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Sample records for prevent bacterial infection

  1. Preventing Bacterial Infections using Metal Oxides Nanocoatings on Bone Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duceac, L. D.; Straticiuc, S.; Hanganu, E.; Stafie, L.; Calin, G.; Gavrilescu, S. L.

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays bone implant removal is caused by infection that occurs around it possibly acquired after surgery or during hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to reveal some metal oxides applied as coatings on bone implant thus limiting the usual antibiotics-resistant bacteria colonization. Therefore ZnO, TiO2 and CuO were synthesized and structurally and morphologically analized in order to use them as an alternative antimicrobial agents deposited on bone implant. XRD, SEM, and FTIR characterization techniques were used to identify structure and texture of these nanoscaled metal oxides. These metal oxides nanocoatings on implant surface play a big role in preventing bacterial infection and reducing surgical complications.

  2. Nanosized Selenium: A Novel Platform Technology to Prevent Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi

    As an important category of bacterial infections, healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are considered an increasing threat to the safety and health of patients worldwide. HAIs lead to extended hospital stays, contribute to increased medical costs, and are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In the United States, infections encountered in the hospital or a health care facility affect more than 1.7 million patients, cost 35.7 billion to 45 billion, and contribute to 88,000 deaths in hospitals annually. The most conventional and widely accepted method to fight against bacterial infections is using antibiotics. However, because of the widespread and sometimes inappropriate use of antibiotics, many strains of bacteria have rapidly developed antibiotic resistance. Those new, stronger bacteria pose serious, worldwide threats to public health and welfare. In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported antibiotic resistance as a global serious threat that is no longer a prediction for the future but is now reality. It has the potential to affect anyone, of any age, in any country. The most effective strategy to prevent antibiotic resistance is minimizing the use of antibiotics. In recent years, nanomaterials have been investigated as one of the potential substitutes of antibiotics. As a result of their vastly increased ratio of surface area to volume, nanomaterials will likely exert a stronger interaction with bacteria which may affect bacterial growth and propagation. A major concern of most existing antibacterial nanomaterials, like silver nanoparticles, is their potential toxicity. But selenium is a non-metallic material and a required nutrition for the human body, which is recommended by the FDA at a 53 to 60 μg daily intake. Nanosized selenium is considered to be healthier and less toxic compared with many metal-based nanomaterials due to the generation of reactive oxygen species from metals, especially heavy metals. Therefore, the objectives of

  3. CRISPR interference can prevent natural transformation and virulence acquisition during in vivo bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikard, David; Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Mucida, Daniel; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2012-08-16

    Pathogenic bacterial strains emerge largely due to transfer of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria, a process known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci of bacteria and archaea encode a sequence-specific defense mechanism against bacteriophages and constitute a programmable barrier to HGT. However, the impact of CRISPRs on the emergence of virulence is unknown. We programmed the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae with CRISPR sequences that target capsule genes, an essential pneumococcal virulence factor, and show that CRISPR interference can prevent transformation of nonencapsulated, avirulent pneumococci into capsulated, virulent strains during infection in mice. Further, at low frequencies bacteria can lose CRISPR function, acquire capsule genes, and mount a successful infection. These results demonstrate that CRISPR interference can prevent the emergence of virulence in vivo and that strong selective pressure for virulence or antibiotic resistance can lead to CRISPR loss in bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Powerful colloidal silver nanoparticles for the prevention of gastrointestinal bacterial infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Anh-Tuan; Le, Thi Tam; Nguyen, Van Quy; Tran, Huy Hoang; Dang, Duc Anh; Tran, Quang Huy; Vu, Dinh Lam

    2012-01-01

    In this work we have demonstrated a powerful disinfectant ability of colloidal silver nanoparticles (NPs) for the prevention of gastrointestinal bacterial infections. The silver NPs colloid was synthesized by a UV-enhanced chemical precipitation. Two gastrointestinal bacterial strains of Escherichia coli (ATCC 43888-O157:k-:H7) and Vibrio cholerae (O1) were used to verify the antibacterial activity of the as-prepared silver NPs colloid by means of surface disinfection assay in agar plates and turbidity assay in liquid media. Transmission electron microscopy was also employed to analyze the ultrastructural changes of bacterial cells caused by silver NPs. Noticeably, our silver NPs colloid displayed a highly effective bactericidal effect against two tested gastrointestinal bacterial strains at a silver concentration as low as ∼3 mg l −1 . More importantly, the silver NPs colloid showed an enhancement of antibacterial activity and long-lasting disinfectant effect as compared to conventional chloramin B (5%) disinfection agent. These advantages of the as-prepared colloidal silver NPs make them very promising for environmental treatments contaminated with gastrointestinal bacteria and other infectious pathogens. Moreover, the powerful disinfectant activity of silver-containing materials can also help in controlling and preventing further outbreak of diseases. (paper)

  5. Perioperative management for the prevention of bacterial infection in cardiac implantable electronic device placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Imai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs have become important in the treatment of cardiac disease and placement rates increased significantly in the last decade. However, despite the use of appropriate antimicrobial prophylaxis, CIED infection rates are increasing disproportionately to the implantation rate. CIED infection often requires explantation of all hardware, and at times results in death. Surgical site infection (SSI is the most common cause of CIED infection as a pocket infection. The best method of combating CIED infection is prevention. Prevention of CIED infections comprises three phases: before, during, and after device implantation. The most critical factors in the prevention of SSIs are detailed operative techniques including the practice of proper technique by the surgeon and surgical team.

  6. Co-trimoxazole alone for prevention of bacterial infection in patients with acute leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, I D; Donnelly, P; Catovsky, D; Darrell, J; Johnson, S A; Goldman, J M; Galton, D A

    1982-01-02

    43 patients undergoing treatment for acute leukaemia were randomised to receive either co-trimoxazole alone or co-trimoxazole with framycetin and colistin as antibacterial prophylaxis during periods of neutropenia. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups in the time before the onset of the first fever, the number of episodes of fever or of septicaemia per patient, the number of neutropenic days during which patients remained afebrile or did not require systemic antibiotics, or the number of resistant organisms acquired. Co-trimoxazole alone is cheaper and easier to take than co-trimoxazole with framycetin and colistin, and it is therefore preferable to the three-drug combination for the prophylaxis of bacterial infection.

  7. [Bacterial biofilms and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, I; Del Pozo, J L; Penadés, J R; Leiva, J

    2005-01-01

    In developed countries we tend to think of heart disease and the numerous forms of cancer as the main causes of mortality, but on a global scale infectious diseases come close, or may even be ahead: 14.9 million deaths in 2002 compared to cardiovascular diseases (16.9 million deaths) and cancer (7.1 million deaths) (WHO report 2004). The infectious agents responsible for human mortality have evolved as medical techniques and hygienic measures have changed. Modern-day acute infectious diseases caused by specialized bacterial pathogens such as diphtheria, tetanus, cholera, plague, which represented the main causes of death at the beginning of XX century, have been effectively controlled with antibiotics and vaccines. In their place, more than half of the infectious diseases that affect mildly immunocompromised patients involve bacterial species that are commensal with the human body; these can produce chronic infections, are resistant to antimicrobial agents and there is no effective vaccine against them. Examples of these infections are the otitis media, native valve endocarditis, chronic urinary infections, bacterial prostatitis, osteomyelitis and all the infections related to medical devices. Direct analysis of the surface of medical devices or of tissues that have been foci of chronic infections shows the presence of large numbers of bacteria surrounded by an exopolysaccharide matrix, which has been named the "biofilm". Inside the biofilm, bacteria grow protected from the action of the antibodies, phagocytic cells and antimicrobial treatments. In this article, we describe the role of bacterial biofilms in human persistent infections.

  8. Antibiotic-Loaded Synthetic Calcium Sulfate Beads for Prevention of Bacterial Colonization and Biofilm Formation in Periprosthetic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlin, R. P.; Brayford, M. J.; Webb, J. S.; Cooper, J. J.; Aiken, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Periprosthetic infection (PI) causes significant morbidity and mortality after fixation and joint arthroplasty and has been extensively linked to the formation of bacterial biofilms. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), as a cement or as beads, is commonly used for antibiotic release to the site of infection but displays variable elution kinetics and also represents a potential nidus for infection, therefore requiring surgical removal once antibiotics have eluted. Absorbable cements have shown improved elution of a wider range of antibiotics and, crucially, complete biodegradation, but limited data exist as to their antimicrobial and antibiofilm efficacy. Synthetic calcium sulfate beads loaded with tobramycin, vancomycin, or vancomycin-tobramycin dual treatment (in a 1:0.24 [wt/wt] ratio) were assessed for their abilities to eradicate planktonic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis relative to that of PMMA beads. The ability of the calcium sulfate beads to prevent biofilm formation over multiple days and to eradicate preformed biofilms was studied using a combination of viable cell counts, confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy of the bead surface. Biofilm bacteria displayed a greater tolerance to the antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts. Antibiotic-loaded beads were able to kill planktonic cultures of 106 CFU/ml, prevent bacterial colonization, and significantly reduce biofilm formation over multiple days. However, established biofilms were harder to eradicate. These data further demonstrate the difficulty in clearing established biofilms; therefore, early preventive measures are key to reducing the risk of PI. Synthetic calcium sulfate loaded with antibiotics has the potential to reduce or eliminate biofilm formation on adjacent periprosthetic tissue and prosthesis material and, thus, to reduce the rates of periprosthetic infection. PMID:25313221

  9. Biodegradable rifampicin-releasing coating of surgical meshes for the prevention of bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinbold J

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Jochen Reinbold,1 Teresa Hierlemann,1 Lukas Urich,1 Ann-Kristin Uhde,1 Ingrid Müller,2 Tobias Weindl,3 Ulrich Vogel,4 Christian Schlensak,1 Hans Peter Wendel,1 Stefanie Krajewski1 1Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Albstadt-Sigmaringen University of Applied Science, Albstadt, 3Aimecs® GmbH Medical Solutions, Pfarrkirchen, 4Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, Tübingen, Germany Abstract: Polypropylene mesh implants are routinely used to repair abdominal wall defects or incisional hernia. However, complications associated with mesh implantation, such as mesh-related infections, can cause serious problems and may require complete surgical removal. Hence, the aim of the present study was the development of a safe and efficient coating to reduce postoperative mesh infections. Biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid microspheres loaded with rifampicin as an antibacterial agent were prepared through single emulsion evaporation method. The particle size distribution (67.93±3.39 µm for rifampicin-loaded microspheres and 64.43±3.61 µm for unloaded microspheres was measured by laser diffraction. Furthermore, the encapsulation efficiency of rifampicin (61.5%±2.58% was detected via ultraviolet–visible (UV/Vis spectroscopy. The drug release of rifampicin-loaded microspheres was detected by UV/Vis spectroscopy over a period of 60 days. After 60 days, 92.40%±3.54% of the encapsulated rifampicin has been continuously released. The viability of BJ fibroblasts after incubation with unloaded and rifampicin-loaded microspheres was investigated using an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, which showed no adverse effects on the cells. Furthermore, the antibacterial impact of rifampicin-loaded microspheres and mesh implants, coated with the antibacterial microspheres, was investigated using an agar diffusion

  10. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    . As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become...

  11. Diagnosis of bacterial infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    direct or indirect evidence of a compatible bacterial pathogen. Inflammation may be .... cardinal features (fever, confusion, headache and neck stiffness). .... specificity, inappropriate indications or poor sampling technique may diminish this ...

  12. Cancer treatment - preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...

  13. Novel insights in preventing Gram-negative bacterial infection in cirrhotic patients: review on the effects of GM-CSF in maintaining homeostasis of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Zhao, Manzhi; Song, Yuhu; Song, Jianxin; Huang, Yuancheng; Wang, Junshuai

    2015-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients with dysfunctional and/or low numbers of leukocytes are often infected with bacteria, especially Gram-negative bacteria, which is characterized by producing lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that influences the production, maturation, function, and survival of various immune cells. In this paper, we reviewed not only Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway and its immunological effect, but also the specific stimulating function and autocrine performance of GM-CSF on hematopoietic cells, as well as the recent discovery of innate response activator-B cells in protection against microbial sepsis and the direct LPS-TLR4 signaling on hematopoiesis. Thus we concluded that GM-CSF might play important roles in preventing Gram-negative bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients through maintaining immune system functions and homeostasis.

  14. Bacterial biofilm and associated infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsin Jamal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic entities, microorganisms that drastically affect human health need to be thoroughly investigated. A biofilm is an architectural colony of microorganisms, within a matrix of extracellular polymeric substance that they produce. Biofilm contains microbial cells adherent to one-another and to a static surface (living or non-living. Bacterial biofilms are usually pathogenic in nature and can cause nosocomial infections. The National Institutes of Health (NIH revealed that among all microbial and chronic infections, 65% and 80%, respectively, are associated with biofilm formation. The process of biofilm formation consists of many steps, starting with attachment to a living or non-living surface that will lead to formation of micro-colony, giving rise to three-dimensional structures and ending up, after maturation, with detachment. During formation of biofilm several species of bacteria communicate with one another, employing quorum sensing. In general, bacterial biofilms show resistance against human immune system, as well as against antibiotics. Health related concerns speak loud due to the biofilm potential to cause diseases, utilizing both device-related and non-device-related infections. In summary, the understanding of bacterial biofilm is important to manage and/or to eradicate biofilm-related diseases. The current review is, therefore, an effort to encompass the current concepts in biofilm formation and its implications in human health and disease.

  15. Rheumatoid arthritis and bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N L Prokopjeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To study features of bacterial infections course in pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and changes of laboratory measures after focus of infection sanation. Material and methods. 46 pts with definite rheumatoid arthritis were examined at the time of comorbid infection (Cl detection and after infection focus sanation. Bacteriological test with evaluation of flora sensitivity to antibiotics by disco-diffusion method was performed at baseline and after the course of antibacterial therapy to assess its efficacy. Hemogram, serum fibrinogen, rheumatoid factor, circulating immune complexes (CIC, C-reactive protein levels were assessed. Serum interleukin (IL 1(3, IL6 and neopterin concentrations were examined by immune-enzyme assay in a part of pts. Typical clinical features of Cl were present in only 28 (60,9% pts. 13 (28,3% pts had fever, 12 (26,0% — leukocytosis, 15 (32,6% — changes of leucocyte populations. Some laboratory measures (thrombocytes, fibrinogen, CIC, neopterin levels significantly decreased (p<0,05 after infection focus sanation without correction of disease modifying therapy. Cl quite often develop as asymptomatic processes most often in pts with high activity and can induce disturbances promoting appearance of endothelial dysfunction, atherothrombosis and reduction of life duration. So timely detection and proper sanation of infection focuses should be performed in pts with RA

  16. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.

  17. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  18. Common bacterial urinary tract infections in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, J E

    1976-09-01

    Unfortunately, there is no general consensus as to how long patients with bacteriuria or urinary tract infections should be monitored and certainly there is no agreement on how long recurrent episodes should be treated beyond ten days to two weeks. The most important points to remember are: 1. Culture the urine both at the time of therapy and during follow-up. The patient should be examined periodically for the presence of bacteruria. If bacteria cannot be eradicated, at least the physician is aware of the organism most likely causing the patient's symptoms. 2. Do not subject the patient with frequent recurrent (chronic) and complicated infections to continual antibacterial therapy, but rather, manage the acute episodes. 3. Use prophylaxis, particularly single bed-time doses for dysuria and frequency symptoms. 4. Screen for bacteriuria during pregnancy. 5. Avoid the use of catheters except where absolutely necessary. 6. Avoid systemic prophylaxis of infection in patients with catheters; rather, use closed-system drainage with antibacteri-irrigation. It is to be hoped within the next few years, studies now underway will allow specific recommendations regarding the management of asymptomatic bacteruria, the duration of therapy for recurrent infections, the prevention and treatment of L-form bacterial infections, and indications for urologic procedures.

  19. Preventing infections when visiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need.) When you visit a patient in the hospital, keep your hands away from your face. Cough or sneeze into a tissue or into the crease of your elbow, not into the air. References Calfee DP. Prevention and control of health care-associated infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  20. Bacterial infections associated with allogenic bone transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanović Željko Lj.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bone allografts are frequently used in orthopedic reconstructive procedures carrying a high risk for recipients. To assess the nature and frequency of allograft contamination and associated surgical infection the case records from our institutional bone bank were reviewed. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the microbiology of discarded bone allografts and the surgical site of the recipients. A case series of patients who acquired surgical site infection after allogenic bone transplantation was presented. Swab culturing was conducted on 309 femoral heads from living donors who underwent partial and total hip arthroplasty between January 2007 and December 2013. To prevent potential bone allograft contamination we used saline solution of 2.0 mg/ml of amikacin during thawing. The overall infection rate was analyzed in 197 recipients. Results. Of the 309 donated femoral heads, 37 were discarded due to bacterial contamination, giving the overall contamination rate of 11.97%. The postoperative survey of 213 bone allotransplantations among 197 recipients showed the infection rate of 2.03%. The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most commonly identified contaminant of bone allografts and recipient surgical sites. Conclusion. The allograft contamination rate and the infection rate among recipients in our institution are in accordance with the international standards. The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most commonly identified contaminant of bone allografts and recipient surgical sites. There is no strong evidence that surgical site infections were associated with bone allograft utilization. We plan further improvements in allograft handling and decontamination with highly concentrated antibiotic solutions in order to reduce infection risk for recipients.

  1. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and bacterial vaginosis among women in sub-Saharan Africa: An individual participant data meta-analysis of 18 HIV prevention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrone, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Charles S; Chen, Pai-Lien; Kwok, Cynthia; Francis, Suzanna C; Hayes, Richard J; Looker, Katharine J; McCormack, Sheena; McGrath, Nuala; van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Low, Nicola; Gottlieb, Sami L

    2018-02-01

    Estimates of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence are essential for efforts to prevent and control STIs. Few large STI prevalence studies exist, especially for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our primary objective was to estimate the prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in sub-Saharan Africa by age, region, and population type. We analyzed individual-level data from 18 HIV prevention studies (cohort studies and randomized controlled trials; conducted during 1993-2011), representing >37,000 women, that tested participants for ≥1 selected STIs or BV at baseline. We used a 2-stage meta-analysis to combine data. After calculating the proportion of participants with each infection and standard error by study, we used a random-effects model to obtain a summary mean prevalence of each infection and 95% confidence interval (CI) across ages, regions, and population types. Despite substantial study heterogeneity for some STIs/populations, several patterns emerged. Across the three primary region/population groups (South Africa community-based, Southern/Eastern Africa community-based, and Eastern Africa higher-risk), prevalence was higher among 15-24-year-old than 25-49-year-old women for all STIs except HSV-2. In general, higher-risk populations had greater prevalence of gonorrhea and syphilis than clinic/community-based populations. For chlamydia, prevalence among 15-24-year-olds was 10.3% (95% CI: 7.4%, 14.1%; I2 = 75.7%) among women specifically recruited from higher-risk settings for HIV in Eastern Africa and was 15.1% (95% CI: 12.7%, 17.8%; I2 = 82.3%) in South African clinic/community-based populations. Among clinic/community-based populations, prevalence was generally greater in South Africa than in Southern/Eastern Africa for most STIs; for gonorrhea, prevalence among 15-24-year-olds was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.3%, 6.4%; I2 = 82.8%) in South Africa

  2. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and bacterial vaginosis among women in sub-Saharan Africa: An individual participant data meta-analysis of 18 HIV prevention studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Charles S.; Chen, Pai-Lien; Kwok, Cynthia; McCormack, Sheena; McGrath, Nuala; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Gottlieb, Sami L.

    2018-01-01

    Background Estimates of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence are essential for efforts to prevent and control STIs. Few large STI prevalence studies exist, especially for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our primary objective was to estimate the prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in sub-Saharan Africa by age, region, and population type. Methods and findings We analyzed individual-level data from 18 HIV prevention studies (cohort studies and randomized controlled trials; conducted during 1993–2011), representing >37,000 women, that tested participants for ≥1 selected STIs or BV at baseline. We used a 2-stage meta-analysis to combine data. After calculating the proportion of participants with each infection and standard error by study, we used a random-effects model to obtain a summary mean prevalence of each infection and 95% confidence interval (CI) across ages, regions, and population types. Despite substantial study heterogeneity for some STIs/populations, several patterns emerged. Across the three primary region/population groups (South Africa community-based, Southern/Eastern Africa community-based, and Eastern Africa higher-risk), prevalence was higher among 15–24-year-old than 25–49-year-old women for all STIs except HSV-2. In general, higher-risk populations had greater prevalence of gonorrhea and syphilis than clinic/community-based populations. For chlamydia, prevalence among 15–24-year-olds was 10.3% (95% CI: 7.4%, 14.1%; I2 = 75.7%) among women specifically recruited from higher-risk settings for HIV in Eastern Africa and was 15.1% (95% CI: 12.7%, 17.8%; I2 = 82.3%) in South African clinic/community-based populations. Among clinic/community-based populations, prevalence was generally greater in South Africa than in Southern/Eastern Africa for most STIs; for gonorrhea, prevalence among 15–24-year-olds was 4.6% (95% CI

  3. Respiratory bacterial infections in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Hansen, Christine R; Høiby, Niels

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bacterial respiratory infections are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains the main pathogen in adults, but other Gram-negative bacteria such as Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia...... respiratory tract (nasal sampling) should be investigated and both infection sites should be treated....

  4. Bacterial infections of pulp and periodontal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moles, Miguel Angel; González, Nabila M

    2004-01-01

    The anatomical and structural characteristics of the pulp make this structure prone to altering as a result of, for instance, periodontal conditions (proximity), iatrogenic alterations, infections and involvement of vascular and nerve structures (it is surrounded by hard tissues that prevent expansion), to name just a few. Pulpitis is a process that courses with pain of varying intensity that allows us to determine the location of the lesion in clinical terms. Its evolution varies and may even progress to pulpar necrosis that in turn, produces neuritis-like pain. Diagnosis is established by means of clinical symptomatology and supported by X-rays, palpation of tissues at painful sites, application of electrical stimuli, heat, etc. Periodontitis is a bacterial infection originating in the apex. The most important form is the so-called acute apical periodontitis that arises as a result of a prior episode of pulpitis. It is characterized by acute pain located in the tooth, accompanied by the feeling of having a long-tooth. The patient refers being unable to chew on that side; there may be painful mobility of the tooth and an outflow of pus that alleviates symptoms. X-rays do not provide a lot of information, but may attest to a widening of the apical space. This pathology may disseminate to surrounding tissues, leading to conditions of considerable severity.

  5. Update on bacterial nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereket, W; Hemalatha, K; Getenet, B; Wondwossen, T; Solomon, A; Zeynudin, A; Kannan, S

    2012-08-01

    With increasing use of antimicrobial agents and advance in lifesaving medical practices which expose the patients for invasive procedures, are associated with the ever increasing of nosocomial infections. Despite an effort in hospital infection control measures, health care associated infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality adding additional health care expenditure which may leads to an economic crisis. The problem is further complicated with the emergence of difficult to treat multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganism in the hospital environment. Virtually every pathogen has the potential to cause infection in hospitalized patients but only limited number of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria are responsible for the majority of nosocomial infection. Among them Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococci takes the leading. Many intrinsic and extrinsic factors predispose hospitalized patients for these pathogens. Following simple hospital hygienic practices and strictly following standard medical procedures greatly reduces infection to a significant level although not all nosocomial infections are avoidable. The clinical spectrum caused by nosocomial pathogens depend on body site of infection, the involving pathogen and the patient's underlying condition. Structural and non structural virulence factors associated with the bacteria are responsible for the observed clinical manifestation. Bacteria isolation and characterization from appropriate clinical materials with antimicrobial susceptibility testing is the standard of laboratory diagnosis.

  6. Viral infection of the pregnant cervix predisposes to ascending bacterial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Karen; Cardenas, Ingrid; Wünsche, Vera; Aldo, Paulomi; Guller, Seth; Means, Robert; Romero, Roberto; Mor, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is the major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity, and bacterial infections that ascend from the lower female reproductive tract (FRT) are the most common route of uterine infection leading to preterm birth. The uterus and growing fetus are protected from ascending infection by the cervix, which controls and limits microbial access by the production of mucus, cytokines and anti-microbial peptides (AMPs). If this barrier is compromised, bacteria may enter the uterine cavity leading to preterm birth. Using a mouse model, we demonstrate, for the first time, that viral infection of the cervix, during pregnancy, reduces the capacity of the FRT to prevent bacterial infection of the uterus. This is due to differences in susceptibility of the cervix to infection by virus during pregnancy and the associated changes in TLR and AMP expression and function. We suggest that preterm labor is a polymicrobial disease, which requires a multifactorial approach for its prevention and treatment. PMID:23752614

  7. Sustainable strategies for treatment of bacterial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to antibiotics and the consequential failures of treatment based on antibiotics makes microbial infections a major threat to human health. This problem combined with rapidly increasing life-style disease problems challenge our healtcare system as well as the pharma industry, and if we do...... not in a foreseeable future develop novel approaches and strategies to combat bacterial infections, many people will be at risk of dying from even trivial infections for which we until recently had highly effective antibiotics. We have for a number of years investigated chronic bacterial lung infections in patients...... suffering from cystic fibrosis. These infections are optimal model scenarios for studies of antibiotic resistance development and microbial adaptation, and we suggest that this information should be useful when designing new anti-microbial strategies. In this respect it will be important to choose...

  8. Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protect: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Infection Neutropenia and Risk for Infection Health Care Providers Educational Materials Cancer and Flu How to Prevent Flu from Spreading Flu Symptoms Information for Families and Caregivers Flu Treatment for Cancer Patients and ...

  9. Probiotics feeding in prevention of urinary tract infection, bacterial sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. A prospective double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Carlo; Biadaioli, Roberto; Bertini, Giovanna; Martelli, Elena; Rubaltelli, Firmino F

    2002-08-01

    It has been suggested that probiotics can reduce the overgrowth of pathogens in the bowels of preterm infants and contribute to the reduction of the incidence of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Lactobacillus GG supplementation in reducing the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs), bacterial sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. A double-blind study was conducted in 12 Italian NICUs. Newborn infants with a gestational age probiotics group (n = 295) and the placebo group (n = 290) exhibited similar clinical characteristics. The duration of Lactobacillus GG and placebo supplementation was 47.3 +/- 26.0 and 48.2 +/- 24.3 days, respectively. Although UTIs (3.4 vs. 5.8%) and NEC (1.4 vs. 2.7%) were found less frequently in the probiotic group compared to the control group, these differences were not significant. Bacterial sepsis was more frequent in the probiotics group (4.4%, n = 11) than in the placebo group (3.8%, n = 9), but the difference was not significant. Seven days of Lactobacillus GG supplementation starting with the first feed is not effective in reducing the incidence of UTIs, NEC and sepsis in preterm infants. Further studies are required to confirm our results in lower birthweight populations. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Mucin dynamics in intestinal bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara K Lindén

    Full Text Available Bacterial gastroenteritis causes morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Murine Citrobacter rodentium infection is a model for gastroenteritis caused by the human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. Mucin glycoproteins are the main component of the first barrier that bacteria encounter in the intestinal tract.Using Immunohistochemistry, we investigated intestinal expression of mucins (Alcian blue/PAS, Muc1, Muc2, Muc4, Muc5AC, Muc13 and Muc3/17 in healthy and C. rodentium infected mice. The majority of the C. rodentium infected mice developed systemic infection and colitis in the mid and distal colon by day 12. C. rodentium bound to the major secreted mucin, Muc2, in vitro, and high numbers of bacteria were found in secreted MUC2 in infected animals in vivo, indicating that mucins may limit bacterial access to the epithelial surface. In the small intestine, caecum and proximal colon, the mucin expression was similar in infected and non-infected animals. In the distal colonic epithelium, all secreted and cell surface mucins decreased with the exception of the Muc1 cell surface mucin which increased after infection (p<0.05. Similarly, during human infection Salmonella St Paul, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium difficile induced MUC1 in the colon.Major changes in both the cell-surface and secreted mucins occur in response to intestinal infection.

  11. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease. Inhibits pathogenic enteric bacteria. Decrease luminal pH; Secrete bacteriocidal proteins; Colonization resistance; Block epithelial binding – induce MUC2. Improves epithelial and mucosal barrier integrity. Produce ...

  12. Secondary Bacterial Infections Associated with Influenza Pandemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Denise E.; Cleary, David W.; Clarke, Stuart C.

    2017-01-01

    Lower and upper respiratory infections are the fourth highest cause of global mortality (Lozano et al., 2012). Epidemic and pandemic outbreaks of respiratory infection are a major medical concern, often causing considerable disease and a high death toll, typically over a relatively short period of time. Influenza is a major cause of epidemic and pandemic infection. Bacterial co/secondary infection further increases morbidity and mortality of influenza infection, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus reported as the most common causes. With increased antibiotic resistance and vaccine evasion it is important to monitor the epidemiology of pathogens in circulation to inform clinical treatment and development, particularly in the setting of an influenza epidemic/pandemic. PMID:28690590

  13. Secondary Bacterial Infections Associated with Influenza Pandemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise E. Morris

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower and upper respiratory infections are the fourth highest cause of global mortality (Lozano et al., 2012. Epidemic and pandemic outbreaks of respiratory infection are a major medical concern, often causing considerable disease and a high death toll, typically over a relatively short period of time. Influenza is a major cause of epidemic and pandemic infection. Bacterial co/secondary infection further increases morbidity and mortality of influenza infection, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus reported as the most common causes. With increased antibiotic resistance and vaccine evasion it is important to monitor the epidemiology of pathogens in circulation to inform clinical treatment and development, particularly in the setting of an influenza epidemic/pandemic.

  14. Engineered porous scaffolds for periprosthetic infection prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iviglia, Giorgio, E-mail: giorgio.iviglia@polito.it [Nobil Bio Ricerche Srl, 14037 Portacomaro (Italy); Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, 10121 Torino (Italy); Cassinelli, Clara; Bollati, Daniele [Nobil Bio Ricerche Srl, 14037 Portacomaro (Italy); Baino, Francesco [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, 10121 Torino (Italy); Torre, Elisa; Morra, Marco [Nobil Bio Ricerche Srl, 14037 Portacomaro (Italy); Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, 10121 Torino (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Periprosthetic infection is a consequence of implant insertion procedures and strategies for its prevention involve either an increase in the rate of new bone formation or the release of antibiotics such as vancomycin. In this work we combined both strategies and developed a novel, multifunctional three-dimensional porous scaffold that was produced using hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), coupled with a pectin (PEC)-chitosan (CHIT) polyelectrolyte (PEI), and loaded with vancomycin (VCA). By this approach, a controlled vancomycin release was achieved and serial bacterial dilution test demonstrated that, after 1 week, the engineered construct still inhibits the bacterial growth. Degradation tests show an excellent behavior in a physiological and acidic environment (< 10% of mass loss). Furthermore, the PEI coating shows an anti-inflammatory response, and good cell proliferation and migration were demonstrated in vitro using osteoblast SAOS-2 cell line. This new engineered construct exhibits excellent properties both as an antibacterial material and as a stimulator of bone formation, which makes it a good candidate to contrast periprosthetic infection. - Highlights: • A novel three-dimensional ceramic scaffold was developed for infection prevention. • Pectin/chitosan coating stabilizes the degradation behavior in acidic environment. • Polyelectrolyte complex allows sustained release of vancomycin. • Inhibition of bacterial proliferation and biofilm formation was assessed. • PEI coating elicits anti-inflammatory response.

  15. Engineered porous scaffolds for periprosthetic infection prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iviglia, Giorgio; Cassinelli, Clara; Bollati, Daniele; Baino, Francesco; Torre, Elisa; Morra, Marco; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Periprosthetic infection is a consequence of implant insertion procedures and strategies for its prevention involve either an increase in the rate of new bone formation or the release of antibiotics such as vancomycin. In this work we combined both strategies and developed a novel, multifunctional three-dimensional porous scaffold that was produced using hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), coupled with a pectin (PEC)-chitosan (CHIT) polyelectrolyte (PEI), and loaded with vancomycin (VCA). By this approach, a controlled vancomycin release was achieved and serial bacterial dilution test demonstrated that, after 1 week, the engineered construct still inhibits the bacterial growth. Degradation tests show an excellent behavior in a physiological and acidic environment (< 10% of mass loss). Furthermore, the PEI coating shows an anti-inflammatory response, and good cell proliferation and migration were demonstrated in vitro using osteoblast SAOS-2 cell line. This new engineered construct exhibits excellent properties both as an antibacterial material and as a stimulator of bone formation, which makes it a good candidate to contrast periprosthetic infection. - Highlights: • A novel three-dimensional ceramic scaffold was developed for infection prevention. • Pectin/chitosan coating stabilizes the degradation behavior in acidic environment. • Polyelectrolyte complex allows sustained release of vancomycin. • Inhibition of bacterial proliferation and biofilm formation was assessed. • PEI coating elicits anti-inflammatory response.

  16. Impact of Periodic Presumptive Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis on the Vaginal Microbiome among Women Participating in the Preventing Vaginal Infections Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Srinivasan, Sujatha; Anzala, Omu; Kimani, Joshua; Andac, Chloe; Schwebke, Jane; Fredricks, David N; McClelland, R Scott

    2017-03-01

    Evidence suggests that specific vaginal bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) may increase the risk of adverse health outcomes in women. Among women participating in a randomized, double-blinded trial, we assessed the effect of periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) on detection of select vaginal bacteria. High-risk women from the United States and Kenya with a recent vaginal infection received intravaginal metronidazole 750 mg plus miconazole 200 mg or placebo for 5 consecutive nights each month for 12 months. Vaginal fluid specimens were collected via polyester/polyethylene terephthalate swabs every other month and tested for bacteria, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The effect of PPT on bacterium detection was assessed among all participants and stratified by country. Of 234 women enrolled, 221 had specimens available for analysis. The proportion of follow-up visits with detectable quantities was lower in the PPT arm versus the placebo arm for the following bacteria: BVAB1, BVAB2, Atopobium vaginae, Leptotrichia/Sneathia, and Megasphaera. The magnitude of reductions was greater among Kenyan participants as compared to US participants. Use of monthly PPT for 1 year reduced colonization with several bacteria strongly associated with BV. The role of PPT to improve vaginal health should be considered, and efforts to improve the impact of PPT regimens are warranted. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Prevention of Infection in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Ledger

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We believe the prevention of infection-related adverse pregnancy outcome is the most important focus for obstetricians today. An emphasis upon immunization of susceptible women, prevention of transmissible disease by modification of patient behavior, and identification and treatment of silent infections should become standards of practice. This will require educational initiatives for physicians and their patients as well as continued clinical trials to determine costs and effectiveness.

  18. Antimicrobial Nanoparticle for the Treatment of Bacterial Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornpattananangkul, Dissaya

    Liposomes are spherical lipid vesicles with bilayered membrane structure, which have been recognized as one of the most widely used carriers for delivering a myriad of pharmaceuticals. Liposomes can carry both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents with high efficiency and protect them from undesired effects of external conditions. However, the applications of liposomes are usually limited by their instability during storage. They are inclined to fuse with one another immediately after preparation, resulting in undesired mixing, increase in size, and payload loss. To overcome this limitation, this dissertation will focus on the technology to stabilize liposomes during storage and destabilize at specific conditions in order to allow controllable therapeutic release, as well as demonstrate their application to treat one of the bacterial infection diseases, acne vulgaris. The first area of this research is stimuli-responsive liposomes development, where the liposomes are stabilized by introducing gold nanoparticles to adsorb to their surface. As a result, the liposomes are prevented from fusing with one another and undesirable payload release during storage or physiological environments. Moreover, therapeutic is controllably released depending on environment conditions, such as acidic pH and bacterial virulence factor. In case of acid-responsive liposomes, the bound gold nanoparticles can effectively prevent liposomes from fusing with one another at neutral pH value, while at acidic environment (e.g. pHhuman skin are typically acidic. Demonstrated by fluorescent and antimicrobial experiments, the bound gold nanoparticles effectively prevent LipoLA from fusing with one another at neutral pH value. However, at acidic condition, the gold particles detatch from LipoLA surface, allowing the fusion with P.acnes membrane and lauric acid delivery, resulting in a complete killing effect. The stimuli-responsive liposomes presented here provide a new, safe, and effective approach to

  19. Prevention of Periprosthetic Joint Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisina Shahi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic joint infection (PJI is a calamitous complication with high morbidity and substantial cost. The reported incidence is low but it is probably underestimated due to the difficulty in diagnosis. PJI has challenged the orthopaedic community for several years and despite all the advances in this field, it is still a real concern with immense impact on patients, and the healthcare system. Eradication of infection can be very difficult. Therefore, prevention remains the ultimate goal. The medical community has executed many practices with the intention to prevent infection and treat it effectively when it encounters. Numerous factors can predispose patients to PJI. Identifying the host risk factors, patients’ health modification, proper wound care, and optimizing operative room environment remain some of the core fundamental steps that can help minimizing the overall incidence of infection. In this review we have summarized the effective prevention strategies along with the recommendations of a recent International Consensus Meeting on Surgical Site and Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

  20. Prevention of Nosocomial Respiratory Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Karpun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of an extended package of preventive measures on the incidence of nosocomial respiratory infections in surgical patients at an intensive care unit (ICU. Subjects and methods. The study included 809 patients aged 35 to 80 years. A study group comprised 494 patients in whom an extended package of preventive measures was implemented during 7 months (March-September. A control group consisted of 315 patients treated in 2004 in the same period of time (March-September. The groups were stratified by age, gender, underlying diseases, and APACHE-2 and SOFA scores. The extended package of anti-infectious measures involved a high air purification in ICUs («Flow-M» technology, routine use of ventilatory filters, closed aspiration systems with a built-in antibacterial filter under artificial ventilation for over 2 days. Results. The proposed technologies could reduce the frequency of tracheobronchitis and ventilator-associated pneumonias in the groups of patients at high risk for nosocomial infections substantially (by more than twice. Conclusion. The findings have led to the conclusion that the extended package of preventive measures is effective in preventing respiratory infections in ICU patients. Of special note is the proper prevention of upper airway contamination with pathogenic microorganisms, by employing the closed aspiration systems with a built-in antibacterial filter. The routine use of high-tech consumables in the intensive care of surgical patients causes a considerable decrease in the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and purulent tracheobronchitis and a reduction in the number of microbiological studies. Key words: ventilator-associated pneumonia, prevention of nosocomial infections, closed aspiration system.

  1. Role of the chronic bacterial infection in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgy, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine whether or not bacterial infection of the urinary bladder had a role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate this proposition, four separate studies were conducted. The first study developed an experimental animal model where bacterial infection of the urinary bladder could be introduced and maintained for a period in excess of one year. The method of infection, inoculation of bacteria (Escherichia coli type 04) subserosally into the vesical wall, successfully caused persistent infection in the majority of animals. In the second study the temporal effects of bacterial infection on the induction of urothelial ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and 3 H-thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis were examined. Bacterial infection of the urinary bladder induced urothelial ODC with a peak in enzyme activity 6 hr after infection. 3 H-Thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis peaked 48 hr after infection and coincided with the urothelial hyperplasia that occurred in response to the infection. In the third study the specific bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) was given to rats concurrent with the urinary bacterial infection. In the fourth study rats were administered sodium nitrate and either dibutylamine or piperazine in the drinking water. The infected group developed bladder tumors while none were detected in the non-infected rats. From these studies it may be concluded that bacterial infection may have a significant role in the process of urinary bladder carcinogenesis

  2. [Infection prevention check-in and infection prevention check-out to prevent nosocomial infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, A; Schilling, M; Heidecke, C D

    2010-02-01

    A precondition for the success of the prevention of SSI is the complete realisation of the proven anti-infective measures in form of the multi-barrier strategy or the so-called bundles. In daily practice it is important to follow the fixed instructions, i. e., to ensure a high compliance. In much the same way as an airline pilot or co-pilot must examine whether all instruments are functioning before each take-off, a comparable procedure should be developed as a pre-operative control for the observance of all -defined measures by the responsible surgeon and for the post-operative supervision by the patient. For the control of the observance of the defined pre-operative prevention measures, a check list with 12 items was developed, named the "infection prevention check-in". The check list is authorised by the responsible surgeon be-fore each operation. For the surveillance of the general hygiene in the post-operative period the "infection prevention check-out" with 14 items was developed. Thereby the patient is able to evaluate the staff's compliance with the hygienic measures at the time of dismissal. With the introduction of the check-lists a simple means is given to involve both the team of the surgeons and the ward staff, together with the patient, into the infection prophylaxis even more effectively. In order to assess the success of those measures, the influence on the rate of SSI is to be determined prospectively. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, New York.

  3. Bacterial Uropathogens in Urinary Tract Infection and Antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by clinicians in developing countries. Area-specific monitoring studies aimed to gain knowledge about the type of pathogens responsible for urinary tract infections and their resistance patterns may help the clinician to ...

  4. Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Vahlensieck, W; Bauer, H W; Weidner, W; Piechota, H J; Naber, K G

    2013-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequent bacterial infections in the community and health care setting. Mostly young and, to some extent, postmenopausal women are affected by recurrent UTI (rUTI) defined as ≥3 UTI/year or ≥2 UTI/half year. In contrast, rUTI is rare in healthy men. On the other hand, rUTI are frequently found in female and male patients with complicating urological factors, e.g. urinary catheters, infection stones. Remediable predisposing factors in uncomplicated rUTI in women are rare. In complicated rUTI the success depends mainly on the possibility to eliminate or at leastimprove the complicating risk factors. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis or postcoital prophylaxis, if there is close correlation with sexual intercourse, are most effective to prevent rUTI. Nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim (or cotrimoxazole), and fosfomycin trometamol are available as first-line drugs. Oral cephalosporins and quinolones should be restricted to specific indications. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the number of uropathogens in the gut and/or vaginal flora and reduces bacterial "fitness". Given the correct indication, the recurrence rate of rUTI can be reduced by about 90%. Due to possible adverse events and the concern of selecting resistant pathogens, according to the guidelines of the European Association of Urology antimicrobial prophylaxis should be considered only after counselling, behavioural modification and non-antimicrobial measures have been attempted. In postmenopausal patients vaginal substitution of oestriol should be started first. Oral or parenteral immunoprophylaxis is another option in patients with rUTI. Other possibilities with varying scientific evidence are prophylaxis with cranberry products, specific plant combinations or probiotics. The prophylaxis of catheter-associated UTI should employ strategies which result in a reduction of frequency and duration of catheter drainage of the urinary tract. The currently available

  5. Drug resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from infected wounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    The resistance rate of S. aureus for penicillin was at 69.7%. Conclusions: High ... January 2013 to 30 December 2015 was conducted. BRHRLC is one of ... Wound infection, bacterial isolates, culture and antimicrobial susceptibility 113. Ethiop. J. Health ... Socio-demographic characteristic of patients and types of bacterial ...

  6. Concomitant Bacterial Meningitis in Infants With Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Joanna; Cruz, Andrea T; Nigrovic, Lise E; Freedman, Stephen B; Garro, Aris C; Ishimine, Paul T; Kulik, Dina M; Uspal, Neil G; Grether-Jones, Kendra L; Miller, Aaron S; Schnadower, David; Shah, Samir S; Aronson, Paul L; Balamuth, Fran

    2017-09-01

    To determine age-stratified prevalence of concomitant bacterial meningitis in infants ≤60 days with a urinary tract infection, we performed a 23-center, retrospective study of 1737 infants with urinary tract infection. Concomitant bacterial meningitis was rare, but more common in infants 0-28 days of age [0.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4%-1.9%) compared with infants 29-60 days of age (0.2%; 95% CI: 0%-0.8%).

  7. Vaginal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ Home Body Your reproductive health Vaginal infections Vaginal infections Help for infections If you have pain, ... infections and how to prevent them. Types of vaginal infections top Two common vaginal infections are bacterial ...

  8. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates ...

  9. Bacterial infections and hepatic encephalopathy in liver cirrhosis-prophylaxis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Damian; Boroń-Kaczmarska, Anna

    2017-09-01

    Infections are common among patients with liver cirrhosis. They occur more often in cirrhotic patient groups than in the general population and result in higher mortality. One reason for this phenomenon is bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen that occurs as a consequence of intestinal bacterial overgrowth, increased permeability and decreased motility. The most common infections in cirrhotic patients are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and urinary tract infections, followed by pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth is also responsible for hyperammonemia, which leads to hepatic encephalopathy. All of these complications make this group of patients at high risk for mortality. The role of antibiotics in liver cirrhosis is to treat and in some cases to prevent the development of infectious complications. Based on our current knowledge, antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered to patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, low ascitic fluid protein concentration combined with liver or renal failure, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis as a secondary prophylaxis, as well as after hepatic encephalopathy episodes (also as a secondary prophylaxis). In some cases, the use of non-antibiotic prophylaxis can also be considered. Current knowledge of the treatment of infections allows the choice of a preferred antibiotic for empiric therapy depending on the infection location and whether the source of the disease is nosocomial or community-acquired. Copyright © 2017 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. bacterial uropathogens in urinary tract infection and antibiotic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-02

    Jul 2, 2011 ... BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections ... leaves the clinicians with very few alternative options of drugs for the treatment of UTIs. As drug resistance ... can be asymptomatic or symptomatic, UTIs that .... pregnancy and stage of pregnancy, age groups and.

  11. Emerging infectious diseases with cutaneous manifestations: Viral and bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawas, Zeena Y; Tong, Yun; Kollipara, Ramya; Peranteau, Andrew J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Yan, Albert C; Lupi, Omar; Tyring, Stephen K

    2016-07-01

    Given increased international travel, immigration, and climate change, bacterial and viral infections that were once unrecognized or uncommon are being seen more frequently in the Western Hemisphere. A delay in diagnosis and treatment of these diseases can lead to significant patient morbidity and mortality. However, the diagnosis and management of these infections is fraught with a lack of consistency because there is a dearth of dermatology literature on the cutaneous manifestations of these infections. We review the epidemiology, cutaneous manifestations, diagnosis, and management of these emerging bacterial and viral diseases. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. New horizon for infection prevention technology and implantable device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kondo, MD, PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been a significant increase in the number of patients receiving cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED over the last two decades. CIED infection represents a serious complication after CIED implantation and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, newly advanced technologies have offered attractive and suitable therapeutic alternatives. Notably, the leadless pacemaker and anti-bacterial envelope decrease the potential risk of CIED infection and the resulting mortality, when it does occur. A completely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator is also an alternative to the transvenous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD, as it does not require implantation of any transvenous or epicardial leads. Among the patients who require ICD removal and subsequent antibiotics secondary to infection, the wearable cardioverter defibrillator represents an alternative approach to inpatient monitoring for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. In this review paper, we aimed to introduce the advanced technologies and devices for prevention of CIED infection.

  13. Disinfection efficacy of an ultraviolet light on film cassettes for preventive of the nosocomial infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol; Jeon, Yong Woong; Cho, Am

    2001-01-01

    The bacterial infection on film cassette contact surface was examined at the diagnostic radiology department of the S. hospital. The objective of this study was to assess the contamination level on film cassette contact surface as a predictor of patient prevention from nosocomial infection and for improvement of the hospital environment. The laboratory result was identified non-pathologic bacterial in the five different cassette size of the contact surface. Film cassettes were exposed to ultraviolet light for 1, 2 and 3 minutes. Ultraviolet light disinfection is proven suitable for bacterial. The study concludes that presence of a bacterial infection will prevent a using antiseptic technique on film cassette contact surface. In addition education of nosocomial infection for radiographers will be required. In conclusion, ultraviolet is considered effective to irradiate bacterial. Additionally, two minutes are required to sterilize film cassettes

  14. Disinfection efficacy of an ultraviolet light on film cassettes for preventive of the nosocomial infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol [Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Yong Woong; Cho, Am [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    The bacterial infection on film cassette contact surface was examined at the diagnostic radiology department of the S. hospital. The objective of this study was to assess the contamination level on film cassette contact surface as a predictor of patient prevention from nosocomial infection and for improvement of the hospital environment. The laboratory result was identified non-pathologic bacterial in the five different cassette size of the contact surface. Film cassettes were exposed to ultraviolet light for 1, 2 and 3 minutes. Ultraviolet light disinfection is proven suitable for bacterial. The study concludes that presence of a bacterial infection will prevent a using antiseptic technique on film cassette contact surface. In addition education of nosocomial infection for radiographers will be required. In conclusion, ultraviolet is considered effective to irradiate bacterial. Additionally, two minutes are required to sterilize film cassettes.

  15. TBK1 protects vacuolar integrity during intracellular bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Radtke

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1 is an integral component of Type I interferon induction by microbial infection. The importance of TBK1 and Type I interferon in antiviral immunity is well established, but the function of TBK1 in bacterial infection is unclear. Upon infection of murine embryonic fibroblasts with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella, more extensive bacterial proliferation was observed in tbk1(-/- than tbk1(+/+ cells. TBK1 kinase activity was required for restriction of bacterial infection, but interferon regulatory factor-3 or Type I interferon did not contribute to this TBK1-dependent function. In tbk1(-/-cells, Salmonella, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pyogenes escaped from vacuoles into the cytosol where increased replication occurred, which suggests that TBK1 regulates the integrity of pathogen-containing vacuoles. Knockdown of tbk1 in macrophages and epithelial cells also resulted in increased bacterial localization in the cytosol, indicating that the role of TBK1 in maintaining vacuolar integrity is relevant in different cell types. Taken together, these data demonstrate a requirement for TBK1 in control of bacterial infection distinct from its established role in antiviral immunity.

  16. TBK1 Protects Vacuolar Integrity during Intracellular Bacterial Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Andrea L; Delbridge, Laura M; Balachandran, Siddharth; Barber, Glen N; O'Riordan, Mary X. D

    2007-01-01

    TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1) is an integral component of Type I interferon induction by microbial infection. The importance of TBK1 and Type I interferon in antiviral immunity is well established, but the function of TBK1 in bacterial infection is unclear. Upon infection of murine embryonic fibroblasts with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella), more extensive bacterial proliferation was observed in tbk1−/− than tbk1+/+ cells. TBK1 kinase activity was required for restriction of bacterial infection, but interferon regulatory factor-3 or Type I interferon did not contribute to this TBK1-dependent function. In tbk1−/−cells, Salmonella, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pyogenes escaped from vacuoles into the cytosol where increased replication occurred, which suggests that TBK1 regulates the integrity of pathogen-containing vacuoles. Knockdown of tbk1 in macrophages and epithelial cells also resulted in increased bacterial localization in the cytosol, indicating that the role of TBK1 in maintaining vacuolar integrity is relevant in different cell types. Taken together, these data demonstrate a requirement for TBK1 in control of bacterial infection distinct from its established role in antiviral immunity. PMID:17335348

  17. DMPD: Role of Nods in bacterial infection. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17379560 Role of Nods in bacterial infection. Bourhis LL, Werts C. Microbes Infect.... 2007 Apr;9(5):629-36. Epub 2007 Jan 27. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Role of Nods in bacterial infect...ion. PubmedID 17379560 Title Role of Nods in bacterial infection. Authors Bourhis LL, Werts C. Publication M

  18. AEROBIC BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM INFECTED WOUNDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    most frequently reported as the cause of delay wound healing (6-9, 3). ... All isolates were resistant to Ampicillin, Amoxicillin- clavulanate and .... Ulcer bed infection. Report of a case of enlarging venous leg ulcer colonized by ... Ann. Burns Fire.

  19. Gram-Negative Bacterial Wound Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle Farms in Zaria and Kaduna and Possible Transmission Through Milk P. N. Mbianga, V. J. Umoh, A. I. 0, K. C. A; Ahmadu...Pathogenic Escherichia coli R. M. Ramirez, M-X. Haro, P. Miranda, S-H. Sanchez, L-E. Vidales; Univ. Aut6noma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Mexico 517...isolates. Subsequently, five representative isolates were tested in murine pulmonary and Galleria mellonella models of infection. Infections with one strain

  20. Using Natural Products to Treat Resistant and Persistent Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Robert W.

    Antimicrobial resistance is a growing threat to human health both worldwide and in the United States. Most concerning is the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens, especially the 'ESKAPE' pathogens for which treatment options are dwindling. To complicate the problem, approvals of antibiotic drugs are extremely low and many research and development efforts in the pharmaceutical industry have ceased, leaving little certainty that critical new antibiotics are nearing the clinic. New antibiotics are needed to continue treating these evolving infections. In addition to antibiotics, approaches that aim to inhibit or prevent antimicrobial resistance could be useful. Also, studies that improve our understanding of bacterial pathophysiology could lead to new therapies for infectious disease. Natural products, especially those from the microbial world, have been invaluable as resources for new antibacterial compounds and as insights into bacterial physiology. The goal of this dissertation is to find new ways to treat resistant bacterial infections and learn more about the pathophysiology of these bacteria. Investigations of natural products to find molecules able to be used as new antibiotics or to modulate resistance and other parts of bacterial physiology are crucial aspects of the included studies. The first included study, which is reported in chapter two, details a chemical investigation of a marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. Purification efforts of the microbial metabolites were guided by testing against a resistance nodulation of cell division model of efflux pumps expressed in E. coli. These pumps play an important role in the resistance of MDR Gram negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. Through this process, 3,4-dibromopyrrole-2,5-dione was identified as a potent inhibitor of the RND efflux pumps and showed synergistic effects against the E. coli strain with common antibiotics including fluoroquinolones, beta

  1. Prevention of health care-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Vincent

    2014-09-15

    Health care-associated infections cause approximately 75,000 deaths annually, in addition to increasing morbidity and costs. Over the past decade, a downward trend in health care-associated infections has occurred nationwide. Basic prevention measures include administrative support, educating health care personnel, and hand hygiene and isolation precautions. Prevention of central line- or catheter-associated infections begins with avoidance of unnecessary insertion, adherence to aseptic technique when inserting, and device removal when no longer necessary. Specific recommendations for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections include use of chlorhexidine for skin preparation, as a component of dressings, and for daily bathing of patients in intensive care units. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are the most common device-related health care-associated infection. Maintaining a closed drainage system below the patient reduces the risk of infection. To prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is associated with high mortality, mechanically ventilated patients should be placed in the semirecumbent position and receive antiseptic oral care. Prevention of surgical site infections includes hair removal using clippers, glucose control, and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Reducing transmission of Clostridium difficile and multidrug-resistant organisms in the hospital setting begins with hand hygiene and contact precautions. Institutional efforts to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing are also strongly recommended. Reducing rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection can be achieved through active surveillance cultures and decolonization therapy with mupirocin.

  2. Liver abscess caused by periodontal bacterial infection with Fusobacterium necrophorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Masato; Kato, Shingo; Mawatari, Hironori; Kirikoshi, Hiroyuki; Imajo, Kento; Fujita, Koji; Endo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Inamori, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Noritoshi; Kubota, Kensuke; Saito, Satoru; Tohnai, Iwai; Watanuki, Kei; Wada, Koichiro; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2011-02-01

    Liver abscess is recognized as a life-threatening disease. However, even in recent years, approximately 50% of liver abscess cases are considered to be cryptogenic. Here, we report a case of liver abscess associated with periodontal bacterial infection by Fusobacterium necrophorum, which is commonly found in the oropharyngeal flora. A 36-year-old man presented with fever and contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography revealed multiple liver abscesses. F.necrophorum was isolated from oral smears, liver aspirates and blood samples. Liver abscesses caused by periodontal bacterial infection are rare, however, the incidence is expected to increase in the future, as periodontitis is extremely common and is on the rise as one of the most common chronic infections in the world. A systemic survey including periodontitis may be required for the exact diagnosis of the source of infection. © 2011 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  3. common bacterial isolates from infected eyes abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    to open as a result of the accumulation of exudates during the night. ... Bacteria were isolated most on the eye infections of the conjunctiva 222(66.70%), then the cornea ..... risk after their maternal immunity has disappeared and before their ...

  4. Reaction of Musa balbisiana to Banana bacterial wilt infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The expression of NPR1, a marker gene of the systemic acquired resistance plant defence system provides preliminary evidence that this may be the major form of resistance in Musa balbisiana to bacterial wilt infection. Keywords: NPR1, PR proteins, Uganda, Xanthomonas campestris. African Crop Science Journal, Vol.

  5. Serious bacterial infections in febrile young children: Lack of value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fever is both a marker of insignificant viral infection, as well as more serious bacterial sepsis. Therefore ... febrile children under the age of 5 years (with an axillary temperature ≥38°C) who presented to Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria, with signs and symptoms of pneumonia, meningitis and/or generalised sepsis.

  6. Nasopharyngeal polymicrobial colonization during health, viral upper respiratory infection and upper respiratory bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingfu; Wischmeyer, Jareth; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Pichichero, Michael E

    2017-07-01

    We sought to understand how polymicrobial colonization varies during health, viral upper respiratory infection (URI) and acute upper respiratory bacterial infection to understand differences in infection-prone vs. non-prone patients. Nasopharyngeal (NP) samples were collected from 74 acute otitis media (AOM) infection-prone and 754 non-prone children during 2094 healthy visits, 673 viral URI visits and 631 AOM visits. Three otopathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) were identified by culture. NP colonization rates of multiple otopathogens during health were significantly lower than during viral URI, and during URI they were lower than at onset of upper respiratory bacterial infection in both AOM infection-prone and non-prone children. AOM infection-prone children had higher polymicrobial colonization rates than non-prone children during health, viral URI and AOM. Polymicrobial colonization rates of AOM infection-prone children during health were equivalent to that of non-prone children during viral URI, and during viral URI were equivalent to that of non-prone during AOM infection. Spn colonization was positively associated with NTHi and Mcat colonization during health, but negatively during AOM infection. The infection-prone patients more frequently have multiple potential bacterial pathogens in the NP than the non-prone patients. Polymicrobial interaction in the NP differs during health and at onset of infection. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Protein-Conjugated Silver Nanoparticles/Silver Salt Loaded Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) Film for Prevention of Bacterial Infections and Potential Use in Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Rotimi Ayotunde

    concentration (0.19and 0.31 microg) compared to commercially available gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim which showed sometimes selective antimicrobial activity and antimicrobial activity at high concentration (10 microg and 23.75/1.25 microg/disc). Additionally, a clear zone of inhibition around AgCl/PHBV composite film was noticed on a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay. Optical density results and colony forming unit measurements showed that AgCl/PHBV composite film exhibit broad bactericidal activity. Next, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of Ag/BSA nanoparticles loaded collagen immobilized PHBV films and AgCl/PHBV composite films towards MC3T3-E1 cells at the same concentration both films showed broad antimicrobial activity. By using MTT assay, we established that Ag/BSA nanoparticles loaded collagen immobilized PHBV film showed minimal, if any, cytotoxic effect towards MC3T3-E1 cells while AgCl/PHBV composite film showed significant cytotoxic effect compared to tissue culture polystyrene. Our research findings provide several formulations for preparation of scaffold, if properly tuned; it can be used as a potential biocompatible and biodegradable scaffold for the prevention of bacterial infections and promotion of cell attachment and proliferation in bone tissue engineering applications.

  8. Traditional insulin-use practices and the incidence of bacterial contamination and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, L M; Bingham, P R; Riddle, M C

    1984-01-01

    While complex procedures are usually recommended to prevent infection at insulin injection sites, adherence to these procedures is imperfect and their value incompletely established. Among 254 adult insulin users in two clinic populations, the reported prevalence of complete performance of four traditional insulin-use practices (handwashing, vial prep, skin prep, discarding of plastic syringes after one use) was 29%, and none of the individual practices considered was performed regularly by more than two-thirds of the subjects. Even so, there was no infection at 2828 injection sites, and there was no significant bacterial contamination of insulin or syringes. These findings fail to support the view that traditional practices provide protection to insulin users against infection or bacterial growth in insulin or syringes. The authors suggest that modification of traditional teaching methods would do no harm, and that benefits could include financial savings, improved client success with self-care, and enhanced health care provider credibility.

  9. Bacterial infections in cirrhosis: Role of proton pump inhibitors and intestinal permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. van Vlerken (Lotte); E.J. Huisman (Ellen); B. van Hoek (Bart); W. Renooij (W.); F.W.M. de Rooij (Felix); P.D. Siersema (Peter); K.J. van Erpecum (Karel)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground Cirrhotic patients are at considerable risk for bacterial infections, possibly through increased intestinal permeability and bacterial overgrowth. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may increase infection risk. We aimed to explore the potential association between PPI use and

  10. Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zarkotou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI are among the most common healthcare-associated infections, and potentially lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Multifaceted infection control strategies implemented as bundles can prevent nosocomial infections associated with invasive devices such as CAUTIs. The components of the CAUTI bundle proposed herein, include appropriate indications for catheterization and recommendations for the procedures of catheter insertion and catheter maintenance and care. Avoiding unnecessary urinary catheter use is the most effective measure for their prevention. To minimize the risk of CAUTI, urinary catheters should be placed only when a clinical valid indication is documented and they should be removed as soon as possible; alternatives to catheterization should also be considered. Aseptic insertion technique, maintenance of closed drainage system and strict adherence to hand hygiene are essential for preventing CAUTI. The successful implementation of the bundle requires education and training for all healthcare professionals and evaluation of surveillance data.

  11. Tuberculosis Vaccines and Prevention of Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Tracey A.; Scriba, Thomas J.; Hatherill, Mark; Hanekom, Willem A.; Evans, Thomas G.; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Kublin, James G.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Self, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death worldwide despite the availability of effective chemotherapy for over 60 years. Although Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination protects against active TB disease in some populations, its efficacy is suboptimal. Development of an effective TB vaccine is a top global priority that has been hampered by an incomplete understanding of protective immunity to TB. Thus far, preventing TB disease, rather than infection, has been the primary target for vaccine development. Several areas of research highlight the importance of including preinfection vaccines in the development pipeline. First, epidemiology and mathematical modeling studies indicate that a preinfection vaccine would have a high population-level impact for control of TB disease. Second, immunology studies support the rationale for targeting prevention of infection, with evidence that host responses may be more effective during acute infection than during chronic infection. Third, natural history studies indicate that resistance to TB infection occurs in a small percentage of the population. Fourth, case-control studies of BCG indicate that it may provide protection from infection. Fifth, prevention-of-infection trials would have smaller sample sizes and a shorter duration than disease prevention trials and would enable opportunities to search for correlates of immunity as well as serve as a criterion for selecting a vaccine product for testing in a larger TB disease prevention trial. Together, these points support expanding the focus of TB vaccine development efforts to include prevention of infection as a primary goal along with vaccines or other interventions that reduce the rate of transmission and reactivation. PMID:25428938

  12. Prevention and management of cochlear implant infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluth, Michael B; Singh, Rajesh; Atlas, Marcus D

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the issues of infection related to an implantable medical device is crucial to all cochlear implant teams. Furthermore, given the risk of central nervous system complications and the relatively high quantity of underlying resource investment associated with cochlear implantation, the stakes of infection are high. The optimal strategies to prevent and manage such infections are still evolving as good-quality prospective data to guide such management decisions are not yet abundant within the medical literature and many recommendations are based on retrospective reviews or anecdotal evidence. We will outline a general strategy to deal with cochlear implant-related infection based on both the authors' experience and the published literature.

  13. Prevention of Infection in Orthopedic Prosthetic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirca, Ioana; Marculescu, Camelia

    2017-06-01

    Total joint arthroplasty is a generally safe orthopedic procedure; however, infection is a potentially devastating complication. Multiple risk factors have been identified for development of prosthetic joint infections. Identification of patients at risk and preoperative correction of known risk factors, such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, anemia, malnutrition, and decolonization of Staphylococcus carriers, represent well-established actions to decrease the infection risk. Careful operative technique, proper draping and skin preparation, and appropriate selection and dosing of antimicrobials for perioperative prophylaxis are also very important in prevention of infection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Around 40-50% of women experience at least one urinary tract infection (UTI) during their lifetime and 20-30% of these have a recurrence within 3-4 months of the initial infection.¹ Recurrent UTI (usually defined as three episodes in the last 12 months or two episodes in the last 6 months) can have a considerable impact on a woman's quality of life. Each episode of acute UTI in young women is typically associated with about 6 days of symptoms, 2.4 days of restricted activities and 0.4 days of bed rest.¹ Antibacterial prophylaxis is effective in preventing recurrent episodes, but at the expense of unwanted effects and a risk of promoting bacterial resistance. Here we assess the efficacy of different antibacterial regimens and non-antibacterial alternatives (cranberry, probiotics, oestrogens, immunostimulation, hyaluronic acid and chondroitin, acupuncture and herbs) in the prevention of recurrent uncomplicated UTIs in women.

  15. Severe bacterial infections in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia: prevalence and clinical risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattiya Teawtrakul

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of bacterial infection in patients with NTDT was found to be moderate. Time after splenectomy >10 years, deferoxamine therapy, and iron overload may be clinical risk factors for severe bacterial infection in patients with NTDT. Bacterial infection should be recognized in splenectomized patients with NTDT, particularly those who have an iron overload.

  16. Healthcare-associated viral and bacterial infections in dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, A.M.G.A.; Kistler, J.O.; Belibasakis, G.N.; Valimaa, H.; de Soet, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Infection prevention in dentistry is an important topic that has gained more interest in recent years and guidelines for the prevention of cross-transmission are common practice in many countries. However, little is known about the real risks of cross-transmission, specifically in the dental

  17. Reactive arthritis induced by bacterial vaginosis: Prevention with an effective treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Aminzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 42-year-old woman with reactive arthritis induced by bacterial vaginosis who presented with oligoarthritis with an additive form, arthralgia, and enthesitis. She hasn′t had a history of diarrhea or dysuria or vaginal secretion, or sexually transmitted infections (STIs. The laboratory tests were normal except for a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. Her pelvic examination revealed homogeneous white grey and malodorous vaginal discharge on the vaginal wall and Pap smear and Gram-stained smear of vaginal swab was consistent with bacterial vaginosis. She responded to metronidazole therapy and her six-month follow up hasn′t shown recurrence of arthritis. As reactive arthritis (ReA is a paradigm of a rheumatic disease in which the initiating infectious cause is known, so early use of antimicrobial drugs may prevent the development of musculoskeletal symptoms which are triggered by infections.

  18. Acute Sleep Deprivation Enhances Post-Infection Sleep and Promotes Survival during Bacterial Infection in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep is known to increase as an acute response to infection. However, the function of this behavioral response in host defense is not well understood. To address this problem, we evaluated the effect of acute sleep deprivation on post-infection sleep and immune function in Drosophila. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Methods and Results: Flies were subjected to sleep deprivation before (early DEP) or after (late DEP) bacterial infection. Relative to a non-deprived control, flies subjected to early DEP had enhanced sleep after infection as well as increased bacterial clearance and survival outcome. Flies subjected to late DEP experienced enhanced sleep following the deprivation period, and showed a modest improvement in survival outcome. Continuous DEP (early and late DEP) throughout infection also enhanced sleep later during infection and improved survival. However, improved survival in flies subjected to late or continuous DEP did not occur until after flies had experienced sleep. During infection, both early and late DEP enhanced NFκB transcriptional activity as measured by a luciferase reporter (κB-luc) in living flies. Early DEP also increased NFκB activity prior to infection. Flies that were deficient in expression of either the Relish or Dif NFκB transcription factors showed normal responses to early DEP. However, the effect of early DEP on post-infection sleep and survival was abolished in double mutants, which indicates that Relish and Dif have redundant roles in this process. Conclusions: Acute sleep deprivation elevated NFκB-dependent activity, increased post-infection sleep, and improved survival during bacterial infection. Citation: Kuo TH, Williams JA. Acute sleep deprivation enhances post-infection sleep and promotes survival during bacterial infection in Drosophila. SLEEP 2014;37(5):859-869. PMID:24790264

  19. Besifloxacin: a novel anti-infective for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L Comstock

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Timothy L Comstock1, Paul M Karpecki2, Timothy W Morris3, Jin-Zhong Zhang41Global Medical Affairs, Pharmaceuticals, Bausch and Lomb, Inc., Rochester, NY, USA; 2Koffler Vision Group, Lexington, KY, USA; 3Research and Development Microbiology and Sterilization Sciences, Bausch and Lomb, Inc., Rochester, NY, USA; 4Global Preclinical Development, Bausch and Lomb, Inc., Rochester, NY, USAAbstract: Bacterial conjunctivitis, commonly known as pink eye, is demographically unbiased in its prevalence and can be caused by a variety of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Timely empiric treatment with a broad-spectrum anti-infective, such as a topical fluoroquinolone, is critical in preventing potentially irreversible ocular damage. However, the rise in ocular methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates and the patterns of fluoroquinolone resistance for patients with other ocular bacterial infections mandate the need for new agents targeted for ocular use. Besifloxacin, a novel broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone, is approved for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. It has a uniquely balanced dual-targeting activity that inhibits both DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and is associated with a lower incidence of resistance development. Besifloxacin is not marketed in other formulations, ensuring that its exposure is limited to bacterial populations in and around the eye. This specifically precludes any bacterial exposure to besifloxacin resulting from systemic use, which further reduces the likelihood of emergence of bacterial resistance. In vitro, besifloxacin has demonstrated equivalent or superior activity compared with other commonly used topical antibiotics. In clinical trials, besifloxacin has consistently demonstrated efficacy and safety in the treatment of patients with bacterial conjunctivitis. Besifloxacin is considered safe and is well tolerated with no observed contraindications.Keywords: conjunctivitis, fluoroquinolones, besifloxacin

  20. Cranberry juice-- a well-characterized folk-remedy against bacterial urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is a North-American folk remedy for treating and preventing infection. Research has identified an anti-adhesive mechanism of cranberry-proanthocyanidins that inhibit docking of bacteria on tissues "in vitro". This efficacy mechanism can be traced in the patient's urine following oral intake of cranberry juice. The efficacy of cranberry juice and extracts as a prophylactic agent against recurrent urinary infections is well documented in women. The anti-adhesion effect of cranberry-proanthocyandins can also be applied for treatment of other common diseases of bacterial pathogenesis, e.g. Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and dental caries/periodontal disease.

  1. Associations between bacterial infections and blood pressure in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Clive J; Ong, Ken K; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Dunger, David B

    2017-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that bacterial infections in pregnancy are related to maternal blood pressure. Bacterial infection was assessed using antibiotic usage as a surrogate and its association with blood pressure in pregnancy tested in the Cambridge Baby Growth Study. Antibiotic usage in pregnancy was self-reported in questionnaires. Blood pressure measurements at four time points in pregnancy were collected from the hospital notes of 622 women. Using all the available blood pressure readings (adjusted for weeks gestation) antibiotic usage was associated with a higher mean arterial blood pressure across pregnancy: antibiotics used 85(84, 87)mmHg vs. no antibiotics used 83 (83, 84) mmHg (β=2.3 (0.6, 4.0) mmHg, p=9.6×10 -3 , from 621 individuals). Further analysis revealed that antibiotic usage was associated with diastolic (β=2.3 (0.6, 4.0) mmHg; p=7.0×10 -3 ) more than systolic blood pressure (β=1.4(-0.9, 3.7)mmHg; p=0.2). The effect size associated with antibiotic usage appeared to rise slightly after the first trimester. Bacterial infection in pregnancy, as assessed by self-reported antibiotic usage, is associated with small rises in blood pressure. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacterial sensitivity to fosfomycin in pregnant women with urinary infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Batista Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to fosfomycin of bacteria isolated from urine samples of pregnant women with urinary tract infection. Samples of urine culture with bacterial growth of pregnant women were collected from clinical laboratories in Tubarão, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between September 2012 and May 2013. In the experimental stage, the colonies were tested for sensitivity to fosfomycin by using the Kirby–Bauer method. The following information relating to the samples was also collected: patients’ age, colony count, type(s of identified bacterial(s and result of the antimicrobial sensitivity test. Student's t-test was used for mean comparison. A total of 134 samples were selected for the study. The age of the subjects ranged from 15 to 40 years (mean 26.7. Escherichia coli (Gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive were the most commonly identified species. In 89% of cases, the microorganisms were sensitive to fosfomycin. E. coli and S. aureus were the main species of bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections in women in the study area. The most prevalent microorganisms in pregnant women with urinary tract infection were susceptible to fosfomycin.

  3. Bacterial communications in implant infections: a target for an intelligence war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costerton, J W; Montanaro, L; Arciola, C R

    2007-09-01

    The status of population density is communicated among bacteria by specific secreted molecules, called pheromones or autoinducers, and the control mechanism is called "quorum-sensing". Quorum-sensing systems regulate the expression of a panel of genes, allowing bacteria to adapt to modified environmental conditions at a high density of population. The two known different quorum systems are described as the LuxR-LuxI system in gram-negative bacteria, which uses an N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) as signal, and the agr system in gram-positive bacteria, which uses a peptide-tiolactone as signal and the RNAIII as effector molecules. Both in gram-negative and in gram-positive bacteria, quorum-sensing systems regulate the expression of adhesion mechanisms (biofilm and adhesins) and virulence factors (toxins and exoenzymes) depending on population cell density. In gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, analogs of signaling molecules such as furanone analogs, are effective in attenuating bacterial virulence and controlling bacterial infections. In grampositive Staphylococcus aureus, the quorum-sensing RNAIII-inhibiting peptide (RIP), tested in vitro and in animal infection models, has been proved to inhibit virulence and prevent infections. Attenuation of bacterial virulence by quorum-sensing inhibitors, rather than by bactericidal or bacteriostatic drugs, is a highly attractive concept because these antibacterial agents are less likely to induce the development of bacterial resistance.

  4. Compliance With Infection Prevention Guidelines By Health Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    the health workers' curricular, provision of in-service training in infection ... cheaper infection prevention and control methods7. In Zambia ... Zambia Infection Prevention Guidelines in 2003. This ..... Control (IPC) Policies and Guidelines or.

  5. Prebiotics for Prevention of Gut Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Ebersbach, Tine; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    It is our postulate that the field of prebiotic research has until now been characterized by a one-view-fits-all approach, implicating that if a putatively prebiotic compound is good for something, it is good for everything. One area where this implication has been proved insufficient regards...... the putative preventive effect of prebiotics against intestinal pathogenic bacteria. Although indeed most evidence on effects of prebiotics against infections is positive, some studies indicate that prebiotic carbohydrates cause increased susceptibility to specific gastrointestinal infections. Here, we review...... existing knowledge about the impact of prebiotics on infective agents in vitro and in vivo....

  6. Real-time monitoring of bacterial infection in vivo: development of bioluminescent staphylococcal foreign-body and deep-thigh-wound mouse infection models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklin, Nelly A; Pancari, Gregory D; Tobery, Timothy W; Cope, Leslie; Jackson, Jesse; Gill, Charles; Overbye, Karen; Francis, Kevin P; Yu, Jun; Montgomery, Donna; Anderson, Annaliesa S; McClements, William; Jansen, Kathrin U

    2003-09-01

    Staphylococcal infections associated with catheter and prosthetic implants are difficult to eradicate and often lead to chronic infections. Development of novel antibacterial therapies requires simple, reliable, and relevant models for infection. Using bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus, we have adapted the existing foreign-body and deep-wound mouse models of staphylococcal infection to allow real-time monitoring of the bacterial colonization of catheters or tissues. This approach also enables kinetic measurements of bacterial growth and clearance in each infected animal. Persistence of infection was observed throughout the course of the study until termination of the experiment at day 16 in a deep-wound model and day 21 in the foreign-body model, providing sufficient time to test the effects of antibacterial compounds. The usefulness of both animal models was assessed by using linezolid as a test compound and comparing bioluminescent measurements to bacterial counts. In the foreign-body model, a three-dose antibiotic regimen (2, 5, and 24 h after infection) resulted in a decrease in both luminescence and bacterial counts recovered from the implant compared to those of the mock-treated infected mice. In addition, linezolid treatment prevented the formation of subcutaneous abscesses, although it did not completely resolve the infection. In the thigh model, the same treatment regimen resulted in complete resolution of the luminescent signal, which correlated with clearance of the bacteria from the thighs.

  7. [Clinical efficacy of flomoxef in neonatal bacterial infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, H; Hirano, Y; Maruyama, S

    1993-03-01

    One hundred and seventy one neonates were treated with flomoxef (FMOX) and the clinical efficacy and safety were evaluated. The ages of the patients ranged from 0 to 28 days, and their body weights from 450 to 4300 g. Dose levels were 12.4 to 24.9 mg/kg every 8 or 12 hours for 1 to 10 days. Fifty two patients who responded to the FMOX treatment included 5 neonates with sepsis, 17 with suspected sepsis, 9 with urinary tract infections, 12 with pneumonia, 8 with intrauterine infections, and 1 with omphalitis. The other neonates could not be retrospectively diagnosed as bacterial infections. Of 52 patients, clinical results were excellent in 15, good in 34, fair in 1, and poor in 2. And the FMOX treatment was effective in 13 out of 14 patients in which causative bacteria were identified. The drug was well tolerated, but 6 neonates out of 33 over 5 days old had diarrhea. From these results, empiric treatment with FMOX against neonatal bacterial infection was as clinically useful as that of combination with ampicillin and gentamicin or cefotaxime and ampicillin in our neonatal intensive care unit. But, as this study did not include neonate with meningitis, efficacy to meningitis was not evaluated.

  8. Bacterial infection in deep paraspinal muscles in a parturient following epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Wei; Chen, Wei-Ting; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Lee, She-Chin; Chang, Yi; Wen, Yeong-Ray

    2011-06-01

    We report a case of paraspinal muscle infection shortly after epidural analgesia for labor pain in a nulliparous parturient who was subjected to emergent Cesarean section because of fetal distress. Epidural morphine was administered for 3 days for postoperative pain control. She began to have constant lower back pain on postpartum Day 4. Magnetic resonance image study revealed a broad area of subcutaneous edema with a continuum along the catheter trajectory deep to the paraspinal muscles. An injection-related bacterial infection was suspected; the patient was treated with intravenous antibiotics and was soon cured uncomplicatedly. Epidural analgesia is effective to control labor pain and, in general, it is safe. However, the sequelae of complicated infection may be underestimated. We herein report a case complicated by iatrogenic infection, discuss the causes, and give suggestions for prevention. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Bacteriophage therapy to combat bacterial infections in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernicki, Andrzej; Nowaczek, Anna; Urban-Chmiel, Renata

    2017-09-16

    Infections in poultry are an economic and health problem in Europe and worldwide. The most common infections are associated with salmonellosis, colibacillosis, campylobacteriosis, and others. The prevalence of Campylobacter-positive poultry flocks in European countries varies from 18% to 90%. In the United States, the prevalence of infected flocks is nearly 90%. A similar percentage of infection has been noted for salmonellosis (about 75-90%) and E. coli (90-95%). The occurence of Clostridium perfringens is a major problem for the poultry industry, with some estimates suggesting colonization of as many as 95% of chickens, resulting in clinical or subclinical infections. In the US, annual economic losses due to Salmonella infections run from $1.188 billion to over $11.588 billion, based on an estimated 1.92 million cases. Similar costs are observed in the case of other types of infections. In 2005 economic losses in the the poultry industry due to mortalities reached 1,000,000 USD.Infections caused by these pathogens, often through poultry products, are also a serious public health issue.The progressive increase in the number of multi-drug resistant bacteria and the complete ban on the use of antibiotics in livestock feed in the EU, as well as the partial ban in the US, have led to the growth of research on the use of bacteriophages to combat bacterial infections in humans and animals.The high success rate and safety of phage therapy in comparison with antibiotics are partly due to their specificity for selected bacteria and the ability to infect only one species, serotype or strain. This mechanism does not cause the destruction of commensal bacterial flora. Phages are currently being used with success in humans and animals in targeted therapies for slow-healing infections. They have also found application in the US in eliminating pathogens from the surface of foods of animal and plant origin. At a time of growing antibiotic resistance in bacteria and the resulting

  10. Topical silver for preventing wound infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm-Versloot, Marja N.; Vos, Cornelis G.; Ubbink, Dirk T.; Vermeulen, Hester

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Silver-containing treatments are popular and used in wound treatments to combat a broad spectrum of pathogens, but evidence of their effectiveness in preventing wound infection or promoting healing is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To establish the effects of silver-containing wound dressings and

  11. BACTERIAL INFECTIONS IN HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Balletto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections are major complications after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT. They consist mainly of bloodstream infections (BSI, followed by pneumonia and gastrointestinal infections, including typhlitis and Clostridium difficile infection. Microbiological data come mostly from BSI. Coagulase negative staphylococci and Enterobacteriaceae are the most frequent pathogens causing approximately 25% of BSI each, followed by enterococci, P. aeruginosa and viridans streptococci. Bacterial pneumonia is frequent after HSCT, and Gram-negatives are predominant. Clostridium difficile infection affects approximately 15% of HSCT recipients, being more frequent in case of allogeneic than autologous HSCT. The epidemiology and the prevalence of resistant strains vary significantly between transplant centres. In some regions, multi-drug resistant Gram-negative rods are increasingly frequent. In others, vancomycin-resistant enterococci are predominant. In the era of an increasing resistance to antibiotics, the efficacy of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis and standard treatment of febrile neutropenia have been questioned. Therefore, thorough evaluation of local epidemiology is mandatory in order to decide the need for prophylaxis and the choice of the best regimen for empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia. For the latter, individualised approach has been proposed, consisting of either escalation or de-escalation strategy. De-escalation strategy is recommended is resistant bacteria should be covered upfront, mainly in patients with severe clinical presentation and previous infection or colonisation with a resistant pathogens. Non-pharmacological interventions, such as screening for resistant bacteria, applying isolation and contact precautions should be put in place in order to limit the spread of MDR bacteria. Antimicrobial stewardship program should be implemented in transplant centres.

  12. PNEUMOCOCCAL INFECTION: MODERN VIEW ON THE ISSUE AND PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Tatochenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumococci are spread everywhere and they are very often a component of the microflora of the upper respiratory tracts. The level of the pneumococcus carriage is correlated with age. Among children the highest frequency is observed at the age of 4,5 years (up to 90% of cases, among adults it is 5–10%. According to international and Russian data, pneumococcal infection causes up to 76% of all the aetiologically deciphered cases of community cacquired pneumonia among adults and up to 94% (aggravated cases among children. The most frequent clinical forms of pneumococcal infection among children are acute otitis media (over 30%, pneumonia and meningitis (about 5–20% of all purulent bacterial meningitis, among adults — meningitis and sepsis. In 1998, in Russia was registered the first and still the only vaccine for the prevention of pneumococcal infection — Pneumo 23 (Sanofi Pasteur. The vaccine consists of 23 antic gens of the most dangerous pneumococcus serotypes and is used for the prevention of all the forms of pneumococcal infection. The composition of Pneumo 23 corresponds to 85% of pneumococcus serotypes circulating across Europe and to 90% serotypes resistant to penicillin. According to Russian data Pneumo 23 consists of about 80% of pneumococcus serotypes isolated in healthy carriers and ill with acute respiratory diseases and of 92% of serotypes in those suffering from acute bronchitis and pneumonia. The results of the clinical studies allow us to recommend the use of the given vaccine in a complex therapy of children, suffering from latent TB infection, often recurrent episodes of bronchopulmonary pathologies, ENT diseases, bronchial asthma and other chronic diseases.Key words: therapy, pediatrics, pneumonia, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive lungs disease, prevention, treatment, pneumococcal infection.

  13. Sphingosine Prevents Bacterial Adherence to Endotracheal Tubes: A Novel Mechanism to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    and resists the antimicrobial properties of the host defense” [9]. Bacterial adhesion is the first step in biofilm formation [10]; thus, prevention...ETTs. Future in vitro and animal studies are necessary to establish the safety of sphingolipid coatings, and future randomized clinical trials will...SUBJECT TERMS Ventilator-associated pneumonia, VAP, Gram-negative, bacteria, endotracheal tubes, sphingosine, antimicrobial coating 16. SECURITY

  14. Prevention of Recurrent Staphylococcal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, C. Buddy; Al-Zubeidi, Duha N.; Fritz, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Staphylococcus aureus infections pose a significant health burden. The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus has resulted in an epidemic of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), and many patients experience recurrent SSTI. As S. aureus colonization is associated with subsequent infection, decolonization is recommended for patients with recurrent SSTI or in settings of ongoing transmission. S. aureus infections often cluster within households and asymptomatic carriers serve as reservoirs for transmission; therefore, a household approach to decolonization is more effective than measures performed by individuals alone. Other factors, such as environmental surface contamination, may also be considered. Novel strategies for the prevention of recurrent SSTI are needed. PMID:26311356

  15. Acute sleep deprivation enhances post-infection sleep and promotes survival during bacterial infection in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A

    2014-05-01

    Sleep is known to increase as an acute response to infection. However, the function of this behavioral response in host defense is not well understood. To address this problem, we evaluated the effect of acute sleep deprivation on post-infection sleep and immune function in Drosophila. Laboratory. Drosophila melanogaster. Flies were subjected to sleep deprivation before (early DEP) or after (late DEP) bacterial infection. Relative to a non-deprived control, flies subjected to early DEP had enhanced sleep after infection as well as increased bacterial clearance and survival outcome. Flies subjected to late DEP experienced enhanced sleep following the deprivation period, and showed a modest improvement in survival outcome. Continuous DEP (early and late DEP) throughout infection also enhanced sleep later during infection and improved survival. However, improved survival in flies subjected to late or continuous DEP did not occur until after flies had experienced sleep. During infection, both early and late DEP enhanced NFκB transcriptional activity as measured by a luciferase reporter (κB-luc) in living flies. Early DEP also increased NFκB activity prior to infection. Flies that were deficient in expression of either the Relish or Dif NFκB transcription factors showed normal responses to early DEP. However, the effect of early DEP on post-infection sleep and survival was abolished in double mutants, which indicates that Relish and Dif have redundant roles in this process. Acute sleep deprivation elevated NFκB-dependent activity, increased post-infection sleep, and improved survival during bacterial infection.

  16. Bacterial infections in cynomolgus monkeys given small molecule immunomodulatory antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Karen D

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic infections (OIs) during the course of non-clinical toxicity studies can serve as a clinical indicator of immunosuppression. In monkeys, severity may be magnified since the possibility for fecal-oral and cage-to-cage transmission of bacteria exists, reserve capacity is low, and clinical signs of infection are not easily detected until the infectious process is well underway. This review summarizes a case study presented at the HESI-ILSI ITC-Sponsored workshop on Naturally Occurring Infections in Non-human Primates and Immunotoxicity Implications. It gives an overview on the impact of bacterial infections in monkeys on the development and regulatory assessment of three closely-related representative small molecule immunomodulatory (anti-inflammatory) drug candidates all inhibiting the same drug target. The infections, which sometimes progressed to bacteremia and death, originally manifested in the skin, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and less frequently as soft tissue abscesses. Infections were sporadic and not observed in all studies despite coverage of equivalent or higher systemic exposures or longer durations of treatment. To address concerns regarding inconsistency in the presentation and type of findings and their potential relationship to infection, steps were taken to identify causative agents (via culture, microscopy), implement various intervention and treatment regimens (supportive care, antibiotics, drug holiday), demonstrate reversibility of clinical and immune effects, and study major immune components/mechanisms affected (cytokine/stress protein profiling, immune cell phenotyping, and humoral/innate immune cell function tests). Appropriate diagnosis and characterization of the infection was critical to discrimination of these findings as a secondary pharmacologic effect rather than a direct drug-related target organ effect, and also guided clinical protocol design and regulatory acceptance.

  17. Measures to prevent nosocomial infections during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Paula; Bassi, Gianluigi L; Torres, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation are lifesaving measures in critically ill patients. However, these interventions increase the risk of respiratory infections, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAP constitutes a serious burden for the healthcare system and worsens the patient's outcomes; thus, several preventive strategies have been implemented. This communication reviews the current knowledge on VAP pathogenesis and the latest preventive measures. Pathogen-laden oropharyngeal secretions leak across the endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff; thus, a continuous control of the internal cuff pressure and cuffs made of polyurethane improve sealing effectiveness and associated risks of infections. Subglottic secretions aspiration prevents VAP, and the latest evidence demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of late-onset VAP. The role of ETT biofilm in the pathogenesis of VAP is not fully elucidated. Nevertheless, antimicrobial-coated ETTs have showed beneficial effects in VAP incidence. Recent experimental evidence has challenged the benefits associated with the use of the semirecumbent position; yet, these findings need to be corroborated in clinical trials. The latest results from trials testing the effects of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) showed beneficial effects on patients' outcomes, but concerns remain regarding the emergence of bacterial resistance, specifically upon digestive tract re-colonization. The use of oropharyngeal decontamination with antiseptics and the use of probiotics are potential alternatives to SDD. There is consistent evidence that strategies affecting the primary mechanisms of VAP pathogenesis efficiently reduce the occurrence of the disease. Preventive measures should be implemented grouped into bundles to improve overall efficacy.

  18. Contribution of Bacterial Infection to Male Infertility in Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emokpae MA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There is disagreement as to the influence of certain microbial infection on male infertility and such agents are ignored. The incidence of these microbial agents in seminal fluid isolates is on the increase. This study therefore evaluates the prevalence of male factor infertility and contribution of microbial infection to male infertility in Kano, northern Nigeria. Seminal fluid analysis in five hundred males who were investigated for infertility was evaluated using the 5th generation SQ AII C-P sperm quality analyzer and the Neubaeur counting chamber. The result indicates that 58.2% had sperm density less than twenty million per millilitre. The oligospermic subjects (sperm density 2-19 millions/ml were 27.6%, severe oligospermic (sperm density less than 2 million 13.2% and azoospermia, 17.4%. Asthenospermia (motility less than 50% decrease from 44.8% in oligospermia to 24.0% in severe oligospermia. Teratospermia (abnormal morphology greater than 50% also deteriorated from 46.3% to 35.4% in oligospermic and severe oligospermic males respectively. Seminal fluid infection increases with decreasing sperm density, motility and morphology. The prevalence of abnormal sperm indices and bacterial infection is high and Staphylococcus aureus infection should be treated and no longer ignored in the management of male factor infertility.

  19. Fibrinous pericarditis secondary to bacterial infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Michihito; Kurashima, Chihiro; Shimbo, Genya; Omura, Hiroshi; Koyama, Kenji; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Kawamoto, Keiko; Miyahara, Kazuro

    2017-06-10

    A three-year-old spayed domestic short-haired cat presented for evaluation of weight loss, cardiomegaly and pleural effusion. Echocardiographic examination demonstrated a thickened pericardium with mild pericardial effusion and a large volume of pleural effusion characterized by exudate. Although the cat was treated with antibiotics, the clinical symptoms did not improve. The cat developed dyspnea and died on day 7. Necropsy revealed a large amount of modified transudates ascites, pleural effusion and markedly dilated pericardium. Histopathological examination revealed severe exudation of fibrin and granulation tissue in a thick layer of the epicardium. The cat was diagnosed with fibrinous pericarditis secondary to bacterial infection.

  20. The effect of vacuum-assisted closure in bacterial clearance of the infected abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliakos, Ioannis; Michalopoulos, Nikolaos; Papavramidis, Theodossis S; Arampatzi, Stergiani; Diza-Mataftsi, Eudoxia; Papavramidis, Spiros

    2014-02-01

    Laparostomy with vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) plays an important role in improving survival in the presence of abdominal infection. We conducted a study of the qualitative changes in the bacterial flora of the peritoneal cavity in patients with severe abdominal infection treated with laparostomy and a VAC device. Thirty-nine patients with severe abdominal infection treated with abdominal opening and VAC were registered in a clinical study. When an incidence of 53.8% of hospital-acquired peritoneal infection (HAPI) was found in the study patient population, it was decided to divide the patients in two groups according to whether or not they developed a HAPI. The patients' outcomes were then analyzed. The durations of abdominal opening (p=0.04), length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) (p=0.01), and of hospitalization (p=0.04) were significantly greater in patients with HAPI than in those without it, whereas mortality did not differ on the basis of these three variables. Superinfection is common in laparostomy done with a VAC device for managing severe abdominal infection. The data in the present study show that VAC does not alter the quality of the bacterial burden in primary abdominal contamination, nor does it seem to prevent a high incidence of HAPI. However, VAC is as effective in reducing mortality among patients with HAPI as among those without it.

  1. Evaluation of localized bacterial infection using radioisotope-labeled nucleosides imaging modality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Tae Sup; Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Kyo Chul; An, Gwang II; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lim, Sang Moo [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sang Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Conventional diagnostic methods for infections are difficult to distinguish localized bacterial infections from sites of sterile inflammation. For this reason, the importance of developing methods to image bacterial infections is widely recognized. In this study to acquire bacterial infection imaging with radiolabeled nucleosides, in vitro bacterial thymidine kinase (tk) activities of Salmonella typhimurium with [{sup 18}F]FLT and [{sup 125}I]IVDU were measured and localized infections model in BALB/c mice was imaged with [{sup 18}F]FLT or [{sup 125}I]FIAU

  2. Is neonatal group B streptococcal infection preventable?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Azam, M

    2011-05-01

    Early onset group B streptococcal (EOGBS) infection causes significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. We determined the incidence of EOGBS at Galway University Hospital (GUH) and examined any "missed opportunities" for preventing neonatal infection between 2004 and 2009. Our obstetric approach is risk-based. The incidence was 0.45\\/1,000 live-births; one death and one with neurological sequelae. A single mother received IAP; however we could not determine any potential for reducing cases of EOGBS by improving current IAP usage.

  3. The effects of vaccination and immunity on bacterial infection dynamics in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Coward

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica infections are a significant global health issue, and development of vaccines against these bacteria requires an improved understanding of how vaccination affects the growth and spread of the bacteria within the host. We have combined in vivo tracking of molecularly tagged bacterial subpopulations with mathematical modelling to gain a novel insight into how different classes of vaccines and branches of the immune response protect against secondary Salmonella enterica infections of the mouse. We have found that a live Salmonella vaccine significantly reduced bacteraemia during a secondary challenge and restrained inter-organ spread of the bacteria in the systemic organs. Further, fitting mechanistic models to the data indicated that live vaccine immunisation enhanced both the bacterial killing in the very early stages of the infection and bacteriostatic control over the first day post-challenge. T-cell immunity induced by this vaccine is not necessary for the enhanced bacteriostasis but is required for subsequent bactericidal clearance of Salmonella in the blood and tissues. Conversely, a non-living vaccine while able to enhance initial blood clearance and killing of virulent secondary challenge bacteria, was unable to alter the subsequent bacterial growth rate in the systemic organs, did not prevent the resurgence of extensive bacteraemia and failed to control the spread of the bacteria in the body.

  4. Coxiella burnetii: host and bacterial responses to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, David M

    2007-10-16

    Designation as a Category B biothreat agent has propelled Coxiella burnetii from a relatively obscure, underappreciated, "niche" microorganism on the periphery of bacteriology, to one of possibly great consequence if actually used in acts of bioterrorism. Advances in the study of this microorganism proceeded slowly, primarily because of the difficulty in studying this obligate intracellular pathogen that must be manipulated under biosafety level-3 conditions. The dogged determination of past and current C. burnetii researchers and the application of modern immunological and molecular techniques have more clearly defined the host and bacterial response to infection. This review is intended to provide a basic introduction to C. burnetii and Q fever, while emphasizing immunomodulatory properties, both positive and negative, of Q fever vaccines and C. burnetii infections.

  5. Probiotics and prevention of Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, E J C; Johnson, S J; Maziade, P-J; Evans, C T; Sniffen, J C; Millette, M; McFarland, L V

    2017-06-01

    The role of probiotics as adjunctive measures in the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been controversial. However, a growing body of evidence has suggested that they have a role in primary prevention of CDI. Elements of this controversy are reviewed and the proposed mechanisms of action, the value and cost effectiveness of probiotics are addressed with a focus on three agents, Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and the combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential strategies for the eradication of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwaitat, Rawan; McCloskey, Alice P; Gilmore, Brendan F; Laverty, Garry

    2016-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the leading threats to society. The increasing burden of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infection is particularly concerning as such bacteria are demonstrating resistance to nearly all currently licensed therapies. Various strategies have been hypothesized to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections including: targeting the Gram-negative outer membrane; neutralization of lipopolysaccharide; inhibition of bacterial efflux pumps and prevention of protein folding. Silver and silver nanoparticles, fusogenic liposomes and nanotubes are potential strategies for extending the activity of licensed, Gram-positive selective, antibiotics to Gram-negatives. This may serve as a strategy to fill the current void in pharmaceutical development in the short term. This review outlines the most promising strategies that could be implemented to solve the threat of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections.

  7. Combating multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ze-Qi; Flavin, Michael T; Flavin, John

    2014-02-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections, especially those caused by Gram-negative pathogens, have emerged as one of the world's greatest health threats. The development of novel antibiotics to treat MDR Gram-negative bacteria has, however, stagnated over the last half century. This review provides an overview of recent R&D activities in the search for novel antibiotics against MDR Gram-negatives. It provides emphasis in three key areas. First, the article looks at new analogs of existing antibiotic molecules such as β-lactams, tetracyclines, and aminoglycoside as well as agents against novel bacterial targets such as aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and peptide deformylase. Second, it also examines alternative strategies to conventional approaches including cationic antimicrobial peptides, siderophores, efflux pump inhibitors, therapeutic antibodies, and renewed interest in abandoned treatments or those with limited indications. Third, the authors aim to provide an update on the current clinical development status for each drug candidate. The traditional analog approach is insufficient to meet the formidable challenge brought forth by MDR superbugs. With the disappointing results of the genomics approach for delivering novel targets and drug candidates, alternative strategies to permeate the bacterial cell membrane, enhance influx, disrupt efflux, and target specific pathogens via therapeutic antibodies are attractive and promising. Coupled with incentivized business models, governmental policies, and a clarified regulatory pathway, it is hoped that the antibiotic pipeline will be filled with an effective armamentarium to safeguard global health.

  8. Bacterial Infection of Fly Ovaries Reduces Egg Production and Induces Local Hemocyte Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Stephanie M.; Schneider, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Morbidity, the state of being diseased, is an important aspect of pathogenesis that has gone relatively unstudied in fruit flies. Our interest is in characterizing how bacterial pathogenesis affects various physiologies of the fly. We chose to examine the fly ovary because we found bacterial infection had a striking effect on fly reproduction. We observed decreased egg laying after bacterial infection that correlated with increased bacterial virulence. We also found that bacteria colonized th...

  9. Incidence and Predictors of Bacterial infection in Febrile Children with Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Benita J; Bycroft, Thomas P; Almossawi, Ofran; Wilkey, Olufunke B; Daniels, Justin G

    2015-01-01

    Children with sickle cell disease are at increased risk of developing bacteremia and other serious bacterial infections. Fever is a common symptom in sickle cell disease and can also occur with sickle cell crises and viral infections. We aimed to evaluate the incidence and predictors of bacteremia and bacterial infection in children with sickle cell disease presenting with fever to a district hospital and sickle cell center in London. A retrospective analysis was performed on all attendances of children (aged under 16 years) with sickle cell disease presenting with a fever of 38.5 °C or higher over a 1-year period. Confirmed bacterial infection was defined as bacteremia, bacterial meningitis, urinary tract infection (UTI), pneumonia, osteomyelitis or other bacterial infection with positive identification of organism. Children were defined as having a suspected bacterial infection if a bacterial infection was suspected clinically, but no organism was identified. Over a 1-year period there were 88 episodes analyzed in 59 children. Bacteremia occurred in 3.4% of episodes and confirmed bacterial infection in 7.0%. Suspected bacterial infection occurred in 33.0%. One death occurred from Salmonella typhirium septicemia. C-reactive protein (CRP) level and white blood cell (WBC) count were both significantly associated with bacterial infection (p = 0.004 and 0.02, respectively.) In conclusion, bacterial infections continue to be a significant problem in children with sickle cell disease. C-reactive protein was significantly associated with bacterial infections, and could be included in clinical risk criteria for febrile children with sickle cell disease.

  10. Bacterial Hyaluronidase Promotes Ascending GBS Infection and Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornhagen, Jay; Quach, Phoenicia; Boldenow, Erica; Merillat, Sean; Whidbey, Christopher; Ngo, Lisa Y.; Adams Waldorf, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preterm birth increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes and is the leading cause of neonatal mortality. A significant cause of preterm birth is in utero infection with vaginal microorganisms. These vaginal microorganisms are often recovered from the amniotic fluid of preterm birth cases. A vaginal microorganism frequently associated with preterm birth is group B streptococcus (GBS), or Streptococcus agalactiae. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GBS ascension are poorly understood. Here, we describe the role of the GBS hyaluronidase in ascending infection and preterm birth. We show that clinical GBS strains associated with preterm labor or neonatal infections have increased hyaluronidase activity compared to commensal strains obtained from rectovaginal swabs of healthy women. Using a murine model of ascending infection, we show that hyaluronidase activity was associated with increased ascending GBS infection, preterm birth, and fetal demise. Interestingly, hyaluronidase activity reduced uterine inflammation but did not impact placental or fetal inflammation. Our study shows that hyaluronidase activity enables GBS to subvert uterine immune responses, leading to increased rates of ascending infection and preterm birth. These findings have important implications for the development of therapies to prevent in utero infection and preterm birth. PMID:27353757

  11. Bacterial Hyaluronidase Promotes Ascending GBS Infection and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Vornhagen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes and is the leading cause of neonatal mortality. A significant cause of preterm birth is in utero infection with vaginal microorganisms. These vaginal microorganisms are often recovered from the amniotic fluid of preterm birth cases. A vaginal microorganism frequently associated with preterm birth is group B streptococcus (GBS, or Streptococcus agalactiae. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GBS ascension are poorly understood. Here, we describe the role of the GBS hyaluronidase in ascending infection and preterm birth. We show that clinical GBS strains associated with preterm labor or neonatal infections have increased hyaluronidase activity compared to commensal strains obtained from rectovaginal swabs of healthy women. Using a murine model of ascending infection, we show that hyaluronidase activity was associated with increased ascending GBS infection, preterm birth, and fetal demise. Interestingly, hyaluronidase activity reduced uterine inflammation but did not impact placental or fetal inflammation. Our study shows that hyaluronidase activity enables GBS to subvert uterine immune responses, leading to increased rates of ascending infection and preterm birth. These findings have important implications for the development of therapies to prevent in utero infection and preterm birth.

  12. Observations of Bacterial Behavior during Infection Using the ARGOS Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charest, A. J.; Algarni, S.; Iannacchione, G. S.

    2015-03-01

    This research employed the Area Recorded Generalized Optical Scattering (ARGOS) approach which allowed for the observation of bacterial changes in terms of individual particles and population dynamics in real time. This new approach allows for an aqueous environment to be manipulated while conducting time-specific measurements over an indefinite amount of time. This current study provides a more time-specific method in which the bacteria remained within the initial conditions and allows for more time precision than provided by analyzing concentrations of plaque-forming units (PFU). This study involved the bacteria (F-amp) during infection by bacteriophage (MS2). The relative total intensity allows for detailed measurements of the bacteria population over time. The bacteria characteristics were also evaluated such as the root mean square image difference (at specific wavevectors), fractal dimension and effective radius. The growth rate of the infected bacteria occurred at a rate higher than the uninfected bacteria similarly, the death rates were also higher for the infected bacteria than the uninfected bacteria. The present study indicates that bacteria may react to infection by increasing the rate of population growth.

  13. Prevalence and bacterial susceptibility of hospital acquired urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Neto José Anastácio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Urinary tract infection is the most common nosocomially acquired infection. It is important to know the etiology and antibiotic susceptibility infectious agents to guide the initial empirical treatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacterial strains and their antibiotic susceptibility in nosocomially acquired urinary tract infection in a university hospital between January and June 2003. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 188 patients with positive urine culture (= 10(5 colony-forming units/mL following a period of 48 hours after admission. RESULTS: Half of patients were male. Mean age was 50.26 ± 22.7 (SD, range 3 months to 88 years. Gram-negative bacteria were the agent in approximately 80% of cases. The most common pathogens were E. coli (26%, Klebsiella sp. (15%, P. aeruginosa (15% and Enterococcus sp. (11%. The overall bacteria susceptibility showed that the pathogens were more sensible to imipenem (83%, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides; and were highly resistant to ampicillin (27% and cefalothin (30%. It is important to note the low susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (42% and norfloxacin (43%. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that if one can not wait the results of urine culture, the best choices to begin empiric treatment are imipenem, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides. Cefalothin and ampicillin are quite ineffective to treat these infections.

  14. "Bacterial infections in visceral leishmaniasis in Children’s Medical Center 1966-2000 "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Tabatabaei P "

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial infections are seen in patients with visceral leishmaniasis. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of such infections and the more common infections agents. Materials and Methods: During the 15-years period in a prospective study from 1986 to 2000, 123 patients with visceral leishmaniasis were studied in the Children Medical Center. Results: From all the cases, 41 (33 percent patients had Also bacterial infections. Respiratory tract, urinary system, Middle ear were the most common sites of infection. Conclusion: When bacterial Infection is suspected in these patients, empiric antibiotic therapy should be started immediately after appropriate diagnostic procedures are taken.

  15. [Primary and secondary prevention of urinary tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Vahlensieck, W; Bauer, H W; Weidner, W; Naber, K G; Piechota, H J

    2011-10-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequent bacterial infections in the community and health care setting. Mostly young and, to some extent, postmenopausal women are affected by recurrent UTI (rUTI) defined as ≥3 UTI/year. On the other hand rUTI are frequently found in patients with complicating urological factors, e.g. urinary catheters. Modifiable predisposing factors in uncomplicated rUTI in women are rare. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis or postcoital prophylaxis, if there is close correlation with sexual intercourse, are most effective to prevent rUTI. Nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim (or cotrimoxazole), and fosfomycin trometamol are available as first-line drugs. Oral cephalosporins and quinolones should be restricted to specific indications. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the number of uropathogens in the gut and/or vaginal flora and reduces bacterial"fitness". Given the correct indication, the recurrence rate of rUTI can be reduced by about 90%. In postmenopausal patients vaginal substitution of oestriol should be started first. Oral or parenteral immunoprophylaxis is another option in patients with rUTI. Other possibilities with varying scientific evidence are prophylaxis with cranberries or probiotics. The prophylaxis of catheter-associated UTI or asymptomatic bacteriuria should employ strategies which result in a reduction of frequency and duration of catheter drainage of the urinary tract. The currently available catheter materials have only little influence on reducing catheter-associated rUTI.

  16. Fungal and Bacterial Infection Mitigation with Antibiotic and Antifungal Loaded Biopolymer Sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ashley Cox

    vancomycin. Both types of modified sponges exhibited good biocompatibility and slight, but not complete, degradation in an in vivo rat intramuscular degradation and biocompatibility model. In an in vivo bacteria biofilm infection prevention mouse model, vancomycin loaded chitosan/PEG sponges also cleared more bacteria than the unmodified chitosan sponges. These experimental results led to the conclusion that with additional research and in vivo studies, the buffered and PEG blended chitosan sponge local delivery systems exhibit potential for use as adjunctive bacterial or fungal infection prevention therapies to standard surgical treatment of musculoskeletal wounds.

  17. An integrated stewardship model : Antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic (AID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Jan-Willem H.; Poelman, Randy; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Panday, Prashant Nannan; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R.; van Assen, Sander; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E. W. C.; Niesters, Hubert G. M.; Hendrix, Ron; Sinha, Bhanu

    2016-01-01

    Considering the threat of antimicrobial resistance and the difficulties it entails in treating infections, it is necessary to cross borders and approach infection management in an integrated, multidisciplinary manner. We propose the antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic stewardship

  18. An integrated stewardship model: antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic (AID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Jan-Willem H.; Poelman, Randy; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Panday, Prashant N.; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R.; van Assen, Sander; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Niesters, Hubert G.M.; Hendrix, Ron; Sinha, Bhanu

    2015-01-01

    Considering the threat of antimicrobial resistance and the difficulties it entails in treating infections, it is necessary to cross borders and approach infection management in an integrated, multidisciplinary manner. We propose the antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic stewardship

  19. Use of Pneumococcal Disease Epidemiology to Set Policy and Prevent Disease during 20 Years of the Emerging Infections Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew R; Whitney, Cynthia G

    2015-09-01

    Two decades ago, the Emerging Infections Program of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented what seemed like a simple yet novel idea: a population- and laboratory-based surveillance system designed to identify and characterize invasive bacterial infections, including those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. This system, known as Active Bacterial Core surveillance, has since served as a flexible platform for following trends in invasive pneumococcal disease and studying vaccination as the most effective method for prevention. We report the contributions of Active Bacterial Core surveillance to every pneumococcal vaccine policy decision in the United States during the past 20 years.

  20. Bacterial feeding, Leishmania infection and distinct infection routes induce differential defensin expression in Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telleria, Erich L; Sant'Anna, Maurício R Viana; Alkurbi, Mohammad O; Pitaluga, André N; Dillon, Rod J; Traub-Csekö, Yara M

    2013-01-11

    Phlebotomine insects harbor bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens that can cause diseases of public health importance. Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. Insects can mount a powerful innate immune response to pathogens. Defensin peptides take part in this response and are known to be active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and some parasites. We studied the expression of a defensin gene from Lutzomyia longipalpis to understand its role in sand fly immune response. We identified, sequenced and evaluated the expression of a L. longipalpis defensin gene by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The gene sequence was compared to other vectors defensins and expression was determined along developmental stages and after exposure of adult female L. longipalpis to bacteria and Leishmania. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the L. longipalpis defensin is closely related to a defensin from the Old World sand fly Phlebotomus duboscqi. Expression was high in late L4 larvae and pupae in comparison to early larval stages and newly emerged flies. Defensin expression was modulated by oral infection with bacteria. The Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus induced early high defensin expression, whilst the Gram-negative entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens induced a later response. Bacterial injection also induced defensin expression in adult insects. Female sand flies infected orally with Leishmania mexicana showed no significant difference in defensin expression compared to blood fed insects apart from a lower defensin expression 5 days post Leishmania infection. When Leishmania was introduced into the hemolymph by injection there was no induction of defensin expression until 72 h later. Our results suggest that L. longipalpis modulates defensin expression upon bacterial and Leishmania infection, with patterns of expression that are distinct among bacterial species and routes of infection.

  1. Viral and atypical bacterial infections in the outpatient pediatric cystic fibrosis clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Hanne Vebert; Nielsen, Lars P; Schiotz, Peter Oluf

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory viral and atypical bacterial infections are associated with pulmonary exacerbations and hospitalisations in cystic fibrosis patients. We wanted to study the impact of such infections on children attending the outpatient clinic. METHODS: Seventy-five children were followed...

  2. Differences of serum procalcitonin levels between bacterial infection and flare in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, J.; Marpaung, B.; Ginting, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Differentiate bacterial infections from flare in SLE patients is difficult to do because clinical symptoms of infection is similar to flare. SLE patients with infection require antibiotic therapy with decreased doses of immunosuppressant while in flare diseases require increased immunosuppressant. Procalcitonin (PCT), a biological marker, increased in serum patients with bacterial infections and expected to be a solution of problem. The aim of this study was to examine the function of PCT serum as marker to differentiate bacterial infection and flare in SLE patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Adam Malik Hospital from January-July 2017. We examined 80 patients SLE flare (MEX-SLEDAI>5), screen PCT and culture according to focal infection. Data were statistically analyzed. 80 SLE patients divided into 2 groups: bacterial infection group (31 patients) and non-infection/flare group (49 patients). Median PCT levels of bacterial infection group was 1.66 (0.04-8.45)ng/ml while flare group was 0.12 (0.02-0.81)ng/ml. There was significant difference of serum Procalcitonin level between bacterial infection and flare group in SLE patients (p=0.001). Procalcitonin serum levels can be used as a biomarker to differentiate bacterial infections and flare in SLE patients.

  3. Prevention of pin tract infection with titanium-copper alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Toshiharu; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Tohru; Ohtani, Kaori; Zen, Yo; Tomita, Katsuro

    2009-10-01

    The most frequent complication in external fixation is pin tract infection. To reduce the incidence of implant-associated infection, many published reports have looked at preventing bacterial adhesion by treating the pin surface. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of a Titanium-Copper (Ti-Cu) alloy on implant infection, and to determine the potential use of the Ti-Cu alloy as a biomaterial. Two forms of Ti-Cu alloys were synthesized: one with 1% Cu and the other with 5% Cu. For analyzing infectious behavior, the implants were exposed to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The reaction of pathogens to the Ti-Cu alloys was compared with their reaction to stainless steel and pure titanium as controls. Both Ti-Cu alloys evidently inhibited colonization by both bacteria. Conversely, cytocompatibility studies were performed using fibroblasts and colony formation on the metals was assessed by counting the number of colonies. Ti-1% Cu alloy showed no difference in the number of colonies compared with the control. External fixator pins made of Ti-Cu alloys were evaluated in a rabbit model. The tissue-implant interactions were analyzed for the presence of infection, inflammatory changes and osteoid-formation. Ti-1% Cu alloy significantly inhibited inflammation and infection, and had excellent osteoid-formation. Copper blood levels were measured before surgery and at 14 days postoperatively. Preoperative and postoperative blood copper values were not statistically different. Overall, it was concluded that Ti-Cu alloys have antimicrobial activity and substantially reduce the incidence of pin tract infection. Ti-1% Cu alloy shows particular promise as a biomaterial. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. THE ROLE OF PROCALCITONIN IN BACTERIAL INFECTION RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucija Gabršek

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early recognition of bacterial infection and antibiotic treatment are very important in critically ill patients. Procalcitonin (PCT is a marker of bacterial infections accompanied by systemic inflammatory response. Higher values were also noticed with parasitical and fungal infections, but PCT is normal in viral and systemic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess whether PCT is better marker for bacterial infections than C-reactive protein (CRP and if they have a prognostic value.Methods. 34 patients were included into our retrospective study. All of them had clinical or laboratory signs of infection at the first PCT determination. We measured PCT, CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (SR and leukocyte count. On the base of microbiological results we divided patients into three groups. Group A had patients with sterile cultures, group B included the ones with negative blood cultures, but from other cultures causative agents were identified. The patients in group C had positive blood cultures. Retrospectively we studied PCT and CRP values among groups and among survivors and non survivors.Results. An average median value of PCT in group A was 8.9 ± 13.3 ng/ml, in group B 5.3 ± 9.3 ng/ml and in group C 21.0 ± 25.0 ng/ml. In group B, the average median value of PCT was significantly higher than in group C (p = 0.019, but that was not the case in group A (p = 0.23. The average median values of CRP were 129.9 ± 67.4 mg/l in group A, 104.3 ± 60.1 mg/l in group B and 117.4 ± 46.1 mg/l in group C. Between groups, differences of CRP values were not statistically significant. The average initial value of PCT in group of non survivors (8.9 ± 49 was not significantly higher then in group of survivors (3.14 ± 55.4 (p = 0.48. The average final value was significantly higher (p = 0.0013 in group of non survivors (13.1 ± 23.9 ng/l than in group of survivors (0.55 ± 7.3 ng/ml. In both groups the average initial values of CRP did not

  5. Preventing urinary tract infections after menopause without antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caretto, Marta; Giannini, Andrea; Russo, Eleonora; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2017-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections in women, and increase in incidence after the menopause. It is important to uncover underlying abnormalities or modifiable risk factors. Several risk factors for recurrent UTIs have been identified, including the frequency of sexual intercourse, spermicide use and abnormal pelvic anatomy. In postmenopausal women UTIs often accompany the symptoms and signs of the genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM). Antimicrobial prophylaxis has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the risk of recurrent UTIs in women, but this may lead to drug resistance of both the causative microorganisms and the indigenous flora. The increasing prevalence of Escherichia coli (the most prevalent uropathogen) that is resistant to antimicrobial agents has stimulated interest in novel non-antibiotic methods for the prevention of UTIs. Evidence shows that topical estrogens normalize vaginal flora and greatly reduce the risk of UTIs. The use of intravaginal estrogens may be reasonable in postmenopausal women not taking oral estrogens. A number of other strategies have been used to prevent recurrent UTIs: probiotics, cranberry juice and d-mannose have been studied. Oral immunostimulants, vaginal vaccines and bladder instillations with hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate are newer strategies proposed to improve urinary symptoms and quality of life. This review provides an overview of UTIs' prophylaxis without antibiotics, focusing on a practical clinical approach to women with UTIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Is intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate useful in preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis? A multicenter case control analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio Gugliotta; Gloria Calagna; Giorgio Adile; Salvatore Polito; Salvatore Saitta; Patrizia Speciale; Stefano Palomba; Antonino Perino; Roberta Granese; Biagio Adile

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in the female population and, over a lifetime, about half of women have at least one episode of UTI requiring antibiotic therapy. The aim of the current study was to compare two different strategies for preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis: intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus chondroitin sulfate (CS), and antibiotic prophylaxis with sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective...

  7. [Infections of the oral mucosa II. Bacterial, mycotic and viral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, P A

    1999-11-01

    Non-specific infections of the oral mucosa are rare; however, they may present during HIV infection in the form of gingivo-periodontal lesions. In some of these Candida albicans may play a role in the pathogenesis. Sexually transmitted bacterial infections such as gonorrhoea and syphilis are frequently associated with HIV infection. Since penicillin resistance is frequent in gonorrhoea, the cephalosporines are mainly used for treatment. Syphilis increases the risk for transmission of HIV. Lues maligna with oral manifestations has been described. For this, penicillin G is the therapy of choice. Tuberculosis, characterized by multitherapy resistance, is associated with HIV infections world-wide; oral manifestations are rare. Oral candidiasis during HIV infection is often characterized by therapy resistance against fluconazole and a shift in species, with Candida glabrata and Candida krusei as the emerging species. The azoles are still the mainstay of therapy, particularly fluconazole. Herpes simplex (HSV) infections run an atypical course during HIV disease; resistance against acyclovir is a clinical problem. The association of HSV infection with erythema exudativum multiforme has been clearly shown. Oral hairy leukoplakia caused by Epstein Barr virus is a characteristic infection during immunosuppression. Cytomegalovirus infection is also observed in immunodeficient patients. Cases of ganciclovir resistance have been described. Human herpes virus 8 (HHV 8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. Therapeutic trials have focussed on the inhibition of HHV 8 replication. Over 100 different genotypes of human papillomaviruses are known; some can cause infections of the oral mucosa. Characteristic lesions caused by different HPV genotypes are verruca vulgaris, condyloma acuminatum and focal epithelial hyperplasia.

  8. Clinical indicators for bacterial co-infection in Ghanaian children with P. falciparum infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Verena Nielsen

    Full Text Available Differentiation of infectious causes in severely ill children is essential but challenging in sub- Saharan Africa. The aim of the study was to determine clinical indicators that are able to identify bacterial co-infections in P. falciparum infected children in rural Ghana. In total, 1,915 severely ill children below the age of 15 years were recruited at Agogo Presbyterian Hospital in Ghana between May 2007 and February 2011. In 771 (40% of the children malaria parasites were detected. This group was analyzed for indicators of bacterial co-infections using bivariate and multivariate regression analyses with 24 socio-economic variables, 16 terms describing medical history and anthropometrical information and 68 variables describing clinical symptoms. The variables were tested for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. In 46 (6.0% of the children with malaria infection, bacterial co-infection was detected. The most frequent pathogens were non-typhoid salmonellae (45.7%, followed by Streptococcus spp. (13.0%. Coughing, dehydration, splenomegaly, severe anemia and leukocytosis were positively associated with bacteremia. Domestic hygiene and exclusive breastfeeding is negatively associated with bacteremia. In cases of high parasitemia (>10,000/μl, a significant association with bacteremia was found for splenomegaly (OR 8.8; CI 1.6-48.9, dehydration (OR 18.2; CI 2.0-166.0 and coughing (OR 9.0; CI 0.7-118.6. In children with low parasitemia, associations with bacteremia were found for vomiting (OR 4.7; CI 1.4-15.8, severe anemia (OR 3.3; CI 1.0-11.1 and leukocytosis (OR 6.8 CI 1.9-24.2. Clinical signs of impaired microcirculation were negatively associated with bacteremia. Ceftriaxone achieved best coverage of isolated pathogens. The results demonstrate the limitation of clinical symptoms to determine bacterial co-infections in P. falciparum infected children. Best clinical indicators are dependent on the

  9. Preventing urinary tract infections in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gabrielle J; Craig, Jonathan C; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children, causes them considerable discomfort, as well as distress to parents and has a tendency to recur. Approximately 20% of those children who experience one infection will have a repeat episode. Since 1975, 11 trials of long-term antibiotics compared with placebo or no treatment in 1,550 children have been published. Results have been heterogeneous, but the largest trial demonstrated a small reduction (6% absolute risk reduction, risk ratio 0.65) in the risk of repeat symptomatic UTI over 12 months of treatment. This effect was consistent across sub groups of children based upon age, gender, vesicoureteric reflux status and number of prior infections. Trials involving re-implantation surgery (and antibiotics compared with antibiotics alone) for the sub-group of children with vesicoureteric reflux have not shown a reduction in repeat UTI, with the possible exception of a very small benefit for febrile UTI. Systematic reviews have shown that circumcision reduces the risk of repeat infection but 111 circumcisions would need to be performed to prevent one UTI in unpredisposed boys. Given the need for anaesthesia and the risk of surgical complication, net clinical benefit is probably restricted to those who are predisposed (such as those with recurrent infection). Many small trials in complementary therapies have been published and many suggest some benefit, however inclusion of children is limited. Only three trials involving 394 children for cranberry products, two trials with a total of 252 children for probiotics and one trial with 24 children for vitamin A are published. Estimates of efficacy vary widely and imprecision is evident. Multiple interventions to prevent UTI in children exist. Of those, long-term low dose antibiotics has the strongest evidence base, but the benefit is small. Circumcision in boys reduces the risk substantially, but should be restricted to those at risk. There is little evidence of benefit of

  10. Study of Bacterial Infections Among Patients Receiving Kidney Transplant in Mashhad, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansury, Davood; Khaledi, Azad; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Sabbagh, Mahin Ghorban; Zare, Hosna; Rokni-Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein; Vazini, Hossein

    2017-11-15

    Over the past 2 decades, significant advances have been made in the management of infections after transplant; however, transplant recipients are still at high risk of infectious complications. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial infections and antimicrobial resistance patterns in kidney transplant recipients. This cross-sectional study included 356 patients who received kidney transplants, regardless of the underlying disease, from 2013 to 2015 at the Montaserieh Transplant Hospital (Mashhad, Iran). Clinical samples collected from patients were sent to the microbiology laboratory for culture processing. Typing of bacteria was conducted, and susceptibility testing was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline by use the of disk diffusion agar method. Data were then analyzed by SPSS software (SPSS: An IBM Company, IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) using chi-square test. Among 356 kidney recipients (206 men and 150 women), 115 (32.3%) received transplants from living donors and 241 (67.7%) received transplants from deceased donors. Of 356 total patients, 112 patients (31.5%) had an infection at various times after transplant. The most common gram-negative and gram-positive isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, with prevalence rates of 66.1% and 48.6%. Most of the isolates were resistant against selected antibiotics. Because of the high prevalence of infection among transplant patients, infection prevention should receive more attention, and antibiotic susceptibility should be determined before treatment.

  11. C-reactive protein velocity to distinguish febrile bacterial infections from non-bacterial febrile illnesses in the emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Paran, Yael; Yablecovitch, Doron; Choshen, Guy; Zeitlin, Ina; Rogowski, Ori; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Katzir, Michal; Saranga, Hila; Rosenzweig, Tovit; Justo, Dan; Orbach, Yaffa; Halpern, Pinhas; Berliner, Shlomo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction C-reactive protein (CRP) is a real-time and low-cost biomarker to distinguish febrile bacterial infections from non-bacterial febrile illnesses. We hypothesised that measuring the velocity of the biomarker instead of its absolute serum concentration could enhance its ability to differentiate between these two conditions. Methods We prospectively recruited adult patients (age ? 18 years) who presented to the emergency department with fever. We recorded their data regarding the ons...

  12. Pathology Laboratories and Infection Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Baral

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory health care workers are vulnerable to infection with the Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs while receiving, handling and disposing biological samples. Ideally the infrastructure of the lab should be according to the best practices like good ventilation, room pressure differential, lighting, space adequacy, hand hygiene facilities, personal protective equipments, biological safety cabinets etc. Disinfection of the environment, and specific precautions with sharps and microbial cultures should follow the protocols and policies of the Infection Prevention and Control Practices (IPAC. If Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Legionella pneumophila are expected, diagnostic tests should be performed in a bio-safety level 3 facilities (for agents which may cause serious or potentially lethal disease in healthy adults after inhalation. Laboratory access should be limited only to people working in it.Along with the advent of new technologies and advanced treatment we are now facing problems with the dreadful HAIs with Antimicrobial Resistant Organisms (AROs which is taking a pandemic form. According to WHO, hundreds of millions of patients develop HAI every year worldwide and as many as 1.4 million occur each day in hospitals alone. The principal goals for hospital IPAC programs are to protect the patient, protect the health care worker (HCW, visitors, and other persons in the health environment, and to accomplish the previous goals in a cost-effective manner like hand hygiene, surveillance, training of the HCWs, initiating awareness programs and making Best Practices and Guidelines to be followed by everyone in the hospital.The initiation for the best practices in the Pathology Laboratories can be either Sporadic or Organizational. Sporadic initiation is when the laboratories make their own IPAC policies. It has been seen that in few centres these policies have been conceptualized but not materialized. Organizational initiation is much more

  13. Sexually transmitted infections: prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Denis; Dallabetta, Gina; Steen, Richard

    2004-02-01

    In the early 21st century, STI and HIV have been linked inextricably. Although the focus of this article is STI, some discussion on the diagnosis and management of individuals with HIV infection is necessary. The history of HIV diagnosis in the workplace is checkered. The authors have seen cases of prospective workers being subjected to HIV testing without their knowledge as part of a pre-employment medical examination. If the test came back positive, the men were told that they would not be employed without explanation. This approach is a breech of the human rights of the individual being tested and cannot be condoned. Any HIV testing must be done with the full and informed consent of the individual, with counseling given before and after testing to enable individuals with HIV infection to seek care and protect their families and to give individuals without HIV infection counseling on risk reduction. Men and women who present with an STI are at risk for HIV infection. With increasing options for management and secondary prevention, it is important to recognize people who are at risk. This identification should be done through HIV VCT. The location, funding, and supervision of VCT sites related to workplace populations should be a subject for serious debate. Although fears of mass layoffs after HIV testing largely have been unfounded, it is natural for workers to be fearful, unless there is a clearly articulated policy stating that the company observes and enforces nondiscriminatory practices. The workplace examples show that syndromic STI management, allied to comprehensive prevention programs, can have a genuine and measurable impact on STI prevalence. The potential interventions and partners are listed in Table 2. A community-based, randomized study in Tanzania showed that the institution of a well-managed STI syndromic management program can reduce HIV incidence by up to 40%, in the context of a rising HIV epidemic. Presumptive STI treatment for female sex

  14. Circulating Chemokine Levels in Febrile Infants With Serious Bacterial Infections

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    Hsiu-Lin Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of serious bacterial infections (SBI in febrile young infants based on clinical symptoms and signs is difficult. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic values of circulating chemokines and C-reactive protein (CRP levels in febrile young infants < 3 months of age with suspected SBI. We enrolled 43 febrile young infants < 3 months of age with clinically suspected SBI who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit or complete nursing unit of the pediatric department of Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital between December 2006 and July 2007. Blood was drawn from the patients at admission, and complete blood counts, plasma levels of CRP, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, and chemokines, including interleukin-8 (IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, monokine induced by interferon-γ, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 were measured. Patients’ symptoms and signs, length of hospital stay, main diagnosis, and results of routine blood tests and microbiological culture results were recorded. Twenty-six infants (60.5% were diagnosed with SBI, while 17 (39.5% had no evidence of SBI based on the results of bacterial cultures. CRP, IL-8 and G-CSF levels were significantly higher in the infants with SBI than in those without SBI. Plasma levels of other chemokines were not significantly different between the groups. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve for differentiating between the presence and absence of SBI was 0.79 for CRP level. Diagnostic accuracy was further improved by combining CRP and IL-8, when the area under the ROC curve increased to 0.91. CRP levels were superior to IL-8 and G-CSF levels for predicting SBI in febrile infants at initial survey. IL-8 levels could be used as an additional diagnostic tool in the initial evaluation of febrile young infants, allowing clinicians to treat these patients more appropriately.

  15. An overview of the role of bacterial infection in male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Fanaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An important cause of male infertility is the bacterial infections of the genitourinary tract. These infections affect sperm cell function and whole spermatogenesis and also cause deterioration in spermatogenesis, obstruction of the seminal tract, and impairment of spermatozoa function. The most important bacteria associated with genitourinary tract infections include chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and genital mycoplasma species. Inappropriate or delayed therapy of the bacterial infections of the genitourinary tract will lead to reduced fertility and, subsequently in severe cases, infertility. In other words, a good understanding of the interaction between bacterial infections and the reproductive system plays an important role in the treatment of infertile men. In this review article, we will discuss clinical and laboratory findings related to the bacterial infection of the genitourinary tract and its effects on male infertility.

  16. Effect of auto-skin grafting on bacterial infection of wound in rats inflicted with combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Xinze; Yan Yongtang; Wei Shuqing

    1992-01-01

    Rats were exposed to 6 Gy whole body γ-ray irradiation from a 60 Co source followed by light radiation burn (15% TBSA, full thickness burn) from a 5 kw bromo-tungsten lamp. The effect of auto-skin grafting on invasive bacterial infection of wound in the rats with combined radiation-burn injury was studied, In the control group inflicted with combined radiation-burn injury but without skin grafting, bacteria were found on and in the eschars at 24th hour after injury, and in the subeschar tissue on 3rd day. Tremendous bacterial multiplication occurred from 7th to 15th day, and the amount of bacteria in the internal organs increased along with the increase of subeschar infection. At the same time, no bacterial infection was found in internal organs in auto-skin grafted group at 24th hour after injury. The results show that skin grafting can decrease or prevent bacterial infection in both subeschar tissue and internal organs

  17. Decreased microbiota diversity associated with urinary tract infection in a trial of bacterial interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Deborah; McCue, Tyler; Mapes, Abigail C; Ajami, Nadim J; Petrosino, Joseph F; Ramig, Robert F; Trautner, Barbara W

    2015-09-01

    Patients with long-term indwelling catheters are at high risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). We hypothesized that colonizing the bladder with a benign Escherichia coli strain (E. coli HU2117, a derivative of E. coli 83972) would prevent CAUTI in older, catheterized adults. Adults with chronic, indwelling urinary catheters received study catheters that had been pre-coated with E. coli HU2117. We monitored the cultivatable organisms in the bladder for 28 days or until loss of E. coli HU2117. Urine from 4 subjects was collected longitudinally for 16S rRNA gene profiling. Eight of the ten subjects (average age 70.9 years) became colonized with E. coli HU2117, with a mean duration of 57.7 days (median: 28.5, range 0-266). All subjects also remained colonized by uropathogens. Five subjects suffered invasive UTI, 3 febrile UTI and 2 urosepsis/bacteremia, all associated with overgrowth of a urinary pathogen. Colonization with E. coli HU2117 did not impact bacterial bladder diversity, but subjects who developed infections had less diverse bladder microbiota. Colonization with E. coli HU2117 did not prevent bladder colonization or subsequent invasive disease by uropathogens. Microbial diversity may play a protective role against invasive infection of the catheterized bladder. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00554996 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00554996. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Imaging of bacterial infections of the sacroiliac joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, C.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.

    2004-01-01

    Infection of the sacroiliac joint can be pyogenic or granulomatous and is usually unilateral. There are a number of predisposing conditions including drug abuse and intra articular steroid injection, but in 44% of cases, no definite predisposing factors can be identified. Considerable delay between presentation and diagnosis is recognized. The clinical picture may be non-specific and variable, and clinical suspicion may be low due to the relatively low incidence of the condition. This is compounded by difficulties in clinical examination of the SIJs. The diagnosis is based on a history suggestive of infection, clinical or radiographic localization to the SIJs, and a positive blood culture or joint aspirate. The pathology of pyogenic sacroiliitis is reviewed with respect to the anatomy of the SIJ, and the differential diagnoses considered. The imaging findings, and relative merits of all the modalities are discussed with particular consideration given to changes over the course of the disease. Imaging strategies are evaluated and proposed. As the commonest presenting symptom is low back pain, consideration should be given to the addition of a STIR sequence covering the SIJs on all routine lumbar spine MR examinations. MR imaging is the most sensitive and specific imaging modality, while CT-guided arthrocentesis improves diagnostic confidence. Tc 99 MDP blood pool imaging mirrors the clinical features of resolution, and scintigraphy may be the best method to monitor response to treatment. Targeted antibiotic therapy usually leads to a full recovery. A high incidence of clinical suspicion, with MR imaging at an early stage are the essential prerequisites to an accurate diagnosis of bacterial sacroiliitis. (orig.) [de

  19. Immunostimulation using bacterial antigens – mechanism ofaction and clinical practice inviral respiratory tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Feleszko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent respiratory tract infections constitute a significant problem in the practice of a general practitioner and paediatrician. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial strains, which has been growing for years, prompts the search for alternative ways of combating pathogens. One of them is the usage of preparations based on cell lysis of various bacterial strains. Bacterial lysates have been available in Europe for many years. In preclinical trials, they are characterised by the capability of reducing infections caused by bacteria and viruses that are not the components of the preparations. A range of clinical trials have demonstrated their usefulness in reducing the frequency of seasonal respiratory tract infections and antibiotic use. Moreover, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease gain an additional advantage in the form of the reduction of the risk of hospitalization due to disease exacerbations and a positive influence on the survival curve. The action of bacterial lysates is based on oral immunostimulation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, which results in increased antibody production. Moreover, they activate a range of mucosal mechanisms of non-specific immunity, mainly by enhancing the activity of TLR-dependent mechanisms. The efficacy of this group of drugs has been confirmed in a range of clinical trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Recent studies also indicate their immunoregulatory potential, suggesting that they might be used in the future in preventing allergies, asthma and autoimmune diseases. To conclude, physicians (paediatricians, laryngologists, pulmonologists should consider reducing the use of antibiotics in their daily practice. Instead, they should offer preparations that promote the immune system, thus controlling infections in a better way.

  20. Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Vaginal Infections: Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Mo; Park, Yoo Jin

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level. A lower vaginal pH inhibits uropathogen growth, preventing vaginal infections. Decreased estrogen secretion in postmenopausal women depletes lactobacilli and increases intravaginal pH, resulting in increased vaginal colonization by harmful microorganisms (e.g., Enterobacter , Escherichia coli , Candida , and Gardnerella ). Probiotics positively effects on vaginal microflora composition by promoting the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, alters the intravaginal microbiota composition, prevents vaginal infections in postmenopausal. Probiotics also reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections (e.g., vaginal discharge, odor, etc.), and are thus helpful for the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. In this review article, we provide information on the intravaginal mechanism of postmenopausal vaginal infections, and describes the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC.

  1. Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Vaginal Infections: Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Jin

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level. A lower vaginal pH inhibits uropathogen growth, preventing vaginal infections. Decreased estrogen secretion in postmenopausal women depletes lactobacilli and increases intravaginal pH, resulting in increased vaginal colonization by harmful microorganisms (e.g., Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Candida, and Gardnerella). Probiotics positively effects on vaginal microflora composition by promoting the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, alters the intravaginal microbiota composition, prevents vaginal infections in postmenopausal. Probiotics also reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections (e.g., vaginal discharge, odor, etc.), and are thus helpful for the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. In this review article, we provide information on the intravaginal mechanism of postmenopausal vaginal infections, and describes the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. PMID:29354612

  2. DMPD: The role of Toll-like receptors and Nod proteins in bacterial infection. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15476921 The role of Toll-like receptors and Nod proteins in bacterial infection. P...of Toll-like receptors and Nod proteins in bacterial infection. PubmedID 15476921 Title The role of Toll-like receptors and Nod prote...ins in bacterial infection. Authors Philpott DJ, Girardi

  3. Infection Prevention Practices and Associated Factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... Healthcare Workers in Governmental Healthcare Facilities in Addis. Ababa .... personal protective equipments and materials, ... disinfection practice, tuberculosis infection control ..... E. Knowledge and practice of infection.

  4. Bacterial Biofilms and Catheters: A Key to Understanding Bacterial Strategies in Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Curtis Nickel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite major technological improvements in catheter drainage systems, the indwelling Foley catheter remains the most common cause of nosocomial infection in medical practice. By approaching this common complicated urinary tract infection from the perspective of the biofilm strategy bacteria appear to use to overcome obstacles to produce bacteriuria, one appreciates a new understanding of these infections. An adherent biofilm of bacteria in their secretory products ascends the luminal and external surface of the catheter and drainage system from a contaminated drainage spigot or urethral meatus into the bladder. If the intraluminal route of bacterial ascent is delayed by strict sterile closed drainage or addition of internal modifications to the system, the extraluminal or urethral route assumes greater importance in the development of bacteriuria, but takes significantly longer. Bacterial growth within these thick coherent biofilms confers a large measure of relative resistance to antibiotics even though the individual bacterium remains sensitive, thus accounting for the failure of antibiotic therapy. With disruption of the protective mucous layer of the bladder by mechanical irritation, the bacteria colonizing the catheter can adhere to the bladder’s mucosal surface and cause infection. An appreciation of the role of bacterial biofilms in these infections should suggest future directions for research that may ultimately reduce the risk of catheter-associated infection.

  5. Viral vs. bacterial pulmonary infections in chidren. Is roentgenographic differentiation possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swischuk, L.E.; Hayden, C.K. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether one could identify viral and bacterial pulmonary infections with confidence. It has been our impression for some time that one could differentiate viral from bacterial pulmonary infections on the basis of roentgenographic findings alone and test this hypothesis, we conducted this study where the roentgenographic findings first were categorized as being due to viral or bacterial infection and then compared with clinical results. The overall accuracy was just over 90% and our method of analysis is presented. (orig.)

  6. Predictors of serious bacterial infections in pediatric burn patients with fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyles, David; Sinha, Madhumita; Rosenberg, David I; Foster, Kevin N; Tran, Melissa; Drachman, David

    2014-01-01

    To determine predictors of serious bacterial infections in pediatric burn patients with fever (core temp ≥38.5°C), the authors conducted a retrospective review of medical records of pediatric (0-18 years) patients admitted to the Arizona Burn Center between 2008 and 2011 with greater than 5% TBSA and inpatient hospitalization for ≥72 hours. The study group comprised patients with a febrile episode during their inpatient stay. Serious bacterial infection (the primary outcome variable) was defined as: bacteremia, urinary tract infection, meningitis (blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid culture positive for a pathogen respectively), pneumonia, line, and wound infection. A generalized estimating equation analysis was done to predict the presence or absence of serious bacterial infection. Of 1082 pediatric burn patients hospitalized during the study period, 353 met the study eligibility criteria. A total of 108 patients (30.6%) had at least one fever episode (fever group). No difference in demographic characteristics was noted between the fever and no-fever groups; significant differences were observed for: third-degree TBSA, second-degree TBSA, total operating room visits, length of stay, Injury Severity Score, and death. A total of 47.2% of the patients had one or more episodes of fever with serious bacterial infection. In a generalized estimating equation predictive model, presence of a central line, second-, and third-degree TBSA were predictive of serious bacterial infection in burn patients with fever. In this study, individual clinical variables such as tachypnea and tachycardia were not predictive of serious bacterial infections, but the presence of a central line, and larger TBSA were significant predictors of serious bacterial infections. Younger age (P =.08) and ventilator support (P =.057) also approached significance as predictors of serious bacterial infections.

  7. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as markers of bacterial infection in patients with solid tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Laura V; Maraldo, Maja V; Mortensen, Christiane E

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of bacterial infections in patients with solid tumours can be difficult as both the tumour and its treatment can cause symptoms and signs similar to those of infections. Many patients with solid tumours therefore receive antibiotic treatment without having a bacterial......, but with no signs of infection. RESULTS: Of the 41 admitted patients, 25 were classified as having an infection (either microbiologically or radioo-gically verified). Among the 25 cases with infection, PCT was within the normal range in 11 cases and only elevated in 14. As nearly half of the patients with infection...... had PCT within the normal range, PCT is not suited to exclude an infection. CRP was elevated in 20 patients out of the 25. CONCLUSION: PCT within the normal range cannot exclude an infection and does not appear to be superior to CRP to exclude an infection in patients with solid tumours. FUNDING...

  8. Prosthesis infections after orthopedic joint replacement: the possible role of bacterial biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Song

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Prosthesis-related infection is a serious complication for patients after orthopedic joint replacement, which is currently difficult to treat with antibiotic therapy. Consequently, in most cases, removal of the infected prosthesis is the only solution to cure the infection. It is, therefore, important to understand the comprehensive interaction between the microbiological situation and the host immune responses that lead to prosthesis infections. Evidence indicates that prosthesis infections are actually biofilm-correlated infections that are highly resistant to antibiotic treatment and the host immune responses. The authors reviewed the related literature in the context of their clinical experience, and discussed the possible etiology and mechanism leading to the infections, especially problems related to bacterial biofilm, and prophylaxis and treatment of infection, including both microbiological and surgical measures. Recent progress in research into bacterial biofilm and possible future treatment options of prosthesis-related infections are discussed.

  9. Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients following chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafter-Gvili, Anat; Fraser, Abigail; Paul, Mical; Vidal, Liat; Lawrie, Theresa A; van de Wetering, Marianne D; Kremer, Leontien C M; Leibovici, Leonard

    2012-01-18

    Bacterial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who are neutropenic following chemotherapy for malignancy. Trials have shown the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing the incidence of bacterial infections but not in reducing mortality rates. Our systematic review from 2006 also showed a reduction in mortality. This updated review aimed to evaluate whether there is still a benefit of reduction in mortality when compared to placebo or no intervention. We searched the Cochrane Cancer Network Register of Trials (2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2011), MEDLINE (1966 to March 2011), EMBASE (1980 to March 2011), abstracts of conference proceedings and the references of identified studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing different types of antibiotic prophylaxis with placebo or no intervention, or another antibiotic, to prevent bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients. Two authors independently appraised the quality of each trial and extracted data from the included trials. Analyses were performed using RevMan 5.1 software. One-hundred and nine trials (involving 13,579 patients) that were conducted between the years 1973 to 2010 met the inclusion criteria. When compared with placebo or no intervention, antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced the risk of death from all causes (46 trials, 5635 participants; risk ratio (RR) 0.66, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.79) and the risk of infection-related death (43 trials, 5777 participants; RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.77). The estimated number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one death was 34 (all-cause mortality) and 48 (infection-related mortality).Prophylaxis also significantly reduced the occurrence of fever (54 trials, 6658 participants; RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.87), clinically documented infection (48 trials, 5758 participants; RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.76), microbiologically documented infection

  10. Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients following chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafter-Gvili, Anat; Fraser, Abigail; Paul, Mical; Vidal, Liat; Lawrie, Theresa A; van de Wetering, Marianne D; Kremer, Leontien CM; Leibovici, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who are neutropenic following chemotherapy for malignancy. Trials have shown the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing the incidence of bacterial infections but not in reducing mortality rates. Our systematic review from 2006 also showed a reduction in mortality. Objectives This updated review aimed to evaluate whether there is still a benefit of reduction in mortality when compared to placebo or no intervention. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Cancer Network Register of Trials (2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2011), MEDLINE (1966 to March 2011), EMBASE (1980 to March 2011), abstracts of conference proceedings and the references of identified studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing different types of antibiotic prophylaxis with placebo or no intervention, or another antibiotic, to prevent bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently appraised the quality of each trial and extracted data from the included trials. Analyses were performed using RevMan 5.1 software. Main results One-hundred and nine trials (involving 13,579 patients) that were conducted between the years 1973 to 2010 met the inclusion criteria. When compared with placebo or no intervention, antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced the risk of death from all causes (46 trials, 5635 participants; risk ratio (RR) 0.66, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.79) and the risk of infection-related death (43 trials, 5777 participants; RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.77). The estimated number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one death was 34 (all-cause mortality) and 48 (infection-related mortality). Prophylaxis also significantly reduced the occurrence of fever (54 trials, 6658 participants; RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.87), clinically documented infection

  11. Correlation between the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio and bacterial infection in patient with human immunodeficiency virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnadi, D.; Liwang, M. N. I.; Katu, S.; Mubin, A. H.; Halim, R.

    2018-03-01

    Parameters for starting antibiotic therapy such as CRP andleukocytosis are considered non-specific. Previous studies have shown the Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio (NLCR) can serve as the basis of bacterial infection, the level of infection, and the basis of antibiotic therapy. Compared with the Procalcitonin parameter, this NLCR is rapid, an inexpensive and requires no additional sampling. To determine the correlation between The Neutrophil-LymphocyteCount Ratio to bacterial infection in HIV patients. This study was a cross-sectional observational approach to HIV subject at Wahidin Sudirohusodo and Hasanuddin University Hospital. The subjects performed routine blood, microbiology test,and blood Procalcitonin levels tests. Then performed NLCR calculations based on routine blood results. The subjects then grouped the presence or absence of bacterial infection.In 146 study subjects, there were 78 (53.4%) with bacterial infections and 68 (46.6%) without bacterial infection as controls. Subjects with bacterial infections had higher total neutrophils (84.83) compared with non-bacterial infections. Subjects with bacterial infections had total lymphocytes with an average of 8.51 lower than non-bacterial infections. Subjects with bacterial infections had higher NLCR values with an average of 12.80. The Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio can become a marker of bacterial infection in HIV patients.

  12. Prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection with probiotics: Review and research perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, D; Sheridan, L; Papatsoris, A; Faruquz, Z; Barua, J M; Junaid, I; Pati, Y; Chinegwundoh, F; Buchholz, N

    2008-04-01

    The spiralling costs of antibiotic therapy, the appearance of multiresistant bacteria and more importantly for patients and clinicians, unsatisfactory therapeutic options in recurrent urinary tract infection (RUTI) calls for alternative and advanced medical solutions. So far no sufficient means to successfully prevent painful and disabling RUTI has been found. Even though long-term oral antibiotic treatment has been used with some success as a therapeutic option, this is no longer secure due to the development of bacterial resistance. One promising alternative is the use of live microorganisms (probiotics) to prevent and treat recurrent complicated and uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI).The human normal bacterial flora is increasingly recognised as an important defence to infection. Since the advent of antibiotic treatment five decades ago, a linear relation between antibiotic use and reduction in pathogenic bacteria has become established as medical conventional wisdom. But with the use of antibiotics the beneficial bacterial flora hosted by the human body is destroyed and pathogenic bacteria are selectively enabled to overgrow internal and external surfaces. The benign bacterial flora is crucial for body function and oervgrowth with pathogenic microorganisms leads to illness. Thus the concept of supporting the human body's normal flora with live microorganisms conferring a beneficial health effect is an important medical strategy.

  13. Association of RNA Biosignatures With Bacterial Infections in Febrile Infants Aged 60 Days or Younger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Prashant; Kuppermann, Nathan; Mejias, Asuncion; Suarez, Nicolas; Chaussabel, Damien; Casper, T. Charles; Smith, Bennett; Alpern, Elizabeth R.; Anders, Jennifer; Atabaki, Shireen M.; Bennett, Jonathan E.; Blumberg, Stephen; Bonsu, Bema; Borgialli, Dominic; Brayer, Anne; Browne, Lorin; Cohen, Daniel M.; Crain, Ellen F.; Cruz, Andrea T.; Dayan, Peter S.; Gattu, Rajender; Greenberg, Richard; Hoyle, John D.; Jaffe, David M.; Levine, Deborah A.; Lillis, Kathleen; Linakis, James G.; Muenzer, Jared; Nigrovic, Lise E.; Powell, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, Alexander J.; Roosevelt, Genie; Ruddy, Richard M.; Saunders, Mary; Tunik, Michael G.; Tzimenatos, Leah; Vitale, Melissa; Dean, J. Michael; Ramilo, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Young febrile infants are at substantial risk of serious bacterial infections; however, the current culture-based diagnosis has limitations. Analysis of host expression patterns (“RNA biosignatures”) in response to infections may provide an alternative diagnostic approach. OBJECTIVE To assess whether RNA biosignatures can distinguish febrile infants aged 60 days or younger with and without serious bacterial infections. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective observational study involving a convenience sample of febrile infants 60 days or younger evaluated for fever (temperature >38° C) in 22 emergency departments from December 2008 to December 2010 who underwent laboratory evaluations including blood cultures. A random sample of infants with and without bacterial infections was selected for RNA biosignature analysis. Afebrile healthy infants served as controls. Blood samples were collected for cultures and RNA biosignatures. Bioinformatics tools were applied to define RNA biosignatures to classify febrile infants by infection type. EXPOSURE RNA biosignatures compared with cultures for discriminating febrile infants with and without bacterial infections and infants with bacteremia from those without bacterial infections. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Bacterial infection confirmed by culture. Performance of RNA biosignatures was compared with routine laboratory screening tests and Yale Observation Scale (YOS) scores. RESULTS Of 1883 febrile infants (median age, 37 days; 55.7%boys), RNA biosignatures were measured in 279 randomly selected infants (89 with bacterial infections—including 32 with bacteremia and 15 with urinary tract infections—and 190 without bacterial infections), and 19 afebrile healthy infants. Sixty-six classifier genes were identified that distinguished infants with and without bacterial infections in the test set with 87%(95%CI, 73%-95%) sensitivity and 89% (95%CI, 81%-93%) specificity. Ten classifier genes distinguished

  14. Association between prenatal exposure to bacterial infection and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    . Post hoc analyses showed that upper respiratory tract and gonococcal infections were associated with elevated risk of the disease. An association between risk of schizophrenia and prenatal exposure to bacterial infections might be mediated through transplacental passage of maternally produced cytokines......Recent research suggests that prenatal exposure to nonviral infection may be associated with increased risk of schizophrenia, and we hypothesized an association between maternal bacterial infection during pregnancy and elevated offspring risk of schizophrenia. Data on maternal infections from......-34 and 45-47 years, respectively. The effect of prenatal exposure to bacterial infections was adjusted for prenatal exposure to analgesics and parental social status. In a risk set of 7941 individuals, 85 cases (1.1%) of ICD-8 schizophrenia were identified by the age of 32-34 years and 153 cases (1...

  15. Bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract in 34 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racklyeft, D J; Love, D N

    2000-08-01

    To investigate associations between the bacteriology and aspects of history, clinical presentation, outcome and pathology of lower respiratory tract disease of 34 horses. Detailed aerobic and anaerobic bacteriological investigations were performed on clinical specimens from horses with pneumonia, lung abscessation and necrotic pneumonia with or without pleurisy in an attempt to identify those bacteria that might contribute to the initiation and progression of infection. Bacteria were cultured from 33 of the 34 horses. In ten cases, only aerobic/facultatively anaerobic isolates were cultured while aerobic/facultatively anaerobic bacteria and obligately anaerobic bacteria were isolated in the other 23 cases. Moderate to large numbers of anaerobic bacteria were isolated only when the estimated duration of illness was at least five days. Bacteria were not cultured from 12 of the pleural fluid samples but were always cultured from pulmonary samples (either transtracheal aspirates from live horses or pulmonary lesions at necropsy). Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus was isolated in the three cases where only one bacterial species was cultured. In the other 30 cases, multiple species were isolated. These included most often and in greatest numbers, Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus, Pasteurellaceae, Escherichia coli, anaerobic cocci, Eubacterium fossor, Bacteroides tectum, Prevotella heparinolytica, Fusobacterium spp, and pigmented members of the genera Prevotella and Porphyromonas. Aerobic/facultatively anaerobic organisms were isolated from 97% of horses, while obligately anaerobic organisms were cultured from 68% of horses. There was no association between the isolation of any specific bacterium and the outcome of disease. However, obligately anaerobic bacteria (such as anaerobic cocci, Bacteroides tectum, P heparinolytica and Fusobacterium spp) and the facultatively anaerobic species Escherichia coli, were recovered more commonly from horses that died or were

  16. Tracking bacterial infection into macrophages by a novel red-emission pH sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yuguang; Tian, Yanqing; Zhang, Weiwen; Jang, Sei-Hum; Jen, Alex K.-Y.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between bacteria and host phagocytic cells is a key to the induction of immunity. To visualize and monitor bacterial infection, we developed a novel bacterial membrane permeable pH sensor for noninvasive monitoring of bacterial entry into murine macrophages. The pH sensor was constructed using 2-dicyanomethylene-3-cyano-4,5,5-trimethyl-2,5-dihydrofuran (TCF) as an electron-withdrawing group and aniline as an electron donating group. A piperazine moiety was u...

  17. Infection prevention and control practices in children's hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Jeffrey M; Virgallito, Mary; Newland, Jason G; Sammons, Julia S; Thorell, Emily A; Coffin, Susan E; Pavia, Andrew T; Sandora, Thomas J; Hersh, Adam L

    2015-05-01

    We surveyed hospital epidemiologists at 28 Children's Hospital Association member hospitals regarding their infection prevention and control programs. We found substantial variability between children's hospitals in both the structure and the practice of these programs. Research and the development of evidence-based guidelines addressing infection prevention in pediatrics are needed.

  18. Bacterial Infection of Fly Ovaries Reduces Egg Production and Induces Local Hemocyte Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Stephanie M.; Schneider, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Morbidity, the state of being diseased, is an important aspect of pathogenesis that has gone relatively unstudied in fruit flies. Our interest is in characterizing how bacterial pathogenesis affects various physiologies of the fly. We chose to examine the fly ovary because we found bacterial infection had a striking effect on fly reproduction. We observed decreased egg laying after bacterial infection that correlated with increased bacterial virulence. We also found that bacteria colonized the ovary in a previously undescribed manner; bacteria were found in the posterior of the ovary, adjacent to the lateral oviduct. This local infection in the ovary resulted in melanization and activation of the cellular immune response at the site of infection. PMID:17400292

  19. Procalcitonin and albumin as prognostic biomarkers in elderly patients with a risk of bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashikawa, Toshihiro; Okuro, Masashi; Ishigami, Keiichirou; Mae, Kunihiro; Sangen, Ryusho; Mizuno, Takurou; Usuda, Daisuke; Saito, Atushi; Kasamaki, Yuji; Fukuda, Akihiro; Saito, Hitoshi; Morimoto, Shigeto; Kanda, Tsugiyasu

    2018-01-01

    Aim This study was performed to investigate serum procalcitonin (PCT) and albumin (Alb) as prognostic biomarkers in elderly patients at risk of bacterial infection. Methods Serum PCT was measured in 270 hospitalized patients (mean age, 77.4 years) with suspected bacterial infection. The PCT-negative (2.5 g/dL), no significant difference in survival was observed between the PCT-positive and -negative groups. However, within the Alb-negative group (≤2.5 g/dL), the survival rate was significantly lower in the PCT-positive than -negative group. PCT was strongly associated with CRP and Alb, and having both PCT positivity and Alb negativity was a prognostic factor for elderly people at risk of bacterial infection. Conclusions Combined measurement of PCT with Alb is expected to be a valuable tool to assess prognosis in elderly people at risk of bacterial infection.

  20. Fish losses due to bacterial flora and infections of fishes in Kainji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assesses the losses incurred as a result of bacterial flora and infection in captured and cultured fish. The role played by these bacterial flora on the overall quality and health of fish is discussed. Bacteria have been reported to cause diseases in ponds and increase in the spoilage rate of raw and preserved fish in ...

  1. Manual of infection prevention and control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damani, N. N

    2012-01-01

    .... Unlike other books on infection control, the main strength of this book is to provide clear, up-to-date and practical guidance in infection control in an easy to read format which can act as a quick...

  2. Proanthocyanidins-Will they effectively restrain conspicuous bacterial strains devolving on urinary tract infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Venkataseshan; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2018-05-18

    Struvite or infection stones are one of the major clinical burdens among urinary tract infection, which occur due to the interaction between microbes and urine mineral components. Numerous urinary tract infection (UTI) causing microbes regulate through biofilm formation for survival from host defense, it is often found difficult in its eradication with simple anti-microbial agents and also the chance of recurrence and resistance development is significantly high. Cranberry consumption and maintenance of urinary tract health have been supported by clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic studies. It predominantly contains proanthocyanidins that belong to the class of polyphenols with repeating catechin and epicatechin monomeric units. Numerous studies have correlated proanthocyanidin consumption and prevention of bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cells. Quorum sensing (QS) is the prime mechanism that drives bacteria to coordinate biofilm development and virulence expression. Reports have shown that proanthocyanidins are effective in disrupting cell-cell communication by quenching signal molecules. Overall, this review assesses the merits of proanthocyanidins and its effective oppression on adherence, motility, QS, and biofilm formation of major UTI strains such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis by comparing and evaluating results from many significant findings. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Preventing surgical site infections: a surgeon's perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    Wound site infections are a major source of postoperative illness, accounting for approximately a quarter of all nosocomial infections. National studies have defined the patients at highest risk for infection in general and in many specific operative procedures. Advances in risk assessment comparison may involve use of the standardized infection ratio, procedure-specific risk factor collection, and logistic regression models. Adherence to recommendations in the 1999 Centers for Disease Contro...

  4. Prevention of Recurrent Staphylococcal Skin Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Creech, C. Buddy; Al-Zubeidi, Duha N.; Fritz, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections pose a significant health burden. The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus has resulted in an epidemic of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), and many patients experience recurrent SSTI. As S. aureus colonization is associated with subsequent infection, decolonization is recommended for patients with recurrent SSTI or in settings of ongoing transmission. S. aureus infections often cluster within households and asymptomatic carr...

  5. S-layer proteins from Lactobacillus sp. inhibit bacterial infection by blockage of DC-SIGN cell receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado Acosta, Mariano; Ruzal, Sandra M; Cordo, Sandra M

    2016-11-01

    Many species of Lactobacillus sp. possess Surface(s) layer proteins in their envelope. Among other important characteristics S-layer from Lactobacillus acidophilus binds to the cellular receptor DC-SIGN (Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin; CD209), which is involved in adhesion and infection of several families of bacteria. In this report we investigate the activity of new S-layer proteins from the Lactobacillus family (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus kefiri) over the infection of representative microorganisms important to human health. After the treatment of DC-SIGN expressing cells with these proteins, we were able to diminish bacterial infection by up to 79% in both gram negative and mycobacterial models. We discovered that pre-treatment of the bacteria with S-layers from Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus brevis reduced bacteria viability but also prevent infection by the pathogenic bacteria. We also proved the importance of the glycosylation of the S-layer from Lactobacillus kefiri in the binding to the receptor and thus inhibition of infection. This novel characteristic of the S-layers proteins may contribute to the already reported pathogen exclusion activity for these Lactobacillus probiotic strains; and might be also considered as a novel enzymatic antimicrobial agents to inhibit bacterial infection and entry to host cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Infection prevention and control in deployed military medical treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospenthal, Duane R; Green, Andrew D; Crouch, Helen K; English, Judith F; Pool, Jane; Yun, Heather C; Murray, Clinton K

    2011-08-01

    Infections have complicated the care of combat casualties throughout history and were at one time considered part of the natural history of combat trauma. Personnel who survived to reach medical care were expected to develop and possibly succumb to infections during their care in military hospitals. Initial care of war wounds continues to focus on rapid surgical care with debridement and irrigation, aimed at preventing local infection and sepsis with bacteria from the environment (e.g., clostridial gangrene) or the casualty's own flora. Over the past 150 years, with the revelation that pathogens can be spread from patient to patient and from healthcare providers to patients (including via unwashed hands of healthcare workers, the hospital environment and fomites), a focus on infection prevention and control aimed at decreasing transmission of pathogens and prevention of these infections has developed. Infections associated with combat-related injuries in the recent operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have predominantly been secondary to multidrug-resistant pathogens, likely acquired within the military healthcare system. These healthcare-associated infections seem to originate throughout the system, from deployed medical treatment facilities through the chain of care outside of the combat zone. Emphasis on infection prevention and control, including hand hygiene, isolation, cohorting, and antibiotic control measures, in deployed medical treatment facilities is essential to reducing these healthcare-associated infections. This review was produced to support the Guidelines for the Prevention of Infections Associated With Combat-Related Injuries: 2011 Update contained in this supplement of Journal of Trauma.

  7. New insights into valve-related intramural and intracellular bacterial diversity in infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbach, Andreas; Schlichting, Nadine; Feder, Stefan; Lehmann, Stefanie; Kullnick, Yvonne; Buschmann, Tilo; Blumert, Conny; Horn, Friedemann; Neuhaus, Jochen; Neujahr, Ralph; Bagaev, Erik; Hagl, Christian; Pichlmaier, Maximilian; Rodloff, Arne Christian; Gräber, Sandra; Kirsch, Katharina; Sandri, Marcus; Kumbhari, Vivek; Behzadi, Armirhossein; Behzadi, Amirali; Correia, Joao Carlos; Mohr, Friedrich Wilhelm; Friedrich, Maik

    2017-01-01

    In infective endocarditis (IE), a severe inflammatory disease of the endocardium with an unchanged incidence and mortality rate over the past decades, only 1% of the cases have been described as polymicrobial infections based on microbiological approaches. The aim of this study was to identify potential biodiversity of bacterial species from infected native and prosthetic valves. Furthermore, we compared the ultrastructural micro-environments to detect the localization and distribution patterns of pathogens in IE. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S rDNA, which allows analysis of the entire bacterial community within a single sample, we investigated the biodiversity of infectious bacterial species from resected native and prosthetic valves in a clinical cohort of 8 IE patients. Furthermore, we investigated the ultrastructural infected valve micro-environment by focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). Biodiversity was detected in 7 of 8 resected heart valves. This comprised 13 bacterial genera and 16 species. In addition to 11 pathogens already described as being IE related, 5 bacterial species were identified as having a novel association. In contrast, valve and blood culture-based diagnosis revealed only 4 species from 3 bacterial genera and did not show any relevant antibiotic resistance. The antibiotics chosen on this basis for treatment, however, did not cover the bacterial spectra identified by our amplicon sequencing analysis in 4 of 8 cases. In addition to intramural distribution patterns of infective bacteria, intracellular localization with evidence of bacterial immune escape mechanisms was identified. The high frequency of polymicrobial infections, pathogen diversity, and intracellular persistence of common IE-causing bacteria may provide clues to help explain the persistent and devastating mortality rate observed for IE. Improved bacterial diagnosis by 16S rDNA NGS that increases the ability to tailor antibiotic therapy may

  8. Bacterial infection increases risk of carcinogenesis by targeting mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A.B.; Desler, Claus; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2017-01-01

    pathways, and compares the impact of the bacterial alteration of mitochondrial function to that of cancer. Bacterial virulence factors have been demonstrated to induce mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and to modulate DNA repair pathways of the mitochondria. Furthermore, virulence factors can induce...... or impair the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The effect of bacterial targeting of mitochondria is analogous to behavior of mitochondria in a wide array of tumours, and this strongly suggests that mitochondrial targeting of bacteria is a risk factor for carcinogenesis....

  9. Biofilm-mediated Antibiotic-resistant Oral Bacterial Infections: Mechanism and Combat Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Indulata; Sah, Abhishek K; Suresh, Preeti K

    2017-01-01

    Oral diseases like dental caries and periodontal disease are directly associated with the capability of bacteria to form biofilm. Periodontal diseases have been associated to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria forming a subgingival plaque (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Biofilm is a complex bacterial community that is highly resistant to antibiotics and human immunity. Biofilm communities are the causative agents of biological developments such as dental caries, periodontitis, peri-implantitis and causing periodontal tissue breakdown. The review recapitulates the latest advancements in treatment of clinical biofilm infections and scientific investigations, while these novel anti-biofilm strategies are still in nascent phases of development, efforts dedicated to these technologies could ultimately lead to anti-biofilm therapies that are superior to the current antibiotic treatment. This paper provides a review of the literature focusing on the studies on biofilm in the oral cavity, formation of dental plaque biofilm, drug resistance of bacterial biofilm and the antibiofilm approaches as biofilm preventive agents in dentistry, and their mechanism of biofilm inhibition. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth G. Jepson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cranberries have been used widely for several decades for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs. This is the third update of our review first published in 1998 and updated in 2004 and 2008. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of cranberry products in preventing UTIs in susceptible populations. METHODS: Search methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library and the Internet. We contacted companies involved with the promotion and distribution of cranberry preparations and checked reference lists of review articles and relevant studies. Date of search: July 2012. Selection criteria: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs or quasi-RCTs of cranberry products for the prevention of UTIs. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently assessed and extracted data. Information was collected on methods, participants, interventions and outcomes (incidence of symptomatic UTIs, positive culture results, side effects, adherence to therapy. Risk ratios (RR were calculated where appropriate, otherwise a narrative synthesis was undertaken. Quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. MAIN RESULTS: This updated review includes a total of 24 studies (six cross-over studies, 11 parallel group studies with two arms; five with three arms, and two studies with a factorial design with a total of 4473 participants. Ten studies were included in the 2008 update, and 14 studies have been added to this update. Thirteen studies (2380 participants evaluated only cranberry juice/concentrate; nine studies (1032 participants evaluated only cranberry tablets/capsules; one study compared cranberry juice and tablets; and one study compared cranberry capsules and tablets. The comparison/control arms were placebo, no treatment, water, methenamine hippurate, antibiotics, or lactobacillus. Eleven studies were not included in the meta

  11. A framework for preventing healthcare-associated infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To ensure safe healthcare delivery to children, a co-ordinated HAI prevention strategy should promote development of infection prevention norms and policies, education, patient safety advocacy, healthcare infrastructure, surveillance and research. We present a framework for SA to develop and expand HAI prevention in ...

  12. Covalent Immobilization of Enoxacin onto Titanium Implant Surfaces for Inhibiting Multiple Bacterial Species Infection and In Vivo Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Bin'en; Long, Teng; Ao, Haiyong; Zhou, Jianliang; Tang, Tingting; Yue, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Infection is one of the most important causes of titanium implant failure in vivo A developing prophylactic method involves the immobilization of antibiotics, especially vancomycin, onto the surface of the titanium implant. However, these methods have a limited effect in curbing multiple bacterial infections due to antibiotic specificity. In the current study, enoxacin was covalently bound to an amine-functionalized Ti surface by use of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer, and the bactericidal effectiveness was investigated in vitro and in vivo The titanium surface was amine functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), through which PEG spacer molecules were covalently immobilized onto the titanium, and then the enoxacin was covalently bound to the PEG, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). A spread plate assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the antimicrobial activity. For the in vivo study, Ti implants were inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and implanted into the femoral medullary cavity of rats. The degree of infection was assessed by radiography, micro-computed tomography, and determination of the counts of adherent bacteria 3 weeks after surgery. Our data demonstrate that the enoxacin-modified PEGylated Ti surface effectively prevented bacterial colonization without compromising cell viability, adhesion, or proliferation in vitro Furthermore, it prevented MRSA infection of the Ti implants in vivo Taken together, our results demonstrate that the use of enoxacin-modified Ti is a potential approach to the alleviation of infections of Ti implants by multiple bacterial species. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Changes in gastric microbiota induced by Helicobacter pylori infection and preventive effects of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 against such infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mingfang; Wan, Cuixiang; Xie, Qiong; Huang, Renhui; Tao, Xueying; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogen linked to gastric ulcers and stomach cancer. Gastric microbiota might play an essential role in the pathogenesis of these stomach diseases. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of a probiotic candidate Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 as a protective agent against the gastric mucosal inflammation and alteration of gastric microbiota induced by H. pylori infection in a mouse model. Prior to infection, mice were pretreated with or without 400 µL of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 at a concentration of 10(9) cfu/mL per mouse. At 6 wk postinfection, gastric mucosal immune response and alteration in gastric microbiota mice were examined by quantitative real-time PCR and high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, respectively. The results showed that L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented increase in inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1β and IFN-γ) and inflammatory cell infiltration in gastric lamina propria induced by H. pylori infection. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinate analysis showed that L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented the alteration in gastric microbiota post-H. pylori infection. Linear discriminant analysis coupled with effect size identified 22 bacterial taxa (e.g., Pasteurellaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, Halomonadaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Spirochaetaceae) that overgrew in the gastric microbiota of H. pylori-infected mice, and most of them belonged to the Proteobacteria phylum. Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented this alteration; only 6 taxa (e.g., Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridiaceae), mainly from the taxa of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were dominant in the gastric microbiota of the L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreated mice. Administration of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 for 3 wk led to increase in several bacterial taxa (e.g., Rikenella, Staphylococcus, Bifidobacterium), although a nonsignificant alteration was found in the gastric microbiota

  14. Prevention of catheter-related blood stream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Matthew C; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2007-08-01

    Catheter-related blood stream infections are a morbid complication of central venous catheters. This review will highlight a comprehensive approach demonstrated to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. Elements of prevention important to inserting a central venous catheter include proper hand hygiene, use of full barrier precautions, appropriate skin preparation with 2% chlorhexidine, and using the subclavian vein as the preferred anatomic site. Rigorous attention needs to be given to dressing care, and there should be daily assessment of the need for central venous catheters, with prompt removal as soon as is practicable. Healthcare workers should be educated routinely on methods to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. If rates remain higher than benchmark levels despite proper bedside practice, antiseptic or antibiotic-impregnated catheters can also prevent infections effectively. A recent program utilizing these practices in 103 ICUs in Michigan resulted in a 66% decrease in infection rates. There is increasing recognition that a comprehensive strategy to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections can prevent most infections, if not all. This suggests that thousands of infections can potentially be averted if the simple practices outlined herein are followed.

  15. Organizational culture and its implications on infection prevention and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Baral

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The hospital acquired infections are becoming common in our hospitals lately. These infections are difficult to treat and maybe life threatening. Hospital acquired infection  can be minimized or eradicated by good Infection Prevention and Control guidelines and good hand hygiene practices. The success of Infection Prevention and Control guidelines program in any hospital is largely impacted by the organizational culture.  In any health care setting the management is challenged by the organizational culture to change of any kind. Where implementation of Infection Prevention and Control guidelines program is easily implemented in some hospitals it is very difficult in others. Moreover, hand hygiene is not only biomedical practice but also has more behavioral factors. 

  16. N-acetylcysteine prevents the development of gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sungil; Bak, Eun-Jung; Cha, Jeong-Heon

    2017-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a human gastric pathogen, causing various gastric diseases ranging from gastritis to gastric adenocarcinoma. It has been reported that combining N-acetylcysteine (NAC) with conventional antibiotic therapy increases the success rate of H. pylori eradication. We evaluated the effect of NAC itself on the growth and colonization of H. pylori, and development of gastritis, using in vitro liquid culture system and in vivo animal models. H. pylori growth was evaluated in broth culture containing NAC. The H. pylori load and histopathological scores of stomachs were measured in Mongolian gerbils infected with H. pylori strain 7.13, and fed with NAC-containing diet. In liquid culture, NAC inhibited H. pylori growth in a concentration-dependent manner. In the animal model, 3-day administration of NAC after 1 week from infection reduced the H. pylori load; 6-week administration of NAC after 1 week from infection prevented the development of gastritis and reduced H. pylori colonization. However, no reduction in the bacterial load or degree of gastritis was observed with a 6-week administration of NAC following 6-week infection period. Our results indicate that NAC may exert a beneficial effect on reduction of bacterial colonization, and prevents the development of severe inflammation, in people with initial asymptomatic or mild H. pylori infection.

  17. Recent advances in recurrent urinary tract infection from pathogenesis and biomarkers to prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Fong Jhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI might be one of the most common problems in urological clinics. Recent research has revealed novel evidence about recurrent UTI and it should be considered a different disease from the first infection. The pathogenesis of recurrent UTI might include two mechanisms, bacterial factors and deficiencies in host defense. Bacterial survival in the urinary bladder after antibiotic treatment and progression to form intracellular bacterial communities might be the most important bacterial factors. In host defense deficiency, a defect in pathogen recognition and urothelial barrier function impairment play the most important roles. Immunodeficiency and urogenital tract anatomical abnormalities have been considered the essential risk factors for recurrent UTI. In healthy women, voiding dysfunction and behavioral factors also increase the risk of recurrent UTI. Sexual intercourse and estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women might have the strongest association with recurrent UTI. Traditional lifestyle factors such as fluid intake and diet are not considered independent risk factors now. Serum and urine biomarkers to predict recurrent UTI from the first infection have also attracted a wide attention recently. Current clinical evidence suggests that serum macrophage colony-stimulating factor and urinary nerve growth factor have potential predictive value for recurrent UTI. Clinical trials have proven the efficacy of the oral immunoactive agent OM-89 for the prevention of UTI. Vaccines for recurrent UTI are recommended by the latest guidelines and are available on the market.

  18. Evolving issues in the prevention of surgical site infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, A

    2009-06-01

    Surgical site infection is one of the more common causes of post-operative morbidity. Such infections contribute to prolonged recovery, delayed discharge and increasing costs to both patients and the health service. In the current climate increased emphasis is being placed on minimising the risks of acquiring or transmitting these nosocomial infections. This article reviews the current literature obtained from a Pubmed database search in relation to three specific aspects of surgical site infection: compliance with prophylactic antibiotics, post-discharge surveillance and novel methods for preventing surgical site infections. These topics represent areas where many institutions will find room for improvement in the prevention of surgical site infections. Tight adherence to prophylactic antibiotic guidelines, close followup of surgical wounds during and after hospital discharge, and attention to oxygenation status and the body temperature of patients may all prove to be useful adjuncts in significantly decreasing surgical site infections.

  19. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy using zinc phthalocyanine derivatives in treatment of bacterial skin infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Yaxin; Wang, Dong; Li, Linsen; Zhou, Shanyong; Huang, Joy H.; Chen, Jincan; Hu, Ping; Huang, Mingdong

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is an effective method for killing bacterial cells in view of the increasing problem of multiantibiotic resistance. We herein reported the PACT effect on bacteria involved in skin infections using a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-Lys). Compared with its anionic ZnPc counterpart, ZnPc-Lys showed an enhanced antibacterial efficacy in vitro and in an animal model of localized infection. Meanwhile, ZnPc-Lys was observed to significantly reduce the wound skin blood flow during wound healing, indicating an anti-inflammation activity. This study provides new insight on the mechanisms of PACT in bacterial skin infection.

  20. Models of Caenorhabditis elegans infection by bacterial and fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jennifer R; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2008-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple model host for studying the relationship between the animal innate immune system and a variety of bacterial and fungal pathogens. Extensive genetic and molecular tools are available in C. elegans, facilitating an in-depth analysis of host defense factors and pathogen virulence factors. Many of these factors are conserved in insects and mammals, indicating the relevance of the nematode model to the vertebrate innate immune response. Here, we describe pathogen assays for a selection of the most commonly studied bacterial and fungal pathogens using the C. elegans model system.

  1. Probiotics for Treatment and Prevention of Urogenital Infections in Women: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Lisa; VandeVusse, Leona; Jermé, Martha; Abad, Cybéle L; Safdar, Nasia

    2016-05-01

    Probiotics are a complementary and integrative therapy useful in the treatment and prevention of urogenital infections in women. This study extends the work of researchers who systematically investigated the scientific literature on probiotics to prevent or treat urogenital infections. A systematic review was conducted to determine the efficacy of probiotics for prevention and/or treatment of urogenital infections in adult women from January 1, 2008, through June 30, 2015. We searched in CINAHL, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Dissertations and Theses, and Alt-HealthWatch. After removing duplicates and studies that did not meet inclusion criteria, 20 studies were reviewed. All included at least one species of Lactobacillus probiotic as an intervention for treatment or prevention of urogenital infections. Data extracted included samples, settings, study designs, intervention types, reported outcomes, follow-up periods, and results. We evaluated all randomized controlled trials for risk of bias and made quality appraisals on all studies. Fourteen of the studies focused on bacterial vaginosis (BV), 3 on urinary tract infections (UTIs), 2 on vulvovaginal candidiasis, and one on human papillomavirus (HPV) as identified on Papanicolaou test. Studies were heterogeneous in terms of design, intervention, and outcomes. Four studies were of good quality, 9 of fair, and 7 poor. Probiotic interventions were effective for treatment and prevention of BV, prevention of recurrences of candidiasis and UTIs, and clearing HPV lesions. No study reported significant adverse events related to the probiotic intervention. The quality of the studies in this systematic review varied. Although clinical practice recommendations were limited by the strength of evidence, probiotic interventions were effective in treatment and prevention of urogenital infections as alternatives or co-treatments. More good quality research is needed to strengthen the body

  2. Different sterilization methods for overcoming internal bacterial infection in sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taški-Ajduković Ksenija J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During culture of protoplasts in agarose droplets, permanent problem was bacterial infection. It was assumed that the seeds are the origin of infection, so different sterilization methods were tested in order to overcome this problem. Germination, infection of seeds and hypocotyls and their growth were examined. Based on these parameters, the best result was obtained with the combined use of 5% commercial bleach and dry heating at 45°C.

  3. Adult Catheter Care and Infection Prevention Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and go to an emergency room or clinic. Bring your repair kit because, unfortunately, many emergency rooms do not have them. • Ask your clinician about a sutureless securement device to reduce the risk of infection and accidental ...

  4. Genetic and metabolic signals during acute enteric bacterial infection alter the microbiota and drive progression to chronic inflammatory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdar, Karishma; Khakpour, Samira; Chen, Jingyu; Leone, Vanessa; Brulc, Jennifer; Mangatu, Thomas; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Chang, Eugene B; Kahn, Stacy A.; Kirschner, Barbara S; Young, Glenn; DePaolo, R. William

    2016-01-13

    Chronic inflammatory disorders are thought to arise due to an interplay between predisposing host genetics and environmental factors. For example, the onset of inflammatory bowel disease is associated with enteric proteobacterial infection, yet the mechanistic basis for this association is unclear. We have shown previously that genetic defiency in TLR1 promotes acute enteric infection by the proteobacteria Yersinia enterocolitica. Examining that model further, we uncovered an altered cellular immune response that promotes the recruitment of neutrophils which in turn increases metabolism of the respiratory electron acceptor tetrathionate by Yersinia. These events drive permanent alterations in anti-commensal immunity, microbiota composition, and chronic inflammation, which persist long after Yersinia clearence. Deletion of the bacterial genes involved in tetrathionate respiration or treatment using targeted probiotics could prevent microbiota alterations and inflammation. Thus, acute infection can drive long term immune and microbiota alterations leading to chronic inflammatory disease in genetically predisposed individuals.

  5. Adaptive Architecture and the Prevention of Infections in Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai Tran van

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches has shown that climate change may spark global epidemics. The objectives of hospital design consistent with a high standard of sustainable architecture must not only be the tropicalization of buildings but also a system to confront the impact of infectious diseases which arise from climate change. Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection. Infection control addresses factors related to the spread of infections within the hospital building, including prevention, monitoring and management measures. As the application of new technologies such as the Heating, ventilation and air conditioning system (HVAC with high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA has application range within stamina, the study suggests the need to adopt an integrated adaptive hospital design strategy to prevent infection.

  6. Knowledge and attitudes of infection prevention and control among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    infection prevention and control is imparted early before they are introduced to the wards. ... professional nurses in Namibia instead of depending .... Table 3: ANOVA results for overall IPC Knowledge Score for gender, student area, high ...

  7. Future Research Opportunities in Peri-Prosthetic Joint Infection Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbari, Elie; Segreti, John; Parvizi, Javad; Berríos-Torres, Sandra I

    Peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication of prosthetic joint arthroplasty. A better understanding and reversal of modifiable risk factors may lead to a reduction in the incidence of incisional (superficial and deep) and organ/space (e.g., PJI) surgical site infections (SSI). Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) published the Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection. This targeted update applies evidence-based methodology in drafting recommendations for potential strategies to reduce the risk of SSI both across surgical procedures and specifically in prosthetic joint arthroplasty. A panel of PJI content experts identified nine PJI prevention research opportunities based on both evidence gaps identified through the guideline development process (transfusion, immunosuppressive therapy, anticoagulation, orthopedic space suit, and biofilm) and expert opinion (anesthesia, operative room environment, glycemic control, and Staphylococcus aureus nasal screening and decolonization. This article offers a road map for PJI prevention research.

  8. Susceptibility of metallic magnesium implants to bacterial biofilm infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Muhammad Imran; Rohde, Manfred; Rais, Bushra; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Mueller, Peter P

    2016-06-01

    Magnesium alloys have promising mechanical and biological properties as biodegradable medical implant materials for temporary applications during bone healing or as vascular stents. Whereas conventional implants are prone to colonization by treatment resistant microbial biofilms in which bacteria are embedded in a protective matrix, magnesium alloys have been reported to act antibacterial in vitro. To permit a basic assessment of antibacterial properties of implant materials in vivo an economic but robust animal model was established. Subcutaneous magnesium implants were inoculated with bacteria in a mouse model. Contrary to the expectations, bacterial activity was enhanced and prolonged in the presence of magnesium implants. Systemic antibiotic treatments were remarkably ineffective, which is a typical property of bacterial biofilms. Biofilm formation was further supported by electron microscopic analyses that revealed highly dense bacterial populations and evidence for the presence of extracellular matrix material. Bacterial agglomerates could be detected not only on the implant surface but also at a limited distance in the peri-implant tissue. Therefore, precautions may be necessary to minimize risks of metallic magnesium-containing implants in prospective clinical applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1489-1499, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Impact of bacterial infections on aging and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A B; Madsen, Claus Desler; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2014-01-01

    DNA repair subunits of major DNA repair pathways and increase production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Defects in DNA repair cause mutations and genomic instability and are found in several cancers as well as in progeroid syndromes. This review describes our contemporary view on how bacterial...

  10. A Survey of Bacterial and Fungal Oppurtunistic Infections among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial pathogens were isolated using Blood and Chocolate agar plates and identified biochemically except the Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) which was tested in all the HIV positive samples by Ziehl Neelson staining technique. The fungal pathogens were isolated using Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) with antibiotics and ...

  11. Dynamics of Vaginal Bacterial Communities in Women Developing Bacterial Vaginosis, Candidiasis, or No Infection, Analyzed by PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Real-Time PCR▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Beatrice; Pugliese, Ciro; Biagi, Elena; Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Bellen, Gert; Donders, Gilbert G. G.; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2007-01-01

    The microbial flora of the vagina plays a major role in preventing genital infections, including bacterial vaginosis (BV) and candidiasis (CA). An integrated approach based on PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and real-time PCR was used to study the structure and dynamics of bacterial communities in vaginal fluids of healthy women and patients developing BV and CA. Universal eubacterial primers and Lactobacillus genus-specific primers, both targeted at 16S rRNA genes, were used in DGGE and real-time PCR analysis, respectively. The DGGE profiles revealed that the vaginal flora was dominated by Lactobacillus species under healthy conditions, whereas several potentially pathogenic bacteria were present in the flora of women with BV. Lactobacilli were the predominant bacterial population in the vagina for patients affected by CA, but changes in the composition of Lactobacillus species were observed. Real-time PCR analysis allowed the quantitative estimation of variations in lactobacilli associated with BV and CA diseases. A statistically significant decrease in the relative abundance of lactobacilli was found in vaginal fluids of patients with BV compared to the relative abundance of lactobacilli in the vaginal fluids of healthy women and patients with CA. PMID:17644631

  12. Dynamics of vaginal bacterial communities in women developing bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, or no infection, analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Beatrice; Pugliese, Ciro; Biagi, Elena; Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Bellen, Gert; Donders, Gilbert G G; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2007-09-01

    The microbial flora of the vagina plays a major role in preventing genital infections, including bacterial vaginosis (BV) and candidiasis (CA). An integrated approach based on PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and real-time PCR was used to study the structure and dynamics of bacterial communities in vaginal fluids of healthy women and patients developing BV and CA. Universal eubacterial primers and Lactobacillus genus-specific primers, both targeted at 16S rRNA genes, were used in DGGE and real-time PCR analysis, respectively. The DGGE profiles revealed that the vaginal flora was dominated by Lactobacillus species under healthy conditions, whereas several potentially pathogenic bacteria were present in the flora of women with BV. Lactobacilli were the predominant bacterial population in the vagina for patients affected by CA, but changes in the composition of Lactobacillus species were observed. Real-time PCR analysis allowed the quantitative estimation of variations in lactobacilli associated with BV and CA diseases. A statistically significant decrease in the relative abundance of lactobacilli was found in vaginal fluids of patients with BV compared to the relative abundance of lactobacilli in the vaginal fluids of healthy women and patients with CA.

  13. Comparative study of bacterial infection prevalence between cirrhotic patients with and without upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvone Almeida

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection is a frequent complication in patients with chronic liver disease, mainly during the advanced stages. There is evidence that the main factors that contribute to a predisposition to infection in cirrhotic patients are related to hepatic failure with consequent immunodeficiency. Invasive procedures (diagnostic or therapeutic can predispose to bacterial infections, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB is considered a potentially important risk factor. A group of cirrhotic patients (child B and C Pugh groups were evaluated retrospectively by chart reviews regarding the prevalence of bacterial infection during hospitalization to determine whether UGB was a risk factor. An infection was considered present if a specific organ system was identified or if fever (>38ºC persisted for more than 24 hours with associated leukocytosis. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was based on classical criteria. Eighty-nine patients were evaluated. Fourty-six patients presented with UGB, and 43 patients had no UGB (control. There were infections recorded in 25/46 (54% patients with UGB, and 15/43 (35% in those without UGB (p=0.065. The ratio of the number of infections/admitted patients, was significantly larger in the group with UGB (0.78 ± 0.89 vs. 0.39 ± 0.62; p=0.028 since patients had more than one infection. In the UGB group compared to non UGB group, ascites was more frequent (67% vs. 42%; p=0.027; they were more likely to have undergone endoscopic procedures (p<0.001 and the mean ± SD for platelets count was smaller (96,114 ± 57,563 vs. 145,674 ± 104,083; p=0.007. The results show that UGB is an important contribution to bacterial infection among Child B and C cirrhotic patients.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF EFFICACY IN APPLICATION OF TOPICAL IMMUNOLOGIC RESPONSE MODIFIER FOR PREVENTION OF INFLUENZA AND ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Lytkina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of bacterial lysate for prevention of acute respiratory infections. The article provides results of monitoring children in the orphanage who were administered the medication of this group as a prophylactic drug against acute respiratory infections. Children also from orphanages who were not administered the medication were selected as a control group. It was found that out of 80 children who underwent preventive treatment, only 26 children fell ill, while out of 80 children in the control group so did 78 orphans. The results achieved allowed the topical immunologic response modifier to be recommended as a general preventive medication for wide use in children in the period of seasonal respiratory infection incidence rate pickup.Key words: influenza, acute respiratory infections, preventive treatment, children.

  15. Synthetic furanones inhibit quorum-sensing and enhance bacterial clearance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, H.; Song, Z.; Hentzer, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections by killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth, but resistance to antibiotics can develop readily. The discovery that bacterial quorum-sensing regulates bacterial virulence as well as the formation of biofilms opens up new ways...... to control certain bacterial infections. Furanone compounds capable of inhibiting bacterial quorum-sensing systems have been isolated from the marine macro alga Delisea pulchra. Objectives: Two synthetic furanones were tested for their ability to attenuate bacterial virulence in the mouse models of chronic...

  16. The role of bacterial biofilms in chronic infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    wounds, chronic otitis media and implant- and catheter-associated infections, affect millions of people in the developed world each year and many deaths occur as a consequence. In general, bacteria have two life forms during growth and proliferation. In one form, the bacteria exist as single, independent...... cells (planktonic) whereas in the other form, bacteria are organized into sessile aggregates. The latter form is commonly referred to as the biofilm growth phenotype. Acute infections are assumed to involve planktonic bacteria, which are generally treatable with antibiotics, although successful......Acute infections caused by pathogenic bacteria have been studied extensively for well over 100 years. These infections killed millions of people in previous centuries, but they have been combated effectively by the development of modern vaccines, antibiotics and infection control measures. Most...

  17. Antibiotic therapy for preventing infections in people with acute stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Westendorp, Willeke F.; Dippel, Diederik Wj; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    Stroke is the main cause of disability in high-income countries and ranks second as a cause of death worldwide. Infections occur frequently after stroke and may adversely affect outcome. Preventive antibiotic therapy in the acute phase of stroke may reduce the incidence of infections and improve

  18. Antibiotic therapy for preventing infections in patients with acute stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Willeke F.; Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Vermeij, Frederique; den Hertog, Heleen M.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Stroke is the main cause of disability in high income countries and ranks second as a cause of death worldwide. Infections occur frequently after stroke and may adversely affect outcome. Preventive antibiotic therapy in the acute phase of stroke may reduce infections and improve outcome.

  19. Cranberry in prevention of urinary tract Infections in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda-Machado Pablo Andrés

    2011-01-01

    The urinary infection tract is the most common infectious complication in pregnancy.The aim was to conduct a literature review of the evidence on effectiveness, safetyand cost effectiveness of cranberry products in preventing urinary tract infection inpregnancy. Studies suggest a potential protective effect of cranberry products againsturinary tract infection in pregnancy and there is no documented evidence of danger orcontraindication in pregnancy or lactation. The cost effectiveness of cran...

  20. Polymer-Ag nanocomposites with enhanced antimicrobial activity against bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Lu, Zhentan; Zhang, Xinge; Li, Chaoxing; Jia, Yanxia

    2014-09-24

    Herein, a nontoxic nanocomposite is synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of a cationic polymer displaying strong antimicrobial activity against bacterial infection. These nanocomposites with a large concentration of positive charge promote their adsorption to bacterial membranes through electrostatic interaction. Moreover, the synthesized nanocomposites with polyvalent and synergistic antimicrobial effects can effectively kill both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria without the emergence of bacterial resistance. Morphological changes obtained by transmission electron microscope observation show that these nanocomposites can cause leakage and chaos of intracellular contents. Analysis of the antimicrobial mechanism confirms that the lethal action of nanocomposites against the bacteria started with disruption of the bacterial membrane, subsequent cellular internalization of the nanoparticles, and inhibition of intracellular enzymatic activity. This novel antimicrobial material with good cytocompatibility promotes healing of infected wounds in diabetic rats, and has a promising future in the treatment of other infectious diseases.

  1. Placental Inflammatory Changes and Bacterial Infection in Premature Neonates with Respiratory Failure

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    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal a relationship of placental inflammatory changes to bacterial infection in premature neonates with respiratory failure. Material and methods. Bronchoalveolar aspirate was bacteriologically studied in 157 premature neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS; the total and differential leukocyte counts were measured in their peripheral blood. The levels of the cytokines IL-1^3, IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-a were studied in different biological fluids of mothers and their babies; the placentas were also morphologically examined. Results. An analysis of bacterial cultures from the tracheobronchial tree revealed no growth of bacterial microflora in 61.8% of cases, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were isolated in 6.4 and 8.3% of the infants, respectively; Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus capitis, Enterobacter agglomerans, and hemolytic group A Streptococcus were seen in 1.9% each; moreover, 1.3% of the newborn infants were found to have Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp., and Serratia marcescens. Other microorganisms and a microbial association were encountered in 8.9% of cases. Placental morphological examination revealed different inflammatory changes concurrent with chronic and acute placental insufficiency. The investigation demonstrated that the maternal peripheral plasma levels of IL-1^, IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-a were within the physiological range at the end of the first period of delivery. The amniotic fluid displayed elevated IL-6 and TNF-a concentrations and normal IL-4 and IL-1e levels, suggesting that there was an intrauterine inflammatory process. Conclusion. Premature birth is associated with various placental inflammatory changes, which causes intrauterine stimulation of macrophages in the chorionic villi. Specific immune defense mechanisms that prevent the development of a fetal infectious process, i.e. the maternal infectious process, may induce

  2. Is intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate useful in preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis? A multicenter case control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliotta, Giorgio; Calagna, Gloria; Adile, Giorgio; Polito, Salvatore; Saitta, Salvatore; Speciale, Patrizia; Palomba, Stefano; Perino, Antonino; Granese, Roberta; Adile, Biagio

    2015-10-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in the female population and, over a lifetime, about half of women have at least one episode of UTI requiring antibiotic therapy. The aim of the current study was to compare two different strategies for preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis: intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus chondroitin sulfate (CS), and antibiotic prophylaxis with sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim. This was a retrospective review of two different cohorts of women affected by recurrent bacterial cystitis. Cases (experimental group) were women who received intravesical instillations of a sterile solution of high concentration of HA + CS in 50 mL water with calcium chloride every week during the 1(st) month and then once monthly for 4 months. The control group included women who received traditional therapy for recurrent cystitis based on daily antibiotic prophylaxis using sulfamethoxazole 200 mg plus trimethoprim 40 mg for 6 weeks. Ninety-eight and 76 patients were treated with experimental and control treatments, respectively. At 12 months after treatment, 69 and 109 UTIs were detected in the experimental and control groups, respectively. The proportion of patients free from UTIs was significantly higher in the experimental than in the control group (36.7% vs. 21.0%; p = 0.03). Experimental treatment was well tolerated and none of the patients stopped it. The intravesical instillation of HA + CS is more effective than long-term antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Preponderance of bacterial isolates in urine of HIV-positive malaria-infected pregnant women with urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako-Nai, Kwashie Ajibade; Ebhodaghe, Blessing Itohan; Osho, Patrick; Adejuyigbe, Ebun; Adeyemi, Folasade Mubiat; Kassim, Olakunle O

    2014-12-15

    This study examined HIV and malaria co-infection as a risk factor for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pregnancy. The study group included 74 pregnant women, 20 to 42 years of age, who attended the antenatal clinic at the Specialist Hospital at Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Forty-four of the pregnant women were either HIV seropositive with malaria infection (HIV+Mal+) or HIV seropositive without malaria (HIV+Mal-). The remaining thirty pregnant women served as controls and included women HIV seronegative but with malaria (HIV-Mal+) and women HIV seronegative without malaria. UTI was indicated by a bacterial colony count of greater than 10⁵/mL of urine, using cysteine lactose electrolyte deficient medium (CLED) as the primary isolation medium. Bacterial isolates were characterized using convectional bacteriological methods, and antibiotics sensitivity tests were carried out using the disk diffusion method. A total of 246 bacterial isolates were recovered from the cultures, with a mean of 3.53 isolates per subject. Women who were HIV+Mal+ had the most diverse group of bacterial isolates and the highest frequency of UTIs. The bacterial isolates from the HIV+Mal+ women also showed the highest degree of antibiotic resistance. While pregnancy and HIV infection may each represent a risk factor for UTI, HIV and malaria co-infection may increase its frequency in pregnancy. The higher frequency of multiple antibiotic resistance observed among the isolates, particularly isolates from HIV+Mal+ subjects, poses a serious public health concern as these strains may aggravate the prognosis of both UTI and HIV infection.

  4. Associations of the vaginal microbiota with HIV infection, bacterial vaginosis, and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehoud, Christel; Stieh, Daniel J; Bailey, Aubrey G; Laughlin, Alice L; Allen, Shannon A; McCotter, Kerrie L; Sherrill-Mix, Scott A; Hope, Thomas J; Bushman, Frederic D

    2017-04-24

    We sought to investigate the effects of HIV infection on the vaginal microbiota and associations with treatment and demographic factors. We thus compared vaginal microbiome samples from HIV-infected (HIV+) and HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women collected at two Chicago area hospitals. We studied vaginal microbiome samples from 178 women analyzed longitudinally (n = 324 samples) and collected extensive data on clinical status and demographic factors. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize the bacterial lineages present, then UniFrac, Shannon diversity, and other measures to compare community structure with sample metadata. Differences in microbiota measures were modest in the comparison of HIV+ and HIV- samples, in contrast to several previous studies, consistent with effective antiretroviral therapy. Proportions of healthy Lactobacillus species were not higher in HIV- patients overall, but were significantly higher when analyzed within each hospital in isolation. Rates of bacterial vaginosis were higher among African-American women and HIV+ women. Bacterial vaginosis was associated with higher frequency of HIV+. Unexpectedly, African-American women were more likely to switch bacterial vaginosis status between sampling times; switching was not associated with HIV+ status. The influence of HIV infection on the vaginal microbiome was modest for this cohort of well suppressed urban American women, consistent with effective antiretroviral therapy. HIV+ was found to be associated with bacterial vaginosis. Although bacterial vaginosis has previously been associated with HIV transmission, most of the women studied here became HIV+ many years before our test for bacterial vaginosis, thus implicating additional mechanisms linking HIV infection and bacterial vaginosis.

  5. Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Associated Risk Factors among Women Complaining of Genital Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bitew, Adane; Abebaw, Yeshiwork; Bekele, Delayehu; Mihret, Amete

    2017-01-01

    Background. Bacterial vaginosis is a global concern due to the increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 210 patients between September 2015 and July 2016 at St. Paul’s Hospital. Gram-stained vaginal swabs were examined microscopically and graded as per Nugent’s procedure. Bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis were cha...

  6. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis Caused by Infection with Listeria monocytogenes

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    Michael Vincent F. Tablang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a severe and life-threatening complication in patients with ascites caused by advanced liver disease. The organisms most commonly involved are coliform bacteria and third-generation cephalosporins are the empiric antibiotics of choice. This is an uncommon case of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes in a female patient with liver cirrhosis from autoimmune hepatitis. She did not improve with ceftriaxone and her course was complicated by hepatic encephalopathy, seizures and multi-organ failure. This case emphasizes that a high index of suspicion should be maintained for timely diagnosis and treatment. Listerial peritonitis should be suspected in patients with end-stage liver disease and inadequate response to conventional antibiotics within 48–72 h. Ampicillin/sulbactam should be initiated while awaiting results of ascitic fluid or blood culture.

  7. Risk of bacterial cross infection associated with inspiration through flow-based spirometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracci, Massimo; Strafella, Elisabetta; Croce, Nicola; Staffolani, Sara; Carducci, Annalaura; Verani, Marco; Valentino, Matteo; Santarelli, Lory

    2011-02-01

    Bacterial contamination of spirometers has been documented in water-sealed devices, mouthpieces, and connection tubes. Little information is available about bacterial contamination of flow-based apparatuses such as turbine-type spirometers and pneumotachographs. Inspiration through contaminated equipment is a potential source of cross infection. To investigate bacteria mobilization (ie, bacteria detachment and aerosolization from the instrument) during routine spirometric testing, 2 types of flow-based spirometers were used. Bacteria mobilization during artificial inspiration through in-line filters or cardboard mouthpieces was evaluated. Nine hundred workers undergoing periodic spirometric testing were enrolled at the occupational physician office in 30 sessions of 30 subjects each. The participants were asked to perform a forced vital capacity test in a turbine-type spirometer and in an unheated pneumotachograph fitted with disposable in-line filters or cardboard mouthpieces. To evaluate bacterial mobilization, an artificial inspiration was performed and bacterial growth determined. The bacterial growth analysis was assessed after the first and the thirtieth spirometric tests of each session without disinfecting the instruments between tests. In addition, instrument bacterial contamination was evaluated. No significant bacterial mobilization and instrument contamination were found in spirometric tests executed with in-line filters. Conversely, a significant bacterial mobilization and instrument contamination were observed in tests performed with cardboard mouthpieces. Differences between the 2 spirometers were not significant. In-line filters may effectively reduce the risk of bacterial cross infection. Inspiration through flow-based spirometers fitted with disposable cardboard mouthpieces is completely safe when combined with spirometer disinfection/sterilization between subjects. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and

  8. Search for microRNAs expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens in infected mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Yuki; Finethy, Ryan; Saka, Hector A; Xet-Mull, Ana M; Sisk, Dana M; Smith, Kristen L Jurcic; Lee, Sunhee; Coers, Jörn; Valdivia, Raphael H; Tobin, David M; Cullen, Bryan R

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are expressed by all multicellular organisms and play a critical role as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Moreover, different microRNA species are known to influence the progression of a range of different diseases, including cancer and microbial infections. A number of different human viruses also encode microRNAs that can attenuate cellular innate immune responses and promote viral replication, and a fungal pathogen that infects plants has recently been shown to express microRNAs in infected cells that repress host cell immune responses and promote fungal pathogenesis. Here, we have used deep sequencing of total expressed small RNAs, as well as small RNAs associated with the cellular RNA-induced silencing complex RISC, to search for microRNAs that are potentially expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens and translocated into infected animal cells. In the case of Legionella and Chlamydia and the two mycobacterial species M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis, we failed to detect any bacterial small RNAs that had the characteristics expected for authentic microRNAs, although large numbers of small RNAs of bacterial origin could be recovered. However, a third mycobacterial species, M. marinum, did express an ∼ 23-nt small RNA that was bound by RISC and derived from an RNA stem-loop with the characteristics expected for a pre-microRNA. While intracellular expression of this candidate bacterial microRNA was too low to effectively repress target mRNA species in infected cultured cells in vitro, artificial overexpression of this potential bacterial pre-microRNA did result in the efficient repression of a target mRNA. This bacterial small RNA therefore represents the first candidate microRNA of bacterial origin.

  9. Search for microRNAs expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens in infected mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Furuse

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are expressed by all multicellular organisms and play a critical role as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Moreover, different microRNA species are known to influence the progression of a range of different diseases, including cancer and microbial infections. A number of different human viruses also encode microRNAs that can attenuate cellular innate immune responses and promote viral replication, and a fungal pathogen that infects plants has recently been shown to express microRNAs in infected cells that repress host cell immune responses and promote fungal pathogenesis. Here, we have used deep sequencing of total expressed small RNAs, as well as small RNAs associated with the cellular RNA-induced silencing complex RISC, to search for microRNAs that are potentially expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens and translocated into infected animal cells. In the case of Legionella and Chlamydia and the two mycobacterial species M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis, we failed to detect any bacterial small RNAs that had the characteristics expected for authentic microRNAs, although large numbers of small RNAs of bacterial origin could be recovered. However, a third mycobacterial species, M. marinum, did express an ∼ 23-nt small RNA that was bound by RISC and derived from an RNA stem-loop with the characteristics expected for a pre-microRNA. While intracellular expression of this candidate bacterial microRNA was too low to effectively repress target mRNA species in infected cultured cells in vitro, artificial overexpression of this potential bacterial pre-microRNA did result in the efficient repression of a target mRNA. This bacterial small RNA therefore represents the first candidate microRNA of bacterial origin.

  10. Achievement of interventions on HIV infection prevention among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In China, migrants with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have become a serious problem in the field of AIDS prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of interventions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevention for migrants in China and to identify factors associated with intervention ...

  11. Findings of bacterial microflora in piglets infected with conventional swine plague

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    Prodanov Jasna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Piglets infected with the conventional swine plague virus as a result of secondary bacterial infections sometimes show an insufficiently clear clinical and pathoanatomical picture, which is why the very procedure of diagnosis is complex and the final diagnosis unreliable. That is why these investigations were aimed at examining the presence of bacterial microflora in diseased and dead pilgets which were found to have the viral antigen for CSP using the fluorescent antibody technique, in cases where the pathomorphological finding was not characteristic for conventional swine plague. Autopsies of dead piglets most often showed changes in the digestive tract and lungs, with resulting technopathy and diseases of infective nature. Such findings on knowledge of a present bacterial microflora are especially important in cases when conventional swine plague is controlled on farms and an announcement that the disease has been contained is in the offing.

  12. [Microbiological diagnosis of bacterial infection associated with delivery and postpartum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Ortega, Belén; Delgado-Palacio, Susana; García-Garrote, Fernando; Rodríguez-Gómez, Juan Miguel; Romero-Hernández, Beatriz

    2016-05-01

    The newborn may acquire infections during delivery due to maternal colonization of the birth canal, by microorganisms such as Streptococcus agalactiae that caused early neonatal infection, or acquisition through the placenta, amniotic fluid or birth products. After birth, the newborn that needs hospitalization can develop nosocomial infections during their care and exceptionally through lactation by infectious mastitis or incorrect handling of human milk, which does not require to stop breastfeeding in most cases. It is important and necessary to perform microbiological diagnosis for the correct treatment of perinatal infections, especially relevant in preterm infants with low or very low weight with high mortality rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring of nosocomial infections as an element of prevention

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    Izabela Gąska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hospital infections are one of the most serious threats to the hospitalised patient and their monitoring is recognised as one of the most important criteria of care quality for modern hospitals. The aim of the work was to present the problem of nosocomial infections and desired behaviours and activities in the field of infection prophylaxis. Material and method. The analysis of the current scientific literature was carried out with particular attention to the prevention of infections in treatment wards and the need to monitor the patient's condition and the environment in the case of an infection. Results. The lack of developed and implemented programmes for the control of nosocomial infections is a fundamental element that increases the risk of nosocomial infections. This disrupts the proper functioning of the hospital and causes additional health problems for the patient and the ward staff. In addition, the hospital suffers losses instead of savings, which is a priority aim in the current funding system. Conclusions. The basis for eliminating or minimising the incidence of nosocomial infections is a well-developed and implemented programme of hospital infection control based on the education of medical personnel in the field of infection prevention. Constant, comprehensive assessment of the procedures used and the standards of conduct, epidemiological data as well as microbiological data can ensure quick identification and elimination of the threat.

  14. Probiotics for preventing urinary tract infections in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenger, Erin M; Tejani, Aaron M; Loewen, Peter S

    2015-12-23

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection that can lead to significant morbidity including stricture, abscess formation, fistula, bacteraemia, sepsis, pyelonephritis and kidney dysfunction. Mortality rates are reported to be as high as 1% in men and 3% in women due to development of pyelonephritis. Because probiotic therapy is readily available without a prescription, a review of their efficacy in the prevention of UTI may aid consumers in making informed decisions about potential prophylactic therapy. Institutions and caregivers also need evidence-based synopses of current evidence to make informed patient care decisions. Compared to placebo or no therapy, did probiotics (any formulation) provide a therapeutic advantage in terms of morbidity and mortality, when used to prevent UTI in susceptible patient populations?Compared to other prophylactic interventions, including drug and non-drug measures (e.g. continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, topical oestrogen, cranberry juice), did probiotics (any formulation) provide a therapeutic advantage in terms of morbidity and mortality when used to prevent UTIs in susceptible patient populations? We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register to 21 September 2015 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of susceptible patients (e.g. past history of UTI) or healthy people in which any strain, formulation, dose or frequency of probiotic was compared to placebo or active comparators were included. All RCTs and quasi-RCTs (RCTs in which allocation to treatment was obtained by alternation, use of alternate medical records, date of birth or other predictable methods) looking at comparing probiotics to no therapy, placebo, or other prophylactic interventions were included. Summary estimates of effect were obtained using a random-effects model, and results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) and their 95

  15. Statin Treatment and Mortality in Bacterial Infections – A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkhem-Bergman, Linda; Bergman, Peter; Andersson, Jan; Lindh, Jonatan D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported improved survival in severe bacterial infections among statin treated patients. In addition, statins have been ascribed beneficial anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of statin-treatment on mortality in patients with bacterial infections, by means of a systematic review and a meta-analysis. Methodology and Principal Findings Studies investigating the association between statin use and mortality in patients with bacterial disease were identified in a systematic literature review and a meta-analysis was performed to calculate the overall odds ratio of mortality in statin users. The literature search identified 947 citations from which 40 relevant studies were extracted. In all, 15 studies comprising 113 910 patients were included in the final analysis. Statin use was associated with a significantly (pstatin treatment was no longer significant, with an OR of 0.79 (95% CI 0.58–1.07). Conclusion/Significance According to the meta-analysis of observational studies presented here, patients on statin therapy seem to have a better outcome in bacterial infections. However, the association did not reach statistical significance after adjustment for apparent publication bias. Thus, there is a great need for randomised controlled trials investigating the possible beneficial effect of statins in bacterial infections. PMID:20502712

  16. A Modern Approach to Preventing Prosthetic Joint Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Paraskevi Vivian; Congiusta, Dominick; Scuderi, Giles R; Cushner, Fred D

    2018-02-28

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is recognized as one of the most successful surgical procedures performed today. One of the most common and dreaded complications of TKA is postoperative infection. To prevent infections, it is critical to identify patients at high risk through analyzing their risk factors, and help in addressing them prior to surgery. The effort to prevent infection must be carried through every step of the surgical process, from preoperative counseling to intraoperative measures and postoperative protocols. Hair removal, the application of antiseptics, the utilization of antibiotics, barbed sutures, smart dressings, and antibacterial washes are some of the avenues surgeons may explore to help prevent infection. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Prevention of bloodstream infections by photodynamic inactivation of multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in burn wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, M. C. E.; Prates, R. A.; Toffoli, D. J.; Courrol, L. C.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2010-02-01

    Bloodstream infections are potentially life-threatening diseases. They can cause serious secondary infections, and may result in endocarditis, severe sepsis or toxic-shock syndrome. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen and one of the most important etiological factors responsible for nosocomial infections, mainly in immuno-compromissed hosts, characteristic of patients with severe burns. Its multiresistance to antibiotics produces many therapeutic problems, and for this reason, the development of an alternative method to antibiotic therapy is needed. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) may be an effective and alternative therapeutic option to prevent bloodstream infections in patients with severe burns. In this study we report the use of PDI to prevent bloodstream infections in mice with third-degree burns. Burns were produced on the back of the animals and they were infected with 109 cfu/mL of multi-resistant (MR) P. aeruginosa. Fifteen animals were divided into 3 groups: control, PDT blue and PDT red. PDT was performed thirty minutes after bacterial inoculation using 10μM HB:La+3 and a light-emitting diode (LED) emitting at λ=460nm+/-20nm and a LED emitting at λ=645 nm+/-10nm for 120s. Blood of mice were colected at 7h, 10h, 15h, 18h and 22h pos-infection (p.i.) for bacterial counting. Control group presented 1×104 cfu/mL in bloodstream at 7h p.i. increasing to 1×106 at 22h, while mice PDT-treated did not present any bacteria at 7h; only at 22h p.i. they presented 1×104cfu/mL. These results suggest that HB:La+3 associated to blue LED or red LED is effective to delay and diminish MR P.aeruginosa bloodstream invasion in third-degree-burned mice.

  18. Preventing bacterial growth on implanted device with an interfacial metallic film and penetrating X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jincui; Sun, An; Qiao, Yong; Zhang, Peipei; Su, Ming

    2015-02-01

    Device-related infections have been a big problem for a long time. This paper describes a new method to inhibit bacterial growth on implanted device with tissue-penetrating X-ray radiation, where a thin metallic film deposited on the device is used as a radio-sensitizing film for bacterial inhibition. At a given dose of X-ray, the bacterial viability decreases as the thickness of metal film (bismuth) increases. The bacterial viability decreases with X-ray dose increases. At X-ray dose of 2.5 Gy, 98% of bacteria on 10 nm thick bismuth film are killed; while it is only 25% of bacteria are killed on the bare petri dish. The same dose of X-ray kills 8% fibroblast cells that are within a short distance from bismuth film (4 mm). These results suggest that penetrating X-rays can kill bacteria on bismuth thin film deposited on surface of implant device efficiently.

  19. Intravaginal practices, bacterial vaginosis, and HIV infection in women: individual participant data meta-analysis.

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    Nicola Low

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying modifiable factors that increase women's vulnerability to HIV is a critical step in developing effective female-initiated prevention interventions. The primary objective of this study was to pool individual participant data from prospective longitudinal studies to investigate the association between intravaginal practices and acquisition of HIV infection among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Secondary objectives were to investigate associations between intravaginal practices and disrupted vaginal flora; and between disrupted vaginal flora and HIV acquisition.We conducted a meta-analysis of individual participant data from 13 prospective cohort studies involving 14,874 women, of whom 791 acquired HIV infection during 21,218 woman years of follow-up. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. The level of between-study heterogeneity was low in all analyses (I(2 values 0.0%-16.1%. Intravaginal use of cloth or paper (pooled adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.83, insertion of products to dry or tighten the vagina (aHR 1.31, 95% CI 1.00-1.71, and intravaginal cleaning with soap (aHR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53 remained associated with HIV acquisition after controlling for age, marital status, and number of sex partners in the past 3 months. Intravaginal cleaning with soap was also associated with the development of intermediate vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis in women with normal vaginal flora at baseline (pooled adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47. Use of cloth or paper was not associated with the development of disrupted vaginal flora. Intermediate vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis were each associated with HIV acquisition in multivariable models when measured at baseline (aHR 1.54 and 1.69, p<0.001 or at the visit before the estimated date of HIV infection (aHR 1.41 and 1.53, p<0.001, respectively.This study provides evidence to suggest that some intravaginal practices increase

  20. Bacterial Infections Following Splenectomy for Malignant and Nonmalignant Hematologic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Giuseppe; Pizzigallo, Eligio

    2015-01-01

    Splenectomy, while often necessary in otherwise healthy patients after major trauma, finds its primary indication for patients with underlying malignant or nonmalignant hematologic diseases. Indications of splenectomy for hematologic diseases have been reducing in the last few years, due to improved diagnostic and therapeutic tools. In high-income countries, there is a clear decrease over calendar time in the incidence of all indication splenectomy except nonmalignant hematologic diseases. However, splenectomy, even if with different modalities including laparoscopic splenectomy and partial splenectomy, continue to be a current surgical practice both in nonmalignant hematologic diseases, such as Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP), Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA), Congenital Hemolytic Anemia such as Spherocytosis, Sickle Cell Anemia and Thalassemia and Malignant Hematological Disease, such as lymphoma. Today millions of people in the world are splenectomized. Splenectomy, independently of its cause, induces an early and late increase in the incidence of venous thromboembolism and infections. Infections remain the most dangerous complication of splenectomy. After splenectomy, the levels of antibody are preserved but there is a loss of memory B cells against pneumococcus and tetanus, and the loss of marginal zone monocytes deputed to immunological defense from capsulated bacteria. Commonly, the infections strictly correlated to the absence of the spleen or a decreased or absent splenic function are due to encapsulated bacteria that are the most virulent pathogens in this set of patients. Vaccination with polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines again Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis should be performed before the splenectomy. This practice reduces but does not eliminate the occurrence of overwhelming infections due to capsulated bacteria. At present, most of infections found in splenectomized patients are due to Gram

  1. [Infection prevention and control in neonatal intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Elisiane; Lorenzini, Elisiane; da Costa, Tatiane Costa; da Silva, Eveline Franco

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed to identify the knowledge of the nursing team of a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) on infection control, identijfying the factors that facilitate or hinder the prevention and control of Healthcare Associated Infections (HICAI). A descriptive study using a qualitative research method conducted with three nurses and 15 nurse technicians, who work in a NICU of a charitable organization, in southern Brazil. It became evident that the nursing staff had great knowledge about the factors that facilitate the prevention and control of HCAI in NICU, the most important factor being proper hand hygiene. Among the factors that hinder infection prevention and control are to overcrowding and excessive workload. The efficient performance of the nursing staff is an important part of the strategy for prevention and control of HCAI.

  2. Comparing the bacterial diversity of acute and chronic dental root canal infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana L Santos

    Full Text Available This study performed barcoded multiplex pyrosequencing with a 454 FLX instrument to compare the microbiota of dental root canal infections associated with acute (symptomatic or chronic (asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Analysis of samples from 9 acute abscesses and 8 chronic infections yielded partial 16S rRNA gene sequences that were taxonomically classified into 916 bacterial species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs (at 3% divergence belonging to 67 genera and 13 phyla. The most abundant phyla in acute infections were Firmicutes (52%, Fusobacteria (17% and Bacteroidetes (13%, while in chronic infections the dominant were Firmicutes (59%, Bacteroidetes (14% and Actinobacteria (10%. Members of Fusobacteria were much more prevalent in acute (89% than in chronic cases (50%. The most abundant/prevalent genera in acute infections were Fusobacterium and Parvimonas. Twenty genera were exclusively detected in acute infections and 18 in chronic infections. Only 18% (n = 165 of the OTUs at 3% divergence were shared by acute and chronic infections. Diversity and richness estimators revealed that acute infections were significantly more diverse than chronic infections. Although a high interindividual variation in bacterial communities was observed, many samples tended to group together according to the type of infection (acute or chronic. This study is one of the most comprehensive in-deep comparisons of the microbiota associated with acute and chronic dental root canal infections and highlights the role of diverse polymicrobial communities as the unit of pathogenicity in acute infections. The overall diversity of endodontic infections as revealed by the pyrosequencing technique was much higher than previously reported for endodontic infections.

  3. HIV INFECTION AND AIDS: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Alparslan BABAYIÐIT

    Full Text Available Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV was first discovered in 1981 in the United States of America and the day of December 1, was announced as ?World AIDS Day? by WHO (World Health Organization. In Turkey, the first announcement of the people living with HIV was made in 1985. HIV/AIDS has killed more than 20 millions people and more than 16,000 people become newly infected each day since the first cases were diagnosed in 1981. It is estimated that 39.4 million people would have been infected with HIV at the end of 2004, with 4.9 million new cases that year. Sub-Saharan Africa is the worst-hit region, with 70 percent of all people living with HIV. In Africa alone, 10,000 people become infected each day. This year?s main theme is ?Women, Girls, HIV and AIDS,? which reflects a focus on how the effects of HIV/AIDS have significantly increased among women. Women now make up half of all people living with HIV worldwide with the number of 17,6 million. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(11.000: 280-290

  4. Group B Strep Infection: Prevention in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevención en los recién nacidos Preventing Early-Onset Group B Strep Disease The two most important ways ... occurs in babies younger than 1 week old) group B strep disease include: Testing all pregnant women ...

  5. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression changes provoked by bacterial and fungal infection in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Engelmann

    Full Text Available While Caenorhabditis elegans specifically responds to infection by the up-regulation of certain genes, distinct pathogens trigger the expression of a common set of genes. We applied new methods to conduct a comprehensive and comparative study of the transcriptional response of C. elegans to bacterial and fungal infection. Using tiling arrays and/or RNA-sequencing, we have characterized the genome-wide transcriptional changes that underlie the host's response to infection by three bacterial (Serratia marcescens, Enterococcus faecalis and otorhabdus luminescens and two fungal pathogens (Drechmeria coniospora and Harposporium sp.. We developed a flexible tool, the WormBase Converter (available at http://wormbasemanager.sourceforge.net/, to allow cross-study comparisons. The new data sets provided more extensive lists of differentially regulated genes than previous studies. Annotation analysis confirmed that genes commonly up-regulated by bacterial infections are related to stress responses. We found substantial overlaps between the genes regulated upon intestinal infection by the bacterial pathogens and Harposporium, and between those regulated by Harposporium and D. coniospora, which infects the epidermis. Among the fungus-regulated genes, there was a significant bias towards genes that are evolving rapidly and potentially encode small proteins. The results obtained using new methods reveal that the response to infection in C. elegans is determined by the nature of the pathogen, the site of infection and the physiological imbalance provoked by infection. They form the basis for future functional dissection of innate immune signaling. Finally, we also propose alternative methods to identify differentially regulated genes that take into account the greater variability in lowly expressed genes.

  6. Prevalence of asymptomatic infections in sexually transmitted diseases attendees diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, R; Kalaivani, S

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are a major health problem affecting mostly young people in both developing and developed countries. STD in women causes both acute morbidity and complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, low-birth weight, and prematurity. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis among asymptomatic females attending STD outpatient department in a tertiary care hospital in South India. A retrospective analysis of data collected from clinical records of 3000 female patients of age 18 to 49 over a period of 12 months (July 2014 to June 2015) was carried out at the Institute of Venereology, Madras Medical College. Complete epidemiological, clinical, and investigational data were recorded and analyzed for the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis among asymptomatic patients. About 48.37% (228/470) of bacterial vaginosis patients were asymptomatic. Nearly 45.38% (116/235) of vaginal candidiasis patients were asymptomatic and 30.35% (26/87) of trichomoniasis patients were asymptomatic. The above infections were common in the age group 25-35. Holistic screening protocol was incorporated for all female patients attending STD clinic even if asymptomatic and should be treated accordingly to prevent the acquisition of other serious sexually transmitted infections.

  7. Optimization of serious bacterial infections intensive therapy in children in Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Kurochkin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Effective selection of antibiotics in children with severe bacterial infections is often difficult because of microflora resistance. Extracorporeal detoxication methods, particularly discrete plasmapheresis are usually used for septic shock and total organ failure prevention. The aim of research. To conduct microbiological monitoring and to study a dynamics of medium molecular peptides in discrete plasmapheresis for intensive care optimization in children with severe bacterial infections in Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Department (AICU. Materials and methods. We investigated respiratory tract microflora by bacteriological method in 120 newborns and 30 children from 1 month with severe bacterial infections at admission and during prolonged stay in AICU. Discrete plasmapheresis was held in four children. Dynamic of medium molecular peptides was studied at admission, before discrete plasmapheresis and after it. Statistical data processing was performed using the Microsoft Excel software package. Results. It was found that in AICU in older children in admission grampositive and gramnegative flora was defined in equal quantity. The best sensitivity of the respiratory tract microflora was for the glycopeptides, oxazolidinones , II generation cephalosporins and macrolides, more than 60% - for aminoglycosides and lincosamides. However, when children spent more than 7-14 days in the department, nosocomial microflora was represented primarily by gram-negative organisms (80%, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was found to be inappropriate to use cephalosporins and macrolides in AICU for older children after their long stay there; the sensitivity to aminoglycosides was less than 60%, to anti-pseudomonal carbapenems not more than 30%. In AICU of newborns grampositive flora was found in 95%, mostly Staphylococcus haemolyticus. It was entirely sensitive for glycopeptides, oxazolidinones, fluoroquinolones, carbapenems, and also for co-trimoxazole and

  8. Perinatal Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS Enhances Susceptibility to Viral and Secondary Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn A. Claude

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS leads to increased incidence of infections of the lower respiratory tract. The objective of this study was to determine whether perinatal exposure to ETS increases the incidence, morbidity and severity of respiratory influenza infection and whether a secondary bacterial challenge at the peak of a pre-existing viral infection creates an enhanced host-pathogen susceptibility to an opportunistic infection. Timed-pregnant female Balb/c mice were exposed to either ETS for 6 h/day, 7 d/week beginning on gestation day 14 and continuing with the neonates to 6 weeks of age. Control animals were exposed to filtered air (FA. At the end of exposure, mice were intranasally inoculated with a murine-adapted influenza A. One week later, an intranasal inoculation of S. aureus bacteria was administered. The respective treatment groups were: bacteria only, virus only or virus+bacteria for both FA and ETS-exposed animals for a total of six treatment groups. Animal behavior and body weights were documented daily following infection. Mice were necropsied 1-day post-bacterial infection. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF cell analysis demonstrated perinatal exposure to ETS, compared to FA, leads to delayed but enhanced clinical symptoms and enhanced total cell influx into the lungs associated with viral infection followed by bacterial challenge. Viral infection significantly increases the number of neutrophils entering the lungs following bacterial challenge with either FA or ETS exposure, while the influx of lymphocytes and monocytes is significantly enhanced only by perinatal ETS exposure. There is a significant increase in peribronchiolar inflammation following viral infection in pups exposed to ETS compared with pups exposed to FA, but no change is noted in the degree of lung injury between FA and ETS-exposed animals following bacterial challenge. The data suggests perinatal exposure to ETS

  9. Inhibition of sortase A by chalcone prevents Listeria monocytogenes infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongen; Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Bing; Niu, Xiaodi; Song, Meng; Luo, Zhaoqing; Lu, Gejin; Liu, Bowen; Zhao, Xiaoran; Wang, Jianfeng; Deng, Xuming

    2016-04-15

    The critical role of sortase A in gram-positive bacterial pathogenicity makes this protein a good potential target for antimicrobial therapy. In this study, we report for the first time the crystal structure of Listeria monocytogenes sortase A and identify the active sites that mediate its transpeptidase activity. We also used a sortase A (SrtA) enzyme activity inhibition assay, simulation, and isothermal titration calorimetry analysis to discover that chalcone, an agent with little anti-L. monocytogenes activity, could significantly inhibit sortase A activity with an IC50 of 28.41 ± 5.34 μM by occupying the active site of SrtA. The addition of chalcone to a co-culture of L. monocytogenes and Caco-2 cells significantly inhibited bacterial entry into the cells and L. monocytogenes-mediated cytotoxicity. Additionally, chalcone treatment decreased the mortality of infected mice, the bacterial burden in target organs, and the pathological damage to L. monocytogenes-infected mice. In conclusion, these findings suggest that chalcone is a promising candidate for the development of treatment against L. monocytogenes infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bacterial pattern and antibiotic sensitivity in children and adolescents with infected atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samosir, C. T.; Ruslie, R. H.; Rusli, R. E.

    2018-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a pruritic and chronic inflammatory skin disease which affected approximately 20% in children. Bacterial infection is common in AD patients and correlates directly with AD severity. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial skin infection in AD patients and its relation with severity of AD and also to study bacteria in the infected AD and its antibiotic sensitivity. Samples were 86 children and adolescents with an AD in Helvetia Community Health Center Medan from March 2016 until February 2017. Index of SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) was used to evaluate the severity of AD. Lesion and nonlesional skinwere swabbed to take sterile cultures. All bacteria noted and tested for antibiotic sensitivity. Datawere by using Chi-Square and Mann Whitney test with 95% CI and p-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Fifty-six AD patients (65.1%) were bacterial infected. There was a significant relationship between severity of AD and bacterial infection (p = 0.006). Staphylococcus aureus was the leading bacteria from all degrees of AD severity. Isolated Staphylococcus aureuswas sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate (93.3%), clindamycin (90%), erythromycin (90%), and gentamicin (90%), while sensitivity to tetracycline was low (20%).

  11. Staffing and structure of infection prevention and control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Patricia W; Dick, Andrew; Pogorzelska, Monika; Horan, Teresa C; Furuya, E Yoko; Larson, Elaine

    2009-06-01

    The nature of infection prevention and control is changing; however, little is known about current staffing and structure of infection prevention and control programs. Our objectives were to provide a snapshot of the staffing and structure of hospital-based infection prevention and control programs in the United States. A Web-based survey was sent to 441 hospitals that participate in the National Healthcare Safety Network. The response rate was 66% (n = 289); data were examined on 821 professionals. Infection preventionist (IP) staffing was significantly negatively related to bed size, with higher staffing in smaller hospitals (P hospital epidemiologists were reported to have authority to close beds for outbreaks always or most of the time (n = 225, 78%). Only 32% (n = 92) reported using an electronic surveillance system to track infections. This study is the first to provide a comprehensive description of current infection prevention and control staffing, organization, and support in a select group of hospitals across the nation. Further research is needed to identify effective staffing levels for various hospital types as well as examine how the IP role is changing over time.

  12. Bacterial infections in alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sargenti, Konstantina; Prytz, Hanne; Bertilsson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    .001), this relationship was not significant after adjustment for confounders in Cox regression analysis (P=0.056). Resistance to piperacilin-tazobactam and carbapenems was more common in infections occurring in alcoholic versus nonalcoholic cirrhosis (13 vs. 5%, P=0.057 and 12 vs. 2%, P=0.009). Alcoholic etiology...

  13. Bacterial aetiology in lower respiratory tract infections : Relevance in outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, J.

    2017-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is one of the leading reasons for consulting in primary care. Today, a general practitioner faces the challenge of distinguishing between patients with a mild self-limiting disease to whom antibiotics would do more harm than good and those who would benefit

  14. Preventing surgical site infection. Where now?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Humphreys, H

    2009-12-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is increasingly recognised as a measure of the quality of patient care by surgeons, infection control practitioners, health planners and the public. There is increasing pressure to compare SSI rates between surgeons, institutions and countries. For this to be meaningful, data must be standardised and must include post-discharge surveillance (PDS) as many superficial SSIs do not present to the original institution. Further work is required to determine the best method of conducting PDS. In 2008 two important documents on SSI were published from the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America\\/The Infectious Disease Society of America and the National Institute for Health and Clincal Excellence, UK. Both emphasise key aspects during the preoperative, operative and postoperative phases of patient care. In addition to effective interventions known to be important for some time, e.g. not shaving the surgical site until the day of the procedure, there is increasing emphasis on physiological parameters, e.g. blood glucose concentrations, oxygen tensions and body temperature. Laparoscopic procedures are increasingly associated with reduced SSI rates, and the screening and decontamination of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers is effective for certain surgical procedures but has to be balanced by cost and the risk of mupirocin resistance. Finally, there is a need to convert theory into practice by the rigorous application of SSI healthcare bundles. Recent studies suggest that, with a multidisciplinary approach, simple measures can be effective in reducing SSI rates.

  15. Procalcitonin Identifies Cell Injury, Not Bacterial Infection, in Acute Liver Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody A Rule

    Full Text Available Because acute liver failure (ALF patients share many clinical features with severe sepsis and septic shock, identifying bacterial infection clinically in ALF patients is challenging. Procalcitonin (PCT has proven to be a useful marker in detecting bacterial infection. We sought to determine whether PCT discriminated between presence and absence of infection in patients with ALF.Retrospective analysis of data and samples of 115 ALF patients from the United States Acute Liver Failure Study Group randomly selected from 1863 patients were classified for disease severity and ALF etiology. Twenty uninfected chronic liver disease (CLD subjects served as controls.Procalcitonin concentrations in most samples were elevated, with median values for all ALF groups near or above a 2.0 ng/mL cut-off that generally indicates severe sepsis. While PCT concentrations increased somewhat with apparent liver injury severity, there were no differences in PCT levels between the pre-defined severity groups-non-SIRS and SIRS groups with no documented infections and Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock groups with documented infections, (p = 0.169. PCT values from CLD patients differed from all ALF groups (median CLD PCT value 0.104 ng/mL, (p ≤0.001. Subjects with acetaminophen (APAP toxicity, many without evidence of infection, demonstrated median PCT >2.0 ng/mL, regardless of SIRS features, while some culture positive subjects had PCT values <2.0 ng/mL.While PCT appears to be a robust assay for detecting bacterial infection in the general population, there was poor discrimination between ALF patients with or without bacterial infection presumably because of the massive inflammation observed. Severe hepatocyte necrosis with inflammation results in elevated PCT levels, rendering this biomarker unreliable in the ALF setting.

  16. Jamming bacterial communications: new strategies to combat bacterial infections and the development of biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Michael Christian; Hentzer, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The growth and activity of microorganisms affect our lives in both positive and negative ways. We have, since early times, tried to combat unwanted microbes and utilize those expressing useful traits. Microorganisms can cause diseases and chronic infections in humans, animals, and plants. In medi......The growth and activity of microorganisms affect our lives in both positive and negative ways. We have, since early times, tried to combat unwanted microbes and utilize those expressing useful traits. Microorganisms can cause diseases and chronic infections in humans, animals, and plants...

  17. Getting “Inside” Type I IFNs: Type I IFNs in Intracellular Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deann T. Snyder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferons represent a unique and complex group of cytokines, serving many purposes during innate and adaptive immunity. Discovered in the context of viral infections, type I IFNs are now known to have myriad effects in infectious and autoimmune disease settings. Type I IFN signaling during bacterial infections is dependent on many factors including whether the infecting bacterium is intracellular or extracellular, as different signaling pathways are activated. As such, the repercussions of type I IFN induction can positively or negatively impact the disease outcome. This review focuses on type I IFN induction and downstream consequences during infection with the following intracellular bacteria: Chlamydia trachomatis, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Francisella tularensis, Brucella abortus, Legionella pneumophila, and Coxiella burnetii. Intracellular bacterial infections are unique because the bacteria must avoid, circumvent, and even co-opt microbial “sensing” mechanisms in order to reside and replicate within a host cell. Furthermore, life inside a host cell makes intracellular bacteria more difficult to target with antibiotics. Because type I IFNs are important immune effectors, modulating this pathway may improve disease outcomes. But first, it is critical to understand the context-dependent effects of the type I IFN pathway in intracellular bacterial infections.

  18. Widespread bacterial infection affecting Rana temporaria tadpoles in mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Tiberti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodic mass die-offs of Rana temporaria tadpole populations have occurred in the ponds of prealpine mountain areas of Brescia (northern Italy since the early 2000s. The author reports some observational data and analytical results from three sites: tadpoles from mortality events had erythema, especially on the legs, suggestive of septicemia. Bacterial culture of these tadpoles revealed Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria, two organisms often associated with Red leg disease. Egg mass counts from 29 pastureland ponds did not revealed breeding activity declines over five years in the Monte Guglielmo area. Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria usually behave as opportunistic bacteria that can become pathogenic after suppression of the immune system by endogenous or exogenous stressors. Thus, a plurality of environmental factors may contribute to mortality events; some of them are discussed, including loss of high altitude breeding ponds resulting in overcrowding and poor water quality in remaining ponds and the presence of other pathogens.

  19. Infection Prevention and Control in Pediatric Ambulatory Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Mobeen H; Jackson, Mary Anne

    2017-11-01

    Since the American Academy of Pediatrics published its statement titled "Infection Prevention and Control in Pediatric Ambulatory Settings" in 2007, there have been significant changes that prompted this updated statement. Infection prevention and control is an integral part of pediatric practice in ambulatory medical settings as well as in hospitals. Infection prevention and control practices should begin at the time the ambulatory visit is scheduled. All health care personnel should be educated regarding the routes of transmission and techniques used to prevent the transmission of infectious agents. Policies for infection prevention and control should be written, readily available, updated every 2 years, and enforced. Many of the recommendations for infection control and prevention from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for hospitalized patients are also applicable in the ambulatory setting. These recommendations include requirements for pediatricians to take precautions to identify and protect employees likely to be exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials while on the job. In addition to emphasizing the key principles of infection prevention and control in this policy, we update those that are relevant to the ambulatory care patient. These guidelines emphasize the role of hand hygiene and the implementation of diagnosis- and syndrome-specific isolation precautions, with the exemption of the use of gloves for routine diaper changes and wiping a well child's nose or tears for most patient encounters. Additional topics include respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette strategies for patients with a respiratory tract infection, including those relevant for special populations like patients with cystic fibrosis or those in short-term residential facilities; separation of infected, contagious children from uninfected children when feasible; safe handling and disposal of needles and other sharp medical devices; appropriate use of personal

  20. Diagnostic markers of serious bacterial infections in febrile infants younger than 90 days old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Adi; Ben Tov, Amir; Reif, Shimon

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess correlations between demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics and the risk of serious bacterial infection (SBI) in febrile urinary tract infection (43 infants; 90% of all SBI), three infants had bacteremia, one had bacterial pneumonia and one had bacterial meningitis. Significant independent clinical predictors for the diagnosis of SBI included duration of fever, absence of rhinitis and the absence of lung and skin manifestations. Significant independent laboratory predictors were absolute neutrophil count (ANC), platelets, blood urea nitrogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) level. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the CRP area under the curve (0.819) was significantly superior to ANC and leukocyte count. Of the clinical and laboratory variables selected for evaluation, qualitative CRP was the strongest independent predictor for diagnosing SBI and a significantly better diagnostic marker than clinical characteristics, ANC and white blood cell count. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  1. Drug repurposing as an alternative for the treatment of recalcitrant bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eRangel-Vega

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections remain one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and the therapeutic outlook for these infections is worsening, due the rise of antibiotic resistant strains. The pharmaceutical industry has produced few new types of antibiotics in more than a decade. Researchers are taking several approaches towards developing new classes of antibiotics, including (1 focusing on new targets and processes, such as bacterial cell-cell communication that upregulates virulence; (2 designing inhibitors of bacterial resistance, such as blockers of multi-drug efflux pumps; and (3 using alternative antimicrobials such as bacteriophages. In addition, the strategy of finding new uses for existing drugs is beginning to produce results: antibacterial properties have been discovered in existing anticancer, antifungal, anthelmintic, and anti-inflammatory drugs. In this work we discuss the antimicrobial properties of gallium based compounds, 5-fluorouracil, ciclopirox, diflunisal, and some other FDA-approved drugs.

  2. Hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary bacterial infection in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xiuyuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A is essential for normal growth, development, reproduction, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, immune function and vision. Hypovitaminosis A can lead to a series of pathological damage in animals. This report describes the case of hypovitaminosis A associated with secondary complications in calves. Case presentation From February to March in 2011, 2-and 3-month old beef calves presented with decreased eyesight, apparent blindness and persistent diarrhea occurred in a cattle farm of Hubei province, China. Based on history inspection and clinical observation, we made a tentative diagnosis of hypovitaminosis A. The disease was confirmed as a congenital vitamin A deficiency by determination of the concentrations of vitamin A in serum and feed samples. Furthermore, pathological and microbiological examination showed that the disease was associated with pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli infection and mucosal barriers damage in intestines. The corresponding treatments were taken immediately, and the disease was finally under control for a month. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary infection of E. coli in beef cattle, advancing our knowledge of how vitamin A affects infection and immunity in animals. This study could also be contributed to scientific diagnosis and treatments of complex hypovitaminosis A in cattle.

  3. Delayed metamorphosis and recurrence of bacterial infection in irradiated Rana clamitans tadpoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.R.

    1982-03-01

    X-ray doses of 5 and 10 Gy (1 Gy/min) given to premetamorphic Green Frog (Rana clamitans) tadpoles delayed their metamorphosis relative to unirradiated controls. Previous pathogenic bacterial infections recurred in irradiated animals prior to metamorphic climax. Limited mortality occurred during metamorphic climax, 80-105 days after irradiation

  4. Responses of the coastal bacterial community to viral infection of the algae Phaeocystis globosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheik, A.R.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Lavik, G.; Lam, P.; Musat, N.; Krupke, A.; Littmann, S.; Strous, M.; Kuypers, M.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    The release of organic material upon algal cell lyses has a key role in structuring bacterial communities and affects the cycling of biolimiting elements in the marine environment. Here we show that already before cell lysis the leakage or excretion of organic matter by infected yet intact algal

  5. Responses of the coastal bacterial community to viral infection of the algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheik, A.R.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Lavik, G.; Lam, P.; Musat, N.; Krupke, A.; Littmann, S.; Strous, M.; Kuypers, M.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    The release of organic material upon algal cell lyses has a key role in structuring bacterial communities and affects the cycling of biolimiting elements in the marine environment. Here we show that already before cell lysis the leakage or excretion of organic matter by infected yet intact algal

  6. Acute bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract in children from low-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, A; Wolf, B.H.M.

    Acute bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and is responsible for 4 million childhood deaths each year. Most of these deaths are caused by pneumonia and occur in the youngest children in the poorest parts of the world. Severe

  7. A predictive model to estimate the risk of serious bacterial infections in febrile infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, RMF; Berger, MY; vanSteenselMoll, HA; DzoljicDanilovic, G; DerksenLubsen, G

    Low risk criteria have been defined to identify febrile infants unlikely to have serious bacterial infection (SBI). Using these criteria approximately 40% of all febrile infants can be defined as being at low risk. Of the remaining infants (60%) only 10%-20% have an SBI. No adequate criteria exists

  8. 75 FR 52755 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI), impetigo... of antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of ABSSSI, impetigo, and minor cutaneous abscesses. This... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0433...

  9. Bacterial co-infections in a captive Python bivittatus with septicemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-05-27

    May 27, 2016 ... *Correspondence: Tel.: +60 1116689774, E-mail: usuba5050@yahoo.com. Abstract. This case reports bacterial co-infection in a dead albino python (Python bivittatus). The snake was brought in dead to the Universiti Veterinary Hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Necropsy was conducted and organ.

  10. Multi-scale fluorescence imaging of bacterial infections in animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, Joel N.; Kong, Ying; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2013-03-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), currently affects roughly one-third of the world's population. Drug resistant strains of Mtb decrease the effectiveness of current therapeutics and demand the development of new antimicrobial therapies. In addition, the current vaccine, Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), has variable efficacy for disease prevention in different populations. Animal studies are often limited by the need to sacrifice at discrete time points for pathology and tissue homogenization, which greatly reduces spatial and temporal resolution. Optical imaging offers the potential for a minimally-invasive solution to imaging on a macroscopic and microscopic scale, allowing for high resolution study of infection. We have integrated a fluorescence microendoscope into a whole-animal optical imaging system, allowing for simultaneous microscopic and macroscopic imaging of tdTomato expressing BCG in vivo. A 535 nm LED was collimated and launched into a 10,000 element fiber bundle with an outer diameter of 0.66 mm. The fiber bundle can be inserted through an intra-tracheal catheter into the lung of a mouse. Fluorescence emission can either be (1) collected by the bundle and imaged onto the surface of a CCD camera for localized detection or (2) the fluorescence can be imaged by the whole animal imaging system providing macroscopic information. Results from internal localized excitation and external whole body detection indicate the potential for imaging bacterial infections down to 100 colony forming units. This novel imaging technique has the potential to allow for functional studies, enhancing the ability to assess new therapeutic agents.

  11. Value of bacterial culture of vaginal swabs in diagnosis of vaginal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadić Dane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Vaginal and cervical swab culture is still very common procedure in our country’s everyday practice whereas simple and rapid diagnostic methods have been very rarely used. The aim of this study was to show that the employment of simple and rapid diagnostic tools [vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy (VFWMM, vaginal pH and potassium hydroxide (KOH test] offers better assessment of vaginal environment than standard microbiologic culture commonly used in Serbia. Methods. This prospective study included 505 asymptomatic pregnant women undergoing VFWMM, test with 10% KOH, determination of vaginal pH and standard culture of cervicovaginal swabs. Combining findings from the procedures was used to make diagnoses of bacterial vaginosis (BV and vaginitis. In addition, the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN was determined in each sample and analyzed along with other findings. Infections with Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis were confirmed or excluded by microscopic examination. Results. In 36 (6% patients cervicovaginal swab cultures retrieved several aerobes and facultative anaerobes, whereas in 52 (11% women Candida albicans was isolated. Based on VFWMM findings and clinical criteria 96 (19% women had BV, 19 (4% vaginitis, and 72 (14% candidiasis. Of 115 women with BV and vaginitis, pH 4.5 was found in 5, and of 390 with normal findings 83 (21% had vaginal pH 4.5. Elevated numbers of PMN were found in 154 (30% women - in 83 (54% of them VFWMM was normal. Specificity and sensitivity of KOH test and vaginal pH determination in defining pathological vaginal flora were 95% and 81%, and 79% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion. Cervicovaginal swab culture is expensive but almost non-informative test in clinical practice. The use of simpler and rapid methods as vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy, KOH test and vaginal pH offers better results in diagnosis, and probably in the treatment and prevention of sequels of vaginal

  12. Value of bacterial culture of vaginal swabs in diagnosis of vaginal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadić, Dane; Pavlović, Miloš D

    2015-06-01

    Vaginal and cervical swab culture is still very common procedure in our country's everyday practice whereas simple and rapid diagnostic methods have been very rarely used. The aim of this study was to show that the employment of simple and rapid diagnostic tools [vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy (VFWMM), vaginal pH and potassium hydroxide (KOH) test] offers better assessment of vaginal environment than standard microbiologic culture commonly used in Serbia. This prospective study included 505 asymptomatic pregnant women undergoing VFWMM, test with 10% KOH, determination of vaginal pH and standard culture of cervicovaginal swabs. Combining findings from the procedures was used to make diagnoses of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vaginitis. In addition, the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was determined in each sample and analyzed along with other findings. Infections with Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis were confirmed or excluded by microscopic examination. In 36 (6%) patients cervicovaginal swab cultures retrieved several aerobes and facultative anaerobes, whereas in 52 (11%) women Candida albicans was isolated. Based on VFWMM findings and clinical criteria 96 (19%) women had BV, 19 (4%) vaginitis, and 72 (14%) candidiasis. Of 115 women with BV and vaginitis, pH 4.5 was found in 5, and of 390 with normal findings 83 (21%) had vaginal pH 4.5. Elevated numbers of PMN were found in 154 (30%) women--in 83 (54%) of them VFWMM was normal. Specificity and sensitivity of KOH test and vaginal pH determination in defining pathological vaginal flora were 95% and 81%, and 79% and 91%, respectively. Cervicovaginal swab culture is expensive but almost non-informative test in clinical practice. The use of simpler and rapid methods as vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy, KOH test and vaginal pH offers better results in diagnosis, and probably in the treatment and prevention of sequels of vaginal infections.

  13. Experimental infection of plants with an herbivore-associated bacterial endosymbiont influences herbivore host selection behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Seth Davis

    Full Text Available Although bacterial endosymbioses are common among phloeophagous herbivores, little is known regarding the effects of symbionts on herbivore host selection and population dynamics. We tested the hypothesis that plant selection and reproductive performance by a phloem-feeding herbivore (potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli is mediated by infection of plants with a bacterial endosymbiont. We controlled for the effects of herbivory and endosymbiont infection by exposing potato plants (Solanum tuberosum to psyllids infected with "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" or to uninfected psyllids. We used these treatments as a basis to experimentally test plant volatile emissions, herbivore settling and oviposition preferences, and herbivore population growth. Three important findings emerged: (1 plant volatile profiles differed with respect to both herbivory and herbivory plus endosymbiont infection when compared to undamaged control plants; (2 herbivores initially settled on plants exposed to endosymbiont-infected psyllids but later defected and oviposited primarily on plants exposed only to uninfected psyllids; and (3 plant infection status had little effect on herbivore reproduction, though plant flowering was associated with a 39% reduction in herbivore density on average. Our experiments support the hypothesis that plant infection with endosymbionts alters plant volatile profiles, and infected plants initially recruited herbivores but later repelled them. Also, our findings suggest that the endosymbiont may not place negative selection pressure on its host herbivore in this system, but plant flowering phenology appears correlated with psyllid population performance.

  14. Are probiotics effective in preventing urinary tract infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Juan; Rada, Gabriel

    2018-04-04

    Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection and recurrences are common. Probiotics have been proposed as an alternative to decrease this risk. However, it is not clear if they are really effective. To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. We identified six systematic reviews including nine studies overall, of which seven were randomized trials. We concluded it is not clear whether probiotics decrease the risk of symptomatic urinary tract infection, because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  15. Development of quality metrics for ambulatory pediatric cardiology: Infection prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jonathan N; Barrett, Cindy S; Franklin, Wayne H; Graham, Eric M; Halnon, Nancy J; Hattendorf, Brandy A; Krawczeski, Catherine D; McGovern, James J; O'Connor, Matthew J; Schultz, Amy H; Vinocur, Jeffrey M; Chowdhury, Devyani; Anderson, Jeffrey B

    2017-12-01

    In 2012, the American College of Cardiology's (ACC) Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology Council established a program to develop quality metrics to guide ambulatory practices for pediatric cardiology. The council chose five areas on which to focus their efforts; chest pain, Kawasaki Disease, tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries after arterial switch, and infection prevention. Here, we sought to describe the process, evaluation, and results of the Infection Prevention Committee's metric design process. The infection prevention metrics team consisted of 12 members from 11 institutions in North America. The group agreed to work on specific infection prevention topics including antibiotic prophylaxis for endocarditis, rheumatic fever, and asplenia/hyposplenism; influenza vaccination and respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis (palivizumab); preoperative methods to reduce intraoperative infections; vaccinations after cardiopulmonary bypass; hand hygiene; and testing to identify splenic function in patients with heterotaxy. An extensive literature review was performed. When available, previously published guidelines were used fully in determining metrics. The committee chose eight metrics to submit to the ACC Quality Metric Expert Panel for review. Ultimately, metrics regarding hand hygiene and influenza vaccination recommendation for patients did not pass the RAND analysis. Both endocarditis prophylaxis metrics and the RSV/palivizumab metric passed the RAND analysis but fell out during the open comment period. Three metrics passed all analyses, including those for antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with heterotaxy/asplenia, for influenza vaccination compliance in healthcare personnel, and for adherence to recommended regimens of secondary prevention of rheumatic fever. The lack of convincing data to guide quality improvement initiatives in pediatric cardiology is widespread, particularly in infection prevention. Despite this, three metrics were

  16. Role of disinfection in the Infection Prevention Multibarrier System

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The role of disinfection in infection prevention has been analyzed over the past 50 years both in the form of benefit-risk evaluations as well as in an epidemiological sense. This has served as the basis for not only national and international guidelines and recommendations, but has also created the legal and normative framework for regulation of infection control (and hence of disinfection) in numerous and acts and ordinances. Likewise, today the efficacy of disinfection measures, user safet...

  17. PRE-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS FOR PREVENTION OF HIV INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Diniz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To review existing data on Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP for prevention of HIV infection, including the role of medical male circumcision, oral administration of antiretroviral drugs and topical microbicides. Data Sources: PubMed and www.clinicaltrials.gov. Review Methods: Comprehensive review. Results: Medical male circumcision has been shown to prevent 48-60% of new HIV-1 infections. The efficacy rate of antiretroviral drugs given per os to prevent HIV infection varies in direct association with the adherence rate (62.2% in TDF2 study with 84% adherence; 44% in iPrEx study with <50% adherence; 48% in Bangkok study with 67% adherence; 67-75% in Partners PrEP study with 82% adherence; and 6% in FEM-PrEP study with 40% adherence. As for the use of topic microbicides, the CAPRISA 004 study showed 39% reduction in HIV infection using a 1% tenofovir gel. On the other hand, PRO2000 gel showed a modest reduction of 30% which was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The studies suggest that medical male circumcision is highly cost-effective at preventing HIV infection but requires careful communication strategies to be successful. PrEP using antiretroviral drugs is also very effective but it is highly dependent on the adherence rate. As for topical microbicides, 1% tenofovir gel is currently the only promising option.

  18. Infection Control and Prevention: A Review of Hospital-Acquired Infections and the Economic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Deoine; Kemmerly, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 2 million patients suffer from hospital-acquired infections every year and nearly 100,000 of them die. Most of these medical errors are preventable. Hospital-acquired infections result in up to $4.5 billion in additional healthcare expenses annually. The U.S. government has responded to this financial loss by focusing on healthcare quality report cards and by taking strong action to curb healthcare spending. The Medicare Program ha...

  19. Technetium-99m labelled antimicrobial peptides discriminate between bacterial infections and sterile inflammations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welling, M.M.; Pauwels, E.K.J.; Paulusma-Annema, A.; Nibbering, P.H.; Balter, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select technetium-99m labelled peptides that can discriminate between bacterial infections and sterile inflammations. For this purpose, we first assessed the binding of various 99m Tc-labelled natural or synthetic peptides, which are based on the sequence of the human antimicrobial peptide ubiquicidin (UBI) or human lactoferrin (hLF), to bacteria and to leucocytes in vitro. In order to select peptides that preferentially bind to bacteria over host cells, radiolabelled peptides were injected into mice intraperitoneally infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and the amount of radioactivity associated with the bacteria and with the leucocytes was quantitated. The next phase focussed on discrimination between bacterial infections and sterile inflammatory processes using 99m Tc-labelled peptides in mice intramuscularly infected with various bacteria (e.g. multi-drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and in animals that had been injected with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of bacterial origin to create a sterile inflammatory process. Also, we studied the distribution of 99m Tc-labelled UBI 29-41 and UBI 18-35 in rabbits having an experimental thigh muscle infection with K. pneumoniae and in rabbits injected with LPS. Based on the results of our in vitro and in vivo binding assays, two peptides, i.e. UBI 29-41 and UBI 18-35, were selected as possible candidates for infection imaging. The radiolabelled peptides can detect infections with both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in mice as early as 5-30 min after injection, with a target-to-non-target (T/NT) ratio between 2 and 3; maximum T/NT ratios were seen within 1 h after injection. In rabbits, high T/NT ratios (>5) for 99m Tc-labelled UBI 29-41 were observed from 1 h after injection. No accumulation of the selected 99m Tc-labelled UBI-derived peptides was observed in thighs of mice and rabbits previously injected with LPS. Scintigraphic investigation into the biodistribution of

  20. The impact of economic recession on infection prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, M; Fitzpatrick, F

    2015-04-01

    The economic recession that began in 2007 led to austerity measures and public sector cutbacks in many European countries. Reduced resource allocation to infection prevention and control (IPC) programmes is impeding prevention and control of tuberculosis, HIV and vaccine-preventable infections. In addition, higher rates of infectious disease in the community have a significant impact on hospital services, although the extent of this has not been studied. With a focus on quick deficit reduction, preventive services such IPC may be regarded as non-essential. Where a prevention programme succeeds in reducing disease burden to a low level, its very success can undermine the perceived need for the programme. To mitigate the negative effects of recession, we need to: educate our political leaders about the economic benefits of IPC; better quantify the costs of healthcare-associated infection; and evaluate the effects of budget cuts on healthcare outcomes and IPC activities. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coxiella Burnetii: Host and Bacterial Responses to Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-16

    sheep, and pos- ibly cows [8,9]. In the laboratory, C. burnetii is routinely ultured in chicken embryo yolk sacs, in cell cultures, and can e recovered...rickettsial diseases in man, PAHO Science Publication Num- ber 147. Wahington, DC: Pan American Health Organization; 1966. p. 528–31. 84] Bell JF, Lackman DB...and immunological properties of Coxiella burnetii vaccines in C57BL/10ScN endotoxin-nonresponder mice. Infect Immun 1982;35(3):1091–102. 92] Fries LF

  2. Bacterial Infection Increases Reproductive Investment in Burying Beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Reavey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Nicrophorus genus lives and breeds in a microbe rich environment. As such, it would be expected that strategies should be in place to counter potentially negative effects of the microbes common to this environment. In this study, we show the response of Nicrophorus vespilloides to the common soil bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Phenoloxidase (PO levels are not upregulated in response to the challenge and the bacteria are observed to multiply within the haemolymph of the host. Despite the growth of B. subtilis, survival is not affected, either in virgin or in breeding beetles. Some limit on bacterial growth in the haemolymph does seem to be occurring, suggesting mechanisms of resistance, in addition to tolerance mechanisms. Despite limited detrimental effects on the individual, the challenge by Bacillus subtilis appears to act as a cue to increase reproductive investment. The challenge may indicate a suite of negative environmental conditions that could compromise future breeding opportunities. This could act as a cue to increase parental investment in the current bout.

  3. Periodontal bacterial invasion and infection: contribution to atherosclerotic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Leticia; Herrera, David; Kozarov, Emil; Roldán, Silvia; Progulske-Fox, Ann

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this review was to perform a systematic evaluation of the literature reporting current scientific evidence for periodontal bacteria as contributors to atherosclerosis. Literature from epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies concerning periodontal bacteria and atherosclerosis were reviewed. Gathered data were categorized into seven "proofs" of evidence that periodontal bacteria: 1) disseminate from the oral cavity and reach systemic vascular tissues; 2) can be found in the affected tissues; 3) live within the affected site; 4) invade affected cell types in vitro; 5) induce atherosclerosis in animal models of disease; 6) non-invasive mutants of periodontal bacteria cause significantly reduced pathology in vitro and in vivo; and 7) periodontal isolates from human atheromas can cause disease in animal models of infection. Substantial evidence for proofs 1 to 6 was found. However, proof 7 has not yet been fulfilled. Despite the lack of evidence that periodontal bacteria obtained from human atheromas can cause atherosclerosis in animal models of infection, attainment of proofs 1 to 6 provides support that periodontal pathogens can contribute to atherosclerosis. © 2013 European Federation of Periodontology and American Academy of Periodontology.

  4. M13 virus based detection of bacterial infections in living hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Neelkanth M; Ghosh, Debadyuti; Belcher, Angela M

    2014-08-01

    We report a first method for using M13 bacteriophage as a multifunctional scaffold for optically imaging bacterial infections in vivo. We demonstrate that M13 virus conjugated with hundreds of dye molecules (M13-Dye) can target and distinguish pathogenic infections of F-pili expressing and F-negative strains of E. coli. Further, in order to tune this M13-Dye complex suitable for targeting other strains of bacteria, we have used a 1-step reaction for creating an anti-bacterial antibody-M13-Dye probe. As an example, we show anti-S. aureus-M13-Dye able to target and image infections of S. aureus in living hosts, with a 3.7× increase in fluorescence over background. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Premedication with Clarithromycin Is Effective against Secondary Bacterial Pneumonia during Influenza Virus Infection in a Pulmonary Emphysema Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tatsuhiko; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Hara, Atsuko; Morita, Towako; Nakashima, Shota; Kakugawa, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Noriho; Kosai, Kosuke; Izumikawa, Koichi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Mukae, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2016-09-01

    Secondary bacterial pneumonia (SBP) during influenza increases the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its associated mortality. Macrolide antibiotics, including clarithromycin (CAM), are potential treatments for a variety of chronic respiratory diseases owing to their pharmacological activities, in addition to antimicrobial action. We examined the efficacy of CAM for the treatment of SBP after influenza infection in COPD. Specifically, we evaluated the effect of CAM in elastase-induced emphysema mice that were inoculated with influenza virus (strain A/PR8/34) and subsequently infected with macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae CAM was administered to the emphysema mice 4 days prior to influenza virus inoculation. Premedication with CAM improved pathologic responses and bacterial load 2 days after S. pneumoniae inoculation. Survival rates were higher in emphysema mice than control mice. While CAM premedication did not affect viral titers or exert antibacterial activity against S. pneumoniae in the lungs, it enhanced host defense and reduced inflammation, as evidenced by the significant reductions in total cell and neutrophil counts and interferon (IFN)-γ levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung homogenates. These results suggest that CAM protects against SBP during influenza in elastase-induced emphysema mice by reducing IFN-γ production, thus enhancing immunity to SBP, and by decreasing neutrophil infiltration into the lung to prevent injury. Accordingly, CAM may be an effective strategy to prevent secondary bacterial pneumonia in COPD patients in areas in which vaccines are inaccessible or limited. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  6. Prevention of Clostridium difficile infection in rural hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Nicholas; Hofer, Adam; Greene, M Todd; Borlaug, Gwen; Pritchett, Jenny; Scallon, Tina; Safdar, Nasia

    2014-03-01

    Prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains challenging across the spectrum of health care. There are limited data on prevention practices for CDI in the rural health care setting. An electronic survey was administered to 21 rural facilities in Wisconsin, part of the Rural Wisconsin Health Cooperative. Data were collected on hospital characteristics and practices to prevent endemic CDI. Fifteen facilities responded (71%). Nearly all respondent facilities reported regular use of dedicated patient care items, use of gown and gloves, private patient rooms, hand hygiene, and room cleaning. Facilities in which the infection preventionist thought the support of his/her leadership to be "Very good" or "Excellent" employed significantly more CDI practices (13.3 ± 2.4 [standard deviation]) compared with infection preventionists who thought there was less support from leadership (9.8 ± 3.0, P = .033). Surveillance for CDI was highly variable. The most frequent barriers to implementation of CDI prevention practices included lack of adequate resources, lack of a physician champion, and difficulty keeping up with new recommendations. Although most rural facilities in our survey reported using evidence-based practices for prevention of CDI, surveillance practices were highly variable, and data regarding the impact of these practices on CDI rates were limited. Future efforts that correlate CDI prevention initiatives and CDI incidence will help develop evidence-based practices in these resource-limited settings. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  7. Prevention of nosocomial infection in the ICU setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, A; Raimondi, F

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this review is to focus the epidemiology and preventing measures of nosocomial infections that affect the critically ill patients. Most of them (over 80%) are related to the device utilization needed for patient life support but responsible for such complications as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), surgical site infections (SSI) and urinary tract infections (UTI). General recommendations include staff education and use of a surveillance program with a restrictive antibiotic policy. Adequate time must be allowed for hand washing and barrier precautions must always be used during device manipulation. The routine changing of central catheters is not necessary and increases costs; it is necessary to decrease the handling of administration sets, to use a more careful insertion technique and less frequent set replacement. Specific measures for VAP prevention are: 1). use of multi-use, closed-system suction catheters; 2). no routine change of the breathing circuit; 3). lubrication of the the endotracheal tube cuff with a water-soluble gel; 4). maintenance of patient in semi-recumbent position to improve chest physiotherapy. Specific measures for UTI prevention include: 1). use of a catheter-valve instead of a standard drainage system; 2). use of a silver-alloy, hydro gel-coated latex urinary catheter instead of uncoated catheters. By implementing effective preventive measures and maintaining strict surveillance of ICU infections, we hope to affect the associated morbidity, mortality, and cost that our patients and society bare. More clinical trials are needed to verify the efficacy of prevention measures of ICU infections.

  8. Cytokine patterns in paediatric patients presenting serious gastrointestinal and respiratory bacterial infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Martínez, Monika; Rodríguez-Cruz, Leonor; Cortés-Bejar, Consuelo Del Carmen; Valencia-Chavarría, Fernando; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel; González-Torres, María Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In the adaptive immune response, the types of cytokines produced define whether there is a cellular (T1) or a humoral (T2) response. Specifically, in the T1 response, interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor β (TNF-β) are produced, whereas in the T2 response, IL-4, IL-5, IL- 6, IL-10 and IL-13 are primarily produced. Cytokines are primarily involved in the regulation of immune system cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytokine patterns (Type 1/Type 2) and TNF-α expression levels in children with severe gastrointestinal and respiratory bacterial infections. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to identify the cytokines and the infectious agents. The results obtained demonstrated that, in general, children with bacterial infections experienced an increase in IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 concentrations and a decrease in TNF-α, IL-5 and IL-6 concentrations when compared to healthy children. Specifically, type 1 cytokines and an increased TNF-α concentration were found in children with gastrointestinal infections. However, patients with respiratory infections showed increased concentrations of both T2 (IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) and T1 (IL-2 and IFN-γ) components. Thus, it was concluded that children with gastrointestinal infections exclusively developed a T1 response, whereas children with respiratory infections developed a T1/T2 response to fight the infection. PMID:26155128

  9. Advances in nucleic acid-based diagnostics of bacterial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Kim Bundvig; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Methods for rapid detection of infectious bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant pathogens have evolved significantly over the last decade. Many of the new procedures are nucleic acid-based and replace conventional diagnostic methods like culturing which is time consuming especially with fastidious...... of these pathogens is important to isolate patients and prevent further spreading of the diseases. Newly developed diagnostic procedures are superior with respect to turnaround time, sensitivity and specificity. Methods like multiplex real time PCR and different array-based technologies offer the possibility...

  10. Topical application of zinc oxide nanoparticles reduces bacterial skin infection in mice and exhibits antibacterial activity by inducing oxidative stress response and cell membrane disintegration in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Rashmirekha; Mehta, Ranjit Kumar; Mohanty, Soumitra; Padhi, Avinash; Sengupta, Mitali; Vaseeharan, Baskarlingam; Goswami, Chandan; Sonawane, Avinash

    2014-08-01

    Here we studied immunological and antibacterial mechanisms of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) against human pathogens. ZnO-NPs showed more activity against Staphylococcus aureus and least against Mycobacterium bovis-BCG. However, BCG killing was significantly increased in synergy with antituberculous-drug rifampicin. Antibacterial mechanistic studies showed that ZnO-NPs disrupt bacterial cell membrane integrity, reduce cell surface hydrophobicity and down-regulate the transcription of oxidative stress-resistance genes in bacteria. ZnO-NP treatment also augmented the intracellular bacterial killing by inducing reactive oxygen species production and co-localization with Mycobacterium smegmatis-GFP in macrophages. Moreover, ZnO-NPs disrupted biofilm formation and inhibited hemolysis by hemolysin toxin producing S. aureus. Intradermal administration of ZnO-NPs significantly reduced the skin infection, bacterial load and inflammation in mice, and also improved infected skin architecture. We envision that this study offers novel insights into antimicrobial actions of ZnO-NPs and also demonstrates ZnO-NPs as a novel class of topical anti-infective agent for the treatment of skin infections. This in-depth study demonstrates properties of ZnO nanoparticles in infection prevention and treatment in several skin infection models, dissecting the potential mechanisms of action of these nanoparticles and paving the way to human applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ischaemia-modified albumin: a marker of bacterial infection in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Ferdinando A; Domenicali, Marco; Baldassarre, Maurizio; Bartoletti, Michele; Naldi, Marina; Laggetta, Maristella; Bertucci, Carlo; Colecchia, Antonio; Viale, Pierluigi; Bernardi, Mauro; Caraceni, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Patients with cirrhosis present structural changes of human serum albumin (HSA) affecting non-oncotic functions. Ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA), which reflects the capacity to bind cobalt, has been associated to patient mortality during acute-on-chronic liver failure. This study aimed to assess whether circulating IMA is elevated in advanced cirrhosis and its relationship with severity of cirrhosis and specific complications. A total of 127 cirrhotic patients hospitalized for an acute complication of the disease and 44 healthy controls were enrolled. Plasma IMA and IMA to albumin ratio (IMAr) were measured with a cobalt-binding assay. HSA isoforms carrying post-transcriptional molecular changes were assessed with HPLC-ESI-MS. The effect of endotoxemia on IMA was evaluated in rats with CCl4 -cirrhosis. IMA/IMAr is significantly higher in cirrhotic patients than in controls, but no correlations were found with prognostic scores. IMA did not correlate with the altered HSA isoforms. Ascites, renal impairment and hepatic encephalopathy did not influence IMA/IMAr levels. In contrast, IMA/IMAr is significantly higher in infected than non-infected patients. ROC curves showed that IMA/IMAr had similar discriminating performances for bacterial infection as C-reactive protein (CRP). Moreover, CRP and IMA were independently associated with bacterial infection. Consistently, endotoxin injection significantly increased IMA in cirrhotic, but not in healthy rats. IMA is elevated in patients with advanced cirrhosis. The IMA level does not correlate with disease severity scores, but it is specifically associated to bacterial infection, showing a discriminating performance similar to CRP. Further investigations to assess IMA as a novel diagnostic test for bacterial infection are advocated. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Empiric Antibiotic Use and Susceptibility in Infants With Bacterial Infections: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Elana A; McCulloh, Russell J; Myers, Angela L; Aronson, Paul L; Neuman, Mark I; Bradford, Miranda C; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Balamuth, Frances; Blackstone, Mercedes M; Browning, Whitney L; Hayes, Katie; Korman, Rosalynne; Leazer, Rianna C; Nigrovic, Lise E; Marble, Richard; Roben, Emily; Williams, Derek J; Tieder, Joel S

    2017-07-20

    To assess hospital differences in empirical antibiotic use, bacterial epidemiology, and antimicrobial susceptibility for common antibiotic regimens among young infants with urinary tract infection (UTI), bacteremia, or bacterial meningitis. We reviewed medical records from infants <90 days old presenting to 8 US children's hospitals with UTI, bacteremia, or meningitis. We used the Pediatric Health Information System database to identify cases and empirical antibiotic use and medical record review to determine infection, pathogen, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. We compared hospital-level differences in antimicrobial use, pathogen, infection site, and antimicrobial susceptibility. We identified 470 infants with bacterial infections: 362 (77%) with UTI alone and 108 (23%) with meningitis or bacteremia. Infection type did not differ across hospitals ( P = .85). Empirical antibiotic use varied across hospitals ( P < .01), although antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for common empirical regimens were similar. A third-generation cephalosporin would have empirically treated 90% of all ages, 89% in 7- to 28-day-olds, and 91% in 29- to 89-day-olds. The addition of ampicillin would have improved coverage in only 4 cases of bacteremia and meningitis. Ampicillin plus gentamicin would have treated 95%, 89%, and 97% in these age groups, respectively. Empirical antibiotic use differed across regionally diverse US children's hospitals in infants <90 days old with UTI, bacteremia, or meningitis. Antimicrobial susceptibility to common antibiotic regimens was similar across hospitals, and adding ampicillin to a third-generation cephalosporin minimally improves coverage. Our findings support incorporating empirical antibiotic recommendations into national guidelines for infants with suspected bacterial infection. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Scintigraphic images of bacterial infection using aptamers directly labeled with {sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, S.R.; Correa, C.R.; Andrade, A.S.R., E-mail: sararoberta7@hotmail.com, E-mail: crisrcorrea@gmail.com, E-mail: antero@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barros, A.L.B.; Diniz, S.O.F.; Cardoso, V.N., E-mail: brancodebarros@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: valbertcardoso@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: simoneodilia@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is specie of great medical importance and is the most commonly agent found in infections of soft tissues, bone infections and bone prostheses. In this study, aptamers selected to S. aureus were labeled by the direct method with {sup 99m}Tc and used for bacterial infection identification by scintigraphy. The radiolabeled aptamers radiochemical purity and stability were assessed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Three groups of Swiss mice (n=6) were used for the scintigraphic imaging studies. The first group was infected intramuscularly in the right thigh with S. aureus, the second group with C. albicans and the third group received zymosan to induce aseptic inflammation. After 24 h, radiolabeled aptamers (18 MBq) were injected by the tail vein. Scintigraphic images were acquired at 1 h and 4 h postinjection. The radiolabeling yield with {sup 99m}Tc was over 90%. The radiolabeled aptamers were stable in 0.9% saline, plasma and cysteine excess. The scintigraphic image profiles showed high uptake in the kidneys and bladder in all groups, indicating a main renal excretion consistent with the hydrophilic nature of the molecule. No accumulation of radioactivity was observed in the thyroid, stomach, liver and spleen, indicating acceptable levels of radiochemical impurities. The group infected with S. aureus showed a visible uptake in the infected right thigh at 1 h post-injection. For the control groups (C. albicans and zymosan) visible differences between the right and left thighs were not observed. The radiolabeled aptamers were able to distinguish aseptic inflammation from bacterial infection and bacterial from fungal infection. (author)

  14. Scintigraphic images of bacterial infection using aptamers directly labeled with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, S.R.; Correa, C.R.; Andrade, A.S.R.; Barros, A.L.B.; Diniz, S.O.F.; Cardoso, V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is specie of great medical importance and is the most commonly agent found in infections of soft tissues, bone infections and bone prostheses. In this study, aptamers selected to S. aureus were labeled by the direct method with 99m Tc and used for bacterial infection identification by scintigraphy. The radiolabeled aptamers radiochemical purity and stability were assessed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Three groups of Swiss mice (n=6) were used for the scintigraphic imaging studies. The first group was infected intramuscularly in the right thigh with S. aureus, the second group with C. albicans and the third group received zymosan to induce aseptic inflammation. After 24 h, radiolabeled aptamers (18 MBq) were injected by the tail vein. Scintigraphic images were acquired at 1 h and 4 h postinjection. The radiolabeling yield with 99m Tc was over 90%. The radiolabeled aptamers were stable in 0.9% saline, plasma and cysteine excess. The scintigraphic image profiles showed high uptake in the kidneys and bladder in all groups, indicating a main renal excretion consistent with the hydrophilic nature of the molecule. No accumulation of radioactivity was observed in the thyroid, stomach, liver and spleen, indicating acceptable levels of radiochemical impurities. The group infected with S. aureus showed a visible uptake in the infected right thigh at 1 h post-injection. For the control groups (C. albicans and zymosan) visible differences between the right and left thighs were not observed. The radiolabeled aptamers were able to distinguish aseptic inflammation from bacterial infection and bacterial from fungal infection. (author)

  15. Bacterial Infections across the Ants: Frequency and Prevalence of Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, and Asaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Kautz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endosymbionts are common across insects, but we often lack a deeper knowledge of their prevalence across most organisms. Next-generation sequencing approaches can characterize bacterial diversity associated with a host and at the same time facilitate the fast and simultaneous screening of infectious bacteria. In this study, we used 16S rRNA tag encoded amplicon pyrosequencing to survey bacterial communities of 310 samples representing 221 individuals, 176 colonies and 95 species of ants. We found three distinct endosymbiont groups—Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiales, Spiroplasma (Firmicutes: Entomoplasmatales, and relatives of Asaia (Alphaproteobacteria: Rhodospirillales—at different infection frequencies (at the ant species level: 22.1%, 28.4%, and 14.7%, resp. and relative abundances within bacterial communities (1.0%–99.9%. Spiroplasma was particularly enriched in the ant genus Polyrhachis, while Asaia relatives were most prevalent in arboreal ants of the genus Pseudomyrmex. While Wolbachia and Spiroplasma have been surveyed in ants before, Asaia, an acetic acid bacterium capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, has received much less attention. Due to sporadic prevalence across all ant taxa investigated, we hypothesize facultative associations for all three bacterial genera. Infection patterns are discussed in relation to potential adaptation of specific bacteria in certain ant groups.

  16. Community acquired urinary tract infection: etiology and bacterial susceptibility

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    Dias Neto José Anastácio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Urinary tract infections (UTI are one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed. UTI account for a large proportion of antibacterial drug consumption and have large socio-economic impacts. Since the majority of the treatments begins or is done completely empirically, the knowledge of the organisms, their epidemiological characteristics and their antibacterial susceptibility that may vary with time is mandatory. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of uropathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility of the community acquired UTI diagnosed in our institution and to provide a national data. METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively the results of urine cultures of 402 patients that had community acquired urinary tract infection in the year of 2003. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients in this study was 45.34 ± 23.56 (SD years. There were 242 (60.2% females and 160 (39.8% males. The most commonly isolated organism was Escherichia coli (58%. Klebsiella sp. (8.4% and Enterococcus sp.(7.9% were reported as the next most common organisms. Of all bacteria isolated from community acquired UTI, only 37% were sensitive to ampicillin, 51% to cefalothin and 52% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The highest levels of susceptibility were to imipenem (96%, ceftriaxone (90%, amikacin (90%, gentamicin (88%, levofloxacin (86%, ciprofloxacin (73%, nitrofurantoin (77% and norfloxacin (75%. CONCLUSION: Gram-negative agents are the most common cause of UTI. Fluoroquinolones remains the choice among the orally administered antibiotics, followed by nitrofurantoin, second and third generation cephalosporins. For severe disease that require parenteral antibiotics the choice should be aminoglycosides, third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones or imipenem, which were the most effective.

  17. Prevention of nosocomial infections in developing countries, a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murni, Indah; Duke, Trevor; Triasih, Rina; Kinney, Sharon; Daley, Andrew J; Soenarto, Yati

    2013-05-01

    Prevention of nosocomial infection is key to providing good quality, safe healthcare. Infection control programmes (hand-hygiene campaigns and antibiotic stewardship) are effective in reducing nosocomial infections in developed countries. However, the effectiveness of these programmes in developing countries is uncertain. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for preventing nosocomial infections in developing countries. A systematic search for studies which evaluated interventions to prevent nosocomial infection in both adults and children in developing countries was undertaken using PubMed. Only intervention trials with a randomized controlled, quasi-experimental or sequential design were included. Where there was adequate homogeneity, a meta-analysis of specific interventions was performed using the Mantel-Haenzel fixed effects method to estimate the pooled risk difference. Thirty-four studies were found. Most studies were from South America and Asia. Most were before-and-after intervention studies from tertiary urban hospitals. Hand-hygiene campaigns that were a major component of multifaceted interventions (18 studies) showed the strongest effectiveness for reducing nosocomial infection rates (median effect 49%, effect range 12.7-100%). Hand-hygiene campaigns alone and studies of antibiotic stewardship to improve rational antibiotic use reduced nosocomial infection rates in three studies [risk difference (RD) of -0.09 (95%CI -0.12 to -0.07) and RD of -0.02 (95% CI -0.02 to -0.01), respectively]. Multifaceted interventions including hand-hygiene campaigns, antibiotic stewardship and other elementary infection control practices are effective in developing countries. The modest effect size of hand-hygiene campaigns alone and negligible effect size of antibiotic stewardship reflect the limited number of studies with sufficient homogeneity to conduct meta-analyses.

  18. Diagnosing viral and bacterial respiratory infections in acute COPD exacerbations by an electronic nose: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, Wouter H; Bruins, Marcel; Kerstjens, Huib A M

    2016-06-16

    Respiratory infections, viral or bacterial, are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). A rapid, point-of-care, and easy-to-use tool distinguishing viral and bacterial from other causes would be valuable in routine clinical care. An electronic nose (e-nose) could fit this profile but has never been tested in this setting before. In a single-center registered trial (NTR 4601) patients admitted with AECOPD were tested with the Aeonose(®) electronic nose, and a diagnosis of viral or bacterial infection was obtained by bacterial culture on sputa and viral PCR on nose swabs. A neural network with leave-10%-out cross-validation was used to assess the e-nose data. Forty three patients were included. In the bacterial infection model, 22 positive cases were tested versus the negatives; and similarly 18 positive cases were tested in the viral infection model. The Aeonose was able to distinguish between COPD-subjects suffering from a viral infection and COPD patients without infection, showing an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.74. Similarly, for bacterial infections, an AUC of 0.72 was obtained. The Aeonose e-nose yields promising results in 'smelling' the presence or absence of a viral or bacterial respiratory infection during an acute exacerbation of COPD. Validation of these results using a new and large cohort is required before introduction into clinical practice.

  19. Intracellular Bacterial Infections: A Challenge for Developing Cellular Mediated Immunity Vaccines for Farmed Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetron Mweemba Munang’andu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is one of the most rapidly expanding farming systems in the world. Its rapid expansion has brought with it several pathogens infecting different fish species. As a result, there has been a corresponding expansion in vaccine development to cope with the increasing number of infectious diseases in aquaculture. The success of vaccine development for bacterial diseases in aquaculture is largely attributed to empirical vaccine designs based on inactivation of whole cell (WCI bacteria vaccines. However, an upcoming challenge in vaccine design is the increase of intracellular bacterial pathogens that are not responsive to WCI vaccines. Intracellular bacterial vaccines evoke cellular mediated immune (CMI responses that “kill” and eliminate infected cells, unlike WCI vaccines that induce humoral immune responses whose protective mechanism is neutralization of extracellular replicating pathogens by antibodies. In this synopsis, I provide an overview of the intracellular bacterial pathogens infecting different fish species in aquaculture, outlining their mechanisms of invasion, replication, and survival intracellularly based on existing data. I also bring into perspective the current state of CMI understanding in fish together with its potential application in vaccine development. Further, I highlight the immunological pitfalls that have derailed our ability to produce protective vaccines against intracellular pathogens for finfish. Overall, the synopsis put forth herein advocates for a shift in vaccine design to include CMI-based vaccines against intracellular pathogens currently adversely affecting the aquaculture industry.

  20. Combinations of bacterial species associated with symptomatic endodontic infections in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Z; Cao, H; Jiang, H; Zhao, J; Tang, Z

    2016-01-01

    To use microarrays to detect 11 selected bacteria in infected root canals, revealing bacterial combinations that are associated with clinical symptoms and signs of primary endodontic infections in a Chinese population. DNA was extracted from 90 samples collected from the root canals of teeth with primary endodontic infections in a Chinese population, and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were hybridized to microarrays containing specific oligonucleotide probes targeting 11 species, and the arrays were screened with a confocal laser scanner. Pearson's chi-squared test and cluster analysis were performed to investigate the associations between the bacterial combinations and clinical symptoms and signs using SAS 8.02. Seventy-seven samples (86%) yielded at least one of the 11 target species. Parvimonas micra (56%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (51%), Tannerella forsythia (48%), Prevotella intermedia (44%) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (37%) were the most prevalent taxa and were often concomitant. The following positive associations were found between the bacterial combinations and clinical features: P. endodontalis and T. forsythia with abscess; P. gingivalis and P. micra with sinus tract; P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis or P. micra and P. endodontalis with abscess and sinus tract; and the combination of P. endodontalis, P. micra, T. forsythia and P. gingivalis with sinus tract (P endodontalis, T. forsythia and P. gingivalis may contribute to abscesses or sinus tracts of endodontic origin with bacterial synergism in a Chinese population. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Epidemiology, surveillance, and prevention of bloodstream infections in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priti R; Kallen, Alexander J; Arduino, Matthew J

    2010-09-01

    Infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are particularly problematic, accounting for a substantial number of hospitalizations in these patients. Hospitalizations for BSI and other vascular access infections appear to have increased dramatically in hemodialysis patients since 1993. These infections frequently are related to central venous catheter (CVC) use for dialysis access. Regional initiatives that have shown successful decreases in catheter-related BSIs in hospitalized patients have generated interest in replicating this success in outpatient hemodialysis populations. Several interventions have been effective in preventing BSIs in the hemodialysis setting. Avoiding the use of CVCs in favor of access types with lower associated BSI risk is among the most important. When CVCs are used, adherence to evidence-based catheter insertion and maintenance practices can positively influence BSI rates. In addition, facility-level surveillance to detect BSIs and stimulate examination of vascular access use and care practices is essential to a comprehensive approach to prevention. This article describes the current epidemiology of BSIs in hemodialysis patients and effective prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of these devastating infections.

  2. Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections in internal medicine wards: old and new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Marco; Concia, Ercole; Giusti, Massimo; Mazzone, Antonino; Santini, Claudio; Stefani, Stefania; Violi, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a common cause of hospital admission among elderly patients, and traditionally have been divided into complicated and uncomplicated SSTIs. In 2010, the FDA provided a new classification of these infections, and a new category of disease, named acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), has been proposed as an independent clinical entity. ABSSSIs include three entities: cellulitis and erysipelas, wound infections, and major cutaneous abscesses This paper revises the epidemiology of SSTIs and ABSSSIs with regard to etiologies, diagnostic techniques, and clinical presentation in the hospital settings. Particular attention is owed to frail patients with multiple comorbidities and underlying significant disease states, hospitalized on internal medicine wards or residing in nursing homes, who appear to be at increased risk of infection due to multi-drug resistant pathogens and treatment failures. Management of ABSSSIs and SSTIs, including evaluation of the hemodynamic state, surgical intervention and treatment with appropriate antibiotic therapy are extensively discussed.

  3. Use of Multiplex PCR for Diagnosis of Bacterial Infection Respiratory Mixed

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    Al-ssum, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical bacteria grow very slowly in culture or they do not grow at all leading to delays in detection and diagnosis. PCR multiplex was performed on template DNAs extracted from seventy three collected specimens. Thirty seven showed positive indication for the presence of bacterial infection. The incidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumonia and Legionella pneumophila as a single infecting agent was 31.5%, 27.5% and 20 % respectively. Dual agent infection caused by Mycoplasma + Chlamydia, Mycoplasma + Legionella and Legionella + Chlamydia was 24%, 20% and 15% respectively. Triple agent infection caused by Legionella + Mycoplasma + Chlamydia was 17.5%. The etiology of the infection was M. pneumoniae, L. pneumophila or C. pneumoniae as a single etiology or in combination of two or three organisms.

  4. Bacterial infections in horses: a retrospective study at the University Equine Clinic of Bern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchaud, Y; Gerber, V; Rossano, A; Perreten, V

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial infections present a major challenge in equine medicine. Therapy should be based on bacteriological diagnosis to successfully minimize the increasing number of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. The present study is a retrospective analysis of bacteriological results from purulent infections in horses admitted at the University Equine Clinic of Bern from 2004 to 2008. From 378 samples analyzed, 557 isolates were identified, of which Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus and coliforms were the most common. Special attention was paid to infections with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ST398 and a non-MRSA, multidrug-resistant S. aureus clone ST1 (BERN100). Screening of newly-admitted horses showed that 2.2 % were carriers of MRSA. Consequent hygiene measures taken at the Clinic helped to overcome a MRSA outbreak and decrease the number of MRSA infections.

  5. Prostatic stones: evidence of a specific chemistry related to infection and presence of bacterial imprints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Dessombz

    Full Text Available Prostatic stones are a common condition in older men in industrialized countries. However, aging appears not to be the unique pathogenesis of these calcifications. Our morpho-constitutional investigation of 23 stone samples suggested that infection has a significant role in the lithogenic process of prostate calcifications, even without detection of infection by clinical investigation. Most stones (83% showed bacterial imprints and/or chemical composition, suggestive of a long-term infection process. Chronic infection may induce persistent inflammation of the tissue and secondarily, a cancerization process within a few years. Thus, the discovery of prostate calcifications by computerized tomodensitometry, for example, might warrant further investigation and management to search for chronic infection of the prostate gland.

  6. Nurses infection prevention practices in handling injections: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adherence to basic infection prevention procedures/aseptic techniques in handling of injections by health workers is still a concern. The adherence to aseptic techniques in handling injections is significantly associated with the nurses to patients ratios. Therefore, it is imperative to improve nurse to patient ratio in public ...

  7. Compliance With Infection Prevention Guidelines By Health Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    revealed varied levels of compliance on different components of infection prevention. The highest level of compliance (100%) was with single use of needles and syringes while the lowest (35.1) was with decontamination of needles and syringes with 0.5% chlorine solution prior to disposal. Compliance with hand hygiene ...

  8. Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be pharmacological

  9. Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be

  10. Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be

  11. Prevention of common healthcare-associated infections in humanitarian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Richard A; Chua, Arlene C

    2016-08-01

    Humanitarian medical organizations focus on vulnerable patients with increased risk for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and are obligated to minimize them in inpatient departments (IPDs). However, in doing so humanitarian groups face considerable obstacles. This report will focus on approaches to reducing common HAIs that the authors have found to be helpful in humanitarian settings. HAIs are common in humanitarian contexts but there are few interventions or guidelines adapted for use in poor and conflict-affected settings to improve prevention and guide surveillance. Based on existing recommendations and studies, it appears prudent that all humanitarian IPDs introduce a basic infection prevention infrastructure, assure high adherence to hand hygiene with wide accessibility to alcohol-based hand rub, and develop pragmatic surveillance based on clinically evident nosocomial infection. Although microbiology remains out of reach for most humanitarian hospitals, rapid tests offer the possibility of improving the diagnosis of HAIs in humanitarian hospitals in the decade ahead. There is a dearth of new studies that can direct efforts to prevent HAIs in IPDs in poor and conflict-affected areas and there is a need for practical, field-adapted guidelines from professional societies, and international bodies to guide infection prevention efforts in humanitarian environments.

  12. State of Infection Prevention in US Hospitals Enrolled in NHSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Herzig, Carolyn T. A.; Weiner, Lindsey M.; Furuya, E. Yoko; Dick, Andrew; Larson, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Background This report provides a national cross-sectional snapshot of infection prevention and control programs and clinician compliance with the implementation of processes to prevent healthcare associated infections (HAI) in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods All hospitals, except for Veterans Affairs hospitals, enrolled in the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) were eligible to participate. Participation included: 1) completion of a survey that assessed presence of evidence-based prevention policies and clinician adherence, and 2) joining our NHSN research group. Descriptive statistics were computed. Facility characteristics and HAI rates by ICU type were compared between respondents and non-respondents. Results Of the 3,374 eligible hospitals, 975 hospitals provided data (29% response rate) on 1,653 ICUs; and, there were complete data on the presence of policies in 1,534 ICUs. The average number of infection preventionists (IPs) per 100 beds was 1.2. Certification of IP staff varied across institutions and the average hours per week of data management and secretarial support were generally low. There was variation in the presence of policies and clinician adherence to these policies. There were no differences in HAI rates between respondents and non-respondents. Conclusions Guidelines around IP staffing in acute care hospitals should be updated. In future publications we will analyze the associations between HAI rates and infection prevention and control program characteristics, presence of and clinician adherence to evidence-based policies. PMID:24485365

  13. Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnancy - Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, A; Gomes, G; Campos, A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Literature review of classification, epidemiology, pathophysiology, microbiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, complications, treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections (UTI) in pregnancy. Data Sources and Review Methods: Bibliographic research in Medline, through PubMed and Medscape, of systematic reviews, observational studies, clinical guidelines, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials published between January 1992 and December 2010. Results: Asymp...

  14. Prevention of perioperative wound infections | Buteera | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aiming at short preoperative stay in hospital, and pre-washing of the area concerned before cleaning with antiseptic are also imperative in reducing SSI. Preoperative skin preparation is an important element in prevention of infection, but removes only up to 80% of skin flora. Standard surgical antisepsis is an accepted ...

  15. Prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections and other coinfections in HIV-infected patients: May 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, José Antonio; Rubio, Rafael; Aguirrebengoa, Koldo; Arribas, Jose Ramón; Baraia-Etxaburu, Josu; Gutiérrez, Félix; Lopez Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Losa, Juan Emilio; Miró, José Ma; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez Molina, José; Podzamczer, Daniel; Pulido, Federico; Riera, Melchor; Rivero, Antonio; Sanz Moreno, José; Amador, Concha; Antela, Antonio; Arazo, Piedad; Arrizabalaga, Julio; Bachiller, Pablo; Barros, Carlos; Berenguer, Juan; Caylá, Joan; Domingo, Pere; Estrada, Vicente; Knobel, Hernando; Locutura, Jaime; López Aldeguer, José; Llibre, Josep Ma; Lozano, Fernando; Mallolas, Josep; Malmierca, Eduardo; Miralles, Celia; Miralles, Pilar; Muñoz, Agustín; Ocampo, Agustín; Olalla, Julián; Pérez, Inés; Pérez Elías, Ma Jesús; Pérez Arellano, José Luis; Portilla, Joaquín; Ribera, Esteban; Rodríguez, Francisco; Santín, Miguel; Sanz Sanz, Jesús; Téllez, Ma Jesús; Torralba, Miguel; Valencia, Eulalia; Von Wichmann, Miguel Angel

    2016-10-01

    Despite the huge advance that antiretroviral therapy represents for the prognosis of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), opportunistic infections (OIs) continue to be a cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. OIs often arise because of severe immunosuppression resulting from poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy, failure of antiretroviral therapy, or unawareness of HIV infection by patients whose first clinical manifestation of AIDS is an OI. The present article updates our previous guidelines on the prevention and treatment of various OIs in HIV-infected patients, namely, infections by parasites, fungi, viruses, mycobacteria, and bacteria, as well as imported infections. The article also addresses immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  16. Endophytic bacterial community of grapevine leaves influenced by sampling date and phytoplasma infection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Daniela; Casati, Paola; Quaglino, Fabio; Bianco, Piero A

    2014-07-21

    Endophytic bacteria benefit host plant directly or indirectly, e.g. by biocontrol of the pathogens. Up to now, their interactions with the host and with other microorganisms are poorly understood. Consequently, a crucial step for improving the knowledge of those relationships is to determine if pathogens or plant growing season influence endophytic bacterial diversity and dynamic. Four healthy, four phytoplasma diseased and four recovered (symptomatic plants that spontaneously regain a healthy condition) grapevine plants were sampled monthly from June to October 2010 in a vineyard in north-western Italy. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from sterilized leaves and the endophytic bacterial community dynamic and diversity were analyzed by taxon specific real-time PCR, Length-Heterogeneity PCR and genus-specific PCR. These analyses revealed that both sampling date and phytoplasma infection influenced the endophytic bacterial composition. Interestingly, in June, when the plants are symptomless and the pathogen is undetectable (i) the endophytic bacterial community associated with diseased grapevines was different from those in the other sampling dates, when the phytoplasmas are detectable inside samples; (ii) the microbial community associated with recovered plants differs from that living inside healthy and diseased plants. Interestingly, LH-PCR database identified bacteria previously reported as biocontrol agents in the examined grapevines. Of these, Burkholderia, Methylobacterium and Pantoea dynamic was influenced by the phytoplasma infection process and seasonality. Results indicated that endophytic bacterial community composition in grapevine is correlated to both phytoplasma infection and sampling date. For the first time, data underlined that, in diseased plants, the pathogen infection process can decrease the impact of seasonality on community dynamic. Moreover, based on experimental evidences, it was reasonable to hypothesize that after recovery the restructured

  17. Polysaccharides as Bacterial Antiadhesive Agents and "Smart" Constituents for Improved Drug Delivery Systems Against Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchicchi, Bianca; Hensel, Andreas; Goycoolea, Francisco M

    2015-01-01

    The standard eradication treatment of the hostile Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) stomach infection is facing increasing alarming antibiotic resistance worldwide and calls for alternative strategies to the use of antibiotics. One new perspective in this direction is cytoprotective compounds for targeted prevention of the adhesion of the bacteria to the stomach host cell and to inhibit the bacterial cell-cell communication via quorum sensing by specific inhibitors. Bacterial adhesion of H. pylori to the host cells is mainly mediated by carbohydrate-protein interactions. Therefore, the use of polyvalent carbohydrates, (e.g. plant-derived polysaccharides), as potential antiadhesive compounds, seems to be a promising tool to prevent the initial docking of the bacterium to the stomach cells. Polysaccharides are common constituents of daily food, either as starch or as dietary fiber and often also function as excipients for galenic drug-delivery formulations. In addition, polysaccharides with defined pharmacodynamics action against bacterial outer membrane proteins can have potential as therapeutic tools in the treatment of bacterial infections. Some polysaccharides are known to possess antibacterial properties against gram-positive bacteria, others to inhibit bacterial colonization by blocking specific carbohydrate receptors involved in host-bacteria interaction. This mode of action is advocated as alternative antiadhesion therapy. Ongoing research is also seeking for polysaccharide-based nanoformulations with potential for local drug delivery at the stomach as novel H. pylori therapies. These approaches pose challenges concerned with the stability of the nanomaterials in the harsh conditions of the gastric environment and their capacity to adhere to the stomach mucosa. In a global scenario, geographical diversity and social habits, namely lifestyle and dietary factors, influence the prevalence of the H. pylori-associated diseases and their severity. In this context

  18. Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Associated Risk Factors among Women Complaining of Genital Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adane Bitew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bacterial vaginosis is a global concern due to the increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 210 patients between September 2015 and July 2016 at St. Paul’s Hospital. Gram-stained vaginal swabs were examined microscopically and graded as per Nugent’s procedure. Bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis were characterized, and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined. Results. The overall prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 48.6%. Bacterial vaginosis was significantly associated with number of pants used per day (p=0.001 and frequency of vaginal bathing (p=0.045. Of 151 bacterial isolates, 69.5% were Gram-negative and 30.5% were Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-positive bacteria was high against penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Cefoxitin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-negative bacteria was high against tetracycline, ampicillin, and amoxicillin. Amikacin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was high and was affected by individual hygiene. Routine culture of vaginal samples should be performed on patients with vaginitis and the drug susceptibility pattern of each isolate should be determined.

  19. Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Associated Risk Factors among Women Complaining of Genital Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitew, Adane; Abebaw, Yeshiwork; Bekele, Delayehu; Mihret, Amete

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a global concern due to the increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 210 patients between September 2015 and July 2016 at St. Paul's Hospital. Gram-stained vaginal swabs were examined microscopically and graded as per Nugent's procedure. Bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis were characterized, and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined. The overall prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 48.6%. Bacterial vaginosis was significantly associated with number of pants used per day ( p = 0.001) and frequency of vaginal bathing ( p = 0.045). Of 151 bacterial isolates, 69.5% were Gram-negative and 30.5% were Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-positive bacteria was high against penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Cefoxitin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-negative bacteria was high against tetracycline, ampicillin, and amoxicillin. Amikacin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-negative bacteria. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was high and was affected by individual hygiene. Routine culture of vaginal samples should be performed on patients with vaginitis and the drug susceptibility pattern of each isolate should be determined.

  20. New Paenibacillus larvae bacterial isolates from honey bee colonies infected with American foulbrood disease in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masry, Saad Hamdy Daif; Kabeil, Sanaa Soliman; Hafez, Elsayed Elsayed

    2014-03-04

    The American foulbrood disease is widely distributed all over the world and causes a serious problem for the honeybee industry. Different infected larvae were collected from different apiaries, ground in phosphate saline buffer (PSB) and bacterial isolation was carried out on nutrient agar medium. Different colonies were observed and were characterized biologically. Two bacterial isolates (SH11 and SH33) were subjected to molecular identification using 16S rRNA gene and the sequence analysis revealed that the two isolates are Paenibacillus larvae with identity not exceeding 83%. The DNA sequence alignment between the other P. larvae bacterial strains and the two identified bacterial isolates showed that all the examined bacterial strains have the same ancestor, i.e. they have the same origin. The SH33 isolate was closely related to the P. larvae isolated from Germany, whereas the isolate SH11 was close to the P. larvae isolated from India. The phylogenetic tree constructed for 20 different Bacillus sp. and the two isolates SH11 and SH33 demonstrated that the two isolates are Bacillus sp. and they are new isolates. The bacterial isolates will be subjected to more tests for more confirmations.

  1. Macrophage origin limits functional plasticity in helminth-bacterial co-infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Rückerl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid reprogramming of the macrophage activation phenotype is considered important in the defense against consecutive infection with diverse infectious agents. However, in the setting of persistent, chronic infection the functional importance of macrophage-intrinsic adaptation to changing environments vs. recruitment of new macrophages remains unclear. Here we show that resident peritoneal macrophages expanded by infection with the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri altered their activation phenotype in response to infection with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium in vitro and in vivo. The nematode-expanded resident F4/80high macrophages efficiently upregulated bacterial induced effector molecules (e.g. MHC-II, NOS2 similarly to newly recruited monocyte-derived macrophages. Nonetheless, recruitment of blood monocyte-derived macrophages to Salmonella infection occurred with equal magnitude in co-infected animals and caused displacement of the nematode-expanded, tissue resident-derived macrophages from the peritoneal cavity. Global gene expression analysis revealed that although nematode-expanded resident F4/80high macrophages made an anti-bacterial response, this was muted as compared to newly recruited F4/80low macrophages. However, the F4/80high macrophages adopted unique functional characteristics that included enhanced neutrophil-stimulating chemokine production. Thus, our data provide important evidence that plastic adaptation of MΦ activation does occur in vivo, but that cellular plasticity is outweighed by functional capabilities specific to the tissue origin of the cell.

  2. Asymptomatic cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis present exacerbated tissue pathology and bacterial dissemination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Menin

    Full Text Available Rational discovery of novel immunodiagnostic and vaccine candidate antigens to control bovine tuberculosis (bTB requires knowledge of disease immunopathogenesis. However, there remains a paucity of information on the Mycobacterium bovis-host immune interactions during the natural infection. Analysis of 247 naturally PPD+ M. bovis-infected cattle revealed that 92% (n = 228 of these animals were found to display no clinical signs, but presented severe as well as disseminated bTB-lesions at post-mortem examination. Moreover, dissemination of bTB-lesions positively correlated with both pathology severity score (Spearman r = 0.48; p<0.0001 and viable tissue bacterial loads (Spearman r = 0.58; p = 0.0001. Additionally, granuloma encapsulation negatively correlated with M. bovis growth as well as pathology severity, suggesting that encapsulation is an effective mechanism to control bacterial proliferation during natural infection. Moreover, multinucleated giant cell numbers were found to negatively correlate with bacterial counts (Spearman r = 0.25; p = 0.03 in lung granulomas. In contrast, neutrophil numbers in the granuloma were associated with increased M. bovis proliferation (Spearman r = 0.27; p = 0.021. Together, our findings suggest that encapsulation and multinucleated giant cells control M. bovis viability, whereas neutrophils may serve as a cellular biomarker of bacterial proliferation during natural infection. These data integrate host granuloma responses with mycobacterial dissemination and could provide useful immunopathological-based biomarkers of disease severity in natural infection with M. bovis, an important cattle pathogen.

  3. Bacterial infections in Lilongwe, Malawi: aetiology and antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoka Mwai H

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Life-threatening infections present major challenges for health systems in Malawi and the developing world because routine microbiologic culture and sensitivity testing are not performed due to lack of capacity. Use of empirical antimicrobial therapy without regular microbiologic surveillance is unable to provide adequate treatment in the face of emerging antimicrobial resistance. This study was conducted to determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in order to inform treatment choices and generate hospital-wide baseline data. Methods Culture and susceptibility testing was performed on various specimens from patients presenting with possible infectious diseases at Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi. Results Between July 2006 and December 2007 3104 specimens from 2458 patients were evaluated, with 60.1% from the adult medical service. Common presentations were sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia and abscess. An etiologic agent was detected in 13% of patients. The most common organisms detected from blood cultures were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella species and Streptococcus pneumoniae, whereas Streptococcus pneumoniae and Cryptococcus neoformans were most frequently detected from cerebrospinal fluid. Haemophilus influenzae was rarely isolated. Resistance to commonly used antibiotics was observed in up to 80% of the isolates while antibiotics that were not commonly in use maintained susceptibility. Conclusions There is widespread resistance to almost all of the antibiotics that are empirically used in Malawi. Antibiotics that have not been widely introduced in Malawi show better laboratory performance. Choices for empirical therapy in Malawi should be revised accordingly. A microbiologic surveillance system should be established and prudent use of antimicrobials promoted to improve patient care.

  4. [An experimental study on the prevention of enteral bacterial translocation in scalded rats by smectite powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hai-tao; Li, Yi-shu; Lu, Shu-liang; Sun, Man; Qing, Chun; Li, Zong-yu; Shao, Tie-bing; Huang, Li-bing; Qu, Bing; Yang, Xin-bo

    2005-04-01

    To explore the preventive and treatment effects of smectite powder on enteral bacterial translocation in scalded rats. Fifty-four Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. normal control (A, n = 6), burn control (B, n = 24), and burn treatment (T, n = 24) groups. The rats in B and T groups were fed with tracing bacteria JM109, which was transfected with PUC19 plasmid in advance. The rats were subjected to 30% TBSA scald injury after the plasmid was shown to have colonized in the intestine. Smectite powder (0.6 g/day/kg) was fed to rats of T group immediately after the scalding, while those in B group received no smectite powder. Bacterial translocation in blood and mesenteric lymph nodes in all groups was observed and identified by enzyme digestion at 12 post scald hour (PSH) and on 1, 3 and 5 post-scald days (PSD). The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in rat intestinal tissue. And the degree of injury to the entire small intestine was observed pathologically. The villus height of intestinal mucosa was measured, and the rate of epithelial nuclear splitting of mucosal crypts was calculated. The number of rats with positive blood bacterial culture in B group was obviously higher than that in A and T groups (P Smectite powder is beneficial to the protection of the intestinal mucosa in scalded rats, and can effectively prevent postburn intestinal bacterial translocation in rats.

  5. The potential of photo-deposited silver coatings on Foley catheters to prevent urinary tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Ian Richard; Pollini, Mauro; Paladini, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) represents one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. The resistance demonstrated by many microorganisms to conventional antibiotic therapies and the increasing health-care costs have recently encouraged the definition of alternative preventive strategies, which can have a positive effect in the management of infections. Antimicrobial urinary catheters have been developed through the photo-chemical deposition of silver coatings on the external and luminal surfaces. The substrates are exposed to ultraviolet radiation after impregnation into a silver-based solution, thus inducing the in situ synthesis of silver particles. The effect of the surface treatment on the material was investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and silver ion release measurements. The ability of microorganisms commonly associated with urinary tract infections was investigated in terms of bacterial viability, proliferation and biofilm development, using Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis as target organisms. The silver coatings demonstrated good distribution of silver particles to the substrate, and proved an effective antibacterial capability in simulated biological conditions. The low values of silver ion release demonstrated the optimum adhesion of the coating. The results indicated a good potential of silver-based antimicrobial materials for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection. - Highlights: • Silver nanocoatings were deposited on urinary catheters. • Both luminal and outer surface were successfully treated. • The treated devices demonstrated were effective against different microorganisms. • The antibacterial potential of the devices was assessed.

  6. Use of Lactobacillus spp. to prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Qin Xiang; Peters, Christina; Venkatanarayanan, Nandini; Goh, Yan Yih; Ho, Collin Yih Xian; Yeo, Wee-Song

    2018-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections seen in the community, especially amongst females. The widespread use of antibiotics has led to the increased occurrence of E. coli resistant isolates worldwide. A promising non-antibiotic approach is the use of probiotic lactobacilli strains. This paper hypothesizes that Lactobacillus spp. containing products are able to prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in females. Using the keywords [lactobacillus OR lactobacilli OR probiotic] and [urinary tract infection OR UTI OR cystitis], a preliminary search on the PubMed, Ovid, Google Scholar and ClinicalTrials.gov database yielded 1,647 papers published in English between 1-Jan-1960 and 1-May-2017. 9 clinical trials with a total of 726 patients were reviewed. Different lactobacilli strains (in either oral or suppository formulation) were utilized and they demonstrated varying efficacy in the prevention of recurrent UTIs. Using a random-effects model, pooled risk ratio of at least one recurrent UTI episode during the entire study duration was 0.684 (95% CI 0.438 to 0.929, p probiotics for UTIs is plausible and supported by current data. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC14 were the most commonly studied lactobacilli strains. Further and more robust randomized controlled trials with standardized lactobacilli strains and formulation are required for confirmation of effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The potential of photo-deposited silver coatings on Foley catheters to prevent urinary tract infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Ian Richard [School of Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Pollini, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.pollini@unisalento.it [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Silvertech Ltd, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Paladini, Federica [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2016-12-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) represents one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. The resistance demonstrated by many microorganisms to conventional antibiotic therapies and the increasing health-care costs have recently encouraged the definition of alternative preventive strategies, which can have a positive effect in the management of infections. Antimicrobial urinary catheters have been developed through the photo-chemical deposition of silver coatings on the external and luminal surfaces. The substrates are exposed to ultraviolet radiation after impregnation into a silver-based solution, thus inducing the in situ synthesis of silver particles. The effect of the surface treatment on the material was investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and silver ion release measurements. The ability of microorganisms commonly associated with urinary tract infections was investigated in terms of bacterial viability, proliferation and biofilm development, using Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis as target organisms. The silver coatings demonstrated good distribution of silver particles to the substrate, and proved an effective antibacterial capability in simulated biological conditions. The low values of silver ion release demonstrated the optimum adhesion of the coating. The results indicated a good potential of silver-based antimicrobial materials for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection. - Highlights: • Silver nanocoatings were deposited on urinary catheters. • Both luminal and outer surface were successfully treated. • The treated devices demonstrated were effective against different microorganisms. • The antibacterial potential of the devices was assessed.

  8. Diagnostic Test Accuracy of a 2-Transcript Host RNA Signature for Discriminating Bacterial vs Viral Infection in Febrile Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberg, Jethro A; Kaforou, Myrsini; Wright, Victoria J; Shailes, Hannah; Eleftherohorinou, Hariklia; Hoggart, Clive J; Cebey-López, Miriam; Carter, Michael J; Janes, Victoria A; Gormley, Stuart; Shimizu, Chisato; Tremoulet, Adriana H; Barendregt, Anouk M; Salas, Antonio; Kanegaye, John; Pollard, Andrew J; Faust, Saul N; Patel, Sanjay; Kuijpers, Taco; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Burns, Jane C; Coin, Lachlan J M; Levin, Michael

    Because clinical features do not reliably distinguish bacterial from viral infection, many children worldwide receive unnecessary antibiotic treatment, while bacterial infection is missed in others. To identify a blood RNA expression signature that distinguishes bacterial from viral infection in febrile children. Febrile children presenting to participating hospitals in the United Kingdom, Spain, the Netherlands, and the United States between 2009-2013 were prospectively recruited, comprising a discovery group and validation group. Each group was classified after microbiological investigation as having definite bacterial infection, definite viral infection, or indeterminate infection. RNA expression signatures distinguishing definite bacterial from viral infection were identified in the discovery group and diagnostic performance assessed in the validation group. Additional validation was undertaken in separate studies of children with meningococcal disease (n = 24) and inflammatory diseases (n = 48) and on published gene expression datasets. A 2-transcript RNA expression signature distinguishing bacterial infection from viral infection was evaluated against clinical and microbiological diagnosis. Definite bacterial and viral infection was confirmed by culture or molecular detection of the pathogens. Performance of the RNA signature was evaluated in the definite bacterial and viral group and in the indeterminate infection group. The discovery group of 240 children (median age, 19 months; 62% male) included 52 with definite bacterial infection, of whom 36 (69%) required intensive care, and 92 with definite viral infection, of whom 32 (35%) required intensive care. Ninety-six children had indeterminate infection. Analysis of RNA expression data identified a 38-transcript signature distinguishing bacterial from viral infection. A smaller (2-transcript) signature (FAM89A and IFI44L) was identified by removing highly correlated transcripts. When this 2-transcript

  9. Surface zwitterionization: Effective method for preventing oral bacterial biofilm formation on hydroxyapatite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoungjin; Kim, Heejin; Seo, Jiae; Kang, Minji; Kang, Sunah; Jang, Joomyung; Lee, Yan; Seo, Ji-Hun

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we conducted surface zwitterionization of hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces by immersing them in the zwitterionic polymer solutions to provide anti-bacterial properties to the HA surface. Three different monomers containing various zwitterionic groups, i.e., phosphorylcholine (PC), sulfobetaine (SB), and carboxybetaine (CB), were copolymerized with the methacrylic monomer containing a Ca2+-binding moiety, using the free radical polymerization method. As a control, functionalization of the copolymer containing the Ca2+-binding moiety was synthesized using a hydroxy group. The stable immobilization of the zwitterionic functional groups was confirmed by water contact angle analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement conducted after the sonication process. The zwitterionized HA surface showed significantly decreased protein adsorption, whereas the hydroxyl group-coated HA surface showed limited efficacy. The anti-bacterial adhesion property was confirmed by conducting Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adhesion tests for 6 h and 24 h. When furanone C-30, a representative anti-quorum sensing molecule for S. mutans, was used, only a small amount of bacteria adhered after 6 h and the population did not increase after 24 h. In contrast, zwitterionized HA surfaces showed almost no bacterial adhesion after 6 h and the effect was retained for 24 h, resulting in the lowest level of oral bacterial adhesion. These results confirm that surface zwitterionization is a promising method to effectively prevent oral bacterial adhesion on HA-based materials.

  10. Antimicrobial peptides on calcium phosphate-coated titanium for the prevention of implant-associated infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Kindrachuk, Jason; Duan, Ke

    2010-01-01

    of this study was to develop a technique that enables the loading and local delivery of a unique group of cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMP) through implant surfaces. A thin layer of micro-porous calcium phosphate (CaP) coating was processed by electrolytic deposition onto the surface of titanium as the drug......Prevention of implant-associated infections has been one of the main challenges in orthopaedic surgery. This challenge is further complicated by the concern over the development of antibiotic resistance as a result of using traditional antibiotics for infection prophylaxis. The objective......) bacteria with 106-fold reductions of both bacterial strains within 30 min as assessed by measuring colony-forming units (CFU). Repeated CFU assays on the same CaP-Tet213 specimen demonstrated retention of antimicrobial activity by the CaP-Tet213 surfaces through four test cycles. The susceptibility...

  11. DMPD: Lipopolysaccharide sensing an important factor in the innate immune response toGram-negative bacterial infections: benefits and hazards of LPShypersensitivity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se toGram-negative bacterial infections: benefits and hazards of LPShypersensitivity. Freudenberg MA, Tchapt...portant factor in the innate immune response toGram-negative bacterial infections: benefits and hazards of L...une response toGram-negative bacterial infections: benefits and hazards of LPShyp

  12. Review of moxifloxacin hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in the treatment of bacterial eye infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene Miller

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Darlene MillerAbrams Ocular Microbiology Laboratory, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Anne Bates Leach Eye Hospital, Miller School of Medicine-University of Miami, FL, USAAbstract: Moxifloxacin hydrochloride ophthalmic solution 0.5% (Vigamox® is the ocular formulation/adaptation of moxifloxacin. Moxifloxacin is a broad spectrum 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone which terminates bacterial growth by binding to DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II and topoisomerase IV, essential bacterial enzymes involved in the replication, translation, repair and recombination of deoxyribonucleic acid. Affinity for both enzymes improves potency and reduces the probability of selecting resistant bacterial subpopulations. Vigamox is a bactericidal, concentration dependent, anti-infective. It is preservative free, and well tolerated with minimal ocular side effects. It provides increased penetration into ocular tissues and fluids with improved activity against Streptococci and Staphylococci species and moderate to excellent activity against clinically relevant, gram- negative ocular pathogens.Keywords: moxifloxacin, vigamox, pharmacodynamic indices, minimal inhibitory concentrations

  13. Multifunctional pH sensitive 3D scaffolds for treatment and prevention of bone infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuéndez, Mónica; Doadrio, Juan C; Hernández, Ana; Portolés, M Teresa; Izquierdo-Barba, Isabel; Vallet-Regí, María

    2018-01-01

    Multifunctional-therapeutic three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds have been prepared. These biomaterials are able to destroy the S. aureus bacterial biofilm and to allow bone regeneration at the same time. The present study is focused on the design of pH sensitive 3D hierarchical meso-macroporous 3D scaffolds based on MGHA nanocomposite formed by a mesostructured glassy network with embedded hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, whose mesopores have been loaded with levofloxacin (Levo) as antibacterial agent. These 3D platforms exhibit controlled and pH-dependent Levo release, sustained over time at physiological pH (7.4) and notably increased at infection pH (6.7 and 5.5), which is due to the different interaction rate between diverse Levo species and the silica matrix. These 3D systems are able to inhibit the S. aureus growth and to destroy the bacterial biofilm without cytotoxic effects on human osteoblasts and allowing an adequate colonization and differentiation of preosteoblastic cells on their surface. These findings suggest promising applications of these hierarchical MGHA nanocomposite 3D scaffolds for the treatment and prevention of bone infection. Multifunctional 3D nanocomposite scaffolds with the ability for loading and sustained delivery of an antimicrobial agent, to eliminate and prevent bone infection and at the same time to contribute to bone regeneration process without cytotoxic effects on the surrounding tissue has been proposed. These 3D scaffolds exhibit a sustained levofloxacin delivery at physiological pH (pH 7.4), which increasing notably when pH decreases to characteristic values of bone infection process (pH 6.7 and pH 5.5). In vitro competitive assays between preosteoblastic and bacteria onto the 3D scaffold surface demonstrated an adequate osteoblast colonization in entire scaffold surface together with the ability to eliminate bacteria contamination. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. TREATMENT AND VACCINE PREVENTION OF ROTAVIRAL INFECTION AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Kulichenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of the level of healthcare system development rotaviral infection is a serious medical, social and economic problem at all times. Any infant has to undergo rotaviral gastroenteritis. The run of the disease among infants is mostly often aggravated by dehydration and needs intense treatment of exicosis. The standard of treatment is an oral rehydration, which is in most cases contributes to a quicker improvement of the children’s status. In the meantime, according to the metaphor put forward by the who experts «the best solution» to prevent acute rotaviral diarrhea today may become a rotaviral vaccine. Nowadays, in different countries of the world, two vaccines, which showed high efficiency and safety in clinical research, have been registered. Application of these vaccines may contribute to the significant reduction of the acute forms of rotaviral infection among infants, hospitalizations and mortality caused by rotaviral gastroenteritis. This article highlights the principles of treatment and possibility for vaccine prevention of rotaviral infection among children.Key words: rotaviral infection, gastroenteritis, diarrhea, children, rehydration, vaccine prevention, rotaviral vaccine.

  15. SECONDARY BACTERIAL INFECTION IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH PROLONGED AND SEVERE DENGUE FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Generally, in dengue shock syndrome antibiotics are not advised. But unrecognised bacterial infection is likely to contribute to morbidity and mortality, probably because of increased vascular permeability. OBJECTIVES To assess the incidence of secondary bacterial infection in adult patients with prolonged and severe dengue fever. METHODS A prospective study was conducted recruiting patients with confirmed acute dengue infection who had prolonged fever (>5 days. Prior to institution of antibiotic therapy, two sets of blood cultures were taken from patients. Demographic, clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were recorded. Severity of fever & associated symptoms assessed. Ultrasonography done to find out development of ascites and pleural effusions. RESULTS Sixty patients (60.0% males with a mean age of 33.5 years (SD 12.1 were studied. The average duration of fever was 6.9 days (SD 1.6. Fifteen patients (25% had bacterial isolates in their blood cultures; Staphylococcus aureus (n=3, coliforms (n=7, pseudomonas (n=2 and 3 had mixed growths. The culture positive group had severe body aches and joints paint at admission and high grade fever, third space fluid accumulation and significant drop in platelets compared to culture-negative group. CONCLUSIONS A quarter of dengue patients with prolonged fever had a bacterial isolate. Culture-positive patients appeared more ill with body aches and had higher degrees of fever during the course of the illness. Increased vascular permeability may predispose to bacterial seepage into blood. Although white cell count is not helpful in detecting bacteraemia in dengue fever, low platelet count and severe symptoms at presentation may be helpful.

  16. A novel host-proteome signature for distinguishing between acute bacterial and viral infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kfir Oved

    Full Text Available Bacterial and viral infections are often clinically indistinguishable, leading to inappropriate patient management and antibiotic misuse. Bacterial-induced host proteins such as procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP, and Interleukin-6, are routinely used to support diagnosis of infection. However, their performance is negatively affected by inter-patient variability, including time from symptom onset, clinical syndrome, and pathogens. Our aim was to identify novel viral-induced host proteins that can complement bacterial-induced proteins to increase diagnostic accuracy. Initially, we conducted a bioinformatic screen to identify putative circulating host immune response proteins. The resulting 600 candidates were then quantitatively screened for diagnostic potential using blood samples from 1002 prospectively recruited patients with suspected acute infectious disease and controls with no apparent infection. For each patient, three independent physicians assigned a diagnosis based on comprehensive clinical and laboratory investigation including PCR for 21 pathogens yielding 319 bacterial, 334 viral, 112 control and 98 indeterminate diagnoses; 139 patients were excluded based on predetermined criteria. The best performing host-protein was TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL (area under the curve [AUC] of 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 0.91, which was consistently up-regulated in viral infected patients. We further developed a multi-protein signature using logistic-regression on half of the patients and validated it on the remaining half. The signature with the highest precision included both viral- and bacterial-induced proteins: TRAIL, Interferon gamma-induced protein-10, and CRP (AUC of 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92 to 0.96. The signature was superior to any of the individual proteins (P<0.001, as well as routinely used clinical parameters and their combinations (P<0.001. It remained robust across different physiological systems

  17. Hindlimb suspension and SPE-like radiation impairs clearance of bacterial infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghong Li

    Full Text Available A major risk of extended space travel is the combined effects of weightlessness and radiation exposure on the immune system. In this study, we used the hindlimb suspension model of microgravity that includes the other space stressors, situational and confinement stress and alterations in food intake, and solar particle event (SPE-like radiation to measure the combined effects on the ability to control bacterial infections. A massive increase in morbidity and decrease in the ability to control bacterial growth was observed using 2 different types of bacteria delivered by systemic and pulmonary routes in 3 different strains of mice. These data suggest that an astronaut exposed to a strong SPE during extended space travel is at increased risk for the development of infections that could potentially be severe and interfere with mission success and astronaut health.

  18. Optimal diagnosis, prevention, and management of periprosthetic joint infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafer N

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nathalie Tafer,1 Wilson Belaieff,1 Céline Cuérel,1 Matthieu Zingg,1 Pierre Hoffmeyer,1 Ilker Uçkay1,2 1Orthopedic Surgery Department, 2Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Geneva Hospitals and Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland Abstract: The pace of the aging population is steadily rising worldwide with a parallel increase in the demand for joint replacement procedures. With the increasing number of patients undergoing arthroplasty, there is also an increased risk for arthroplasty infection that may lead to severe complications, poorer outcome, and substantial extra costs for health care systems. Current rates of prosthetic joint infection are not dramatically different from the 1960s or 1970s, but some general principles are now better defined, and their management has been studied extensively during the past decades, thus resulting in a change in clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to summarize important principles of prosthetic joint infection to guide the clinician and to contribute to the optimal diagnosis, prevention, and management of periprosthetic joint infections. Keywords: arthroplasty infection, antibiotic therapy, biofilm, surgery, prevention

  19. Role of EGFR transactivation in preventing apoptosis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected human corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Hui; Wang, Jinzhao; Dong, Zheng; Mian, Shahzad; Yu, Fu-Shin X

    2004-08-01

    To determine the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling pathways in preventing infection-induced apoptosis in human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). Epithelial monolayers of a telomerase-immortalized HCEC line, HUCL, and primary culture of HCECs were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of the EGFR inhibitor tyrphostin AG1478, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor U0126, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, the heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) antagonist CRM197, the HB-EGF neutralizing antibody, or the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001. The activation of EGFR was analyzed by immunoprecipitation using EGFR antibodies, followed by Western blot analysis with phosphotyrosine antibody. Phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, a major substrate of PI3K, and generation of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were determined by Western blot analysis. Apoptotic cells were characterized by positive staining of active caspase-3, loss of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and condensation of chromosomes. Apoptosis was also confirmed by measuring caspase-3 activity and assessing the generation of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP. P. aeruginosa infection of HUCL cells resulted in EGFR activation and EGFR-dependent ERK1/2 and PI3K phosphorylation. Inhibition of EGFR, ERK1/2, and PI3K activities with kinase-specific inhibitors (AG1478, U0126, and LY294002, respectively) resulted in an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, in elevated cellular caspase-3 activity, and/or in increased cleaved PARP in P. aeruginosa-infected HUCL cells or primary culture of HCECs. Blocking HB-EGF ectodomain shedding by inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-mediated proteolysis, downregulation of HB-EGF, or neutralization of its activity retarded infection-induced EGFR transactivation and, as a consequence, increased infection-induced HUCL apoptosis. Bacterial infection of HCECs induces

  20. Role of EGFR Transactivation in Preventing Apoptosis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa–Infected Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Hui; Wang, Jinzhao; Dong, Zheng; Mian, Shahzad; Yu, Fu-Shin X.

    2009-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS Bacterial infection of HCECs induces EGFR transactivation through HB-EGF ectodomain shedding. EGFR and its downstream ERK and PI3K signaling pathways play a role in preventing epithelial apoptosis in the early stage of bacterial infection. PMID:15277479

  1. Platelet concentrates: reducing the risk of transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Korte D

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dirk de Korte,1 Jan H Marcelis2 1Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, 2Department of Microbiology, St Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg, the Netherlands Abstract: The introduction of a combination of interventions during collection of whole-blood or platelet concentrates has been successful in lowering the degree of bacterial contamination in the final product, the platelet concentrate, by 50%–75%. These interventions were improved donor questionnaires, best-practice skin disinfection, and diversion of first blood volume. These interventions have reduced the number of bacteria present in the platelet concentrates. In combination with screening for bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates with a culture method, the degree of transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection has been reduced significantly. Due to the very low initial bacteria counts upon collection of the products, the need for improved sensitivity of early screenings tests or highly selective point-of-issue tests remains. The latter should be rapid and easy to perform. An alternative approach might be the implementation of pathogen-inactivation methods for cellular blood products to reduce the amount of pathogens. However, these methods are costly, and so far not proved to be cost-effective, especially in countries with an already-low incidence of transfusion-transmitted infections by viruses, parasites, or bacteria. Keywords: blood products, bacterial contamination, screening, point of issue, pathogen inactivation

  2. Disruption of bacterial balance in the gut of Portunus trituberculatus induced by Vibrio alginolyticus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mengjie; Pei, Feng; Mu, Changkao; Ye, Yangfang; Wang, Chunlin

    2018-04-01

    Gut microbiota impacts the health of crustaceans. Vibrio alginolyticus is a main causative pathogen that induces the vibriosis in farmed swimming crabs, Portunus trituberculatus. However, it remains unknown whether gut bacteria perform functions during the progression of vibriosis. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to investigate temporal alteration of gut bacterial community in swimming crabs in response to 72-h V. alginolyticus challenge. Our results show that V. alginolyticus infection resulted in dynamic changes of bacterial community composition in swimming crabs. Such changes were highlighted by the overwhelming overabundance of Vibrio and a signifi cant fluctuation in the gut bacteria including the bacteria with high relative abundance and especially those with low relative abundance. These findings reveal that crab vibriosis gradually develops with the infection time of V. alginolyticus and tightly relates to the dysbiosis of gut bacterial community structure. This work contributes to our appreciation of the importance of the balance of gut bacterial community structure in maintaining the health of crustaceans.

  3. A Perfect Storm: Increased Colonization and Failure of Vaccination Leads to Severe Secondary Bacterial Infection in Influenza Virus-Infected Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik A. Karlsson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a risk factor for developing severe disease following influenza virus infection; however, the comorbidity of obesity and secondary bacterial infection, a serious complication of influenza virus infections, is unknown. To fill this gap in knowledge, lean and obese C57BL/6 mice were infected with a nonlethal dose of influenza virus followed by a nonlethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Strikingly, not only did significantly enhanced death occur in obese coinfected mice compared to lean controls, but also high mortality was seen irrespective of influenza virus strain, bacterial strain, or timing of coinfection. This result was unexpected, given that most influenza virus strains, especially seasonal human A and B viruses, are nonlethal in this model. Both viral and bacterial titers were increased in the upper respiratory tract and lungs of obese animals as early as days 1 and 2 post-bacterial infection, leading to a significant decrease in lung function. This increased bacterial load correlated with extensive cellular damage and upregulation of platelet-activating factor receptor, a host receptor central to pneumococcal invasion. Importantly, while vaccination of obese mice against either influenza virus or pneumococcus failed to confer protection, antibiotic treatment was able to resolve secondary bacterial infection-associated mortality. Overall, secondary bacterial pneumonia could be a widespread, unaddressed public health problem in an increasingly obese population.

  4. A novel 3D skin explant model to study anaerobic bacterial infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maboni, Grazieli; Davenport, Rebecca; Sessford, Kate

    2017-01-01

    of the tissue structure and the cell types present in the host environment. A 3D skin culture model can be set up using tissues acquired from surgical procedures or post slaughter, making it a cost effective and attractive alternative to animal experimentation. The majority of 3D culture models have been......Skin infection studies are often limited by financial and ethical constraints, and alternatives, such as monolayer cell culture, do not reflect many cellular processes limiting their application. For a more functional replacement, 3D skin culture models offer many advantages such as the maintenance...... bacterium and the causative agent of footrot. The mechanism of infection and host immune response to D. nodosus is poorly understood. Here we present a novel 3D skin ex vivo model to study anaerobic bacterial infections using ovine skin explants infected with D. nodosus. Our results demonstrate that D...

  5. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other...... parts of innate host defence reactions remain somewhat elusive. In order to gain new insight into this early host defence response in the context of bacterial infection we studied gene expression changes in peripheral lymphoid tissues as compared to hepatic expression changes, 14-18 h after lung...... with measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14-18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase...

  6. Primary role of electron work function for evaluation of nanostructured titania implant surface against bacterial infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golda-Cepa, M., E-mail: golda@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Syrek, K. [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Brzychczy-Wloch, M. [Department of Bacteriology, Microbial Ecology and Parasitology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Czysta 18, 31-121 Krakow (Poland); Sulka, G.D. [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Kotarba, A., E-mail: kotarba@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland)

    2016-09-01

    The electron work function as an essential descriptor for the evaluation of metal implant surfaces against bacterial infection is identified for the first time. Its validity is demonstrated on Staphylococcus aureus adhesion to nanostructured titania surfaces. The established correlation: work function–bacteria adhesion is of general importance since it can be used for direct evaluation of any electrically conductive implant surfaces. - Highlights: • The correlation between work function and bacteria adhesion was discovered. • The discovered correlation is rationalized in terms of electrostatic bacteria–surface repulsion. • The results provide basis for the simple evaluation of implant surfaces against infection.

  7. Primary role of electron work function for evaluation of nanostructured titania implant surface against bacterial infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golda-Cepa, M.; Syrek, K.; Brzychczy-Wloch, M.; Sulka, G.D.; Kotarba, A.

    2016-01-01

    The electron work function as an essential descriptor for the evaluation of metal implant surfaces against bacterial infection is identified for the first time. Its validity is demonstrated on Staphylococcus aureus adhesion to nanostructured titania surfaces. The established correlation: work function–bacteria adhesion is of general importance since it can be used for direct evaluation of any electrically conductive implant surfaces. - Highlights: • The correlation between work function and bacteria adhesion was discovered. • The discovered correlation is rationalized in terms of electrostatic bacteria–surface repulsion. • The results provide basis for the simple evaluation of implant surfaces against infection.

  8. [The Importance of Vector Management for Prevention of Hospital Infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Hüseyin

    2015-09-01

    Many researches show that cockroaches, ants, some other arthropods and also rodents in hospitals, can act as potential vectors of medically important bacteria, fungi and parasites. The results of microbiological studies show that these animals play a significant role in the epidemiology of hospital infections. These vectors may be found inside of the kitchens, patient rooms, toilets, medicine stores, canteen and wards in health care environments. The importance of vector control in order to prevent the spread of nosocomial infections in healthcare facilities was discussed in this paper. This study also gives information on integrated control methods for vectors in hospitals.

  9. [The features in preventing recurrent lower urinary tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzhieva, Z K; Kazilov, Yu B

    2016-08-01

    This review outlines characteristics of medications most commonly used for preventing recurrent lower urinary tract infection (UTI). It shows that the treatment and prophylaxis of UTI should be comprehensive and include the restoration of the normal urogenital tract anatomy and use in addition to antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs, agents, normalizing the function of the lower urinary tract, as well as drugs for local and systemic immunoprophylaxis, protection of the urothelium from recurrent infection, local hormone replacement therapy in menopause, and dietary supplements to acidify the urine.

  10. The Human Skin Microbiome Associates with the Outcome of and Is Influenced by Bacterial Infection

    OpenAIRE

    van Rensburg, Julia J.; Lin, Huaiying; Gao, Xiang; Toh, Evelyn; Fortney, Kate R.; Ellinger, Sheila; Zwickl, Beth; Janowicz, Diane M.; Katz, Barry P.; Nelson, David E.; Dong, Qunfeng; Spinola, Stanley M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influence of the skin microbiota on host susceptibility to infectious agents is largely unexplored. The skin harbors diverse bacterial species that may promote or antagonize the growth of an invading pathogen. We developed a human infection model for Haemophilus ducreyi in which human volunteers are inoculated on the upper arm. After inoculation, papules form and either spontaneously resolve or progress to pustules. To examine the role of the skin microbiota in the outcome of H. ...

  11. Prevention and treatment of surgical site infection in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical site infection (SSI are the third most frequently reported nosocomial infection, and the most common on surgical wards. HIV-infected patients may increase the possibility of developing SSI after surgery. There are few reported date on incidence and the preventive measures of SSI in HIV-infected patients. This study was to determine the incidence and the associated risk factors for SSI in HIV-infected patients. And we also explored the preventive measures. Methods A retrospective study of SSI was conducted in 242 HIV-infected patients including 17 patients who combined with hemophilia from October 2008 to September 2011 in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. SSI were classified according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria and identified by bedside surveillance and post-discharge follow-up. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL. Results The SSI incidence rate was 47.5% (115 of 242; 38.4% incisional SSIs, 5.4% deep incisional SSIs and 3.7% organ/space SSIs. The SSI incidence rate was 37.9% in HIV-infected patients undergoing abdominal operation. Patients undergoing abdominal surgery with lower preoperative CD4 counts were more likely to develop SSIs. The incidence increased from 2.6% in clean wounds to 100% in dirty wounds. In the HIV-infected patients combined with hemophilia, the mean preoperative albumin and postoperative hemoglobin were found significantly lower than those in no-SSIs group (P Conclusions SSI is frequent in HIV-infected patients. And suitable perioperative management may decrease the SSIs incidence rate of HIV-infected patients.

  12. Saccharomyces boulardii prevention of the hepatic injury induced by Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Daichao; Teng, Da; Wang, Xiumin; Dai, Changsong; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-10-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is the predominant cause of serovar-associated food-borne outbreaks in many countries and causes significant clinical symptoms of liver injury, enteritis, and diarrheal diseases. Saccharomyces boulardii is used in clinical application for prophylaxis and the treatment of a variety of diseases caused by bacterial infection. We used a mouse model of Salmonella Enteritidis infection, which included pretreatment with S. boulardii, to reveal the protection mechanisms of S. boulardii against Salmonella Enteritidis infection, including the translocation of Salmonella Enteritidis to the liver 10 days after Salmonella Enteritidis challenge, and the colonisation of Salmonella Enteritidis and the formation of hepatic tissue lesions in mice after Salmonella Enteritidis challenge on the 10th day. Compared with Salmonella Enteritidis infection in mice, S. boulardii decreased Salmonella Enteritidis translocation to the liver by 96%, and 99% of Salmonella Enteritidis colonised the cecum on the 10th day. Saccharomyces boulardii also abated hepatic tissue injury caused by the infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes, lymphocytes, and plasmocytes by decreasing the translocation of Salmonella to the liver. These findings demonstrated that S. boulardii is an effective agent in the prevention of the hepatic injury induced by Salmonella Enteritidis infection in a mouse model.

  13. Rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) IL-12p40: identification, expression, and effect on bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Bao-Cun; Hu, Yong-Hua

    2014-08-01

    IL-12p40, also called IL-12β, is a subunit of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23. In teleost, IL-12p40 homologues have been identified in several species, however, the biological function of fish IL-12p40 is essentially unknown. In this work, we reported the identification and analysis of an IL-12p40, OfIL-12p40, from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). OfIL-12p40 is composed of 361 amino acids and possesses a conserved IL-12p40 domain and a WSxWS signature motif characteristic of known IL-12p40. Constitutive expression of OfIL-12p40 occurred in multiple tissues and was highest in kidney. Experimental infection with bacterial pathogen upregulated the expression of OfIL-12p40 in kidney and spleen in a time-dependent manner. Purified recombinant OfIL-12p40 (rOfIL-12p40) stimulated the respiratory burst activity of peripheral blood leukocytes in a dose-dependent manner. rOfIL-12p40 also enhanced the resistance of rock bream against bacterial infection and upregulated the expression of innate immune genes in kidney. Taken together, these results indicate that OfIL-12p40 possesses cytokine-like property and plays a role in immune defense against bacterial infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Emerging treatment options for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: focus on intravenous delafloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Righi E

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Elda Righi, Alessia Carnelutti, Antonio Vena, Matteo Bassetti Infectious Diseases Division, Santa Maria della Misericordia University Hospital, Udine, Italy Abstract: The increase in hospitalization due to acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI caused by resistant pathogens supports the need for new treatment options. Antimicrobial options for ABSSSI that provide broad-spectrum coverage, including gram-negative pathogens and multidrug-resistant gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, are limited. Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone available as intravenous and oral formulations and is characterized by an increased efficacy in acidic environments and activity on bacterial biofilm. Delafloxacin displays enhanced in vitro activity against MRSA, and enterococci, while maintaining efficacy against gram-negative pathogens and anaerobes. Delafloxacin has been studied for the treatment of ABSSSI and respiratory infections. Phase III studies have demonstrated noninferiority of delafloxacin compared to vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, and the combination of vancomycin plus aztreonam in the treatment of ABSSSI. Due to its favorable pharmacokinetic characteristics, the wide spectrum of action, and the potential for sequential therapy, delafloxacin represents a promising option in the empirical and targeted treatment of ABSSSI, both in hospital- and in community-based care. Keywords: bacterial skin and skin structure infections, multidrug-resistant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, delafloxacin

  15. Stimulation of host immune defenses by a small molecule protects C. elegans from bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkila-Worley, Read; Feinbaum, Rhonda; Kirienko, Natalia V; Larkins-Ford, Jonah; Conery, Annie L; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2012-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offers currently untapped potential for carrying out high-throughput, live-animal screens of low molecular weight compound libraries to identify molecules that target a variety of cellular processes. We previously used a bacterial infection assay in C. elegans to identify 119 compounds that affect host-microbe interactions among 37,214 tested. Here we show that one of these small molecules, RPW-24, protects C. elegans from bacterial infection by stimulating the host immune response of the nematode. Using transcriptome profiling, epistasis pathway analyses with C. elegans mutants, and an RNAi screen, we show that RPW-24 promotes resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection by inducing the transcription of a remarkably small number of C. elegans genes (∼1.3% of all genes) in a manner that partially depends on the evolutionarily-conserved p38 MAP kinase pathway and the transcription factor ATF-7. These data show that the immunostimulatory activity of RPW-24 is required for its efficacy and define a novel C. elegans-based strategy to identify compounds with activity against antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens.

  16. Stimulation of host immune defenses by a small molecule protects C. elegans from bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read Pukkila-Worley

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offers currently untapped potential for carrying out high-throughput, live-animal screens of low molecular weight compound libraries to identify molecules that target a variety of cellular processes. We previously used a bacterial infection assay in C. elegans to identify 119 compounds that affect host-microbe interactions among 37,214 tested. Here we show that one of these small molecules, RPW-24, protects C. elegans from bacterial infection by stimulating the host immune response of the nematode. Using transcriptome profiling, epistasis pathway analyses with C. elegans mutants, and an RNAi screen, we show that RPW-24 promotes resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection by inducing the transcription of a remarkably small number of C. elegans genes (∼1.3% of all genes in a manner that partially depends on the evolutionarily-conserved p38 MAP kinase pathway and the transcription factor ATF-7. These data show that the immunostimulatory activity of RPW-24 is required for its efficacy and define a novel C. elegans-based strategy to identify compounds with activity against antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens.

  17. Regulatory T cell suppressive potency dictates the balance between bacterial proliferation and clearance during persistent Salmonella infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanner M Johanns

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of persistent infection is dictated by the balance between opposing immune activation and suppression signals. Herein, virulent Salmonella was used to explore the role and potential importance of Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells in dictating the natural progression of persistent bacterial infection. Two distinct phases of persistent Salmonella infection are identified. In the first 3-4 weeks after infection, progressively increasing bacterial burden was associated with delayed effector T cell activation. Reciprocally, at later time points after infection, reductions in bacterial burden were associated with robust effector T cell activation. Using Foxp3(GFP reporter mice for ex vivo isolation of regulatory T cells, we demonstrate that the dichotomy in infection tempo between early and late time points is directly paralleled by drastic changes in Foxp3(+ Treg suppressive potency. In complementary experiments using Foxp3(DTR mice, the significance of these shifts in Treg suppressive potency on infection outcome was verified by enumerating the relative impacts of regulatory T cell ablation on bacterial burden and effector T cell activation at early and late time points during persistent Salmonella infection. Moreover, Treg expression of CTLA-4 directly paralleled changes in suppressive potency, and the relative effects of Treg ablation could be largely recapitulated by CTLA-4 in vivo blockade. Together, these results demonstrate that dynamic regulation of Treg suppressive potency dictates the course of persistent bacterial infection.

  18. Condoms for sexually transmissible infection prevention: politics versus science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindel, Adrian; Sawleshwarkar, Shailendra

    2008-03-01

    The present review assesses the protection that condoms offer against sexually transmissible infections (STI) and the impact that social, political and religious opinion in the USA has had in the past 8 years on promoting condoms for safer sex. Condoms offer protection against most STI. However, the degree of protection depends on correct and consistent use, the type of sexual activity and the biological characteristics of different infections. Cross-sectional and case-control studies and other observational data provide the majority of evidence for STI prevention. Condoms provide a high level of protection against those infections that are transmitted mainly via infected secretions, including HIV, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. Protection against those infections transmitted via skin and mucous membrane contact, including Herpes simplex virus infection and human papilloma virus, appears to be less. The Bush administration, driven by conservative political, social and religious elements in the USA, has mounted a concerted campaign to undermine the role of the condom in health-promotion activities in the USA and overseas by undervaluing and misrepresenting scientific data, and through a sustained and well-funded promotion of abstinence-only education. However, this has lead to considerable controversy and disillusionment with abstinence-only education, both at home and abroad, and there is now incontrovertible evidence that abstinence-only programs are ineffectual.

  19. Metabolic Requirements of Escherichia coli in Intracellular Bacterial Communities during Urinary Tract Infection Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt S. Conover

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC is the primary etiological agent of over 85% of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs. Mouse models of infection have shown that UPEC can invade bladder epithelial cells in a type 1 pilus-dependent mechanism, avoid a TLR4-mediated exocytic process, and escape into the host cell cytoplasm. The internalized UPEC can clonally replicate into biofilm-like intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs of thousands of bacteria while avoiding many host clearance mechanisms. Importantly, IBCs have been documented in urine from women and children suffering acute UTI. To understand this protected bacterial niche, we elucidated the transcriptional profile of bacteria within IBCs using microarrays. We delineated the upregulation within the IBC of genes involved in iron acquisition, metabolism, and transport. Interestingly, lacZ was highly upregulated, suggesting that bacteria were sensing and/or utilizing a galactoside for metabolism in the IBC. A ΔlacZ strain displayed significantly smaller IBCs than the wild-type strain and was attenuated during competitive infection with a wild-type strain. Similarly, a galK mutant resulted in smaller IBCs and attenuated infection. Further, analysis of the highly upregulated gene yeaR revealed that this gene contributes to oxidative stress resistance and type 1 pilus production. These results suggest that bacteria within the IBC are under oxidative stress and, consistent with previous reports, utilize nonglucose carbon metabolites. Better understanding of the bacterial mechanisms used for IBC development and establishment of infection may give insights into development of novel anti-virulence strategies.

  20. Surface charge-conversion polymeric nanoparticles for photodynamic treatment of urinary tract bacterial infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shijie; Shao, Chen; Qiao, Shenglin; Li, Lili; Qi, Guobin; Lin, Yaoxin; Qiao, Zengying; Wang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are typical bacterial infections which result in a number of economic burdens. With increasing antibiotic resistance, it is urgent that new approaches are explored that can eliminate pathogenic bacteria without inducing drug resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new promising tactic. It is a gentle in situ photochemical reaction in which a photosensitizer (PS) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) under laser irradiation. In this work, we have demonstrated Chlorin e6 (Ce6) encapsulated charge-conversion polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) for efficiently targeting and killing pathogenic bacteria in a weakly acidic urinary tract infection environment. Owing to the surface charge conversion of NPs in an acidic environment, the NPs exhibited enhanced recognition for Gram-positive (ex. S. aureus) and Gram-negative (ex. E. coli) bacteria due to the charge interaction. Also, those NPs showed significant antibacterial efficacy in vitro with low cytotoxicity. The MIC value of NPs to E. coli is 17.91 μg ml"−"1, compared with the free Ce6 value of 29.85 μg ml"−"1. Finally, a mouse acute cystitis model was used to assess the photodynamic therapy effects in urinary tract infections. A significant decline (P < 0.05) in bacterial cells between NPs and free Ce6 occurred in urine after photodynamic therapy treatment. And the plated counting results revealed a remarkable bacterial cells drop (P < 0.05) in the sacrificed bladder tissue. Above all, this nanotechnology strategy opens a new door for the treatment of urinary tract infections with minimal side effects. (paper)

  1. Surface charge-conversion polymeric nanoparticles for photodynamic treatment of urinary tract bacterial infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijie; Qiao, Shenglin; Li, Lili; Qi, Guobin; Lin, Yaoxin; Qiao, Zengying; Wang, Hao; Shao, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Urinary tract infections are typical bacterial infections which result in a number of economic burdens. With increasing antibiotic resistance, it is urgent that new approaches are explored that can eliminate pathogenic bacteria without inducing drug resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new promising tactic. It is a gentle in situ photochemical reaction in which a photosensitizer (PS) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) under laser irradiation. In this work, we have demonstrated Chlorin e6 (Ce6) encapsulated charge-conversion polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) for efficiently targeting and killing pathogenic bacteria in a weakly acidic urinary tract infection environment. Owing to the surface charge conversion of NPs in an acidic environment, the NPs exhibited enhanced recognition for Gram-positive (ex. S. aureus) and Gram-negative (ex. E. coli) bacteria due to the charge interaction. Also, those NPs showed significant antibacterial efficacy in vitro with low cytotoxicity. The MIC value of NPs to E. coli is 17.91 μg ml-1, compared with the free Ce6 value of 29.85 μg ml-1. Finally, a mouse acute cystitis model was used to assess the photodynamic therapy effects in urinary tract infections. A significant decline (P < 0.05) in bacterial cells between NPs and free Ce6 occurred in urine after photodynamic therapy treatment. And the plated counting results revealed a remarkable bacterial cells drop (P < 0.05) in the sacrificed bladder tissue. Above all, this nanotechnology strategy opens a new door for the treatment of urinary tract infections with minimal side effects.

  2. A Novel 3D Skin Explant Model to Study Anaerobic Bacterial Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazieli Maboni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin infection studies are often limited by financial and ethical constraints, and alternatives, such as monolayer cell culture, do not reflect many cellular processes limiting their application. For a more functional replacement, 3D skin culture models offer many advantages such as the maintenance of the tissue structure and the cell types present in the host environment. A 3D skin culture model can be set up using tissues acquired from surgical procedures or post slaughter, making it a cost effective and attractive alternative to animal experimentation. The majority of 3D culture models have been established for aerobic pathogens, but currently there are no models for anaerobic skin infections. Footrot is an anaerobic bacterial infection which affects the ovine interdigital skin causing a substantial animal welfare and financial impact worldwide. Dichelobacter nodosus is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium and the causative agent of footrot. The mechanism of infection and host immune response to D. nodosus is poorly understood. Here we present a novel 3D skin ex vivo model to study anaerobic bacterial infections using ovine skin explants infected with D. nodosus. Our results demonstrate that D. nodosus can invade the skin explant, and that altered expression of key inflammatory markers could be quantified in the culture media. The viability of explants was assessed by tissue integrity (histopathological features and cell death (DNA fragmentation over 76 h showing the model was stable for 28 h. D. nodosus was quantified in all infected skin explants by qPCR and the bacterium was visualized invading the epidermis by Fluorescent in situ Hybridization. Measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in the culture media revealed that the explants released IL1β in response to bacteria. In contrast, levels of CXCL8 production were no different to mock-infected explants. The 3D skin model realistically simulates the interdigital skin and has

  3. Therapeutic and prevention strategies against human enterovirus 71 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Chee Choy

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) is the cause of hand, foot and mouth disease and associated neurological complications in children under five years of age. There has been an increase in HEV71 epidemic activity throughout the Asia-Pacific region in the past decade, and it is predicted to replace poliovirus as the extant neurotropic enterovirus of highest global public health significance. To date there is no effective antiviral treatment and no vaccine is available to prevent HEV71 infection. The increase in prevalence, virulence and geographic spread of HEV71 infection over the past decade provides increasing incentive for the development of new therapeutic and prevention strategies against this emerging viral infection. The current review focuses on the potential, advantages and disadvantages of these strategies. Since the explosion of outbreaks leading to large epidemics in China, research in natural therapeutic products has identified several groups of compounds with anti-HEV71 activities. Concurrently, the search for effective synthetic antivirals has produced promising results. Other therapeutic strategies including immunotherapy and the use of oligonucleotides have also been explored. A sound prevention strategy is crucial in order to control the spread of HEV71. To this end the ultimate goal is the rapid development, regulatory approval and widespread implementation of a safe and effective vaccine. The various forms of HEV71 vaccine designs are highlighted in this review. Given the rapid progress of research in this area, eradication of the virus is likely to be achieved. PMID:25964873

  4. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of [18F]ciprofloxacin for the imaging of bacterial infections with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, Oliver; Brunner, Martin; Zeitlinger, Markus; Mueller, Ulrich; Lackner, Edith; Joukhadar, Christian; Mueller, Markus; Ziegler, Sophie; Minar, Erich; Dobrozemsky, Georg; Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Dudczak, Robert; Kletter, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    The suitability of the 18 F-labelled fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin ([ 18 F]ciprofloxacin) for imaging of bacterial infections with positron emission tomography (PET) was assessed in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro experiments, suspensions of various E. colistrains were incubated with different concentrations of [ 18 F]ciprofloxacin (0.01-5.0 μg/ml) and radioactivity retention was measured in a gamma counter. For the in vivo experiments, 725 ± 9 MBq [ 18 F]ciprofloxacin was injected intravenously into four patients with microbiologically proven bacterial soft tissue infections of the lower extremities and time-radioactivity curves were recorded in infected and uninfected tissue for 5 h after tracer injection. Binding of [ 18 F]ciprofloxacin to bacterial cells was rapid, non-saturable and readily reversible. Moreover, bacterial binding of the agent was similar in ciprofloxacin-resistant and ciprofloxacin-susceptible clinical isolates. These findings suggest that non-specific binding rather than specific binding to bacterial type II topoisomerase enzymes is the predominant mechanism of bacterial retention of the radiotracer. PET studies in the four patients with microbiologically proven bacterial soft tissue infections demonstrated locally increased radioactivity uptake in infected tissue, with peak ratios between infected and uninfected tissue ranging from 1.8 to 5.5. Radioactivity was not retained in infected tissue and appeared to wash out with a similar elimination half-life as in uninfected tissue, suggesting that the kinetics of [ 18 F]ciprofloxacin in infected tissue are governed by increased blood flow and vascular permeability due to local infection rather than by a binding process. Taken together, our results indicate that [ 18 F]ciprofloxacin is not suited as a bacteria-specific infection imaging agent for PET. (orig.)

  5. Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: New Prospects for Prevention and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Elizabeth C.; Schleiss, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital viral infection in the developed world, with an overall birth prevalence of approximately 0.6%. Approximately 10% of congenitally infected infants have signs and symptoms of disease at birth, and these symptomatic infants have a high risk for demonstration of subsequent neurologic sequelae, including sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), mental retardation, microcephaly, development delay, seizure disorders, and cerebral palsy. Antiviral therapy of children with symptomatic central nervous system (CNS) congenital CMV infection is effective at reducing the risk of long-term disabilities and should be offered to families with affected newborns. An effective pre-conceptual vaccine against CMV could, by preventing congenital infection, protect against long-term neurological sequelae and other disabilities. A variety of active and passive immunization strategies are in clinical trials and are likely to be licensed in the next few years. Until a vaccine is licensed, preventive strategies aimed at reducing transmission should be emphasized and public awareness increased, particularly among women of child-bearing age. PMID:23481104

  6. INFECTION PREVENTION IN PEDIATRIC HOSPITAL ADMISSION: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Menezes Castilhos Azevedo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize and evaluate the measures of prevention and control of HI in pediatric hospitalization units. It was adopted as the method literature review. The following databases were consulted: Scielo, LILACS, PubMed and Google Scholar, as well as text books and legislation on the subject. The research was carried out from May to December 2015. Inclusion criteria were publications in the period between 1996 and 2015 that were available in the Portuguese or Spanish language. Nineteen publications were eligible, among them: 14 articles, 3 book chapters, 1 final graduation paper and 1 doctoral thesis. Data was consulted in existing legislation with regard to infection control. The results showed as key measures for proper prevention and Hospital Infection control in pediatric inpatient units: the proper use of insulation and precautions, the guidance and education of relatives and companions of hospitalized children and continuing education of staff nursing, highlighting the importance of hand washing in hospital infection control. It is important that the nursing professional has adequate knowledge of the country's legislation on the infection control in the hospital environment, so you can require that guidelines and regulations described in this are met by health care facilities, thereby helping to quality care to hospitalized children.

  7. The red flour beetle as a model for bacterial oral infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Milutinović

    Full Text Available Experimental infection systems are important for studying antagonistic interactions and coevolution between hosts and their pathogens. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and the spore-forming bacterial insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt are widely used and tractable model organisms. However, they have not been employed yet as an efficient experimental system to study host-pathogen interactions. We used a high throughput oral infection protocol to infect T. castaneum insects with coleopteran specific B. thuringiensis bv. tenebrionis (Btt bacteria. We found that larval mortality depends on the dietary spore concentration and on the duration of exposure to the spores. Furthermore, differential susceptibility of larvae from different T. castaneum populations indicates that the host genetic background influences infection success. The recovery of high numbers of infectious spores from the cadavers indicates successful replication of bacteria in the host and suggests that Btt could establish infectious cycles in T. castaneum in nature. We were able to transfer plasmids from Btt to a non-pathogenic but genetically well-characterised Bt strain, which was thereafter able to successfully infect T. castaneum, suggesting that factors residing on the plasmids are important for the virulence of Btt. The availability of a genetically accessible strain will provide an ideal model for more in-depth analyses of pathogenicity factors during oral infections. Combined with the availability of the full genome sequence of T. castaneum, this system will enable analyses of host responses during infection, as well as addressing basic questions concerning host-parasite coevolution.

  8. Foreign Body Infection Models to Study Host-Pathogen Response and Antimicrobial Tolerance of Bacterial Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Nowakowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of implanted medical devices is steadily increasing and has become an effective intervention improving life quality, but still carries the risk of infection. These infections are mainly caused by biofilm-forming staphylococci that are difficult to treat due to the decreased susceptibility to both antibiotics and host defense mechanisms. To understand the particular pathogenesis and treatment tolerance of implant-associated infection (IAI animal models that closely resemble human disease are needed. Applications of the tissue cage and catheter abscess foreign body infection models in the mouse will be discussed herein. Both models allow the investigation of biofilm and virulence of various bacterial species and a comprehensive insight into the host response at the same time. They have also been proven to serve as very suitable tools to study the anti-adhesive and anti-infective efficacy of different biomaterial coatings. The tissue cage model can additionally be used to determine pharmacokinetics, efficacy and cytotoxicity of antimicrobial compounds as the tissue cage fluid can be aspirated repeatedly without the need to sacrifice the animal. Moreover, with the advance in innovative imaging systems in rodents, these models may offer new diagnostic measures of infection. In summary, animal foreign body infection models are important tools in the development of new antimicrobials against IAI and can help to elucidate the complex interactions between bacteria, the host immune system, and prosthetic materials.

  9. Diagnosing viral and bacterial respiratory infections in acute COPD exacerbations by an electronic nose : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Wouter H; Bruins, Marcel; Kerstjens, Huib A M

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory infections, viral or bacterial, are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). A rapid, point-of-care, and easy-to-use tool distinguishing viral and bacterial from other causes would be valuable in routine clinical care. An electronic nose

  10. Bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among pediatric patients with urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayelign, Birhanu; Abebe, Betelehem; Shibeshi, Adugna; Meshesha, Sosina; Shibabaw, Tewodros; Addis, Zelalem; Gelaw, Aschalew; Dagnew, Mulat

    2018-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a common pediatric problem with the potential to produce long-term morbidity. Therefore, appropriate diagnosis and prompt treatment is required. However, studies about magnitude of uropathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance pattern of pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) are lacking in resource limited countries including Ethiopia. This study was aimed to determine bacterial isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pediatric patients with UTI. A cross- sectional study was conducted. Pathogenic bacterial isolates were identified by culture and biochemical methods following standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates for commonly used antibiotics was done using the standard disc diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar. Associations between dependent and independent variables were measured using chi-square test and within 95% confidence interval. P values pediatric patients were included in the study, and 82 (26.45%) bacterial isolates were detected. Gram- negative bacteria were predominant etiologic agents of UTI in this study. E. coli was the most frequently occurring pathogen (n=45; 54.88%) followed by S. aureus and P.aeruginosa (n=8; 9.75% for both), P. vulgaris , P.aeruginosa (n=4; 4.88%, for both) and Enterococcus species (n=3; 3.66%). All K. pneumoniae , P. mirabilis , and K. ozanae straines were 100% resistance to ampicillin, followed by P. aeruginosa (87.5%) and E. coli (69%). While all Gram- positive bacterial isolates were 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Malnutrition, history of catherization and previous history of UTI were independently associated with UTI (p=0.000). There was a high prevalence of uropathogenic bacteria and drug resistance particularly to ampicillin (72%) and tetracycline (37.80%). This condition indicates that antibiotic selection should be based on knowledge of the local prevalence of bacterial organisms and antibiotic sensitivities rather than empirical

  11. Value of serum PCT in early diagnosis of bacterial infection in patients with liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Chuanmin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the value of serum procalcitonin (PCT in early diagnosis of bacterial infection in patients with liver failure. MethodsA total of 463 patients with hepatitis B were selected from January to December, 2014, in the Department of Infectious Diseases, Taihe Hospital. According to the degree of liver injury, the patients were divided into four groups: mild liver injury group (n=120, moderate liver injury group (n=222, sever liver injury group (n=53, and liver failure group (n=68. Serum PCT was measured for all patients, and the white blood cell count (WBC and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP were measured for patients with liver failure. The clinical manifestations were observed and recorded. The t test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data, while the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for non-normally distributed continuous data; the Mann-Whitney U test was used for pairwise comparison of continuous data. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used for the analysis of predictive value. ResultsThe liver failure group had a significantly higher PCT level than the severe liver injury group, moderate liver injury group, and mild liver injury group (0.81[0.34-2.15] vs 0.53[0.21-1.59], 0.35[010-1.18], and 0.17[0.10-0.60], χ2=25.091, P<0.05. The liver failure patients with PCT levels of <0.25 ng/ml (n=10, 0.25-0.5 ng/ml (n=10, and >0.5 ng/ml (n=48 had infection rates of 20%, 30%, and 66.7%, respectively, with a significant difference between the patients with a PCT level of >0.5 ng/ml and those with PCT levels of <0.25 ng/ml and 0.25-0.5 ng/ml (χ2=5631,4650,P=0018,0031. Among the liver failure patients, the infection cases had significantly higher PCT, WBC, and hsCRP than the non-infection cases (PCT: 3.72±1.33 ng/ml vs 0.34±0.12 ng/ml, t=-2.547, P=0.015; hsCRP: 16.70±7.03 mg

  12. Post-splenectomy infections in chronic schistosomiasis as a consequence of bacterial translocation

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    Kedma de Magalhães Lima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Bacterial translocation is the invasion of indigenous intestinal bacteria through the gut mucosa to normally sterile tissues and internal organs. Schistosomiasis may cause alterations in the immune system and damage to the intestines, portal system and mesenteric lymph nodes. This study investigated bacterial translocation and alterations in the intestinal microbiota and mucosa in schistosomiasis and splenectomized mice. METHODS : Forty female 35-day-old Swiss Webster mice were divided into the following four groups with 10 animals each: schistosomotic (ESF, splenectomized schistosomotic (ESEF, splenectomized (EF and control (CF. Infection was achieved by introduction of 50 Schistosoma mansoni (SLM cercariae through the skin. At 125 days after birth, half of the parasitized and unparasitized mice were subjected to splenectomy. Body weights were recorded for one week after splenectomy; then, the mice were euthanized to study bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and intestinal morphometry. RESULTS : We observed significant reductions in the weight increases in the EF, ESF and ESEF groups. There were increases of at least 1,000 CFU of intestinal microbiota bacteria in these groups compared with the CF. The EF, ESF and ESEF mice showed decreases in the heights and areas of villi and the total villus areas (perimeter. We observed frequent co-infections with various bacterial genera. CONCLUSIONS : The ESEF mice showed a higher degree of sepsis. This finding may be associated with a reduction in the immune response associated with the absence of the spleen and a reduction in nutritional absorption strengthened by both of these factors (Schistosoma infection and splenectomy.

  13. Animals devoid of pulmonary system as infection models in the study of lung bacterial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Hernández, Yamilé; Yero, Daniel; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M.; Gibert, Isidre

    2015-01-01

    Biological disease models can be difficult and costly to develop and use on a routine basis. Particularly, in vivo lung infection models performed to study lung pathologies use to be laborious, demand a great time and commonly are associated with ethical issues. When infections in experimental animals are used, they need to be refined, defined, and validated for their intended purpose. Therefore, alternative and easy to handle models of experimental infections are still needed to test the virulence of bacterial lung pathogens. Because non-mammalian models have less ethical and cost constraints as a subjects for experimentation, in some cases would be appropriated to include these models as valuable tools to explore host–pathogen interactions. Numerous scientific data have been argued to the more extensive use of several kinds of alternative models, such as, the vertebrate zebrafish (Danio rerio), and non-vertebrate insects and nematodes (e.g., Caenorhabditis elegans) in the study of diverse infectious agents that affect humans. Here, we review the use of these vertebrate and non-vertebrate models in the study of bacterial agents, which are considered the principal causes of lung injury. Curiously none of these animals have a respiratory system as in air-breathing vertebrates, where respiration takes place in lungs. Despite this fact, with the present review we sought to provide elements in favor of the use of these alternative animal models of infection to reveal the molecular signatures of host–pathogen interactions. PMID:25699030

  14. Development, standardization and testing of a bacterial wound infection model based on ex vivo human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schaudinn

    Full Text Available Current research on wound infections is primarily conducted on animal models, which limits direct transferability of these studies to humans. Some of these limitations can be overcome by using-otherwise discarded-skin from cosmetic surgeries. Superficial wounds are induced in fresh ex vivo skin, followed by intradermal injection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa under the wound. Subsequently, the infected skin is incubated for 20 hours at 37°C and the CFU/wound are determined. Within 20 hours, the bacteria count increased from 107 to 109 bacteria per wound, while microscopy revealed a dense bacterial community in the collagen network of the upper wound layers as well as numerous bacteria scattered in the dermis. At the same time, IL-1alpha and IL-1beta amounts increased in all infected wounds, while-due to bacteria-induced cell lysis-the IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations rose only in the uninfected samples. High-dosage ciprofloxacin treatment resulted in a decisive decrease in bacteria, but consistently failed to eradicate all bacteria. The main benefits of the ex vivo wound model are the use of healthy human skin, a quantifiable bacterial infection, a measureable donor-dependent immune response and a good repeatability of the results. These properties turn the ex vivo wound model into a valuable tool to examine the mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions and to test antimicrobial agents.

  15. Study on types of vaginitis and association between bacterial vaginosis and urinary tract infection in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Lamichhane, Pramila; Joshi, Dev Raj; Subedi, Yagya Prasad; Thapa, Rekha; Acharya, Ganesh Prasad; Lamsal, Apsana; Upadhaya, Sweety; Pokhrel, Sandip

    2014-01-01

    AbstractIntroduction:  Infectious vaginitis which includes bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis are common disorder in women.  Both vaginitis and Urinary Tract Infection during pregnancy have risk to lives of both the mother and fetus. Present study was done to assess type of vaginitis and to evaluate the risk of urinary tract infections in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis.Methods: Cross sectional descriptive study of 230 pregnant women was done from 1st Jul...

  16. Technetium-99m labelled antimicrobial peptides discriminate between bacterial infections and sterile inflammations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welling, M.M.; Pauwels, E.K.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC) (Netherlands); Paulusma-Annema, A.; Nibbering, P.H. [Dept. of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands); Balter, H.S. [Centro Investigaciones Nucleares, Univ. of the Republic Uruguay, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to select technetium-99m labelled peptides that can discriminate between bacterial infections and sterile inflammations. For this purpose, we first assessed the binding of various {sup 99m}Tc-labelled natural or synthetic peptides, which are based on the sequence of the human antimicrobial peptide ubiquicidin (UBI) or human lactoferrin (hLF), to bacteria and to leucocytes in vitro. In order to select peptides that preferentially bind to bacteria over host cells, radiolabelled peptides were injected into mice intraperitoneally infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and the amount of radioactivity associated with the bacteria and with the leucocytes was quantitated. The next phase focussed on discrimination between bacterial infections and sterile inflammatory processes using {sup 99m}Tc-labelled peptides in mice intramuscularly infected with various bacteria (e.g. multi-drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and in animals that had been injected with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of bacterial origin to create a sterile inflammatory process. Also, we studied the distribution of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled UBI 29-41 and UBI 18-35 in rabbits having an experimental thigh muscle infection with K. pneumoniae and in rabbits injected with LPS. Based on the results of our in vitro and in vivo binding assays, two peptides, i.e. UBI 29-41 and UBI 18-35, were selected as possible candidates for infection imaging. The radiolabelled peptides can detect infections with both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in mice as early as 5-30 min after injection, with a target-to-non-target (T/NT) ratio between 2 and 3; maximum T/NT ratios were seen within 1 h after injection. In rabbits, high T/NT ratios (>5) for {sup 99m}Tc-labelled UBI 29-41 were observed from 1 h after injection. No accumulation of the selected {sup 99m}Tc-labelled UBI-derived peptides was observed in thighs of mice and rabbits previously injected with LPS. Scintigraphic investigation

  17. Supplementation with Lactobacillus paracasei or Pediococcus pentosaceus does not prevent diarrhoea in neonatal pigs infected with Escherichia coli F18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Daniel; Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diarrhoea is a worldwide problem in newborns. Optimal bacterial colonisation may enhance gut maturation and protect against pathogenic bacteria after birth. We hypothesised that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) administration prevents pathogen-induced diarrhoea in formula-fed newborns. Newbo....... coli-induced diarrhoea in sensitive newborn pigs. In vulnerable newborns there may be a delicate balance among bacterial composition and load, diet and the host. Caution may be required when administering LAB to compromised newborns suffering from enteric infections....... caesarean-delivered, colostrum-deprived term piglets on parenteral nutrition for the first 15 h, were used as models for sensitive newborn infants. A commercially available probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei F19 (LAP, 2·6x108 colony-forming units (CFU)/kg per d) and a novel LAB isolate, Pediococcus...... with decreased activities in most cases after F18 and LAB inoculation. Bacterial density in colon mucosa increased after F18 inoculation (PE...

  18. Infection prevention workforce: Potential benefits to educational diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Sara M; Gilmartin, Heather M

    2017-06-01

    Nurses have historically occupied the infection preventionist (IP) role. As the knowledge and skills needed to advance the field expand, professionals from public health and the laboratory sciences have become IPs. Our study describes the characteristics of current IPs and assesses for relationships between background, certification, experience, and type of work performed. The data were drawn from an existing dataset collected in the conduct of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) MegaSurvey. Descriptive statistics were computed. Associations were calculated using χ 2 or Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests. Characteristics of IPs were stratified by work-related activities to allow for comparisons between groups. Of the 13,050 active APIC members, 4,079 participated in the survey (31% response rate). The primary job activity for nurses (97.9%; n = 2,434) was preventing and controlling the transmission of infectious agents or health care-associated infections, for laboratory scientists (97.5%; n = 307) it was the interpretation of surveillance data, and for public health professionals (96.1%; n = 136) it was management and communication: feedback. Infection control departments would benefit from hiring IPs with diverse education and training to address the expanding roles and responsibilities of IPs. This may facilitate the implementation of novel and innovative processes that will impact patient care. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Implications of Helicobacter pylori infection for stomach cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Karen J.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has implicated Helicobacter pylori, an established cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer, in the etiology of gastric cancer. Control of this infection would reduce the occurrence of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and might substantially lower the risk of stomach cancer as well. The public health impact of this infectious agent warrants efforts to identify preventive measures. This paper reviews the evidence linking H. pylori infection to gastric cancer and evaluates the potential for control in high-risk populations. Current obstacles to H. pylori control are discussed, including the link to poor socioeconomic conditions, difficulty in identifying incident cases, lack of natural immunity to reinfection, limited effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in high-prevalence populations, and incomplete knowledge regarding the reservoir of infection, mode of transmission, host susceptibility factors, and the potential for developing an effective vaccine. Worthwhile avenues of research include studies designed to identify modifiable risk factors for acquisition of the infection, modifiable host factors that may increase resistance to chronic infection, more effective antibiotic therapies, and effective vaccines.

  20. Bacterial Infection Potato Tuber Soft Rot Disease Detection Based on Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Zhiyong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot is a severe bacterial disease of potatoes, and soft rot infection can cause significant economic losses during the storage period of potatoes. In this study, potato soft rot was selected as the research object, and a type of potato tuber soft rot disease early detection method based on the electronic nose technology was proposed. An optimized bionic electronic nose gas chamber and a scientific and reasonable sampling device were designed to detect a change in volatile substances of the infected soft rot disease of potato tuber. The infection of soft rot disease in potato tuber samples was detected and identified by using the RBF NN algorithm and SVM algorithm. The results revealed that the proposed bionic electronic nose system can be utilized for early detection of potato tuber soft rot disease. Through comparison and analysis, the recognition rate using the SVM algorithm reached up to 89.7%, and the results were superior to the RBF NN algorithm.

  1. Synthesis and biodistribution of 99mTc-Vancomycin in a model of bacterial infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roohi, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Malik, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Vancomycin Hydrochloride is an antibiotic produced by the growth of certain strains of Streptomyces orientalis. As vancomycin hydrochloride is poorly absorbed after oral administration; it is given intravenously for therapy of systemic infections. Vancomycin was labeled with technetium-99m pertechnetate using SnCl 2 . 2H 2 O as reducing agent. The labeling efficiency depends on ligand/reductant ratio, pH, and volume of reaction mixture. Radiochemical purity and stability of 99m Tc-Vancomycin was determined by thin layer chromatography. Biodistribution studies of 99m Tc-Vancomycin were performed in a model of bacterial infection in Sprague-Dawley rats. A significantly higher accumulation of 99m Tc-Vancomycin was seen at sites of S. aureus infected animals. Whereas uptake of 99m Tc-Vancomycin in turpentine inflamed rats were quite low. (orig.)

  2. Osteomyelitis in a Paleozoic reptile: ancient evidence for bacterial infection and its evolutionary significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisz, Robert R.; Scott, Diane M.; Pynn, Bruce R.; Modesto, Sean P.

    2011-06-01

    We report on dental and mandibular pathology in Labidosaurus hamatus, a 275 million-year-old terrestrial reptile from North America and associate it with bacterial infection in an organism that is characterized by reduced tooth replacement. Analysis of the surface and internal mandibular structure using mechanical and CT-scanning techniques permits the reconstruction of events that led to the pathology and the possible death of the individual. The infection probably occurred as a result of prolonged exposure of the dental pulp cavity to oral bacteria, and this exposure was caused by injury to the tooth in an animal that is characterized by reduced tooth replacement cycles. In these early reptiles, the reduction in tooth replacement is an evolutionary innovation associated with strong implantation and increased oral processing. The dental abscess observed in L. hamatus, the oldest known infection in a terrestrial vertebrate, provides clear evidence of the ancient association between terrestrial vertebrates and their oral bacteria.

  3. Infection of an Insect Vector with a Bacterial Plant Pathogen Increases Its Propensity for Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Monique R.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S.

    2015-01-01

    The spread of vector-transmitted pathogens relies on complex interactions between host, vector and pathogen. In sessile plant pathosystems, the spread of a pathogen highly depends on the movement and mobility of the vector. However, questions remain as to whether and how pathogen-induced vector manipulations may affect the spread of a plant pathogen. Here we report for the first time that infection with a bacterial plant pathogen increases the probability of vector dispersal, and that such movement of vectors is likely manipulated by a bacterial plant pathogen. We investigated how Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) affects dispersal behavior, flight capacity, and the sexual attraction of its vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama). CLas is the putative causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB), which is a disease that threatens the viability of commercial citrus production worldwide. When D. citri developed on CLas-infected plants, short distance dispersal of male D. citri was greater compared to counterparts reared on uninfected plants. Flight by CLas-infected D. citri was initiated earlier and long flight events were more common than by uninfected psyllids, as measured by a flight mill apparatus. Additionally, CLas titers were higher among psyllids that performed long flights than psyllid that performed short flights. Finally, attractiveness of female D. citri that developed on infected plants to male conspecifics increased proportionally with increasing CLas bacterial titers measured within female psyllids. Our study indicates that the phytopathogen, CLas, may manipulate movement and mate selection behavior of their vectors, which is a possible evolved mechanism to promote their own spread. These results have global implications for both current HLB models of disease spread and control strategies. PMID:26083763

  4. Infection of an Insect Vector with a Bacterial Plant Pathogen Increases Its Propensity for Dispersal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Martini

    Full Text Available The spread of vector-transmitted pathogens relies on complex interactions between host, vector and pathogen. In sessile plant pathosystems, the spread of a pathogen highly depends on the movement and mobility of the vector. However, questions remain as to whether and how pathogen-induced vector manipulations may affect the spread of a plant pathogen. Here we report for the first time that infection with a bacterial plant pathogen increases the probability of vector dispersal, and that such movement of vectors is likely manipulated by a bacterial plant pathogen. We investigated how Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas affects dispersal behavior, flight capacity, and the sexual attraction of its vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. CLas is the putative causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB, which is a disease that threatens the viability of commercial citrus production worldwide. When D. citri developed on CLas-infected plants, short distance dispersal of male D. citri was greater compared to counterparts reared on uninfected plants. Flight by CLas-infected D. citri was initiated earlier and long flight events were more common than by uninfected psyllids, as measured by a flight mill apparatus. Additionally, CLas titers were higher among psyllids that performed long flights than psyllid that performed short flights. Finally, attractiveness of female D. citri that developed on infected plants to male conspecifics increased proportionally with increasing CLas bacterial titers measured within female psyllids. Our study indicates that the phytopathogen, CLas, may manipulate movement and mate selection behavior of their vectors, which is a possible evolved mechanism to promote their own spread. These results have global implications for both current HLB models of disease spread and control strategies.

  5. Optimization of linezolid treatment regimens for Gram-positive bacterial infections based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minjie; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Yuancheng; Liang, Xiaoyu; Guo, Yan; Yu, Jicheng; Zhu, Demei; Zhang, Yingyuan

    2017-01-01

    To optimize linezolid treatment regimens for Gram-positive bacterial infections based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution of 572 Gram-positive strains from patients with clinically confirmed infections was analyzed. Using the Monte Carlo simulation method, the cumulative fraction of response and probability of target attainment were determined for linezolid regimens of 600 mg q.12h and q.8h Results: Linezolid dosage of 600 mg q.12h yielded >90% cumulative fraction of response and probability of target attainment for staphylococcal infections with an MIC of ≤1 mg/l, enterococcal infections with higher MIC values required 600 mg q.8h. Linezolid 600 mg q.12h is still the clinically recommended empirical dosage for Gram-positive bacterial infections. However, as bacterial MICs increase, 600 mg q.8h may be required to achieve better efficacy.

  6. The role of surface disinfection in infection prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebel, Jürgen; Exner, Martin; French, Gary; Chartier, Yves; Christiansen, Bärbel; Gemein, Stefanie; Goroncy-Bermes, Peter; Hartemann, Philippe; Heudorf, Ursel; Kramer, Axel; Maillard, Jean-Yves; Oltmanns, Peter; Rotter, Manfred; Sonntag, Hans-Günther

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Rudolf Schuelke Foundation addresses topics related to hygiene, infection prevention and public health. In this context a panel of scientists from various European countries discussed “The Role of Surface Disinfection in Infection Prevention”. The most important findings and conclusions of this meeting are summarised in the present consensus paper. Aim: Although the relevance of surface disinfection is increasingly being accepted, there are still a number of issues which remain controversial. In particular, the following topics were addressed: Transferral of microbes from surface to patients as a cause of infection, requirements for surface disinfectants, biocidal resistance and toxicity, future challenges. Methods and findings: After discussion and review of current scientific literature the authors agreed that contaminated surfaces contribute to the transmission of pathogens and may thus pose an infection hazard. Targeted surface disinfection based on a risk profile is seen as an indispensable constituent in a multibarrier approach of universal infection control precautions. Resistance and cross-resistance depend on the disinfectant agent as well as on the microbial species. Prudent implementation of surface disinfection regimens tested to be effective can prevent or minimize adverse effects. Conclusions: Disinfection must be viewed as a holistic process. There is a need for defining standard principles for cleaning and disinfection, for ensuring compliance with these principles by measures such as written standard operating procedures, adequate training and suitable audit systems. Also, test procedures must be set up in order to demonstrate the efficacy of disinfectants including new application methods such as pre-soaked wipes for surface disinfection. PMID:23967396

  7. The role of surface disinfection in infection prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebel, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: The Rudolf Schuelke Foundation addresses topics related to hygiene, infection prevention and public health. In this context a panel of scientists from various European countries discussed “The Role of Surface Disinfection in Infection Prevention”. The most important findings and conclusions of this meeting are summarised in the present consensus paper.Aim: Although the relevance of surface disinfection is increasingly being accepted, there are still a number of issues which remain controversial. In particular, the following topics were addressed: Transferral of microbes from surface to patients as a cause of infection, requirements for surface disinfectants, biocidal resistance and toxicity, future challenges.Methods and findings: After discussion and review of current scientific literature the authors agreed that contaminated surfaces contribute to the transmission of pathogens and may thus pose an infection hazard. Targeted surface disinfection based on a risk profile is seen as an indispensable constituent in a multibarrier approach of universal infection control precautions. Resistance and cross-resistance depend on the disinfectant agent as well as on the microbial species. Prudent implementation of surface disinfection regimens tested to be effective can prevent or minimize adverse effects.Conclusions: Disinfection must be viewed as a holistic process. There is a need for defining standard principles for cleaning and disinfection, for ensuring compliance with these principles by measures such as written standard operating procedures, adequate training and suitable audit systems. Also, test procedures must be set up in order to demonstrate the efficacy of disinfectants including new application methods such as pre-soaked wipes for surface disinfection.

  8. Optimized localization of bacterial infections with technetium-99m labelled human immunoglobulin after protein charge selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welling, M.; Feitsma, H.I.J.; Calame, W.; Ensing, G.J.; Goedemans, W.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1994-01-01

    To improve the scintigraphic detection of bacterial infections a protein charge-purified fraction of polyclonal human immunoglobulin was applied as a radiopharmaceutical. This purification was achieved by attaching the immunoglobulin to an anion-exchanger column and by obtaining the column-bound fraction with buffer. The binding to bacteria in vitro and the target to non-target ratios of an experimental thigh infection with Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice were evaluated to compare the purified and the unpurified immunoglobulin. The percentage of binding to all gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria used in this study was significantly (P 99m Tc-labelled protein charge-purified polyclonal human immunoglobulin was administered intravenously. At all time intervals the target (infected thighs) to non-target (non-infected thighs) ratios for both infections were significantly higher (P 99m Tc-labelled protein charge-purified immunoglobulin localizes both a gram-positive and a gram-negative thigh infection more intensely and faster than 99m Tc-labelled unpurified immunoglobulin. (orig.)

  9. Clinical evaluation of technetium-99m infecton for the localisation of bacterial infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, K.E.; Vinjamuri, S.; Hall, A.V.; Solanki, K.; Siraj, Q.H.; Bomanji, J.; Das, S.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to distinguish infection from inflammation in patients with suspected infection using technetium-99m Infecton. Ninety-nine patients (102 studies) referred for infection evaluation underwent imaging with 400 MBq 99m Tc-Infecton at 1 and 4 h. Most patients had appropriate microbiological tests and about half (56) had radiolabelled white cell scans as well. No adverse effects were noted in any patient. The clinical efficacy of 99m Tc-Infecton depended in part on whether imaging was undertaken during antibiotic therapy for infection or not. In consultation with the microbiologist, 5-14 days of appropriate and successful antibiotic therapy was considered adequate to classify some results as true-negatives. The figures for sensitivity and specificity of 99m Tc-Infecton for active or unsuccessfully treated infection were 83% and 91% respectively. It is concluded that 99m Tc-Infecton imaging contributed to the differential diagnosis of inflammation. It is being used as the first imaging modality when bacterial infection is suspected. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. National survey of practices to prevent health care-associated infections in Thailand: The role of prevention bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Ratz, David; Greene, M Todd; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Weber, David J; Saint, Sanjay

    2017-07-01

    We evaluated the practices used in Thai hospitals to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). From January 1, 2014-November 30, 2014, we surveyed all Thai hospitals with an intensive care unit and at least 250 beds. The use of prevention practices for CAUTI, CLABSI, and VAP was assessed. High compliance (≥75%) with all components of the CLABSI and VAP prevention bundles were determined. CAUTI, CLABSI, and VAP infection rates before and after implementing infection control practices are reported. Multivariable regression was used to examine associations between infection prevention bundle compliance and infection rate changes. Out of 245 eligible hospitals, 212 (86.5%) responded. A total of 120 (56.6%) and 115 hospitals (54.2%) reported ≥75% compliance for all components of the CLABSI and VAP prevention bundles, respectively, and 91 hospitals (42.9%) reported using ≥ 4 recommended CAUTI-prevention practices. High compliance with all of the CLABSI and VAP bundle components was associated with significant infection rate reductions (CLABSI, 38.3%; P Hospitals regularly using ≥ 4 CAUTI-prevention practices did not have greater reductions in CAUTI (0.02%; P = .99). Compliance with practices to prevent hospital infections was suboptimal. Policies and interventions promoting bundled approaches may help reduce hospital infections for Thai hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Infection Prevention and Control Initiatives on Acute Respiratory Infections in a Pediatric Long-Term Care Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Meghan T; Jackson, Olivia; Cohen, Bevin; Hutcheon, Gordon; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine; Neu, Natalie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the collective impact of several infection prevention and control initiatives aimed at reducing acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in a pediatric long-term care facility. ARIs did not decrease overall, though the proportion of infections associated with outbreaks and average number of cases per outbreak decreased. Influenza rates decreased significantly. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:859-862.

  12. Liver is the major source of elevated serum lipocalin-2 levels after bacterial infection or partial hepatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ming-Jiang; Feng, Dechun; Wu, Hailong

    2015-01-01

    cell type responsible for LCN2 production after bacterial infection or PHx, and this response is dependent on IL-6 activation of the STAT3 signaling pathway. Thus, hepatocyte-derived LCN2 plays an important role in inhibiting bacterial infection and promoting liver regeneration....... or E. coli. These mice also had increased enteric bacterial translocation from the gut to the mesenteric lymph nodes and exhibited reduced liver regeneration after PHx. Treatment with interleukin (IL)-6 stimulated hepatocytes to produce LCN2 in vitro and in vivo. Hepatocyte-specific ablation of the IL...

  13. National infection prevention and control programmes: Endorsing quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempliuk, Valeska; Ramon-Pardo, Pilar; Holder, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    Core components Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In addition to pain and suffering, HAIs increase the cost of health care and generates indirect costs from loss of productivity for patients and society as a whole. Since 2005, the Pan American Health Organization has provided support to countries for the assessment of their capacities in infection prevention and control (IPC). More than 130 hospitals in 18 countries were found to have poor IPC programmes. However, in the midst of many competing health priorities, IPC programmes are not high on the agenda of ministries of health, and the sustainability of national programmes is not viewed as a key point in making health care systems more consistent and trustworthy. Comprehensive IPC programmes will enable countries to reduce the mobility, mortality and cost of HAIs and improve quality of care. This paper addresses the relevance of national infection prevention and control (NIPC) programmes in promoting, supporting and reinforcing IPC interventions at the level of hospitals. A strong commitment from national health authorities in support of national IPC programmes is crucial to obtaining a steady decrease of HAIs, lowering health costs due to HAIs and ensuring safer care.

  14. Consensus document for the prevention of respiratory infections in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Froes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are one of the principle causes of morbidity, mortality and drain on health resources worldwide. In recent years there has been an increase in the impact of respiratory infections, particularly in the Portuguese population. It is for this reason that the Portuguese Respiratory Society has presented a series of recommendations for the prevention of respiratory infections in adults. These recommendations include both general measures and vaccinations for flu and pneumococcal pneumonia. Resumo: As infeções respiratórias são uma das principais causas de morbilidade, mortalidade e consumo de recursos de saúde a nível global. Nos últimos anos tem-se assistido a um crescente impacto das infeções respiratórias, nomeadamente na população portuguesa. Assim, a Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia apresenta um conjunto de recomendações para a prevenção das infeções respiratórias no adulto. Estas recomendações englobam medidas gerais e de vacinação antigripal e antipneumocócica. Keywords: Prevention, Respiratory infections, Pneumonia, Flu vaccination, Pneumococcal vaccination, Palavras-chave: Prevenção, Infeções respiratórias, Pneumonia, Vacina da gripe, Vacina pneumocócica

  15. Serum sCD30: A promising biomarker for predicting the risk of bacterial infection after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Parra, Patricia; López-Medrano, Francisco; Ruiz-Merlo, Tamara; González, Esther; Polanco, Natalia; Origüen, Julia; San Juan, Rafael; Andrés, Amado; Aguado, José María

    2017-04-01

    The transmembrane glycoprotein CD30 contributes to regulate the balance between Th 1 and Th 2 responses. Previous studies have reported conflicting results on the utility of its soluble form (sCD30) to predict post-transplant infection. Serum sCD30 was measured by a commercial ELISA assay at baseline and post-transplant months 1, 3, and 6 in 100 kidney transplant (KT) recipients (279 monitoring points). The impact of sCD30 levels on the incidence of overall, bacterial and opportunistic infection during the first 12 months after transplantation was assessed by Cox regression. There were no differences in serum sCD30 according to the occurrence of overall or opportunistic infection. However, sCD30 levels were higher in patients with bacterial infection compared to those without at baseline (P=.038) and months 1 (Ptransplantation (P=.006). Patients with baseline sCD30 levels ≥13.5 ng/mL had lower 12-month bacterial infection-free survival (35.0% vs 80.0%; PsCD30 levels ≥13.5 ng/mL remained as an independent risk factor for bacterial infection (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 4.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.05-10.53; sCD30 levels ≥6.0 ng/mL at month 1 acted as a risk factor for subsequent bacterial infection (aHR: 5.29; 95% CI: 1.11-25.14; P=.036). Higher serum sCD30 levels were associated with an increased risk of bacterial infection after KT. We hypothesize that this biomarker reflects a Th 2 -polarized T-cell response, which exerts a detrimental effect on the immunity against bacterial pathogens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Antibiotic therapy for preventing infections in people with acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Westendorp, Willeke F; Dippel, Diederik Wj; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J

    2018-01-22

    Stroke is the main cause of disability in high-income countries and ranks second as a cause of death worldwide. Infections occur frequently after stroke and may adversely affect outcome. Preventive antibiotic therapy in the acute phase of stroke may reduce the incidence of infections and improve outcome. In the previous version of this Cochrane Review, published in 2012, we found that antibiotics did reduce the risk of infection but did not reduce the number of dependent or deceased patients. However, included studies were small and heterogeneous. In 2015, two large clinical trials were published, warranting an update of this Review. To assess the effectiveness and safety of preventive antibiotic therapy in people with ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. We wished to determine whether preventive antibiotic therapy in people with acute stroke:• reduces the risk of a poor functional outcome (dependency and/or death) at follow-up;• reduces the occurrence of infections in the acute phase of stroke;• reduces the occurrence of elevated body temperature (temperature ≥ 38° C) in the acute phase of stroke;• reduces length of hospital stay; or• leads to an increased rate of serious adverse events, such as anaphylactic shock, skin rash, or colonisation with antibiotic-resistant micro-organisms. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (25 June 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 5; 25 June 2017) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE Ovid (1950 to 11 May 2017), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 11 May 2017). In an effort to identify further published, unpublished, and ongoing trials, we searched trials and research registers, scanned reference lists, and contacted trial authors, colleagues, and researchers in the field. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of preventive antibiotic therapy versus control (placebo or open control) in people with acute ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. Two review authors independently selected

  17. Bacterial infection identification by an anti-peptidoglycan aptamer labeled with Technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro; Ferreira, Iêda Mendes [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barros, Andre Luis Branco de; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: A variety of radiopharmaceuticals is used to detect infection, but long-term clinical use has shown that the majority of them cannot distinguish between inflammation and infection. Nuclear medicine clinics are still awaiting the optimal scintigraphic imaging agents capable of discriminating between infection and inflammation, and between fungal and bacterial infections. Aptamers are oligonucleotides that display high affinity and specificity for their molecular targets and are emerging as promising molecules for radiopharmaceuticals development. Material and Methods: An aptamer for the peptidoglycan (main constituent of bacterial cell walls) termed Antibac1 was selected in a previous work. In the present study, this aptamer were labeled with {sup 99m}Tc and evaluated for bacterial infections identification by scintigraphy. All protocols were approved by the local Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (CETEA / UFMG), Protocol number 108/2014. Labeling with {sup 99m}Tc was performed by the direct method and the complex stability was evaluated in saline, plasma and presence of cysteine. The biodistribution and scintigraphic imaging studies with the {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac1 were carried out in two distinct experimental infection models: Swiss mice infected in the right thigh with Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans. {sup 99m}Tc radiolabeled library, consisting of oligonucleotides with random sequences, was used as a control in both experimental models. The direct radiolabeling allowed radiolabel yields above 90%. Results: A high complex stability was obtained in saline solution and plasma, but 51% of transchelation was verified after 24 h in the presence of cysteine. Scintigraphic images of S. aureus infected mice that received the {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac1 showed target to non-target ratios of 4.7 ± 0.90 and 4.6 ± 0.10 at 1.5 and 3.0 h, respectively. These values were statistically higher than

  18. Bacterial infection identification by an anti-peptidoglycan aptamer labeled with Technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro; Ferreira, Iêda Mendes; Barros, Andre Luis Branco de; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2017-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: A variety of radiopharmaceuticals is used to detect infection, but long-term clinical use has shown that the majority of them cannot distinguish between inflammation and infection. Nuclear medicine clinics are still awaiting the optimal scintigraphic imaging agents capable of discriminating between infection and inflammation, and between fungal and bacterial infections. Aptamers are oligonucleotides that display high affinity and specificity for their molecular targets and are emerging as promising molecules for radiopharmaceuticals development. Material and Methods: An aptamer for the peptidoglycan (main constituent of bacterial cell walls) termed Antibac1 was selected in a previous work. In the present study, this aptamer were labeled with 99m Tc and evaluated for bacterial infections identification by scintigraphy. All protocols were approved by the local Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (CETEA / UFMG), Protocol number 108/2014. Labeling with 99m Tc was performed by the direct method and the complex stability was evaluated in saline, plasma and presence of cysteine. The biodistribution and scintigraphic imaging studies with the 99m Tc-Antibac1 were carried out in two distinct experimental infection models: Swiss mice infected in the right thigh with Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans. 99m Tc radiolabeled library, consisting of oligonucleotides with random sequences, was used as a control in both experimental models. The direct radiolabeling allowed radiolabel yields above 90%. Results: A high complex stability was obtained in saline solution and plasma, but 51% of transchelation was verified after 24 h in the presence of cysteine. Scintigraphic images of S. aureus infected mice that received the 99m Tc-Antibac1 showed target to non-target ratios of 4.7 ± 0.90 and 4.6 ± 0.10 at 1.5 and 3.0 h, respectively. These values were statistically higher than found for the 99m Tc

  19. Prone position for the prevention of lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuret, P

    2002-04-01

    Pulmonary infection is frequent in brain injured patients. It has been identified as an independent predictor of unfavorable neurological outcome, calling for attempts of prevention. We recently evaluated intermittent prone positioning for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in comatose brain injured patients, in a randomized study. 25 patients were included in the prone position (PP) group: they were positioned on prone four hours once daily until they could get up to sit in an armchair; 26 patients were included in the supine position (SP) group. The main characteristics of the patients from the two groups were similar at randomization. The primary end-point was the incidence of lung worsening, defined by an increase in the Lung Injury Score by at least one point since the time of randomization. The incidence of lung worsening was lower in the PP group (12%) than in the SP group (50%) (p=0.003). The incidence of VAP was 38.4% in the SP group and 20% in the PP group (p=0.14). There was no serious complication attributable to prone positioning. In conclusion, the beneficial effect of prone positioning for prevention of lung infection in brain injured patients is not well established. However, in those patients, prone positioning is able to avoid the worsening of pulmonary function, especially in oxygenation.

  20. Antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa and its potency to prevent bacterial biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhrouf Amina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymoquinone is an active principle of Nigella sativa seed known as "Habbah Al-Sauda" in Arabic countries and "Sinouj" in Tunisia. Bacterial biofilms tend to exhibit significant tolerance to antimicrobials drugs during infections. Methods The antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone (TQ and its biofilm inhibition potencies were investigated on 11 human pathogenic bacteria. The growth and development of the biofilm were assessed using the crystal violet (CV and the 2, 3-bis [2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT reduction assay. Results TQ exhibited a significant bactericidal activity against the majority of the tested bacteria (MICs values ranged from 8 to 32 μg/ml especially Gram positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510. Crystal violet assay demonstrated that the minimum biofilm inhibition concentration (BIC50 was reached with 22 and 60 μg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510 respectively. In addition our data revealed that cells oxidative activity was influenced by TQ supplementation. In the same way, TQ prevented cell adhesion to glass slides surface. Conclusion The ability of TQ to prevent biofilm formation warrants further investigation to explore its use as bioactive substances with antibiofilm potential.

  1. [Transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection of a apheresis platelet concentrate with Streptococcus gallolyticus: Analysis of one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Niger, C; Dalbies, F; Narbonne, V; Hery-Arnaud, G; Virmaux, M; Léostic, C; Hervé, F; Liétard, C

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial infections are uncommon complications of the blood products transfusion but they are potentially serious. Many advances have been done over the past few years to guarantee the microbiological security of blood products as the donors selection with a medical talk, the derivation of the first 30 millilitres blood during the donation, the deleucocytation of blood products… But in spite of these advances, cases of bacterial infection always remain. The purpose of this study was to point out the platelet concentrate's transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection with Streptococcus gallolyticus and the unusual consequence for the donor by uncovering an asymptomatic rectal neoplastic tumor. This study as raised as to whether the usefulness of systematic bacterial inactivation in the platelets concentrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Prophylactic Administration of Bacterially Derived Immunomodulators Improves the Outcome of Influenza Virus Infection in a Murine Model▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth B.; Clements, John D.; Voss, Thomas G.; Cárdenas-Freytag, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    Prophylactic or therapeutic immunomodulation is an antigen-independent strategy that induces nonspecific immune system activation, thereby enhancing host defense to disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of prophylactic immunomodulation on the outcome of influenza virus infection using three bacterially derived immune-enhancing agents known for promoting distinct immunological profiles. BALB/c mice were treated nasally with either cholera toxin (CT), a mutant form of the CT-related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin designated LT(R192G), or CpG oligodeoxynucleotide. Mice were subsequently challenged with a lethal dose of influenza A/PR/8/34 virus 24 h after the last immunomodulation treatment and either monitored for survival or sacrificed postchallenge for viral and immunological analysis. Treatment with the three immunomodulators prevented or delayed mortality and weight loss, but only CT and LT(R192G) significantly reduced initial lung viral loads as measured by plaque assay. Analysis performed 4 days postinfection indicated that prophylactic treatments with CT, LT(R192G), or CpG resulted in significantly increased numbers of CD4 T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells and altered costimulatory marker expression in the airways of infected mice, coinciding with reduced expression of pulmonary chemokines and the appearance of inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue-like structures in the lungs. Collectively, these results suggest that, despite different immunomodulatory mechanisms, CT, LT(R192G), and CpG induce an initial inflammatory process and enhance the immune response to primary influenza virus challenge while preventing potentially damaging chemokine expression. These studies provide insight into the immunological parameters and immune modulation strategies that have the potential to enhance the nonspecific host response to influenza virus infection. PMID:20053748

  3. Enterobacteriaceae infection – diagnosis, antibiotic resistance and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jarząb

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal infections caused by rod-shaped bacteria of the [i]Enterobacteriaceae[/i] genus are one of the major health hazards in countries where sanitation standards are low. [i]Strains[/i] of [i]Shigella,[/i] [i]Salmonella, Escherichia[/i] and [i]Yersinia [/i]are responsible for diarrhea, severe bacillary dysentery, typhoid, other intestinal diseases, as well as genitourinary tract and blood infections. According to the WHO there are 4.5 billion cases every year, of which 1.9 million end in death. This makes intestinal infections third in terms of human disease mortality. In this work we discuss methods of pathogen identification, the mechanism of host-pathogen interaction, and the nature of the ¬host’s immunological response. Due to rising drug resistance we discuss the importance of better pathogen detection, vaccine design and the use of vaccines as a preventive measure against intestinal infections. Special attention is paid to OMP38, a protein isolated from [i]S. flexneri[/i] 3a outer membrane. Since it is known that this protein has good immunogenic properties, it can be used as an antigen or carrier for conjugate vaccines.

  4. Long-term impact of systemic bacterial infection on the cerebral vasculature and microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Püntener Ursula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic infection leads to generation of inflammatory mediators that result in metabolic and behavioural changes. Repeated or chronic systemic inflammation leads to a state of innate immune tolerance: a protective mechanism against overactivity of the immune system. In this study, we investigated the immune adaptation of microglia and brain vascular endothelial cells in response to systemic inflammation or bacterial infection. Methods Mice were given repeated doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS or a single injection of live Salmonella typhimurium. Inflammatory cytokines were measured in serum, spleen and brain, and microglial phenotype studied by immunohistochemistry. To assess priming of the innate immune response in the brain, mice were infected with Salmonella typhimurium and subsequently challenged with a focal unilateral intracerebral injection of LPS. Results Repeated systemic LPS challenges resulted in increased brain IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-12 levels, despite attenuated systemic cytokine production. Each LPS challenge induced significant changes in burrowing behaviour. In contrast, brain IL-1β and IL-12 levels in Salmonella typhimurium-infected mice increased over three weeks, with high interferon-γ levels in the circulation. Behavioural changes were only observed during the acute phase of the infection. Microglia and cerebral vasculature display an activated phenotype, and focal intracerebral injection of LPS four weeks after infection results in an exaggerated local inflammatory response when compared to non-infected mice. Conclusions These studies reveal that the innate immune cells in the brain do not become tolerant to systemic infection, but are primed instead. This may lead to prolonged and damaging cytokine production that may have a profound effect on the onset and/or progression of pre-existing neurodegenerative disease.

  5. Molecularly specific detection of bacterial lipoteichoic acid for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection of the bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Julie E; Thompson, John M; Sadowska, Agnieszka; Tkaczyk, Christine; Sellman, Bret R; Minola, Andrea; Corti, Davide; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Miller, Lloyd S; Thorek, Daniel Lj

    2018-01-01

    Discriminating sterile inflammation from infection, especially in cases of aseptic loosening versus an actual prosthetic joint infection, is challenging and has significant treatment implications. Our goal was to evaluate a novel human monoclonal antibody (mAb) probe directed against the Gram-positive bacterial surface molecule lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Specificity and affinity were assessed in vitro. We then radiolabeled the anti-LTA mAb and evaluated its effectiveness as a diagnostic imaging tool for detecting infection via immunoPET imaging in an in vivo mouse model of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). In vitro and ex vivo binding of the anti-LTA mAb to pathogenic bacteria was measured with Octet, ELISA, and flow cytometry. The in vivo PJI mouse model was assessed using traditional imaging modalities, including positron emission tomography (PET) with [ 18 F]FDG and [ 18 F]NaF as well as X-ray computed tomography (CT), before being evaluated with the zirconium-89-labeled antibody specific for LTA ([ 89 Zr]SAC55). The anti-LTA mAb exhibited specific binding in vitro to LTA-expressing bacteria. Results from imaging showed that our model could reliably simulate infection at the surgical site by bioluminescent imaging, conventional PET tracer imaging, and bone morphological changes by CT. One day following injection of both the radiolabeled anti-LTA and isotype control antibodies, the anti-LTA antibody demonstrated significantly greater ( P  infected prosthesis sites over either the same antibody at sterile prosthesis sites or of control non-specific antibody at infected prosthesis sites. Taken together, the radiolabeled anti-LTA mAb, [ 89 Zr]SAC55, may serve as a valuable diagnostic molecular imaging probe to help distinguish between sterile inflammation and infection in the setting of PJI. Future studies are needed to determine whether these findings will translate to human PJI.

  6. Hospital infection prevention and control issues relevant to extensive floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Mundy, Linda M; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Glen Mayhall, C

    2013-02-01

    The devastating clinical and economic implications of floods exemplify the need for effective global infection prevention and control (IPC) strategies for natural disasters. Reopening of hospitals after excessive flooding requires a balance between meeting the medical needs of the surrounding communities and restoration of a safe hospital environment. Postflood hospital preparedness plans are a key issue for infection control epidemiologists, healthcare providers, patients, and hospital administrators. We provide recent IPC experiences related to reopening of a hospital after extensive black-water floods necessitated hospital closures in Thailand and the United States. These experiences provide a foundation for the future design, execution, and analysis of black-water flood preparedness plans by IPC stakeholders.

  7. Hand hygiene for the prevention of nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Löffler, Harald; Gastmeier, Petra

    2009-10-01

    The WHO regards hand hygiene as an essential tool for the prevention of nosocomial infection, but compliance in clinical practice is often low. The relevant scientific literature and national and international evidence-based recommendations (Robert Koch Institute [Germany], WHO) were evaluated. Hygienic hand disinfection has better antimicrobial efficacy than hand-washing and is the procedure of choice to be performed before and after manual contact with patients. The hands should be washed, rather than disinfected, only when they are visibly soiled. Skin irritation is quite common among healthcare workers and is mainly caused by water, soap, and prolonged wearing of gloves. Compliance can be improved by training, by placing hand-rub dispensers at the sites where they are needed, and by physicians setting a good example for others. Improved compliance in hand hygiene, with proper use of alcohol-based hand rubs, can reduce the nosocomial infection rate by as much as 40%.

  8. Tracking bacterial infection of macrophages using a novel red-emission pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuguang; Tian, Yanqing; Zhang, Weiwen; Jang, Sei-Hum; Jen, Alex K-Y; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2010-10-01

    The relationship between bacteria and host phagocytic cells is key to the induction of immunity. To visualize and monitor bacterial infection, we developed a novel bacterial membrane permeable pH sensor for the noninvasive monitoring of bacterial entry into murine macrophages. The pH sensor was constructed using 2-dicyanomethylene-3-cyano-4,5,5-trimethyl-2,5-dihydrofuran (TCF) as an electron-withdrawing group and aniline as an electron-donating group. A piperazine moiety was used as the pH-sensitive group. Because of the strong electron-donating and -withdrawing units conjugated in the sensing moiety M, the fluorophore emitted in the red spectral window, away from the autofluorescence regions of the bacteria. Following the engulfment of sensor-labeled bacteria by macrophages and their subsequent merger with host lysosomes, the resulting low-pH environment enhances the fluorescence intensity of the pH sensors inside the bacteria. Time-lapse analysis of the fluorescent intensity suggested significant heterogeneity of bacterial uptake among macrophages. In addition, qRT-PCR analysis of the bacterial 16 S rRNA gene expression within single macrophage cells suggested that the 16 S rRNA of the bacteria was still intact 120 min after they had been engulfed by macrophages. A toxicity assay showed that the pH sensor has no cytotoxicity towards either E. coli or murine macrophages. The sensor shows good repeatability, a long lifetime, and a fast response to pH changes, and can be used for a variety of bacteria.

  9. A review of the epidemiology, prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Entonu

    Full Text Available In order to amalgamate research findings on HIV/AIDS in Nigeria as well as the trend of the infection in a concise manner, we reviewed published articles on the HIV/AIDS situation in Nigeria. We categorized this review into several subheadings. The HIV prevalence rate has continued to rise steadily from less than 0.1% in 1987, to 5.8% in 2001, with a slight decrease in 2003 to 5.0%. Although the knowledge about HIV and its mode of transmission is widespread, it is however disheartening to note that this did not result into appreciable attitudinal change and behavior modification among Nigerians. Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been identified in Nigeria, with HIV-1 being the predominant type. Furthermore, several subtypes like subtypes A, B, C, G and J have been identified in Nigeria, with several recombinant forms like the CRF02_AG; the major ones being A, G and CRF02_AG. HIV-infected patients in Nigeria are also co-infected with other viral and bacterial infections, the commonly reported ones being co infections with hepatitis B and C. Although treatment of infected patients has increased recently, more effort is needed, especially in the area of patients monitoring, to maximize the benefits of ART in Nigeria. Finally, Nigeria has made appreciable efforts in vaccine development and candidate HIV DNA vaccines have been developed utilizing the sequences from predominant subtypes, and these candidates have been shown to be immunogenic in animal models. It is therefore clear that only the integration of prevention and antiretroviral research programmes into a coherent programme that is needed to address the public health needs that HIV/AIDS crisis represents for Nigeria.

  10. Hypoxia determines survival outcomes of bacterial infection through HIF-1α-dependent reprogramming of leukocyte metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, A.A.R.; Dickinson, R.S.; Murphy, F.; Thomson, J.P.; Marriott, H.M.; Tavares, A.; Willson, J.; Williams, L.; Lewis, A.; Mirchandani, A.; Coelho, P.D.S.; Doherty, C.; Ryan, E.; Watts, E.; Morton, N.M.

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia and bacterial infection frequently coexist, in both acute and chronic clinical settings, and typically result in adverse clinical outcomes. To ameliorate this morbidity, we investigated the interaction between hypoxia and the host response. In the context of acute hypoxia, both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae infections rapidly induced progressive neutrophil-mediated morbidity and mortality, with associated hypothermia and cardiovascular compromise. Preconditioning ...

  11. Treating High-grade Lesions to Prevent Anal Cancer in HIV-infected People

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study, called the ANCHOR trial, will investigate whether screening and prevention methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer can help prevent anal cancer in HIV-infected men and women.

  12. The bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa is not killed if it fails to infect: implications for coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kayla C; Auld, Stuart K J R; Wilson, Philip J; James, Janna; Little, Tom J

    2013-02-01

    Strong selection on parasites, as well as on hosts, is crucial for fueling coevolutionary dynamics. Selection will be especially strong if parasites that encounter resistant hosts are destroyed and diluted from the local environment. We tested whether spores of the bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa were passed through the gut (the route of infection) of their host, Daphnia magna, and whether passaged spores remained viable for a "second chance" at infecting a new host. In particular, we tested if this viability (estimated via infectivity) depended on host genotype, whether or not the genotype was susceptible, and on initial parasite dose. Our results show that Pasteuria spores generally remain viable after passage through both susceptible and resistant Daphnia. Furthermore, these spores remained infectious even after being frozen for several weeks. If parasites can get a second chance at infecting hosts in the wild, selection for infection success in the first instance will be reduced. This could also weaken reciprocal selection on hosts and slow the coevolutionary process.

  13. Usefulness of clinical data and rapid diagnostic tests to identify bacterial etiology in adult respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Toledano-Sierra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infections are a common complaint and most of them, such as common cold and laryngitis, are viral in origin, so antibiotic use should be exceptional. However, there are other respiratory tract infections (sinusitis, pharyngitis, lower respiratory tract infections, and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease where a bacterial etiology is responsible for a non-negligible percentage, and antibiotics are often empirically indicated. The aim of the study is to identify the strength of the data obtained from the symptoms, physical examination and rapid diagnostic methods in respiratory infections in which antibiotic use is frequently proposed in order to improve diagnosis and influence the decision to prescribe these drugs. The review concludes that history, physical examination and rapid tests are useful to guide the need for antibiotic treatment in diseases such as acute sinusitis, acute pharyngitis, exacerbation of lower respiratory tract infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, no isolated data is accurate enough by itself to confirm or rule out the need for antibiotics. Therefore, clinical prediction rules bring together history and physical examination, thereby improving the accuracy of the decision to indicate or not antibiotics.

  14. Decolonization in Prevention of Health Care-Associated Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Marin L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Colonization with health care-associated pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, Gram-negative organisms, and Clostridium difficile is associated with increased risk of infection. Decolonization is an evidence-based intervention that can be used to prevent health care-associated infections (HAIs). This review evaluates agents used for nasal topical decolonization, topical (e.g., skin) decolonization, oral decolonization, and selective digestive or oropharyngeal decontamination. Although the majority of studies performed to date have focused on S. aureus decolonization, there is increasing interest in how to apply decolonization strategies to reduce infections due to Gram-negative organisms, especially those that are multidrug resistant. Nasal topical decolonization agents reviewed include mupirocin, bacitracin, retapamulin, povidone-iodine, alcohol-based nasal antiseptic, tea tree oil, photodynamic therapy, omiganan pentahydrochloride, and lysostaphin. Mupirocin is still the gold standard agent for S. aureus nasal decolonization, but there is concern about mupirocin resistance, and alternative agents are needed. Of the other nasal decolonization agents, large clinical trials are still needed to evaluate the effectiveness of retapamulin, povidone-iodine, alcohol-based nasal antiseptic, tea tree oil, omiganan pentahydrochloride, and lysostaphin. Given inferior outcomes and increased risk of allergic dermatitis, the use of bacitracin-containing compounds cannot be recommended as a decolonization strategy. Topical decolonization agents reviewed included chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), hexachlorophane, povidone-iodine, triclosan, and sodium hypochlorite. Of these, CHG is the skin decolonization agent that has the strongest evidence base, and sodium hypochlorite can also be recommended. CHG is associated with prevention of infections due to Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms as well as Candida. Conversely, triclosan use is discouraged, and

  15. The Human Skin Microbiome Associates with the Outcome of and Is Influenced by Bacterial Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rensburg, Julia J; Lin, Huaiying; Gao, Xiang; Toh, Evelyn; Fortney, Kate R; Ellinger, Sheila; Zwickl, Beth; Janowicz, Diane M; Katz, Barry P; Nelson, David E; Dong, Qunfeng; Spinola, Stanley M

    2015-09-15

    The influence of the skin microbiota on host susceptibility to infectious agents is largely unexplored. The skin harbors diverse bacterial species that may promote or antagonize the growth of an invading pathogen. We developed a human infection model for Haemophilus ducreyi in which human volunteers are inoculated on the upper arm. After inoculation, papules form and either spontaneously resolve or progress to pustules. To examine the role of the skin microbiota in the outcome of H. ducreyi infection, we analyzed the microbiomes of four dose-matched pairs of "resolvers" and "pustule formers" whose inoculation sites were swabbed at multiple time points. Bacteria present on the skin were identified by amplification and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity between the preinfection microbiomes of infected sites showed that sites from the same volunteer clustered together and that pustule formers segregated from resolvers (P = 0.001, permutational multivariate analysis of variance [PERMANOVA]), suggesting that the preinfection microbiomes were associated with outcome. NMDS using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity of the endpoint samples showed that the pustule sites clustered together and were significantly different than the resolved sites (P = 0.001, PERMANOVA), suggesting that the microbiomes at the endpoint differed between the two groups. In addition to H. ducreyi, pustule-forming sites had a greater abundance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Paracoccus, and Staphylococcus species, whereas resolved sites had higher levels of Actinobacteria and Propionibacterium species. These results suggest that at baseline, resolvers and pustule formers have distinct skin bacterial communities which change in response to infection and the resultant immune response. Human skin is home to a diverse community of microorganisms, collectively known as the skin microbiome. Some resident

  16. In vitro results of flexible light-emitting antimicrobial bandage designed for prevention of surgical site infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Mitchell; Sharan, Riti; Galbadage, Thushara; Sule, Preeti; Smith, Robert; Lovelady, April; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Glowczwski, Alan; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2018-02-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and a significant expense to the healthcare system and hospitals. The majority of these infections are preventable; however, increasing bacterial resistance, biofilm persistence, and human error contribute to the occurrence of these healthcare-associated infections. We present a flexible antimicrobial blue-light emitting bandage designed for use on postoperative incisions and wounds. The photonic device is designed to inactivate bacteria present on the skin and prevent bacterial colonization of the site, thus reducing the occurrence of SSIs. This antimicrobial light emitting bandage uses blue light's proven abilities to inactivate a wide range of clinical pathogens regardless of their resistance to antibiotics, inactivate bacteria without harming mammalian cells, improve wound healing, and inactivate bacteria in biofilms. The antimicrobial bandage consists of a thin 2"x2" silicone sheet with an array of 77 LEDs embedded in multiple layers of the material for thermal management. The 405 nm center wavelength LED array is designed to be a wearable device that integrates with standard hospital infection prevention protocols. The device was characterized for irradiance of 44.5 mW/cm2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus seeded in a petri dish was used to evaluate bacterial inactivation in vitro. Starting with a concentration of 2.16 x 107 colony forming units (CFU)/mL, 45% of the bacteria was inactivated within 15 minutes, 65% had been inactivated by 30 minutes, 99% was inactivated by 60 minutes, and a 7 log reduction and complete sterilization was achieved within 120 minutes.

  17. Predictors of certification in infection prevention and control among infection preventionists: APIC MegaSurvey findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalp, Ericka L; Harris, Jeanette J; Zawistowski, Grace

    2018-06-06

    The 2015 APIC MegaSurvey was completed by 4,078 members to assess infection prevention practices. This study's purpose was to examine MegaSurvey results to relate infection preventionist (IP) certification status with demographic characteristics, organizational structure, compensation benefits, and practice and competency factors. Descriptive statistics were used to examine population characteristics and certification status. Bivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate relationships between independent variables and certification status. Variables demonstrating statistical significance (P Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chitosan-based coatings in the prevention of intravascular catheter-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Gracia; Regiel-Futyra, Anna; Tamayo, Alejandra; Monzon, Marta; Irusta, Silvia; de Gregorio, Miguel Angel; Kyzioł, Agnieszka; Arruebo, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Central venous access devices play an important role in patients with prolonged intravenous administration requirements. In the last years, the coating of these devices with bactericidal compounds has emerged as a potential tool to prevent bacterial colonization. Our study describes the modification of 3D-printed reservoirs and silicone-based catheters, mimicking central venous access devices, through different approaches including their coating with the well known biocompatible and bactericidal polymer chitosan, with the anionic polysaccharide alginate; also, plasma treated surfaces were included in the study to promote polymer adhesion. The evaluation of the antimicrobial action of those surface modifications compared to that exerted by a model antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) adsorbed on the surface of the devices was carried out. Surface characterization was developed by different methodologies and the bactericidal effects of the different coatings were assayed in an in vitro model of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Our results showed a significant reduction in the reservoir roughness (≤73%) after coating though no changes were observed for coated catheters which was also confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, pointing to the importance of the surface device topography for the successful attachment of the coating and for the subsequent development of bactericidal effects. Furthermore, the single presence of chitosan on the reservoirs was enough to fully inhibit bacterial growth exerting the same efficiency as that showed by the model antibiotic. Importantly, chitosan coating showed low cytotoxicity against human keratinocytes, human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells, and murine colon carcinoma cells displaying viability percentages in the range of the control samples (>95%). Chitosan-based coatings are proposed as an effective and promising solution in the prevention of microbial infections associated to medical devices.

  19. Prevention and Control Strategies to Counter Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Irfan A; Parray, Hilal A; Lone, Jameel B; Paek, Woon K; Lim, Jeongheui; Bajpai, Vivek K; Park, Yong-Ha

    2017-01-01

    Dengue is currently the highest and rapidly spreading vector-borne viral disease, which can lead to mortality in its severe form. The globally endemic dengue poses as a public health and economic challenge that has been attempted to suppress though application of various prevention and control techniques. Therefore, broad spectrum techniques, that are efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sustainable, are proposed and practiced in dengue-endemic regions. The development of vaccines and immunotherapies have introduced a new dimension for effective dengue control and prevention. Thus, the present study focuses on the preventive and control strategies that are currently employed to counter dengue. While traditional control strategies bring temporary sustainability alone, implementation of novel biotechnological interventions, such as sterile insect technique, paratransgenesis, and production of genetically modified vectors, has improved the efficacy of the traditional strategies. Although a large-scale vector control strategy can be limited, innovative vaccine candidates have provided evidence for promising dengue prevention measures. The use of tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) has been the most effective so far in treating dengue infections. Nonetheless, challenges and limitation hinder the progress of developing integrated intervention methods and vaccines; while the improvement in the latest techniques and vaccine formulation continues, one can hope for a future without the threat of dengue virus.

  20. Prevention and Control Strategies to Counter Dengue Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan A. Rather

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is currently the highest and rapidly spreading vector-borne viral disease, which can lead to mortality in its severe form. The globally endemic dengue poses as a public health and economic challenge that has been attempted to suppress though application of various prevention and control techniques. Therefore, broad spectrum techniques, that are efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sustainable, are proposed and practiced in dengue-endemic regions. The development of vaccines and immunotherapies have introduced a new dimension for effective dengue control and prevention. Thus, the present study focuses on the preventive and control strategies that are currently employed to counter dengue. While traditional control strategies bring temporary sustainability alone, implementation of novel biotechnological interventions, such as sterile insect technique, paratransgenesis, and production of genetically modified vectors, has improved the efficacy of the traditional strategies. Although a large-scale vector control strategy can be limited, innovative vaccine candidates have provided evidence for promising dengue prevention measures. The use of tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV has been the most effective so far in treating dengue infections. Nonetheless, challenges and limitation hinder the progress of developing integrated intervention methods and vaccines; while the improvement in the latest techniques and vaccine formulation continues, one can hope for a future without the threat of dengue virus.

  1. Drug and Vaccine Development for the Treatment and Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Valerie P.; Hannan, Thomas J.; Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans, affecting millions of people every year. UTI cause significant morbidity in women throughout their lifespan, in infant boys, in older men, in individuals with underlying urinary tract abnormalities, and in those that require long-term urethral catheterization, such as patients with spinal cord injuries or incapacitated individuals living in nursing homes. Serious sequelae include frequent recurrences, pyelonephritis with sepsis, renal damage in young children, pre-term birth, and complications of frequent antimicrobial use including high-level antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile colitis. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) cause the vast majority of UTI, but less common pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis and other enterococci frequently take advantage of an abnormal or catheterized urinary tract to cause opportunistic infections. While antibiotic therapy has historically been very successful in controlling UTI, the high rate of recurrence remains a major problem, and many individuals suffer from chronically recurring UTI, requiring long-term prophylactic antibiotic regimens to prevent recurrent UTI. Furthermore, the global emergence of multi-drug resistant UPEC in the past ten years spotlights the need for alternative therapeutic and preventative strategies to combat UTI, including anti-infective drug therapies and vaccines. In this chapter, we review recent advances in the field of UTI pathogenesis, with an emphasis on the identification of promising drug and vaccine targets. We then discuss the development of new UTI drugs and vaccines, highlighting the challenges these approaches face and the need for a greater understanding of urinary tract mucosal immunity. PMID:26999391

  2. [Recurrent and catheter-associated urinary tract infections : Prophylaxis and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechota, H

    2017-06-01

    Urinay tract infection (UTI) as one of the most frequent bacterial infections in humans is of utmost relevance. Because of the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, urinalysis should always include urine culture and a resistogram in order to avoid an unspecific selection and overuse of antibiotics. Prevention of recurrent UTI must first of all rule out predisposing uropathogenic conditions. Nowadays, a great variety of drugs, behavioral, and supportive treatment options can effectively minimize UTI recurrence. The growing importance of vaccines (immunotherapy), probiotics (lactobacilli), and standardized herbal preparations meets the need of reducing antibiotic use and the development of antimicrobial resistance. Around 80% of all nosocomial UTIs (nUTIs) are associated with indwelling urinary catheters. It is estimated that up to 70% of all nUTIs occurring in Germany may be avoided by using appropriate preventative measures. Therefore, profound knowledge about the basics of catheter-associated nUTIs and the correct management of urinary catheters are of utmost individual and socioeconomic importance.

  3. Urine cytokine and chemokine levels predict urinary tract infection severity independent of uropathogen, urine bacterial burden, host genetics, and host age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Smith, Sara N; Mody, Lona; Mobley, Harry L T

    2018-06-11

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections worldwide. Diagnosing UTIs in older adults poses a significant challenge as asymptomatic colonization is common. Identification of a non-invasive profile that predicts likelihood of progressing from urine colonization to severe disease would provide a significant advantage in clinical practice. We monitored colonization susceptibility, disease severity, and immune response to two uropathogens in two mouse strains across three age groups to identify predictors of infection outcome. Proteus mirabilis caused more severe disease than Escherichia coli, regardless of mouse strain or age, and was associated with differences in IL-1β, IFN-β, CXCL5 (LIX), CCL5 (RANTES), and CCL2 (MCP-1). In comparing the response to infection across age groups, mature adult mice were better able to control colonization and prevent progression to kidney colonization and bacteremia than young or aged mice, regardless of mouse strain or bacterial species, and this was associated with differences in IL-23, CXCL1, and CCL5. A bimodal distribution was noted for urine colonization, which was strongly associated with bladder CFUs and the magnitude of the immune response but independent of age or disease severity. To determine the value of urine cytokine and chemokine levels for predicting severe disease, all infection datasets were combined and subjected to a series of logistic regressions. A multivariate model incorporating IL-1β, CXCL1, and CCL2 had strong predictive value for identifying mice that did not develop kidney colonization or bacteremia, regardless of mouse genetic background, age, infecting bacterial species, or urine bacterial burden. In conclusion, urine cytokine profiles could potentially serve as a non-invasive decision-support tool in clinical practice and contribute to antimicrobial stewardship. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial and Viral Co-Infections in Pneumocystis spp. Positive Lung Samples of Austrian Pigs with Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was the retrospective investigation of viral (porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, torque teno sus virus type 1 and 2 (TTSuV1, TTSuV2 and bacterial (Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. b., Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. h., and Pasteurella multocida (P. m. co-infections in 110 Pneumocystis spp. positive lung samples of Austrian pigs with pneumonia. Fifty-one % were positive for PCV2, 7% for PRRSV, 22% for TTSuV1, 48% for TTSuV2, 6% for B. b., 29% for M. h., and 21% for P. m. In 38.2% only viral, in 3.6% only bacterial and in 40.0% both, viral and bacterial pathogens were detected. In 29.1% of the cases a co-infection with 1 pathogen, in 28.2% with 2, in 17.3% with 3, and in 7.3% with 4 different infectious agents were observed. The exposure to Pneumocystis significantly decreased the risk of a co-infection with PRRSV in weaning piglets; all other odds ratios were not significant. Four categories of results were compared: I = P. spp. + only viral co-infectants, II = P. spp. + both viral and bacterial co-infectants, III = P. spp. + only bacterial co-infectants, and IV = P. spp. single infection. The evaluation of all samples and the age class of the weaning piglets resulted in a predomination of the categories I and II. In contrast, the suckling piglets showed more samples of category I and IV. In the group of fattening pigs, category II predominated. Suckling piglets can be infected with P. spp. early in life. With increasing age this single infections can be complicated by co-infections with other respiratory diseases.

  5. Synergistic antimicrobial therapy using nanoparticles and antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akash; Saleh, Neveen M.; Das, Riddha; Landis, Ryan F.; Bigdeli, Arafeh; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Rosa Campos, Alexandre; Pomeroy, Kenneth; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2017-06-01

    Infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria pose a serious global burden of mortality, causing thousands of deaths each year. Antibiotic treatment of resistant infections further contributes to the rapidly increasing number of antibiotic-resistant species and strains. Synthetic macromolecules such as nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit broad-spectrum activity against MDR species, however lack of specificity towards bacteria relative to their mammalian hosts limits their widespread therapeutic application. Here, we demonstrate synergistic antimicrobial therapy using hydrophobically functionalized NPs and fluoroquinolone antibiotics for treatment of MDR bacterial strains. An 8-16-fold decrease in antibiotic dosage is achieved in presence of engineered NPs to combat MDR strains. This strategy demonstrates the potential of using NPs to ‘revive’ antibiotics that have been rendered ineffective due to the development of resistance by pathogenic bacteria.

  6. [Strategy for choosing antibiotics for treating bacterial infections associated with chronic tick-borne encephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenko, G V; Pogodina, V V; Frolova, M P; Ivannikova, T A

    1996-01-01

    The capacity of wide-spectrum antibiotics kefzol and ristomycin to activate the persisting tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and cause an exacerbation of chronic process was investigated in Syrian hamsters in whom a prolonged (77 to 270 days) persistent TBE infection was induced by three TBE strains: Vasilchenko, V-383, and 205. The degree of antibiotic-induced activation was assessed using the criteria characterizing the reproduction and peculiarities of persisting TBE virus, immunodepression, and morphologic changes in the central nervous system. Effects of kefzol and ristomycin were compared with those of 8 antibiotics studied previously. Ristomycin, levomycetin (chloramphycin), penicillin, ampicillin (ampital), and levoridan were referred to drugs devoid of evident provoking effect. Kefzol (cefamezin), florimycin (viomycin), and kanamycin (kanamytrex) were characterized as weak activators and streptomycin and tetracycline as potent activators of the persisting TBE virus. These data may be used when selecting alternative agents for therapy of secondary bacterial infections concomitant with TBE.

  7. [Application of sumamed in treatment of bacterial vaginal infections during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, A; Shopova, E; Nashar, S; Dimitrov, A

    2008-01-01

    To study the efficacy of Sumamed in cases of endogenous bacterial vaginal infections during third trimester of pregnancy. 34 women in last trimester of pregnancy with Streptococcus group B, Streptococcus group A, alpha hemolytic Streptococci, S. aureus infections and intermediate state of vaginal ecosystem (Nugent score 4-6) were treated with Sumamed (Azithromycin, 500 mg. p.o. for 3 days). Patients were separated in two groups. First group included 19 women with symptomatic and microbiologically proven recurrent vaginal infection during last 6 months. Second group included 15 symptom free pregnant women, in whom, pathogenic bacteria were found on vaginal swab and culture. Culture revealed 2 cases of Streptococcus group A infection in the second study group. Streptococcus group B was isolated in 19 patients--11 group 1 and 8--group 2. S. aureus was found in 6 patients from group 1 and 3 patients from group 2. Alpha hemolytic streptococci were cultured in 4 cases--2 from group 1 and 2 from group 2. Isolated microorganisms showed in vitro sensibility toward Sumamed. After treatment completion, control swab and culture was performed in 26 cases (14 group 1 and 12 group 2 patients). In group 1 in 12 (85,7%) patients no pathological microorganisms were cultured, Nugent scores were between 0-3 and no subjective symptoms were reported. 2 (14,3%) patients had Candida infection. In the second group 10 patients (83,5%) had normal vaginal microbiology, 2(16,5%) remained with intermediate vaginal microflora state. No newborn infections and cases of endometritis were found in both study groups. Sumamed is an efficacious treatment in cases of streptococcal and staphylococcal vaginal infections during pregnancy. Application of Sumamed results in alleviation of clinical symptoms and in sanitation of birth canal.

  8. Differential bacterial load on components of total knee prosthesis in patients with prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holinka, Johannes; Pilz, Magdalena; Hirschl, Alexander M; Graninger, Wolfgang; Windhager, Reinhard; Presterl, Elisabeth

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate and quantify the bacterial adherence on different components of total knee prosthesis with the sonication culture method. Explanted components of all patients with presumptive prosthetic or implant infection were treated by sonication separately in sterile containers to dislodge the adherent bacteria from the surfaces and cultured. The bacterial load of the different knee components (femur, tibia, PE-inlay and patella) was evaluated by counting of colony-forming units (CFU) dislodged from the components surfaces using the sonication culture method. Overall, 27 patients had positive sonication cultures of explanted total knee prostheses. Microorganisms were detected from 88 of 100 explanted components. Twenty femoral components were culture positive and 7 negative, 23 tibial components as well as 23 polyethylene (PE) platforms had positive microorganism detection from the surface. Staphylococcus epidermidis adhered to the highest number of components whereas Staphylococcus aureus yielded the highest load of CFU in the sonication cultures. Although not significant, PE-inlays and tibial components were most often affected. The highest CFU count was detected in polyethylene components. The sonication culture method is a reliable method to detect bacteria from the components. Additionally, the results demonstrate that bacterial adherence is not affecting a single component of knee prosthesis only. Thus, in septic revision surgery partial prosthetic exchange or exchange of single polyethylene components alone may be not sufficient.

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection: An overview of bacterial virulence factors and pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yen Kao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis and disease outcomes are mediated by a complex interplay between bacterial virulence factors, host, and environmental factors. After H. pylori enters the host stomach, four steps are critical for bacteria to establish successful colonization, persistent infection, and disease pathogenesis: (1 Survival in the acidic stomach; (2 movement toward epithelium cells by flagella-mediated motility; (3 attachment to host cells by adhesins/receptors interaction; (4 causing tissue damage by toxin release. Over the past 20 years, the understanding of H. pylori pathogenesis has been improved by studies focusing on the host and bacterial factors through epidemiology researches and molecular mechanism investigations. These include studies identifying the roles of novel virulence factors and their association with different disease outcomes, especially the bacterial adhesins, cag pathogenicity island, and vacuolating cytotoxin. Recently, the development of large-scale screening methods, including proteomic, and transcriptomic tools, has been used to determine the complex gene regulatory networks in H. pylori. In addition, a more available complete genomic database of H. pylori strains isolated from patients with different gastrointestinal diseases worldwide is helpful to characterize this bacterium. This review highlights the key findings of H. pylori virulence factors reported over the past 20 years.

  10. [Prevention of perinatal infection caused by group B beta-hemolytic streptococcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, G

    1999-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae strains or group B streptococci (GBS) are the leading cause of bacterial pneumoniae, sepsis and meningitis in neonates. GBS is also a major cause of bacteriemia in pregnant women. Colonization of the human rectovaginal tract with GBS is a risk factor associated with chorioamnionitis and transmission of the infection to the infant. Neonatal exposure to high concentrations of GBS, mainly during vaginal delivery, leads to colonisation of the lung airways and subsequent onset of severe diseases like pneumonia, sepsis and menigitis. GBS is present in the genitourinary tract of 10% to 40% of pregnant women, about 50% of the newborns of these mothers will be colonised during delivery and of these neonates, 1% to 2% present a severe invasive disease. The early-onset disease, appear in the neonates within 7 days of life and more than 90% occur within the first day of life. Fatal infection is associated commonly with fulminat and overwhelming early-onset disease. Maternal-intrapartum chemoprophylaxis is able to prevent the transmission of GBS to the newborn and to reduce the frequency and the severity of early onset disease. In many countries, in particular in US, several recommendations have been proposed to prevent the perinatal GBS infection. In this paper some recommendations to prevent GBS disease of the newborn, performed in collaboration with Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine, are presented. The most important problem in the prevention programme is the identification of the cases to treat, since it is not possible to give antibiotics to all the women. We combine two strategies for the identification of the women to be treated, one risk based and the other screening based. Intra-partum administration of ampicillin or penicillin is recommended for the women with one or more risk-factors (labour = 18 hours, intrapartum temperature > = 38 degrees C, previous infant with invasive GBS disease, diabetes) and for women with collect vaginal and

  11. Preventing healthcare-associated infections through human factors engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jesse T; Herwaldt, Loreen A; Durso, Francis T

    2018-05-24

    Human factors engineering (HFE) approaches are increasingly being used in healthcare, but have been applied in relatively limited ways to infection prevention and control (IPC). Previous studies have focused on using selected HFE tools, but newer literature supports a system-based HFE approach to IPC. Cross-contamination and the existence of workarounds suggest that healthcare workers need better support to reduce and simplify steps in delivering care. Simplifying workflow can lead to better understanding of why a process fails and allow for improvements to reduce errors and increase efficiency. Hand hygiene can be improved using visual cues and nudges based on room layout. Using personal protective equipment appropriately appears simple, but exists in a complex interaction with workload, behavior, emotion, and environmental variables including product placement. HFE can help prevent the pathogen transmission through improving environmental cleaning and appropriate use of medical devices. Emerging evidence suggests that HFE can be applied in IPC to reduce healthcare-associated infections. HFE and IPC collaboration can help improve many of the basic best practices including use of hand hygiene and personal protective equipment by healthcare workers during patient care.

  12. Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gabrielle; Craig, Jonathan C

    2009-02-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children is common (5-10%) and recurs in 10-30%. UTI causes an unpleasant, usually febrile illness in children. This review focuses on studies evaluating interventions to prevent UTI in children and published between January 2007 and June 2008. Three relevant updated Cochrane reviews, six randomized trials and an evidence-based guideline were published in the study period. Five of the six trials and one of the three Cochrane updates included data on the effects of relevant interventions in children. Three of the six trials investigated the efficacy of long-term, low-dose antibiotics as prophylaxis, and the other trials and both Cochrane updates evaluated complementary therapies such as vitamin A, probiotics and herbal supplements. The benefit of prophylactic antibiotics for the prevention of recurrent UTI in children remains unclear because of underpowered and suboptimally designed trials, but these studies suggest that any benefit is likely to be small, and clinical significance may be limited. The trials of complementary interventions (vitamin A, probiotics, cranberry, nasturtium and horseradish) generally gave favourable results but were not conclusive. Children and families who use these products should be aware that further infections are possible despite their use.

  13. Research progress on influencing factors of hospital infection and prevention and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wenlong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hospital infections are associated with the emergence of hospitals. As the understanding of hospital infections deepen and prevention and control measures improve, hospital infections have become manageable. In recent years, affected by the increase in invasive treatment technology, antimicrobial abuse, and other factors, the control of hospital infection has encountered new problems. This paper reviews the influencing factors of hospital infections and their prevention and control measures.

  14. The efficacy of different anti-microbial metals at preventing the formation of, and eradicating bacterial biofilms of pathogenic indicator strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugala, Natalie; Lemire, Joe A; Turner, Raymond J

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens and the prevalence of biofilm-related infections have generated a demand for alternative anti-microbial therapies. Metals have not been explored in adequate detail for their capacity to combat infectious disease. Metal compounds can now be found in textiles, medical devices and disinfectants-yet, we know little about their efficacy against specific pathogens. To help fill this knowledge gap, we report on the anti-microbial and antibiofilm activity of seven metals: silver, copper, titanium, gallium, nickel, aluminum and zinc against three bacterial strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. To evaluate the capacity of metal ions to prevent the growth of, and eradicate biofilms and planktonic cells, bacterial cultures were inoculated in the Calgary Biofilm Device (minimal biofilm eradication concentration) in the presence of the metal salts. Copper, gallium and titanium were capable of preventing planktonic and biofilm growth, and eradicating established biofilms of all tested strains. Further, we observed that the efficacies of the other tested metal salts displayed variable efficacy against the tested strains. Further, contrary to the enhanced resistance anticipated from bacterial biofilms, particular metal salts were observed to be more effective against biofilm communities versus planktonic cells. In this study, we have demonstrated that the identity of the bacterial strain must be considered before treatment with a particular metal ion. Consequent to the use of metal ions as anti-microbial agents to fight multidrug-resistant and biofilm-related infections increases, we must aim for more selective deployment in a given infectious setting.

  15. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy using zinc phthalocyanine derivative for bacterial skin infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Yaxin; Li, Linsen; Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan; Hu, Ping; Huang, Mingdong

    2014-09-01

    Folliculitis, furunculosis and acne vulgaris are very common skin disorders of the hair follicles and are associated with large grease-producing (sebaceous) glands. Although the detailed mechanisms involved these skin disorders are not fully understood, it is believed that the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus are the key pathogenic factors involved. Conventional treatments targeting the pathogenic factors include a variety of topical and oral medications such as antibiotics. The wide use of antibiotics leads to bacterial resistance, and hence there is a need for new alternatives in above bacterial skin treatment. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is based on an initial photosensitization of the infected area, followed by irradiation with visible light, producing singlet oxygen which is cytotoxic to bacteria. Herein we reported a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys)5) and its PACT effect for the bacteria involved in these skin infections. Our results demonstrated strong bactericidal effects of this photosensitizer on both strains of the bacteria, suggesting ZnPc-(Lys)5 as a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by these bacteria.

  16. Hyperglycemia Impairs Neutrophil-Mediated Bacterial Clearance in Mice Infected with the Lyme Disease Pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Javid

    Full Text Available Insulin-insufficient type 1 diabetes is associated with attenuated bactericidal function of neutrophils, which are key mediators of innate immune responses to microbes as well as pathological inflammatory processes. Neutrophils are central to immune responses to the Lyme pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi. The effect of hyperglycemia on host susceptibility to and outcomes of B. burgdorferi infection has not been examined. The present study investigated the impact of sustained obesity-independent hyperglycemia in mice on bacterial clearance, inflammatory pathology and neutrophil responses to B. burgdorferi. Hyperglycemia was associated with reduced arthritis incidence but more widespread tissue colonization and reduced clearance of bacterial DNA in multiple tissues including brain, heart, liver, lung and knee joint. B. burgdorferi uptake and killing were impaired in neutrophils isolated from hyperglycemic mice. Thus, attenuated neutrophil function in insulin-insufficient hyperglycemia was associated with reduced B. burgdorferi clearance in target organs. These data suggest that investigating the effects of comorbid conditions such as diabetes on outcomes of B. burgdorferi infections in humans may be warranted.

  17. Synergistic antibacterial effect of silver and ebselen against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lili; Lu, Jun; Wang, Jun; Ren, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Lanlan; Gao, Yu; Rottenberg, Martin E; Holmgren, Arne

    2017-08-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria account for a majority of fatal infections, and development of new antibiotic principles and drugs is therefore of outstanding importance. Here, we report that five most clinically difficult-to-treat MDR Gram-negative bacteria are highly sensitive to a synergistic combination of silver and ebselen. In contrast, silver has no synergistic toxicity with ebselen on mammalian cells. The silver and ebselen combination causes a rapid depletion of glutathione and inhibition of the thioredoxin system in bacteria. Silver ions were identified as strong inhibitors of Escherichia coli thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, which are required for ribonucleotide reductase and DNA synthesis and defense against oxidative stress. The bactericidal efficacy of silver and ebselen was further verified in the treatment of mild and acute MDR E. coli peritonitis in mice. These results demonstrate that thiol-dependent redox systems in bacteria can be targeted in the design of new antibacterial drugs. The silver and ebselen combination offers a proof of concept in targeting essential bacterial systems and might be developed for novel efficient treatments against MDR Gram-negative bacterial infections. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  18. Bacterial urinary tract infection among pregnant women in Sana'a City Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghalibi, S.M.; Al-Moayad, E.; Al-Jaufy, A.

    2007-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is considered to be the most common bacterial infection during pregnancy. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of UTI among pregnant women, to identify the risk factors associated with UTI, to isolate and identify bacteria that are responsible for UTI and to determine the activity of some antibiotics against isolated bacteria. A total of 400 midstream urine specimens were collected from pregnant women (PW) and non-pregnant women (NPW). Identification and antibiotic sensitivity tests were made for the isolated bacteria. The prevalence rates of UTI in PW and NPW were 24.3% and 18.0% respectively. The association between pregnancy and UTI was not statistically significant (P=0.19). The higher prevalence rate of UTI was found in the age group 21-25 years old. However, there was no statistical significant association between age and UTI. The second trimester and third trimester were associated with higher prevalence of UTI (38.3%) and (37.0%), respectively but it was not statistically significant. High frequency of urination and lower abdominal pain were the most common symptoms. There was no statistical association between UTI and contraceptive use. The most common isolates were S. aureus and E.Coli, while the most effective antibiotics for most bacterial isolates were ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and norofloxacin. (author)

  19. Does PGE₁ vasodilator prevent orthopaedic implant-related infection in diabetes? Preliminary results in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovati, Arianna B; Romanò, Carlo L; Monti, Lorenzo; Vassena, Christian; Previdi, Sara; Drago, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Implant-related infections are characterized by bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on the prosthesis. Diabetes represents one of the risk factors that increase the chances of prosthetic infections because of related severe peripheral vascular disease. Vasodilatation can be a therapeutic option to overcome diabetic vascular damages and increase the local blood supply. In this study, the effect of a PGE₁ vasodilator on the incidence of surgical infections in diabetic mice was investigated. A S. aureus implant-related infection was induced in femurs of diabetic mice, then differently treated with a third generation cephalosporin alone or associated with a PGE₁ vasodilator. Variations in mouse body weight were evaluated as index of animal welfare. The femurs were harvested after 28 days and underwent both qualitative and quantitative analysis as micro-CT, histological and microbiological analyses. The analysis performed in this study demonstrated the increased host response to implant-related infection in diabetic mice treated with the combination of a PGE₁ and antibiotic. In this group, restrained signs of infections were identified by micro-CT and histological analysis. On the other hand, the diabetic mice treated with the antibiotic alone showed a severe infection and inability to successfully respond to the standard antimicrobial treatment. The present study revealed interesting preliminary results in the use of a drug combination of antibiotic and vasodilator to prevent implant-related Staphylococcus aureus infections in a diabetic mouse model.

  20. Does PGE1 Vasodilator Prevent Orthopaedic Implant-Related Infection in Diabetes? Preliminary Results in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovati, Arianna B.; Romanò, Carlo L.; Monti, Lorenzo; Vassena, Christian; Previdi, Sara; Drago, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Background Implant-related infections are characterized by bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on the prosthesis. Diabetes represents one of the risk factors that increase the chances of prosthetic infections because of related severe peripheral vascular disease. Vasodilatation can be a therapeutic option to overcome diabetic vascular damages and increase the local blood supply. In this study, the effect of a PGE1 vasodilator on the incidence of surgical infections in diabetic mice was investigated. Methodology A S. aureus implant-related infection was induced in femurs of diabetic mice, then differently treated with a third generation cephalosporin alone or associated with a PGE1 vasodilator. Variations in mouse body weight were evaluated as index of animal welfare. The femurs were harvested after 28 days and underwent both qualitative and quantitative analysis as micro-CT, histological and microbiological analyses. Results The analysis performed in this study demonstrated the increased host response to implant-related infection in diabetic mice treated with the combination of a PGE1 and antibiotic. In this group, restrained signs of infections were identified by micro-CT and histological analysis. On the other hand, the diabetic mice treated with the antibiotic alone showed a severe infection and inability to successfully respond to the standard antimicrobial treatment. Conclusions The present study revealed interesting preliminary results in the use of a drug combination of antibiotic and vasodilator to prevent implant-related Staphylococcus aureus infections in a diabetic mouse model. PMID:24718359

  1. Does PGE₁ vasodilator prevent orthopaedic implant-related infection in diabetes? Preliminary results in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna B Lovati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Implant-related infections are characterized by bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on the prosthesis. Diabetes represents one of the risk factors that increase the chances of prosthetic infections because of related severe peripheral vascular disease. Vasodilatation can be a therapeutic option to overcome diabetic vascular damages and increase the local blood supply. In this study, the effect of a PGE₁ vasodilator on the incidence of surgical infections in diabetic mice was investigated. METHODOLOGY: A S. aureus implant-related infection was induced in femurs of diabetic mice, then differently treated with a third generation cephalosporin alone or associated with a PGE₁ vasodilator. Variations in mouse body weight were evaluated as index of animal welfare. The femurs were harvested after 28 days and underwent both qualitative and quantitative analysis as micro-CT, histological and microbiological analyses. RESULTS: The analysis performed in this study demonstrated the increased host response to implant-related infection in diabetic mice treated with the combination of a PGE₁ and antibiotic. In this group, restrained signs of infections were identified by micro-CT and histological analysis. On the other hand, the diabetic mice treated with the antibiotic alone showed a severe infection and inability to successfully respond to the standard antimicrobial treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed interesting preliminary results in the use of a drug combination of antibiotic and vasodilator to prevent implant-related Staphylococcus aureus infections in a diabetic mouse model.

  2. Roles of the host oxidative immune response and bacterial antioxidant rubrerythrin during Porphyromonas gingivalis infection.

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    Piotr Mydel

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficient clearance of microbes by neutrophils requires the concerted action of reactive oxygen species and microbicidal components within leukocyte secretory granules. Rubrerythrin (Rbr is a nonheme iron protein that protects many air-sensitive bacteria against oxidative stress. Using oxidative burst-knockout (NADPH oxidase-null mice and an rbr gene knockout bacterial strain, we investigated the interplay between the phagocytic oxidative burst of the host and the oxidative stress response of the anaerobic periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. Rbr ensured the proliferation of P. gingivalis in mice that possessed a fully functional oxidative burst response, but not in NADPH oxidase-null mice. Furthermore, the in vivo protection afforded by Rbr was not associated with the oxidative burst responses of isolated neutrophils in vitro. Although the phagocyte-derived oxidative burst response was largely ineffective against P. gingivalis infection, the corresponding oxidative response to the Rbr-positive microbe contributed to host-induced pathology via potent mobilization and systemic activation of neutrophils. It appeared that Rbr also provided protection against reactive nitrogen species, thereby ensuring the survival of P. gingivalis in the infected host. The presence of the rbr gene in P. gingivalis also led to greater oral bone loss upon infection. Collectively, these results indicate that the host oxidative burst paradoxically enhances the survival of P. gingivalis by exacerbating local and systemic inflammation, thereby contributing to the morbidity and mortality associated with infection.

  3. Preclinical Efficacy of Clumping Factor A in Prevention of Staphylococcus aureus Infection

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    Xue Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections has become increasingly difficult because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates. Development of a vaccine to prevent staphylococcal infections remains a priority. To determine whether clumping factor A (ClfA is a good target protein for inclusion in a multivalent vaccine, we evaluated its efficacy in a variety of relevant staphylococcal infection models, challenging with different S. aureus strains. ClfA adsorbed to Alhydrogel and mixed with Sigma Adjuvant System was more immunogenic and stimulated a more robust Th17 response than ClfA administered with alum alone. ClfA immunization induced the production of functional antibodies in rabbits and mice that blocked S. aureus binding to fibrinogen and were opsonic for S. aureus strains that produced little or no capsular polysaccharide. Mice immunized with ClfA showed a modest reduction in the bacterial burden recovered from subcutaneous abscesses provoked by S. aureus USA300 strain LAC. In addition, the ClfA vaccine reduced lethality in a sepsis model following challenge with strain Newman, but not ST80. Vaccination with ClfA did not protect against surgical wound infection, renal abscess formation, or bacteremia. Passive immunization with antibodies to ClfA did not protect against staphylococcal bacteremia in mice or catheter-induced endocarditis in rats. Some enhancement of bacteremia was observed by ClfA immunization or passive administration of ClfA antibodies when mice were challenged by the intraperitoneal route. Although rodent models of staphylococcal infection have their limitations, our data do not support the inclusion of ClfA in an S. aureus multivalent vaccine.

  4. Preclinical Efficacy of Clumping Factor A in Prevention of Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Wang, Xiaogang; Thompson, Christopher D.; Park, Saeyoung; Park, Wan Beom

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections has become increasingly difficult because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates. Development of a vaccine to prevent staphylococcal infections remains a priority. To determine whether clumping factor A (ClfA) is a good target protein for inclusion in a multivalent vaccine, we evaluated its efficacy in a variety of relevant staphylococcal infection models, challenging with different S. aureus strains. ClfA adsorbed to Alhydrogel and mixed with Sigma Adjuvant System was more immunogenic and stimulated a more robust Th17 response than ClfA administered with alum alone. ClfA immunization induced the production of functional antibodies in rabbits and mice that blocked S. aureus binding to fibrinogen and were opsonic for S. aureus strains that produced little or no capsular polysaccharide. Mice immunized with ClfA showed a modest reduction in the bacterial burden recovered from subcutaneous abscesses provoked by S. aureus USA300 strain LAC. In addition, the ClfA vaccine reduced lethality in a sepsis model following challenge with strain Newman, but not ST80. Vaccination with ClfA did not protect against surgical wound infection, renal abscess formation, or bacteremia. Passive immunization with antibodies to ClfA did not protect against staphylococcal bacteremia in mice or catheter-induced endocarditis in rats. Some enhancement of bacteremia was observed by ClfA immunization or passive administration of ClfA antibodies when mice were challenged by the intraperitoneal route. Although rodent models of staphylococcal infection have their limitations, our data do not support the inclusion of ClfA in an S. aureus multivalent vaccine. PMID:26838725

  5. Risk factors and features of recurrent bacterial complications of upper respiratory tract viral infections in children

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    Karpenko A.V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for recurrent bacterial complications of the upper respiratory tract viral infection (URTI in children, as well as the clinical and immunological features of the course of such complications. We enrolled 214 children aged 3-18 years with URTIs complicated with acute otitis media or acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Frequency of bacterial complications of URI in 128 children was low (group I and in 86 children it met the criteria of recurrent course (group II. In addition to the standard examination, lysozyme levels in the oropharyngeal secretion were determined three times during the disease. It was found that children of group II were characterized by an early debut of respiratory morbidity (at the age of 6.00 (4.00, 12.00 months against 13.00 (4.50, 16.00 months in children of group I (p<0,0001, as well as a longer duration of catarrhal and intoxication syndromes in similar forms of the disease. The most significant risk factors for the formation of the recurring complication pattern were maternal smoking (OR=2.73, 95% CI [1.34, 5.48], along with gastroenterological pathology and frequent URTI in the mother and a shortened period of breastfeeding. In children with recurrent bacterial complications of URTI, there was an impaired local resistance of the upper respiratory tract mucous membranes (as a decrease in the concentrations of lysozyme in all periods of the disease, which persisted after recovery.

  6. Prevention of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in pigs by dairy-based nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Jensen, Bent Borg; Jensen, Karin Hjelholt

    2015-01-01

    bacterial disease outbreaks in piglets, the use of antibiotics at subtherapeutic concentrations has been banned in the European Union because of the increasing prevalence of resistance to antibiotics in pigs. The removal of in-feed antibiotics from piglet diets has negative economic consequences...... as it dramatically increases the rate of morbidity and mortality due to ETEC as well as the use of antibiotics for therapeutic purposes. Other than subtherapeutic antibiotics, zinc oxide (ZnO) has been reported to ameliorate and/or prevent the development of PWD in piglets, but its excretion may have negative...... impacts on the environment. Thus, other alternatives that can control ETEC infections in piglets postweaning will be of great advantage. A number of nutritional strategies have been proposed as alternative means of preventing ETEC infections, of which feeding dairy-based products to piglets could be one...

  7. Flow Cytometry Study of Lymphocyte Subsets in Malnourished and Well-Nourished Children with Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nájera, Oralia; González, Cristina; Toledo, Guadalupe; López, Laura; Ortiz, Rocío

    2004-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is the primary cause of immune deficiency in children across the world. It has been related to changes in peripheral T-lymphocyte subsets. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of infection and malnutrition on the proportion of peripheral-lymphocyte subsets in well-nourished non-bacterium-infected (WN), well-nourished bacterium-infected (WNI), and malnourished bacterium-infected (MNI) children by flow cytometry. A prospectively monitored cohort of 15 MNI, 12 WNI, and 17 WN children was studied. All the children were 3 years old or younger and had only bacterial infections. Results showed a significant decrease in the proportion of T CD3+ (P < 0.05 for relative and P < 0.03 for absolute values), CD4+ (P < 0.01 for relative and absolute values), and CD8+ (P < 0.05 for relative values) lymphocyte subsets in WNI children compared to the results seen with WN children. Additionally, B lymphocytes in MNI children showed significant lower values (CD20+ P < 0.02 for relative and P < 0.05 for absolute values) in relation to the results seen with WNI children. These results suggest that the decreased proportions of T-lymphocyte subsets observed in WNI children were associated with infection diseases and that the incapacity to increase the proportion of B lymphocyte was associated with malnutrition. This low proportion of B lymphocytes may be associated with the mechanisms involved in the immunodeficiency of malnourished children. PMID:15138185

  8. Elevated carbon monoxide in the exhaled breath of mice during a systemic bacterial infection.

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    Alan G Barbour

    Full Text Available Blood is the specimen of choice for most laboratory tests for diagnosis and disease monitoring. Sampling exhaled breath is a noninvasive alternative to phlebotomy and has the potential for real-time monitoring at the bedside. Improved instrumentation has advanced breath analysis for several gaseous compounds from humans. However, application to small animal models of diseases and physiology has been limited. To extend breath analysis to mice, we crafted a means for collecting nose-only breath samples from groups and individual animals who were awake. Samples were subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry procedures developed for highly sensitive analysis of trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the atmosphere. We evaluated the system with experimental systemic infections of severe combined immunodeficiency Mus musculus with the bacterium Borrelia hermsii. Infected mice developed bacterial densities of ∼10(7 per ml of blood by day 4 or 5 and in comparison to uninfected controls had hepatosplenomegaly and elevations of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. While 12 samples from individual infected mice on days 4 and 5 and 6 samples from uninfected mice did not significantly differ for 72 different VOCs, carbon monoxide (CO was elevated in samples from infected mice, with a mean (95% confidence limits effect size of 4.2 (2.8-5.6, when differences in CO2 in the breath were taken into account. Normalized CO values declined to the uninfected range after one day of treatment with the antibiotic ceftriaxone. Strongly correlated with CO in the breath were levels of heme oxygenase-1 protein in serum and HMOX1 transcripts in whole blood. These results (i provide further evidence of the informativeness of CO concentration in the exhaled breath during systemic infection and inflammation, and (ii encourage evaluation of this noninvasive analytic approach in other various other rodent models of infection and for utility in

  9. Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2012-11-14

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be pharmacological (antibiotics) or non-pharmacological (cranberry products, acupuncture, probiotics and behavioural modifications). So far little is known about the best way to prevent RUTI in pregnant women. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infections in pregnant women.The primary maternal outcomes were RUTI before birth (variously defined) and preterm birth (before 37 weeks). The primary infant outcomes were small-for-gestational age and total mortality. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (8 June 2012) and reference lists of retrieved articles. Published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, clustered-randomised trials and abstracts of any intervention (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) for preventing RUTI during pregnancy (compared with another intervention, placebo or with usual care). Two review authors independently evaluated the one identified trial for inclusion and assessed trial quality. Two review authors extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. The review included one trial involving 200 women. The trial compared a daily dose of nitrofurantoin and close surveillance (regular clinic visit, urine cultures and antibiotics when a positive culture was found) with close surveillance only. No significant differences were found for the primary outcomes: recurrent pyelonephritis (risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31 to 2.53, one study, 167 women), recurrent urinary tract infection before birth (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.38; one study 167 women) and preterm birth (before 37 weeks) (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.42 to 3.35; one study 147 women). The

  10. Efficacy of silver/hydrophilic poly(p-xylylene) on preventing bacterial growth and biofilm formation in urinary catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari Zare, Hamideh; Juhart, Viktorija; Vass, Attila; Franz, Gerhard; Jocham, Dieter

    2017-01-18

    Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), caused by several strains of bacteria, are a common complication for catheterized patients. This may eventually lead to a blockage of the catheter due to the formation of a crystalline or amorphous biofilm. Inhibiting bacteria should result in a longer application time free of complaints. This issue has been investigated using an innovative type of silver-coated catheter with a semipermeable cap layer to prevent CAUTI. In this work, two different types of silver catheters were investigated, both of which were capped with poly(p-xylylene) (PPX-N) and exhibited different surface properties that completely changed their wetting conduct with water. The contact angle of conventionally deposited PPX-N is approximately 80°. After O 2 plasma treatment, the contact angle drops to approximately 30°. These two systems, Ag/PPX-N and Ag/PPX-N-O 2 , were tested in synthetic urine at a body temperature of 37 °C. First, the optical density and the inhibition zones of both bacteria strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus cohnii) were examined to confirm the antibacterial effect of these silver-coated catheters. Afterward, the efficacy of silver catheters with different treatments of biofilm formed by E. coli and S. cohnii were tested with crystal violet staining assays. To estimate the life cycles of silver/PPX-catheters, the eluted amount of silver was assessed at several time intervals by anodic stripping voltammetry. The silver catheter with hydrophilic PPX-N coating limited bacterial growth in synthetic urine and prevented biofilm formation. The authors attribute the enhanced bacteriostatic effect to increased silver ion release detected under these conditions. With this extensive preparatory analytic work, the authors studied the ability of the two different cap layers (without silver), PPX-N and oxygen plasma treated PPX-N, to control the growth of a crystalline biofilm by measuring the concentrations of the Ca 2

  11. Preoperative skin antiseptic preparations for preventing surgical site infections: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Chris; McGahan, Lynda; Polisena, Julie; Mierzwinski-Urban, Monika; Embil, John M

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of preoperative skin antiseptic preparations and application techniques for the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs). Systematic review of the literature using Medline, EMBASE, and other databases, for the period January 2001 to June 2011. Comparative studies (including randomized and nonrandomized trials) of preoperative skin antisepsis preparations and application techniques were included. Two researchers reviewed each study and extracted data using standardized tables developed before the study. Studies were reviewed for their methodological quality and clinical findings. Twenty studies (n = 9,520 patients) were included in the review. The results indicated that presurgical antiseptic showering is effective for reducing skin flora and may reduce SSI rates. Given the heterogeneity of the studies and the results, conclusions about which antiseptic is more effective at reducing SSIs cannot be drawn. The evidence suggests that preoperative antiseptic showers reduce bacterial colonization and may be effective at preventing SSIs. The antiseptic application method is inconsequential, and data are lacking to suggest which antiseptic solution is the most effective. Disinfectant products are often mixed with alcohol or water, which makes it difficult to form overall conclusions regarding an active ingredient. Large, well-conducted randomized controlled trials with consistent protocols comparing agents in the same bases are needed to provide unequivocal evidence on the effectiveness of one antiseptic preparation over another for the prevention of SSIs.

  12. Bilateral endogenous Candida albicans subretinal abscess with suspected mixed bacterial infection

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    Arai Y

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yusuke Arai,1 Yukihiro Sato,1 Atsushi Yoshida,1 Hidetoshi Kawashima,1 Toshikatsu Kaburaki,2 Harumi Gomi3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Center for Clinical Infectious Diseases, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan Purpose: Candida albicans subretinal abscess is extremely rare. To our knowledge, only one unilateral case has been reported. Herein, we report one bilateral case. Mixed bacterial infection was also suspected based on broad-range real-time polymerase chain reaction.Methods: A 64-year-old man being treated with oral corticosteroids for interstitial pneumonia visited us for visual loss in the left eye. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 20/20 in the right eye and 8/200 in the left eye. Funduscopy revealed round yellowish-white subretinal lesions with retinal hemorrhage in both eyes.Results: Broad-range polymerase chain reaction of the vitreous fluid from the left eye showed a high copy count of bacterial 16s ribosome RNA. Despite large doses of antibiotics, the abscess expanded and vision decreased to light perception in the left eye. Exenteration of the left eye was performed followed by microscopic examination showing Gram-negative bacilli, and C. albicans was also cultured. Antibiotics and the maximum doses of antifungal drugs were administered. However, the abscess in the right eye expanded, and BCVA decreased to 2/200. Vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade were performed. Vitreous fluid culture revealed C. albicans. At 16 months follow-up, BCVA was stable at 4/200 with healing of the subretinal abscess under silicone oil.Conclusion: Since C. albicans subretinal abscess is extremely rare and there was a concurrent mixed bacterial infection, diagnostic procedures in our bilateral case were more complicated than usual. C. albicans infection should be included in the differential diagnosis

  13. [Clinical guidelines for the prevention of infective endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lescure Picarzo, J; Crespo Marcos, D; Centeno Malfaz, F

    2014-03-01

    This article sets out the recommendations for the prevention of infective endocarditis (IE), contained in the guidelines developed by the American Heart Association (AHA) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), from which the recommendations of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Disease have been agreed. In recent years, there has been a considerable change in the recommendations for the prevention of IE, mainly due to the lack of evidence on the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in prevention, and the risk of the development of antibiotic resistance. The main change is a reduction of the indications for antibiotic prophylaxis, both in terms of patients and procedures considered at risk. Clinical practice guidelines and recommendations should assist health professionals in making clinical decisions in their daily practice. However, the ultimate judgment regarding the care of a particular patient must be taken by the physician responsible. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. THE COMBINED ROLE OF HERBAL THERAPY IN THE PREVENTION OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS DURING PROSTATE BIOPSY

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    A. V. Il'yash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prostate biopsy is a routine method for diagnosing prostate cancer. However, there are a number of serious complications associated with this procedure, and especially development of infection.Objective. Evaluation of the effectiveness of complex herbal therapy in the prevention of infectious complications in patients exposed to prostate biopsy.Materials and methods. The study included 40 patients aged 48 to 69 years who underwent prostate biopsy. Patients with chronic prostatitis (category 4 NIH were divided into two groups. Patients in the comparison group limited to standard antibiotic therapy, and the patients of the main group additionally received Canephron N. The efficacy of the therapy was evaluated at 1, 2 and 6 months after the start of treatment by the dynamics of leukocyte count in prostate secretion and bacterial contamination, prostate- specific atigen (PSA level, questionnaire data, ultrasound and urodynamic survey methods.Results. The level of PSA compared to baseline data, decreased by 56.9% in the comparison group and by 67.6% in the main group (p<0.05. A clinically significant bacterial titer and an increase in the number of leukocytes more than10 in sight, were registered in the comparison group in two times more often, than in patients of the main group.Conclusion. The results of the study make it possible to recommend for patients with chronic prostatitis of category 4 NIH the prescription of Canephron N.

  15. Ionome changes in Xylella fastidiosa-infected Nicotiana tabacum correlate with virulence and discriminate between subspecies of bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J E; Sefick, S A; Parker, J K; Arnold, T; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2014-10-01

    Characterization of ionomes has been used to uncover the basis of nutrient utilization and environmental adaptation of plants. Here, ionomic profiles were used to understand the phenotypic response of a plant to infection by genetically diverse isolates of Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterial plant pathogen. In this study, X. fastidiosa isolates were used to infect a common model host (Nicotiana tabacum 'SR1'), and leaf and sap concentrations of eleven elements together with plant colonization and symptoms were assessed. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that changes in the ionome were significantly correlated with symptom severity and bacterial populations in host petioles. Moreover, plant ionome modification by infection could be used to differentiate the X. fastidiosa subspecies with which the plant was infected. This report establishes host ionome modification as a phenotypic response to infection.

  16. Bacterial Pathogens and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections: A Four-Year Surveillance Study (2009–2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Mirsoleymani, Seyed Reza; Salimi, Morteza; Shareghi Brojeni, Masoud; Ranjbar, Masoud; Mehtarpoor, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the common bacterial microorganisms causing UTI and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in Bandar Abbas (Southern Iran) during a four-year period. In this retrospective study, samples with a colony count of ≥105 CFU/mL bacteria were considered positive; for these samples, the bacteria were identified, and the profile of antibiotic susceptibility was characterized. From the 19223 samples analyzed, 1513 (7.87%) were positive for bacterial infection. UTI...

  17. A combination of independent transcriptional regulators shapes bacterial virulence gene expression during infection.

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    Samuel A Shelburne

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulatory networks are fundamental to how microbes alter gene expression in response to environmental stimuli, thereby playing a critical role in bacterial pathogenesis. However, understanding how bacterial transcriptional regulatory networks function during host-pathogen interaction is limited. Recent studies in group A Streptococcus (GAS suggested that the transcriptional regulator catabolite control protein A (CcpA influences many of the same genes as the control of virulence (CovRS two-component gene regulatory system. To provide new information about the CcpA and CovRS networks, we compared the CcpA and CovR transcriptomes in a serotype M1 GAS strain. The transcript levels of several of the same genes encoding virulence factors and proteins involved in basic metabolic processes were affected in both DeltaccpA and DeltacovR isogenic mutant strains. Recombinant CcpA and CovR bound with high-affinity to the promoter regions of several co-regulated genes, including those encoding proteins involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Compared to the wild-type parental strain, DeltaccpA and DeltacovRDeltaccpA isogenic mutant strains were significantly less virulent in a mouse myositis model. Inactivation of CcpA and CovR alone and in combination led to significant alterations in the transcript levels of several key GAS virulence factor encoding genes during infection. Importantly, the transcript level alterations in the DeltaccpA and DeltacovRDeltaccpA isogenic mutant strains observed during infection were distinct from those occurring during growth in laboratory medium. These data provide new knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms by which pathogenic bacteria respond to environmental signals to regulate virulence factor production and basic metabolic processes during infection.

  18. Duration of fever and markers of serious bacterial infection in young febrile children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Amanda; Attia, Magdy W

    2007-02-01

    Despite the drastic change in the evaluation of the febrile young child due to the decreased incidence of serious bacterial infections (SBI) effected by Haemophilus influenza type B and pneumococcal vaccine, there remains a small role for blood work in the evaluation of these patients. Bacterial markers including white blood cell (WBC) count, absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been studied and are widely used as predictors of SBI in febrile children. It has been suggested that CRP values should be interpreted cautiously when fever has been present predictors of SBI in relation to duration of fever. Patients who presented to a pediatric emergency department between the ages of 1 and 36 months, with fever > or =39 degrees C and no source of infection had a complete blood count (CBC) blood culture, and CRP level drawn. A urinalysis and/or urine culture was obtained when age and gender appropriate. A chest X-ray was performed at the discretion of the treating physician. The study subjects were enrolled prospectively and then divided into two groups based on duration of fever of 12 h, and compared. One hundred and twenty-eight patients were originally enrolled. Nine patients were excluded. Seventeen patients (14%) had SBI. One patient (urinary tract infections. Forty-five patients presented with fever 12 h. Area under the curve (AUC) for WBC, ANC and CRP was significantly larger in patients with SBI presenting with fever >12 h (0.85, 0.83, 0.92 respectively) compared to patients with SBI who presented with fever for 12 h as shown by the AUC. CRP performed better than WBC and ANC in both scenarios.

  19. New prediction model for diagnosis of bacterial infection in febrile infants younger than 90 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujevic, Matea; Benzon, Benjamin; Markic, Josko

    2017-01-01

    Vujevic M, Benzon B, Markic J. New prediction model for diagnosis of bacterial infection in febrile infants younger than 90 days. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 261-268. Due to non-specific clinical presentation in febrile infants, extensive laboratory testing is often carried out to distinguish simple viral disease from serious bacterial infection (SBI). Objective of this study was to compare efficacy of different biomarkers in early diagnosis of SBI in infants Pediatrics, University Hospital Centre Split with suspicion of having SBI were included in this study. Retrospective cohort analysis of data acquired from medical records was performed. Out of 181 enrolled patients, SBI was confirmed in 70. Most common diagnosis was urinary tract infection (68.6%), followed by pneumonia (12.9%), sepsis (11.4%), gastroenterocolitis (5.7%) and meningitis (1.4%). Male gender was shown to be a risk factor for SBI in this population (p=0.008). White blood cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were confirmed as the independent predictors of SBI, with CRP as the best one. Two prediction models built by combining biomarkers and clinical variables were selected as optimal with sensitivities of 74.3% and 75.7%, and specificities of 88.3% and 86%. Evidently, CRP is a more superior biomarker in diagnostics of SBI comparing to WBC and ANC. Prediction models were shown to be better in predicting SBI than independent biomarkers. Although both showed high sensitivity and specificity, their true strength should be determined using validation cohort.

  20. Incidence and predictors of hospitalization for bacterial infection in community-based patients with type 2 diabetes: the fremantle diabetes study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Hamilton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The few studies that have examined the relationship between diabetes and bacterial infections have utilized administrative databases and/or have had limited/incomplete data including recognized infection risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and associates of bacterial infection severe enough to require hospitalization in well-characterized community-based patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied a cohort of 1,294 patients (mean±SD age 64.1±11.3 years from the longitudinal observational Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase I (FDS1 and 5,156 age-, gender- and zip-code-matched non-diabetic controls. The main outcome measure was incident hospitalization for bacterial infection as principal diagnosis between 1993 and 2010. We also examined differences in statin use in 52 FDS1 pairs hospitalized with pneumonia (cases or a contemporaneous non-infection-related cause (controls. During 12.0±5.4 years of follow-up, 251 (19.4% patients were hospitalized on 368 occasions for infection (23.7/1,000 patient-years. This was more than double the rate in matched controls (incident rate ratio (IRR (95% CI, 2.13 (1.88-2.42, P<0.001. IRRs for pneumonia, cellulitis, and septicemia/bacteremia were 1.86 (1.55-2.21, 2.45 (1.92-3.12, and 2.08 (1.41-3.04, respectively (P<0.001. Among the diabetic patients, older age, male sex, prior recent infection-related hospitalization, obesity, albuminuria, retinopathy and Aboriginal ethnicity were baseline variables independently associated with risk of first hospitalization with any infection (P≤0.005. After adjustment for these variables, baseline statin treatment was not significant (hazard ratio (95% CI, 0.70 (0.39-1.25, P = 0.22. Statin use at hospitalization for pneumonia among the case-control pairs was similar (23.1% vs. 13.5%, P = 0.27. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of severe infection is increased among type 2 diabetic patients and is not reduced by statin

  1. Importance of Bacterial Replication and Alveolar Macrophage-Independent Clearance Mechanisms during Early Lung Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camberlein, Emilie; Cohen, Jonathan M.; José, Ricardo; Hyams, Catherine J.; Callard, Robin; Chimalapati, Suneeta; Yuste, Jose; Edwards, Lindsey A.; Marshall, Helina; van Rooijen, Nico; Noursadeghi, Mahdad

    2015-01-01

    Although the importance of alveolar macrophages for host immunity during early Streptococcus pneumoniae lung infection is well established, the contribution and relative importance of other innate immunity mechanisms and of bacterial factors are less clear. We have used a murine model of S. pneumoniae early lung infection with wild-type, unencapsulated, and para-amino benzoic acid auxotroph mutant TIGR4 strains to assess the effects of inoculum size, bacterial replication, capsule, and alveolar macrophage-dependent and -independent clearance mechanisms on bacterial persistence within the lungs. Alveolar macrophage-dependent and -independent (calculated indirectly) clearance half-lives and bacterial replication doubling times were estimated using a mathematical model. In this model, after infection with a high-dose inoculum of encapsulated S. pneumoniae, alveolar macrophage-independent clearance mechanisms were dominant, with a clearance half-life of 24 min compared to 135 min for alveolar macrophage-dependent clearance. In addition, after a high-dose inoculum, successful lung infection required rapid bacterial replication, with an estimated S. pneumoniae doubling time of 16 min. The capsule had wide effects on early lung clearance mechanisms, with reduced half-lives of 14 min for alveolar macrophage-independent and 31 min for alveolar macrophage-dependent clearance of unencapsulated bacteria. In contrast, with a lower-dose inoculum, the bacterial doubling time increased to 56 min and the S. pneumoniae alveolar macrophage-dependent clearance half-life improved to 42 min and was largely unaffected by the capsule. These data demonstrate the large effects of bacterial factors (inoculum size, the capsule, and rapid replication) and alveolar macrophage-independent clearance mechanisms during early lung infection with S. pneumoniae. PMID:25583525

  2. The national response for preventing healthcare-associated infections: research and adoption of prevention practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Katherine L; Mendel, Peter; Leuschner, Kristin J; Hiatt, Liisa; Gall, Elizabeth M; Siegel, Sari; Weinberg, Daniel A

    2014-02-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) have long been the subject of research and prevention practice. When findings show potential to significantly impact outcomes, clinicians, policymakers, safety experts, and stakeholders seek to bridge the gap between research and practice by identifying mechanisms and assigning responsibility for translating research to practice. This paper describes progress and challenges in HAI research and prevention practices, as explained through an examination of Health and Human Services (HHS) Action Plan's goals, inputs, and implementation in each area. We used the Context-Input-Process-Product evaluation model, together with an HAI prevention system framework, to assess the transformative processes associated with HAI research and adoption of prevention practices. Since the introduction of the Action Plan, HHS has made substantial progress in prioritizing research projects, translating findings from those projects into practice, and designing and implementing research projects in multisite practice settings. Research has emphasized the basic science and epidemiology of HAIs, the identification of gaps in research, and implementation science. The basic, epidemiological, and implementation science communities have joined forces to better define mechanisms and responsibilities for translating HAI research into practice. Challenges include the ongoing need for better evidence about intervention effectiveness, the growing implementation burden on healthcare providers and organizations, and challenges implementing certain practices. Although these HAI research and prevention practice activities are complex spanning multiple system functions and properties, HHS is making progress so that the right methods for addressing complex HAI problems at the interface of patient safety and clinical practice can emerge.

  3. Effect of long-term voluntary exercise wheel running on susceptibility to bacterial pulmonary infections in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Weert-van Leeuwen, Pauline B; de Vrankrijker, Angélica M M; Fentz, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    moderate exercise has many health benefits, healthy mice showed increased bacterial (P. aeruginosa) load and symptoms, after regular voluntary exercise, with perseverance of the phagocytic capacity of monocytes and neutrophils. Whether patients, suffering from bacterial infectious diseases, should......Regular moderate exercise has been suggested to exert anti-inflammatory effects and improve immune effector functions, resulting in reduced disease incidence and viral infection susceptibility. Whether regular exercise also affects bacterial infection susceptibility is unknown. The aim...... of this study was to investigate whether regular voluntary exercise wheel running prior to a pulmonary infection with bacteria (P. aeruginosa) affects lung bacteriology, sickness severity and phagocyte immune function in mice. Balb/c mice were randomly placed in a cage with or without a running wheel. After 28...

  4. Radiosynthesis and preclinical studies of 177Lu-labeled sulfadiazine. A possible theranostic agent for deep-seated bacterial infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Ali Raza Naqvi; Rashid Rasheed; Muhammad Tauqeer Ahmed; Ameer Fawad Zahoor

    2017-01-01

    Sulfadiazine acts through inhibition of bacterial dihydropteroate synthetase. The radio-labeling of sulfadiazine with lutetium-177 ( 177 Lu) is expected to serve as a theranostic agent for deep-seated bacterial infections. The radiosynthesis of 177 Lu-sulfadiazine indicated a > 95% yield under optimized reaction conditions, and promising stability was found in blood serum. Biodistribution data in the absence of infection revealed minimal accumulation in key body organs. Kidneys were the main excretory organs, showed an uptake of 1.76 ± 0.09% ID/g organ at 6-h post-injection. Biodistribution, scintigraphic data, glomerular filtration rate, and cytotoxicity results encourage clinical investigation of 177 Lu-sulfadiazine as a novel theranostic agent for deep-seated bacterial infection. (author)

  5. Clinical significance of the infection-free interval in the management of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodosh, Sanford

    2005-06-01

    Rational and appropriate antibiotic use for patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) is a major concern, as approximately half of these patients do not have a bacterial infection. Typically, the result of antimicrobial therapy for patients with acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (ABECB) is not eradication of the pathogen but resolution of the acute symptoms. However, the length of time before the next bacterial exacerbation can be another important variable, as the frequency of exacerbations will affect the overall health of the patient and the rate of lung deterioration over time. Clinical trials comparing antimicrobial therapies commonly measure resolution of symptoms in AECB patients as the primary end point, regardless of whether the exacerbation is documented as bacterial in nature. Ideally, the scientific approach to assessing the efficacy of antibiotic therapy for ABECB should include a measurement of acute bacterial eradication rates in patients with documented bronchial bacterial infection followed by measurement of the infection-free interval (IFI), ie, the time to the next ABECB. The use of these variables can provide a standard for comparing various antimicrobial therapies. As we learn more about how antibiotics can affect the IFI, treatment decisions should be adapted to ensure optimal management of ABECB for the long-term.

  6. BACTERIAL LYSATES FOR TOPICAL APPLICATION IN PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF CHRONIC TONSILLITIS AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Garashchenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have carried on the research of the influence Imudon exerts (during topical application on the run of chronic tonsillitis among 48 children aged between 5 and 10 years old, being dispensary registrants. The sublingual application of a medicine 6 pills daily within 20 days demonstrated the frequency reduction of chronic tonsillitis acerbations by 2.9 times, as well as the reduction of total need in systemic antibacterial treatment by 10 times. Apart from that, the frequency of S. pyogenes group a exposure reduced by 3 times. The researchers noticed the tendency to normalization of pharynx biocenosis. Thus, Imudon may be recommended for the daily courses of treatment to the people, suffering from chronic tonsillitis, palatine tonsil auxesis and recurrent tonsillo-pharyngites.Key words: chronic tonsillitis, children, prevention, bacterial lysates.

  7. Cochrane Commentary: Probiotics For Prevention of Acute Upper Respiratory Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics may improve a person's health by regulating their immune function. Some trials have shown that probiotic strains can prevent respiratory infections. Even though the previous version of our review showed benefits of probiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), several new studies have been published. To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose), compared with placebo, in the prevention of acute URTIs in people of all ages, who are at risk of acute URTIs. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to July week 3, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to July 2014), Web of Science (1900 to July 2014), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, which includes the China Biological Medicine Database (from 1978 to July 2014), the Chinese Medicine Popular Science Literature Database (from 2000 to July 2014) and the Masters Degree Dissertation of Beijing Union Medical College Database (from 1981 to July 2014). We also searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for completed and ongoing trials on 31 July 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics with placebo to prevent acute URTIs. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials, and extracted data using the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 13 RCTs, although we could only extract data to meta-analyze 12 trials, which involved 3720 participants including children, adults (aged around 40 years) and older people. We found that probiotics were better than placebo when measuring the number of participants experiencing episodes of acute URTI [at least one episode: odds ratio (OR): 0.53; 95% CI = 0.37-0.76, P school absence (OR: 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.47, very low quality evidence). Probiotics and placebo were similar when measuring the rate ratio of episodes of acute URTI (rate ratio: 0

  8. Low virulence bacterial infections in cervical intervertebral discs: a prospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yilei; Wang, Xianjun; Zhang, Xuyang; Ren, Hong; Huang, Bao; Chen, Jian; Liu, Junhui; Shan, Zhi; Zhu, Zhihai; Zhao, Fengdong

    2018-04-19

    A prospective cross-sectional case series study. To investigate the prevalence of low virulence disc infection and its associations with characteristics of patients or discs in the cervical spine. Low virulence bacterial infections could be a possible cause of intervertebral disc degeneration and/or back pain. Controversies are continuing over whether these bacteria, predominantly Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), represent infection or contamination. However, the current studies mainly focus on the lumbar spine, with very limited data on the cervical spine. Thirty-two patients (20 men and 12 women) who underwent anterior cervical fusion for degenerative cervical spondylosis or traumatic cervical cord injury were enrolled. Radiological assessments included X-ray, CT, and MRI of the cervical spine. Endplate Modic changes, intervertebral range of motion, and disc herniation type were evaluated. Disc and muscle tissues were collected under strict sterile conditions. Samples were enriched in tryptone soy broth and subcultured under anaerobic conditions, followed by identification of the resulting colonies by the PCR method. Sixty-six intervertebral discs were excised from thirty-two patients. Positive disc cultures were noted in eight patients (25%) and in nine discs (13.6%). The muscle biopsy (control) cultures were negative in 28 patients and positive in 4 patients (12.5%); three of whom had a negative disc culture. Seven discs (10.6%) were positive for coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) and two discs were positive for P. acnes (3.0%). A younger patient age and the extrusion or sequestration type of disc herniation, which represented a complete annulus fibrous failure, were associated with positive disc culture. Our data show that CNS is more prevalent than P. acnes in degenerative cervical discs. The infection route in cervical discs may be predominantly through an annulus fissure. Correlation between these infections and clinical symptoms is uncertain

  9. Probiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: the rationale and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor; Bruce, Andrew W

    2006-02-01

    For over 30 years, urologists have recognized in females, that urinary pathogens almost always infect the host through ascension from the rectum, vagina to the urethra and bladder. Likewise, the Lactobacillus organisms that predominate in the vagina of healthy women, spread from the rectum and perineum and form a barrier in the vagina to bladder entry by uropathogens. The concept of artificially boosting the lactobacilli numbers through probiotic instillation has long been conceived, but only in recent years shown to be possible. Not all lactobacilli are effective, and to date clinical efficacy only exists for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri B-54 and RC-14. These strains are only commercially available in Austria, and therefore for most urologists, while some probiotic organisms may reduce the recurrences of bladder cancer or oxaluria, no probiotics can be recommended widely to prevent UTI at present.

  10. Human skin equivalents to study the prevention and treatment of wound infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, I.

    2018-01-01

    Infection of burn wounds remains the leading cause of death in burn patients. Topical treatment of such infections with conventional antibiotics is often unsuccessful due to the presence of drug-resistant bacteria and/or to the formation of bacterial biofilms. Taken together there is a clear

  11. Postviral Complications: Bacterial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasso, Jason E; Deng, Jane C

    2017-03-01

    Secondary bacterial pneumonia after viral respiratory infection remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Susceptibility is mediated by a variety of viral and bacterial factors, and complex interactions with the host immune system. Prevention and treatment strategies are limited to influenza vaccination and antibiotics/antivirals respectively. Novel approaches to identifying the individuals with influenza who are at increased risk for secondary bacterial pneumonias are urgently needed. Given the threat of further pandemics and the heightened prevalence of these viruses, more research into the immunologic mechanisms of this disease is warranted with the hope of discovering new potential therapies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The Bacterial Pathogen Xylella fastidiosa Affects the Leaf Ionome of Plant Hosts during Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, Leonardo; Parker, Jennifer K.; Oliver, Jonathan E.; Granger, Shea; Brannen, Phillip M.; van Santen, Edzard; Cobine, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium that lives inside the host xylem vessels, where it forms biofilm believed to be responsible for disrupting the passage of water and nutrients. Here, Nicotiana tabacum was infected with X. fastidiosa, and the spatial and temporal changes in the whole-leaf ionome (i.e. the mineral and trace element composition) were measured as the host plant transitioned from healthy to diseased physiological status. The elemental composition of leaves was used as an indicator of the physiological changes in the host at a specific time and relative position during plant development. Bacterial infection was found to cause significant increases in concentrations of calcium prior to the appearance of symptoms and decreases in concentrations of phosphorous after symptoms appeared. Field-collected leaves from multiple varieties of grape, blueberry, and pecan plants grown in different locations over a four-year period in the Southeastern US showed the same alterations in Ca and P. This descriptive ionomics approach characterizes the existence of a mineral element-based response to X. fastidiosa using a model system suitable for further manipulation to uncover additional details of the role of mineral elements during plant-pathogen interactions. This is the first report on the dynamics of changes in the ionome of the host plant throughout the process of infection by a pathogen. PMID:23667547

  13. α-Intercalated cells defend the urinary system from bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragas, Neal; Kulkarni, Ritwij; Werth, Max; Schmidt-Ott, Kai M; Forster, Catherine; Deng, Rong; Zhang, Qingyin; Singer, Eugenia; Klose, Alexander D; Shen, Tian Huai; Francis, Kevin P; Ray, Sunetra; Vijayakumar, Soundarapandian; Seward, Samuel; Bovino, Mary E; Xu, Katherine; Takabe, Yared; Amaral, Fábio E; Mohan, Sumit; Wax, Rebecca; Corbin, Kaitlyn; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Mori, Kiyoshi; Johnson, Lynne; Nickolas, Thomas; D'Agati, Vivette; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Qiu, Andong; Al-Awqati, Qais; Ratner, Adam J; Barasch, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    α-Intercalated cells (A-ICs) within the collecting duct of the kidney are critical for acid-base homeostasis. Here, we have shown that A-ICs also serve as both sentinels and effectors in the defense against urinary infections. In a murine urinary tract infection model, A-ICs bound uropathogenic E. coli and responded by acidifying the urine and secreting the bacteriostatic protein lipocalin 2 (LCN2; also known as NGAL). A-IC-dependent LCN2 secretion required TLR4, as mice expressing an LPS-insensitive form of TLR4 expressed reduced levels of LCN2. The presence of LCN2 in urine was both necessary and sufficient to control the urinary tract infection through iron sequestration, even in the harsh condition of urine acidification. In mice lacking A-ICs, both urinary LCN2 and urinary acidification were reduced, and consequently bacterial clearance was limited. Together these results indicate that A-ICs, which are known to regulate acid-base metabolism, are also critical for urinary defense against pathogenic bacteria. They respond to both cystitis and pyelonephritis by delivering bacteriostatic chemical agents to the lower urinary system.

  14. The bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa affects the leaf ionome of plant hosts during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo De La Fuente

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium that lives inside the host xylem vessels, where it forms biofilm believed to be responsible for disrupting the passage of water and nutrients. Here, Nicotiana tabacum was infected with X. fastidiosa, and the spatial and temporal changes in the whole-leaf ionome (i.e. the mineral and trace element composition were measured as the host plant transitioned from healthy to diseased physiological status. The elemental composition of leaves was used as an indicator of the physiological changes in the host at a specific time and relative position during plant development. Bacterial infection was found to cause significant increases in concentrations of calcium prior to the appearance of symptoms and decreases in concentrations of phosphorous after symptoms appeared. Field-collected leaves from multiple varieties of grape, blueberry, and pecan plants grown in different locations over a four-year period in the Southeastern US showed the same alterations in Ca and P. This descriptive ionomics approach characterizes the existence of a mineral element-based response to X. fastidiosa using a model system suitable for further manipulation to uncover additional details of the role of mineral elements during plant-pathogen interactions. This is the first report on the dynamics of changes in the ionome of the host plant throughout the process of infection by a pathogen.

  15. Global invasive bacterial vaccine-preventable diseases surveillance--2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jillian; Agócs, Mary; Serhan, Fatima; Singh, Simarjit; Deloria-Knoll, Maria; O'Brien, Katherine; Mwenda, Jason M; Mihigo, Richard; Oliveira, Lucia; Teleb, Nadia; Ahmed, Hinda; Wasley, Annemarie; Videbaek, Dovile; Wijesinghe, Pushpa; Thapa, Arun Bhadra; Fox, Kimberly; Paladin, Fem Julia; Hajjeh, Rana; Schwartz, Stephanie; Van Beneden, Chris; Hyde, Terri; Broome, Claire; Cherian, Thomas

    2014-12-12

    Meningitis and pneumonia are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children globally infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae causing a large proportion of disease. Vaccines are available to prevent many of the common types of these infections. S. pneumoniae was estimated to have caused 11% of deaths in children aged Organization (WHO) has recommended inclusion of PCV in childhood immunization programs worldwide, especially in countries with high child mortality. As of November 26, 2014, a total of 112 (58%) of all 194 WHO member states and 44 (58%) of the 76 member states ever eligible for support from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi), have introduced PCV. Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) surveillance that includes data on serotypes, along with meningitis and pneumonia syndromic surveillance, provides important data to guide decisions to introduce PCV and monitor its impact.

  16. Skin bacterial flora as a potential risk factor predisposing to late bacterial infection after cross-linked hyaluronic acid gel augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netsvyetayeva, Irina; Marusza, Wojciech; Olszanski, Romuald; Szyller, Kamila; Krolak-Ulinska, Aneta; Swoboda-Kopec, Ewa; Sierdzinski, Janusz; Szymonski, Zachary; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna

    2018-01-01

    Cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA) gel is widely used in esthetic medicine. Late bacterial infection (LBI) is a rare, but severe complication after HA augmentation. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients who underwent the HA injection procedure and developed LBI had qualitatively different bacterial flora on the skin compared to patients who underwent the procedure without any complications. The study group comprised 10 previously healthy women with recently diagnosed, untreated LBI after HA augmentation. The control group comprised 17 healthy women who had a similar amount of HA injected with no complications. To assess the difference between the two groups, their skin flora was cultured from nasal swabs, both before and after antibiotic treatment in the study group. A significant increase in the incidence of Staphylococcus epidermidis was detected in the control group ( P =0.000) compared to the study group. The study group showed a significantly higher incidence of Staphylococcus aureus ( P =0.005), Klebsiella pneumoniae ( P =0.006), Klebsiella oxytoca ( P =0.048), and Staphylococcus haemolyticus ( P =0.048) compared to the control group. The bacterial flora on the skin differed in patients with LBI from the control group. The control group's bacterial skin flora was dominated by S. epidermidis . Patients with LBI had a bacterial skin flora dominated by potentially pathogenic bacteria.

  17. When is bacterial vaginosis not bacterial vaginosis?--a case of cervical carcinoma presenting as recurrent vaginal anaerobic infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, M M; Tidy, J A; McCulloch, T A; Rogstad, K E

    1997-01-01

    Vaginal anaerobic infection is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in women. We present a case of recurrent vaginal anaerobic infection and cervical carcinoma and discuss the association of the two conditions. More frequent cytology/colposcopy may be indicated in women who give a history of recurrent or persistent vaginal anaerobic infection.

  18. Lipocalin 2 Imparts Selective Pressure on Bacterial Growth in the Bladder and Is Elevated in Women with Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigedal, Magnus; Marstad, Anne; Haug, Markus; Damås, Jan K.; Strong, Roland K.; Roberts, Pacita L.; Himpsl, Stephanie D.; Stapleton, Ann; Hooton, Thomas M.; Mobley, Harry L. T.; Hawn, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Competition for iron is a critical component of successful bacterial infections, but the underlying in vivo mechanisms are poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is an innate immunity protein that binds to bacterial siderophores and starves them for iron, thus representing a novel host defense mechanism to infection. In the present study we show that LCN2 is secreted by the urinary tract mucosa and protects against urinary tract infection (UTI). We found that LCN2 was expressed in the bladder, ureters, and kidneys of mice subject to UTI. LCN2 was protective with higher bacterial numbers retrieved from bladders of Lcn2-deficient mice than from wild-type mice infected with the LCN2-sensitive Escherichia coli strain H9049. Uropathogenic E. coli mutants in siderophore receptors for salmochelin, aerobactin, or yersiniabactin displayed reduced fitness in wild-type mice, but not in mice deficient of LCN2, demonstrating that LCN2 imparts a selective pressure on bacterial growth in the bladder. In a human cohort of women with recurrent E. coli UTIs, urine LCN2 levels were associated with UTI episodes and with levels of bacteriuria. The number of siderophore systems was associated with increasing bacteriuria during cystitis. Our data demonstrate that LCN2 is secreted by the urinary tract mucosa in response to uropathogenic E. coli challenge and acts in innate immune defenses as a colonization barrier that pathogens must overcome to establish infection. PMID:25398327

  19. Bezlotoxumab: A Review in Preventing Clostridium difficile Infection Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Emma D

    2017-10-01

    Bezlotoxumab (Zinplava™) is a fully human monoclonal antibody against Clostridium difficile toxin B indicated for the prevention of C. difficile infection (CDI) recurrence in patients with a high recurrence risk. It is the first agent approved for recurrence prevention and is administered as a single intravenous infusion in conjunction with standard-of-care (SoC) antibacterial treatment for CDI. In well-designed, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials (MODIFY 1 and 2), a single infusion of bezlotoxumab, given in combination with SoC antibacterial therapy for CDI in adults, was effective in reducing CDI recurrence in the 12 weeks post-treatment, with this benefit being seen mainly in the patients at high recurrence risk. Bezlotoxumab did not impact the efficacy of the antibacterials being used to treat the CDI and, consistent with its benefits on CDI recurrence, appeared to reduce the need for subsequent antibacterials, thus minimizing further gut microbiota disruption. Longer term, there were no further CDI recurrences over 12 months' follow-up among patients who had received bezlotoxumab in MODIFY 2 and entered an extension substudy. Bezlotoxumab has low immunogenicity and is generally well tolerated, although the potential for heart failure in some patients requires consideration; cost-effectiveness data for bezlotoxumab are awaited with interest. Thus, a single intravenous infusion of bezlotoxumab during SoC antibacterial treatment for CDI is an emerging option for reducing CDI recurrence in adults at high risk of recurrence.

  20. CAPABILITY OF PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION PREVENTION IN GIRLS AND WOMEN OF VARIOUS AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Ch. Shakhtakhtinskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at one of the critical issues in modern medicine — human papilloma virus infection. The prevalence of this infection in the world and the possibility of primary prevention in females of various age groups are highlighted in details. It provides the results of vaccine prevention against the human papilloma virus in Russian in girls and women aged 9 to 26 years.Key words: papilloma virus infection, cervical cancer, women, girls, vaccinal prevention.

  1. From in vitro to in vivo Models of Bacterial Biofilm-Related Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeaux, David; Chauhan, Ashwini; Rendueles, Olaya; Beloin, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The influence of microorganisms growing as sessile communities in a large number of human infections has been extensively studied and recognized for 30–40 years, therefore warranting intense scientific and medical research. Nonetheless, mimicking the biofilm-life style of bacteria and biofilm-related infections has been an arduous task. Models used to study biofilms range from simple in vitro to complex in vivo models of tissues or device-related infections. These different models have progressively contributed to the current knowledge of biofilm physiology within the host context. While far from a complete understanding of the multiple elements controlling the dynamic interactions between the host and biofilms, we are nowadays witnessing the emergence of promising preventive or curative strategies to fight biofilm-related infections. This review undertakes a comprehensive analysis of the literature from a historic perspective commenting on the contribution of the different models and discussing future venues and new approaches that can be merged with more traditional techniques in order to model biofilm-infections and efficiently fight them. PMID:25437038

  2. Bacterial agents and antibiotic sensitivity in children with urinary infection in two hospitals of Popayan, Colombia

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    Carolina Álvarez-Czeczotta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI is a common condition in children. Isolation of bacteria and early management is a priority in order to contribute to the reduction of morbidity and avoid bacterial resistance. Objectives: To identify bacterial etiologic agents and antibiotic sensitivity in children (1 month to 5 years of age with UTI in two hospitals of Popayán, Colombia. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in children aged 1 month to 5 years of age who consulted the emergency services of two hospitals with clinical suspicion of UTI. The sample was 123 children. Using an instrument collected demographic variables, signs and symptoms, results of urinalysis, urine culture, sensitivity testing, treatment, and UTI classification. We determined the frequency and proportions of sociodemographic and clinical variables, bacterial agents and antibiotic resistance. Data was analyzed using SPSS 11.5 program. Results: We included 129 children diagnosed with UTI with positive urine culture, bladder catheter taken with 97.7% of cases. 74.8% of patients were female. Escherichia coli was the seed that was isolated more frequently (95.4%, then Sp Proteus (2.4%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.6%. The antibiotics to which the bacteria showed adequate sensitivity were: ceftriaxone, amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, cefuroxime and cephalexin. Showed low sensitivity: ampicillin and trimethoprim sulfa. Conclusions: Escherichia coli was the bacteria that cause of UTI in our study population. For initial empiric treatment of hospitalized patients would recommend parenteral drug third generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone and aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin. For outpatient management, oral antibiotics showed greater sensitivity were nalidixic acid, cefuroxime and cephalexin.

  3. Isolation and in vitro evaluation of bacteriophages against MDR-bacterial isolates from septic wound infections.

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    Roja Rani Pallavali

    Full Text Available Multi-drug resistance has become a major problem for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. The use of bacteriophages is an attractive approach to overcome the problem of drug resistance in several pathogens that cause fatal diseases. Our study aimed to isolate multi drug resistant bacteria from patients with septic wounds and then isolate and apply bacteriophages in vitro as alternative therapeutic agents. Pus samples were aseptically collected from Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Science (RIMS, Kadapa, A.P., and samples were analyzed by gram staining, evaluating morphological characteristics, and biochemical methods. MDR-bacterial strains were collected using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against a variety of antibiotics. Bacteriophages were collected and tested in vitro for lytic activity against MDR-bacterial isolates. Analysis of the pus swab samples revealed that the most of the isolates detected had Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the predominant bacterium, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Our results suggested that gram-negative bacteria were more predominant than gram-positive bacteria in septic wounds; most of these isolates were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, vancomycin and tetracycline. All the gram-positive isolates (100% were multi-drug resistant, whereas 86% of the gram-negative isolates had a drug resistant nature. Further bacteriophages isolated from sewage demonstrated perfect lytic activity against the multi-drug resistant bacteria causing septic wounds. In vitro analysis of the isolated bacteriophages demonstrated perfect lysis against the corresponding MDR-bacteria, and these isolated phages may be promising as a first choice for prophylaxis against wound sepsis, Moreover, phage therapy does not enhance multi-drug resistance in bacteria and could work simultaneously on a wide variety of MDR-bacteria when used in a bacteriophage cocktail. Hence

  4. Label-free bimodal waveguide immunosensor for rapid diagnosis of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients.

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    Maldonado, Jesús; González-Guerrero, Ana Belén; Domínguez, Carlos; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-11-15

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is an acute bacterial infection of ascitic fluid; it has a high incidence in cirrhotic patients and it is associated with high mortality. In such a situation, early diagnosis and treatment is crucial for the survival of the patient. However, bacterial analysis in ascitic fluid is currently based on culture methods, which are time-consuming and laborious. We report here the application of a photonic interferometer biosensor based on a bimodal waveguide (BiMW) for the rapid and label-free detection of bacteria directly in ascitic fluid. The device consists of a straight waveguide in which two modes of the same polarization interfere while interacting with the external medium through their evanescent fields. A bimolecular event occurring on the sensor area of the device (e.g. capturing bacteria) will differently affect each light mode, inducing a variation in the phase of the light exiting at the output of the waveguide. In this work, we demonstrate the quantitative detection of Bacillus cereus in buffer medium and Escherichia coli in undiluted ascitic fluid from cirrhotic patients. In the case of Bacillus cereus detection, the device was able to specifically detect bacteria at relevant concentrations in 12.5min and in the case of Escherichia coli detection, the analysis time was 25min. Extrapolation of the data demonstrated that the detection limits of the biosensor could reach few bacteria per milliliter. Based on the results obtained, we consider that the BiMW biosensor is positioned as a promising new clinical tool for user-friendly, cost-effective and real-time microbiological analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Copper Is a Host Effector Mobilized to Urine during Urinary Tract Infection To Impair Bacterial Colonization

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    Hyre, Amanda N.; Kavanagh, Kylie; Kock, Nancy D.; Donati, George L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a major global infectious disease affecting millions of people annually. Human urinary copper (Cu) content is elevated during UTI caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC upregulates the expression of Cu efflux genes during clinical UTI in patients as an adaptive response to host-derived Cu. Whether Cu is mobilized to urine as a host response to UTI and its role in protection against UTI remain unresolved. To address these questions, we tested the hypothesis that Cu is a host effector mobilized to urine during UTI to limit bacterial growth. Our results reveal that Cu is mobilized to urine during UTI caused by the major uropathogens Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, in addition to UPEC, in humans. Ceruloplasmin, a Cu-containing ferroxidase, is found at higher levels in UTI urine than in healthy control urine and serves as the molecular source of urinary Cu during UTI. Our results demonstrate that ceruloplasmin decreases the bioavailability of iron in urine by a transferrin-dependent mechanism. Experimental UTI with UPEC in nonhuman primates recapitulates the increased urinary Cu content observed during clinical UTI. Furthermore, Cu-deficient mice are highly colonized by UPEC, indicating that Cu is involved in the limiting of bacterial growth within the urinary tract. Collectively, our results indicate that Cu is a host effector that is involved in protection against pathogen colonization of the urinary tract. Because urinary Cu levels are amenable to modulation, augmentation of the Cu-based host defense against UTI represents a novel approach to limiting bacterial colonization during UTI. PMID:28031261

  6. Biobased silver nanocolloid coating on silk fibers for prevention of post-surgical wound infections

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    Dhas SP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sindhu Priya Dhas, Suruthi Anbarasan, Amitava Mukherjee, Natarajan Chandrasekaran Center for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore, India Abstract: Bombyx mori silk fibers are an important biomaterial and are used in surgical sutures due to their remarkable biocompatibility. The major drawback to the application of biomaterials is the risk of bacterial invasion, leading to clinical complications. We have developed an easy and cost-effective method for fabrication of antibacterial silk fibers loaded with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by an in situ and ex situ process using an aqueous extract of Rhizophora apiculata leaf. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that well dispersed nanoparticles impregnated the silk fibers both in situ and ex situ. The crystalline nature of the AgNPs in the silk fibers was demonstrated by X-ray diffraction. The thermal and mechanical properties of the silk fibers were enhanced after they were impregnated with AgNPs. The silver-coated silk fibers fabricated by the in situ and ex situ method exhibited more than 90% inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Silk fibers doped with AgNPs were found to be biocompatible with 3T3 fibroblasts. The results obtained represent an important advance towards the clinical application of biocompatible AgNP-loaded silk fibers for prevention of surgical wound infections. Keywords: silk fibers, silver nanoparticles, antibacterial activity, wound infections, cytotoxicity, 3T3 fibroblast cells

  7. Bacterial isolates from burn wound infections and their antibiograms: A eight-year study

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    Mehta Manjula

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection is an important cause of mortality in burns. Rapidly emerging nosocomial pathogens and the problem of multi-drug resistance necessitates periodic review of isolation patterns and antibiogram in the burn ward. Aim: Keeping this in mind, the present retrospective study from wounds of patients admitted to burns unit was undertaken to determine the bacteriological profile and the resistance pattern from the burn ward over a period of three years (June 2002 to May 2005 and was compared with the results obtained during the previous five years (June 1997-May 2002, to ascertain any change in the bacteriological profile and antimicrobial resistance pattern. Materials and Methods: Bacterial isolates from 268 wound swabs taken from burn patients were identified by conventional biochemical methods and antimicrobial susceptibility was performed. Statistical comparison of bacterial isolates and their resistance pattern with previous five years data was done using c2 test. Results and Conclusions: During the period from 2002 to 2005 Pseudomonas species was the commonest pathogen isolated (51.5% followed by Acinetobacter species (14.28%, Staph. aureus (11.15%, Klebsiella species (9.23% and Proteus species (2.3%. When compared with the results of the previous five years i.e., 1997 to 2002, Pseudomonas species was still the commonest pathogen in the burns unit. However, the isolation of this organism and other gram-negative organisms had decreased in comparison to previous years. Newer drugs were found to be effective.

  8. Reptiles as Reservoirs of Bacterial Infections: Real Threat or Methodological Bias?

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    Zancolli, Giulia; Mahsberg, Dieter; Sickel, Wiebke; Keller, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial infections secondary to snakebites and human pathogens (e.g., Salmonella) have been linked to the oral microbiota of snakes and pet reptiles. Based on culture-dependent studies, it is speculated that snakes' oral microbiota reflects the fecal flora of their ingested preys. However, cultured-based techniques have been shown to be limited as they fail to identify unculturable microorganisms which represent the vast majority of the microbial diversity. Here, we used culture-independent high-throughput sequencing to identify reptile-associated pathogens and to characterize the oral microbial community of five snakes, one gecko, and two terrapins. Few potential human pathogens were detected at extremely low frequencies. Moreover, bacterial taxa represented in the snake's oral cavity bore little resemblance to their preys' fecal microbiota. Overall, we found distinct, highly diverse microbial communities with consistent, species-specific patterns contrary to previous culture-based studies. Our study does not support the widely held assumption that reptiles' oral cavity acts as pathogen reservoir and provides important insights for future research.

  9. Inhaled phage therapy: a promising and challenging approach to treat bacterial respiratory infections.

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    Bodier-Montagutelli, Elsa; Morello, Eric; L'Hostis, Guillaume; Guillon, Antoine; Dalloneau, Emilie; Respaud, Renaud; Pallaoro, Nikita; Blois, Hélène; Vecellio, Laurent; Gabard, Jérôme; Heuzé-Vourc'h, Nathalie

    2017-08-01

    Bacterial respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are increasingly difficult to treat due to evolving antibiotic resistance. In this context, bacteriophages (or phages) are part of the foreseen alternatives or combination therapies. Delivering phages through the airways seems more relevant to accumulate these natural antibacterial viruses in proximity to their bacterial host, within the infectious site. Areas covered: This review addresses the potential of phage therapy to treat RTIs and discusses preclinical and clinical results of phages administration in this context. Recent phage formulation and aerosolization attempts are also reviewed, raising technical challenges to achieve efficient pulmonary deposition via inhalation. Expert opinion: Overall, the inhalation of phages as antibacterial treatment seems both clinically relevant and technically feasible. Several crucial points still need to be investigated, such as phage product pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity. Furthermore, given phage-specific features, appropriate regulatory and manufacturing guidelines will need to be defined. Finally, randomized controlled clinical trials should be carried out to establish phage therapy's clinical positioning in the antimicrobial arsenal against RTIs.

  10. Transmigration of polymorphnuclear neutrophils and monocytes through the human blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier after bacterial infection in vitro.

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    Steinmann, Ulrike; Borkowski, Julia; Wolburg, Hartwig; Schröppel, Birgit; Findeisen, Peter; Weiss, Christel; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Schwerk, Christian; Schroten, Horst; Tenenbaum, Tobias

    2013-02-28

    Bacterial invasion through the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) during bacterial meningitis causes secretion of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines followed by the recruitment of leukocytes into the CNS. In this study, we analyzed the cellular and molecular mechanisms of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) and monocyte transepithelial transmigration (TM) across the BCSFB after bacterial infection. Using an inverted transwell filter system of human choroid plexus papilloma cells (HIBCPP), we studied leukocyte TM rates, the migration route by immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy, the secretion of cytokines/chemokines by cytokine bead array and posttranslational modification of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) α via western blot. PMNs showed a significantly increased TM across HIBCPP after infection with wild-type Neisseria meningitidis (MC58). In contrast, a significantly decreased monocyte transmigration rate after bacterial infection of HIBCPP could be observed. Interestingly, in co-culture experiments with PMNs and monocytes, TM of monocytes was significantly enhanced. Analysis of paracellular permeability and transepithelial electrical resistance confirmed an intact barrier function during leukocyte TM. With the help of the different imaging techniques we could provide evidence for para- as well as for transcellular migrating leukocytes. Further analysis of secreted cytokines/chemokines showed a distinct pattern after stimulation and transmigration of PMNs and monocytes. Moreover, the transmembrane glycoprotein SIRPα was deglycosylated in monocytes, but not in PMNs, after bacterial infection. Our findings demonstrate that PMNs and monoctyes differentially migrate in a human BCSFB model after bacterial infection. Cytokines and chemokines as well as transmembrane proteins such as SIRPα may be involved in this process.