify a set of user's positions in the bed, monitoring the activities of the user, and thus supporting the bedsores and the sleep monitoring issues. Moreover, the proposed services are able to decrease the energy consumption by exploiting the context information coming from the proposed middleware.

  11. Principle component analysis of exposure variation analysis during computer work at presence of delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, A; Kawczyński, A; Chmura, J; Madeleine, P

    2012-01-01

    Eleven healthy volunteers took part in three sessions where computer work was performed for 10 min in each session. The recordings were made on two consecutive days. After the first session, the subjects underwent a series of high intensity eccentric exercises of shoulder elevation to induce muscle soreness. The second session was performed immediately after the exercises and third session 24 hours after the exercise. Surface electromyography (EMG) of descending and ascending trapezius, deltoideus anterior and serratus anterior was recorded. Exposure variation analysis (EVA) centroid and marginal distribution was computed. Principle component analysis (PCA) was performed on both cases. Describing more than 80% of variance, first eight components for EVA marginal distributions and first four ones for EVA centroid were picked to be investigated. The sole EVA amplitude levels played a practically significant role to describe the variation in EVA marginal distribution. However, a significant pattern of load redistribution to superficial muscles was not found. This may suggest investigating the role of deep muscles in redistribution of load during computer work in response to high level eccentric contractions.

  12. Resistance exercise-induced hormonal response under the influence of delayed onset muscle soreness in men and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullinen, T; Mero, A; Huttunen, P; Pakarinen, A; Komi, P V

    2011-12-01

    It was hypothesized that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD)-related alterations in hormonal responses could be observed if a second exercise bout is performed soon after an identical unaccustomed bout leading to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Eight men (31 ± 7 years) and eight boys (14 ± 0 years) performed two exercise bouts (E1 and E2, with 48 h rest in between) consisting of three sets of bilateral knee extensions until exhaustion with 40% load. No differences between the groups or bouts were observed in the number of repetitions performed and maximal isometric force decline, or between groups in serum creatine kinase activity and DOMS. Decreased peak epinephrine (EPI) (-38%), growth hormone (GH) (-45%) and cortisol (COR) (-31%) concentrations were found in E2 in men (Pboys. No changes in norepinephrine and testosterone responses were found in either group. The results suggest that in men, the responses of EPI, GH and COR are attenuated when the second bout is performed under the influence of DOMS. In boys, the lack of this attenuation may not be explained by less severe EIMD. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Kinesiology Tape does not Affect Serum Creatine Kinase Level and Quadriceps Activity during Recovery from Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Aminaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS causes muscle damage and edema that can hinder performance and increase risks for secondary injuries. Kinesiology Tape (KT may be an effective modality for aiding in recovery, however, no study has investigated the effects of KT on the physiological biomarkers such as serum creatine kinase (CK level, concurrently with measures of performance and function, during recovery from DOMS. Objective: Investigate the effects of KT on serum CK level, electromyographic (EMG activity of the quadriceps muscles, and performances of countermovement jump (CMJ and triple single-leg hop for distance (HopD during recovery from DOMS. Method: Fifty-eight healthy college-age participants were randomly assigned to KT (n=15, placebo (n=19, and control (n=24 groups. Serum CK level and quadriceps EMG activity and performance during CMJ and HopD were collected at baseline, immediately after repetitive eccentric quadriceps exercise, 48 hours, and 72 hours post-exercise. The EMG recording of rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis during the CMJ and HopD were normalized to the baseline maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Results: A significant main effect of time on the serum CK level, EMG activity, and performance (p0.05. Conclusion: Taping interventions did not improve the serum CK level or muscle activity and performance during recovery from DOMS. Kinesiology tape may not be the first choice of method for enhancing recovery from DOMS in otherwise healthy individuals.

  14. Serum biochemical activities and muscular soreness in transported goats administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndazo S Minka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of handling, loading and 12 h of road transportation during the hot-dry season on muscular metabolism of 20 experimental goats administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid (AA dissolved in 10 ml of sterile water, and other 20 control goats given equivalent of sterile water 40 min prior to transportation were investigated. The result obtained post-transportation showed that handling, loading and transportation were stressful to the goats, especially the control goats and resulted into muscular damage and the development of delayed-onset-muscular-soreness (DOMS, which may lead to dark-firm-dry (DFD syndrome meat with undesirable effects on its quality. In the experimental goats administered AA such transportation effects were minimal or completely abolished. The result demonstrated that AA reduced the incidence of DOMS and muscular damage in transported goats, therefore it may be used to improve the welfare and quality of meat obtained from goats subjected to long period of road transportation under adverse climatic conditions.

  15. Pomegranate Supplementation Accelerates Recovery of Muscle Damage and Soreness and Inflammatory Markers after a Weightlifting Training Session.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achraf Ammar

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural Pomegranate juice supplementation on performance and acute and delayed responses of muscle soreness and biomarkers of muscle damage after a weightlifting training session.Nine elite weightlifters (21±0.5 years performed two Olympic-Weightlifting-sessions after either placebo (PLA or natural pomegranate juice (POMj supplementations. Heart rate, blood pressure and blood samples (hematological parameters, muscle damage and C-reactive protein (CRP were collected at rest, 3min and 48h after each session. Weightlifting performance, RPE, and DOMS were also assessed after each training session.T-test showed higher performance (+8.30% and lower RPE values (-4.37% using POMj supplementation (p0.05. Additionally, during the 48h following the training session, POMj improved the recovery kinetic of SBP (p<0.01, 7.97%, CK (p<0.001, 11.34%, LDH (p<0.05, 7.30% and ASAT (p<0.05, 6.77%. Indeed, the present study showed that 48h of recovery associated to natural POMj supplementation was sufficient to reach the resting values of the selected muscle damage markers after intensive training session.Natural POMj seems to ameliorate the capacity to adhere to an intensive training program. Therefore, elite weightlifters are advised to use natural POMj during intensive training program and competition to accelerate muscle recovery.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02697903.

  16. The effects of kinesio taping on architecture, strength and pain of muscles in delayed onset muscle soreness of biceps brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Sin; Bae, Sea Hyun; Hwang, Jin Ah; Kim, Kyung Yoon

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to confirm the effects of kinesio taping (KT) on muscle function and pain due to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) of the biceps brachii. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven subjects with induced DOMS were randomized into either Group I (control, n=19) or Group II (KT, n=18). Outcome measures were recorded before the intervention (application of KT) and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after the intervention. DOMS was induced, and muscle thickness was measured using ultrasonic radiography. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) was measured via electromyography (EMG). Subjective pain was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). [Results] Group I exhibited a positive correlation between muscle thickness and elapsed time from intervention (24, 48, and 72 hours post induction of DOMS); they also showed a significant decrease in MVIC(%). Group II showed significant increases in muscle thickness up to the 48-hour interval post induction of DOMS, along with a significant decrease in MVIC (%). However, in contrast to Group I, Group II did not show a significant difference in muscle thickness or MVIC (%) at the 72-hour interval in comparison with the values prior to DOMS induction. [Conclusion] In adults with DOMS, activation of muscles by applying KT was found to be an effective and faster method of recovering muscle strength than rest alone.

  17. Pomegranate Supplementation Accelerates Recovery of Muscle Damage and Soreness and Inflammatory Markers after a Weightlifting Training Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Achraf; Turki, Mouna; Chtourou, Hamdi; Hammouda, Omar; Trabelsi, Khaled; Kallel, Choumous; Abdelkarim, Osama; Hoekelmann, Anita; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ayadi, Fatma; Driss, Tarak; Souissi, Nizar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural Pomegranate juice supplementation on performance and acute and delayed responses of muscle soreness and biomarkers of muscle damage after a weightlifting training session. Methods Nine elite weightlifters (21±0.5 years) performed two Olympic-Weightlifting-sessions after either placebo (PLA) or natural pomegranate juice (POMj) supplementations. Heart rate, blood pressure and blood samples (hematological parameters, muscle damage and C-reactive protein (CRP)) were collected at rest, 3min and 48h after each session. Weightlifting performance, RPE, and DOMS were also assessed after each training session. Results T-test showed higher performance (+8.30%) and lower RPE values (-4.37%) using POMj supplementation (p0.05). Additionally, during the 48h following the training session, POMj improved the recovery kinetic of SBP (p<0.01, 7.97%), CK (p<0.001, 11.34%), LDH (p<0.05, 7.30%) and ASAT (p<0.05, 6.77%). Indeed, the present study showed that 48h of recovery associated to natural POMj supplementation was sufficient to reach the resting values of the selected muscle damage markers after intensive training session. Conclusion Natural POMj seems to ameliorate the capacity to adhere to an intensive training program. Therefore, elite weightlifters are advised to use natural POMj during intensive training program and competition to accelerate muscle recovery. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02697903 PMID:27764091

  18. Sand Bed Morphodynamics under Standing Waves and Vegetated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, B. J.; Garcia, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    effect that vegetation can impose on bed form evolution whereby the rate of development can be significantly reduced, mitigated, or even completely redirected. These findings suggest that bottom roughness could be controlled with the help of vegetation thus providing a means to reduce wave energy and prevent sediment erosion. Three-dimensional bathymetric scan of a sand bar having superimposed ripples with idealized vegetation (i.e., 6.35-mm diameter rigid wooden cylinders) positioned at the bar toughs.

  19. Psychosoziale Ressourcen und Risikomuster für Burnout bei Medizinstudenten: Querschnittstudie und Bedürfnisanalyse Präventiver Curricularer Angebote [Psychosocial resources and burnout risk factors in medical school: A cross-sectional study and analysis of needs for preventive curricular interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer, Martin R.

    2010-08-01

    response rate is comparably high, non-response by part of the students may alter the estimated figures. The study only includes students from one German medical school. Longitudinal data are absent. A longitudinal study has been initiated.Conclusions: There is a high rate of resignation and burnout behavioral patterns among medical students, while healthy patterns decrease the further the students progress in their professional training. There are significant gender differences in the psychosocial patterns.Students express a high need for preventive techniques and interventions. Thus prevention of psychosocial morbidity and motivational interventions are important issues in the training of future physicians. Such interventions should become a mandatory part of the medical curriculum and should take gender aspects into consideration.[german] Hintergrund: Epidemiologische Daten zur Gesundheit von Ärzten und Medizinstudenten zeigen im Vergleich zur Allgemeinbevölkerung eine erhöhte psychische Morbidität. Es gibt wenige Daten dazu, wie der Bedarf an präventiven Maßnahmen von den Medizinstudenten selber eingeschätzt wird.Zielsetzung: Analyse der psychosozialen Ressourcen und der studienbezogenen Verhaltens- und Erlebensmuster bei Medizinstudenten zu unterschiedlichen Zeitpunkten während des Studiums. Bedürfnisanalyse hinsichtlich der von den Studenten selbst gewünschten präventiven Angebote im Ausbildungscurriculum.Studiendesign: Querschnittuntersuchung an drei unterschiedlichen Kohorten von Medizinstudenten am Anfang, in der Mitte und am Ende des Studiums mit einer studentenadaptierten Version des Fragebogens „Arbeitsbezogene Verhaltens- und Erlebnismuster“ (AVEM.Teilnehmer: Studenten am Anfang, in der Mitte und am Ende des Medizinstudiums (entspricht im Wesentlichen Studenten des 2., 5., 10. Semesters an der Würzburger Universität (n=360.Ergebnisse: Zu Beginn des Studiums zeigen 39,1% ein gesundes Verhaltensmuster (Muster G, im mittleren Studienabschnitt

  20. Gas Distribution in Shallow Packed Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Ian Miles

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Packed beds have many industrial applications and are increasingly used in the process industries due to their low pressure drop. Obtaining uniform gas distribution in such beds is of crucial importance in minimising operating costs and optimising plant performance. Since to some extent a packed bed acts as its own distributor the importance of obtaining uniform gas distribution has increased as aspect ratios (bed height to diameter) decrease. There is no rigorous design method for distributors due to a limited understanding of the fluid flow phenomena and in particular of the effect of the bed base/free fluid interface. This study is based on a combined theoretical and modelling approach. The Ergun Equation is used to determine the pressure drop over a bed where the flow is uni-directional. This equation has been used in a vectorial form so that it can be applied to maldistributed and multi -directional flows and has been realised in the Computational Fluid Dynamics code PHOENICS. The use of this equation and its application has been verified by modelling experimental measurements of maldistributed gas flows, where there is no free fluid/bed base interface. A novel, two-dimensional experiment has been designed to investigate the fluid mechanics of maldistributed gas flows in shallow packed beds. The results from this apparatus provide useful insights into the fluid mechanics of flow in and around a shallow packed bed and show the critical effect of the bed base. The PHOENICS/vectorial Ergun Equation model has been adapted to model this situation. The model has been improved by the inclusion of spatial voidage variations in the bed and the prescription of a novel bed base boundary condition. The flow in a curved bed section, which is three -dimensional in nature, is examined experimentally. The effect of the walls and the changes in gas direction on the gas flow are shown to be particularly significant

  1. Measurement and modelling of bed shear induced by solitary waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JayaKumar, S.

    horizontal continental shelf. Measurements of bed shear stress, surface elevation and flow velocities were carried out. Periodic waves were also generated and the bed shear stresses measured over a horizontal bed were found to be comparable with the earlier...

  2. Heat and mass transfer enforcement of vibrating fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhide; Yang, Junhong; Li, Xuhui; Song, Yang

    1994-12-01

    This paper briefly introduces the development of vibrating fluidized bed at home and abroad, elaborates the vibration properties of vibrating fluidized bed, the fluidizing velocity and pressure drop of the bed layer. It also deduces the non-steady state drying dynamic equations of vibrating fluidized bed, analyzes main factors which influence the drying rate and inquires into drying rules of fixed bed and vibrating fluidized bed.

  3. High School Students’ Use of Sunscreen and Tanning Beds

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-20

    This podcast is an interview with Corey Basch, EdD, MPH, assistant professor in the Department of Public Health at William Paterson University. Dr. Basch discusses her study on high school students’ use of sunscreen and tanning beds between 2001 and 2011.  Created: 8/20/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/20/2014.

  4. Fluidized bed adsorption of cephalosporin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicketier, M; Buchholz, K

    2002-02-28

    Fluidized bed adsorption can substantially simplify the recovery of products from fermentation. There are, however, several critical parameters, which have a significant influence on the performance of such systems. This paper presents experimental results on the adsorption of an antibiotic, Cephalosporin C, on macroporous adsorbents of the polystyrene type and on an ion exchanger. Internals (static mixers) were used to control bed expansion and mixing, the range of flow rates could thus be extended significantly. An integrated mathematical model was developed comprising bed expansion, residence time distribution and mixing, adsorption kinetics and equilibria.

  5. Recent advances in fluidized bed drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, N. S.; Zakaria, J. H.; Mohideen Batcha, M. F.

    2017-09-01

    Fluidized bed drying are very well known to yield high heat and mass transfer and hence adopted to many industrial drying processes particularly agricultural products. In this paper, recent advances in fluidized bed drying were reviewed and focus is given to the drying related to the usage of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It can be seen that usage of modern computational tools such as CFD helps to optimize the fluidized bed dryer design and operation for lower energy consumption and thus better thermal efficiency. Among agricultural products that were reviewed in this paper were oil palm frond, wheat grains, olive pomace, coconut, pepper corn and millet.

  6. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  7. Electrostatic collection efficiency in binary fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, A.; Guardiola, J.; Rincon, J. (Univ. of Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain))

    1992-01-01

    Fluidized beds of binary mixtures have been used to clean air streams containing dust particles in the size range 4.4 to 14 {mu}m. All beds were composed of glass beads and plastic granules mixed at different proportions. The effect on the electrostatic collection efficiency of a number of variables, including type of collecting mixture, bed height, and gas velocity, was examined. To calculate the single collection efficiency from experimental results, an early model proposed by Clift et al. was used. The electrostatic collection efficiency was determined by subtracting the other individual mechanism efficiencies from the single particle collection efficiency.

  8. A PROTOTYPE FOUR INCH SHORT HYDRIDE (FISH) BED AS A REPLACEMENT TRITIUM STORAGE BED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.; Shanahan, K.; Heung, L.

    2011-02-23

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1st generation (Gen1) metal hydride storage bed assemblies with process vessels (PVs) fabricated from 3 inch nominal pipe size (NPS) pipe to hold up to 12.6 kg of LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} metal hydride for tritium gas absorption, storage, and desorption for over 15 years. The 2nd generation (Gen2) of the bed design used the same NPS for the PV, but the added internal components produced a bed nominally 1.2 m long, and presented a significant challenge for heater cartridge replacement in a footprint limited glove-box. A prototype 3rd generation (Gen3) metal hydride storage bed has been designed and fabricated as a replacement candidate for the Gen2 storage bed. The prototype Gen3 bed uses a PV pipe diameter of 4 inch NPS so the bed length can be reduced below 0.7 m to facilitate heater cartridge replacement. For the Gen3 prototype bed, modeling results show increased absorption rates when using hydrides with lower absorption pressures. To improve absorption performance compared to the Gen2 beds, a LaNi{sub 4.15}Al{sub 0.85} material was procured and processed to obtain the desired pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) properties. Other bed design improvements are also presented.

  9. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains on internal 'U-tube' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds.IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95% confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory.Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM.Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests

  10. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KLEIN, JAMES

    2004-01-01

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains an internal ''U-tube'' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds. IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95 percent confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory. Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM. Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests

  11. The potential carcinogenic risk of tanning beds: clinical guidelines and patient safety advice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jemec, Gregor BE

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the WHO listed ultraviolet (UV) radiation as a group 1 carcinogen. In spite of this, each year, millions of people tan indoor in Western countries. The aim of this review is to summarize evidence of tanning bed carcinogenesis and to present guidelines for use of tanning beds and patient safety advice. A narrative review of the literature was conducted based on both PubMed and Medline searches and on literature review of the retrieved papers. Use of indoor tanning beds represents a significant and avoidable risk factor for the development of both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Frequent tanners are more often adolescent females. Tanning beds have additional potential adverse effects such as burns, solar skin damage, infection, and possibly also addictive behavior. The effort in preventing UV light-induced carcinogenesis should currently be aimed at developing new strategies for public health information. Tanning beds are one preventable source of UV radiation. In the majority of people solar UV radiation continues to be the major factor and therefore anti-tanning campaigns must always include sunbathers

  12. Psychological effects of acute physical inactivty during microgravitiy simulated by bed rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dolenc

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-duration weightlessness simulated by bed rest represents an important model to study the consequences of physical inactivity and sedentarism on the human body. This study evaluated changes of mood status, psychological well-being, coping strategies and physical self in ten healthy young male subjects during a 35-day horizontal bed rest. Participants were asked to complete psychometrical inventories before and after the bed rest experiment. The preceived satisfaction with life and the physical self-concept did not change during bed rest period and mood states were relatively stable during the experiment according to the Emotional States Questionnaire. The neurotic level was enhanced during the bed rest period according to the Slovenian version of the General Health Questionnaire. However, even after the period of physical immobilization, the expression of these symptoms remains relatively low and does not represent a risk to the mental health of the subjects. The results from Coping Resources Inventory indicated a tendency toward an increase of emotion focused coping and a decrease of problem focused coping strategies. The importance of this research was to provide evidence that the provision of favourable habitability countermeasures can prevent deterioration in the psychological state under conditions of physical immobilisation. Our findings have applied value in the field of health prevention and rehabilitaion.

  13. Effect of Post-Exercise Whole Body Vibration with Stretching on Mood State, Fatigue, and Soreness in Collegiate Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin J. Merrigan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Static stretching (SS during whole body vibration (WBV has been suggested for exercise recovery. The purpose was to compare post-exercise self-ratings of fatigue (FAT, mood state (BAM, soreness (SOR, and perceived exertion (RPE between SS and WBV+SS in swimmers (9 women, mean ± SD: 19.3 ± 1.3 year, 171 ± 5.7 cm, 67.6 ± 7.2 kg, 26.6 ± 4.1 %body fat (%BF; 10 men, mean ± SD: 19.7 ± 1.0 year, 183 ± 5.5 cm, 77.1 ± 4.2 kg, 13.1 ± 2.2 %BF. Athletes were divided by sex, event (sprint, distance, and assigned to SS or WBV+SS. Both conditions consisted of SS performed on the WBV platform with or without WBV (50 Hz, 6 mm. Sessions consisted of: pre and post measures of BAM, FAT, SOR; the condition; and RPE. Mixed factorial ANOVA were run. A significant condition by pre/post interaction was observed (p = 0.035. Post hoc analyses showed WBV+SS elicited lower post-exercise ratings of FAT (p = 0.002 and the BAM affective states, of tension (p = 0.031, and fatigue (p = 0.087. RPE did not differ between conditions. Of interest is the decrease in tension and fatigue noted by the BAM. Mood state can be indicative of how athletes adapt to training volume and intensity.

  14. Range of Motion as a Predictor of Clinical Shoulder Pain During Recovery From Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin-Kaiser, Kelly A.; Parr, Jeffrey J.; Borsa, Paul A.; George, Steven Z.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Athletic trainers use clinical pain and range of motion (ROM) to gauge recovery after musculoskeletal injury. Limited evidence to date suggests which shoulder ROM measures can predict symptomatic relief and functional recovery after delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Objective: To determine whether shoulder passive internal rotation, passive external rotation, active abduction, and active flexion and evoked pain with abduction are associated with resting pain experienced after exercise-induced DOMS. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Controlled research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 110 healthy, right-hand–dominant participants (44 men: age = 25.39 ± 7.00 years, height = 178.93 ± 7.01 cm, weight = 78.59 ± 14.04 kg; 66 women: age = 22.98 ± 6.11 years, height = 164.64 ± 6.94 cm, weight = 61.86 ± 11.67 kg). Intervention(s): Participants completed an exercise-induced DOMS protocol for the external rotators of the dominant shoulder to replicate muscle injury. Main Outcome Measure(s): Current resting pain was assessed daily for 96 hours using the Brief Pain Inventory. We evaluated functional recovery with measures of ROM in abduction, internal rotation, external rotation, and flexion. Evoked pain with active abduction was reported, and the pain rating served as the dependent variable in the regression model. Results: Impairment measures explained resting pain at 48 (R2 = 0.392) and 96 hours (R2 = 0.164). Abduction and internal-rotation ROM and evoked pain with abduction predicted resting pain at 48 hours (P < .001). At 96 hours, evoked pain with abduction of the injured arm (P < .001) was the significant contributor to resting pain. Conclusions: These models suggest that resting pain after experimentally induced DOMS occurs at 48 hours and is associated with specific ranges of motion and evoked pain with abduction. PMID:25658817

  15. Range of motion as a predictor of clinical shoulder pain during recovery from delayed-onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin-Kaiser, Kelly A; Parr, Jeffrey J; Borsa, Paul A; George, Steven Z

    2015-03-01

    Athletic trainers use clinical pain and range of motion (ROM) to gauge recovery after musculoskeletal injury. Limited evidence to date suggests which shoulder ROM measures can predict symptomatic relief and functional recovery after delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). To determine whether shoulder passive internal rotation, passive external rotation, active abduction, and active flexion and evoked pain with abduction are associated with resting pain experienced after exercise-induced DOMS. Descriptive laboratory study. Controlled research laboratory. A total of 110 healthy, right-hand-dominant participants (44 men: age = 25.39 ± 7.00 years, height = 178.93 ± 7.01 cm, weight = 78.59 ± 14.04 kg; 66 women: age = 22.98 ± 6.11 years, height = 164.64 ± 6.94 cm, weight = 61.86 ± 11.67 kg). Participants completed an exercise-induced DOMS protocol for the external rotators of the dominant shoulder to replicate muscle injury. Current resting pain was assessed daily for 96 hours using the Brief Pain Inventory. We evaluated functional recovery with measures of ROM in abduction, internal rotation, external rotation, and flexion. Evoked pain with active abduction was reported, and the pain rating served as the dependent variable in the regression model. Impairment measures explained resting pain at 48 (R2 = 0.392) and 96 hours (R2 = 0.164). Abduction and internal-rotation ROM and evoked pain with abduction predicted resting pain at 48 hours (P < .001). At 96 hours, evoked pain with abduction of the injured arm (P < .001) was the significant contributor to resting pain. These models suggest that resting pain after experimentally induced DOMS occurs at 48 hours and is associated with specific ranges of motion and evoked pain with abduction.

  16. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  17. Effects Of Exercise During Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Bernauer, Edmund M.

    1993-01-01

    Pair of reports adds to growing body of knowledge of physical deconditioning caused by prolonged bed rest and effectiveness of various exercise regimens in preserving or restoring fitness. Major objective to determine what regimens to prescribe to astronauts before flight, during prolonged weightlessness, and immediately before returning to Earth. Knowledge also benefits patients confined by illness or injury. First report discusses experiment on effects of two types of periodic, intense, short-duration exercise during bed rest. Experiment also discussed in documents "Effects Of Exercise During Prolonged Bed Rest" (ARC-12190), and "Isotonic And Isokinetic Exercise During Bed Rest" (ARC-12180). Second report reviews knowledge acquired with view toward development of protocols for exercise regimens.

  18. Incipient motion of gravel and coal beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    turbulent regime, identified based on physical reasoning and dimensional analysis, are the Shields parameter, particle Froude number, non-dimensional particle diameter and non-dimensional flow depth. Equations of critical bed shear stress ...

  19. Positive train control test bed interoperability upgrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI) upgraded the Positive Train Control (PTC) Test Bed to support additional PTC testing configurations under Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Task Order 270. The scope of work provided additional PTC Co...

  20. Heat transfer in a fixed bed and mass transfer in a counter-current moving bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellaretti, F. O.

    The behavior of gas-solid reactors known as compact-fixed and moving beds, is analyzed from a theoretical viewpoint. For a compact fixed-bed the solution of the energy balance equations is obtained for the cases of a uniform temperature inside the solid pellets (i.e., the Biot number is zero) and for the case in which there are temperature gradients within the pellets (Bi 0). For short contact times, beds with Bi 0 have gas- and solid- temperatures which are greater than the temperatures within beds with Bi = 0. For long times, the situation is reversed. For a compact-moving bed the solution of the mass balance equations is obtained for the cases of a feed-solid with an oscillating concentration. For both types of beds there is an equivalence between mass transfer and energy transfer so that the solutions can be interchanged with suitable definitions of dimensionless variables.

  1. The effect of vibration on bed voidage behaviors in fluidized beds with large particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of vibration parameters, operating conditions and material properties on bed voidage were investigated using an optical fiber probe approach in a vibrating fluidized bed with a diameter of 148 mm. Variables studied included frequency (0-282 s-1, amplitude (0 mm-1 mm, bed height (0.1 m-0.4 m as well as four kinds of particles (belonging to Geldart's B and D groups. The axial and radial voidage distribution with vibration is compared with that without vibration, which shows vibration can aid in the fluidization behaviors of particles. For a larger vibration amplitude, the vibration seriously affects bed voidage. The vibration energy can damp out for particle layers with increasing the bed height. According to analysis of experimental data, an empirical correlation for predicting bed voidage, giving good agreement with the experimental data and a deviation within ±15%, was proposed.

  2. Coolability of volumetrically heated particle beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Muhammad

    2017-03-22

    In case of a severe nuclear reactor accident, with loss of coolant, a particle bed may be formed from the fragmentation of the molten core in the residual water at different stages of the accident. To avoid further propagation of the accident and maintain the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel, the decay heat of the particle bed must be removed. To better understand the various thermo-hydraulic processes within such heat-generating particle beds, the existing DEBRIS test facility at IKE has been modified to be able to perform novel boiling, dryout and quenching experiments. The essential experimental data includes the pressure gradients measured by 8 differential pressure transducers along the bed height as a function of liquid and vapour superficial velocities, the determination of local dryout heat fluxes for different system pressures as well as the local temperature distribution measured by a set of 51 thermocouples installed inside the particle bed. The experiments were carried out for two different particle beds: a polydispersed particle bed which consisted of stainless steel balls (2 mm, 3 mm and 6 mm diameters) and an irregular particle bed which consisted of a mixture of steel balls (3 mm and 6 mm) and irregularly shaped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. Additionally, all experiments were carried out for different flow conditions, such as the reference case of passive 1D top-flooding, 1D bottom flooding (driven by external pumps and different downcomer configurations) and 2D top-/bottom-/lateral flooding with a perforated downcomer. In this work, it has been observed that for both particle beds with downcomer configurations an open downcomer leads to the best coolability (dryout heat flux = 1560 kW/m{sup 2}, polydispersed particle bed, psys = 1 bar) of the particle bed, mainly due to bottom-flow with enhanced natural convection. It has also been shown that a potential lateral flow via a perforation of the downcomer does not bring any further improvements

  3. Uranium storage bed accident hazards evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Shmayda, W.T.

    1989-10-01

    To properly assess hazards and risks associated with the use of uranium beds as tritium storage devices in fusion reactor systems, it is necessary to understand the consequences occurring in the event of an accident. Accidents involving uranium beds are postulated, and the possible results are considered. A research program to more fully and accurately understand those results has been initiated involving the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and Ontario Hydro. The plan and objectives of that program are presented. 11 refs., 1 tab

  4. Coal bed sequestration of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Robert; Flores, Romeo M.; Warwick, Peter D.; Gluskoter, Harold J.; Stricker, Gary D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 generated from fossil fuel combustion may be an environmentally attractive method to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Of the geologic options, sequestering CO2 in coal beds has several advantages. For example, CO2 injection can enhance methane production from coal beds; coal can trap CO2 for long periods of time; and potential major coal basins that contain ideal beds for sequestration are near many emitting sources of CO2.One mission of the Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey is to maintain assessment information of the Nation’s resources of coal, oil, and gas. The National Coal Resources Assessment Project is currently completing a periodic assessment of 5 major coal-producing regions of the US. These regions include the Powder River and Williston and other Northern Rocky Mountain basins (Fort Union Coal Assessment Team, 1999), Colorado Plateau area (Kirschbaum and others, 2000), Gulf Coast Region, Appalachian Basin, and Illinois Basin. The major objective of this assessment is to estimate available coal resources and quality for the major producing coal beds of the next 25 years and produce digital databases and maps. Although the focus of this work has been on coal beds with the greatest potential for mining, it serves as a basis for future assessments of the coal beds for other uses such as coal bed methane resources, in situ gasification, and sites for sequestration of CO2. Coal bed methane production combined with CO2 injection and storage expands the use of a coal resource and can provide multiple benefits including increased methane recovery, methane drainage of a resource area, and the long-term storage of CO2.

  5. Ash problem at wood fired fluidized bed plants; Askproblem vid skogsbraensleeldning i fluidbaedd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Soeren; Nystroem, Olle; Axby, Fredrik [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Andersson, Christer; Kling, Aasa [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    Several ash related problems occurs during conversion from fossil fuels to bio fuels. The most frequent and expensive problem is agglomeration of bed material (in fluidized beds) and fouling on superheating surfaces. The last problem leads to corrosion problem and decreased transfer of heat. This project is the first part of a proposed project focussed on fluidized bed combustion (FB), because FB have become the dominating technology for combustion of biofuels. The project includes this first update of what has been done by different research institutes since 1997 and results of questionnaire on operating problems to owners of fluidized bed plants. A couple of pilot studies and different thermodynamical studies of bed agglomeration with biofuel combustion have been done during the latest years. There are no published reports where the results from agglomeration tests in pilot scale are verified in full scale plants. No project was found which deals with the fouling problem in the cyclone in a circulating fluidized bed. The knowledge of the mechanisms of deposits growth on heat surfaces is incomplete and more research has to be done of what can prevent the deposit growth. Experience from full scale plants shows that the deposits on heat surfaces grows during a period and after that it falls of the heating surface. There is little knowledge of which ash and flue gas conditions that affects these conditions for bio fuel. The operational experience with wood fuels in circulating fluidized beds is that the main problem with bed material is in the inlet and outlet of the cyclone. A total desulfonated of the bed occurs only when there has been other disturbances or because of operator mistakes. There are a number of things which seem to influence on the deposit problems: (1) Boilers with long residence time have less problem than boilers with short residence time. (2) Fuel size. No plant owner have continuos analysis of the fuel size, but combustion with problem have a

  6. All-metal uranium bed loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichman, C.C.

    1979-01-01

    The uranium bed processing system is essentially a vacuum system designed to transfer tritium gas from a large shipping container into small, portable containers called beds. The portable beds, designed to contain specific amounts of tritium or deuterium gas, are attached to various production systems for the purpose of hydriding occluder films in the production of neutron generators. The beds are constructed of stainless steel and contain uranium that is hydrided up to 50% capacity with tritium or deuterum gas. This technique not only makes it easy to load a bed, but also to recover surplus gas from a production system after the neutron generator hydriding process has been completed. The process development activities were directed toward solving and developing processing procedures for: (1) purifying the tritium gas; (2) reducing the protium gas; (3) removing helium (due to tritium decay) from the vacuum system; (4) eliminating hydrocarbon contamination; (5) increasing helium pumping speed with ion pumps; (6) providing multiple bed processing capability; (7) measuring pressure accurately; and (8) detect system leaks and obtain residual gas analyses of the system

  7. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  8. Effect of bed configuration on pebble flow uniformity and stagnation in the pebble bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, Nan; Yang, Xingtuan [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Tu, Jiyuan [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3083 (Australia); Jiang, Shengyao, E-mail: jiangshy@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Pebble flow uniformity and stagnation characteristics are very important for HTR-PM. • Arc- and brachistochrone-shaped configuration effects are studied by DEM simulation. • Best bed configurations with uniform flow and no stagnated pebbles are suggested. • Detailed quantified characteristics of bed configuration effects are shown for explanation. - Abstract: Pebble flow uniformity and stagnation characteristics are very important for the design of pebble bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor. Pebble flows inside some specifically designed contraction configurations of pebble bed are studied by discrete element method. The results show the characteristics of stagnation rates, recycling rates, radial distribution of pebble velocity and residence time. It is demonstrated clearly that the bed with a brachistochrone-shaped configuration achieves optimum levels of flow uniformity and recycling rate concentration, and almost no pebbles are stagnated in the bed. Moreover, the optimum choice among the arc-shaped bed configurations is demonstrated too. Detailed information shows the quantified characteristics of bed configuration effects on flow uniformity. In addition, a good design of the pebble bed configuration is suggested.

  9. WTP Pretreatment Facility Potential Design Deficiencies--Sliding Bed and Sliding Bed Erosion Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-06

    This assessment is based on readily available literature and discusses both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries with respect to sliding beds and erosion due to sliding beds. This report does not quantify the size of the sliding beds or erosion rates due to sliding beds, but only assesses if they could be present. This assessment addresses process pipelines in the Pretreatment (PT) facility and the high level waste (HLW) transfer lines leaving the PT facility to the HLW vitrification facility concentrate receipt vessel.

  10. SPOUTED BED DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR COATED NUCLEAR FUEL PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Douglas W.

    2017-07-01

    High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) are fueled with tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated nuclear fuel particles embedded in a carbon-graphite fuel body. TRISO coatings consist of four layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide that are deposited on uranium ceramic fuel kernels (350µm – 500µm diameters) in a concatenated series of batch depositions. Each layer has dedicated functions such that the finished fuel particle has its own integral containment to minimize and control the release of fission products into the fuel body and reactor core. The TRISO coatings are the primary containment structure in the HTGR reactor and must have very high uniformity and integrity. To ensure high quality TRISO coatings, the four layers are deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using high purity precursors and are applied in a concatenated succession of batch operations before the finished product is unloaded from the coating furnace. These depositions take place at temperatures ranging from 1230°C to 1550°C and use three different gas compositions, while the fuel particle diameters double, their density drops from 11.1 g/cm3 to 3.0 g/cm3, and the bed volume increases more than 8-fold. All this is accomplished without the aid of sight ports or internal instrumentation that could cause chemical contamination within the layers or mechanical damage to thin layers in the early stages of each layer deposition. The converging section of the furnace retort was specifically designed to prevent bed stagnation that would lead to unacceptably high defect fractions and facilitate bed circulation to avoid large variability in coating layer dimensions and properties. The gas injection nozzle was designed to protect precursor gases from becoming overheated prior to injection, to induce bed spouting and preclude bed stagnation in the bottom of the retort. Furthermore, the retort and injection nozzle designs minimize buildup of pyrocarbon and silicon carbide on the

  11. Xylitol and caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Brett

    2015-06-01

    but did not report any usable data, or did not mention them at all. Adverse effects include sores in the mouth, cramps, bloating, constipation, flatulence and loose stool or diarrhoea. Low quality evidence suggested that fluoride toothpaste containing xylitol may be more effective than fluoride-only toothpaste for preventing caries in the permanent teeth of children. The effect estimate should be interpreted with caution due to high risk of bias and the fact that it was derived from two studies that were carried out by the same authors in the same population. The remaining evidence was low to very low quality and is insufficient to determine whether any other xylitol-containing products can prevent caries in infants, older children or adults.

  12. NASA'S Standard Measures During Bed Rest: Adaptations in the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Martin, David S.; Cromwell, Roni L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    increases. Additionally, while plasma volume loss can be corrected and cardiac mass can be prevented with properly applied countermeasures, orthostatic tolerance is more difficult to protect when supine exercise is the only countermeasure. Similar results have been observed after space flight. Plasma volume, cardiac chamber volume, and orthostatic tolerance recover relatively quickly with resumption of ambulation and normal activity levels after bed rest but restoration of cardiac mass is prolonged.

  13. Psychosocial preventive interventions for obesity and eating disorders in youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2012-06-01

    Abstract The rates of paediatric obesity have risen dramatically. Given the challenge of successful weight loss and maintenance, preventive interventions are sorely needed. Furthermore, since a substantial proportion of individuals do not respond to traditional behavioural weight loss therapy, alternative approaches are required. Psychological treatments for binge eating disorder have been generally effective at reducing binge episodes and producing weight maintenance or modest weight loss in obese adults. Given the strong link between loss of control eating and obesity in youths, binge eating disorder treatment may serve as a viable form of excess weight gain prevention. An adapted version of interpersonal psychotherapy for binge eating disorder is one such intervention that we have considered. A description of the theoretical basis and proposed mechanism is described. Adaptations of interpersonal psychotherapy and other established therapies for binge eating disorder may serve as platforms from which to develop and disseminate obesity and eating disorder prevention programs in children and adolescents.

  14. Model of rough bed for numerical simulation of saltation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kharlamova, Irina; Vlasák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2015), s. 366-385 ISSN 1964-8189 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/1718; GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : saltation * bed load transport * rough bed * armoured bed * bed roughness Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.636, year: 2015

  15. Helpless patients' perception of bed-bath in tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The need to investigate the perceptions of helpless patients to bed bathing by nurses is a very important aspect of quality assurance in nursing care. Aim: To determine the perceptions of helpless patients to the need for bed bath, the timing of bed bath, nurse's attitude during bed bath and the patient's attitude to ...

  16. Flow fields, bed shear stresses, and suspended bed sediment dynamics in bifurcations of a large river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szupiany, R. N.; Amsler, M. L.; Hernandez, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Best, J. L.; Fornari, E.; Trento, A.

    2012-11-01

    Channel bifurcations associated with bars and islands are important nodes in braided rivers and may control flow partitioning and thus affect downstream confluences, as well as the formation and dynamics of bars. However, the morphodynamic processes associated with bar formation are poorly understood, and previous studies have largely concerned laboratory experiments, small natural streams, or numerical analyses with large Froude numbers, high slopes, and low Shields stresses. In these cases, the morphologic changes at bifurcations are relatively rapid, with predominant bed load transport and the suspended load playing a minor role. In this paper, the evolution of the flow structure and suspended bed sediment transport along four expansion-diffluence units in the Rio Paraná, Argentina, are described. The Rio Paraná is a large multichannel river with a bed composed of medium and fine sands and possesses low Froude numbers and high suspended bed material transport. Primary and secondary flow velocity components were measured with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) along the expansion-diffluence units, and the backscatter signal of the ADCP was calibrated to allow simultaneous measurements of suspended bed sediment concentrations. The interactions between these variables show that the cores of primary flow velocity and suspended bed sediment concentration do not necessarily follow the thalweg at the bifurcation and that inertial effects on the suspended bed sediment may influence the morphodynamics of bar formation. It is suggested that changes in flow stage, as well as the presence of vegetation, may further increase the deposition of suspended bed sediment at the bar head. This study suggests that the ratio of suspended bed material to bed load is an important factor controlling the morphodynamics of bifurcations in large sand bed braided rivers.

  17. Experimental study of flow field characteristics on bed configurations in the pebble bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Xinlong; Gui, Nan; Yang, Xingtuan; Tu, Jiyuan; Jia, Haijun; Jiang, Shengyao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • PTV study of flow fields of pebble bed reactor with different configurations are carried out. • Some criteria are proposed to quantify vertical velocity field and flow uniformity. • The effect of different pebble bed configurations is also compared by the proposed criteria. • The displacement thickness is used analogically to analyze flow field characteristics. • The effect of mass flow variation in the stagnated region of the funnel flow is measured. - Abstract: The flow field characteristics are of fundamental importance in the design work of the pebble bed high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). The different effects of bed configurations on the flow characteristics of pebble bed are studied through the PTV (Particle Tracking Velocimetry) experiment. Some criteria, e.g. flow uniformity (σ) and mass flow level (α), are proposed to estimate vertical velocity field and compare the bed configurations. The distribution of the Δθ (angle difference between the individual particle velocity and the velocity vector sum of all particles) is also used to estimate the resultant motion consistency level. Moreover, for each bed configuration, the thickness of displacement is analyzed to measure the effect of the funnel flow zone based on the boundary layer theory. Detailed information shows the quantified characteristics of bed configuration effects on flow uniformity and other characteristics; and the sequence of levels of each estimation criterion is obtained for all bed configurations. In addition, a good design of the pebble bed configuration is suggested and these estimation criteria can be also applied and adopted in testing other geometry designs of pebble bed.

  18. Use of Cold-Water Immersion to Reduce Muscle Damage and Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness and Preserve Muscle Power in Jiu-Jitsu Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Líllian Beatriz; Brito, Ciro J; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo S; Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo Edir; da Silva, Walderi Monteiro; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-07-01

    Cold-water immersion (CWI) has been applied widely as a recovery method, but little evidence is available to support its effectiveness. To investigate the effects of CWI on muscle damage, perceived muscle soreness, and muscle power recovery of the upper and lower limbs after jiu-jitsu training. Crossover study. Laboratory and field. A total of 8 highly trained male athletes (age = 24.0 ± 3.6 years, mass = 78.4 ± 2.4 kg, percentage of body fat = 13.1% ± 3.6%) completed all study phases. We randomly selected half of the sample for recovery using CWI (6.0°C ± 0.5°C) for 19 minutes; the other participants were allocated to the control condition (passive recovery). Treatments were reversed in the second session (after 1 week). We measured serum levels of creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase enzymes; perceived muscle soreness; and recovery through visual analogue scales and muscle power of the upper and lower limbs at pretraining, postrecovery, 24 hours, and 48 hours. Athletes who underwent CWI showed better posttraining recovery measures because circulating LDH levels were lower at 24 hours postrecovery in the CWI condition (441.9 ± 81.4 IU/L) than in the control condition (493.6 ± 97.4 IU/L; P = .03). Estimated muscle power was higher in the CWI than in the control condition for both upper limbs (757.9 ± 125.1 W versus 695.9 ± 56.1 W) and lower limbs (53.7 ± 3.7 cm versus 35.5 ± 8.2 cm; both P values = .001). In addition, we observed less perceived muscle soreness (1.5 ± 1.1 arbitrary units [au] versus 3.1 ± 1.0 au; P = .004) and higher perceived recovery (8.8 ± 1.9 au versus 6.9 ± 1.7 au; P = .005) in the CWI than in the control condition at 24 hours postrecovery. Use of CWI can be beneficial to jiu-jitsu athletes because it reduces circulating LDH levels, results in less perceived muscle soreness, and helps muscle power recovery at 24 hours postrecovery.

  19. Ischemic Compression After Dry Needling of a Latent Myofascial Trigger Point Reduces Postneedling Soreness Intensity and Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pintado-Zugasti, Aitor; Pecos-Martin, Daniel; Rodríguez-Fernández, Ángel Luis; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel María; Portillo-Aceituno, Alicia; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Fernandez-Carnero, Josue

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effect of ischemic compression (IC) versus placebo and control on reducing postneedling soreness of 1 latent myofascial trigger point and on improving cervical range of motion (CROM) in asymptomatic subjects. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 72-hour follow-up. A university community. Asymptomatic volunteers (N = 90: 40 men and 50 women) aged 18 to 39 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD]: 22 ± 3 years). All subjects received a dry needling application over the upper trapezius muscle. Participants were then randomly divided into 3 groups: a treatment group who received IC over the needled trapezius muscle, a placebo group who received sham IC, and a control group who did not receive any treatment after needling. Visual analog scale (VAS; during needling, at posttreatment and 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours) and CROM (at preneedling, postneedling, and 24 and 72 hours). Subjects in the IC group showed significantly lower postneedling soreness than the placebo and the control group subjects immediately after treatment (mean ± standard deviation [SD]: IC, 20.1 ± 4.8; placebo, 36.7 ± 4.8; control, 34.8 ± 3.6) and at 48 hours (mean ± SD: IC, 0.6 ± 1; placebo, 4.8 ± 1; control, 3.8 ± 0.7). In addition, subjects in the dry needling+IC group showed significantly lower postneedling soreness duration (P = .026). All subjects significantly improved CROM in contralateral lateroflexion and both homolateral and contralateral rotations, but only the improvements found in the IC group reached the minimal detectable change. IC can potentially be added immediately after dry needling of myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle because it has the effect of reducing postneedling soreness intensity and duration. The combination of dry needling and IC seems to improve CROM in homolateral and contralateral cervical rotation movements. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by

  20. 76 FR 19914 - Safety Standard for Portable Bed Rails: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... bed after rolling a 30 lb cylinder into the bed rail. The test simulates a child rolling into the bed... conditions. Installation of a portable bed rail onto a bed can require complex or physically demanding...