WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevent alcohol-impaired driving

  1. State Alcohol-Impaired-Driving Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 Data DOT HS 812 017 May 2014 State Alcohol-Impaired-Driving Estimates This fact sheet contains ... alcohol involvement in fatal crashes for the United States and individually for the 50 States, the District ...

  2. Legal and social control of alcohol-impaired driving in California: 1983-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, D E; Marelich, W D

    1997-09-01

    This research was designed to provide information on the legal and social forces that influence change in control of alcohol-impaired driving. Attitudes, perceptions and behaviors concerning drinking and driving for California drivers in 1994 (n = 608) were compared to similar information collected from California drivers in 1983 and 1986 (n = 291) through random-digit-dialing telephone interviews. Self-reported drinking-driving violations showed a substantial decline, paralleling the well-documented drop in alcohol-related traffic crashes during this time span. A large reduction in drinking before driving was reported for all age groups, men and women, and for both heavy drinkers and light drinkers. There was evidence of an increase in the levels of both general deterrence and general prevention. Increased external control was reflected in greater knowledge of drinking-driving laws and trends toward an increased expectation that violations would be followed by unpleasant consequences. Strong gains in creating a social norm for control of alcohol-impaired driving were indicated by perceptions that friends and relatives were more likely to disapprove of driving after drinking, observations of more control of drinking by drivers at occasions where alcohol is served and an increase in the view that it is morally wrong to drive after heavy drinking. California has made substantial progress in efforts to control alcohol-impaired driving, through increases in both general deterrence (fear of punishment) and general prevention (moral inhibitions and socialization of preventive habits), especially the latter.

  3. Occupant and Alcohol-Impaired Driving Deaths in States, 2005-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities 2005-2014; All persons killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC >= .08 g/dL. Occupant Fatalities 2005-2014; All occupants...

  4. Occupant and Alcohol-Impaired Driving Deaths in States, 2003-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities 2003-2012; All persons killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC >= .08 g/dL. Occupant Fatalities 2003-2012; All occupants...

  5. Alcohol-impaired driving and its consequences in the United States: the past 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan F

    2006-01-01

    Progress in dealing with the alcohol-impaired driving problem in the United States during the past 25 years is addressed. Trends in various measures of the problem were tracked and a thorough review of the relevant literature conducted. In the 1980s and continuing into the early 1990s, major decreases occurred in alcohol-impaired driving and its consequences. The contribution of alcohol to fatal crashes dropped by 35-40% during this period. Two primary reasons for the decline appear to be the emergence of citizen activist groups that mobilized public support and attention to the problem, and the proliferation of effective laws. Since about 1995 the alcohol-impaired driving problem has stabilized at a reduced but still quite high level. Highway safety organizations and citizen activist groups have continued to highlight the problem, but its status as a social issue has diminished. We basically know what the primary target groups are, and we know measures that would work to reduce the problem if implemented more fully. We know that political leadership, state task forces, and media advocacy are important ingredients in addressing the problem. It is likely that a resurgence in citizen activism will be necessary to foster these elements and refocus the nation on the unfinished battle against alcohol-impaired driving. Alcohol-impaired driving is still a major problem that needs continuing attention.

  6. Associations between Responsible Beverage Service Laws and Binge Drinking and Alcohol-Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Ann C.; Toomey, Traci L.; Wolfson, Julian; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J.

    2016-01-01

    We explored potential associations between the strength of state Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) laws and self-reported binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in the U.S. A multi-level logistic mixed-effects model was used, adjusting for potential confounders. Analyses were conducted on the overall BRFSS sample and drinkers only. Seven…

  7. Norms and attitudes related to alcohol usage and driving : a review of the relevant literature. "Suggestions for developing prevention programs to reduce the incidence of alcohol-impaired driving"

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    This project provides information about norms and attitudes related to alcohol use and driving. This booklet was developed to assist highway safety program officials in assimulating recent research findings on primary prevention into their DWI commun...

  8. Gender differences in alcohol impairment of simulated driving performance and driving-related skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A; Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T

    2009-01-01

    Considerable laboratory research indicates that moderate doses of alcohol impair a broad range of skilled activities related to driving performance in young adults. Although laboratory studies show that the intensity of impairment is generally dependent on the blood alcohol concentration, some reviews of this literature suggest that women might be more sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol than men. The present study tested this hypothesis. Drawing on data from previous experiments in our laboratory, we compared men and women in terms of the degree to which a challenge dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) impaired their simulated driving performance and measures of three separate behavioral and cognitive functions important to driving performance: motor coordination, speed of information processing and information-processing capacity. Alcohol significantly impaired all aspects of performance. Moreover, women displayed greater impairment than men on all behavioral tests and also reported higher levels of subjective intoxication compared with men. Both biological and social-cultural factors have been implicated in gender differences in the behavioral responses to alcohol. The current evidence of heightened sensitivity to alcohol in women highlights the need for better understanding the biological and environmental factors underlying this gender difference.

  9. MADD rates the states: a media advocacy event to advance the agenda against alcohol-impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, A; Voas, R B; Dejong, W; Chaloupka, M

    1995-01-01

    The "Rating the States" (RTS) Program of Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) is designed to bring public attention to the status of State government efforts to combat alcohol-impaired driving. MADD's 1993 report, which evaluated each State with a grade from A to D, brought renewed visibility to MADD's fight for new prevention policies and helped to advance key State legislation. Because of MADD's national press conference and other media activities, more than 60 million Americans saw or heard a news story related to the program. This article outlines the program's objectives and methodology, efforts to publicize the results, and what was achieved in terms of news media coverage and in advancing public policy change. The RTS Program is a proven media advocacy strategy for prompting State legislatures and Governors to enact new policies. The article concludes with guidelines for other public health advocacy groups that may want to emulate this strategy.

  10. Effects of different blood alcohol concentrations and post-alcohol impairment on driving behavior and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yung-Ching; Ho, Chin Heng

    2010-08-01

    A study using simulator methodology was conducted to investigate the effects of (1) different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0, 0.05, 0.08, and 0.10 percent and (2) post-alcohol impairment (where BAC approximately 0%) on driving behavior and subsidiary cognitive task performance. Two driving sessions were investigated, that is, drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, with each requiring approximately 20 min of driving. In addition to driving safely, participants were instructed to perform the critical flicker fusion (CFF) test and completed the NASA-TLX mental workload questionnaire. Eight licensed drivers (6 males, 2 females) participated in this 2 (road complexities) x 2 (simulated driving sessions) x 4 (levels of BAC) within-subjects experiment. The study revealed that higher BAC levels were associated with lower performing driving behavior. The driver's mental workload reached the highest values in the post-alcohol session. In terms of tasks involving divided attention, the traffic sign distance estimation showed significant deterioration with increased BAC levels. The relationship between drunk-driving behavior and alcohol dosage was supported in this study. Noticeably, no significant difference was found between drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, indicating that even in the post-alcohol situation, the impairment still remained significant enough to jeopardize traffic safety as much as it does in the case of drunk driving. In real-life situations, adopting a rest-time strategy to avoid post-alcohol impairment effects may not be the most appropriate solution by drivers; rather, drivers should be given some tests to verify the probability of post-alcohol effects on driving.

  11. Predicting Alcohol-Impaired Driving among Spanish Youth with the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, José P; Griffin, Kenneth W; Gonzálvez, María T; Orgilés, Mireia

    2015-06-19

    Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for motor vehicle accidents in young drivers. Crashes associated with alcohol consumption typically have greater severity. This study examines the prevalence of driving under the influence among Spanish youth and tests the theory of reasoned action as a model for predicting driving under the influence. Participants included 478 Spanish university students aged 17-26 years. Findings indicated that alcohol was the substance most associated with impaired driving, and was involved in more traffic crashes. Men engage in higher levels of alcohol and other drug use, and perceived less risk in drunk driving (p theory of reasoned action as a predictive model of driving under the influence of alcohol among youth in Spain (p < .001) and can help in the design of prevention programs.

  12. Alcohol-Impaired Driving: The Influence of Adverse Rearing Environments, Alcohol, Cannabis Use, and the Moderating Role of Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Carlson, Matthew W; Bord, Shiran; Zeichner, Amos

    2017-03-21

    The rate of alcohol-impaired driving (AID) increases during the college years and students who have reported adverse rearing environments appear to be at increased risk for the development of alcohol and drug use behaviors. Alcohol and cannabis are the most commonly used drugs by college students, and these substances are particularly predictive of substance-impaired driving. The present study aimed to investigate whether adverse rearing environment experiences and level of alcohol and cannabis use are related to the frequency of alcohol-impaired driving and whether anxiety might buffer or accelerate this effect. Data regarding adversity, drug use, anxiety, and AID were obtained from 1,265 students annually, from first to final year of college, over four waves (Mean Age at wave 1 = 18.5 years). Structural equation modeling supported associations among childhood adversity, alcohol, cannabis, and anxiety symptoms. A significant mediation effect was found such that adversity was predictive of AID via alcohol use and cannabis use. Among men, anxiety symptoms accelerated the path from increased cannabis use and decelerated the path from increased alcohol use to AID frequency. Conclusions/Importance: Childhood adversity is a developmental risk precursor to drug use and AID, whereas anxiety might serve a risk or protective factor to AID, contingent on the drug used.

  13. Reducing alcohol-impaired driving in community sports clubs: evaluating the good sports program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John W; Allen, Felicity

    2012-03-01

    The Good Sports program uses a systematic accreditation process to implement gradual alcohol-related harm-reduction strategies in Australian community sports clubs that aim to reduce the incidence of harmful alcohol-related behaviors, such as drink driving. This study tested whether the Good Sports program reduced the incidence of drink driving and whether reductions are related to the level of program implementation. An adoption versus nonadoption pilot study was undertaken with 65 cricket and 48 Australian Football League clubs (N = 1,968 individuals). Associations between the stage of accreditation (Stage 1 and Stage 2) and the likelihood of driving with an illegal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were examined. Alcohol-use diary accounts were used to calculate BAC before driving home from the club. The percentage of club members driving at least once in the previous week with a BAC estimate greater than .05% (the legal limit in Australia) was lower in clubs that had achieved Stage 2 Good Sports accreditation (7%, 95% CI [5%, 9%]) than those that had not (8%, 95% CI [6%, 9%]), but this was not significantly different. However, multilevel modeling identified a larger number of the safe-transport strategies, implemented as part of Stage 2 accreditation, which were associated with a significantly lower probability of drink driving. Being a risky drinker at the club, and the average number of risky drinkers at the club, was also predictive of drink driving. The findings of this pilot study suggest that implementation of the Good Sports program is likely to have a significant effect on harms associated with drink driving in Australia and elsewhere. Further community studies will be required, however, to examine precisely how the program is achieving improvements and whether it can be refined to have a greater impact in both Australia and overseas.

  14. Drug and alcohol-impaired driving among electronic music dance event attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr-Holden, Debra; Voas, Robert B; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Miller, Brenda

    2006-10-15

    Drug-impaired driving has received increased attention resulting from development of rapid drug-screening procedures used by police and state laws establishing per se limits for drug levels in drivers. Venues that host electronic music dance events (EMDEs) provide a unique opportunity to assess drug-impaired driving among a high proportion of young adult drug users. EMDEs are late-night dance parties marked by a substantial number of young adult attendees and elevated drug involvement. No studies to date have examined drug-impaired driving in a natural environment with active drug and alcohol users. Six EMDEs were sampled in San Diego, California, and Baltimore, Maryland. A random sample of approximately 40 attendees per event were administered surveys about alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and driving status, given breath tests for alcohol, and asked to provide oral fluid samples to test for illicit drug use upon entering and exiting the events. Driving status reduced the level of alcohol use (including abstaining) but the impact on drug-taking was not significant. However, 62% of individuals who reported their intention to drive away from the events were positive for drugs or alcohol upon leaving. This suggests that these events and settings are appropriate ones for developing interventions for reducing risks for young adults.

  15. Intervening to decrease the probability of alcohol-impaired driving: Impact of novel field sobriety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Robinson, Zechariah; Bazdar, Alexandra; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of novel field sobriety tests to predict breath alcohol content (BAC) and perceptions of driving risk was evaluated. Participants (N = 210) were passersby at two downtown locations near local bars and one on-campus location near a late-night dining facility between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m. Participants gave ratings of their perceived risk to drive at their current level of intoxication, then completed three sobriety tests (a hand-pat, tracing test, and Romberg test), and finally provided new ratings of their perceived risk to drive. After completing the final set of questions, participants were administered a Lifeloc FC20 breath alcohol test (±.005 g/dL). Each of the sobriety tests performed better than chance at predicting participant intoxication, but the performance feedback did not enhance awareness of one's risk to drive at a given BAC. Actually, after the sobriety tests, Greek-life females perceived themselves to be less at-risk to drive.

  16. Can progress in reducing alcohol-impaired driving fatalities be resumed? Results of a workshop sponsored by the Transportation Research Board, Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Transportation Committee (ANB50).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, James C; Beirness, Douglas J; Voas, Robert B; Smith, Gordon S; Jonah, Brian; Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Price, Jana; Hedlund, James

    2016-11-16

    Despite successes in the 1980s and early 1990s, progress in reducing impaired driving fatalities in the United States has stagnated in recent years. Since 1997, the percentage of drivers involved in fatal crashes with illegal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels has remained at approximately 20 to 22%. Many experts believe that public complacency, competing social and public health issues, and the lack of political fortitude have all contributed to this stagnation. The number of alcohol-related crashes, injuries, and fatalities is still unacceptable, and most are preventable. The public needs to be aware that the problem presented by drinking drivers has not been solved. Political leaders need guidance on which measures will affect the problem, and stakeholders need to be motivated once again to implement effective strategies. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Transportation Research Board (TRB), Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Transportation Committee (ANB50) sponsored a workshop held at the NAS facility in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, on August 24-25, 2015, to discuss the lack of progress in reducing impaired driving and to make recommendations for future progress. A total of 26 experts in research and policy related to alcohol-impaired driving participated in the workshop. The workshop began by examining the static situation in the rate of alcohol-impaired driving fatal crashes to determine what factors may be inhibiting further progress. The workshop then discussed 8 effective strategies that have not been fully implemented in the United States. Workshop participants (16 of the 26) rated their top 3 strategies. 3 strategies received the most support: 1. Impose administrative sanctions for drivers with BACs = 0.05 to 0.08 g/dL. 2. Require alcohol ignition interlocks for all alcohol-impaired driving offenders. 3. Increase the frequency of sobriety checkpoints, including enacting legislation to allow them in the 11 states that currently prohibit them. 5 other

  17. Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R

    2014-01-01

    In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of recidivism. Non-specific indirect alcohol markers, such as alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate amino transferase and red cell mean corpuscular volume have minimal added value to % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for distinguishing drunk drivers with a low or high risk of recidivism. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Low levels of alcohol impair driving simulator performance and reduce perception of crash risk in partially sleep deprived subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Siobhan; Catcheside, Peter; Lack, Leon; Grunstein, Ron R; McEvoy, R Doug

    2004-09-15

    Partial sleep deprivation and alcohol consumption are a common combination, particularly among young drivers. We hypothesized that while low blood alcohol concentration (sleep deprivation and low blood alcohol concentration would cause significant performance impairment. Experimental Sleep Disorders Unit Laboratory 20 healthy volunteers (mean age 22.8 years; 9 men). Subjects underwent driving simulator testing at 1 am on 2 nights a week apart. On the night preceding simulator testing, subjects were partially sleep deprived (5 hours in bed). Alcohol consumption (2-3 standard alcohol drinks over 2 hours) was randomized to 1 of the 2 test nights, and blood alcohol concentrations were estimated using a calibrated Breathalyzer. During the driving task subjects were monitored continuously with electroencephalography for sleep episodes and were prompted every 4.5 minutes for answers to 2 perception scales-performance and crash risk. Mean blood alcohol concentration on the alcohol night was 0.035 +/- 0.015 g/dL. Compared with conditions during partial sleep deprivation alone, subjects had more microsleeps, impaired driving simulator performance, and poorer ability to predict crash risk in the combined partial sleep deprivation and alcohol condition. Women predicted crash risk more accurately than did men in the partial sleep deprivation condition, but neither men nor women predicted the risk accurately in the sleep deprivation plus alcohol condition. Alcohol at legal blood alcohol concentrations appears to increase sleepiness and impair performance and the detection of crash risk following partial sleep deprivation. When partially sleep deprived, women appear to be either more perceptive of increased crash risk or more willing to admit to their driving limitations than are men. Alcohol eliminated this behavioral difference.

  19. CDC Vital Signs: Drinking and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resulting in nearly 11,000 deaths in 2009. Driving drunk is never OK. Choose not to drink and ... interlocks prevent drivers who were convicted of alcohol-impaired driving from operating their vehicles if they have been ...

  20. Assessment of older driver performance under low level alcohol impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This report summarizes the outcomes, to date, of the work undertaken to examine : the effects of low level alcohol impairment, especially for older drivers, based on : on-road driving studies. Some of the questions the project initially sought answer...

  1. Investigating the decision-making processes that contribute to impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol-impaired (AI) driving continues to cause a disproportionate number of fatalities within the college and : young adult populations, indicating optimal prevention programs for AI driving have yet to be developed. The : current study tested the ...

  2. How can repeat drunk drivers be influenced to change? Analysis of the association between drunk driving and DUI recidivists' attitudes and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael D; Morral, Andrew R; Jain, Arvind K

    2004-07-01

    Public policy interventions designed to deter or prevent drunk driving depend, in part, on modifying beliefs concerning the riskiness, social acceptability and immorality of driving under the influence of alcohol. The current study examines the association of these beliefs with the incidence of alcohol-impaired driving. Interviews were conducted with 273 people with multiple driving under the influence (DUI) offenses. Data included self-reported frequency of driving after drinking in the past year, as well as measures of moral and prescriptive beliefs concerning alcohol-impaired driving (internal behavioral controls), perceived risks of criminal punishment and accidents associated with alcohol-impaired driving (external behavioral controls) and perceived peer group attitudes toward alcohol-impaired driving (social controls). Logit regression modeling showed significant, unique protective associations with behavioral control items in each category. Behavioral controls may protect against alcohol-impaired driving behavior even in a high-risk sample of repeat DUI offenders. Policy interventions designed to curtail drunk driving might seek to enhance these sorts of behavioral controls among DUI offenders.

  3. 77 FR 72677 - National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... involving drunk, drugged, or distracted driving claim thousands of lives, leaving families to face the... or drunk driving, and we rededicate ourselves to preventing it this December and throughout the year... National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A...

  4. 76 FR 76023 - National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Though we have made progress in the fight to reduce drunk driving, our Nation continues to suffer... to effect change and work to end drunk, drugged, and distracted driving in America. In our homes and...

  5. 78 FR 73373 - National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... ourselves to saving lives and eliminating drunk, drugged, and distracted driving. Impaired drivers are... tools and training to decrease drunk and drugged driving. We are designing effective, targeted... Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2013 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register...

  6. Prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers based on random breath tests in a roadside survey in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Guillén, Montserrat; Santolino, Miguel; Sánchez-Moscona, Daniel; Llatje, Oscar; Ramon, Lluís

    2014-04-01

    Sobriety checkpoints are not usually randomly located by traffic authorities. As such, information provided by non-random alcohol tests cannot be used to infer the characteristics of the general driving population. In this paper a case study is presented in which the prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving is estimated for the general population of drivers. A stratified probabilistic sample was designed to represent vehicles circulating in non-urban areas of Catalonia (Spain), a region characterized by its complex transportation network and dense traffic around the metropolis of Barcelona. Random breath alcohol concentration tests were performed during spring 2012 on 7596 drivers. The estimated prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers was 1.29%, which is roughly a third of the rate obtained in non-random tests. Higher rates were found on weekends (1.90% on Saturdays and 4.29% on Sundays) and especially at night. The rate is higher for men (1.45%) than for women (0.64%) and it shows an increasing pattern with age. In vehicles with two occupants, the proportion of alcohol-impaired drivers is estimated at 2.62%, but when the driver was alone the rate drops to 0.84%, which might reflect the socialization of drinking habits. The results are compared with outcomes in previous surveys, showing a decreasing trend in the prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Drunk driving among novice drivers, possible prevention with additional psychological module in driving school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eensoo, Diva; Paaver, Marika; Harro, Jaanus

    2011-01-01

    Road traffic collisions caused by drunk driving pose a significant public health problem all over the world. Therefore additional preventive activities against drunk driving should be worked out. The aim of the study was to assess drunk driving in novice drivers after a psychological intervention taking into account also impulsivity, law obedience, and alcohol-related measures. An intervention study was started with 1889 car driver's license attempters during their driving school studies. Subjects were classified as intervention group (n=1083, mean age 23.1 (SD=7.4) years), control group (n=517, mean age 22.8 (SD=7.1) years) and "lost" group (n=289, mean age 23.0 (SD=6.9) years). "Lost" group subjects had been assigned into the intervention group, but they did not participate in the intervention. Subjects of the intervention group participated in a psychological intervention on the dangers of impulsive behavior in traffic. After a three year follow-up period it appeared that in the control group and in the lost group there was a significantly higher proportion of drunk drivers than in the intervention group, 3.3% (n=17), 3.5% (n=10) and 1.5% (n=10) (p=0.026), respectively. Survival analysis confirmed that psychological intervention had a significant impact on drunk driving (p=0.015), and the impact of the intervention was persistent also in the case of higher scores in Mild social deviance. In subjects with higher scores in impulsivity measures and alcohol-related problems the impact of short psychological intervention was not sufficient for preventing drunk driving. It can be concluded that psychological intervention used during the driving school studies is an effective primary prevention activity against drunk driving. However, for drivers with high scores in impulsivity measures and alcohol-related problems, the short psychological intervention is not sufficient in reducing drunk driving behavior.

  8. Emergency department charges for evaluating minimally injured alcohol-impaired drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael H; Mello, Michael J; Reinert, Steven

    2009-10-01

    The literature on the costs of treating alcohol-impaired motor vehicle crash victims is largely based on inpatient data. Less is known about the more frequent emergency department (ED) evaluations for those who are discharged home. Our objective is to measure the difference in charges and length of stay between alcohol-impaired and nonimpaired drivers in this population. This was a retrospective study of charts and billing data for all drivers in motor vehicle crashes, aged 21 to 65 years, treated at an urban Level I trauma center in 2005 and discharged home from the ED. Patients were divided into alcohol-positive and -negative groups according to alcohol level, documentation of recent alcohol use, or clinical intoxication. Itemized charges were tabulated and compared across groups. Of 1,618 eligible patients, median charges were higher for alcohol-positive patients by $4,538 (95% confidence interval [CI] $2,755 to $5,665). Imaging was 69% of the charge differential because of a higher frequency of imaging (91% versus 70%) and more expensive studies (median difference $2,464; 95% CI $1,507 to $3,400) for alcohol-positive patients. Median length of stay was higher for alcohol-positive patients by 3.3 hours (95% CI 2.7 to 4.1 hours). When stratified by trauma-protocoled triage destination, median charges were higher for alcohol-positive versus -negative patients in non-critical care beds by $2,229 (95% CI $1,039 to $2,693). For patients triaged to critical care beds, the difference in charges was only $132 (95% CI -$1,677 to $1,233). The presence of alcohol substantially increased charges and length of stay for ED evaluations of injured drivers discharged home, especially for patients who were triaged to non-critical care beds. The magnitudes are striking for this minimally injured population and represent an underreported burden of alcohol-impaired driving.

  9. Don’t Drink and Drive (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    Nearly one-third of fatalities in car crashes are caused by alcohol-impaired driving. In this podcast, Amy Jewett discusses the dangers of alcohol-impaired driving.  Created: 8/6/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  10. A social network analysis of alcohol-impaired drivers in Maryland : an egocentric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the personal, household, and social structural attributes of alcoholimpaired : drivers in Maryland. The study used an egocentric approach of social network : analysis. This approach concentrated on specific actors (alcohol-impaire...

  11. Using vehicle-based sensors of driver behavior to detect alcohol impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    Despite persistent efforts at the local, state, : and federal levels, alcohol-impaired crashes : still contribute to approximately 30% of all : traffic fatalities. Although enforcement and : educational approaches have helped to : reduce alcohol-impa...

  12. 75 FR 75845 - National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... property in a moment. This reckless behavior not only includes drunk driving, but also the growing problem... dedicated to strengthening efforts against drunk, drugged, and distracted driving. To lead by example, we... Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is also sponsoring the campaign, ``Drunk Driving...

  13. Educational Biofeedback Driving Simulator as a Drink-Driving Prevention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howat, Peter; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Used experimental driving simulator as basis for strategy to encourage a reduction in drunk driving prevalence using adult male subjects (n=36) who participated in a study group and controls (n=36). Results indicated study group subjects significantly decreased their drunk driving compared to the control group. (ABL)

  14. 3 CFR 8461 - Proclamation 8461 of December 2, 2009. National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... drugs poses the same risks as drunk driving, and we must do more to stop this growing epidemic. Families... Traffic Safety Administration is again sponsoring the campaign known as “Drunk Driving. Over the Limit... Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2009 8461 Proclamation 8461 Presidential Documents Proclamations...

  15. Assessing the Effects of Grass Roots Drunk Driving Prevention Programs: First Facts. Report from the Drunk Driving Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerleider, Steven; And Others

    While drunk driving has become widely recognized as a serious social problem with deadly consequences, no systematic research has been undertaken to identify the principal components of service delivery programs offered by citizen action groups in the drinking and driving movement. Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), founded in 1980, now has a…

  16. The relationship between impaired driving crashes and beliefs about impaired driving: do residents in high crash rate counties have greater concerns about impaired driving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Yan, Alice F; Wang, Min Qi; Kerns, Timothy J; Burch, Cynthia A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between impaired driving crashes and public beliefs and concerns about impaired driving across each of Maryland's twenty-four counties (including Baltimore City). It was hypothesized that residents of counties that experience higher impaired driving crashes would express more concerns about impaired driving and perceive more risks about driving impaired than residents of counties that have lower rates of impaired driving. Data for alcohol impaired driving crashes were obtained for the years 2004-2006. These data were compared to public opinion data that was obtained annually by random-digit-dial telephone surveys from 2004 to 2007. Concerns about drunk driving as well as perceptions of the likelihood of being stopped by the police if one were to drive after having too much to drink were related to counties with higher serious impaired driving crash rates, as were perceptions that the police and the legal system were too lenient. Perceptions about the likelihood of being stopped by the police were higher in those counties with more impaired driving enforcement activity. Perceptions of concern appear to be shaped more by crash exposure than enforcement activity. Campaigns that address impaired driving prevention should substantially increase enforcement, strengthen the adjudication process of impaired drivers, and emphasize the potential seriousness of drinking-driving crashes in their promotional activities.

  17. Preventing distracted driving among college students: Addressing smartphone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Sahar; Kelly, Erin H; Smith, Jennifer; Thorpe, Sara; Sozzer, Fatima H; Atchley, Paul; Sullivan, Elroy; Larson, Dean; Vogel, Lawrence C

    2017-02-01

    Based on the National Highway Traffic Safety Association's (NHTSA) Report, fatalities due to distracted driving are on the rise and the highest proportion of fatalities by age group is the 20-29 year old category. To date little has been done to educate college students about the dangers of distracted driving and engage these students in promoting a safe driving culture. Intervening among college students has the potential for making real-time behavior change, can foster a lifetime of safe driving habits among these students, and can help contribute to a culture of safe driving that can be created and sustained through positive messages from peers. The goals of this study were to develop, implement and evaluate a distracted driving presentation for college students to change knowledge, attitude and behavior on distracted driving. A 30-min, multi-media presentation on distracted driving was presented to 19 colleges and universities, totaling 444 college students (mean age 23.7±7.0 years of age, 61% females, 39% males). Students completed three surveys: prior to the workshop (interview 1), immediately after the workshop (interview 2), and 3 months following the workshop (interview 3). We assessed changes between interview 1 and interview 2 and found 15 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions significantly improved after the course. In addition, we assessed changes from interviews 1 and 3, and found 11 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions maintained their significance. Responses to behavior related questions at three months were also compared to baseline, and significant improvements were found for 12 of the 14 questions. While this study was successful in improving the short-term attitude-knowledge and behaviors on distracted driving, work is needed to sustain (and evaluate) long-term effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Quality and Accuracy of Mobile Apps to Prevent Driving After Drinking Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hollie; Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Gandabhai, Shailen; Baldwin, Alexander

    2016-08-08

    Driving after the consumption of alcohol represents a significant problem globally. Individual prevention countermeasures such as personalized mobile app aimed at preventing such behavior are widespread, but there is little research on their accuracy and evidence base. There has been no known assessment investigating the quality of such apps. This study aimed to determine the quality and accuracy of apps for drink driving prevention by conducting a review and evaluation of relevant mobile apps. A systematic app search was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. App quality was assessed using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Apps providing blood alcohol calculators (hereafter "calculators") were reviewed against current alcohol advice for accuracy. A total of 58 apps (30 iOS and 28 Android) met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Drink driving prevention apps had significantly lower engagement and overall quality scores than alcohol management apps. Most calculators provided conservative blood alcohol content (BAC) time until sober calculations. None of the apps had been evaluated to determine their efficacy in changing either drinking or driving behaviors. This novel study demonstrates that most drink driving prevention apps are not engaging and lack accuracy. They could be improved by increasing engagement features, such as gamification. Further research should examine the context and motivations for using apps to prevent driving after drinking in at-risk populations. Development of drink driving prevention apps should incorporate evidence-based information and guidance, lacking in current apps.

  19. User interface considerations to prevent self-driving carsickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Self-driving cars have the potential to bring significant benefits to drivers and society at large. However, all envisaged scenarios are predicted to increase the risk of motion sickness. This will negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and hence negate the benefits of this technology. Here we

  20. Addressing alcohol-impaired driving : training physicians to detect and counsel their patients who drink heavily

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Alcohol is the most common chronic disease in trauma patients, and one of the most common in patients treated in primary care. Studies have shown that brief counseling intervention in trauma centers and primary care clinics are efficient in reducing ...

  1. Drinking and Driving – What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-04

    This 60 second PSA is based on the October, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Drinking and driving is still a serious problem. Crashes involving alcohol-impaired drivers kill nearly 11,000 people each year. If you’re drinking, designate a non-drinking driver before you start, call a cab, or get a ride home. Also, always wear your seat belt. Seat belts reduce the risk of serious injuries and death in a crash by 50 percent.  Created: 10/4/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/4/2011.

  2. Drinking and Driving – What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-04

    This podcast is based on the October, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Drinking and driving is still a serious problem. Crashes involving alcohol-impaired drivers kill nearly 11,000 people each year. If you’re drinking, designate a non-drinking driver before you start, call a cab, or get a ride home. Also, always wear your seat belt. Seat belts reduce the risk of serious injuries and death in a crash by 50 percent.  Created: 10/4/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/4/2011.

  3. December 1993 National Drunk and Drugged Driving (3D) Prevention Month: Program Planner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This program planner's kit is based on the experiences of the first 12 years of the National Drunk and Drugged Driving (3D) Prevention Month program and provides practical advice to help readers plan activities for this year's campaign. Included in the kit is a background and resource guide that explains the background and goals of the program and…

  4. Stakeholders' opinions on a future in-vehicle alcohol detection system for prevention of drunk driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anund, Anna; Antonson, Hans; Ihlström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    There is a common understanding that driving under the influence of alcohol is associated with higher risk of being involved in crashes with injuries and possible fatalities as the outcome. Various countermeasures have therefore from time to time been taken by the authorities to prevent drunk driving. One of them has been the alcohol interlock. Up to now, interlocks have mainly been used by previously convicted drunk drivers and in the commercial road transport sector, but not in private cars. New technology has today reached a level where broader implementation might be possible. To our knowledge, however, little is known about different stakeholders' opinions of a broader implementation of such systems. In order to increase that knowledge, we conducted a focus group study to collect in-depth thoughts from different stakeholders on this topic. Eight focus groups representing a broad societal span were recruited and conducted for the purpose. The results show that most stakeholders thought that an integrated system for alcohol detection in vehicles might be beneficial in lowering the number of drunk driving crashes. They said that the system would probably mainly prevent driving by people who unintentionally and unknowingly drive under the influence of alcohol. The groups did, however, not regard the system as a final solution to the drunk driving problem, and believed that certain groups, such as criminals and alcoholics, would most likely find a way around the system. Concerns were raised about the risk of increased sleepy driving and driving just under the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit. The results also indicate that stakeholders preferred a system that provides information on the BAC up to the legal limit, but not for levels above the limit; for those, the system should simply prevent the car from starting. Acceptance of the system depended on the reliability of the system, on its ability to perform fast sampling, and on the analytical process

  5. Blood alcohol analysis alone versus comprehensive toxicological analysis - Systematic investigation of missed co-ingested other drugs in suspected alcohol-impaired drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Andrea E; Eisenbeiss, Lisa; Kraemer, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs (DUID) is a safety issue of increasing public concern. When a police officer has reasonable grounds to classify a driver as impaired, he may arrange for a blood sample to be taken. In many countries, alcohol analysis only is ordered if impairment is suspected to be exclusively due to alcohol while comprehensive toxicological screening will be performed if additional suspicion for other illegal drugs of abuse (DoA) or medicinal drugs is on hand. The aim of the present study was firstly to evaluate whether signs of impairment can be differentiated to be caused by alcohol alone or a combination of alcohol and other driving-impairing drugs and secondly to which extent additional drugs are missed in suspected alcohol-impaired drivers. A total of 293 DUID cases (negative n=41; alcohol positive only, n=131; alcohol+active drug positive, n=121) analyzed in 2015 in the Canton of Zurich were evaluated for their documented impairment symptoms by translating these into a severity score and comparing them applying principle component analysis (PCA). Additional 500 cases suspected for alcohol-impaired driving only were reanalyzed using comprehensive LC-MS/MS screening methods covering about 1500 compounds. Drugs detected were classified for severity of driving impairment using the classification system established in the DRUID study of the European Commission. As partly expected from the pharmacological and toxicological point of view, PCA analysis revealed no differences between signs of impairment caused by alcohol alone and those caused by alcohol plus at least one active drug. Breaking it down to different blood alcohol concentration ranges, only between 0.3 and 0.5g/kg trends could be observed in terms of more severe impairment for combined alcohol and drug intake. In the 500 blood samples retrospectively analyzed in this study, a total of 330 additional drugs could be detected; in some cases up to 9 co-ingested ones. In

  6. Motivational factors associated with drowsy driving behavior: a qualitative investigation of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Lee, Clark J; Weiner, Talia

    2018-02-01

    This qualitative investigation sought to identify the motivational factors that contribute to drowsy driving in college students and to discover important messaging strategies that may help prevent or reduce this behavior in this population. Four focus groups of college students. A large university in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area during the Fall 2016 term. Twenty-six undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Notes and transcripts from the focus group sessions were analyzed to identify recurring themes regarding attitudes, motivations, experiences, influences, and potential preventive messaging strategies related to drowsy driving. Although most participants had heard of drowsy driving and were concerned about it, they did not associate it with legal risks and were more concerned about alcohol-impaired and distracted driving as crash risks. Participants viewed drowsy driving as a normal and unavoidable part of their lives over which they had little control. For potential anti-drowsy driving messaging strategies, participants preferred messages delivered via audiovisual or social media that featured graphic and emotional portrayals of crashes and their consequences. Participants also voiced strong support for preventive messaging strategies equating various degrees of sleep deprivation to known impairing levels of alcohol, as well as messages providing cues to action to actual drowsy drivers on roadways. Increased enforcement, education, and public messaging campaigns are needed to increase knowledge and influence attitudes and opinions among young drivers about the dangers and social unacceptability of drowsy driving. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Prevention of drink driving at academic festivals: «Tú decides» project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malveiro, Jorge; de Jesus, Saul Neves; Viseo, Joao; Pechorro, Pedro; Pacheco, Eusébio; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador; Lima-Serrano, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among university students has reached worrying levels, its effects on driving being highly dangerous. This aspect emphasizes the need to develop prevention programs, intended to raise subjects' awareness about the effects of alcohol on driving. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention program «Tú decides», implemented at the Algarve University during several students festivals, between 2010-2014. Quasi-experimental study, pre-post test without control group. A total of 5,079 participants were inquired. They were asked, at two different moments, before and after the measurement of the blood alcohol level and giving an information session with technical recommendations to prevent driving under alcohol effects. One factor ANOVA test used, in order to perform a mean comparison, as well as the Chi-square statistics, to perform a proportion comparison (p<.05). It was found that the intention to drive was lower at the second moment (42.1%) (χ(2)=2078.71; p=.000). This intention was influenced by blood alcohol level different levels (χ(2)=338.252; p=.000), gender (χ(2)=35.718; p=.000), age (χ(2)=62.805; p=.000) and professional situation of the participants (χ(2)=27.397; p=.001). We can affirm that the main objective of this intervention was achieved, since the participants followed the technical recommendations based on the blood alcohol level results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Fat Body Cells Are Motile and Actively Migrate to Wounds to Drive Repair and Prevent Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Anna; Wood, Will; Martin, Paul

    2018-02-26

    Adipocytes have many functions in various tissues beyond energy storage, including regulating metabolism, growth, and immunity. However, little is known about their role in wound healing. Here we use live imaging of fat body cells, the equivalent of vertebrate adipocytes in Drosophila, to investigate their potential behaviors and functions following skin wounding. We find that pupal fat body cells are not immotile, as previously presumed, but actively migrate to wounds using an unusual adhesion-independent, actomyosin-driven, peristaltic mode of motility. Once at the wound, fat body cells collaborate with hemocytes, Drosophila macrophages, to clear the wound of cell debris; they also tightly seal the epithelial wound gap and locally release antimicrobial peptides to fight wound infection. Thus, fat body cells are motile cells, enabling them to migrate to wounds to undertake several local functions needed to drive wound repair and prevent infections. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring the Drinking/Driving Behaviors and Attitudes of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, E. Scott

    While there is little research specifically dealing with college students and drunk driving, there is ample evidence of frequent, heavy drinking by students. A series of projects was undertaken to explore college students' drinking behavior and attitudes related to alcohol-impaired driving. These projects included: (1) analysis of behavioral…

  10. 23 CFR 1313.4 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING PREVENTION PROGRAMS § 1313.4 General requirements. (a) Qualification requirements... enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving prevention programs in § 1313.6 and other associated costs permitted... certification that it has an alcohol-impaired driving prevention program that meets the requirements of 23 U.S.C...

  11. A simplified method of preventing implant hex drive from aspiration or accidental swallowing during stage two implant recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnaditya, Akurati; Ravuri, Srinivas; Tadi, Durga Prasad; Kandregula, Chaitanya Ram; Kopuri, Rajkumar Chowdary; Pentakota, Venkata Girish

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To prevent accidental ingestion of implant hex dive. Materials and Methods: Dental floss which is used to stabilize the hex drive is tied to the operator's finger ring to overcome sudden aspiration of fallen instrument. Results: It showed excellent grip of the instrument during stage two uncover time and also saved operators time. Conclusions: Accidental aspiration or swallowing of the dental instruments during routine implant surgeries can be prevented by tying the implant instru...

  12. Individual Interventions To Prevent Drunk Driving: Types, Efficacy, and a Theorectical Persepctive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Elsie R.; Compton, Kristi L.

    2000-01-01

    College students (N=100) who had tried to stop someone from driving while drunk, or who someone had tried to stop, provided information about their interactions. Results suggest that the manner in which people intervene can affect the likelihood that the impaired person will not drive. Threat of competence is discussed, as are implications for…

  13. The blind spot in the drive for childhood obesity prevention: bringing eating disorders prevention into focus as a public health priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn

    2011-06-01

    Public health attention to childhood obesity has increased in tandem with the growing epidemic, but despite this intense focus, successes in prevention have lagged far behind. There is a blind spot in our drive for childhood obesity prevention that prevents us from generating sufficiently broad solutions. Eating disorders and the constellation of perilous weight-control behaviors are in that blind spot. Evidence is mounting that obesity and eating disorders are linked in myriad ways, but entrenched myths about eating disorders undermine our ability to see the full range of leverage points to target in obesity preventive intervention studies. Our efforts to prevent childhood obesity can no longer afford to ignore eating disorders and the assemblage of related behaviors that persist unabated.

  14. 75 FR 53369 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... more widespread use of unobtrusive technology to prevent drunk driving''. The goal of this research... people were killed in alcohol-impaired- driving crashes. Drivers are considered to be alcohol-impaired... alcohol-impaired-driving fatalities accounted for 32 percent of the total motor vehicle traffic fatalities...

  15. The role of sensation seeking, perceived peer pressure, and harmful alcohol use in riding with an alcohol-impaired driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hong; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol-related motor vehicle collisions have been the top of policy agenda for more than three decades in Korea. Despite implementation of various traffic safety measures, some drivers' alcohol use and abuse has resulted in a high number of alcohol-impaired traffic fatalities every year. This paper presents the association of theoretical factors with behavior of riding with an alcohol-impaired driver (RAID) among all age groups in the Korean adult sample. The theoretical factors of the drivers are personality factor, socio-psychological factor, and alcohol-related behavioral risk factor. We utilized national survey data from 1007 respondents consisting of 703 males and 304 females aged 20-66 collected by Korean Institute of Criminology (KIC) to test our theorized model. Our results indicated that there were three major predictors of RAID involvement: sensation seeking propensity, perceived peer pressure, and frequent harmful drinking. Overall, prediction of RAID behavior by gender was mediated entirely through these predictors. The issue of males' higher risk of RAID involvements was addressed for effective communication strategies such as campaigns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Driving intoxicated: is hospital admission protective against legal ramifications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Susannah Mary; Murry, Jason Steven; Truitt, Michael Seth; Dunn, Ernest Lewis

    2013-12-01

    According to the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in 2010, 10,228 people were killed in alcohol-impaired driving crashes. Daily, intoxicated drivers are seen in trauma centers across the country. At our trauma center, we sought to determine the number of drivers who had a documented elevation in their blood alcohol content (BAC) and compare this with county police records to evaluate how many charges for driving while intoxicated (DWI) were issued. A retrospective chart review was performed for trauma admissions during a 3-year period. Patients with a BAC of less than 0.08 g/dL were excluded. Only documented drivers were included. This group of intoxicated drivers was then compared against public records from the Dallas County for any record of a charge of DWI. During a 3-year period, from 2009 to 2011, 118 drivers had a confirmed BAC above the legal limit of 0.08 g/dL. Average BAC level was 0.218 g/dL. Injuries varied widely between patients with an average Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 11. Extremity fractures were seen in 27%, facial fractures were seen in 16%, and intracranial hemorrhage was seen in 7%. Forty-eight percent of the patients were admitted to the intensive care unit initially, with an average length of intensive care unit stay of 1.5 days (range, 0-25 days). Only 18% of our patients (21) received a charge of DWI. Four patients were charge with related offenses. A motor vehicle accident may be protective against the legal ramifications of drinking and driving. Less than 20% of patients who were driving under the influence incurred any legal repercussion. Deterrents that prevent law enforcement from being able to obtain evidence needed for prosecution should be eliminated. Health care providers and law enforcement agencies should work as a team to help mitigate the incidence of drunk driving and its burden on society. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  17. Reinforcing Alcohol Prevention (RAP) Program: A Secondary School Curriculum to Combat Underage Drinking and Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Kelli England; Sabo, Cynthia Shier

    2010-01-01

    The Reinforcing Alcohol Prevention (RAP) Program is an alcohol prevention curriculum developed in partnership with secondary schools to serve their need for a brief, evidence-based, and straightforward program that aligned with state learning objectives. Program components included an educational lesson, video, and interactive activities delivered…

  18. Roof Deformation, Failure Characteristics, and Preventive Techniques of Gob-Side Entry Driving Heading Adjacent to the Advancing Working Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jian-biao; Shen, Wen-long; Guo, Guan-long; Wang, Xiang-yu; Yu, Yang

    2015-11-01

    In mining excavation, the roof bending subsidence of gob-side entry driving heading adjacent to the advancing working face (HAWF) can be considerable. Influenced by the original rock pressure, the front and lateral abutment pressure of the adjacent working face, and the front abutment pressure of the current working face, the support body can easily fail, leading to serious instability of the rock mass surrounding the tunnel. To study the stress state and the deformation failure mechanism of the HAWF roof structure, we use on-site survey data, numerical simulation, and theoretical calculations to fit the spatial distribution law of mining abutment pressure piecewise, and establish a dynamic mechanical model of the roof structure. We then propose a roof failure criterion and examine the roof flexure deformation behavioral pattern. We found that the central part of the roof is the main point that controls the surrounding rock. To prevent the deformation and collapse of the roof and rock surrounding the tunnel, we propose techniques that can be applied to HAWF gob-side entry driving, including setting the coal pillar width, the driving stop and restart timing, and other control concepts.

  19. What drives successful implementation of pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategy? The role of innovative capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupendra, Kumar Verma; Sangle, Shirish

    2015-05-15

    Firms that are dynamic and prepared to implement environmental strategies have a potential competitive advantage over their industry counterparts. Therefore, it is important to understand, what capabilities are required to implement proactive environmental strategies. The paper discusses the attributes of innovative capability required by firms in order to adopt pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategies. Empirical results show that process and behavioral innovativeness are required by firms to implement a pollution prevention strategy. In addition to process and behavioral innovativeness, firms need a top management with high risk-taking ability as well as market, product, and strategic innovativeness to implement a cleaner technology strategy. The paper proposes some important managerial implications on the basis of the above research findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Is vehicle automation enough to prevent crashes? Role of traffic operations in automated driving environments for traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol; Lee, Seolyoung

    2017-07-01

    Automated driving systems (ADSs) are expected to prevent traffic accidents caused by driver carelessness on freeways. There is no doubt regarding this safety benefit if all vehicles in the transportation system were equipped with ADSs; however, it is implausible to expect that ADSs will reach 100% market penetration rate (MPR) in the near future. Therefore, the following question arises: 'Can ADSs, which consider only situations in the vicinity of an equipped vehicle, really contribute to a significant reduction in traffic accidents?' To address this issue, the interactions between equipped and unequipped vehicles must be investigated, which is the purpose of this study. This study evaluated traffic safety at different MPRs based on a proposed index to represent the overall rear-end crash risk of the traffic stream. Two approaches were evaluated for adjusting longitudinal vehicle maneuvers: vehicle safety-based maneuvering (VSM), which considers the crash risk of an equipped vehicle and its neighboring vehicles, and traffic safety-based maneuvering (TSM), which considers the overall crash risk in the traffic stream. TSM assumes that traffic operational agencies are able to monitor all the vehicles and to intervene in vehicle maneuvering. An optimization process, which attempts to obtain vehicle maneuvering control parameters to minimize the overall crash risk, is integrated into the proposed evaluation framework. The main purpose of employing the optimization process for vehicle maneuvering in this study is to identify opportunities to improve traffic safety through effective traffic management rather than developing a vehicle control algorithm that can be implemented in practice. The microscopic traffic simulator VISSIM was used to simulate the freeway traffic stream and to conduct systematic evaluations based on the proposed methodology. Both TSM and VSM achieved significant reductions in the potential for rear-end crashes. However, TSM obtained much greater

  1. Information Security Analysis: A Study to Analyze the Extent to Which Information Security Systems Can Be Utilized to Prevent Intoxicated Individuals from Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph D.

    2011-01-01

    Information security systems (ISS) have been designed to protect assets from damages and from unauthorized access internally as well as externally. This research is promising similar protection from ISS methods that could prevent intoxicated individuals under the influence of alcohol from driving. However, previous research has shown significant…

  2. A comparison of drivers with high versus low perceived risk of being caught and arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Fell, James C; Yan, Alice F

    2009-08-01

    To examine the beliefs, behaviors, and knowledge of drivers concerning drunk driving and to compare those with greater or lesser perceptions of risk of being caught driving while impaired. A random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted of 850 licensed drivers throughout Maryland who reported their driving behaviors, crash history, beliefs about various alcohol countermeasures, and their knowledge of state alcohol laws. Most drivers (72%) did not feel that it was very likely that they would be stopped by the police if they drove after having too much to drink (low-risk perceivers). High-risk perceivers (28%) felt that it was very likely that they would be stopped and most (70%) felt that it was very likely that they would be arrested and convicted. Less than half (45%) of the low-risk perceivers felt that they would be arrested and convicted if they drove impaired. High-risk perceivers were significantly more likely to be non-white, less likely to drive 10 mph above the speed limit, but were more likely have five or more tickets in their lifetime and believed that sobriety checkpoints are effective. They were also more aware of laws regarding mandatory use of ignition interlocks for repeat driving under the influence (DUI) offenders and the zero tolerance law for under-21-year-old drivers. There is a need to elevate the perceived risk of being caught when driving while alcohol impaired. Despite several years of prevention programs, a substantial portion of Maryland drivers do not feel it very likely that they would be stopped by the police if they were to drive after drinking too much. Drivers who perceive these risks are more accepting of enforcement and treatment countermeasures and are more likely to report safer driving behaviors.

  3. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: “Just Hang Up and Drive”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Kahn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as “distracted driving.” The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR article “Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011” highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011 estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15-19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family.

  4. 75 FR 25033 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... represent different State approaches to managing drunk driving. As indicated above, all participants will be... alcohol detection technology designed to prevent alcohol-impaired driving. Information from this phase of..., almost 12,000 people died in vehicle crashes due to alcohol-impaired driving. In a continuing effort to...

  5. 77 FR 22843 - Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... of unobtrusive technology to prevent drunk driving.'' The goal of the Driver Alcohol Detection System...: Revision. Abstract: In a continuing effort to reduce the adverse consequences of alcohol-impaired driving... technologies could help to significantly reduce the number of alcohol- impaired driving crashes, deaths and...

  6. 78 FR 37276 - Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... associated with a more widespread use of unobtrusive technology to prevent drunk driving.'' The goal of the... alcohol-impaired driving, NHTSA in conjunction with the Automotive Coalition for Traffic Safety (ACTS) is... alcohol detection technologies could help to significantly reduce the number of alcohol- impaired driving...

  7. Caffeine antagonism of alcohol-induced driving impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, A; Robinson, J H

    2001-07-01

    The extent to which caffeine antagonizes alcohol-induced impairment of simulated automobile driving at the current lowest legal American limit (0.08% BrAC) was the focus of this study. Fifteen adults swallowed a capsule (0, 200, or 400 mg caffeine) then drank a beverage (0.0 or 0.6 g/kg ethanol) in a within-subject, double-blind, randomized procedure. Forty-five minutes later, participants completed a test battery of subjective effects scales, dynamic posturography, critical flicker fusion (CFF), choice reaction time (CRT), divided attention (Stroop test), and simulated driving. Alcohol alone increased ratings of 'dizzy', 'drug effect', and 'high', slowed CRT and brake latency, and increased body sway. Caffeine alone increased ratings of 'alert' and 'jittery', but did not significantly affect body sway or psychomotor performance. Both caffeine doses comparably counteracted alcohol impairment of brake latency but not CRT or body sway. Brake latency with either alcohol-caffeine combination remained significantly longer than that with placebo. Stroop and CFF performance were unaffected by any drug condition. The results suggest that caffeine may increase alertness and improve reaction time after alcohol use but will not completely counteract alcohol impairment in a driver.

  8. Dementia & Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find the loss of driving privileges and the inherent loss of independence upsetting. Encourage the individual with ... to modify their driving. This can reduce the risk of an accident if the individual’s driving skills ...

  9. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  10. The need for drugged driving per se laws: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L; Voas, Robert B; Walsh, J Michael; Shea, Corinne; Talpins, Stephen K; Neil, Mark M

    2012-01-01

    Triggered by the new federal commitment announced by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONCDP) to encourage states to enact drugged driving per se laws, this article reviews the reasons to establish such laws and the issues that may arise when trying to enforce them. A review of the state of drunk driving per se laws and their implications for drugged driving is presented, with a review of impaired driving enforcement procedures and drug testing technology. Currently, enforcement of drugged driving laws is an adjunct to the enforcement of laws regarding alcohol impairment. Drivers are apprehended when showing signs of alcohol intoxication and only in the relatively few cases where the blood alcohol concentration of the arrested driver does not account for the observed behavior is the possibility of drug impairment pursued. In most states, the term impaired driving covers both alcohol and drug impairment; thus, driver conviction records may not distinguish between the two different sources of impairment. As a result, enforcement statistics do not reflect the prevalence of drugged driving. Based on the analysis presented, this article recommends a number of steps that can be taken to evaluate current drugged driving enforcement procedures and to move toward the enactment of drug per se laws.

  11. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  12. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Koichi.

    1994-01-01

    In control rod drives, differential pressure sensors are disposed at the inlet and the exit of a driving water pressure control valve disposed in a driving water supply device and, when deviation of fluctuation of the differential pressure from a set value is detected, a pressure control valve for driving water is controlled so as to make the differential pressure constant. The differential pressure sensors detect the differential pressure between the pressure of the control rod drives at the inlet and the exit of the driving water pressure control valve and a pressure in a reactor dome. A judging circuit judges whether the differential pressure between both sides of the driving water pressure control valve is deviated from a set value or not and, if it deviates from the set value, outputs of judging signal to the control device. In the control device, the opening degree of the driving water pressure control valve is controlled, so that the differential pressure between both sides of the driving water pressure control value is constant and does not deviate from the set value. There are provided advantageous effects of preventing abnormal control rod withdrawing phenomenon to improve safety and reliability for the control of the reactor operation. (N.H.)

  13. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  14. Mitochondrial oxidative stress drives tumor progression and metastasis: should we use antioxidants as a key component of cancer treatment and prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotgia Federica

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The functional role of oxidative stress in cancer pathogenesis has long been a hotly debated topic. A study published this month in BMC Cancer by Goh et al., directly addresses this issue by using a molecular genetic approach, via an established mouse animal model of human breast cancer. More specifically, alleviation of mitochondrial oxidative stress, via transgenic over-expression of catalase (an anti-oxidant enzyme targeted to mitochondria, was sufficient to lower tumor grade (from high-to-low and to dramatically reduce metastatic tumor burden by >12-fold. Here, we discuss these new findings and place them in the context of several other recent studies showing that oxidative stress directly contributes to tumor progression and metastasis. These results have important clinical and translational significance, as most current chemo-therapeutic agents and radiation therapy increase oxidative stress, and, therefore, could help drive tumor recurrence and metastasis. Similarly, chemo- and radiation-therapy both increase the risk for developing a secondary malignancy, such as leukemia and/or lymphoma. To effectively reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress, medical oncologists should now re-consider the use of powerful anti-oxidants as a key component of patient therapy and cancer prevention. Please see related research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/11/191

  15. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  16. PUBLIC ATTITUDES, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONSEQUENCES OF DRINKING AND DRIVING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. DESAPRIYA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury is the ninth most common cause of premature death worldwide and the third most common cause of years lived with disability. Many early deaths are related to motor vehicle crashes (MVC's: each year, MVC's kill 1.2 million people (3,242 deaths/day and injure or disable 20–50 million more. The Global Burden of Disease Study, conducted in the early 1990s, predicted that traffic-related injuries will become the third largest contributor to global death and disability by the year 2020. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of traffic related injuries is of global health importance. The substantial effect of alcohol on road safety has long been recognized, and a variety of important initiatives to combat this problem have been introduced with some measurable success. Canadians have rated drinking and driving as one of the most important social issues facing them today, placing it ahead of other prominent issues, including health care, pollution, and the state of the economy. Two factors that have contributed strongly to motor vehicle injuries and fatalities in British Columbia (BC and Canada are alcohol-impaired driving and failure to use seat belts. Drivers who operated motor vehicles after drinking were less likely to wear seat belts, and so they continue to be a major traffic safety concern. When compared to restrained occupants, unrestrained occupants were almost 5 times more likely to die (Odds Ratios (OR 4.70, or be injured (OR 4.66. Fractures (OR 10.70, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 7.35–15.5, lacerations (OR 7.50, CI 5.55-10.15 bleeding (OR 7.14, CI 4.97–10.26 and concussions (OR 5.49, CI 2.71-11.12, were the more common types of injuries experienced by unrestrained occupants compared to the restrained occupants. Laws mandate the use of safety belts by motor vehicle occupants, and driving under the influence of alcohol is a generic term for a series of offences under the Canadian Criminal Code. Violation of

  17. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  18. Predictors of driving under the influence of alcohol among Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M J, Barlés Arizón; J J, Escario; J, Galbe Sánchez-Ventura

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the socio-economic determinants of alcohol-impaired drinking in Spanish adolescents. In particular, we are interested in analysing the impact of the family and school environment. To do it, we used the Spanish Survey on Drug Use in the School Population for the year 2008, carried out by the Spanish Government’s Delegation for the National Plan on Drugs. This survey with 30,183 students between 14 and 18 years of age (M = 15.6; SD = 1.17) constitutes a representative sample of the Spanish student population. Of these, 6.7% reported having driven under the influence of alcohol, this behaviour being more frequent among boys (10.6%) than girls (2.9%). Logistic regressions reveal that informative campaigns at school could significantly reduce the likelihood of alcohol-impaired driving (OR = 0.82), especially among males (OR = 0.73) and among younger students (OR = 0.66). Our results also suggest that although parents’ education has no significant impact, parent’s alcohol abuse increase notably the probability of driving after drinking (OR = 2.22 for mothers and OR = 2.81 for fathers).

  19. Deceleration buffer for hydraulic linear motion drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamrus, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    Braking of the motion of a fluid-actuated drive is provided by a buffer arrangement which is normally sealed to prevent vaporization of the fluid in a buffer cylinder and which isolates the drive piston rings from braking pressures

  20. Lessons learned from evaluating Maryland's anti-drunk driving campaign: assessing the evidence for cognitive, behavioral, and public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H

    2009-07-01

    The evidence concerning Maryland's anti-drunk driving program, Checkpoint Strikeforce, is reviewed. To date, there is no evidence to indicate that this campaign, which involves a number of sobriety checkpoints and media activities to promote these efforts, has had any impact on public perceptions, driver behaviors, or alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes and injuries. This conclusion is drawn after examining statistics for alcohol-related crashes, police citations for impaired driving, and public perceptions of alcohol-impaired driving risk. Comparisons are also made with other states in the mid-Atlantic region, where similar campaign activities have occurred. Reasons for this failure in Maryland include insufficient levels of enforcement (e.g., too few sobriety checkpoints and vehicle contacts occurred to raise public perceptions of risk pertaining to impaired driving) and inadequate publicity surrounding this campaign. Suggestions for overcoming these problems are offered.

  1. Methodology for determining motorcycle operator crash risk and alcohol impairment. Vol. 1, Synthesis report on alternative approaches with priorities for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Alcohol-involvement continues to be a prominent factor in motorcycle crashes. Automobile-driver drinking and driving has been researched extensively, and the relationship between drivers' blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) and crash risk is well-unde...

  2. Drowsy Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at least 8 hours. 8-9 Develop good sleeping habits such as sticking to a sleep schedule. If ... K, Howard ME. Cognitive components of simulated driving performance: sleep loss effects and predictors. Accid Anal Prev. 2012; ...

  3. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communities Toolkit Best Practices Guide Publications Motorcycle Safety Bicycle Safety Publications Global Road Safety Get Email Updates ... study. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety keeps track of distracted driving laws. 7 As of June ...

  4. Reduced Input Throw and High-speed Driving

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDowell, Kaleb; Paul, Victor; Alban, Jillyn

    2007-01-01

    .... In particular, drive-by-wire technology coupled with non-standard driving control devices have the potential to lead to improved driving performance, reduced Soldier training time, crash prevention...

  5. Driving things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2015-01-01

    . pp.155 ((http://www.infrastructure.gov.au/roads/safety/publications/2010/pdf/rsgr_2010001.pdf)) Nevile, M., Haddington, P., Heinemann, T., Rauniomaa, M. (Eds.) Interacting with objects: Language, materiality, and social activity. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Redshaw, S. (2008....... Interaction with objects reflects the car’s role beyond mere transport as a site of personal, social, and work life (Featherstone et al. 2005; Redshaw 2008). Studies of interaction examine this role as it is actually enacted, understood, and accomplished, in situ through participants’ practices (e.g. Laurier...... of in-car distractions, and how they impact driving activities (Nevile & Haddington 2010). Data are video recordings of ordinary journeys, capturing drivers and passengers in real-world real-time driving situations (27 hours, 90 journeys). For driving and road safety, research and experience has...

  6. Community Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    opportunity to break boundaries between research institutions and surrounding communities through the involvement of new types of actors, knowledge forms and institutions (OECD, 2011). This paper presents the project Community Drive a three year cross disciplinary community-driven game– and data-based project....... In the paper we present how the project Community Drive initiated in May 2018 is based on results from pilot projects conducted from 2014 – 2017. Overall these studies showed that it is a strong motivational factor for students to be given the task to change their living conditions through redesign...... of living in the area. The paper discusses potentials and pitfalls of designing community-driven science gaming environments and how results from previous studies can form the project Community Drive....

  7. Intention to Drive After Drinking Among Medical Students: Contributions of the Protection Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Ricardo Abrantes; Malbergier, André; Lima, Danielle Ruiz; Santos, Verena Castellani Vitor; Gorenstein, Clarice; Andrade, Arthur Guerra de

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cognitive variables proposed by the protection motivation theory (PMT) were predictive of occasional and frequent intention to drive after drinking in medical students. One hundred fifty-five students attending preclinical years at a Medical School in São Paulo, Brazil, participated in the study. They were asked about their last month substance use, history of drinking and driving, including driving after binge drinking, and risk perceptions based on a self-report questionnaire with statements about protection motivation, threat, and coping appraisals from the PMT model. Fifty-two students (33%) had previous experience of driving after drinking during the last year, and 54 students (35%) reported intention to drive after drinking within the next year. Regression analysis showed that higher scores in perception of personal vulnerability to risks were associated with occasional and frequent intention to continue pursuing this particular behavior. Poorer evaluations about short-term consequences of alcohol consumption and cognitions regarding external rewards were significantly associated with reported intention to continue driving after drinking. Considering the social and health impact of alcohol-impaired behaviors, our findings suggest the need of interventional efforts focused in increasing students' awareness about the negative consequences of drinking and driving aiming to enhance their motivation towards more adaptive behaviors.

  8. Drowsy driving and risk behaviors - 10 States and Puerto Rico, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G; Shults, Ruth A; Chapman, Daniel P; Ford, Earl S; Croft, Janet B

    2014-07-04

    Findings in published reports have suggested that drowsy driving is a factor each year in as many as 7,500 fatal motor vehicle crashes (approximately 25%) in the United States. CDC previously reported that, in 2009-2010, 4.2% of adult respondents in 19 states and the District of Columbia reported having fallen asleep while driving at least once during the previous 30 days. Adults who reported usually sleeping ≤6 hours per day, snoring, or unintentionally falling asleep during the day were more likely to report falling asleep while driving compared with adults who did not report these sleep patterns. However, limited information has been published on the association between drowsy driving and other risk behaviors that might contribute to crash injuries or fatalities. Therefore, CDC analyzed responses to survey questions regarding drowsy driving among 92,102 respondents in 10 states and Puerto Rico to the 2011-2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys. The results showed that 4.0% reported falling asleep while driving during the previous 30 days. In addition to known risk factors, drowsy driving was more prevalent among binge drinkers than non-binge drinkers or abstainers and also more prevalent among drivers who sometimes, seldom, or never wear seatbelts while driving or riding in a car, compared with those who always or almost always wear seatbelts. Drowsy driving did not vary significantly by self-reported smoking status. Interventions designed to reduce binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving, to increase enforcement of seatbelt use, and to encourage adequate sleep and seeking treatment for sleep disorders might contribute to reductions in drowsy driving crashes and related injuries.

  9. Towards a national model for managing impaired driving offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, Robert B; DuPont, Robert L; Talpins, Stephen K; Shea, Corinne L

    2011-07-01

    To describe a proposed national model for controlling the risk presented by offenders convicted of driving while impaired (DWI) and promoting behavioral change to reduce future recidivism. Traditional methods of controlling the risk they present to the driving public are not adequate, as indicated by the fact that approximately 1000 people are killed each year-in alcohol-related crashes involving drivers convicted of DWI in the previous three years. However, stimulated by the success of special drug courts for substance abusers and new technological methods for monitoring drug and alcohol use, new criminal justice programs for managing impaired driving offenders are emerging. A national model for a comprehensive system applicable to both drug and alcohol impaired drivers is proposed. The program focuses on monitoring offender drinking or the offender driving employing vehicle interlocks with swift, sure but moderate penalties for non-compliance in which the ultimate sanction is based on offender performance in meeting monitoring requirements. Several new court programs, such as the 24/7 Sobriety Project in South Dakota and North Dakota and the Hawaii's Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) Project, which feature alcohol/drug consumption monitoring, have produced evidence that indicates even dependent drinkers can conform to abstinence monitoring requirements and avoid the short-term jail consequence for failure. Based on the apparent success of emerging court monitoring systems, it appears that the cost of incarcerating driving-while-impaired offenders can be minimized by employing low-cost community correction programs paid for by the offender. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain Prevention Recovery Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications ... mind-altering ingredient, in the blood. But the role that marijuana plays in crashes is ... age, gender, race, and presence of alcohol. 9 More research ...

  11. Elevated alcohol demand is associated with driving after drinking among college student binge drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeters, Jenni B; Pickover, Alison M; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Martens, Matthew P; Murphy, James G

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol-impaired driving among college students represents a significant public health concern, yet little is known about specific theoretical and individual difference risk factors for driving after drinking among heavy drinking college students. This study evaluated the hypothesis that heavy drinkers with elevated alcohol demand would be more likely to report drinking and driving. Participants were 207 college students who reported at least 1 heavy drinking episode (4/5 or more drinks in 1 occasion for a woman/man) in the past month. Participants completed an alcohol purchase task that assessed hypothetical alcohol consumption across 17 drink prices and an item from the Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire that assessed driving after drinking. In binary logistic regression models that controlled for drinking level, gender, ethnicity, age, and sensation seeking, participants who reported higher demand were more likely to report driving after drinking. These results provide support for behavioral economics models of substance abuse that view elevated/inelastic demand as a key etiological feature of substance misuse. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. Perceptual and Cognitive Impairments and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Coopersmith, Henry; Mayo, Nancy; Leblanc, Ginette; Kaizer, Franceen

    1990-01-01

    Perceptual and cognitive disorders that frequently accompany stroke and head injury influence an individual's ability to drive a motor vehicle. Canadian physicians are legally responsible for identifying patients who are potentially unsafe to drive and, if they fail to do so, may be held liable in a civil action suit. The authors review the guidelines for physicians evaluating a patient's fitness to drive after brain injury. They also examine the actions a physician should take when a patient with perceptual and cognitive problems wants to drive. Ultimately, by taking these actions, physicians will help to prevent driving accidents. PMID:21234047

  13. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watando, Kosaku; Tanaka, Yuzo; Mizumura, Yasuhiro; Hosono, Kazuya.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a simple and compact construction of an apparatus for driving a drive shaft inside with a magnetic force from the outside of the primary system water side. Structure: The weight of a plunger provided with an attraction plate is supported by a plunger lift spring means so as to provide a buffer action at the time of momentary movement while also permitting the load on lift coil to be constituted solely by the load on the drive shaft. In addition, by arranging the attraction plate and lift coil so that they face each other with a small gap there-between, it is made possible to reduce the size and permit efficient utilization of the attracting force. Because of the small size, cooling can be simply carried out. Further, since there is no mechanical penetration portion, there is no possibility of leakage of the primary system water. Furthermore, concentration of load on a latch pin is prevented by arranging so that with a structure the load of the control rod to be directly beared through the scrum latch. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Bridging a historical gap: can changes in perceptions of law enforcement and social deterrence accelerate the prevention of drunk driving in low and middle-income countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Pechansky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The dangers of driving while under the influence of alcohol/drugs (DWI have been well established. Many countries have successfully reduced the incidence of DWI through effective law enforcement. We aim to explore the links between how law enforcement is perceived in cultures with different socioeconomic indicators. Our hypothesis is that social norms around definitions of what constitutes “right” vs. “deviant” behavior related to DWI directly contribute to the mode and success of law enforcement. Methods: Road safety professionals from six countries with different levels of DWI rates and enforcement strategies were interviewed regarding the expected local response to a case vignette. Sociodemographic, mortality, and economic indicators for each of these countries were extracted from different sources. Results: The professionals interviewed described a continuum ranging from unequivocal enforcement and punishment (Australia and Norway to inconsistent enforcement and punishment with the presence of many legal loopholes (Mexico and Brazil. For the six countries, no apparent correlation was identified purely between alcohol consumption and road traffic mortality. However, there seems to be a correlation between the time period of initial DWI legislation and current gross national income, perceptions of local safety, satisfaction with the local environment, and trust in the national government. Higher levels of these scores are seen in nations in which DWI laws were implemented prior to the 1960s. Conclusion: Better performing countries seem to have achieved a level of societal agreement that DWI is deviant, generating social stigma against DWI that allows legislation to be enforced. Lessons learned from these countries could help developing countries reduce morbidity and mortality associated with DWI.

  15. Bridging a historical gap: can changes in perceptions of law enforcement and social deterrence accelerate the prevention of drunk driving in low and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechansky, Flavio; Chandran, Aruna; Sousa, Tanara

    2016-01-01

    The dangers of driving while under the influence of alcohol/drugs (DWI) have been well established. Many countries have successfully reduced the incidence of DWI through effective law enforcement. We aim to explore the links between how law enforcement is perceived in cultures with different socioeconomic indicators. Our hypothesis is that social norms around definitions of what constitutes "right" vs. "deviant" behavior related to DWI directly contribute to the mode and success of law enforcement. Road safety professionals from six countries with different levels of DWI rates and enforcement strategies were interviewed regarding the expected local response to a case vignette. Sociodemographic, mortality, and economic indicators for each of these countries were extracted from different sources. The professionals interviewed described a continuum ranging from unequivocal enforcement and punishment (Australia and Norway) to inconsistent enforcement and punishment with the presence of many legal loopholes (Mexico and Brazil). For the six countries, no apparent correlation was identified purely between alcohol consumption and road traffic mortality. However, there seems to be a correlation between the time period of initial DWI legislation and current gross national income, perceptions of local safety, satisfaction with the local environment, and trust in the national government. Higher levels of these scores are seen in nations in which DWI laws were implemented prior to the 1960s. Better performing countries seem to have achieved a level of societal agreement that DWI is deviant, generating social stigma against DWI that allows legislation to be enforced. Lessons learned from these countries could help developing countries reduce morbidity and mortality associated with DWI.

  16. Lingering immune dysregulation of inflammatory dermatoses, particularly psoriasis, probably drives metabolic syndrome culminating in cardiovascular damage and needs preventive public health guidelines as well as comprehensive management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugal Kishor Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome, a constellation of interrelated risk factors of metabolic origin namely, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension, confers greater risk of cardiovascular disease on its patients than the sum of the individual components. It is increasingly being associated with inflammatory dermatoses, especially psoriasis. Determination of the diagnostic criteria of this syndrome is conditioned by the changing views regarding its pathogenesis. Approximately, a quarter of the world′s population harbors this syndrome, whose reported prevalence in India (5-30% has escalated with an increase in urbanization and socioeconomic status. Due to, up to 3 times, the risk of cardiovascular mortality and up to 24 times risk of diabetes mellitus, the epidemiological significance of metabolic syndrome ideally necessitates formulation of preventive guidelines by public health authorities. Chronic inflammation, involving several cytokines and adipokines, forms the bridge between this syndrome and psoriasis and underlies the formation of atherosclerotic plaque, the primary lesion of coronary artery disease, in whose pathogenesis oxidative stress and genetic factors also play a role. Up to 4-fold increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and 3-fold increased risk of cardiovascular mortality is reported globally in psoriatics. Increasing index of suspicion of this syndrome by the dermatologists, prevention of cardiovascular damage by lifestyle modifications, smoking cessation and redressal of the inherent depression in these patients is as imperative in management as is the specific therapy of the skin lesions of this systemic, rather than "just a skin," disease as well as the lipid-lowering, antihypertensive and antidiabetic agents.

  17. Antibodies trap tissue migrating helminth larvae and prevent tissue damage by driving IL-4Rα-independent alternative differentiation of macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Esser-von Bieren

    Full Text Available Approximately one-third of the world's population suffers from chronic helminth infections with no effective vaccines currently available. Antibodies and alternatively activated macrophages (AAM form crucial components of protective immunity against challenge infections with intestinal helminths. However, the mechanisms by which antibodies target these large multi-cellular parasites remain obscure. Alternative activation of macrophages during helminth infection has been linked to signaling through the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Rα, but the potential effects of antibodies on macrophage differentiation have not been explored. We demonstrate that helminth-specific antibodies induce the rapid trapping of tissue migrating helminth larvae and prevent tissue necrosis following challenge infection with the natural murine parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hp. Mice lacking antibodies (JH (-/- or activating Fc receptors (FcRγ(-/- harbored highly motile larvae, developed extensive tissue damage and accumulated less Arginase-1 expressing macrophages around the larvae. Moreover, Hp-specific antibodies induced FcRγ- and complement-dependent adherence of macrophages to larvae in vitro, resulting in complete larval immobilization. Antibodies together with helminth larvae reprogrammed macrophages to express wound-healing associated genes, including Arginase-1, and the Arginase-1 product L-ornithine directly impaired larval motility. Antibody-induced expression of Arginase-1 in vitro and in vivo occurred independently of IL-4Rα signaling. In summary, we present a novel IL-4Rα-independent mechanism of alternative macrophage activation that is antibody-dependent and which both mediates anti-helminth immunity and prevents tissue disruption caused by migrating larvae.

  18. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... MAKE A COMMITTMENT TO SAFETY Teens also need to commit to being safe and responsible drivers in order to improve the odds in their favor. Reckless driving ...

  19. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Charles E.; Benson, Ralph A.

    1994-01-01

    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor.

  20. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, C.E.; Benson, R.A.

    1994-11-29

    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor. 3 figures.

  1. Reducing drink driving in low- and middle-income countries: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kathryn; Silcock, David; Wegman, Fred

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in reducing alcohol-impaired driving crashes and the related injuries and deaths in countries around the world. Unfortunately, this progress has not been shared by many low- and middle-income countries. In response to this disparity, a variety of international efforts have been undertaken, including the Drink Driving Initiative of Global Actions on Harmful Drinking, being carried out with a focus on 6 low- and middle-income countries where drink driving is a significant issue. These countries are China, Colombia, Mexico, Nigeria, Russia, and Vietnam. This article provides an overview of situational assessments that describe the current drink driving problems in these countries and the laws, policies, enforcement efforts, and public attitudes related to drink driving. These descriptions show clearly that there are particular challenges faced by the countries discussed here. Some, such as a lack of reliable traffic safety data, are common to most of the countries. This lack of data may be interrelated with the lack of well-developed drink driving policies. Other challenges vary depending on the particular geographic, economic, cultural, and social situations in each country. The assessments indicate the need for a focus on capacity building at the organizational and individual level in the target countries. The assessments also indicate that a long-term commitment to strengthening policies, implementation, and evaluation will be needed. This deeper understanding of the situations in each of these countries is already being put to use in what we hope is the beginning of an important and lifesaving process. Copyright © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  2. Dementia and driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. If your loved one has dementia , deciding when they can no longer drive may ...

  3. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimano, Kunio; Nakamura, Akira; Mizuguchi, Koji; Sakai, Kazuhito; Mitsui, Hisayasu.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns upper-built-in type control rod drives of a BWR type reactor. Namely, high temperature linear motor driving type control rod drives are disposed in an upper space of the reactor pressure vessel, which generates electromagnetic power. In usual driving of control rods, driving shafts connected with control rods by a high temperature linear motor driving system comprising a driving shaft having an iron core inserted therein and electromagnetic coils is vertically moved to insert/withdraw the control rods to and from the reactor core. Upon occurrence of reactor scram, electric power source is interrupted, and the control rods are rapidly inserted to the reactor core. According to the present invention, since the control rod drives are disposed in the space above the reactor pressure vessel, pipelines or equipments passing through the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel can be saved. As a result, operation for maintenance and inspection is facilitated. (I.S.)

  4. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  5. Risky driving behaviors in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Mohsen; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2009-03-01

    Iran has one of the highest fatality rates due to road traffic crashes (RTC) in the world. The disability adjusted life years (DALYs) for RTC in Iran is more than 1,300,000 years, which is more than that for any other disease such as cardiovascular or cancer. We evaluated risky driving behaviors in Tehran, the capital of Iran. A retrospective analysis was conducted based on the data obtained from the Tehran Police Safety Driving Department. Offenses and crashes were studied in different municipal districts in Tehran from March 2006 to March 2007. The inclusion criteria were risky driving behaviors fined by the police. Nonbehavioral offences were excluded. There were 3,821,798 offenses in Tehran. Not wearing a seat belt was the most common (59%) example of risky driving behavior, followed by tailgating, not wearing motorcycle helmets, talking on the cell phone while driving, overtaking from the wrong side, speeding, not driving between the lanes, weaving in and out of traffic, left deviation, and changing lanes without signals. The most common causes of RTC in Tehran are speeding, overtaking from the wrong side, and the rapid changing of driving lanes. The study factors effective in preventing risky driving behaviors in Tehran is recommended. The consideration of specific characteristics of the municipal districts is necessary to reduce risky driving behaviors.

  6. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  7. Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

  8. High performance AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive view of high performance ac drives. It may be considered as both a text book for graduate students and as an up-to-date monograph. It may also be used by R & D professionals involved in the improvement of performance of drives in the industries. The book will also be beneficial to the researchers pursuing work on multiphase drives as well as sensorless and direct torque control of electric drives since up-to date references in these topics are provided. It will also provide few examples of modeling, analysis and control of electric drives using MATLAB/SIMULIN

  9. Wind turbine ring/shroud drive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Ralph W.

    2005-10-04

    A wind turbine capable of driving multiple electric generators having a ring or shroud structure for reducing blade root bending moments, hub loads, blade fastener loads and pitch bearing loads. The shroud may further incorporate a ring gear for driving an electric generator. In one embodiment, the electric generator may be cantilevered from the nacelle such that the gear on the generator drive shaft is contacted by the ring gear of the shroud. The shroud also provides protection for the gearing and aids in preventing gear lubricant contamination.

  10. Distress tolerance as a predictor of risky and aggressive driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Ali, Bina; Daughters, Stacey B

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between distress tolerance and risky and aggressive driving. Distress tolerance, defined as an individual's capability to experience and endure negative emotional states, was hypothesized to be related negatively to aggressive driving and risky driving. An anonymous, web-based survey of 769 college students was conducted at a large East Coast university. After controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, year in school, grade point average, and driving frequency, distress tolerance was significantly inversely related to reported risky driving and aggressive driving. College drivers who have a diminished capacity to endure frustration without experiencing negative emotional states (i.e., low distress tolerance) tend to drive aggressively and in a risky manner. Traditional deterrence-based approaches to highway safety may benefit from inclusion of a wider array of prevention strategies that focus on emotion regulation while driving.

  11. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  12. Medications and impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B

    2014-04-01

    To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on classes of medications associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs with ≥ 10 participants were included in this review. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Some commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, antidepressants, opioid and nonsteroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies of medication impact on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function, as well as the role of alcohol, are also discussed. Psychotropic agents and those with central nervous system side effects were associated with measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific classes of medications, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives.

  13. Alcohol and drug use among young adults driving to a drinking location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, Robert B; Johnson, Mark B; Miller, Brenda A

    2013-09-01

    Clubs that feature electronic music dance events (EMDEs) draw young adults aged 18-34 who are at high-risk for alcohol-related crashes to locations where alcohol sales are the principal source of revenue. Up to 30% of these attendees may also use drugs. This provides an important context in which to study driving arrangements that reflect concern with impaired driving. We explored whether drivers were using less alcohol and fewer drugs at exit than their passengers were and whether a driver for the group ever changed after consuming too much during the evening. Using biological measures of alcohol consumption (breath tests) and drug use (oral fluid tests), 175 drivers and 272 passengers were surveyed among young adults arriving at and departing from EMDEs in San Francisco. Upon exit from the drinking locations, only 20% of the drivers, compared to 47% of the passengers, had a high breath alcohol concentration (defined as a BrAC of .05 g/dL or greater). Further, there was evidence that drivers with high BrACs switched to passenger status on exit and former passengers with lower BrACs replaced those drivers. However, there were no differences in the prevalence of drug use among drivers and passengers. These findings suggest that the effort by young adult drivers to avoid alcohol-impaired driving appears to be reducing the number of drivers with high BrACs returning from drinking locations, such as EMDEs, by about one third. However, there is no similar pattern for drugged driving. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV......How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV...

  15. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W

    2007-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.

  16. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  17. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  18. Self-driving carsickness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  19. Self-driving carsickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  20. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to monitor the coupling state between a control rod and a control rod drive. Constitution: After the completion of a control rod withdrawal, a coolant pressure is applied to a control rod drive being adjusted so as to raise only the control rod drive and, in a case where the coupling between the control rod drive and the control rod is detached, the former is elevated till it contacts the control rod and then stopped. The actual stopping position is detected by an actual position detection circuit and compared with a predetermined position stored in a predetermined position detection circuit. If both of the positions are not aligned with each other, it is judged by a judging circuit that the control rod and the control rod drives are not combined. (Sekiya, K.)

  1. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  2. Identifying Method of Drunk Driving Based on Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Drunk driving is one of the leading causes contributing to traffic crashes. There are numerous issues that need to be resolved with the current method of identifying drunk driving. Driving behavior, with the characteristic of real-time, was extensively researched to identify impaired driving behaviors. In this paper, the drives with BACs above 0.05% were defined as drunk driving state. A detailed comparison was made between normal driving and drunk driving. The experiment in driving simulator was designed to collect the driving performance data of the groups. According to the characteristics analysis for the effect of alcohol on driving performance, seven significant indicators were extracted and the drunk driving was identified by the Fisher Discriminant Method. The discriminant function demonstrated a high accuracy of classification. The optimal critical score to differentiate normal from drinking state was found to be 0. The evaluation result verifies the accuracy of classification method.

  3. Linear step drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  4. Drugs and driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, J. Michael; De Gier, Johan J.; Christopherson, Asbjørg S.; Verstraete, Alain G.

    The authors present a global overview on the issue of drugs and driving covering four major areas: (1) Epidemiology and Prevalence-which reviews epidemiological research, summarizes available information, discusses the methodological shortcomings of extant studies, and makes recommendations for

  5. Science of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Science of Driving project focused on developing a collaborative relationship to develop curriculum units for middle school and high school students to engage them in exciting real-world scenarios. This effort involved faculty, staff, and student...

  6. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapellier, R.A.

    1960-05-24

    BS>A drive mechanism was invented for the control rod of a nuclear reactor. Power is provided by an electric motor and an outside source of fluid pressure is utilized in conjunction with the fluid pressure within the reactor to balance the loadings on the motor. The force exerted on the drive mechanism in the direction of scramming the rod is derived from the reactor fluid pressure so that failure of the outside pressure source will cause prompt scramming of the rod.

  7. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  8. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  9. Blood alcohol concentration testing and reporting by the states : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Accurate and complete data on blood alcohol concentration : (BAC) levels for drivers in fatal crashes are critical in monitoring : alcohol-impaired-driving rates across the country, developing : alcohol-impaired-driving programs, and evaluating : the...

  10. Epilepsy and driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moetamedi M

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a disease with high prevalence, which interferes driving and may lead to car accident; This case-control study has been done on 100 epileptic patients and 100 persons as control group, who had history of driving. We gathered our patients with face to face interview and registering their information in special forms which were prepared for this study. There were three times more accidents among epileptic cases comparing with control group and this difference was more considerable in men and in patients under 35 years old. The cause of accident were not seizure attack in more than 60% of the patients and these ordinary accidents were also more in case group. Epileptic patients with history of car accidents during driving had poor drug compliance comparing with the epileptics without history of an accident so drug compliance may be valuable in predicting accident in these patients. We have also found poor drug compliance in whom seizure attacks caused accident for them. 58% of the epileptics had not consulted their physician about driving. 43.3% of seizures during driving were of generalized type and none of the patients had inform police about their disease during getting driving license.

  11. Dementia and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  12. Self-driving carsickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Current drive in high density tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Seiichiro; Jotaki, Eriko; Kawasaki, Shoji; Moriyama, Shin-ichi; Nagao, Akihiro; Nakamura, Kazuo; Nakamura, Yukio; Hiraki, Naoki; Itoh, Satoshi

    1989-01-01

    Current drive in high density tokamak plasma is investigated, with special attention given to mode conversion and proximity conditions that characterize the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the case of current drive by lower hybrid waves. A simple model is used to evaluate the current drive efficiency, and its dependence on various parameters associated with equipment is investigated to provide information required in designing experimental equipment. A strong troidal magnetic field is necessary to produce high density plasma, and incident electromagnetic waves should have a high frequency to prevent the mode conversion, suggesting that a high frequency and a strong troidal field are essential to permit desirable propagation of incident electromagnetic waves. The evaluation of the current drive efficiency shows that the proximity conditions and the power spectrum of the lower hybrid waves entering the plasma are of importance. The average refraction factor in the direction of the troidal field should be larger than but close to that determined from the proximity conditions in order to increase the drive efficiency. As the intensity of the troidal field increases, the refraction factor determined from the proximity conditions decreases, leading to an increase in the drive efficiency. (N.K.)

  14. Possession attachment predicts cell phone use while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Joshua A; Shackleford, Crystal; Dieckmann, Nathan; Slovic, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Distracted driving has become an important public health concern. However, little is known about the predictors of this health-risking behavior. One overlooked risk factor for distracted driving is the perceived attachment that one feels toward his or her phone. Prior research has suggested that individuals develop bonds toward objects, and qualitative research suggests that the bond between young drivers and their phones can be strong. It follows that individuals who perceive a strong attachment to their phone would be more likely to use it, even when driving. In a nationally representative sample of young drivers (17-28 years), participants (n = 1,006) completed a survey about driving behaviors and phone use. Risk perception surrounding cell phone use while driving and perceived attachment to one's phone were assessed by administering factor-analytically derived scales that were created as part of a larger project. Attachment toward one's phone predicted the proportion of trips in which a participant reported using their cell phone while driving, beyond that accounted for by risk perception and overall phone use. Further, attachment predicted self-reported distracted driving behaviors, such as the use of social media while driving. Attachment to one's phone may be an important but overlooked risk factor for the engagement of potentially health-risking driving behaviors. Understanding that phone attachment may adversely affect driving behaviors has the potential to inform prevention and intervention efforts designed to reduce distracted driving behaviors, especially in young drivers. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable rapid control in a simple circuit by providing a motor control device having an electric capacity capable of simultaneously driving all of the control rods rapidly only in the inserting direction as well as a motor controlling device capable of fine control for the insertion and extraction at usual operation. Constitution: The control rod drives comprise a first motor control device capable of finely controlling the control rods both in inserting and extracting directions, a second motor control device capable of rapidly driving the control rods only in the inserting direction, and a first motor switching circuit and a second motor switching circuit switched by switches. Upon issue of a rapid insertion instruction for the control rods, the second motor switching circuit is closed by the switch and the second motor control circuit and driving motors are connected. Thus, each of the control rod driving motors is driven at a high speed in the inserting direction to rapidly insert all of the control rods. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. Storing device for control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomatsu, Tsutomu; Miura, Teruo.

    1989-01-01

    A water supply device for supplying clean water, a recycling pump and a filter disposed between the water supply device and a water vessel by way of recycling pipelines are disposed to a water vessel containing storing water for immerging and storing control rod drives for BWR type reactors upon periodical inspection, etc. Clean water is supplied from the water supply device into the control rod drives immerged in the storing water to remove radioactive cruds, etc. deposited at the surface thereof and water is supplied through the recycling pipelines to the filter to remove solid impurities contained therein and the clean water is returned to the water supply device. Since the clean water is always recycled to the inside of the control rod drives, chemical corrosion and electrical corrosion of nitride parts are prevented and radioactive cruds are processed in separated waste processing systems, the atmospheric radiation doses in the operation chamber is reduced. (S.K.)

  17. Gears and gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Jelaska, Damir T

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how gears are formed and how they interact or 'mesh' with each other is essential when designing equipment that uses gears or gear trains. The way in which gear teeth are formed and how they mesh is determined by their geometry and kinematics, which is the topic of this book.  Gears and Gear Drives provides the reader with comprehensive coverage of gears and gear drives. Spur, helical, bevel, worm and planetary gears are all covered, with consideration given to their classification, geometry, kinematics, accuracy control, load capacity and manufacturing. Cylindric

  18. Comparing Expert and Novice Driving Behavior in a Driving Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran B. Ekanayake

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study focused on comparing driving behavior of expert and novice drivers in a mid-range driving simulator with the intention of evaluating the validity of driving simulators for driver training. For the investigation, measurements of performance, psychophysiological measurements, and self-reported user experience under different conditions of driving tracks and driving sessions were analyzed. We calculated correlations between quantitative and qualitative measures to enhance the reliability of the findings. The experiment was conducted involving 14 experienced drivers and 17 novice drivers. The results indicate that driving behaviors of expert and novice drivers differ from each other in several ways but it heavily depends on the characteristics of the task. Moreover, our belief is that the analytical framework proposed in this paper can be used as a tool for selecting appropriate driving tasks as well as for evaluating driving performance in driving simulators.

  19. Gaze-controlled Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tall, Martin; Alapetite, Alexandre; San Agustin, Javier

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted...

  20. Drive-Through Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the early childhood field's approach to staff training reflects the drive-through, fast-food culture. Year after year directors send their teachers to workshops to get some quick refresher techniques. The author suggests that rather than focusing professional development on topics, focus on observing…

  1. Driving While Intoxicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  2. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  3. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  4. Rod drive and latching mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, L.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Hydraulic drive and latching mechanisms for driving reactivity control mechanisms in nuclear reactors are described. Preferably, the pressurized reactor coolant is utilized to raise the drive rod into contact with and to pivot the latching mechanism so as to allow the drive rod to pass the latching mechanism. The pressure in the housing may then be equalized which allows the drive rod to move downwardly into contact with the latching mechanism but to hold the shaft in a raised position with respect to the reactor core. Once again, the reactor coolant pressure may be utilized to raise the drive rod and thus pivot the latching mechanism so that the drive rod passes above the latching mechanism. Again, the mechanism pressure can be equalized which allows the drive rod to fall and pass by the latching mechanism so that the drive rod approaches the reactor core. (author)

  5. Control rod drive hydraulic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekawa, Toru.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention can reliably prevent a possible erroneous withdrawal of control rod driving mechanism when the pressure of a coolant line is increased by isolation operation of hydraulic control units upon periodical inspection for a BWR type reactor. That is, a coolant line is connected to the downstream of a hydraulic supply device. The coolant line is connected to a hydraulic control unit. A coolant hydraulic detection device and a pressure setting device are disposed to the coolant line. A closing signal line and a returning signal line are disposed, which connect the hydraulic supply device and a flow rate control valve for the hydraulic setting device. In the device of the present invention, even if pressure of supplied coolants is elevated due to isolation of hydraulic control units, the elevation of the hydraulic pressure can be prevented. Accordingly, reliability upon periodical reactor inspection can be improved. Further, the facility is simplified and the installation to an existent facility is easy. (I.S.)

  6. A rotary drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causer, R.

    1983-01-01

    A rotary drive for a manipulator or teleoperator comprises a ring member freely rotatable about an eccentric boss extending from an input driver shaft. The ring member has a tapered rim portion wedged between two resiliently biassed friction rings of larger diameter than the ring member and coaxial with the driver shaft, and the ring member is rotatably connected to an output driven shaft. The rotary drive provides a considerable velocity ratio, and also provides a safety feature in that friction between the rim portion and the friction rings only causes rotation of the driven shaft if the load on the driven shaft is less than a certain limiting value. This limiting value may be varied by adjusting the resilient bias on the friction rings. (author)

  7. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  8. Drive-by-Downloads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, Julia; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Seifert, Christian; Aval, Chiraag U.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2010-02-01

    Abstract: Drive-by-downloads are malware that push, and then execute, malicious code on a client system without the user's consent. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a discussion of the usefulness of antivirus software for detecting the installation of such malware, providing groundwork for future studies. Client honeypots collected drive-by malware which was then evaluated using common antivirus products. Initial analysis showed that most of such antivirus products identified less than 70% of these highly polymorphic malware programs. Also, it was observed that the antivirus products tested, even when successfully detecting this malware, often failed to classify it, leading to the conclusion that further work could involve not only developing new behavioral detection technologies, but also empirical studies that improve general understanding of these threats. Toward that end, one example of malicious code was analyzed behaviorally to provide insight into next steps for the future direction of this research.

  9. Sex Chromosome Drive

    OpenAIRE

    Helleu, Quentin; Gérard, Pierre R.; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosome drivers are selfish elements that subvert Mendel's first law of segregation and therefore are overrepresented among the products of meiosis. The sex-biased progeny produced then fuels an extended genetic conflict between the driver and the rest of the genome. Many examples of sex chromosome drive are known, but the occurrence of this phenomenon is probably largely underestimated because of the difficulty to detect it. Remarkably, nearly all sex chromosome drivers are found in t...

  10. Driving electrostatic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes power stages and bias configurations suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer. Measurement results of a 300 V prototype amplifier are shown. Measuring THD across a high impedance source is discussed...

  11. Design Drives: materials innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Raymond; Toomey, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Design Drives Materials Innovation‘ outlines the potential of a D:STEM (Design, Science, Technology, Engineering amd Mathematics) approach to combining traditionally different fields through design-led, needs driven and technology anchored future products using electro/photo/bio-active polymers in physical formats defined in ‚dots, lines, surfaces and structures‘.It also identifies Ambient Assisted Living as a key driver for future applications.

  12. [Automobile driving capacity in dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Dementia influences at an early stage the driving aptitude of motor vehicle steering persons. Every year in Switzerland, around 16'000 driving permit holders suffer newly from dementia; therefore the driving aptitude is questioned, especially because of possibly limited executive functions. Individuals with early-stage dementia often may show a dangerous driving stile. However, a mild dementia does not a priori exclude the driving aptitude, and less than half of these drivers can continue driving for another 1 - 3 years. In contrast, there is no further driving aptitude in presence of moderate dementia. In the assessment of driving aptitude, the underlying cause of dementia is always taken into account. Cognitive short tests such as the Mini-Mental Status Exam, Clock Drawing Test and Trail-Making Test are not suitable to make reliable statements about the aptitude to drive, but these tests are very important for the initial diagnosis of dementia in primary care practice and can lead the way for further examination concerning driving aptitude. The legally prescribed regular check-up for motorists aged over 70 years in Switzerland provides an ideal opportunity for early detection of incipient dementia. The practical procedure for the assessment of aptitude to drive in the primary care practice is presented. The physician-guided on-road driving test represents a meaningful, practical and relatively cost-effective tool for the evaluation of driving aptitude in cases of doubt.

  13. Parkinson's disease and driving ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian; Hunter, John; Provan, Frances

    2007-04-01

    To explore the driving problems associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ascertain whether any clinical features or tests predict driver safety. The driving ability of 154 individuals with PD referred to a driving assessment centre was determined by a combination of clinical tests, reaction times on a test rig and an in-car driving test. The majority of cases (104, 66%) were able to continue driving although 46 individuals required an automatic transmission and 10 others needed car modifications. Ability to drive was predicted by the severity of physical disease, age, presence of other associated medical conditions, particularly dementia, duration of disease, brake reaction, time on a test rig and score on a driving test (all pfeatures in distinguishing safety to drive were severe physical disease (Hoehn and Yahr stage 3), reaction time, moderate disease associated with another medical condition and high score on car testing. Most individuals with PD are safe to drive, although many benefit from car modifications or from using an automatic transmission. A combination of clinical tests and in-car driving assessment will establish safety to drive, and a number of clinical correlates can be shown to predict the likely outcome and may assist in the decision process. This is the largest series of consecutive patients seen at a driving assessment centre reported to date, and the first to devise a scoring system for on-road driving assessment.

  14. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takao; Arita, Setsuo; Mizuno, Katsuhiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable fine positioning by using an induction motor of a simple structure as a driving source and thereby improve the reliability of control rod drives. Constitution: A step actuator is directly coupled with an induction motor, in which the induction motor is connected by way of a pulse driving control circuit to an AC power source, while the step actuator is connected to a DC power source. When a thyristor is turned ON, the motor outputs a positive torque and rotates and starts to rotate in the forward direction. When the other thyristor is turned ON, the motor is applied with braking by a reverse excitation in a manner equivalent to the change for the exciting phase sequence. When the speed is lowered to a predetermined value, braking is actuated by the torque of the step actuator and the motor stops at a zero position or balanced position. In this way, braking is actuated from the decelerating step to the stopping with no abrasion and a highly accurate positioning is possible due to the characteristics of the step actuator. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. Effects of trait anger, driving anger, and driving experience on dangerous driving behavior: A moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan; Qu, Weina

    2017-11-01

    To explore the effect of anger behind the wheel on driving behavior and accident involvement has been the subject of many studies. However, few studies have explored the interaction between anger and driving experience on dangerous driving behavior. This study is a moderated mediation analysis of the effect of trait anger, driving anger, and driving experience on driving behavior. A sample of 303 drivers was tested using the Trait Anger Scale (TAS), the Driving Anger Scale (DAS), and the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI). The results showed that trait anger and driving anger were positively correlated with dangerous driving behavior. Driving anger partially mediated the effect of trait anger on dangerous driving behavior. Driving experience moderated the relationship between trait anger and driving anger. It also moderated the effect of driving anger on dangerous driving behavior. These results suggest that drivers with more driving experience may be safer as they are not easily irritated during driving. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Low Sex Drive in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low sex drive in women Overview Women's sexual desires naturally fluctuate over the years. Highs and lows commonly coincide ... used for mood disorders also can cause low sex drive in women. If your lack of interest ...

  17. Marijuana and actual driving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. It presents the results of one pilot and three actual driving studies. The pilot study's major purpose was to establish the THC dose current marijuana users smoke to...

  18. Driving with diabetes: precaution, not prohibition, is the proper approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrman, Daniel B

    2013-03-01

    Safety issues posed by driving with diabetes are primarily related to severe hypoglycemia, yet some public authorities rely on categorical restrictions on drivers with diabetes. This approach is misguided. Regulation of all drivers with diabetes, or all drivers using insulin, ignores the diversity of people with diabetes and fails to focus on the subpopulation posing the greatest risk. Advances in diabetes care technology and understanding of safety consequences of diabetes have expanded techniques available to limit risks of driving with diabetes. New means of insulin administration and blood glucose monitoring offer greater ease of anticipating and preventing hypoglycemia, and thus, limit driving risk for persons with diabetes. So too do less sophisticated steps taken by people with diabetes and the health care professionals they consult. These include adoption and endorsement of safety-sensitive behaviors, such as testing before a drive and periodic testing on longer trips. Overall, and in most individual cases, driving risks for persons with diabetes are less than those routinely tolerated by our society. Examples include freedom to drive in dangerous conditions and lax regulation of drivers in age and medical cohorts with elevated overall rates of driving mishaps. Data linking specific diabetes symptoms or features with driving risk are quite uncertain. Hence, there is much to recommend: a focus on technological advances, human precautions, and identifying individuals with diabetes with a specific history of driving difficulty. By contrast, available evidence does not support unfocused regulation of all or most drivers with diabetes. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. Nuclear refueling platform drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, F.R.; Faulstich, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a drive system. It comprises: a gantry including a bridge having longitudinal and transverse axes and supported by spaced first and second end frames joined to fist and second end frames joined to first and second drive trucks for moving the bridge along the transverse axis; first means for driving the first drive truck; second means for driving the second drive truck being independent from the first driving means; and means for controlling the first and second driving means for reducing differential transverse travel between the first and second drive trucks, due to a skewing torque acting on the bridge, to less than a predetermined maximum, the controlling means being in the form of an electrical central processing unit and including: a closed-loop first velocity control means for controlling velocity of the first drive truck by providing a first command signal to the first driver means; a close loop second velocity control means for controlling velocity of the second drive truck by providing a second command signal to the second driving means; and an auxiliary closed-loop travel control means

  20. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  1. Measurement of Driving Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, F; Faus-Golfe, A

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 a series of MDs has been performed at the SPS to measure resonance driving terms. Theory predicts that these terms can be determined by harmonic analysis of BPM data recorded after applying single kicks at various amplitudes. Strong sextupoles were introduced to create a sizeable amount of nonlinearities. Experiments at injection energy (26 GeV) with single bunch as well as one experiment at 120 GeV with 84 bunches were carried out. The expected nonlinear content is compared to the experimenteal observation.

  2. Electric drive design methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Jufer, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    An electric drive that is designed or adapted to a specific application must take into account all the elements of the chain of constituent elements in its use and deployment. In addition to the motor, the transmission, power electronics, control, sensors, and electrical protection systems must be taken into account. The motor and the transmission can be optimized and designed to obtain the best energy efficiency assessment, in particular for dynamic nodes. An inventory and a characterization of these various components is proposed as part of this book's examination and explanation

  3. Electrical machines and drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, John

    2002-01-01

    Recent years have brought substantial developments in electrical drive technology, with the appearance of highly rated, very-high-speed power-electronic switches, combined with microcomputer control systems.This popular textbook has been thoroughly revised and updated in the light of these changes. It retains its successful formula of teaching through worked examples, which are put in context with concise explanations of theory, revision of equations and discussion of the engineering implications. Numerous problems are also provided, with answers supplied.The third edition in

  4. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  5. Driving electrostatic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes power stages and bias configurations suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer. Measurement results of a 300 V prototype amplifier are shown. Measuring THD across a high impedance source is discussed......, and a high voltage attenuation interface for an audio analyzer is presented. THD below 0:1% is reported....

  6. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M; Black, Alex A; Mallon, Kerry; Thomas, Ravi; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment. Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years) with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB) and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years). On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability. Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness.

  7. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonuki, Koji.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the driving speed of control rods at rapid insertion with an elongate control rod and an extension pipe while ensuring sufficient buffering performance in a short buffering distance, by providing a plurality of buffers to an extension pipe between a control rod drive source and a control rod in LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: First, second and third buffers are respectively provided to an acceleration piston, an extension pipe and a control rod respectively and the insertion positions for each of the buffers are displaced orderly from above to below. Upon disconnection of energizing current for an electromagnet, the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod are rapidly inserted in one body. The first, second and third buffers are respectively actuated at each of their falling strokes upon rapid insertion respectively, and the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod receive the deceleration effect in the order correspondingly. Although the compression force is applied to the control rod only near the stroke end, it does not cause deformation. (Kawakami, Y.)

  8. Polar drive on OMEGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha P.B.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available High-convergence polar-drive experiments are being conducted on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commum. 133, 495 (1997] using triple-picket laser pulses. The goal of OMEGA experiments is to validate modeling of oblique laser deposition, heat conduction in the presence of nonradial thermal gradients in the corona, and implosion energetics in the presence of laser–plasma interactions such as crossed-beam energy transfer. Simulated shock velocities near the equator, where the beams are obliquely incident, are within 5% of experimentally inferred values in warm plastic shells, well within the required accuracy for ignition. High, near-one-dimensional areal density is obtained in warm-plastic-shell implosions. Simulated backlit images of the compressing core are in good agreement with measured images. Outstanding questions that will be addressed in the future relate to the role of cross-beam transfer in polar drive irradiation and increasing the energy coupled into the target by decreasing beam obliquity.

  9. Driving citations and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Leung, Justin S; Wiederman, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    Anger and driving have been examined in a number of studies of aggressive drivers and in drivers with road rage using various psychological and environmental study variables. However, we are not aware of any study that has examined the number of driving citations (an indication of problematic driving) and various forms of anger not related to driving. Using a cross-sectional approach in a consecutive sample of 331 respondents (68% female), we surveyed participants about the number of past driving citations, not necessarily convictions, and 21 aggressive behaviors using the Aggressive Behavior Questionnaire. The number of driving citations demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the number of aggressive behaviors in the 21-item Aggressive Behavior Questionnaire. There were no differences between men and women. As for specific aggressive behaviors, the number of driving citations was statistically significantly related to punching a wall when angry, causing and getting into a bar fight, getting into fistfights (not in a bar), causing someone to have an accident, and intentionally running someone off the road. The number of driving citations, an indication of problematic driving, appears to be related to generally aggressive behavior. Findings indicate that if aggression plays a role in problematic driving, it is likely not limited to the road.

  10. Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study: Findings and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, Sheila G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Guo, Feng; Albert, Paul S.; Lee, Suzanne E.; Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Problem This paper summarizes the findings on novice teenage driving outcomes (e.g., crashes and risky driving behaviors) from the Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study. Method Survey and driving data from a data acquisition system (Global Positioning System, accelerometers, cameras) were collected from 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers and their parents during the first 18 months of teenage licensure; stress responsivity was also measured in teenagers. Result Overall teenage crash and near crash (CNC) rates declined over time, but were >4 times higher among teenagers than adults. Contributing factors to teenage CNC rates included secondary task engagement (e.g., distraction), kinematic risky driving, low stress responsivity, and risky social norms. Conclusion The data support the contention that the high novice teenage CNC risk is due both to inexperience and risky driving behavior, particularly kinematic risky driving and secondary task engagement. Practical Applications Graduated driver licensing policy and other prevention efforts should focus on kinematic risky driving, secondary task engagement, and risky social norms. PMID:26403899

  11. Naturalistic teenage driving study: Findings and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Klauer, Sheila G; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Guo, Feng; Albert, Paul S; Lee, Suzanne E; Ehsani, Johnathon P; Pradhan, Anuj K; Dingus, Thomas A

    2015-09-01

    This paper summarizes the findings on novice teenage driving outcomes (e.g., crashes and risky driving behaviors) from the Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study. Survey and driving data from a data acquisition system (global positioning system, accelerometers, cameras) were collected from 42 newly licensed teenage drivers and their parents during the first 18 months of teenage licensure; stress responsivity was also measured in teenagers. Overall teenage crash and near-crash (CNC) rates declined over time, but were >4 times higher among teenagers than adults. Contributing factors to teenage CNC rates included secondary task engagement (e.g., distraction), kinematic risky driving, low stress responsivity, and risky social norms. The data support the contention that the high novice teenage CNC risk is due both to inexperience and risky driving behavior, particularly kinematic risky driving and secondary task engagement. Graduated driver licensing policy and other prevention efforts should focus on kinematic risky driving, secondary task engagement, and risky social norms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  12. CAEP position statement on cellphone use while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dayan; Kapur, Atul K; Ling, Patrick; Purssell, Roy; Henneberry, Ryan J; Champagne, Chantelle R; Lee, Victoria K; Francescutti, Louis H

    2010-07-01

    Distracted driving caused by cellphone use is a significant source of needless injuries. These injuries place unnecessary financial burden, emotional stress and health care resource misuse on society. This paper states the Canadian Association of Emergency Physician's (CAEP's) position on cellphone use while driving. In recent years, numerous studies were conducted on the danger of cellphone use while driving. Research has shown that cellphone use while driving negatively impacts cognitive functions, visual fields, reaction time and overall driving performances. Some studies found that cellphone use is as dangerous as driving under the influence of alcohol. Moreover, vehicle crash rates were shown to be significantly higher when drivers used cellphones. Countermeasures have been implemented in recent years. Over 50 countries worldwide have laws limiting the use of cellphones while driving. Six Canadian provinces, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, currently have legislation prohibiting cellphone use. Other provinces are considering implementing similar bans. As emergency physicians, we must advocate for injury prevention. Cell phone related road traumas are avoidable. CAEP supports all measures to ban cellphone use while driving.

  13. Chronotype-dependent circadian rhythmicity of driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio-Bermudez, Carlos; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Catena, Andrés; Buela-Casal, Gualberto; Di Stasi, Leandro Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Among the factors associated with driving safety, sleep-related variables constitute a leading cause of road accidents. Circadian fluctuations of driver's somnolence has been previously linked to road safety. However, the role of chronotype in this relationship has been poorly investigated. Thus, the aim of the present work was to address whether driving performance is influenced by circadian patterns, in turn modulated by the driver's chronotype and the time of day (i.e. synchrony effect). We assessed 47 healthy young adults with specific chronotypes in several simulated driving sessions, both in the morning and in the evening. We collected driving performance data, along with self-reported levels of activation prior to each driving session and other sleep-related variables. Participants drove less safely when testing times took place outside their optimal time of day, as determined by their chronotype and confirmed by self-reported levels of activation. These differences were more pronounced in the morning, when morning types shown a better driving performance. Our results suggest that chronotype plays an important role as a modulator of the relationship between the time of day and driving safety. Therefore, it is necessary to acknowledge this variable in theoretical models of driving behavior, and for the improvement of occupational accidents prevention programs.

  14. Driving without a GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    in the best way possible; and that the differences in their knowledge systems is acknowledged and used as an asset in these international programmes. With these factors in place, on the other hand, programmes with international faculty and diverse student audiences in which this diversity is exploited...... as students as well as the lecturers themselves represent a diverse range of first languages, cultures and knowledge systems; at the same time, the teaching and learning must reach at least the same high quality standards as in more traditional mono-lingual and mono-cultural settings. For a lecturer...... in an appropriate way, may have a considerable added value that positively impacts on the knowledge, skills and competences developed by their graduates. However, lecturers often feel at a loss because they are not sure how to do this and teaching becomes like driving in unknown territory without a GPS. Based...

  15. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Nobuaki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To remove movable portion and improve the reliability by the direct control to coil. Constitution: Coils are disposed vertically at a predetermined interval to the outside of a control rod drive guide tube and each of the coils is adapted to be directly controlled. The coils are arranged at such an interval that a plunger laps over the vertically adjacent coils. In the case of moving the plunger upwardly, a coil just above the coil that attract the plunger is energized while the coil attracting the plunger so far is denergized. Then, the plunger is pulled up to an aimed position by repeating the procedures. In the case of moving the plunger downwardly, the procedures are conducted in the manner opposite to the above. (Kawakami, Y.)

  16. Do emotions drive psychosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João G. Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: How important is the emotional life of persons who manifest psychotic symptoms? Aims: The aim of this paper is to review evidence on a causal role for emotions in psychotic processes. Methods: Selective review of literature on affective symptoms in psychoses, on emotions in the production of psychotic symptoms and on dopaminergic models of psychosis. Results: Affective symptoms are relevant across psychoses. Persons with schizophrenia have high levels of emotional reactivity and the intensification of negative affects not only is associated with but also precedes the intensification of psychotic symptoms, which is evidence that negative emotions drive the course of psychotic symptoms. Negative self‑representations are central in psychotic processes and can be the link between negative emotions and psychosis. Evidence favours the notion that persecutory delusions are consistent with negative affects and self‑representations, while grandiose delusions are consistent with a defensive amplification of positive affects and self‑representations. Shame has been proposed as the core emotional experience of psychosis, one in which the self becomes vulnerable to the external world, which is consistent with persecutory experiences. Assaults on the self, under the form of hostility in the family environment and society, are strong predictors of relapse and development of schizophrenia. Assaults on the self which induce social defeat are also strong stimulants of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways, whose hyperactivity is associated with acute psychotic episodes and the experience of “aberrant salience”, put forward as a dopaminergic model of psychosis. Conclusions: The “defeat of the self” emerges as a central link that binds the experience of negative emotions to the expression of psychotic symptoms and its psychological and neurobiological correlates. The hypothesis gains support that the emotions related to that defeat control

  17. Impaired driving from medical conditions: A 70-year-old man trying to decide if he should continue driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Some medical disorders can impair performance, increasing the risk of driving safety errors that can lead to vehicle crashes. The causal pathway often involves a concatenation of factors or events, some of which can be prevented or controlled. Effective interventions can operate before, during, or after a crash occurs at the levels of driver capacity, vehicle and road design, and public policy. A variety of systemic, neurological, psychiatric, and developmental disorders put drivers at potential increased risk of a car crash in the short or long term. Medical diagnosis and age alone are usually insufficient criteria for determining fitness to drive. Strategies are needed for determining what types and levels of reduced function provide a threshold for disqualification in drivers with medical disorders. Evidence of decreased mileage, self-restriction to driving in certain situations, collisions, moving violations, aggressive driving, sleepiness, alcohol abuse, metabolic disorders, and multiple medications may trigger considerations of driver safety. A general framework for evaluating driver fitness relies on a functional evaluation of multiple domains (cognitive, motor, perceptual, and psychiatric) that are important for safe driving and can be applied across many disorders, including conditions that have rarely been studied with respect to driving, and in patients with multiple conditions and medications. Neurocognitive tests, driving simulation, and road tests provide complementary sources of evidence to evaluate driver safety. No single test is sufficient to determine who should drive and who should not. PMID:21364126

  18. CLIC Drive Beam Phase Stabilisation

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbershagen, Alexander; Schulte, Daniel

    The thesis presents phase stability studies for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and focuses in particular on CLIC Drive Beam longitudinal phase stabilisation. This topic constitutes one of the main feasibility challenges for CLIC construction and is an essential component of the current CLIC stabilisation campaign. The studies are divided into two large interrelated sections: the simulation studies for the CLIC Drive Beam stability, and measurements, data analysis and simulations of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) Drive Beam phase errors. A dedicated software tool has been developed for a step-by-step analysis of the error propagation through the CLIC Drive Beam. It uses realistic RF potential and beam loading amplitude functions for the Drive and Main Beam accelerating structures, complete models of the recombination scheme and compressor chicane as well as of further CLIC Drive Beam modules. The tool has been tested extensively and its functionality has been verified. The phase error propagation at CLIC h...

  19. The Drive-Wise Project: Driving Simulator Training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianclaudio eCasutt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training.Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62 – 87 years were randomly assigned to either (1 a driving simulator training group, (2 an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention, or (3 a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85% completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned comparisons.Results: The driving simulator training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers’ safety on the road.

  20. Parent and teen agreement on driving expectations prior to teen licensure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Cara J; Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Chande, Vidya; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    To examine pre-licensure agreement on driving expectations and predictors of teen driving expectations among parent-teen dyads. Cross-sectional survey of 163 parent-teen dyads. Descriptive statistics, weighted Kappa coefficients, and linear regression were used to examine expectations about post-licensure teen driving. Teens reported high pre-licensure unsupervised driving (N = 79, 48.5%) and regular access to a car (N = 130, 81.8%). Parents and teens had low agreement on teen driving expectations (eg, after dark, κw = 0.23). Each time teens currently drove to/from school, their expectation of driving in risky conditions post-licensure increased (β = 0.21, p = .02). Pre-licensure improvement of parent-teen agreement on driving expectations are needed to have the greatest impact on preventing teens from driving in high risk conditions.

  1. Motor Integrated Variable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Yash Veer

    A new trend in the variable speed drives (VSDs) is to develop fully integrated systems, which lead to low-cost products with shorter design cycles. Motor Integrated design of VSDs will reduce cable length to connect drive with machine windings and installation time for end user. The electric drives...... so it can fit inside the motor housing. Weight and volume of a filter inductor has to come down drastically to make it a suitable power converter for motor integrated variable speed drives. Introduction of active power electronic switches can ensure very high performance and small size...

  2. Noninductive current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    Various current drive mechanisms may be grouped into four classes: (1) injection of energetic particle beams; (2) launching of rf waves; (3) hybrid schemes, which are combinations of various rf schemes (rf plus beams, rf and/or beam plus ohmic heating, etc.); and (4) other schemes, some of which are specific to reactor plasma conditions requiring the presence of alpha particle or intense synchrotron radiation. Particle injection schemes include current drive by neutral beams and relativistic electron beams. The rf schemes include current drive by the lower hybrid (LH) waves, the electron waves, the waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, etc. Only a few of these approaches, however, have been tested experimentally, with the broadest data base available for LH waves. Included in this report are (1) efficiency criteria for current drive, (2) current drive by neutral beam injection, (3) LH current drive, (4) electron cyclotron current drive, (5) current drive by ion cyclotron waves - minority species heating, and (6) current drive by other schemes (such as hybrids and low frequency waves)

  3. Youth Driving without Impairment. Report on the Youth Impaired Driving Public Hearings (Atlanta, Georgia; Boston, Massachusetts; Chicago, Illinois; Fort Worth, Texas; Seattle, Washington). A Community Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission against Drunk Driving, Washington, DC.

    The testimony heard by the National Commission against Drunk Driving on how to prevent alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes, which constitute the leading cause of death for youth of driving age, resulted in some of the recommendations in this report. The document consists of an executive summary, a preface, an explanation of the Youth Impaired…

  4. Driving Cessation Anno 2010 Which Older Drivers Give Up Their License and Why? Evidence From Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    , and not having illnesses that impaired driving ability. Three of these factors were strongly correlated with gender, indicating that efforts to prevent premature driving cessation should especially focus on increasing women’s confidence and experience in driving.......This study focuses on the decision to either stop or continue driving among a cohort of Danish seniors whose driving licenses expire, for the first time, at the age of 70. Based on 1,537 standardized telephone interviews with licensed drivers, we compared persons who intended to renew...

  5. Control rod driving mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maejima, Yoshinori.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct reactor scram by an external signal and, also by a signal for the abnormal temperature from a temperature detector in the nuclear reactor. Constitution: Control rod driving mechanisms magnetically coupling the extension pipe with the elevating mechanism above the reactor core and the holding magnet, and retains a control rod to the lower portion of the extension pipe by way of a latch mechanism. The temperature detector is immersed in reactor coolants. If the temperature of the coolants rises abnormally, bimetal contacts of the temperature detector are opened to interrupt the current supply to the holding electromagnet. Then, the extension pipe released from the magnetic coupling is lowered and the control rod free from latch is rapidly dropped and inserted into the reactor core. Since this procedure is carried out for all of the control rods, the reactor scram can be attained. The feature of this invention resides in that the reactor scram can be attained also by the signal of the reactor core itself even if the signal system for the external signals should be failed. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Driving for shorter outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritch, S.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear plant outages are necessary to complete activities that cannot be completed during the operating cycle, such as steam generator inspection and testing, refueling, installing modifications, and performing maintenance tests. The time devoted to performing outages is normally the largest contributor to plant unavailability. Similarly, outage costs are a sizable portion of the total plant budget. The scope and quality of work done during outages directly affects operating reliability and the number of unplanned outages. Improved management and planning of outages enhances the margin of safety during the outage and results in increased plant reliability. The detailed planning and in-depth preparation that has become a necessity for driving shorter outage durations has also produced safer outages and improved post-outage reliability. Short outages require both plant and vendor management to focus on all aspects of the outage. Short outage durations, such as 26 days at South Texas or 29 days at North Anna, require power plant inter-department and intra-department teamwork and communication and vendor participation. In this paper shorter and safer outage at the 3-loop plants in the United States are explained. (J.P.N.)

  7. The drink driving situation in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Luu Bich; Thieng, Nguyen Thi; Huong, Nguyen Lan

    2012-01-01

    a comprehensive situational assessment that examined the problem of drinking and driving and identified some of the weaknesses in the current prevention system. Vietnam currently has 2 international projects on road safety and it is hoped that these together with support from the International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP) Global Actions program will provide opportunities for strengthening drinking and drive prevention initiatives by improving the road crash and injury database, building the capacity of the key organizations, strengthening the coordination mechanisms, and implementing and evaluating trial drink-drive interventions. Copyright © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  8. Electric vehicle drive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, M.

    1992-01-01

    New legislation in the State of California requires that 2% of vehicles sold there from 1998 will be 'zero-emitting'. This provides a unique market opportunity for developers of electric vehicles but substantial improvements in the technology are probably required if it is to be successfully exploited. There are around a dozen types of battery that are potentially relevant to road vehicles but, at the present, lead/acid and sodium—sulphur come closest to combining acceptable performance, life and cost. To develop an efficient, lightweight electric motor system requires up-to-date techniques of magnetics design, and the latest power-electronic and microprocessor control methods. Brushless machines, coupled with solid-state inverters, offer the most economical solution for mass production, even though their development costs are higher than for direct-current commutator machines. Fitted to a small car, even the highest energy-density batteries will only provide around 200 km average range before recharging. Therefore, some form of supplementary on-board power generation will probably be needed to secure widespread acceptance by the driving public. Engine-driven generators of quite low power can achieve useful increases in urban range but will fail to qualify as 'zero-emitting'. On the other hand, if the same function could be economically performed by a small fuel-cell using hydrogen derived from a methanol reformer, then most of the flexibility provided by conventional vehicles would be retained. The market prospects for electric cars would then be greatly enhanced and their dependence on very advanced battery technology would be reduced.

  9. Linear Back-Drive Differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Linear back-drive differentials have been proposed as alternatives to conventional gear differentials for applications in which there is only limited rotational motion (e.g., oscillation). The finite nature of the rotation makes it possible to optimize a linear back-drive differential in ways that would not be possible for gear differentials or other differentials that are required to be capable of unlimited rotation. As a result, relative to gear differentials, linear back-drive differentials could be more compact and less massive, could contain fewer complex parts, and could be less sensitive to variations in the viscosities of lubricants. Linear back-drive differentials would operate according to established principles of power ball screws and linear-motion drives, but would utilize these principles in an innovative way. One major characteristic of such mechanisms that would be exploited in linear back-drive differentials is the possibility of designing them to drive or back-drive with similar efficiency and energy input: in other words, such a mechanism can be designed so that a rotating screw can drive a nut linearly or the linear motion of the nut can cause the screw to rotate. A linear back-drive differential (see figure) would include two collinear shafts connected to two parts that are intended to engage in limited opposing rotations. The linear back-drive differential would also include a nut that would be free to translate along its axis but not to rotate. The inner surface of the nut would be right-hand threaded at one end and left-hand threaded at the opposite end to engage corresponding right- and left-handed threads on the shafts. A rotation and torque introduced into the system via one shaft would drive the nut in linear motion. The nut, in turn, would back-drive the other shaft, creating a reaction torque. Balls would reduce friction, making it possible for the shaft/nut coupling on each side to operate with 90 percent efficiency.

  10. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  11. Automated driving safer and more efficient future driving

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The main topics of this book include advanced control, cognitive data processing, high performance computing, functional safety, and comprehensive validation. These topics are seen as technological bricks to drive forward automated driving. The current state of the art of automated vehicle research, development and innovation is given. The book also addresses industry-driven roadmaps for major new technology advances as well as collaborative European initiatives supporting the evolvement of automated driving. Various examples highlight the state of development of automated driving as well as the way forward. The book will be of interest to academics and researchers within engineering, graduate students, automotive engineers at OEMs and suppliers, ICT and software engineers, managers, and other decision-makers.

  12. Driving Performance Under Alcohol in Simulated Representative Driving Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Kaussner, Yvonne; Jagiellowicz-Kaufmann, Monika; Hoffmann, Sonja; Krüger, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Comparing drug-induced driving impairments with the effects of benchmark blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) is an approved approach to determine the clinical relevance of findings for traffic safety. The present study aimed to collect alcohol calibration data to validate findings of clinical trials that were derived from a representative test course in a dynamic driving simulator. The driving performance of 24 healthy volunteers under placebo and with 0.05% and 0.08% BACs was measured in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Trained investigators assessed the subjects’ driving performance and registered their driving errors. Various driving parameters that were recorded during the simulation were also analyzed. Generally, the participants performed worse on the test course (P the investigators’ assessment) under the influence of alcohol. Consistent with the relevant literature, lane-keeping performance parameters were sensitive to the investigated BACs. There were significant differences between the alcohol and placebo conditions in most of the parameters analyzed. However, the total number of errors was the only parameter discriminating significantly between all three BAC conditions. In conclusion, data show that the present experimental setup is suitable for future psychopharmacological research. Thereby, for each drug to be investigated, we recommend to assess a profile of various parameters that address different levels of driving. On the basis of this performance profile, the total number of driving errors is recommended as the primary endpoint. However, this overall endpoint should be completed by a specifically sensitive parameter that is chosen depending on the effect known to be induced by the tested drug. PMID:25689289

  13. Phoning while driving II: a review of driving conditions influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, C; Guillot, A; Petit, C

    2010-05-01

    The first paper examined how the variables related to driving performance were impacted by the management of holding a phone conversation. However, the conditions under which this dual task is carried out are dependent upon a set of factors that may particularly influence the risk of crash. These conditions are defined by several independent variables, classified into five main categories: i) legislation; ii) phone type (hands-free or hand-held); iii) drivers' features regarding age, gender, personal individual profile and driving experience; iv) conversation content (casual or professional) and its context (held with passengers or with a cell (mobile) phone); v) driving conditions (actual or simulated driving, road type, traffic density and weather). These independent variables determine the general conditions. The way in which these factors are combined and interact one with another thus determines the risk that drivers undergo when a cell phone is used while driving. Finally, this review defined the general conditions of driving for which managing a phone conversation is likely to elicit a high risk of car crash or, conversely, may provide a situation of lower risk, with sufficient acceptance to ensure safety.

  14. Campus Buzz: How Alcohol Impairs America's Judgment of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busteed, Brandon

    2004-01-01

    According to this author, the single greatest threat to the public trust in higher education is alcohol. Specifically, it is high-risk drinking among college students and the lack of engagement by those who can help solve the problem. He contends that, for too many students, college is no longer about preparing for leadership roles and productive…

  15. Alcohol impairs predation risk response and communication in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Acosta Oliveira

    Full Text Available The effects of ethanol exposure on Danio rerio have been studied from the perspectives of developmental biology and behavior. However, little is known about the effects of ethanol on the prey-predator relationship and chemical communication of predation risk. Here, we showed that visual contact with a predator triggers stress axis activation in zebrafish. We also observed a typical stress response in zebrafish receiving water from these conspecifics, indicating that these fish chemically communicate predation risk. Our work is the first to demonstrate how alcohol effects this prey-predator interaction. We showed for the first time that alcohol exposure completely blocks stress axis activation in both fish seeing the predator and in fish that come in indirect contact with a predator by receiving water from these conspecifics. Together with other research results and with the translational relevance of this fish species, our data points to zebrafish as a promising animal model to study human alcoholism.

  16. 75 FR 60264 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Encouraging Contractor Policies To Ban Text Messaging While Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... 9000-AL64 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Encouraging Contractor Policies To Ban Text Messaging While... 13513, issued on October 1, 2009, entitled ``Federal Leadership on Reducing Text Messaging while Driving... to prevent the unsafe practice of text messaging by Federal contractors while driving in connection...

  17. What's driving migration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, H

    1995-01-01

    During the 1990s investment in prevention of international or internal migration declined, and crisis intervention increased. The budgets of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the UN Development Program remained about the same. The operating assumption is that war, persecution, famine, and environmental and social disintegration are inevitable. Future efforts should be directed to stabilizing populations through investment in sanitation, public health, preventive medicine, land tenure, environmental protection, and literacy. Forces pushing migration are likely to increase in the future. Forces include depletion of natural resources, income disparities, population pressure, and political disruption. The causes of migration are not constant. In the past, migration occurred during conquests, settlement, intermarriage, or religious conversion and was a collective movement. Current migration involves mass movement of individuals and the struggle to survive. There is new pressure to leave poor squatter settlements and the scarcities in land, water, and food. The slave trade between the 1500s and the 1800s linked continents, and only 2-3 million voluntarily crossed national borders. Involuntary migration began in the early 1800s when European feudal systems were in a decline, and people sought freedom. Official refugees, who satisfy the strict 1951 UN definition, increased from 15 million in 1980 to 23 million in 1990 but remained a small proportion of international migrants. Much of the mass movement occurs between developing countries. Migration to developed countries is accompanied by growing intolerance, which is misinformed. China practices a form of "population transfer" in Tibet in order to dilute Tibetan nationalism. Colonization of countries is a new less expensive form of control over territory. Eviction of minorities is another popular strategy in Iraq. Public works projects supported by foreign aid displace millions annually. War and civil conflicts

  18. Effects of acute alcohol consumption on measures of simulated driving: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Christopher; Iudakhina, Elizaveta; Desbrow, Ben; McCartney, Danielle

    2017-05-01

    Driving simulators are used in a wide range of research settings to help develop an understanding of driver behavior in complex environments. Acute alcohol impairment is an important research topic for traffic safety and a large number of studies have indicated levels of simulated driving impairment imposed by alcohol across a range of performance outcome variables. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of acute alcohol consumption on simulated driving performance by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence. The online databases PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science (via Thomas Reuters) and Scopus were searched to identify studies that measured simulated car driving performance under control ('no alcohol' or 'placebo alcohol' ingestion) and intervention (acute alcohol ingestion) conditions, using repeated-measures experimental designs. Primary research outcomes were standard deviation of lane position (SDLP) and standard deviation of speed (SDSP); (total number of lane crossings (LC) and average speed (Speed) were secondary research outcomes). Meta-analytic procedures were used to quantify the effect of acute alcohol consumption on vehicle control, and to determine the influence of methodological variables (i.e. the duration of the simulated driving task, the limb of the BAC curve (ascending vs. descending) and the type of driving simulator employed (i.e. car vs. PC-based)) on the magnitude of the performance change due to alcohol consumption. 423 records were screened, and 50 repeated-measures trials (n=962 participants, 62% male) derived from 17 original publications were reviewed. 37 trials (n=721 participants) used a 'placebo alcohol' comparator to determine the effect of alcohol consumption on SDLP (32/37) and SDSP (22/37). Alcohol consumption significantly increased SDLP by 4.0±0.5cm (95% CI: 3.0, 5.1) and SDSP by 0.38±0.10km⋅h -1 (95% CI: 0.19, 0.57). Regression analyses indicate BAC (p=0.004) and driving

  19. Quantum effects in warp drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finazzi Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Warp drives are interesting configurations that, at least theoretically, provide a way to travel at superluminal speed. Unfortunately, several issues seem to forbid their realization. First, a huge amount of exotic matter is required to build them. Second, the presence of quantum fields propagating in superluminal warp-drive geometries makes them semiclassically unstable. Indeed, a Hawking-like high-temperature flux of particles is generated inside the warp-drive bubble, which causes an exponential growth of the energy density measured at the front wall of the bubble by freely falling observers. Moreover, superluminal warp drives remain unstable even if the Lorentz symmetry is broken by the introduction of regulating higher order terms in the Lagrangian of the quantum field. If the dispersion relation of the quantum field is subluminal, a black-hole laser phenomenon yields an exponential amplification of the emitted flux. If it is superluminal, infrared effects cause a linear growth of this flux.

  20. Drowsy driving and automobile crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Drowsy driving is a serious problem that leads to : thousands of automobile crashes each year. This : report, sponsored by the National Center on : Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) of the National : Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the : National ...

  1. Matrix Converter in Hybrid Drives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lettl, Jiří; Flígl, S.

    -, č. 3 (2004), s. 77-80 ISSN 0204-3599 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2057903 Keywords : matrix converter * hybrid drive * electric power splitting Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  2. Lunar Core Drive Tubes Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains a brief summary and high resolution imagery from various lunar rock and core drive tubes collected from the Apollo and Luna missions to the moon.

  3. [Fitness to drive after stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Peter

    2018-01-01

    In Germany, patient information and expert testimony on driving ability requires knowledge of the corresponding legislation and the Guideline for expertises on driver aptitude. The testimony should clearly identify handicaps with regard to driving, give estimates on the future risks of a sudden loss of control, and also consider personal attitudes such as inadequate behavior, lack of insight etc. Physical handicaps often can be compensated for by restrains or restrictions such as vehicle modifications, daylight driving only etc.Both, information and testimony must give estimates on the risks of a sudden loss of control while driving by stroke recurrence or epileptic seizures. In accordance with the Risk-of-Harm-Formula of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society methods are being discussed, by which an estimate of harmful traffic accidents due to stroke recurrence can be calculated. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Clinical Action against Drunk Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A Redelmeier

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In advance of a safety campaign on 17 March 2017, Donald Redelmeier and Allan Detsky call on physicians and clinical colleagues to reduce the chances that patients will drive drunk.

  5. Device and method of cooling control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, Hidetoshi; Mase, Noriaki; Matsumura, Yuichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the generation of local temperature rise depending on the reactor core position of the control rod drives and control the temperature to an averaged state in BWR type reactors. Method: Control rod drives having a large charging length of the housing in the pressure vessel involve such a factor that the temperature of the control rod drives is increased by the synergistic effect due to the radiation heat from the reactor core and to the unevenness of the cooling water flow rate, which renders an appropriate temperature control difficult for the reactor core position. A cooling water flow rate controlling device having a restriction mechanism is disposed on the cooling water feed path for each of the hydraulic control units of the control rod drives, so that flow rate to the control rod drives is increased at the center of the reactor core and decreased at the periphery thereof. As a result, average temperature state can be set, temperature increase due to cloggings can be prevented and the thermal effect can be eliminated to thereby improve the reliability. (Moriyama, K.)

  6. 77 FR 26049 - Reaching Zero: Actions to Eliminate Substance-Impaired Driving Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ...: Prevention [ssquf] Panel Seven: International Perspective --Session Four: Next Steps [ssquf] Panel Eight... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Reaching Zero: Actions to Eliminate Substance-Impaired Driving Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a Public Forum to address...

  7. Mulholland Drive: An Intertextual Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Barzegar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines David Lynch’s Mulholland Drive from Kristeva’s concept of intertextuality. To achieve this aim, this study provides a close reading of the selected film so as to trace and illustrate the polyphonic network of references, citations, quotations and intertexts of Mulholland Drive to the significant already-made films such as Sunset Boulevard, The Wizard of Oz, and Persona.

  8. Driving experiences of disabled drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R S; Hunter, J; Hanley, J

    2006-05-01

    To study the influence of non-standard controls on return to driving after disability, including prevalence of accidents/retraining difficulties. Postal questionnaires sent within two years of assessment to 972 disabled drivers seen over a three-year period. Scottish Driving Assessment Service. All patients considered capable of driving after assessment during the study period. Five hundred and eighty-nine people (61 %) replied who were representative of the total population (mean age 55 years, range 19-87); 73% were male and 70% were disabled for up to two years. Overall 79% respondents had returned to driving (highest reported success with standard manual car (86%) and lowest using left foot to accelerate and brake (66%) (chi2 = 16.6, P = 0.005)). A significantly higher proportion of the 30 patients (6.5%) admitting to accidents and 25 (5.4%) to problems with retraining were using non-standard driving techniques, especially the use of hand controls. Disabled drivers returning to drive using non-familiar controls had lower success and a higher proportion of accidents and/or problems with retraining than people using conventional controls. If confirmed in larger studies this may have implications for policy-makers as well as specialist practitioners.

  9. High-power converters and AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This new edition reflects the recent technological advancements in the MV drive industry, such as advanced multilevel converters and drive configurations. It includes three new chapters, Control of Synchronous Motor Drives, Transformerless MV Drives, and Matrix Converter Fed Drives. In addition, there are extensively revised chapters on Multilevel Voltage Source Inverters and Voltage Source Inverter-Fed Drives. This book includes a systematic analysis on a variety of high-power multilevel converters, illustrates important concepts with simulations and experiments, introduces various megawatt drives produced by world leading drive manufacturers, and addresses practical problems and their mitigations methods.

  10. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Pichardo

    Full Text Available Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13:135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode. The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d. resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5 kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field.

  11. Driving and Dementia: Workshop Module on Communicating Cessation to Drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byszewski, Anna; Power, Barbara; Lee, Linda; Rhee, Glara Gaeun; Parson, Bob; Molnar, Frank

    2017-12-01

    For persons with dementia (PWD), driving becomes very dangerous. Physicians in Canada are legally responsible to report unfit drivers and then must disclose that decision to their patients. That difficult discussion is fraught with challenges: physicians want to maintain a healthy relationship; patients often lack insight into their cognitive loss and have very strong emotional reactions to the loss of their driving privileges. All of which may stifle the exchange of accurate information. The goal of this project was to develop a multimedia module that would provide strategies and support for health professionals having these difficult conversations. Literature search was conducted of Embase and OVID MedLine on available driving and dementia tools, and on websites of online tools for communication strategies on driving cessation. A workshop module was developed with background material, communication strategies, links to resources and two videos demonstrating the "bad" then the "good" ways of managing this emotionally charged discussion. When the module was tested with internal medicine trainees, results demonstrated that confidence increased significantly ( p communicate driving cessation to PWD.

  12. Can we prevent road rage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbridge, Mark; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E

    2006-04-01

    Road rage has become a serious concern in many countries, and preventive efforts are required. This article reviews what can be done to prevent road rage by exploring potential prevention avenues in five areas. First, legal changes aimed at increasing the penalties for road rage behavior could be instituted, drawing on models from aggressive-driving or impaired-driving laws. A second approach would involve the adoption of court programs for convicted road ragers. Third, car redesign offers a means of reducing crime through environmental design. Fourth, mass media education could be implemented to inform drivers of the risk from road rage and how to avoid situations that facilitate road rage. Finally, prevention efforts could be directed to long-term societal changes that emphasize structural modifications, such as reducing congestion on the roads, reduced driver stress, or promoting public transportation. The strengths and weaknesses of these strategies are discussed.

  13. Exploring Forensic Implications of the Fusion Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the forensic implications of Apple's Fusion Drive. The Fusion Drive is an example of auto-tiered storage. It uses a combination of a flash drive and a magnetic drive. Data is moved between the drives automatically to maximize system performance. This is different from traditional caches because data is moved and not simply copied. The research included understanding the drive structure, populating the drive, and then accessing data in a controlled setting to observe data migration strategies. It was observed that all the data is first written to the flash drive with 4 GB of free space always maintained. If data on the magnetic drive is frequently accessed, it is promoted to the flash drive while demoting other information. Data is moved at a block-level and not a file-level. The Fusion Drive didn't alter the timestamps of files with data migration.

  14. Driving performance at lateral system limits during partially automated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujoks, Frederik; Purucker, Christian; Wiedemann, Katharina; Neukum, Alexandra; Wolter, Stefan; Steiger, Reid

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated driver performance during system limits of partially automated driving. Using a motion-based driving simulator, drivers encountered different situations in which a partially automated vehicle could no longer safely keep the lateral guidance. Drivers were distracted by a non-driving related task on a touch display or driving without an additional secondary task. While driving in partially automated mode drivers could either take their hands off the steering wheel for only a short period of time (10s, so-called 'Hands-on' variant) or for an extended period of time (120s, so-called 'Hands-off' variant). When the system limit was reached (e.g., when entering a work zone with temporary lines), the lateral vehicle control by the automation was suddenly discontinued and a take-over request was issued to the drivers. Regardless of the hands-off interval and the availability of a secondary task, all drivers managed the transition to manual driving safely. No lane exceedances were observed and the situations were rated as 'harmless' by the drivers. The lack of difference between the hands-off intervals can be partly attributed to the fact that most of the drivers kept contact to the steering wheel, even in the hands-off condition. Although all drivers were able to control the system limits, most of them could not explain why exactly the take-over request was issued. The average helpfulness of the take-over request was rated on an intermediate level. Consequently, providing drivers with information about the reason for a system limit can be recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on Awakening Effect by Fragrance Presentation Against Drowsy Driving and Construction of Fragrance Presentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakamu, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Masahito; Shimizu, Takayuki; Yanagida, Yasuyuki; Nakano, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Shin; Yamada, Muneo

    Traffic accidents caused by drowsy driving never disappear and easily result in fatal crash when heavy vehicle is involved. General methods to prevent drowsy driving are caution-advisory indicators and alarm sounds. However visual and auditory information are excessive enough to alert drivers. This study aims to focus on olfactory stimuli, which do not provoke interference with driving actions, and examine the effectiveness in combating drowsiness. Changing type of scent, we performed investigations on the effectiveness of each countermeasure to remain alert against drowsy driving.

  16. Driving After Hallux Valgus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Shakked, Rachel; Daniel, Joseph; Pedowitz, David I; Winters, Brian S; Reb, Christopher; Lynch, Mary-Katherine; Raikin, Steven M

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine when patients can safely return to driving after first metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus correction. After institutional review board approval, 60 patients undergoing right first metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus correction surgery were recruited prospectively. Patients' brake reaction time (BRT) was tested at 6 weeks and repeated until patients achieved a passing BRT. A control group of twenty healthy patients was used to establish as passing BRT. Patients were given a novel driver readiness survey to complete. At 6 weeks, 51 of the 60 patients (85%) had BRT less than 0.85 seconds and were considered safe to drive. At 6 weeks, the passing group average was 0.64 seconds. At the 8 weeks, 59 patients (100%) of those who completed the study achieved a passing BRT. Patients that failed at 6 weeks had statistically greater visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and diminished first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) range of motion (ROM). On the novel driver readiness survey, 8 of the 9 patients (89%) who did not pass disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement, "Based on what I think my braking reaction time is, I think that I am ready to drive." Most patients may be informed that they can safely return to driving 8 weeks after right metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus correction. Some patients may be eligible to return to driving sooner depending on their VAS, first MTP ROM, and driver readiness survey results. Level II, comparative study.

  17. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex B Siegling

    Full Text Available This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1. Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP, a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2. The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3. Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment.

  18. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling, Alex B; Petrides, K V

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment.

  19. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual- ...

  20. Dengue Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This photograph ... medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step, and prevention means avoiding ...

  1. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges (See...

  2. Influence of roadside infrastructure on driving behavior: driving simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Ridder, S. de

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a driving simulator study that focused on the influence of roadside infrastructure on speed choice and lateral placement of car drivers. A review of the RISER detailed accident database revealed that lateral positioning and speed of the vehicle were two of the

  3. Digital control of electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, R; Szklarski, L

    1992-01-01

    The electromechanical systems employed in different branches of industry are utilized most often as drives of working machines which must be fed with electric energy in a continuous, periodic or even discrete way. Some of these machines operate at constant speed, others require wide and varying energy control. In many designs the synchronous cooperation of several electric drives is required in addition to the desired dynamic properties. For these reasons the control of the cooperation and dynamics of electromechanical systems requires the use of computers.This book adopts an unusual approach

  4. Plague Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Reduce rodent habitat around your ...

  5. Drink driving in Hong Kong: the competing effects of random breath testing and alcohol tax reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean H; Wong, Alvin H; Goggins, William B; Lau, Joseph; Griffiths, Sian M

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the competing effects of increased anti-drink driving legislation and the recent elimination of excise taxes on wine and beer. Serial cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted in 2006 (n = 9860) and 2011 (n = 4800). Hong Kong, China. Chinese adults (≥18 years of age). Respondents were asked about their drinking patterns, past-year experience of driving within 2 hours of drinking, drinking-related attitudes and reported deterrents to drink driving. Following the legislative changes, the age-standardized past-year prevalence of drink driving decreased significantly from 5.2 to 2.8% (P Hong Kong, the current anti-drink driving strategy appears to reduce drink driving in males and prevent increased levels among females. Binge drinkers, however, remain a high-risk group that should be monitored continually. © 2013 The Authors, Addiction © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Error signals driving locomotor adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    anaesthesia (n = 5) instead of repetitive nerve stimulation. Foot anaesthesia reduced ankle adaptation to external force perturbations during walking. Our results suggest that cutaneous input plays a role in force perception, and may contribute to the 'error' signal involved in driving walking adaptation when...

  7. CLIC Drive Beam Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Wegner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Travelling structures for accelerating the high-current (4.2 A) CLIC Drive Beam to an energy of 2.37 GeV are presented. The structures are optimised for efficiency (full beam loading operation) and a desired filling time. Higher order modes are studied and are reduced by detuning along the structure and by damping with silicon carbide loads.

  8. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  9. Safe Driving After Propofol Sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerlin-Grady, Lee; Austin, Paul N; Gabaldon, Dion A

    2017-10-01

    Propofol is a short-acting medication with fast cognitive and psychomotor recovery. However, patients are usually instructed not to drive a motor vehicle for 24 hours after receiving propofol. The purpose of this article was to review the evidence examining when it is safe to drive after receiving propofol for sedation for diagnostic and surgical procedures. This is a systematic review of the literature. A search of the literature was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for the time period 1990 to 2015. Two randomized controlled trials and two observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Using a simulator, investigators examined driving ability of subjects who received modest doses (about 100 mg) of propofol for endoscopic procedures and surveyed subjects who drove immediately after discharge. There were methodological concerns with the studies such as small sample sizes, modest doses of propofol, and three of the four studies were done in Japan by the same group of investigators limiting generalizability. This limited research suggests that it may be safe for patients to drive sooner than 24 hours after receiving propofol. However, large multicenter trials using heterogenous samples using a range of propofol doses are needed to support an evidence-based revision to the current discharge guidelines for patients receiving propofol. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Synergy in RF Current Drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, R.J.; Giruzzi, G.

    2005-01-01

    Auxiliary methods for efficient non-inductive current drive in tokamaks generally involve the interaction of externally driven waves with superthermal electrons. Among the possible schemes, Lower Hybrid (LH) and Electron Cyclotron (EC) current drive have been so far the most successful. An interesting aspect of their combined use is the fact that since they involve possibly overlapping domains in velocity and configuration spaces, a synergy between them is expected for appropriate parameters. The signature of this effect, significant improvement of the EC current drive efficiency, results from a favorable interplay of the quasilinear diffusions induced by both waves. Recently, improvements of the EC current drive efficiency in the range of 2-4 have been measured in fully non-inductive discharges in the Tore Supra tokamak, providing the first clear evidence of this effect in steady-state conditions. We present here the experimental aspects of these discharges. The associated kinetic modeling and current state of understanding of the LH-EC synergy phenomenon are also discussed. (authors)

  11. Synergy in RF Current Drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, R.J.; Giruzzi, G.

    2005-01-01

    Auxiliary methods for efficient non-inductive current drive in tokamaks generally involve the interaction of externally driven waves with superthermal electrons. Among the possible schemes, Lower Hybrid (LH) and Electron Cyclotron (EC) current drive have been so far the most successful. An interesting aspect of their combined use is the fact that since they involve possibly overlapping domains in velocity and configuration spaces, a synergy between them is expected for appropriate parameters. The signature of this effect, significant improvement of the EC current drive efficiency, results from a favorable interplay of the quasilinear diffusions induced by both waves. Recently, improvements of the EC current drive efficiency in the range of 2-4 have been measured in fully non-inductive discharges in the Tore Supra tokamak, providing the first clear evidence of this effect in steady-state conditions. We present here the experimental aspects of these discharges. The associated kinetic modeling and current state of understanding of the LH-EC synergy phenomenon are also discussed

  12. Factors driving aquaculture technology adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology adoption has played a key role in the global development and increase in agricultural productivity. However, the decision to adopt a new technology on farms is complex. While the factors that drive the adoption of new technologies have been well studied in agriculture, less attention has ...

  13. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a...

  14. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Relatiopns with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN SWITZERLAND 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D or E-type carte de légitimation For holders of B, C, D or E-type cartes de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (Département fédéral suisse des Affaires étrangères, hereinafter called DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. Should they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant roads authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation ; for Geneva call 022/343 02 00, website: http://www.geneve.ch/san/welcome.html, for Vaud call 021/316 82 10, website: http://www.dse.vd.ch/auto/index.html) in order to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence. However, exchanges are not permitted if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a stay there of less than six months' duration while the person concerned was officially...

  15. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... phone, or texting—raises the risk of a crash. NIH-funded researchers analyzed the driving habits of both novice teen and experienced drivers. Vehicles were equipped with 4 cameras that recorded video whenever the cars were moving. A suite of sensors recorded acceleration, ...

  16. Current drive for rotamak plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Experiments which have been undertaken over a number of years have shown that a rotating magnetic field can drive a significant non-linear Hall current in a plasma. Successful experiments of this concept have been made with a device called rotamak. In its original configuration this device was a field reversed ...

  17. Low Sex Drive in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low self-esteem History of physical or sexual abuse Previous negative sexual experiences Relationship issues For many women, emotional closeness is an essential prelude to sexual intimacy. So problems in your relationship can be a major factor in low sex drive. Decreased interest in sex is often a ...

  18. Older drivers with cognitive impairment: Perceived changes in driving skills, driving-related discomfort and self-regulation of driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, A.; Siren, A.; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2013-01-01

    drivers may recognise cognitive problems, they tend not to recognise changes to their driving, which may reflect reluctance to acknowledge the impact of cognitive impairment on their driving. Furthermore, the results suggest that driving-related discomfort plays an important role in the self-regulation......The results of a previous study indicate that in general, older drivers who recognise cognitive problems show realistic self-assessment of changes in their driving skills and that driving-related discomfort may function as an indirect monitoring of driving ability, contributing to their safe...... of driving among cognitively impaired older drivers. However, it is less clear what triggers driving-related discomfort among cognitively impaired older drivers indicating that it may be a less reliable aspect of their self-monitoring of driving ability....

  19. Current challenges in autonomous driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabás, I.; Todoruţ, A.; Cordoş, N.; Molea, A.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays the automotive industry makes a quantum shift to a future, where the driver will have smaller and smaller role in driving his or her vehicle ending up being totally excluded. In this paper, we have investigated the different levels of driving automatization, the prospective effects of these new technologies on the environment and traffic safety, the importance of regulations and their current state, the moral aspects of introducing these technologies and the possible scenarios of deploying the autonomous vehicles. We have found that the self-driving technologies are facing many challenges: a) They must make decisions faster in very diverse conditions which can include many moral dilemmas as well; b) They have an important potential in reducing the environmental pollution by optimizing their routes, driving styles by communicating with other vehicles, infrastructures and their environment; c) There is a considerable gap between the self-drive technology level and the current regulations; fortunately, this gap shows a continuously decreasing trend; d) In case of many types of imminent accidents management there are many concerns about the ability of making the right decision. Considering that this field has an extraordinary speed of development, our study is up to date at the submission deadline. Self-driving technologies become increasingly sophisticated and technically accessible, and in some cases, they can be deployed for commercial vehicles as well. According to the current stage of research and development, it is still unclear how the self-driving technologies will be able to handle extreme and unexpected events including their moral aspects. Since most of the traffic accidents are caused by human error or omission, it is expected that the emergence of the autonomous technologies will reduce these accidents in their number and gravity, but the very few currently available test results have not been able to scientifically underpin this issue yet. The

  20. Cell phone use while driving and attributable crash risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Braitman, Keli A; Lund, Adrian K

    2010-10-01

    Prior research has estimated that crash risk is 4 times higher when talking on a cell phone versus not talking. The objectives of this study were to estimate the extent to which drivers talk on cell phones while driving and to compute the implied annual number of crashes that could have been avoided if driver cell phone use were restricted. A national survey of approximately 1200 U.S. drivers was conducted. Respondents were asked to approximate the amount of time spent driving during a given day, number of cell phone calls made or received, and amount of driving time spent talking on a cell phone. Population attributable risk (PAR) was computed for each combination of driver gender, driver age, day of week, and time of day. These were multiplied by the corresponding crash counts to estimate the number of crashes that could have been avoided. On average, drivers were talking on cell phones approximately 7 percent of the time while driving. Rates were higher on weekdays (8%), in the afternoon and evening (8%), and for drivers younger than 30 (16%). Based on these use rates, restricting cell phones while driving could have prevented an estimated 22 percent (i.e., 1.3 million) of the crashes in 2008. Although increased rates of cell phone use while driving should be leading to increased crash rates, crash rates have been declining. Reasons for this paradox are unclear. One possibility is that the increase in cell phone use and crash risk due to cell phone use have been overestimated. Another possibility is that cell phone use has supplanted other driving distractions that were similarly hazardous.

  1. Design of an immersive simulator for assisted power wheelchair driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devigne, Louise; Babel, Marie; Nouviale, Florian; Narayanan, Vishnu K; Pasteau, Francois; Gallien, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    Driving a power wheelchair is a difficult and complex visual-cognitive task. As a result, some people with visual and/or cognitive disabilities cannot access the benefits of a power wheelchair because their impairments prevent them from driving safely. In order to improve their access to mobility, we have previously designed a semi-autonomous assistive wheelchair system which progressively corrects the trajectory as the user manually drives the wheelchair and smoothly avoids obstacles. Developing and testing such systems for wheelchair driving assistance requires a significant amount of material resources and clinician time. With Virtual Reality technology, prototypes can be developed and tested in a risk-free and highly flexible Virtual Environment before equipping and testing a physical prototype. Additionally, users can "virtually" test and train more easily during the development process. In this paper, we introduce a power wheelchair driving simulator allowing the user to navigate with a standard wheelchair in an immersive 3D Virtual Environment. The simulation framework is designed to be flexible so that we can use different control inputs. In order to validate the framework, we first performed tests on the simulator with able-bodied participants during which the user's Quality of Experience (QoE) was assessed through a set of questionnaires. Results show that the simulator is a promising tool for future works as it generates a good sense of presence and requires rather low cognitive effort from users.

  2. Driver headway choice: a comparison between driving simulator and real-road driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risto, Malte; Martens, Marieke Hendrikje

    2014-01-01

    Driving simulators have become an established tool in driver behaviour research by offering a controllable, safe and cost-effective alternative to real world driving. A challenge for using driving simulators as a research tool has been to elicit driving behaviour that equals real world driving. With

  3. Driver headway choice : A comparison between driving simulator and real-road driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risto, M.; Martens, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Driving simulators have become an established tool in driver behaviour research by offering a controllable, safe and cost-effective alternative to real world driving. A challenge for using driving simulators as a research tool has been to elicit driving behaviour that equals real world driving. With

  4. The impact of music on affect during anger inducing drives

    OpenAIRE

    Zwaag, M. van der; Fairclough, S.; Spiridon, E.; Westerink, J.H.D.

    2012-01-01

    Driver anger could be potentially harmful for road safety and long-term health. Because of its mood inducing properties, music is assumed to be a potential medium that could prevent anger induction duringdriving. In the current study the influence of music on anger, mood, skin conductance, and systolic blood pressure was investigated during anger inducing scenarios in a driving simulator. 100 participants were split into five groups: four listened to different types of music (high/ low energy...

  5. Among High School Seniors, Driving After Marijuana Use Surpasses Drunk Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drunk Driving Among High School Seniors, Driving After Marijuana Use Surpasses Drunk Driving Email Facebook Twitter July ... in a vehicle whose driver had been using marijuana or another illicit drug, or had drunk 5 ...

  6. Granular gases under extreme driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, W.; Machta, J.; Ben-Naim, E.

    2010-08-01

    We study inelastic gases in two dimensions using event-driven molecular-dynamics simulations. Our focus is the nature of the stationary state attained by rare injection of large amounts of energy to balance the dissipation due to collisions. We find that under such extreme driving, with the injection rate much smaller than the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a power-law high-energy tail. The numerically measured exponent characterizing this tail is in excellent agreement with predictions of kinetic theory over a wide range of system parameters. We conclude that driving by rare but powerful energy injection leads to a well-mixed gas and constitutes an alternative mechanism for agitating granular matter. In this distinct nonequilibrium steady state, energy cascades from large to small scales. Our simulations also show that when the injection rate is comparable with the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a stretched exponential tail.

  7. Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Micheloni, Rino; Eshghi, Kam

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well ...

  8. Auto warranty and driving patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasiadis, Simon; Anderson, Boyd; Chukova, Stefanka

    2013-01-01

    Automobile warranty coverage is typically limited by age as well as mileage. However, the age is known for all sold vehicles at all times, but mileage is only observed for a vehicle with a claim and only at the time of the claim. We study the relationship between the expected number/cost of warranty claims and the driving patterns. Within a nonparametric framework, we account for the rate of mileage accumulation and propose a measure for the variability of this rate over a vehicle's observable life. We illustrate the ideas with real warranty data and comment on the relationship between the expected number/cost of warranty claims and the driving patterns using results adjusted/unadjusted for withdrawals from the warranty coverage due to mileage accumulation

  9. Unitary deformations of counterdiabatic driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazutaka

    2015-04-01

    We study a deformation of the counterdiabatic-driving Hamiltonian as a systematic strategy for an adiabatic control of quantum states. Using a unitary transformation, we design a convenient form of the driver Hamiltonian. We apply the method to a particle in a confining potential and discrete systems to find explicit forms of the Hamiltonian and discuss the general properties. The method is derived by using the quantum brachistochrone equation, which shows the existence of a nontrivial dynamical invariant in the deformed system.

  10. Unique and interactive effects of impulsivity facets on reckless driving and driving under the influence in a high-risk young adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Trim, Ryan S; Karyadi, Kenny A; Curry, Inga; Hopfer, Christian J; Hewitt, John K; Stallings, Michael C; Brown, Sandra A; Wall, Tamara L

    2017-08-01

    Risky driving behaviors are disproportionately high among young adults and impulsivity is a robust risk factor. Recent conceptualizations have proposed multidimensional facets of impulsivity comprised of negative urgency, premeditation, perseverance, sensation seeking, and positive urgency (UPPS-P model). Prior studies have found these facets are associated with risky driving behaviors in college student samples, but no prior studies have examined these facets in clinical samples. This study examined the unique and interactive effects of UPPS-P impulsivity facets on past-year risky driving behaviors in a sample of high-risk young adults (ages 18-30 years) with a history of substance use and antisocial behavior and their siblings ( n =1,100). Multilevel Poisson regressions indicated that sensation seeking and negative urgency were uniquely and positively associated with both frequency of past-year reckless driving and driving under the influence. Moreover, lack of premeditation was uniquely and positively associated with reckless driving, whereas lack of perseverance was uniquely and positively associated with driving under the influence. Furthermore, lack of premeditation moderated and strengthened the positive association between sensation seeking and driving under the influence. These study findings suggest that assessing multiple facets of trait impulsivity could facilitate targeted prevention efforts among young adults with a history of externalizing psychopathology.

  11. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE1.1 National driving licences from countries belonging to the EEAa) ValidityCurrent national driving licences issued by a country belonging to the European Economic Area (here inafter called EEA) are, in principle, valid in France. N.B. : The countries belonging to the EEA are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.b)\tRegistrationTo ensure that all the conditions of validity in France have been met, holders of driving licences issued by a country belonging to the EEA, who reside in France (i.e. hold a residence permit issued by a Préfecture, or a carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is equivalent to a residence permit), can have their licences registered with the Préfecture of the department where they live (for Ain, call 04 74 32 30 00, for Haute Savoie call 04 50 33 ...

  12. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The following information is provided subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 474 32 30 65 for Ain and + 33 450 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PEOPLE RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a state belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it is recognised only up to one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France (date of the first special residence permit issu...

  13. Foreign driving licences in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The following information is subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of the Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 4 74 32 30 65 for the Ain and + 33 4 50 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a State belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA and with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it will be recognised for a maximum of one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France ...

  14. Factors That Drive Youth Specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padaki, Ajay S; Popkin, Charles A; Hodgins, Justin L; Kovacevic, David; Lynch, Thomas Sean; Ahmad, Christopher S

    Specialization in young athletes has been linked to overuse injuries, burnout, and decreased satisfaction. Despite continued opposition from the medical community, epidemiological studies suggest the frequency is increasing. Extrinsic pressures in addition to individual aspirations drive this national trend in sports specialization. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. A novel instrument assessing the driving factors behind youth specialization was generated by an interdisciplinary team of medical professionals. Surveys were administered to patients and athletes in the department's sports medicine clinic. The survey was completed by 235 athletes between 7 and 18 years of age, with a mean age of 13.8 ± 3.0 years. Athletes specialized at a mean age of 8.1 years, and 31% of athletes played a single sport while 58% played multiple sports but had a preferred sport. More than 70% of athletes had collegiate or professional ambitions, and 60% played their primary sport for 9 or more months per year, with players who had an injury history more likely to play year-round ( P sports, with specialized athletes reporting this significantly more often ( P = 0.04). Half of the athletes reported that sports interfered with their academic performance, with older players stating this more frequently ( P sport before starting high school. While intrinsic drive may identify healthy aspirations, extrinsic influences are prevalent in specialized athletes. Extrinsic factors contributing to youth specialization were identified and compounded the deleterious sequelae of youth athlete specialization.

  15. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. (see the official news about the new "Carte de légitimation P") If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible...

  16. Advisory and autonomous cooperative driving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the traffic efficiency of an advisory cooperative driving system, Advisory Acceleration Control is examined and compared to the efficiency of an autonomous cooperative driving system, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control. The algorithms and implementation thereof are explained. The

  17. Synthesizing Naturalistic Driving Data: a further review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, Karien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) methodology has in the past decade proven extremely valuable in providing rich contextual information about the driver, the vehicle and driving environment. Internationally the uptake of the methodology...

  18. Speciation through sensory drive in cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seehausen, Ole; Terai, Yohey; Magalhaes, Isabel S.; Carleton, Karen L.; Mrosso, Hillary D. J.; Miyagi, Ryutaro; van der Sluijs, Inke; Schneider, Maria V.; Maan, Martine E.; Tachida, Hidenori; Imai, Hiroo; Okada, Norihiro

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically, divergent selection on sensory systems can cause speciation through sensory drive. However, empirical evidence is rare and incomplete. Here we demonstrate sensory drive speciation within island populations of cichlid fish. We identify the ecological and molecular basis of divergent

  19. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    OpenAIRE

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based on a neural network approach. The aim of this research is to assess the relative merit of both approaches to describe human learning behavior in car driving specifically and in operating dynamic sys...

  20. Preventing Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan Fordney

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…

  1. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based

  2. CAAD: Computer Architecture for Autonomous Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shaoshan; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Zhe; Gaudiot, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    We describe the computing tasks involved in autonomous driving, examine existing autonomous driving computing platform implementations. To enable autonomous driving, the computing stack needs to simultaneously provide high performance, low power consumption, and low thermal dissipation, at low cost. We discuss possible approaches to design computing platforms that will meet these needs.

  3. CDC Vital Signs: Teen Drinking and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... every trip, no matter how short. Obey speed limits. Never use a cell phone or text while driving. Parents can Understand that most teens ... teen passengers Never use a cell phone or text while driving Obey speed limits Get your copy of CDC's parent-teen driving ...

  4. Driving When You Have Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving When You Have Parkinson’s Disease DRIVEWELL You have been a safe driver for years. For you, driving means freedom and control. As you get older, ... mental health can affect how safely you drive. Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the central nervous system ...

  5. Assessment of driving outcomes after epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Ross L; Omar, Nidal B; Agee, Bonita S; Walters, Beverly C; Riley, Kristen O

    2015-11-01

    Driving is an important factor contributing to good quality of life in patients with epilepsy. Little work has been undertaken to explore the details of driving experience alone in this patient population. We assessed the driving status of our patients prior to and following surgery for epilepsy. We also sought to determine what associations exist between patient characteristics and postoperative driving status. The participants were selected from those adult patients with epilepsy who have required surgical treatment at our home institution between 2006 and 2010. Each participant received a questionnaire asking about driving and seizure status before and after surgery. The surveys were distributed using a modified Dillman approach. Perioperative patient data were obtained from the electronic medical record system in addition to a previously assembled epilepsy database from the Neurology Department at our institution. Independent variables were analyzed to look for significant associations with driving outcomes. One hundred forty eligible patients were included in the survey population; 78 patients returned a questionnaire for a response rate of 55.7%. Eighty percent of patients experienced driving as a regular part of life at some point prior to surgery. At the time of the questionnaire distribution, 68% of patients had returned to regular driving. Demographic characteristics did not play a significant role in whether or not the patient had a favorable driving outcome after surgery. However, patients who had a history of driving on a regular basis prior to surgery and those who had an Engel Class I outcome after surgery had significantly higher rates of good driving outcomes. Also, patients with an unfavorable preoperative driving status were more likely to have a favorable driving outcome after surgery if they had an Engel Class I outcome. Patients in whom intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) was utilized prior to resection had worse driving outcomes. A

  6. What Drives Politicians’ Online Popularity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis; Vaccari, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    The number of website visits, Facebook friends, or Twitter followers that politicians attract varies greatly, but little is known about what drives politicians' online popularity. In this article, we use data from a systematic tracking of congressional candidates' popularity on four web platforms......-seat races tend to attract larger audiences online, as do candidates who are more visible on political blogs. Surprisingly, how intensely candidates are covered in news media, how popular they are in opinion polls, and how much money they spend during the campaign show no significant effect. These findings...... help us understand the dynamics of internet politics, and have wider implications for candidate competition and party politics....

  7. Efficient alternatives for electric drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comnes, G.A.; Barnes, R.W.

    1987-11-01

    This analysis of industrial electric motors describes the current motor stock, its energy use and operating characteristics, and innovations that could change current use patterns. It provides calculations characterizing the economic attractiveness of several existing and potential options. One attractive option given particular attention is the adjustable-speed drive which can replace throttles or valves for many pumping operations. A major conclusion is that, throughout industry, options that are both energy-saving and economically attractive appear to penetrate markets more slowly than would be socially optimal. The final section examines characteristics of industry that may contribute to slow market penetration. 29 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. EEG potentials predict upcoming emergency brakings during simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Stefan; Treder, Matthias S; Gugler, Manfred F; Sagebaum, Max; Curio, Gabriel; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2011-10-01

    Emergency braking assistance has the potential to prevent a large number of car crashes. State-of-the-art systems operate in two stages. Basic safety measures are adopted once external sensors indicate a potential upcoming crash. If further activity at the brake pedal is detected, the system automatically performs emergency braking. Here, we present the results of a driving simulator study indicating that the driver's intention to perform emergency braking can be detected based on muscle activation and cerebral activity prior to the behavioural response. Identical levels of predictive accuracy were attained using electroencephalography (EEG), which worked more quickly than electromyography (EMG), and using EMG, which worked more quickly than pedal dynamics. A simulated assistance system using EEG and EMG was found to detect emergency brakings 130 ms earlier than a system relying only on pedal responses. At 100 km h(-1) driving speed, this amounts to reducing the braking distance by 3.66 m. This result motivates a neuroergonomic approach to driving assistance. Our EEG analysis yielded a characteristic event-related potential signature that comprised components related to the sensory registration of a critical traffic situation, mental evaluation of the sensory percept and motor preparation. While all these components should occur often during normal driving, we conjecture that it is their characteristic spatio-temporal superposition in emergency braking situations that leads to the considerable prediction performance we observed.

  9. EEG potentials predict upcoming emergency brakings during simulated driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Stefan; Treder, Matthias S.; Gugler, Manfred F.; Sagebaum, Max; Curio, Gabriel; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2011-10-01

    Emergency braking assistance has the potential to prevent a large number of car crashes. State-of-the-art systems operate in two stages. Basic safety measures are adopted once external sensors indicate a potential upcoming crash. If further activity at the brake pedal is detected, the system automatically performs emergency braking. Here, we present the results of a driving simulator study indicating that the driver's intention to perform emergency braking can be detected based on muscle activation and cerebral activity prior to the behavioural response. Identical levels of predictive accuracy were attained using electroencephalography (EEG), which worked more quickly than electromyography (EMG), and using EMG, which worked more quickly than pedal dynamics. A simulated assistance system using EEG and EMG was found to detect emergency brakings 130 ms earlier than a system relying only on pedal responses. At 100 km h-1 driving speed, this amounts to reducing the braking distance by 3.66 m. This result motivates a neuroergonomic approach to driving assistance. Our EEG analysis yielded a characteristic event-related potential signature that comprised components related to the sensory registration of a critical traffic situation, mental evaluation of the sensory percept and motor preparation. While all these components should occur often during normal driving, we conjecture that it is their characteristic spatio-temporal superposition in emergency braking situations that leads to the considerable prediction performance we observed.

  10. Smartphone Based Approach For Monitoring Inefficient And Unsafe Driving Behavior And Recognizing Drink And Drive Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Mane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many automobile drivers having knowledge of the driving behaviours and habits that can lead to inefficient and unsafe driving. However it is often the case that these same drivers unknowingly manifest these inefficient and unsafe driving behaviours in their everyday driving activity. The proposed system proposes a practical and economical way to capture measure and alert drives of inefficient and unsafe driving as well as highly efficient system aimed at early detection and alert of dangerous vehicle maneuvers typically related to drunk driving. The upcoming solution consists of a mobile application running on a modern smartphone device paired with a compatible OBDII On-board diagnostics II reader.

  11. Computer Security: drive-bye

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2016-01-01

    Like a lion waiting to ambush gazelles at a waterhole, malware can catch you by surprise.    As some of you might have noticed, the Computer Security Team had to block the news site “20min.ch” a while ago, as it was found to be distributing malware. This block comes after similar incidents at other Swiss organizations. Our blocking is protective in order to safeguard your computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones. Unfortunately, this is not the first time we have seen these so-called drive-by/waterhole attacks: once you have visited an affected website, embedded third-party malicious code is downloaded to your computer and subsequently infects it (if running Windows or Android as well as, less likely, Mac operating systems). Hence the name “drive-by”. As “20min.ch” is a very frequented website among CERN staff members and users, it makes it a perfect source for attacks against CERN (or other Geneva-based organisations): inste...

  12. Learning headway estimation in driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taieb-Maimon, Meirav

    2007-08-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to examine to what extent the ability to attain a required headway of 1 or 2 s can be improved through practical driving instruction under real traffic conditions and whether the learning is sustained after a period during which there has been no controlled training. The failure of drivers to estimate headways correctly has been demonstrated in previous studies. Two methods of training were used: time based (in seconds) and distance based (in a combination of meters and car lengths). For each method, learning curves were examined for 18 participants at speeds of 50, 80, and 100 km/hr. The results indicated that drivers were weak in estimating headway prior to training using both methods. The learning process was rapid for both methods and similar for all speeds; thus, after one trial with feedback, there was already a significant improvement. The learning was retained over time, for at least the 1 month examined in this study. Both the time and distance training of headway improved drivers' ability to attain required headways, with the learning being maintained over a retention interval. The learning process was based on perceptual cues from the driving scene and feedback from the experimenter, regardless of the formal training method. The implications of these results are that all drivers should be trained in headway estimation using an objective distance measuring device, which can be installed on driver instruction vehicles.

  13. A study on the effects of fatigue driving and drunk driving on drivers' physical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingjian; Zhao, Xiaohua; Du, Hongji; Rong, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of fatigue driving and drunk driving on drivers' physical characteristics; to analyze the differences in drivers' physical characteristics affected by different kinds of fatigue; and to compare the differences in the effects of the 2 driving states, fatigue driving and drunk driving. Twenty-five participants' physical characteristics were collected under 5 controlled situations: normal, tired driving, drowsy driving, drowsiness + tired driving, and drunk driving. In this article, fatigue driving refers to tiredness and drowsiness and includes 3 situations: tired driving, drowsy driving, and drowsiness + tired driving. The drivers' physical characteristics were measured in terms of 9 parameters: systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), eyesight, dynamic visual acuity (DVA), time for dark adaption (TDA), reaction time to sound (RTS), reaction time to light (RTL), deviation of depth perception (DDP), and time deviation of speed anticipation (TDSA). They were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Binary logistical regression analysis was used to explain the relationship between drivers' physical characteristics and the two driving states. Most of the drivers' physical characteristic parameters were found to be significantly different under the influence of different situations. Four indicators are significantly affected by fatigue driving during deep fatigue (in decreasing order of influence): HR, RTL, SBP and RTS. HR and RTL are significant in the logistical regression model of the drowsiness + tired driving situation and normal situations. Six indicators of the drivers' physical characteristics are significantly affected by drunk driving (in decreasing order of influence): SBP, RTL, DDP, eyesight, RTS, and TDSA. SBP and DDP have a significant effect in the logistical regression model of the drunk driving situation and the normal situation. Both fatigue driving and drunk driving

  14. Virus Satellites Drive Viral Evolution and Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frígols, Belén; Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Mir-Sanchis, Ignacio; Donderis, Jorge; Elena, Santiago F; Buckling, Angus; Novick, Richard P; Marina, Alberto; Penadés, José R

    2015-10-01

    Virus satellites are widespread subcellular entities, present both in eukaryotic and in prokaryotic cells. Their modus vivendi involves parasitism of the life cycle of their inducing helper viruses, which assures their transmission to a new host. However, the evolutionary and ecological implications of satellites on helper viruses remain unclear. Here, using staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) as a model of virus satellites, we experimentally show that helper viruses rapidly evolve resistance to their virus satellites, preventing SaPI proliferation, and SaPIs in turn can readily evolve to overcome phage resistance. Genomic analyses of both these experimentally evolved strains as well as naturally occurring bacteriophages suggest that the SaPIs drive the coexistence of multiple alleles of the phage-coded SaPI inducing genes, as well as sometimes selecting for the absence of the SaPI depressing genes. We report similar (accidental) evolution of resistance to SaPIs in laboratory phages used for Staphylococcus aureus typing and also obtain the same qualitative results in both experimental evolution and phylogenetic studies of Enterococcus faecalis phages and their satellites viruses. In summary, our results suggest that helper and satellite viruses undergo rapid coevolution, which is likely to play a key role in the evolution and ecology of the viruses as well as their prokaryotic hosts.

  15. Anti-ejection system for control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    A linearly movable latch mechanism is provided to move into engagement with a deformable collet whenever an undesired ejection of a leadscrew is initiated from a nuclear reactor mounted control rod drive. Such an undesired ejection would occur in the event of a rupture in a housing of the control rod drive. The collet is deformed by the linear movement of the latch mechanism to wedge itself against the leadscrew and prevent the ejection of the leadscrew from the housing. The latch mechanism is made to be controllably engageable with the leadscrew and when thus engaged to allow the leadscrew to move in a control direction while moving with the leadscrew to engage and deform the collet when the leadscrew moves in an ejection direction. 13 claims, 2 figures

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise ...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 ...

  19. Magnesium prevents vascular calcification in vitro by inhibition of hydroxyapatite crystal formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braake, A.D. ter; Tinnemans, P.T.; Shanahan, C.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Baaij, J.H.F. de

    2018-01-01

    Magnesium has been shown to effectively prevent vascular calcification associated with chronic kidney disease. Magnesium has been hypothesized to prevent the upregulation of osteoblastic genes that potentially drives calcification. However, extracellular effects of magnesium on hydroxyapatite

  20. [Useful assessment for identifying unsafe driving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Régis; Fabrigoule, Colette; Domont, Alain

    2005-03-01

    Ability to drive safely is the resultant of interactions between the individual (the driver), the vector (the car) and the environment (the state of the road). For some aged drivers, an important decline of visual, musculosquelettic and cognitive performances, may affect the ability to drive and increase the rate of crashes per vehicle-kilometer-driven, and the morbidity and mortality related to crash. Therefore, each holder of a driving licence should be medically suited to control his driving ability. In case of transitory or lasting driving incapacity, drivers must, of their own initiative, stop driving according to the Highway code and the contractual obligations appearing in their vehicle insurance contract. A medical examination for aptitude to driving requires a standardized, reliable, reproducible procedure based on consensual assessment tools to avoid arbitrary decisions for driving cessation. We propose a multidisciplinary approach to detect important decline of visuospatial and motor skills, paroxystic drops of attention and vigilance, and decreased cognitive capacity to anticipate and adapt driving at every moment. This assessment is based on a semi-directed interview and simple diagnostic tests. According to the present French law, only twelve medical conditions or functional deficits are inconsistent with the retain of the driving licence for a light vehicle.

  1. Factors Driving Business Intelligence Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimvydas Skyrius

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of business intelligence (BI, despite rapid technology advances, continues to feature inadequate levels of adoption. The attention of researchers is shifting towards hu-man factors of BI adoption. The wide set of human factors influencing BI adoption con-tains elements of what we call BI culture – an overarching concept covering key managerial issues that come up in BI implementation. Research sources provide different sets of features pertaining to BI culture or related concepts – decision-making culture, analytical culture and others. The goal of this paper is to perform the review of research and practical sources to examine driving forces of BI – data-driven approaches, BI agility, maturity and acceptance – to point out culture-related issues that support BI adoption and to suggest an emerging set of factors influencing BI culture.

  2. Technology as a driving force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvund, T. [Norsk Hydro A/S (Norway)

    1994-12-31

    The competitiveness of the Norwegian Continental shelf has been put firmly on the agenda in Norway since the report from a working group set up by the Ministry of Industry and Energy was released in February this year. If there is to be secured a long future for oil and gas activities, a reduction in the time and costs used in the projects of the order of 40-50%, without jeopardizing the high safety and environmental standards achieved in Norway. The paper addresses how technology can be a driving force in achieving these aims. But technology alone cannot do the job. Progress and changes in several other areas are also necessary, and the new scenario also calls for improved relations between all actors in the North Sea, authorities, oil companies, contractors and labour unions. 15 figs.

  3. Technology as a driving force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvund, T.

    1994-01-01

    The competitiveness of the Norwegian Continental shelf has been put firmly on the agenda in Norway since the report from a working group set up by the Ministry of Industry and Energy was released in February this year. If there is to be secured a long future for oil and gas activities, a reduction in the time and costs used in the projects of the order of 40-50%, without jeopardizing the high safety and environmental standards achieved in Norway. The paper addresses how technology can be a driving force in achieving these aims. But technology alone cannot do the job. Progress and changes in several other areas are also necessary, and the new scenario also calls for improved relations between all actors in the North Sea, authorities, oil companies, contractors and labour unions. 15 figs

  4. Drivers’ Age, Gender, Driving Experience, and Aggressiveness as Predictors of Aggressive Driving Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepjolkina Viktorija

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing interest in the problem of aggressive driving. In the presentstudy two demographic variables (gender and age, two non-psychological driving-experiencerelated variables (annual mileage and legal driving experience in years and aggressiveness asa personality trait (including behavioural and affective components as psychological variableof individual differences were examined as potential predictors of aggressive driving. The aimof the study was to find out the best predictors of aggressive driving behaviour. The study wasbased on an online survey, and 228 vehicle drivers in Latvia participated in it. The questionnaireincluded eight-item Aggressive Driving Scale (Bone & Mowen, 2006, short Latvian versionof the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ; Buss & Perry, 1992, and questions gainingdemographic and driving experience information. Gender, age and annual mileage predictedaggressive driving: being male, young and with higher annual driving exposure were associatedwith higher scores on aggressive driving. Dispositional aggressiveness due to anger componentwas a significant predictor of aggressive diving score. Physical aggression and hostility wereunrelated to aggressive driving. Altogether, the predictors explained a total of 28% of thevariance in aggressive driving behaviour. Findings show that dispositional aggressiveness,especially the anger component, as well as male gender, young age and higher annual mileagehas a predictive validity in relation to aggressive driving. There is a need to extend the scope ofpotential dispositional predictors pertinent to driving aggression.

  5. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  6. Simulation and Analysis of Chain Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sine Leergaard

    The subject of this thesis is simulation and analysis of large roller chain drive systems, such as e.g. used in marine diesel engines. The aim of developing a chain drive simulation program is to analyse dynamic phenomena of chain drive systems and investigate different design changes...... to the systems, in order to remove unwanted phenomena. Such a computer program can, when properly validated, be used as an alternative to or in combination with physical experiments. Prior investigations in this area have been done with a focus on smaller chains in high speed chain drives. For large low speed...... systems other phenomena occur and therefore, a specific model of the marine engine chain drive is of interest. The research objective of the work presented in this thesis is to contribute with a novel theoretical basis for the analysis of chain drive systems, by posing and validating different...

  7. Risky, aggressive, or emotional driving: addressing the need for consistent communication in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dula, Chris S; Geller, E Scott

    2003-01-01

    Researchers agree that a consistent definition for aggressive driving is lacking. Such definitional ambiguity in the literature impedes the accumulation of accurate and precise information, and prevents researchers from communicating clearly about findings and implications for future research directions. This dramatically slows progress in understanding the causes and maintenance factors of aggressive driving. This article critiques prevailing definitions of driver aggression and generates a definition that, if used consistently, can improve the utility of future research. Pertinent driving behaviors have been variably labeled in the literature as risky, aggressive, or road rage. The authors suggest that the term "road rage" be eliminated from research because it has been used inconsistently and has little probability of being clarified and applied consistently. Instead, driving behaviors that endanger or have the potential to endanger others should be considered as lying on a behavioral spectrum of dangerous driving. Three dimensions of dangerous driving are delineated: (a). intentional acts of aggression toward others, (b). negative emotions experienced while driving, and (c). risk-taking. The adoption of a standardized definition for aggressive driving should spark researchers to use more explicit operational definitions that are consistent with theoretical foundations. The use of consistent and unambiguous operational definitions will increase the precision of measurement in research and enhance authors' ability to communicate clearly about findings and conclusions. As this occurs over time, industry will reap benefits from more carefully conducted research. Such benefits may include the development of more valid and reliable means of selecting safe professional drivers, conducting accurate risk assessments, and creating preventative and remedial dangerous driving safety programs.

  8. Sleep-deprived motor vehicle operators are unfit to drive: a multidisciplinary expert consensus statement on drowsy driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Charles A; Wickwire, Emerson M; Barger, Laura K; Dement, William C; Gamble, Karen; Hartenbaum, Natalie; Ohayon, Maurice M; Pelayo, Rafael; Phillips, Barbara; Strohl, Kingman; Tefft, Brian; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Malhotra, Raman; Whiton, Kaitlyn; Hirshkowitz, Max

    2016-06-01

    This article presents the consensus findings of the National Sleep Foundation Drowsy Driving Consensus Working Group, which was an expert panel assembled to establish a consensus statement regarding sleep-related driving impairment. The National Sleep Foundation assembled a expert panel comprised of experts from the sleep community and experts appointed by stakeholder organizations. A systematic literature review identified 346 studies that were abstracted and provided to the panelists for review. A modified Delphi RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method with 2 rounds of voting was used to reach consensus. A final consensus was reached that sleep deprivation renders motorists unfit to drive a motor vehicle. After reviewing growing evidence of impairment and increased crash risk among drivers who obtained less than optimal sleep duration in the preceding 24 hours, the panelists recognized the need for public policy guidance as to when it is certainly unsafe to drive. Toward this end, the panelists agreed upon the following expert consensus statement: "Drivers who have slept for two hours or less in the preceding 24 hours are not fit to operate a motor vehicle." Panelists further agreed that most healthy drivers would likely be impaired with only 3 to 5 hours of sleep during the prior 24 hours. There is consensus among experts that healthy individuals who have slept for 2 hours or less in the preceding 24 hours are too impaired to safely operate a motor vehicle. Prevention of drowsy driving will require sustained and collaborative effort from multiple stakeholders. Implications and limitations of the consensus recommendations are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Switched reluctance drives for electric vehicle applications

    OpenAIRE

    Andrada Gascón, Pedro; Torrent Burgués, Marcel; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Perat Benavides, Josep Ignasi

    2003-01-01

    Electric vehicles are the only alternative for a clean, efficient and environmentally friendly urban transport system. With the increasing interest in electric drives for electric vehicle propulsion. This paper first tries to explain why the switched reluctance drive is a strong candidate for electric vehicle applications. It then gives switched reluctance drive design guidelines for battery or fuel cell operated electric vehicles. Finally, it presents the design and simulation of a switched ...

  10. Optimal Sector Sampling for Drive Triage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    known files, which we call target data, that could help identify a drive holding evidence such as child pornography or malware. Triage is needed to sift...we call target data, that could help identify a drive holding evidence such as child pornography or malware. Triage is needed to sift through drives...situations where the user is looking for known data.1 One example is a law enforcement officer searching for evidence of child pornography from a large num

  11. Instruction or distraction in the driving school?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mike Kirk; Caglio, Agnese

    In this paper we report an ongoing study of driving school practice. We recorded several hours of driving lessons in different environments, which we analyze with the Interaction Analysis method. Our initial analysis suggests that looking at how teachers make use of different communicative resour...... resources to instruct students in driving, can provide insights for the development of technologies that support drivers in managing distractions....

  12. Configuring NIF for direct drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eimerl, D.; Rothenberg, J.; Key, M.

    1995-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a proposed 1.8 MJ laser facility for carrying out experiments in inertial confinement fusion, currently designed for indirect drive experiments. The direct drive approach is being pursued at the 30 kJ Omega facility at the University of Rochester. In this paper we discuss the modifications to the NIF laser that would be required for both indirect and direct drive experiments. A primary concern is the additional cost of adding direct drive capability to the facility

  13. Warp Drive - From Imagination to Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, J.

    The realisation of warp drive is far beyond current science and technology; nevertheless, setting out a timetable for the realisation of warp drive is instructive as this will set expectations for the progress of future research. It is proposed that a time scale for the realisation of warp drive can be estimated by historical analogy with the development of manned space travel to the Moon, using conventional project estimation techniques. A timeline for space travel to the Moon begins with Cyrano de Bergerac's Voyage dans la Lune in 1657 and culminates with the Apollo 11 Moon landing in 1969, a little over 300 years later. A similar timeline for warp drive begins with John W. Campbell's novel Islands of Space in 1930. Fictional conjecture on the warp drive has given way to serious scientific speculation following publication of Alcubierre's seminal warp drive paper in 1994. It is concluded that the realisation of warp drive might be achieved around the year 2180. A projected timetable for the realisation of warp drive through phases of conjecture , speculation , science , technology and application suggests that the warp drive proposal should enter the science phase around the year 2030.

  14. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic purpose is demonstrate how this can be done for low-cost PWM-VSI drives without bringing the robustness of the drive below an acceptable level.Four drives are investigated with respect to energy optimal c...

  15. Risky driving and lifestyles in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, Manuela; Graziano, Federica; Bonino, Silvia

    2006-05-01

    Several studies have shown that risky driving is especially prevalent among young drivers and recent research has pointed out that driving in adolescence should be investigated in the more general context of adolescent development. The first aim of this contribution was to analyze involvement in risky driving in a normative sample of 645 Italian adolescents, boys and girls, aged 14-17, through a self-report questionnaire. A second aim was to evaluate the association between risky driving and lifestyle, defined as involvement in other health risk behaviors and leisure activities. The main results showed that many adolescents drove cars and motorcycles without the required driving license and the most frequent offences were speeding and failure to maintain a safe braking distance. Gender and age differences were also investigated. Results concerning the association between risky driving and lifestyle showed that risky driving was not an isolated behavior. Boys who displayed risky driving practices were more likely to adopt a lifestyle characterized by high involvement in antisocial behaviors, tobacco smoking, comfort eating and time spent in non-organized activities with friends. Girls involved in risky driving were more likely to be involved in other risk-taking behaviors, antisocial behaviors and drug use.

  16. Effects of driving time on microsaccadic dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; McCamy, Michael B; Pannasch, Sebastian; Renner, Rebekka; Catena, Andrés; Cañas, José J; Velichkovsky, Boris M; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2015-02-01

    Driver fatigue is a common cause of car accidents. Thus, the objective detection of driver fatigue is a first step toward the effective management of fatigue-related traffic accidents. Here, we investigated the effects of driving time, a common inducer of driver fatigue, on the dynamics of fixational eye movements. Participants drove for 2 h in a virtual driving environment while we recorded their eye movements. Microsaccade velocities decreased with driving time, suggesting a potential effect of fatigue on microsaccades during driving.

  17. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  18. Teens' distracted driving behavior: Prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Pnina; Zhu, Chunming; Klauer, Sheila G; Dingus, Tom; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Teen drivers' over-involvement in crashes has been attributed to a variety of factors, including distracted driving. With the rapid development of in-vehicle systems and portable electronic devices, the burden associated with distracted driving is expected to increase. The current study identifies predictors of secondary task engagement among teenage drivers and provides basis for interventions to reduce distracted driving behavior. We described the prevalence of secondary tasks by type and driving conditions and evaluated the associations between the prevalence of secondary task engagement, driving conditions, and selected psychosocial factors. The private vehicles of 83 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with Data Acquisition Systems (DAS), which documented driving performance measures, including secondary task engagement and driving environment characteristics. Surveys administered at licensure provided psychosocial measures. Overall, teens engaged in a potentially distracting secondary task in 58% of sampled road clips. The most prevalent types of secondary tasks were interaction with a passenger, talking/singing (no passenger), external distraction, and texting/dialing the cell phone. Secondary task engagement was more prevalent among those with primary vehicle access and when driving alone. Social norms, friends' risky driving behaviors, and parental limitations were significantly associated with secondary task prevalence. In contrast, environmental attributes, including lighting and road surface conditions, were not associated with teens' engagement in secondary tasks. Our findings indicated that teens engaged in secondary tasks frequently and poorly regulate their driving behavior relative to environmental conditions. Practical applications: Peer and parent influences on secondary task engagement provide valuable objectives for countermeasures to reduce distracted driving among teenage drivers. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and

  19. Driving automation forward : human factors for limited-ability autonomous driving systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 100 years, there has been a : steady progression of innovations that : enhance the driving experience, in particular : the continuing trend toward automating more : driving tasks. Human Factors for Limited-Ability : Autonomous Drivin...

  20. The Virtual Driving Instructor: A Multi-agent Based System for Driving Instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weevers, I.; Kuipers, J.; Brugman, A.; Zwiers, Jakob; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Nijholt, Antinus

    Driving simulators need an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). Simulators provide ways to conduct objective measurements on students' driving behavior and opportunities for creating the best possible learning environment. The generated traffic situations can be influenced directly according to the

  1. Hurried driving: Relationship to distress tolerance, driver anger, aggressive and risky driving in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Daughters, Stacey B; Ali, Bina

    2013-03-01

    Being a hurried driver is associated with a variety of risky driving behaviors, yet the mechanisms underlying this behavior remain unknown. Distress tolerance, defined as an individual's capability to experience and endure negative emotional states, was examined as a predictor of hurried driving among 769 college students. Results indicate that after controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, the student's year in school, their grade point average, driving frequency, angry driving, aggressive driving as well as other forms of self-reported risky driving; hurried driving was significantly associated with lower levels of distress tolerance. Hurried drivers also reported greater levels of frustration and impatience with other drivers, suggesting that they have difficulty in withstanding or coping with negative psychological states when driving. Traditional traffic safety campaigns that emphasize enforcement may be less successful with these drivers. The need to develop campaigns that address the affective coping abilities that contribute to this behavioral pattern is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back ... in very slightly. Hold a ball directly in front of you. Keep your abdominal muscles tight and ...

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  4. Prevent Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Prevent Shingles Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can result in vision loss. Older Adults & Shingles As you get older, you are more likely ...

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! ...

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle ... Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis ...

  7. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient ... the floor; rotate from side to side. Repeat 10 times. Check with your physician; if you are ...

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient ... popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts ...

  10. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  11. Redundant arrays of IDE drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Sanders et al.

    2002-01-02

    The authors report tests of redundant arrays of IDE disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. Parts costs of total systems using commodity EIDE disks are now at the $4000 per Terabyte level. Disk storage prices have now decreased to the point where they equal the cost per Terabyte of Storage Technology tape silos. The disks, however, offer far better granularity; even small institutions can afford to deploy systems. The tests include reports on software RAID-5 systems running under Linux 2.4 using Promise Ultra 100{trademark} disk controllers. RAID-5 protects data in case of a single disk failure by providing parity bits. Tape backup is not required. Journaling file systems are used to allow rapid recovery from crashes. The data analysis strategy is to encapsulate data and CPU processing power. Analysis for a particular part of a data set takes place on the PC where the data resides. The network is only used to put results together. They explore three methods of moving data between sites; internet transfers, not pluggable IDE disks in FireWire cases, and DVD-R disks.

  12. The Queerness of the Drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lauretis, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The view of sexuality Freud first proposed in the Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality contains a discrepancy between the sexuality perverse and polymorphous described in the first two essays and the biologically directed, reproductive sexuality of the third essay. According to Jean Laplanche, the theorist of psychoanalysis who is Freud's closest reader and translator, the discrepancy is due to two contradictory opinions Freud apparently held at different moments of his writing: one, that sexuality is exogenous, an effect of seduction by adults; two, that sexuality is endogenous, innate in the human biological organism. This article focuses on Laplanche's elucidation of two aspects of sexuality present in each adult: an instinctual, hormonally based, and ultimately reproductive sexual impulse, which begins at puberty, and the drive-based sexual impulses first theorized by Freud as polymorphous-perverse infantile sexuality, which begin in infancy and continue to be active throughout the individual's life. Laplanche's rereading of Freud leads to a more complex understanding of sexuality as always deviant, in one way or another and to a greater or lesser degree, from the established social norms. So-called sexual deviance, therefore, is not a problem within the sexual but an issue within the social field.

  13. Empathic concern drives costly altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Dalgleish, Tim; Evans, Davy; Mobbs, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Why do we self-sacrifice to help others in distress? Two competing theories have emerged, one suggesting that prosocial behavior is primarily motivated by feelings of empathic other-oriented concern, the other that we help mainly because we are egoistically focused on reducing our own discomfort. Here we explore the relationship between costly altruism and these two sub-processes of empathy, specifically drawing on the caregiving model to test the theory that trait empathic concern (e.g. general tendency to have sympathy for another) and trait personal distress (e.g. predisposition to experiencing aversive arousal states) may differentially drive altruistic behavior. We find that trait empathic concern – and not trait personal distress – motivates costly altruism, and this relationship is supported by activity in the ventral tegmental area, caudate and subgenual anterior cingulate, key regions for promoting social attachment and caregiving. Together, this data helps identify the behavioral and neural mechanisms motivating costly altruism, while demonstrating that individual differences in empathic concern-related brain responses can predict real prosocial choice. PMID:25462694

  14. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  15. The Thermodynamics of Drunk Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert Q.

    1997-05-01

    Chemical and instrumental tests for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) measure the concentration of ethanol in the breath (BrAC), while state DUI laws are described in terms of blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Consequently, accurate and fair conversion from BrAC to BAC is crucial to the judicial process. Theoretical treatment of the water-air-ethanol equilibrium system and the related blood-breath-ethanol system, based on principles from general chemistry and biology, yields an equation relating the ratio of BAC to BrAC to the absolute temperature of the breath, the fraction of water in the blood, and the enthalpy and entropy of vaporization of ethanol from aqueous solution. The model equation predicts an average value for the ratio of 2350+100, not significantly different from reported experimental values. An exponential temperature dependence is predicted and has been confirmed experimentally as well. Biological, chemical, and instrumental variables are described along with their contributions to the overall uncertainty in the value of BrAC/BAC. While the forensic science community uses, and debates, a fixed ratio of 2100, the theoretical model suggests that a value of 1880 should be used to reduce the fraction of false positives to <1%.

  16. How much can you drink before driving? The influence of riding with impaired adults and peers on the driving behaviors of urban and rural youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Foran, Kathleen; Grove-White, Aidan

    2008-04-01

    Following an ecological model to specify risks for impaired driving, we assessed the effects of youth attitudes about substance use and their experiences of riding in cars with adults and peers who drove after drinking alcohol or smoking cannabis on the youths' own driving after drinking or using cannabis. Participants were 2594 students in grades 10 and 12 (mean age = 16 years and 2 months; 50% girls) from public high schools in urban (994) and rural communities (1600) on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada; 1192 of these were new drivers with restricted licenses. Self-report data were collected in anonymous questionnaires. Regression analyses were used to assess the independent and interacting effects of youth attitudes about substance use and their experiences of riding in cars with adults or peers who drove after drinking alcohol or smoking cannabis on youth driving. Youth driving risk behaviors were associated independently with their own high-risk attitudes and experiences riding with peers who drink alcohol or use cannabis and drive. However, risks were highest for the youth who also report more frequent experiences of riding with adults who drink alcohol or use cannabis and drive. Prevention efforts should be expanded to include the adults and peers who are role models for new drivers and to increase youths' awareness of their own responsibilities for their personal safety as passengers.

  17. ELDERLY DRIVING BEHAVIOR AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuo HORIKAWA

    2009-01-01

    Discussions: Of the 30 items monitored in the study, significant differences were evident in only a few. Because the evidence did not suggest a particular link to accident experience, it will be necessary to obtain objective data from other cognitive function tests and driving behavior for reassessment. various problems related to elderly driving in Japan were discussed.

  18. Dynamics and control of instrumented harmonic drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerooni, H.; Ellis, S. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Since torque in harmonic drives is transmitted by a pure couple, harmonic drives do not generate radial forces and therefore can be instrumented with torque sensors without interference from radial forces. The installation of torque sensors on the stationary component of harmonic drives (the Flexipline cup in this research work) produce backdrivability needed for robotic and telerobotic compliant maneuvers. Backdrivability of a harmonic drive, when used as torque increaser, means that the output shaft can be rotated via finite amount of torque. A high ratio harmonic drive is non-backdrivable because its output shaft cannot be turned by applying a torque on it. This article first develops the dynamic behavior of a harmonic drive, in particular the non-backdrivability, in terms of a sensitivity transfer function. The instrumentation of the harmonic drive with torque sensor is then described. This leads to a description of the control architecture which allows modulation of the sensitivity transfer function within the limits established by the closed-loop stability. A set of experiments on an active hand controller, powered by a DC motor coupled to an instrumented harmonic drive, is given to exhibit this method's limitations.

  19. Use of the mobile phone while driving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while driving has negative effects on driving behaviour. This is the case for conducting a conversation, dialling a number, and sending text messages as well as for using the extra functions that smartphones offer, like accessing internet or social networking sites. An elaborate

  20. Testing device for control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Toshifumi.

    1992-01-01

    A testing device for control rod drives comprises a logic measuring means for measuring an output signal from a control rod drive logic generation circuit, a control means for judging the operation state of a control rod and a man machine interface means for outputting the result of the judgement. A driving instruction outputted from the control rod operation device is always monitored by the control means, and if the operation instruction is stopped, a testing signal is outputted to the control rod control device to simulate a control rod operation. In this case, the output signal of the control rod drive logic generation circuit is held in a control rod drive memory means and intaken into a logic analysis means for measurement and an abnormality is judged by the control means. The stopping of the control rod drive instruction is monitored and the operation abnormality of the control rod is judged, to mitigate the burden of an operator. Further, the operation of the control rod drive logic generation circuit can be confirmed even during a nuclear plant operation by holding the control rod drive instruction thereby enabling to improve maintenance efficiency. (N.H.)

  1. Driving with head-slaved camera system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oving, A.B.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2001-01-01

    In a field experiment, we tested the effectiveness of a head-slaved camera system for driving an armoured vehicle under armour. This system consists of a helmet-mounted display (HMD), a headtracker, and a motion platform with two cameras. Subjects performed several driving tasks on paved and in

  2. Chemical driving force for rafting in superalloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1997-08-15

    Full Text Available The author provides a brief overview of the chemical driving forces for rafting in superalloys. Until recently, all theories of the driving force for rafting have considered the compositions of the two phases to be fixed, although accepting...

  3. Adjustable Speed Drives and Power Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Yang, Yongheng; Zare, Firuz

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and proposes cost-effective and efficient opportunities in improving power quality in Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems. In particular, an Electronic Inductor (EI) technique has been used in single drives to overcome the existing challenges in conventional...

  4. Fitness to drive after traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, WH; Withaar, FK

    This paper deals with the issue of fitness to drive in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Guidelines for assessment are proposed and three types of studies are reviewed: studies about impairments of attention and information processing, studies of driving competence, and driver

  5. Strategic advertising plans to deter drunk driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Primary objective for this study was to identify and profile subpopulations at highest risk for drinking and driving, and persons who may be in a position to intervene in their drinking and driving behavior. A related objective was to explore media m...

  6. Motion feedback in advanced driving manoeuvres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia Grácio, B.; Wentink, M.; Feenstra, P.J; Mulder, M.; Paassen M.M. van; Bles, W.

    2009-01-01

    During advanced driving manoeuvres, drivers can be hypothesized to use all the available cues to optimize their performance. Fixed-base simulators are commonly used for training of these advanced driving manoeuvres, despite the fact that motion cues are not present. In this experiment we hypothesize

  7. Signed reward prediction errors drive declarative learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Loof, E.; Ergo, K.; Naert, L.; Janssens, C.; Talsma, D.; van Opstal, F.; Verguts, T.

    2018-01-01

    Reward prediction errors (RPEs) are thought to drive learning. This has been established in procedural learning (e.g., classical and operant conditioning). However, empirical evidence on whether RPEs drive declarative learning–a quintessentially human form of learning–remains surprisingly absent. We

  8. Simulation of linear Switched Reluctance Motor drives

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Amoros, Jordi; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Andrada Gascón, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model of linear switched reluctance motor drives. A Matlab-Simulink environment coupled with finite element analysis is used to perform the simulations. Experimental and simulation results for a double sided linear switched motor drive prototype are reported and compared to verify the simulation model.

  9. [Drunk driving in professional drivers in the Vía Blanca highway in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanche Garcell, Humberto; Suárez Enríquez, Tomás; Gutiérrez García, Francisco; Martínez Quesada, Carlos; Mendoza Pérez, Ramón

    2006-01-01

    To determine the frequency of drunk driving in professional drivers (Via Blanca, Havana City), we carried out a descriptive study of 832 drivers selected by multistage stratified sampling. A structured interview with each driver was carried out to record the variables under study, and a breath alcohol test was subsequently performed. The frequency of drunk driving was 8.18% (95% CI, 5.94%-10.42%), with a predominance of drivers with alcohol levelsDrunk driving was more frequent in "high risk" hours, in drivers aged between 40 and 49 years old (10.3%), and in those with 15 to 24 years of experience (11.02%). The frequency of drunk driving found in this study highlights the need to design traffic accident prevention strategies.

  10. Deep brain stimulation to reduce sexual drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Johannes; Auer, Matthias K; Biedermann, Sarah V; Briken, Peer; Hacke, Werner

    2015-11-01

    To date there are few treatment options to reduce high sexual drive or sexual urges in paraphilic patients with a risk for sexual offending. Pharmacological therapy aims to reduce sexual drive by lowering testosterone at the cost of severe side effects. We hypothesize that high sexual drive could also be reduced with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of circuits that generate sexual drive. This approach would help to avoid systemic side effects of antiandrogenic drug therapies. So far the best investigated target to reduce sexual drive is the ventromedial hypothalamus, which was lesioned unilaterally and bilaterally by stereotaxic interventions in paraphilic patients in the 1970s. Here, we discuss DBS as a treatment strategy in patients with severe paraphilic disorders with a serious risk of sexual offending. There are profound ethical and practical issues associated with DBS treatment of paraphilic patients that must be solved before considering such a treatment approach.

  11. Lower hybrid current drive in shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.

    1993-01-01

    A time dependent lower hybrid current drive tokamak simulation code has been developed. This code combines the BALDUR tokamak simulation code and the Bonoli/Englade lower hybrid current drive code and permits the study of the interaction of lower hybrid current drive with neutral beam heating in shaped cross-section plasmas. The code is time dependent and includes the beam driven and bootstrap currents in addition to the current driven by the lower hybrid system. Examples of simulations are shown for the PBX-M experiment which include the effect of cross section shaping on current drive, ballooning mode stabilization by current profile control and sawtooth stabilization. A critical question in current drive calculations is the radial transport of the energetic electrons. The authors have developed a response function technique to calculate radial transport in the presence of an electric field. The consequences of the combined influences of radial diffusion and electric field acceleration are discussed

  12. Evaluating and Enhancing Driving Ability among Teens with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    deficits in children with attention - deficit / hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ): A meta- 30 31 analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, online early, doi... attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Cox, Merkel, Hill, Kovatchev, Seward, 2000), and predicted driving mishaps of novice drivers during their first...Teens with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or Autism Spectrum Disorder . Traffic Injury Prevention,

  13. Could Continuous Glucose Monitoring Facilitate Identifying Diabetes Patients with a Higher Risk of Hypoglycemia during Driving?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, J.; Doničová, V.; Brabec, Marek; Janíčková Žďárská, D.; Polák, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2013), s. 1644-1645 ISSN 1932-2968 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : continuous glucose monitoring * driving * hypoglycemia * insulin pump * prevention * type 1 diabetes mellitus Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3876343/

  14. Outcome evaluation of a peer-led drinking and driving primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a peer-led drinking and driving (DD) prevention programme among 111 University of the North (UNIN) undergraduate students aged 17 to 24 years using a pre-post test intervention design. The results showed that the programme was generally effective in bringing about statistically

  15. Determinants of Effort in Drunk-Driving Interventions: A Path Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, Samuel R.; Zagumny, Matthew J.

    2000-01-01

    Surveys college students (N=119) to examine psychosocial predictors of interventions to prevent drunk driving. Results show that the level of comparative impairment between the intervenor and the drunk driver, the sense of moral/social obligation to intervene, and the number of people consulted about the intervention significantly predicted…

  16. Could Continuous Glucose Monitoring Facilitate Identifying Diabetes Patients with a Higher Risk of Hypoglycemia during Driving?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, J.; Doničová, V.; Brabec, Marek; Janíčková Žďárská, D.; Polák, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2013), s. 1644-1645 ISSN 1932-2968 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : continuous glucose monitoring * driving * hypoglycemia * insulin pump * prevention * type 1 diabetes mellitus Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ articles /PMC3876343/

  17. Driving pleasure and perceptions of the transition from no automation to full self-driving automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In this article, I offer a sociological user perspective on increased self-driving automation, which has evolved from a long history associated with automobility. This study explores complex, perceived a priori driving pleasures in different scenarios involving self-driving cars. The methods used...... consisted of 32 in-depth interviews with participants who were given eight video examples (two video examples within four different scenarios) to watch. A numerical rating scales formed parts of the interviews. The findings revealed that driving pleasure when using increasingly automated driving...

  18. The identification of Malaysian driving styles using the multidimensional driving style inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karjanto Juffrizal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the driving styles within the geographical region of Malaysia. The first part of the study determined Malaysian drivers’ driving styles using the Multidimensional Driving Style Inventory approach. Respondents had various backgrounds in terms of age, gender and experience of driving. A statistical factor analysis was done for 338 respondents revealing four driving styles; careful, risky, anxious-dissociative and angry. In addition, a comparison with previous findings from Netherlands and Israel was also done in this study. The next part of the study focused on the associations of these driving styles with two personality traits (sensation seeking and desire for control, sociodemographic factors and experience of driving. The last part of the paper discusses the relevance of the study against the background of future automotive development.

  19. Risk factors of mobile phone use while driving in Queensland: Prevalence, attitudes, crash risk perception, and task-management strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios

    Full Text Available Distracted driving is one of the most significant human factor issues in transport safety. Mobile phone interactions while driving may involve a multitude of cognitive and physical resources that result in inferior driving performance and reduced safety margins. The current study investigates characteristics of usage, risk factors, compensatory strategies in use and characteristics of high-frequency offenders of mobile phone use while driving. A series of questions were administered to drivers in Queensland (Australia using an on-line questionnaire. A total of 484 drivers (34.9% males and 49.8% aged 17-25 participated anonymously. At least one of every two motorists surveyed reported engaging in distracted driving. Drivers were unable to acknowledge the increased crash risk associated with answering and locating a ringing phone in contrast to other tasks such as texting/browsing. Attitudes towards mobile phone usage were more favourable for talking than texting or browsing. Lowering the driving speed and increasing the distance from the vehicle in front were the most popular task-management strategies for talking and texting/browsing while driving. On the other hand, keeping the mobile phone low (e.g. in the driver's lap or on the passenger seat was the favourite strategy used by drivers to avoid police fines for both talking and texting/browsing. Logistic regression models were fitted to understand differences in risk factors for engaging in mobile phone conversations and browsing/texting while driving. For both tasks, exposure to driving, driving experience, driving history (offences and crashes, and attitudes were significant predictors. Future mobile phone prevention efforts would benefit from development of safe attitudes and increasing risk literacy. Enforcement of mobile phone distraction should be re-engineered, as the use of task-management strategies to evade police enforcement seems to dilute its effect on the prevention of this

  20. Risk factors of mobile phone use while driving in Queensland: Prevalence, attitudes, crash risk perception, and task-management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; King, Mark; Haque, Md Mazharul; Washington, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Distracted driving is one of the most significant human factor issues in transport safety. Mobile phone interactions while driving may involve a multitude of cognitive and physical resources that result in inferior driving performance and reduced safety margins. The current study investigates characteristics of usage, risk factors, compensatory strategies in use and characteristics of high-frequency offenders of mobile phone use while driving. A series of questions were administered to drivers in Queensland (Australia) using an on-line questionnaire. A total of 484 drivers (34.9% males and 49.8% aged 17-25) participated anonymously. At least one of every two motorists surveyed reported engaging in distracted driving. Drivers were unable to acknowledge the increased crash risk associated with answering and locating a ringing phone in contrast to other tasks such as texting/browsing. Attitudes towards mobile phone usage were more favourable for talking than texting or browsing. Lowering the driving speed and increasing the distance from the vehicle in front were the most popular task-management strategies for talking and texting/browsing while driving. On the other hand, keeping the mobile phone low (e.g. in the driver's lap or on the passenger seat) was the favourite strategy used by drivers to avoid police fines for both talking and texting/browsing. Logistic regression models were fitted to understand differences in risk factors for engaging in mobile phone conversations and browsing/texting while driving. For both tasks, exposure to driving, driving experience, driving history (offences and crashes), and attitudes were significant predictors. Future mobile phone prevention efforts would benefit from development of safe attitudes and increasing risk literacy. Enforcement of mobile phone distraction should be re-engineered, as the use of task-management strategies to evade police enforcement seems to dilute its effect on the prevention of this behaviour. Some

  1. Using music to change mood while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein D; Janssen, Joris H; Nass, Clifford; Westerink, Joyce H D M; Chowdhury, Shrestha; de Waard, Dick

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether gradual or abrupt music change towards more calming music is most effective in calming drivers during high-demand driving situations. Twenty-eight participants were subjected to two types of music change (gradual, abrupt) in a within-subject design. First, a relatively happy mood was induced with personally selected music during an eight-minute simulated high-demand drive. The drive then continued and the mood was changed either gradually or abruptly. Subjective results showed successful music mood induction irrespective of gradual or abrupt changes. The results further showed lower skin conductance (less arousal) and more facial corrugator muscle tension (more sadness) during the abrupt music change. Fewer accidents occurred during the abrupt music mood change. To conclude, the results support the abrupt way of changing music type to down-regulate one's mood: during high-demand driving, abrupt changes in music led to more physiological calmness and improved driving performance, and were thus safer and more effective. The current study shows that during high-demand drives, drivers are calmed more effectively using abrupt music changes compared to gradual music changes. This is illustrated by reductions in physiological arousal and improved driving behaviour. Hence, in-car music presentation can be used as a tool to improve driver's mood and behaviour.

  2. Robust Adaptive Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, N.

    This thesis concerns speed control of current vector controlled induction motor drives (CVC drives). The CVC drive is an existing prototype drive developed by Danfoss A/S, Transmission Division. Practical tests have revealed that the open loop dynamical properties of the CVC drive are highly...

  3. Recommendations on future driving instructor standards in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Robertsen, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The recommendations on future driving instructor standards in Portugal are mainly based on experiences from the Norwegian model for driving instructor education; its organisational structure, topics and objectives, taking into consideration our knowledge and information on the existing Portuguese system for driving instructor education and training. Therefore introductorily a brief overview of the Norwegian Driving Instructor Education and driving licence system.

  4. Omni rotational driving and steering wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    and steering wheel part (108), where the omni rotational part (106) is provided for infinite rotation relative to the flange part (104) by both a drive motor (110) and a steering motor (114) being positionable on the flange part (104), and the driving and steering wheel part (108) is suspended from the upper...... omni rotational part (105) with a suspension (116) such that wheel part (108) can move relatively to the upper omni rotational part (105) in a suspension direction (118), and a reduction gear (120) for gearing the drive torque is provided in the wheel part (108) in order e.g. to assure traction...

  5. Adjustable Speed Drives - Future Challenges and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Thoegersen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    are specified. Further on power architectures and motor types are discussed in a short term and long-term view. Possible drivers of the future development are identified, and the concept of an ?Electronic Motor? is discussed. A number of applications are presented where variable speed is attractive.......The main trends within Adjustable Drives in industrial and appliance applications for the next decade are discussed based on the newest developments seen on the market and a few historical trends. Different drive configurations are presented and the general demands to adjustable speed drives...

  6. Drive mechanism nuclear reactor control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.G. Jr.; Maure, D.R.; Meijer, C.H.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus for operating magnetic stepping-type mechanisms. The current flowing in the coils of magnetic stepping-type mechanisms of the kind, for instance, that are used in control-element drive mechanisms is sensed and used to monitor operation of the mechanism. Current waveforms that characterize the motion of the mechanism are used to trigger changes in drive voltage and to verify that the drive mechanism is operating properly. In addition, incipient failures are detected through the observation of differences between the observed waveform and waveforms that characterize proper operation

  7. The driving force for magnetospheric convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F. S.

    1978-01-01

    Viscously driven magnetospheric models, as well as a model involving interconnection between the geomagnetic field and the magnetic field in the solar wind, have been proposed to describe the driving force for magnetospheric convection. Lack of a satisfactory theory for the interconnection in the latter model and, in the case of the viscous interaction models, inadequacies in predicting the quantity of the driving force, make these two classes of models less than successful. Accordingly, a mechanically driven magnetospheric model is proposed: solar wind plasma enters the magnetosphere around the neutral points, covers the inner surface of the magnetopause and subsequently expands, driving convection as it escapes from the open tail.

  8. Snubber assembly for a control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    A snubber cartridge assembly is mounted to the nozzle of a control rod drive mechanism to insure that the snubber assembly will be located within the liquid filled section of a nuclear reactor vessel whenever the control rod drive is assembled thereto. The snubber assembly includes a piston mounted proximate to the control rod connecting end of the control rod drive leadscrew to allow the piston to travel within the liquid filled snubber cartridge and controllably exhaust liquid therefrom during a ''scram'' condition. The snubber cartridge provides three separate areas of increasing resistance to piston travel to insure a speedy but safe ''scram'' of the control rod into the reactor

  9. Risky driving and the perception of motorcycle accident causes among Chinese motorcyclists in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ng, Terry C K

    2012-09-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to explore the relationship between risk-taking acts while driving motorcycles and perceived causes of motorcycle accidents, as well as their contribution to active involvement in traffic accidents among Chinese motorcyclists in Hong Kong. Active involvement means the riders was likely at fault for the crash. A total of 774 motorcyclists were recruited, of whom 292 had been involved in active motorcycle accident in the previous 3 years. All were asked to fill in a questionnaire, which was developed to assess their risk-taking acts while driving a motorcycle and perception of motorcycle accident causes. The results of the study revealed 3 dimensions of accident causes, namely, driving-related, environment-related, and belief-related causes. These motorcycle accident causes were correlated with risk-taking acts while driving a motorcycle. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that risk-taking acts while driving motorcycles (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.036, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.020-1.052), perception of driving-related cause (adjusted OR: 0.941, 95% CI: 0.916-0.967), and belief-related cause (adjusted OR: 1.134, 95% CI: 1.088-1.182) were significant factors contributing to involvement in active traffic accidents by motorcycle riders after controlling for concurrent demographic variables. The study highlights that perceived causes of motorcycle accidents are multidimensional, including those areas related to driving, the environment, and beliefs. It substantiates previous studies that a higher degree of driving-related risk perception is related to a lower degree of risk-taking acts while driving. Further research is needed to understand why belief-related causes, sometimes called superstitions, lead riders to believe that it is beyond their ability to affect accident causation and prevention.

  10. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES ... The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND ...

  12. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  13. HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  15. Assessment of driving-related performance in chronic whiplash using an advanced driving simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Hiroshi; Treleaven, Julia; Johnston, Venerina; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Haines, Andrew; Jull, Gwendolen

    2013-11-01

    Driving is often nominated as problematic by individuals with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD), yet driving-related performance has not been evaluated objectively. The purpose of this study was to test driving-related performance in persons with chronic WAD against healthy controls of similar age, gender and driving experience to determine if driving-related performance in the WAD group was sufficiently impaired to recommend fitness to drive assessment. Driving-related performance was assessed using an advanced driving simulator during three driving scenarios; freeway, residential and a central business district (CBD). Total driving duration was approximately 15min. Five driving tasks which could cause a collision (critical events) were included in the scenarios. In addition, the effect of divided attention (identify red dots projected onto side or rear view mirrors) was assessed three times in each scenario. Driving performance was measured using the simulator performance index (SPI) which is calculated from 12 measures. z-Scores for all SPI measures were calculated for each WAD subject based on mean values of the control subjects. The z-scores were then averaged for the WAD group. A z-score of ≤-2 indicated a driving failing grade in the simulator. The number of collisions over the five critical events was compared between the WAD and control groups as was reaction time and missed response ratio in identifying the red dots. Seventeen WAD and 26 control subjects commenced the driving assessment. Demographic data were comparable between the groups. All subjects completed the freeway scenario but four withdrew during the residential and eight during the CBD scenario because of motion sickness. All scenarios were completed by 14 WAD and 17 control subjects. Mean z-scores for the SPI over the three scenarios was statistically lower in the WAD group (-0.3±0.3; P0.05). Assessment of driving in an advanced driving simulator for approximately 15min revealed

  16. Effects of decades of physical driving on body movement and motion sickness during virtual driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Stoffregen

    Full Text Available We investigated relations between experience driving physical automobiles and motion sickness during the driving of virtual automobiles. Middle-aged individuals drove a virtual automobile in a driving video game. Drivers were individuals who had possessed a driver's license for approximately 30 years, and who drove regularly, while non-drivers were individuals who had never held a driver's license, or who had not driven for more than 15 years. During virtual driving, we monitored movement of the head and torso. During virtual driving, drivers became motion sick more rapidly than non-drivers, but the incidence and severity of motion sickness did not differ as a function of driving experience. Patterns of movement during virtual driving differed as a function of driving experience. Separately, movement differed between participants who later became motion sick and those who did not. Most importantly, physical driving experience influenced patterns of postural activity that preceded motion sickness during virtual driving. The results are consistent with the postural instability theory of motion sickness, and help to illuminate relations between the control of physical and virtual vehicles.

  17. DrivingSense: Dangerous Driving Behavior Identification Based on Smartphone Autocalibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since pervasive smartphones own advanced computing capability and are equipped with various sensors, they have been used for dangerous driving behaviors detection, such as drunk driving. However, sensory data gathered by smartphones are noisy, which results in inaccurate driving behaviors estimations. Some existing works try to filter noise from sensor readings, but usually only the outlier data are filtered. The noises caused by hardware of the smartphone cannot be removed from the sensor reading. In this paper, we propose DrivingSense, a reliable dangerous driving behavior identification scheme based on smartphone autocalibration. We first theoretically analyze the impact of the sensor error on the vehicle driving behavior estimation. Then, we propose a smartphone autocalibration algorithm based on sensor noise distribution determination when a vehicle is being driven. DrivingSense leverages the corrected sensor parameters to identify three kinds of dangerous behaviors: speeding, irregular driving direction change, and abnormal speed control. We evaluate the effectiveness of our scheme under realistic environments. The results show that DrivingSense, on average, is able to detect the driving direction change event and abnormal speed control event with 93.95% precision and 90.54% recall, respectively. In addition, the speed estimation error is less than 2.1 m/s, which is an acceptable range.

  18. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to advance the development of an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such...

  19. Developing Castable Metal Harmonic Drives Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort utilizes the high elastic strain limit and net-shaped processing of metallic glasses to fabricate low-cost harmonic drives that outperform steel. ...

  20. Kinematics and Dynamics of Roller Chain Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Niels

    There are two main subjects of this work: Kinematic and dynamic modeling and analysis of roller chain drives. In the kinematic analysis we contribute first with a complete treatment of the roller chain drive modeled as a four-bar mechanism. This includes a general, exact and approximate analysis...... which is useful for predicting the characteristic loading of the roller chain drive. As a completely novel contribution, a kinematic model and analysis is presented which includes both spans and sprockets in a simple chain drive system. A general procedure for determination of the total wrapping length...... is presented, which also allows for exact sprocket center positions for a chain with a given number of links. Results show that the total chain wrapping length varies periodically with the tooth frequency. These results are of practical importance to both the design, installation and operation of roller chain...

  1. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic...... improvement by energy optimal control for any standard induction motor drive between 2.2 kW and 90 kW. A simple method to evaluate the robustness against load disturbances was developed and used to compare the robustness of different motor types and sizes. Calculation of the oscillatory behavior of a motor...... demonstrated that energy optimal control will sometimes improve and sometimes deteriorate the stability. Comparison of small and medium-size induction motor drives with permanent magnet motor drives indicated why, and in which applications, PM motors are especially good. Calculations of economical aspects...

  2. Drowsy Driving: Asleep at the Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need at least 8 hours. 9 Develop good sleeping habits such as sticking to a sleep schedule. If ... K, Howard ME. Cognitive components of simulated driving performance: sleep loss effects and predictors. Accid Anal Prev. 2012; ...

  3. Some Sleep Drugs Can Impair Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Some Sleep Drugs Can Impair Driving Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. Most Widely Used Sleep Drug Zolpidem—which has been on the market ...

  4. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Allan R.; Gritter, David J.

    1988-01-01

    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition.

  5. 77 FR 51610 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... employed as a commercial motor vehicle driver or a school bus driver who uses a personal wireless... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: Department of Transportation (DOT), National Highway Traffic Safety Administration...

  6. Induction Motor Diagnosis in Variable Speed Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Stefani, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Several diagnostic techniques are presented for the detection of electrical fault in induction motor variable speed drives. These techinques are developed taking into account the impact of the control system on machine variables and non stationary operating conditions.

  7. Drinking and driving among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A F; Lund, A K; Preusser, D F

    1986-06-01

    A questionnaire survey of high school students conducted in 1983 provided information on their self-reported drinking and driving practices. By age 15 the majority reported drinking alcoholic beverages. By age 17 half or more of the males and one-third of the females reported driving after drinking at least once in the past month. About one-quarter of the students estimated that six or more cans of beer would be required to make someone an unsafe driver. Reported frequency of driving after drinking was associated with less time spent on homework and poorer academic performance, working part time, greater participation in social activities, less perceived parental influence regarding their travel, owning a car, driving high mileage, speeding, and having crashes and violations.

  8. Marijuana, alcohol and actual driving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically determine the separate and combined effects of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol on actual driving performance. This was the first study ever in which the drugs' combined effects were measured...

  9. Control rod drive of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuchkov, I.I.; Gorjunov, V.S.; Zaitsev, B.I.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to nuclear reactors and, more particularly, to a drive of a control rod of a nuclear reactor and allows power control, excess reactivity compensation, and emergency shut-down of a reactor. (author)

  10. Driving under the influence of cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-05

    As more states decriminalize and legalize medical and recreational use of cannabis (marijuana), traffic safety leaders and public health advocates have growing concerns about driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC). How do we understand the cu...

  11. Classical-driving-assisted entanglement dynamics control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying-Jie, E-mail: yingjiezhang@qfnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Han, Wei [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Xia, Yun-Jie, E-mail: yjxia@qfnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Fan, Heng, E-mail: hfan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing, 100190 (China)

    2017-04-15

    We propose a scheme of controlling entanglement dynamics of a quantum system by applying the external classical driving field for two atoms separately located in a single-mode photon cavity. It is shown that, with a judicious choice of the classical-driving strength and the atom–photon detuning, the effective atom–photon interaction Hamiltonian can be switched from Jaynes–Cummings model to anti-Jaynes–Cummings model. By tuning the controllable atom–photon interaction induced by the classical field, we illustrate that the evolution trajectory of the Bell-like entanglement states can be manipulated from entanglement-sudden-death to no-entanglement-sudden-death, from no-entanglement-invariant to entanglement-invariant. Furthermore, the robustness of the initial Bell-like entanglement can be improved by the classical driving field in the leaky cavities. This classical-driving-assisted architecture can be easily extensible to multi-atom quantum system for scalability.

  12. Profiling drunk driving recidivists in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Drunk drivers are a menace to themselves and to other road users, as drunk driving significantly increases the risk of involvement in road accidents and the probability of severe or fatal injuries. Although injuries and fatalities related to road accidents have decreased in recent decades......, the prevalence of drunk drivingamong drivers killed in road accidents has remained stable, at around 25% or more during the past 10 years. Understanding drunk driving, and in particular, recidivism, is essentialfor designing effective counter measures,and accordingly, the present study aims at identifying...... the differences between non-drunkdrivers, drunk driving non-recidivists and drunk driving recidivists with respect to their demographicand socio-economic characteristics, road accident involvement and other traffic and non-traffic-related law violations. This study is based on register-data from Statistics...

  13. Rotating Drive for Electrical-Arc Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, C. D.

    1986-01-01

    Rotating drive improves quality of holes made by electrical-arc machining. Mechanism (Uni-tek, rotary head, or equivalent) attached to electrical-arc system. Drive rotates electrode as though it were mechanical drill, while an arc disintegrates metal in workpiece, thereby creating hole. Rotating electrode method often used in electric-discharge machining. NASA innovation is application of technique to electrical-arc machining.

  14. How to Drive CARS in Reverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    and ‘heats’ this plasma creating an electron avalanche , analogous to the electric discharge used in traditional nitrogen lasers. These schemes are all... pulse . This pulse is then used to drive a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering scheme, resulting in a strong chemically specific signal propagating...generation of a backward propagating stimulated Raman pulse . This pulse is then used to drive a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering scheme, resulting in a

  15. Implementing a Cloud Platform for Autonomous Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shaoshan; Tang, Jie; Wang, Chao; Wang, Quan; Gaudiot, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous driving clouds provide essential services to support autonomous vehicles. Today these services include but not limited to distributed simulation tests for new algorithm deployment, offline deep learning model training, and High-Definition (HD) map generation. These services require infrastructure support including distributed computing, distributed storage, as well as heterogeneous computing. In this paper, we present the details of how we implement a unified autonomous driving clo...

  16. Direct Drive Technology for Wind Turbine Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Ziad

    2014-01-01

    Siemens Wind Power have developed direct-drive (DD) wind turbine technology over the past decade to meet the future demand for cost effective and reliable onshore and offshore wind power. The increasing power requirements from the industry resulting in higher torque requirements in the drive train, has made it necessary to reduce the complexity and improve reliability of wind turbines by going to DD generator technology.

  17. Providing driving rain data for hygrothermal calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Mikkel Kristian

    1996-01-01

    Due to a wish for driving rain data as input for hygrothermal calculations, this report deals with utilizing commonly applied empirical relations and standard meteorological data, in an attempt to provide realistic estimates rather than exact correlations.......Due to a wish for driving rain data as input for hygrothermal calculations, this report deals with utilizing commonly applied empirical relations and standard meteorological data, in an attempt to provide realistic estimates rather than exact correlations....

  18. Comments on theoretical foundation of "EM Drive"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C.-W.

    2018-03-01

    The concept of EM Drive has attracted much attention and groups of work have been conducted to prove or verify it, of which the published experimental outcome is criticized in great details while the theoretical foundation has not been discussed. The present essay investigates on the theoretical derivations of the net thrust in the "EM drive" and reveals the self-contradiction arising at the very start, when the law of conservation of momentum was utilized and opposed simultaneously.

  19. Energetic Optimal Control Of Adjustable Drive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion BIVOL

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available n the paper is developed a new control strategy for the adjustable speed drives. The strategy consists in the energetic optimal control of the dynamic regimes as starting, stopping and reversing. The main developed problems: formulation of energetic optimal problem, solution, experimental results via simulation and some considerations concerning the use of the control. The optimal developed solution can be applied for the both AC and DC drives, but only for linear systems.

  20. Do Consumer Expenditures Affect the Demand for Driving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We examine why American driving fell between 2004 and 2014, and consider how planners should respond. We weigh two competing explanations: that the driving downturn was caused by Peak Car a voluntary shift away from driving, and that it was ...

  1. Control rod selecting and driving device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Hideo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To simultaneously drive a predetermined number of control rods in a predetermined mode by the control of addresses for predetermined number of control rods and read or write of driving codified data to and from the memory by way of a memory controller. Constitution: The system comprises a control rod information selection device for selecting predetermined control rods from a plurality of control rods disposed in a reactor and outputting information for driving them in a predetermined mode, a control rod information output device for codifying the information outputted from the above device and outputting the addresses to the predetermined control rods and driving mode coded data, and a driving device for driving said predetermined control rods in a predetermined mode in accordance with the codified data outputted from the above device, said control rod infromation output device comprising a memory device capable of storing a predetermined number of the codified data and a memory control device for storing the predetermined number of data into the above memory device at a predetermined timing while successively outputting the thus stored predetermined number of data at a predetermined timing. (Seki, T.)

  2. Two-Phase Induction Motor Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Arab Markadeh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The lack of variable-speed drives for two (single induction motor is a reality. This article attempts mainly to investigate the reasons for this lack of variable – speed drives. This paper deals with literature survey of various existing converter topologies, which have been proposed for adjustable speed single phase induction motor drives. Various converter topologies have been compared in this paper. Among these converter topologies, the adjustable frequency PWM inverter is the best choice for single-phase induction motor drives. However, adjustable-frequency drives have not been widely used with single-phase Induction motors. The open-loop constant V/F control law cannot be used with the single-phase induction motor drives as it is used with three phase motors. The variation of the operating frequency at lower speed range with constant load torque causes variation in motor's slip. A constant V/F control is suitable only over the upper speed range.

  3. Method of inspecting control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomomi; Tatemichi, Shin-ichiro; Hasegawa, Hidenobu.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct inspection for control rod drives and fuel handling operations in parallel without taking out the entire fuel, while maintaining the reactor in a subcritical state. Method: Control rod drives are inspected through the release of connection between control rods and control rod drives, detachment and dismantling of control rod drives, etc. In this case, structural materials having neutron absorbing power equal to or greater than the control rods are inserted into the gap after taking out fuels. Since the structural materials have neutron absorbing portion, subcriticality is maintained by the neutron absorbing effect. Accordingly, there is no requirement for taking out all of the fuels, thereby enabling to check the control rod drives and conduct handling for the fuels in parallel. As a result, the number of days required for the inspection can be shortened and it is possible to improve the working efficiency for the decomposition, inspection, etc. of the control rod drives and, thus, improve the operation efficiency of the nuclear power plant thereby attaining the predetermined purpose. (Kawakami, Y.)

  4. Backset-stationary and during car driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Bertil; Stenlund, Hans; Björnstig, Ulf

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to measure and analyze backset, defined as the horizontal distance between the back of the occupant's head and a point located on the ventral/top aspect of the sewn rim of the head restraint, with the car stationary and during driving, in the driver's position in a modern car. A population of 65 subjects, 35 males and 30 females, was studied in a Volvo V70 car, model year 2007. The subjects were studied in the driver's position, in a self-selected posture. Stationary backset was measured with the technique described by Jonsson et al. (2007) and backset during driving with video analysis. Descriptive data were calculated, and variability and correlation analyses were performed. A t-test was used to test differences of means. Significance level was set to 0.05. In comparison to stationary backset, mean backset during driving was 43 mm greater in males and 41 mm greater in females. Driving backset was 44 mm larger in males than in females. Driving backset was moderately correlated (0.37-0.43) to stature, seated height, and seat back angle in males and moderately correlated (0.44-0.52) to hip width, waist circumference, and weight in females. The overall intraclass correlation coefficient for backset during driving was 0.81 (CI: 0.75-0.86). These results may be of use in designing future updates of test protocols/routines for geometric backset, such as RCAR and RCAR-IIWPG.

  5. STRIPE: Remote Driving Using Limited Image Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jennifer S.

    1997-01-01

    Driving a vehicle, either directly or remotely, is an inherently visual task. When heavy fog limits visibility, we reduce our car's speed to a slow crawl, even along very familiar roads. In teleoperation systems, an operator's view is limited to images provided by one or more cameras mounted on the remote vehicle. Traditional methods of vehicle teleoperation require that a real time stream of images is transmitted from the vehicle camera to the operator control station, and the operator steers the vehicle accordingly. For this type of teleoperation, the transmission link between the vehicle and operator workstation must be very high bandwidth (because of the high volume of images required) and very low latency (because delayed images can cause operators to steer incorrectly). In many situations, such a high-bandwidth, low-latency communication link is unavailable or even technically impossible to provide. Supervised TeleRobotics using Incremental Polyhedral Earth geometry, or STRIPE, is a teleoperation system for a robot vehicle that allows a human operator to accurately control the remote vehicle across very low bandwidth communication links, and communication links with large delays. In STRIPE, a single image from a camera mounted on the vehicle is transmitted to the operator workstation. The operator uses a mouse to pick a series of 'waypoints' in the image that define a path that the vehicle should follow. These 2D waypoints are then transmitted back to the vehicle, where they are used to compute the appropriate steering commands while the next image is being transmitted. STRIPE requires no advance knowledge of the terrain to be traversed, and can be used by novice operators with only minimal training. STRIPE is a unique combination of computer and human control. The computer must determine the 3D world path designated by the 2D waypoints and then accurately control the vehicle over rugged terrain. The human issues involve accurate path selection, and the

  6. Fuel Consumption Reduction By Use Of Hybrid Drive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Renken, Folker

    2015-01-01

    Vehicles with hybrid drive systems are characterized by their driving dynamics, their energy efficiency and their environment-friendliness especially. Dependent on the electrical power and the drive train structure these hybrid drives are grouped into different classes. Designations such as micro-hybrid, mild- hybrid, full-hybrid, serial-hybrid, serial/parallel-hybrid or power-split-hybrid reflect the large variance of these different drive train possibilities. In hybrid drive systems electro...

  7. Psychopathology and traffic violations in subjects who have lost their driving license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, S; Bosch, R; Corominas, M; Giannoni, A; Barrau, V; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Casas, M

    2017-07-01

    The persistence of risky behaviors while driving and traffic accidents despite campaigns to increase awareness suggest that there may be underlying causes that maintain proneness to traffic violations. The aim of the current study was to assess: a) the prevalence of psychopathology in a sample of people who have lost their driving license due to former traffic violations and b) the discriminatory capacity of each psychopathological disorder to differentiate among people with high and low proneness to perform risky behaviors while driving. 383 participants in a course to recover their driving license after its loss due to previous traffic violations were included. The International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) according to DSM-IV was used to assess psychopathology. Between 67% and 76.2% of the participants had been affected by a lifetime psychopathological disorder until the moment of assessment. The most prevalent diagnoses were substance abuse including alcohol (52.5-62.7%), ADHD (19.7-28.5%), depression (7.9-14.4%) and anxiety (3.6-12.4%). Substance abuse and ADHD also showed the strongest set of associations with specific risk behaviors, but ADHD emerged as the most discriminant disorder to distinguish between those people at high and low risk of while driving. The results of the current study suggest that addressing psychopathology explicitly to prevent risky behaviors and recidivism while driving would provide benefits in this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Driving with a partially autonomous forward collision warning system: how do drivers react?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhrer, Elke; Reinprecht, Klaus; Vollrath, Mark

    2012-10-01

    The effects of a forward collision warning (FCW) and braking system (FCW+) were examined in a driving simulator study analyzing driving and gaze behavior and the engagement in a secondary task. In-depth accident analyses indicate that a lack of appropriate expectations for possible critical situations and visual distraction may be the major causes of rear-end crashes. Studies with FCW systems have shown that a warning alone was not enough for a driver to be able to avoid the accident. Thus,an additional braking intervention by such systems could be necessary. In a driving simulator experiment, 30 drivers took part in a car-following scenario in an urban area. It was assumed that different lead car behaviors and environmental aspects would lead to different drivers' expectations of the future traffic situation. Driving with and without FCW+ was introduced as a between-subjects factor. Driving with FCW+ resulted in significantly fewer accidents in critical situations. This result was achieved by the system's earlier reaction time as compared with that of drivers. The analysis of the gaze behavior showed that driving with the system did not lead to a stronger involvement in secondary tasks. The study supports the hypotheses about the importance of missing expectations for the occurrence of accidents. These accidents can be prevented by an FCW+ that brakes autonomously. The results indicate that an autonomous braking intervention should be implemented in FCW systems to increase the effectiveness of these assistance systems.

  9. A Difficult Journey: Reflections on Driving and Driving Cessation From a Team of Clinical Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Jacki; Gustafsson, Louise; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Pachana, Nancy A

    2017-02-01

    Recognizing the clinical importance and safety and well-being implications for the population, a multidisciplinary team has been researching older drivers and driving cessation issues for more than 15 years. Using empirical approaches, the team has explored quality of life and participation outcomes related to driving and nondriving for older people and has developed interventions to improve outcomes after driving cessation. The team members represent occupational therapists, medical practitioners, and clinical and neuropsychologists. While building the evidence base for driving- and driving cessation-related clinical practice, the researchers have also had first-hand experiences of interruptions to their own or parents' driving; involvement of older family members in road crashes; and provision of support during family members' driving assessment and cessation. This has led to reflection on their understandings and re-evaluation and refocusing of their perspectives in driving cessation research. This work will share the narratives of the authors and note their developing perspectives and foci within research as well as their clinical practice. Personal reflections have indicated the far-reaching implications for older drivers and family members of involvement in road crashes: the potential for interruptions to driving as a time for support and future planning and the conflicting and difficult roles of family members within the driving cessation process. Overall the lived, personal experience of the authors has reinforced the complex nature of driving and changes to driving status for the driver and their support team and the need for further research and support. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Genital self-mutilation in a non-psychotic male to get rid of excessive sexual drive: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarsh Tripathi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genital self-mutilation (GSM is a rare phenomenon. In the majority of cases, GSM is secondary to psychotic illness. Among the non-psychotics, the motives behind GSM are varied. We report a rare case in which a non-psychotic, non-paraphilic patient suffering from excessive sexual drive carried out GSM to curb hypersexuality. Aetiological factors behind GSM are discussed. This case report emphasises that excessive sexual drive may lead to distress and GSM. Effective management of excessive sexual drive and active inquiry into any intentions of GSM in such patients may be helpful in preventing GSM.

  11. Perceived confidence relates to driving habits post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Annabel; Walker, Ruth; Ratcliffe, Julie; George, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Returning to driving post-stroke is a step towards independence. On return to driving following stroke, confidence is related to performance in on-road assessment and self-regulation of driving behaviours occurs. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between driver's confidence and driving habits post-stroke. Structured telephone surveys were completed with 40 stroke survivors (62% men), of mean age 65 years SD 12.17 who returned to driving post-stroke within the previous 3 years. The survey included: (1) socio-demographics, (2) Adelaide Driving Self Efficacy Scale (ADSES) and (3) Driving Habits Questionnaire (DHQ). Male stroke survivors were more likely to return to driving, drive further and more often. Stroke survivors under 65 years were likely to drive further. Driving confidence was significantly associated with kilometres driven (p = 0.006), distance driven (p = 0.027) and self-limiting driving (p = 0.00). Findings indicate a relationship between confidence and driving behaviours post-stroke. Early recognition of driving confidence will help professionals target specific strategies, encouraging stroke survivors to return to full driving potential, access activities and positively influence quality of life. Implications for Rehabilitation Findings indicate a relationship between confidence and driving behaviours post-stroke. Early recognition of driving confidence will help professionals target specific strategies, encouraging stroke survivors to return to full driving potential, access activities and positively influence quality of life.

  12. Driving Competence in Mild Dementia with Lewy Bodies: In Search of Cognitive Predictors Using Driving Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Yamin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving is a multifactorial behaviour drawing on multiple cognitive, sensory, and physical systems. Dementia is a progressive and degenerative neurological condition that impacts the cognitive processes necessary for safe driving. While a number of studies have examined driving among individuals with Alzheimer’s disease, less is known about the impact of Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB on driving safety. The present study compared simulated driving performance of 15 older drivers with mild DLB with that of 21 neurologically healthy control drivers. DLB drivers showed poorer performance on all indicators of simulated driving including an increased number of collisions in the simulator and poorer composite indicators of overall driving performance. A measure of global cognitive function (i.e., the Mini Mental State Exam was found to be related to the overall driving performance. In addition, measures of attention (i.e., Useful Field of View, UFOV and space processing (Visual Object and Space Perception, VOSP, Test correlated significantly with a rater’s assessment of driving performance.

  13. Teen Drinking and Driving – What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    This podcast is based on the October 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. It’s illegal and dangerous for teens to drink any alcohol and then drive. Still, one in ten high school teens drank and got behind the wheel in 2011. A parent-teen driving agreement is a good way for parents to help keep young drivers safe behind the wheel.  Created: 10/2/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/2/2012.

  14. Teen Drinking and Driving – What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the October 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. It’s illegal and dangerous for teens to drink any alcohol and then drive. Still, one in ten high school teens drank and got behind the wheel in 2011. A parent-teen driving agreement is a good way for parents to help keep young drivers safe behind the wheel.  Created: 10/2/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/2/2012.

  15. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  16. The HEXACO Model of Personality and Risky Driving Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtăverde, Vlad; Chraif, Mihaela; Aniţei, Mihai; Dumitru, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    This research tested the association between the HEXACO personality model and risky driving behavior as well as the predictive power of the HEXACO model in explaining risky driving behavior compared with the Big Five model. In Sample 1, 227 undergraduate students completed measures of the HEXACO personality model, the Big Five model, and driving aggression. In Sample 2, 244 community respondents completed measures of the HEXACO personality model, the Big Five model, and driving styles. Results showed that the Honesty-Humility factor is an important addition to personality models that aim to explain risky driving behavior as being related to all forms of driving aggression as well as to maladaptive and adaptive driving styles and having incremental validity in predicting verbally aggressive expression, risky driving, high-velocity driving, and careful driving. Moreover, compared with the Big Five model, the HEXACO model had better predictive power of aggressive driving.

  17. A comparison of the combined-use of alcohol & energy drinks to alcohol-only on high-risk drinking and driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Jacobson, Bert H; Williams, Ronald D; Barry, Adam E; Davidson, Robert T; Evans, Marion W; Beck, Niels C

    2015-01-01

    The combined-use of alcohol and energy drinks is an emerging public health issue. This investigation examined differences in drinking and driving behaviors among combined-users (CU) and participants who consumed alcohol-only (AO). This study was specifically designed to investigate potential differences in drinker's perceptions of (a) what it means to them to drive over the .08 Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) driving limit and (b) what it means to drive after knowing they have had too much to drink to drive safely. College students (N = 355) were surveyed to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between the AO (n = 174) and CU (n = 107) groups. CU were more likely than AO to drive over the .08 BAC driving limit (53% vs. 38%; p = .009) and after knowing they were too drunk to drive (57% vs. 44%; p = .025). CU were also more likely (56% vs. 35%; p = .000) to ride with an intoxicated driver while knowing it was unsafe. Conclusions/Importance: Combined-users are more likely to drive after drinking, drive while knowingly drunk, and participate in other high-risk behaviors such as heavy drinking that increase the potential for injury. Public policy makers and health professionals should focus prevention efforts to reduce high-risk combined-use behavior.

  18. Chinese carless young drivers' self-reported driving behavior and simulated driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Zuhua; Zheng, Dongpeng; Man, Dong; Xu, Xunnan

    2013-01-01

    Carless young drivers refers to those drivers aged between 18 and 25 years who have a driver's license but seldom have opportunities to practice their driving skills because they do not have their own cars. Due to China's lower private car ownership, many young drivers become carless young drivers after licensure, and the safety issue associated with them has raised great concern in China. This study aims to provide initial insight into the self-reported driving behaviors and simulated driving performance of Chinese carless young drivers. Thirty-three carless young drivers and 32 young drivers with their own cars (as a comparison group) participated in this study. A modified Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) with a 4-factor structure (errors, violations, attention lapses, and memory lapses) was used to study carless young drivers' self-reported driving behaviors. A simulated driving experiment using a low-cost, fixed-base driving simulator was conducted to measure their simulated driving performance (errors, violations, attention lapses, driving maintenance, reaction time, and accidents). Self-reported DBQ outcomes showed that carless young drivers reported similar errors, more attention lapses, fewer memory lapses, and significantly fewer violation behaviors relative to young drivers with their own cars, whereas simulated driving results revealed that they committed significantly more errors, attention lapses, and violation behaviors than the comparison group. Carless young drivers had a lower ability to maintain the stability of speed and lane position, drove more cautiously approaching and passing through red traffic lights, and committed more accidents during simulated driving. A tendency to speed was not found among carless young drivers; their average speed and speeding frequency were all much lower than that of the comparison group. Lifetime mileage was the only significant predictor of carless young drivers' self-reported violations, simulated violations

  19. Driving range estimation for electric vehicles based on driving condition identification and forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofeng Pan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the impact of serious environmental pollution in our cities combined with the ongoing depletion of oil resources, electric vehicles are becoming highly favored as means of transport. Not only for the advantage of low noise, but for their high energy efficiency and zero pollution. The Power battery is used as the energy source of electric vehicles. However, it does currently still have a few shortcomings, noticeably the low energy density, with high costs and short cycle life results in limited mileage compared with conventional passenger vehicles. There is great difference in vehicle energy consumption rate under different environment and driving conditions. Estimation error of current driving range is relatively large due to without considering the effects of environmental temperature and driving conditions. The development of a driving range estimation method will have a great impact on the electric vehicles. A new driving range estimation model based on the combination of driving cycle identification and prediction is proposed and investigated. This model can effectively eliminate mileage errors and has good convergence with added robustness. Initially the identification of the driving cycle is based on Kernel Principal Component feature parameters and fuzzy C referring to clustering algorithm. Secondly, a fuzzy rule between the characteristic parameters and energy consumption is established under MATLAB/Simulink environment. Furthermore the Markov algorithm and BP(Back Propagation neural network method is utilized to predict the future driving conditions to improve the accuracy of the remaining range estimation. Finally, driving range estimation method is carried out under the ECE 15 condition by using the rotary drum test bench, and the experimental results are compared with the estimation results. Results now show that the proposed driving range estimation method can not only estimate the remaining mileage, but also eliminate the

  20. Driving range estimation for electric vehicles based on driving condition identification and forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chaofeng; Dai, Wei; Chen, Liao; Chen, Long; Wang, Limei

    2017-10-01

    With the impact of serious environmental pollution in our cities combined with the ongoing depletion of oil resources, electric vehicles are becoming highly favored as means of transport. Not only for the advantage of low noise, but for their high energy efficiency and zero pollution. The Power battery is used as the energy source of electric vehicles. However, it does currently still have a few shortcomings, noticeably the low energy density, with high costs and short cycle life results in limited mileage compared with conventional passenger vehicles. There is great difference in vehicle energy consumption rate under different environment and driving conditions. Estimation error of current driving range is relatively large due to without considering the effects of environmental temperature and driving conditions. The development of a driving range estimation method will have a great impact on the electric vehicles. A new driving range estimation model based on the combination of driving cycle identification and prediction is proposed and investigated. This model can effectively eliminate mileage errors and has good convergence with added robustness. Initially the identification of the driving cycle is based on Kernel Principal Component feature parameters and fuzzy C referring to clustering algorithm. Secondly, a fuzzy rule between the characteristic parameters and energy consumption is established under MATLAB/Simulink environment. Furthermore the Markov algorithm and BP(Back Propagation) neural network method is utilized to predict the future driving conditions to improve the accuracy of the remaining range estimation. Finally, driving range estimation method is carried out under the ECE 15 condition by using the rotary drum test bench, and the experimental results are compared with the estimation results. Results now show that the proposed driving range estimation method can not only estimate the remaining mileage, but also eliminate the fluctuation of the

  1. Control rod driving hydraulic pressure device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Kazuo.

    1990-01-01

    Discharged water after actuating control rod drives in a BWR type reactor is once discharged to a discharging header, then returned to a master control unit and, subsequently, discharged to a reactor by way of a cooling water header. The radioactive level in the discharging header and the master control unit is increased by the reactor water to increase the operator's exposure. In view of the above, a riser is disposed for connecting a hydraulic pressure control unit incorporating a directional control valve and the cooling water head. When a certain control rod is inserted, the pressurized driving water is supplied through a hydraulic pressure control unit to the control rod drives. The discharged water from the control rod drives is entered by way of the hydraulic pressure control unit into the cooling water header and then returned to the reactor by way of other hydraulic pressure control unit and the control rod drives. Thus, the reactor water is no more recycled to the master control unit to reduce the radioactive exposure. (N.H.)

  2. Progress toward ignition with direct-drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, R.L. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the direct-drive laser fusion program is to validate high-performance, direct-drive targets. A decision to construct a direct-drive capability on the proposed 1-to-2-MJ National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the USA will be based on target physics experiments conducted on the OMEGA Upgrade laser system now under construction at the LLE. The OMEGA Upgrade will provide up to 30 kJ of UV laser energy in precisely shaped pulses with irradiation nonuniformities in the range of 1 pc. to 2 pc. An understanding and predictive capability for direct-drive targets are required to assure reliable estimates of ignition and gain with 1-2 MJ of incident laser energy. This paper reviews the target physics efforts currently underway to assess the critical physics issues of direct-drive ICF; plans for the experimental program to be carried out on the OMEGA Upgrade laser are also presented. 14 figs., 15 refs

  3. Energy Considerations of Hypothetical Space Drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.

    2007-01-01

    The energy requirements of hypothetical, propellant-less space drives are compared to rockets. This serves to provide introductory estimates for potential benefits and to suggest analytical approaches for further study. A "space drive" is defined as an idealized form of propulsion that converts stored potential energy directly into kinetic energy using only the interactions between the spacecraft and its surrounding space. For Earth-to-orbit, the space drive uses 3.7 times less energy. For deep space travel, energy is proportional to the square of delta-v, whereas rocket energy scales exponentially. This has the effect of rendering a space drive 150-orders-of-magnitude better than a 17,000-s Specific Impulse rocket for sending a modest 5000 kg probe to traverse 5 ly in 50 years. Indefinite levitation, which is impossible for a rocket, could conceivably require 62 MJ/kg for a space drive. Assumption sensitivities and further analysis options are offered to guide further inquires.

  4. The Belief and Attitude of the Drivers Toward the Usage of Cellphone while Driving; A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghati Shokri, Batoul; Davoodi, Seyed Rasoul; Azimmohseni, Majid; Khoshfar, Gholamreza

    2017-10-01

    To presents a survey investigating differences between drivers' beliefs regarding utilizing cellphone when driving. In this population-based survey, the participants who were studied in the North of Iran, Gorgan, were categorized as main urban and rural areas. A sample of 400 drivers, 92 women and 308 men, filled out the four sections questionnaire which was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) used for measuring the differences between the drivers' opinions (attitudinal beliefs, normative beliefs, and perceived control behavioral beliefs) about utilizing a cell phone when driving along with their age and driving purpose. Data were collected by distributing the 68- query questionnaire between the drivers. The MANOVA analysis showed that important discrepancies were found between the normative, control and behavioral beliefs of cellular phone users while driving. As expected, frequent business and younger users with sturdy intention expressed more benefits of further concentration on family members and fewer obstacles that would prevent them from utilizing cellphone when driving than older and frequently personal users. These results indicated that the benefits of utilizing cellphone while driving are greater than its dangers. To reduce cellphone utilization when driving and increase road safety, more effort is required to lower the perceived advantages of the behavior and to outstand the risks of this hazardous driving act.

  5. Boiling water reactor radiation shielded Control Rod Drive Housing Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baversten, B.; Linden, M.J. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Operations, Windsor, CT (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The Control Rod Drive (CRD) mechanisms are located in the area below the reactor vessel in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Specifically, these CRDs are located between the bottom of the reactor vessel and above an interlocking structure of steel bars and rods, herein identified as CRD Housing Supports. The CRD Housing Supports are designed to limit the travel of a Control Rod and Control Rod Drive in the event that the CRD vessel attachement went to fail, allowing the CRD to be ejected from the vessel. By limiting the travel of the ejected CRD, the supports prevent a nuclear overpower excursion that could occur as a result of the ejected CRD. The Housing Support structure must be disassembled in order to remove CRDs for replacement or maintenance. The disassembly task can require a significant amount of outage time and personnel radiation exposure dependent on the number and location of the CRDs to be changed out. This paper presents a way to minimize personal radiation exposure through the re-design of the Housing Support structure. The following paragraphs also delineate a method of avoiding the awkward, manual, handling of the structure under the reactor vessel during a CRD change out.

  6. Using accountability for mental health to drive reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Sebastian P; Hickie, Ian B; McGorry, Patrick D; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Burns, Jane; Christensen, Helen; Mendoza, John; Rosen, Alan; Russell, Lesley M; Sinclair, Sally

    2015-10-19

    Greatly enhanced accountability can drive mental health reform. As extant approaches are ineffective, we propose a new approach. Australia spends around $7.6 billion on mental health services annually, but is anybody getting better? Effective accountability for mental health can reduce variation in care and increase effective service provision. Despite 20 years of rhetoric, Australia's approach to accountability in mental health is overly focused on fulfilling governmental reporting requirements rather than using data to drive reform. The existing system is both fragmented and outcome blind. Australia has failed to develop useful local and regional approaches to benchmarking in mental health. New approaches must address this gap and better reflect the experience of care felt by consumers and carers, as well as by service providers. There are important social priorities in mental health that must be assessed. We provide a brief overview of the existing system and propose a new, modest but achievable set of indicators by which to monitor the progress of national mental health reform. These indicators should form part of a new, system-wide process of continuous quality improvement in mental health care and suicide prevention.

  7. Effects of modafinil on simulator driving and self-assessment of driving following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtman, Clint G; Broadbear, Jillian H; Redman, Jennifer R

    2008-12-01

    While it has been suggested that the novel wake promoting drug modafinil may have some utility with respect to drowsy driving in healthy adults, this has not been investigated until now. The present study was designed to assess the effects of modafinil on objective and self-assessed driving simulator performance during an overnight period of sleep loss. Sixteen healthy participants (eight males and eight females) remained awake overnight on two separate occasions during which they ingested either a single 300 mg dose of modafinil or a placebo capsule at either 0230 or 0330 h. Two hours post-treatment, participants were evaluated using measures of driving simulator performance, self-assessed driving performance and subjective alertness. Modafinil treatment reduced lane deviation but had less effect on speed deviation, off-road incidents and reaction time to a concurrent task. Modafinil also improved subjective appraisals of driving performance, although its use may have resulted in overconfidence in driving ability during short trips. Modafinil offers some benefits with respect to objective driving performance under conditions of sleep loss. However it may induce overconfidence, suggesting that its use as a countermeasure to drowsiness when driving requires further examination.

  8. Can We Study Autonomous Driving Comfort in Moving-Base Driving Simulators? A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellem, Hanna; Klüver, Malte; Schrauf, Michael; Schöner, Hans-Peter; Hecht, Heiko; Krems, Josef F

    2017-05-01

    To lay the basis of studying autonomous driving comfort using driving simulators, we assessed the behavioral validity of two moving-base simulator configurations by contrasting them with a test-track setting. With increasing level of automation, driving comfort becomes increasingly important. Simulators provide a safe environment to study perceived comfort in autonomous driving. To date, however, no studies were conducted in relation to comfort in autonomous driving to determine the extent to which results from simulator studies can be transferred to on-road driving conditions. Participants ( N = 72) experienced six differently parameterized lane-change and deceleration maneuvers and subsequently rated the comfort of each scenario. One group of participants experienced the maneuvers on a test-track setting, whereas two other groups experienced them in one of two moving-base simulator configurations. We could demonstrate relative and absolute validity for one of the two simulator configurations. Subsequent analyses revealed that the validity of the simulator highly depends on the parameterization of the motion system. Moving-base simulation can be a useful research tool to study driving comfort in autonomous vehicles. However, our results point at a preference for subunity scaling factors for both lateral and longitudinal motion cues, which might be explained by an underestimation of speed in virtual environments. In line with previous studies, we recommend lateral- and longitudinal-motion scaling factors of approximately 50% to 60% in order to obtain valid results for both active and passive driving tasks.

  9. Driving with intelligent vehicles: driving behaviour with Adaptive Cruise Control and the acceptance by individual drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaeker, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the following research questions: What are the effects of driver support systems on driving behaviour? To what extent will driver support systems be accepted by individual drivers? To what extent will driving behaviour and acceptance be determined by individual differences?

  10. Car Driving Performance in Hemianopia : An On-Road Driving Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, Gera A.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Bredewoud, Ruud A.; Tucha, Oliver; Heutink, Joost

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE. To study driving performance in people with homonymous hemianopia (HH) assessed in the official on-road test of practical fitness to drive by the Dutch driver's licensing authority (CBR). METHODS. Data were collected from a cohort (January 2010-July 2012) of all people with HH following the

  11. Distractions N' Driving: video game simulation educates young drivers on the dangers of texting while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqer, Haneen; de Visser, Ewart; Strohl, Jonathan; Parasuraman, Raja

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of portable communication and entertainment devices has introduced new dangers to the driving environment, particularly for young and inexperienced drivers. Graduate students from George Mason University illustrate a powerful, practical, and cost-effective program that has been successful in educating these drivers on the dangers of texting while driving, which can easily be adapted and implemented in other communities.

  12. Antihistamines and driving ability: Evidence from 30 years Dutch on-road driving research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; Van De Loo, A.J.A.E.; Garssen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since all antihistamines are capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, they may also cause sedation which may impair daily activities such as driving a car. The purpose of this review was to examine the effects of antihistamines on driving ability. Method: A literature search revealed

  13. Visibility aspects of the driving task : foresight in driving : a theoretical note.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    This note concentrates on "foresight": the need to look ahead while driving. The note deals with both the requirements for adequate "foresight" and with the means to provide the required "foresight". The note defines the "driving task" as the sequence of decision-making processes that has to be

  14. Driving Force Filtering and Driving Mechanism Analysis of Urban Agricultural Development in Weifang County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUI Fei-fei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As an agricultural nation, the agricultural landscape is the basic appearance and existence in China, but the common existence often be neglected and contempted. As a new type of design and ideology, the development of urban agricultural landscape will greatly affect the texture and structure of the urban space. According to the urban agricultural production data and the socio-economic data of Weifang County, a set of evaluation index system that could analyze quantitatively the driving force of urban agricultural production changes and the internal drive mechanism was built. The original driving force indicators of economy, society, resources and environment from the time-series were chosen, and then 15 driving forces from the original driving forces by correlation analysis and principal component analysis were selected. The degree of influence was analyzed and the driving forces model by means of partial least squares(PLS was built. The results demonstrated that the factors greatly influenced the increase of urban agricultural output value in Weifang County were per capita net income of rural residents, agricultural machinery total power, effective irrigation area, centralized treatment rate of urban sewage, with the driving exponents 0.2509, 0.1019, 0.1655, 0.1332, respectively. The negative influence factor was the use amount of agricultural plastic film and the driving exponent was-0.2146. The research provides a reference for the development of urban agriculture, as well as a reference for the related study.

  15. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC...

  16. Effects of advertising billboards during simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edquist, Jessica; Horberry, Tim; Hosking, Simon; Johnston, Ian

    2011-05-01

    There is currently a great deal of interest in the problem of driver distraction. Most research focuses on distractions from inside the vehicle, but drivers can also be distracted by objects outside the vehicle. Major roads are increasingly becoming sites for advertising billboards, and there is little research on the potential effects of this advertising on driving performance. The driving simulator experiment presented here examines the effects of billboards on drivers, including older and inexperienced drivers who may be more vulnerable to distractions. The presence of billboards changed drivers' patterns of visual attention, increased the amount of time needed for drivers to respond to road signs, and increased the number of errors in this driving task. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidone, I.; Castejon, F.

    1992-07-01

    A brief summary of the theory and experiments on electron- cyclotron heating and current drive is presented. The general relativistic formulation of wave propagation and linear absorption is considered in some detail. The O-mode and the X-mode for normal and oblique propagation are investigated and illustrated by several examples. The experimental verification of the theory in T-10 and D- III-D is briefly discussed. Quasilinear evolution of the momentum distribution and related applications as, for instance, non linear wave, damping and current drive, are also considered for special cases of wave frequencies, polarization and propagation. In the concluding section we present the general formulation of the wave damping and current drive in the absence of electron trapping for arbitrary values of the wave frequency. (Author) 13 refs.

  18. Blow molding electric drives of Mechanical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhanov, S. S.; Ramazanov, M. A.; Tsirkunenko, A. T.

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the questions about the analysis of new possibilities, which gives the use of adjustable electric drives for blowing mechanisms of plastic production. Thus, the use of new semiconductor converters makes it possible not only to compensate the instability of the supply network by using special dynamic voltage regulators, but to improve (correct) the power factor. The calculation of economic efficiency in controlled electric drives of blowing mechanisms is given. On the basis of statistical analysis, the calculation of the reliability parameters of the regulated electric drives’ elements under consideration is given. It is shown that an increase in the reliability of adjustable electric drives is possible both due to overestimation of the electric drive’s installed power, and in simpler schemes with pulse-vector control.

  19. Electron - cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Castejon, F.

    1992-01-01

    A brief summary of the theory and experiments on electron- cyclotron heating and current drive is presented. The general relativistic formulation of wave propagation and linear absorption is considered in some detail. The O-mode and the X-mode for normal and oblique propagation are investigated and illustrated by several examples. The experimental verification of the theory in T-10 and D- III-D is briefly discussed. Quasilinear evolution of the momentum distribution and related applications as, for instance, non linear wave, damping and current drive, are also considered for special cases of wave frequencies, polarization and propagation. In the concluding section we present the general formulation of the wave damping and current drive in the absence of electron trapping for arbitrary values of the wave frequency. (Author) 13 refs

  20. VEHICLE DRIVING CYCLE OPTIMISATION ON THE HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinoviy STOTSKO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the problem of reducing vehicle energy consumption. The authors consider the optimisation of highway driving cycle a way to use the kinetic energy of a car more effectively at various road conditions. The model of a vehicle driving control at the highway which consists of elementary cycles, such as accelerating, free rolling and deceleration under forces of external resistance, was designed. Braking, as an energy dissipation regime, was not included. The influence of the various longitudinal profiles of the road was taken into consideration and included in the model. Ways to use the results of monitoring road and traffic conditions are presented. The method of non-linear programming is used to design the optimal vehicle control function and phase trajectory. The results are presented by improved typical driving cycles that present energy saving as a subject of choice at a specified schedule.

  1. Decoupling control of steering and driving system for in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Zhao, Wanzhong

    2018-02-01

    To improve the maneuverability and stability of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle, a control strategy based on nonlinear decoupling control method is proposed in this paper, realizing the coordinated control of the steering and driving system. At first, the nonlinear models of the in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle and its sub-system are constructed. Then the inverse system decoupling theory is applied to decompose the nonlinear system into several independent subsystems, which makes it possible to realize the coordinated control of each subsystem. Next, the μ-Synthesis theory is applied to eliminate the influence of model uncertainty, improving the stability, robustness and tracking performance of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle. Simulation and experiment results and numerical analyses, based on the electric vehicle actuated by in-wheel-motors, prove that the proposed control method is effective to accomplish the decoupling control of the steering and driving system in both simulation and real practice.

  2. Harmonic Coupling Analysis of a Multi-Drive System with Slim DC-link Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Feng; Kwon, Jun Bum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    One of the problems with slim dc-link adjustable speed drive is the difficulties to analyze the harmonic coupling when it is integrated into a multi-drive system. The traditional methods analyze this harmonic issue by neglecting the harmonic coupling, and base on the linear time-invariant methods....... Its disadvantages include the time consumption and large computer memory. This paper proposes to do harmonic analysis by using the harmonic state-space modeling method by using the linear time-periodic theory. By using the proposed model, the harmonic couplings, between dc-link and point of common...... coupling in different drives, are all analyzed in the multi-drive system. In the meantime, the effects of the small film dc-link capacitance and the nonlinear characteristic of the diode rectifier are considered. The detailed modeling procedure, the simulations and the lab experiment on a two-drive system...

  3. The Effect of Drive Signal Limiting on High Cycle Fatigue Life Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, Frederic; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    It is common practice to assume a Gaussian distribution of both the input acceleration and the response when modeling random vibration tests. In the laboratory, however, shaker controllers often limit the drive signal to prevent high amplitude peaks. The high amplitudes may either be truncated at a given level (socalled brick wall limiting or abrupt clipping), or compressed (soft limiting), resulting in drive signals which are no longer Gaussian. The paper first introduces several methods for limiting a drive signal, including brick wall limiting and compression. The limited signal is then passed through a linear time-invariant system representing a device under test. High cycle fatigue life predictions are subsequently made using spectral fatigue and rainflow cycle counting schemes. The life predictions are compared with those obtained from unclipped input signals. Some guidelines are provided to help the test engineer decide how clipping should be applied under different test scenarios.

  4. Sensation seeking and drunk driving: the mediational role of social norms and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Iglesias, Beatriz; Gómez-Fraguela, José Antonio; Luengo, Ma Ángeles

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the role of sensation seeking in drunk driving by youths, and the potential mediational effect of social, cognitive and emotional variables on their relationship. To this end, a survey was conducted on 274 drivers (164 females and 110 males) aged 24.36±2.96 years (range 18-30 years). The results obtained confirm the significance of sensation seeking to drunk driving by youths and the mediating role of biased self-efficacy perceptions in their relationship. The important practical implications of this finding on the development of effective interventions to prevent the risks of drunk driving in youths are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alcohol and highway safety : screening and brief intervention for alcohol problems as a community approach to improving traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Only a small fraction of the impaired drivers who are at risk for alcohol-impaired-driving crashes are arrested. These include drivers who drink regularly or occasionally to intoxication before they drive. Researchers have estimated the probability o...

  6. 16 CFR 1512.8 - Requirements for drive chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for drive chain. 1512.8 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.8 Requirements for drive chain. The drive chain shall operate over the sprockets without catching or binding. The tensile stength of the drive chain shall be no...

  7. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not more...

  8. Factors associated with driving in teens with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Patty; Kao, Trudy; Curry, Allison E; Durbin, Dennis R

    2012-01-01

    To compare the characteristics of driving and nondriving teens and explore the driving outcomes for teens with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders. Parents of teens aged 15 to 18 years with a parent-reported diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder enrolled in Interactive Autism Network, an online research registry, were eligible for this cross-sectional study. An online survey was used for data collection. A total of 297 parents completed the survey. Sixty-three percent of teens currently drive or plan to drive. Twenty-nine percent of the teens who are age-eligible to drive currently drive. Compared with age-eligible but nondriving teens, a greater proportion of driving teens were in full-time regular education (p public transportation. Driving predictors included individualized education plans with driving goals, indicators of functional status (classroom placement, college aspiration, and job experience), and parent experience with teaching teens to drive. Twelve percent of teens received driving citations, and 12% of teens had been involved in a motor vehicle crash. Although a significant proportion of teens with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders were driving or learning to drive, the fact that most driving teens' individualized education plans did not include driving goals suggests an area of opportunity for improvement in transition planning. Driving teens were more frequently in regular education settings with college aspirations, which could help schools identify potential drivers.

  9. Polar-Direct-Drive Experiments on OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, F.J.; Craxton, R.S.; Bonino, M.J.; Epstein, R.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Jacobs-Perkins, D.; Knauer, J.P.; Marozas, J.A.; McKenty, P.W.; Noyes, S.G.; Radha, P.B.; Seka, W.; Skupsky, S.; Smalyuk

    2006-01-01

    Polar direct drive (PDD), a promising ignition path for the NIF while the beams are in the indirect-drive configuration, is currently being investigated on the OMEGA laser system by using 40 beams in six rings repointed to more uniformly illuminate the target. The OMEGA experiments are being performed with standard, ''warm'' targets with and without the use of an equatorial ''Saturn-like'' toroidally shaped CH ring. Target implosion symmetry is diagnosed with framed x-ray backlighting using additional OMEGA beams and by time-integrated x-ray imaging of the stagnating core

  10. Reconstruction of driving forces through recurrence plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanio, Masaaki; Hirata, Yoshito; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of reconstructing one-dimensional driving forces only from the observations of driven systems. We extend the approach presented in a seminal paper [M.C. Casdagli, Physica D 108 (1997) 12] and propose a method that is robust and has wider applicability. By reinterpreting the work of Thiel et al. [M. Thiel, M.C. Romano, J. Kurths, Phys. Lett. A 330 (2004) 343], we formulate the reconstruction problem as a combinatorial optimization problem and relax conditions by assuming that a driving force is continuous. The method is demonstrated by using a tent map driven by an external force.

  11. Radiation drive in laser heated hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, L.J.; Kauffman, R.L.; Darrow, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    Nearly 10 years of Nova experiments and analysis have lead to a relatively detailed quantitative and qualitative understanding of radiation drive in laser heated hohlraums. Our most successful quantitative modelling tool is 2D Lasnex numerical simulations. Analysis of the simulations provides us with insight into the details of the hohlraum drive. In particular we find hohlraum radiation conversion efficiency becomes quite high with longer pulses as the accumulated, high Z blow-off plasma begins to radiate. Extensive Nova experiments corroborate our quantitative and qualitative understanding

  12. Driving Force Based Design of Cyclic Distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Fjordbak; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Driving force based design is adopted from conventional continuous distillation to cyclic distillation. This leads to a definition of the operating line representation for the cyclic distillation process. A possible realization of the driving force design is presented, which implies operation...... with mixed phase feeds. A range of binary test cases, benzene toluene, methanol water, and ethanol water, are evaluated. The advantage of the design approach in cyclic distillation is shown to be analogous to the advantages obtained in conventional continuous distillation, including a minimal utility...

  13. Underwater Sound Propagation from Marine Pile Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyff, James A

    2016-01-01

    Pile driving occurs in a variety of nearshore environments that typically have very shallow-water depths. The propagation of pile-driving sound in water is complex, where sound is directly radiated from the pile as well as through the ground substrate. Piles driven in the ground near water bodies can produce considerable underwater sound energy. This paper presents examples of sound propagation through shallow-water environments. Some of these examples illustrate the substantial variation in sound amplitude over time that can be critical to understand when computing an acoustic-based safety zone for aquatic species.

  14. Rotating preventers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  15. Naturalistic Driving: A Framework and Advances in Using Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Knoefel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Driving is an activity that facilitates physical, cognitive, and social stimulation in older adults, ultimately leading to better physical and cognitive health. However, aging is associated with declines in vision, physical health, and cognitive health, all of which can affect driving ability. One way of assessing driving ability is with the use of sensors in the older adult’s own vehicle. This paper provides a framework for driving assessment and addresses how naturalistic driving studies can assist in such assessments. The framework includes driving characteristics (how much driving, speed, position, type of road, actions and reactions (lane changes, intersections, passing, merging, traffic lights, pedestrians, other vehicles, destinations (variety and distance, sequencing and route planning, and driving conditions (time of day and season. Data from a subset of Ottawa drivers from the Candrive study is used to illustrate the use of naturalistic driving data. Challenges in using naturalistic driving big data and the changing technology in vehicles are discussed.

  16. Psychological predictors of college students' cell phone use while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlehofer, Michèle M; Thompson, Suzanne C; Ting, Sarah; Ostermann, Sharon; Nierman, Angela; Skenderian, Jessica

    2010-07-01

    Despite the known risk, many people talk on a phone while driving. This study explored psychological predictors of cell phone use while driving. College students (final N=69) completed a survey and predicted their driving performance both with and without a simultaneous phone conversation. Their actual performance on a driving simulator was then assessed. Cell phone use reduced performance on the simulation task. Further, perceiving oneself as good at compensating for driving distractions, overestimating one's performance on the driving simulator, and high illusory control predicted more frequent cell phone use while driving in everyday life. Finally, those who talked more frequently on a phone while driving had poorer real-world driving records. These findings suggest illusory control and positive illusions partly explain driver's decisions of whether to use cell phones while driving. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Poor mental health status and aggression are associated with poor driving behavior among male traffic offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoli N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nasrin Abdoli,1,2 Vahid Farnia,3 Ali Delavar,4 Alirez Esmaeili,5 Fariborz Dortaj,4 Noorali Farrokhi,4 Majid Karami,6 Jalal Shakeri,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,7 Serge Brand7,8 1International University of Imam Reza, Mashhad, 2Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 3Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Psychiatry Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 4Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, 5Police University, Tehran, 6Baharestan Research Center, Kermanshah Transportation Terminal, Kermanshah, Iran, 7Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, 8Department of Sport and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method: A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56 from Kermanshah (Iran took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results: Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion: Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status

  18. Features of electric drive sucker rod pumps for oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizatullin, F. A.; Khakimyanov, M. I.; Khusainov, F. F.

    2018-01-01

    This article is about modes of operation of electric drives of downhole sucker rod pumps. Downhole oil production processes are very energy intensive. Oil fields contain many oil wells; many of them operate in inefficient modes with significant additional losses. Authors propose technical solutions to improve energy performance of a pump unit drives: counterweight balancing, reducing of electric motor power, replacing induction motors with permanent magnet motors, replacing balancer drives with chain drives, using of variable frequency drives.

  19. Treating and Preventing Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  20. Older drivers' self-assessed driving skills, driving-related stress and self-regulation in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Meng, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on older drivers has indicated connections between self-rated driving ability, confidence in their own driving, driving-related stress, and self-regulatory behaviour. However, more systematic associations between older drivers' perceptions on their own driving and self-regulatio...

  1. Naturalistic driving observations of manual and visual-manual interactions with navigation systems and mobile phones while driving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Nes, N. van & Knapper, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a naturalistic driving study on the use of mobile phones and navigation systems while driving. Manual interactions with these devices while driving can cause distraction from the driving task and reduce traffic safety. In this study 21 subjects were observed for 5 weeks. Their

  2. Cognitive problems, self-rated changes in driving skills, driving-related discomfort and self-regulation of driving in old drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Annette; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    2012-01-01

    -regulation of driving as measured by the avoidance of certain driving situations by older drivers with different levels of self-rated cognitive problems. Eight hundred and forty Danish drivers aged 75–95 completed a structured telephone interview. The results showed that the recognition of cognitive problems...... was associated with an experience of improvement in higher level driving skills but also of a decline in lower level driving skills. Moreover, cognitive problems recognised by drivers were associated with discomfort in, and avoidance of, driving situations. Finally, a linear relationship between discomfort...... in driving and avoidance was found and this tended to be stronger for drivers recognising cognitive problems. The results indicate that older drivers who recognise problems with cognitive functions display good self-assessment of changes in their driving skills. In addition, the results suggest that driving...

  3. Older Drivers' Reasons for Reducing the Overall Amount of Their Driving and for Avoiding Selected Driving Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Annette; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    2015-01-01

    that the reduction in driving and avoidance of driving situations are separate types of self-regulatory behavior; that self-regulation of driving is an automatic process, in which older drivers are not aware that they are compensating for functional loss; and that it is important to acknowledge gender differences......Structured telephone interviews were conducted with 840 older drivers to explore their reasons for self-regulating their driving. The main reason for reduced driving was having fewer activities to drive to, and for avoidance of driving situations, reasons also included not liking or feeling...

  4. Driving with the wandering mind: the effect that mind-wandering has on driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanko, Matthew R; Spalek, Thomas M

    2014-03-01

    The principal objective of the present work was to examine the effects of mind state (mind-wandering vs. on-task) on driving performance in a high-fidelity driving simulator. Mind-wandering is thought to interfere with goal-directed thought. It is likely, then, that when driving, mind-wandering might lead to impairments in critical aspects of driving performance. In two experiments, we assess the extent to which mind-wandering interferes with responsiveness to sudden events, mean velocity, and headway distance. Using a car-following procedure in a high-fidelity driving simulator, participants were probed at random times to indicate whether they were on-task at that moment or mind-wandering. The dependent measures were analyzed based on the participant's response to the probe. Compared to when on-task, when mind-wandering participants showed longer response times to sudden events, drove at a higher velocity, and maintained a shorter headway distance. Collectively, these findings indicate that mind-wandering affects a broad range of driving responses and may therefore lead to higher crash risk. The results suggest that situations that are likely associated with mind-wandering (e.g., route familiarity) can impair driving performance.

  5. Improvements of Piezo-Actuated Stick–Slip Micro-Drives: Modeling and Driving Waveform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan-Ha Nguyen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and waveform optimization are important research topics for piezo-actuated stick–slip micro-drives. In this paper, the dynamics of piezo-actuated stick–slip micro-drives (PASSMDs are theoretically investigated. We introduce an extended model taking the dynamics of the piezo actuators into account. The model combines the whole macroscopic movement of the drive’s runner and actuators and the microscopic behavior of the frictional contacts in a hybrid dynamic simulation. The macroscopic movements are described via Newtonian mechanics, while the microscopic behavior is computed using the method of dimensionality reduction. Two important characteristics of the drive, the critical actuation amplitude and the force generation, are systematically analyzed. The numerical simulation results show a fine agreement with experimental data of the previously published work. The critical actuation amplitude is found to depend on the behavior of the guiding contacts, the dynamics of the actuators and their interaction. Furthermore, a novel driving waveform, which allows us to increase the operational velocity for the drive, is proposed. The waveform is derived by exploiting micro-vibration and considering the dynamic contact status. Simulation results show that the average velocity of the drive is heightened by about 15 % . The performance of the drive is therefore improved.

  6. Relapse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S M; Wasserman, D A; Havassy, B E

    1991-01-01

    Although knowledge about relapse prevention is still at an early stage, the extant data highlight the importance of several constructs. 1. Motivation for abstinence remains central. The construct itself is often clouded because of its association with mystical notions such as willpower and self-control. We know that manipulation of environmental events can increase motivation. These interventions are effective, however, only as long as the contingencies are in effect. We need to develop and evaluate strategies for transferring contingency management to the natural environment, that is, to institutions and groups that can perpetuate them for the long term. Also, clarification of the kinds of abstinence goals needed to prevent relapse is important. 2. Coping skills have been studied by several investigators, but research on these, except for job-finding skills, is not encouraging. The skills usually taught may be too basic. Skills training oriented to complex targets, such as building nondrug-using networks, may be useful and should be further explored. 3. Social support is clearly important, yet we do not know how best to use it to promote abstinence. The little research available suggests that both familial and nonfamilial systems should be mobilized. We need to define abstinence-promoting supportive behaviors, identify and engage important support systems in treatment, and help patients expand their nondrug-using contacts. 4. Negative affect may be causally related to relapse. We need to continue efforts to identify dysphoric patients and develop interventions to ameliorate dysphoria concurrent with drug abuse treatment (cf. Zweben and Smith 1989). 5. Drug cue reactivity and extinction to drug cues have been demonstrated in the laboratory. What is needed in this promising line of research are (1) investigation of cues and cue-reactivity phenomena in the natural environment or in conditions closely mimicking that environment and (2) extinction methods that transfer

  7. Finding Our Drive: Autonomy, Mastery, and Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jim

    2011-01-01

    In his most recent book, "Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us," Daniel Pink argues that people are essentially motivated by three key drivers: (1) Autonomy: The desire to direct their own lives; (2) Mastery: The urge to get better at something that matters; and (3) Purpose: The yearning to do what they do in service of…

  8. Driving Through Water After a Disaster

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    After a storm, many roads may be flooded. Avoid driving through these areas, especially when the water is moving fast.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 11/1/2007.

  9. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.

    1988-08-30

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.

  10. A framework for safer driving in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bassoo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the National Transport Authority (NTA, there were 493,081 registered vehicles in Mauritius in April 2016, which represents a 1.4% annual increase compared to 2015. Despite the sensitization campaigns and the series of measures setup by the Minister of Public Infrastructure and Land Transport, the number of road accidents continues to rise. The three main elements that contribute to accidents are: road infrastructure, vehicle and driver. The driver has the highest contribution in collisions. If the driver is given the right information (e.g. driving behaviour, accident-prone areas and vehicle status at the right time, he/she can make better driving decisions and react promptly to critical situations. This paper proposes a framework for safer driving in Mauritius that uses an on-board car diagnostic module (OBDII to collect data such as vehicle average speed, engine revolution and acceleration. This module relays the data to a cloud environment where an adaptive algorithm analyses the data and predicts driver behaviour in real-time. Based on driving behaviour, mobile alerts can be sent to the driver in the form of messages, voice commands or beeps. A survey was also carried out to evaluate the acceptance rate of such a framework by people of different age groups in Mauritius.

  11. [Automobile driving after a brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosberg, A; Østen, P E; Schanke, A K

    2000-11-20

    Little is known about driving fitness after brain damage. The present study describes 62 brain injured patients, 36 with cerebral vascular accidents, 15 with traumatic brain injuries, and 11 with other neurological diseases, mean age 50 years, who after thorough assessment had been found fit enough for driving a car. 15 months later they were sent a questionnaire about their driving behaviour and skills. A higher number of traffic incidents were found after brain injury, but the difference was not significant. Patients with traumatic brain injury had a significantly higher number of traffic incidents post-injury than patients with stroke. A majority of those involved in incidents were young males with traumatic brain injury, who had deficits in cognitive executive functions. Patients with traumatic brain injuries seem to need special attention when assessed for driving. Time to follow-up is too short for the results to be conclusive for the whole material of brain-injured patients. Further studies should be conducted.

  12. The MEMOLED: Active addressing with passive driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi, K.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2011-01-01

    Passive or active matrix driving schemes in large displays are prone to high power consumption and cost, respectively. For signage applications such as large out-door displays with low refresh rates there is as yet no technological solution. Here the MEMOLED solution, an organic light-emitting diode

  13. Driving and positioning arrangement for radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, W.E.; Williams, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Details of the design of novel equipment for use in computerised axial tomographic scanning are given. The apparatus enables accurate driving and positioning of the tomographic apparatus while the patient retains a horizontal position. Furthermore, the movement is effected automatically and in a controllable manner. (UK)

  14. Thermodynamic driving force for rafting in superalloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Eshelby’s energy-momentum tensor is used to provide an analytical expression for the driving force for rafting in the elastic regime in a super alloy with a high volume fraction of gamma'. The structure is modeled as a simple cubic array of gamma...

  15. Opportunity's View After Drive on Sol 1806

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings just after driving 60.86 meters (200 feet) on the 1,806th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 21, 2009). North is at the center; south at both ends. Tracks from the drive extend northward across dark-toned sand ripples and light-toned patches of exposed bedrock in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Engineers designed the Sol 1806 drive to be driven backwards as a strategy to redistribute lubricant in the rovers wheels. The right-front wheel had been showing signs of increased friction. The rover's position after the Sol 1806 drive was about 2 kilometer (1.2 miles) south southwest of Victoria Crater. Cumulative odometry was 14.74 kilometers (9.16 miles) since landing in January 2004, including 2.96 kilometers (1.84 miles) since climbing out of Victoria Crater on the west side of the crater on Sol 1634 (August 28, 2008). This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  16. Simulation of Automated Vehicles' Drive Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-28

    This research has two objectives: 1) To develop algorithms for plausible and legally-justifiable freeway car-following and arterial-street gap acceptance driving behavior for AVs 2) To implement these algorithms on a representative road network, in o...

  17. Risk Evaluation, Driving, and Adolescents: A Typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harre, Niki

    2000-01-01

    Presents a typology outlining five psychological risk states that may be experienced by adolescent drivers. Identifies the habitually cautious driving and active risk avoidance states as desirable from a traffic safety viewpoint. Identifies reduced risk perception, acceptance of risk at a cost, and risk seeking states as undesirable. Examines…

  18. The death drive in tourism studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, Dorina Maria

    2015-01-01

    The psychoanalytical concept of the death drive postulated by Freud and Lacan refers to a constant force at the junction between life and death, which is not understood in a biological sense of physical demise of the body, nor in opposition to life. Tourist experiences in conflict zones can be more

  19. Mitochondrial mutations drive prostate cancer aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Julia F.; Sabelnykova, Veronica Y.; Weischenfeldt, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear mutations are well known to drive tumor incidence, aggression and response to therapy. By contrast, the frequency and roles of mutations in the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome are poorly understood. Here we sequence the mitochondrial genomes of 384 localized prostate cancer...

  20. Dual-Drive Production Prototype Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This project was an initiative to engineer, develop and build a plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle using the Dual-Drive system. The project aimed to build a plug-in hybrid utilitarian vehicle on a light commercial vehicle platform. The hybrid vehicle wi...

  1. Using music to change mood while driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein D.; Janssen, Joris H.; Nass, Clifford; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; Chowdhury, Shrestha; de Waard, Dick

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether gradual or abrupt music change towards more calming music is most effective in calming drivers during high-demand driving situations. Twenty-eight participants were subjected to two types of music change (gradual, abrupt) in a within-subject design. First, a

  2. Use Local Entrepreneurs to drive ICT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Use Local Entrepreneurs to drive ICT. Today in urban areas: 950,000 such PCOs covering every street of smallest town; generate 25 % of total telecom income; 300 million people use these PCOs. Lesson for Rural: To serve Rural people with incomes less than ...

  3. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  4. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  5. Fuel cell hybrid drive train test facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruinsma; I. Zafina; H. Bosma; Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in the near future as prime energy source on board of road-going vehicles. In order to be able to test all important functional aspects of a fuel cell hybrid drive train, the Automotive Institute of the HAN University has decided to realize a

  6. Union Organization Drives: Summary and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Leonard

    1976-01-01

    An outline is presented of major issues and questions raised by union organization drives including National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) representation procedures, unfair labor practices and NLRB "laboratory conditions," management and union pre-election campaigns. Includes a bibliography of books, articles, and court cases for more…

  7. Electromotor control rod drive for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The positioning of a control rod arranged in a pressure vessel takes place with a drive. This protrudes out of the pressure vessel through a support and is formed from a rotating field motor with energy source, e.g. alternating current connection. Its stator surrounds a section of a pressure casing which covers the length of the drive. The rotor is arranged in the pressure casing and interacts with a shaft lying in the rotation axis. Furthermore, segments are hinged on it, each of which forms two arms of a rocker. Each segment can be revolved against a storing force in a plane containing the rotation axis, through the stator field acting on one of the rocker arms. In order that the drive motor is automatically blocked should the electricity supply fail, the other rocker arm can be connected with a fixed cased component of the drive having the effect of a friction break or a form-locking mechanical catch. (DG/LH) [de

  8. Direct Drive Hall Thruster System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, W. Andrew; Homiak, Daniel; Cassady, R. Joseph; Kerslake, Tom; Peterson, Todd; Ferguson, Dale; Snyder, Dave; Mikellides, Ioannis; Jongeward, Gary; Schneider, Todd

    2003-01-01

    The sta:us of development of a Direct Drive Ha!! Thruster System is presented. 13 the first part. a s:udy of the impacts to spacecraft systems and mass benefits of a direct-drive architecture is reviewed. The study initially examines four cases of SPT-100 and BPT-4000 Hall thrusters used for north-south station keeping on an EXPRESS-like geosynchronous spacecraft and for primary propulsion for a Deep Space- 1 based science spacecraft. The study is also extended the impact of direct drive on orbit raising for higher power geosynchronous spacecraft and on other deep space missions as a function of power and delta velocity. The major system considerations for accommodating a direct drive Hall thruster are discussed, including array regulation, system grounding, distribution of power to the spacecraft bus, and interactions between current-voltage characteristics for the arrays and thrusters. The mass benefit analysis shows that, for the initial cases, up to 42 kg of dry mass savings is attributable directly to changes in the propulsion hardware. When projected mass impacts of operating the arrays and the electric power system at 300V are included, up to 63 kg is saved for the four initial cases. Adoption of high voltage lithium ion battery technology is projected to further improve these savings. Orbit raising of higher powered geosynchronous spacecraft, is the mission for which direct drive provides the most benefit, allowing higher efficiency electric orbit raising to be accomplished in a limited period of time, as well as nearly eliminating significant power processing heat rejection mass. The total increase in useful payload to orbit ranges up to 278 kg for a 25 kW spacecraft, launched from an Atlas IIA. For deep space missions, direct drive is found to be most applicable to higher power missions with delta velocities up to several km/s , typical of several Discovery-class missions. In the second part, the status of development of direct drive propulsion power

  9. ANIMASI IKLAN 3D SAFETY DRIVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusron Aulia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membuat sebuah aplikasi video iklan bertemakan tentang keamanan mengemudi sebagai media edukasi kepada masyarakat tentang pentingnya  keamanan  dalam  mengemudi.  Begitu  pentingnya  keamanan  mengemudi, maka  menjadi  pengemudi  aman  menjadi  keharusan  bagi setiap  anggota  masyarakat. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah observasi, dokumentasi dan studi pustaka. Untuk pengembangan sistem multimedia dilakukan berdasarkan tiga tahapan yaitu: Pra Produksi, Produksi, dan Pasca Produksi. Hasil dari penelitian   ini   berupa   aplikasi   video   iklan   animasi   3D   bertemakan   keamanan mengemudi. Aplikasi yang dihasilkan berekstensi .mpeg untuk CD/DVD, .mkv untuk diputar di computer, dan .mp4 yang diunggah di internet. Selain fungsi iklan animasi ini sebagai penyampaian pesan dan memotivasi masyarakat untuk lebih disiplin, tertib dan aman dalam mengemudi, dan juga sebagai penginspirasi untuk lebih mengembangkan animasi karya asli Indonesia Kata kunci : animasi, iklan, 3D, safety, driving.The purpose of this research  is to create  an  application  video on driving safety themed advertising  as a medium to educate people about the importance of safety in driving. Once the importance of driving safety, becomes a safe driver is a must for every member of the community. Data collection methods used in this study is the observation, documentation and literature.  For the development of multimedia systems is done based on three stages: Pre-Production,  Production,  and Post Production.  The results of this research  is  the  application  of 3D  animation  video ads  themed  driving  safety. The resulting application extension .Mpeg to CD / DVD .Mkv to be played on the computer, and .Mp4 uploaded on the internet. In addition to the function of these animated ads as delivering  a  message  and  motivate people to be more disciplined

  10. A meta-analysis of the effects of texting on driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caird, Jeff K; Johnston, Kate A; Willness, Chelsea R; Asbridge, Mark; Steel, Piers

    2014-10-01

    Text messaging while driving is considered dangerous and known to produce injuries and fatalities. However, the effects of text messaging on driving performance have not been synthesized or summarily estimated. All available experimental studies that measured the effects of text messaging on driving were identified through database searches using variants of "driving" and "texting" without restriction on year of publication through March 2014. Of the 1476 abstracts reviewed, 82 met general inclusion criteria. Of these, 28 studies were found to sufficiently compare reading or typing text messages while driving with a control or baseline condition. Independent variables (text-messaging tasks) were coded as typing, reading, or a combination of both. Dependent variables included eye movements, stimulus detection, reaction time, collisions, lane positioning, speed and headway. Statistics were extracted from studies to compute effect sizes (rc). A total sample of 977 participants from 28 experimental studies yielded 234 effect size estimates of the relationships among independent and dependent variables. Typing and reading text messages while driving adversely affected eye movements, stimulus detection, reaction time, collisions, lane positioning, speed and headway. Typing text messages alone produced similar decrements as typing and reading, whereas reading alone had smaller decrements over fewer dependent variables. Typing and reading text messages affects drivers' capability to adequately direct attention to the roadway, respond to important traffic events, control a vehicle within a lane and maintain speed and headway. This meta-analysis provides convergent evidence that texting compromises the safety of the driver, passengers and other road users. Combined efforts, including legislation, enforcement, blocking technologies, parent modeling, social media, social norms and education, will be required to prevent continued deaths and injuries from texting and driving

  11. Drinking and Driving among Recent Latino Immigrants: The Impact of Neighborhoods and Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Sanchez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Latinos are disproportionately impacted by drinking and driving arrests and alcohol-related fatal crashes. Why, and how, these disparities occur remains unclear. The neighborhood environments that recent Latino immigrants encounter in their host communities can potentially influence health behaviors over time, including the propensity to engage in drinking and driving. This cross-sectional study utilizes a sample of 467 documented and undocumented adult recent Latino immigrants in the United States to answer the following research questions: (a How do neighborhood-level factors, combined with social support, impact drinking and driving risk behaviors?; and (b Does acculturative stress moderate the effects of those associations? Results indicate neighborhood-level factors (informal social control and social capital have protective effects against drinking and driving risk behaviors via the mediating mechanism of social support. Acculturative stress moderated associations between neighborhood informal social control and social support, whereby the protective effects of informal social control on social support were not present for those immigrants with higher levels of acculturative stress. Our findings contribute to the limited knowledge of drinking and driving among Latino immigrants early in the immigration process and suggest that, in the process of developing prevention programs tailored to Latino immigrants, greater attention must be paid to neighborhood-level factors.

  12. The current status of the psychoanalytic theory of instinctual drives. I: Drive concept, classification, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, A

    1983-07-01

    The evolution of Freud's theory of instinctual drives, with the accompanying models of a mental apparatus, is remarkable for its tenacious adherence to addressing the fundamental problems of human psychology, here phrased as the problems of body-mind-environment relationships. The concept of instinctual drives continues to be one of the most pervasive concepts of psychoanalysis, weathering considerable attack over the last several decades, although losing some clarity in the process. I have cited and discussed as basic issues of the concept of instinctual drives: the relationship of observational data and theoretical constructs in psychology; whether our construct of drives is or should be or can be purely psychological; the problem of conceptualizing the ontogenetic origin of mind; the issues of the "force-meaning conjunction" and the problem of psychic energy in psychoanalytic constructs; and the relation of our concept of instinctual drives to the concept of instincts in general. It seems that progress with these fundamental issues might be made by utilizing models that are more homologous with present knowledge in related fields than is Freud's reflex arc model of the nervous system, in order to build a better drive construct within the framework of psychoanalysis. The classification of instinctual drives remains a problem. Clinically, aggression seems to be a factor in conflict, very much like sexuality. Despite widespread acceptance of the idea of aggression as simply parallel to sexuality in all respects, there are major discrepancies. Perhaps aggression cannot be viewed as a drive after all; perhaps our drive construct needs to be modified to accommodate aggression. Certainly, controversy in this area has interfered with the production of good clinical studies which could begin to increase our understanding of aggression and its place in the human personality. The psychoanalytic theory of drive development has probably undergone less change in the last

  13. Design of driving control strategy of torque distribution for two - wheel independent drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanwei; Zhang, Dongsheng; Wen, Jianping

    2018-02-01

    In order to coordinately control the torque distribution of existing two-wheel independent drive electric vehicle, and improve the energy efficiency and control stability of the whole vehicle, the control strategies based on fuzzy control were designed which adopt the direct yaw moment control as the main line. For realizing the torque coordination simulation of the two-wheel independent drive vehicle, the vehicle model, motor model and tire model were built, including the vehicle 7 - DOF dynamics model, motion equation, torque equation. Finally, in the Carsim - Simulink joint simulation platform, the feasibility of the drive control strategy was verified.

  14. In Patients With Cirrhosis, Driving Simulator Performance Is Associated With Real-life Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Mette M; Thacker, Leroy R; White, Melanie B; Unser, Ariel; Sterling, Richard K; Stravitz, Richard T; Matherly, Scott; Puri, Puneet; Sanyal, Arun J; Gavis, Edith A; Luketic, Velimir; Siddiqui, Muhammad S; Heuman, Douglas M; Fuchs, Michael; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2016-05-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) has been linked to higher real-life rates of automobile crashes and poor performance in driving simulation studies, but the link between driving simulator performance and real-life automobile crashes has not been clearly established. Furthermore, not all patients with MHE are unsafe drivers, but it is unclear how to distinguish them from unsafe drivers. We investigated the link between performance on driving simulators and real-life automobile accidents and traffic violations. We also aimed to identify features of unsafe drivers with cirrhosis and evaluated changes in simulated driving skills and MHE status after 1 year. We performed a study of outpatients with cirrhosis (n = 205; median 55 years old; median model for end-stage liver disease score, 9.5; none with overt hepatic encephalopathy or alcohol or illicit drug use within previous 6 months) seen at the Virginia Commonwealth University and McGuire Veterans Administration Medical Center, from November 2008 through April 2014. All participants were given paper-pencil tests to diagnose MHE (98 had MHE; 48%), and 163 patients completed a standardized driving simulation. Data were collected on traffic violations and automobile accidents from the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles and from participants' self-assessments when they entered the study, and from 73 participants 1 year later. Participants also completed a questionnaire about alcohol use and cessation patterns. The driving simulator measured crashes, run-time, road center and edge excursions, and illegal turns during navigation; before and after each driving simulation session, patients were asked to rate their overall driving skills. Drivers were classified as safe or unsafe based on crashes and violations reported on official driving records; simulation results were compared with real-life driving records. Multivariable regression analyses of real-life crashes and violations was performed using data on

  15. Driving platform for OLED lighting investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Uwe; Elgner, Andreas; Kreye, Daniel; Amelung, Jörg; Scholles, Michael

    2006-08-01

    OLED technology may be excellently suitable for lighting applications by combining high efficiency, cost effective manufacturing and the use of low cost materials. Certain issues remain to be solved so far, including OLED brightness, color, lifetime, large area uniformity and encapsulation. Another aspect, that might be capable in addressing some of the mentioned issues, is OLED lighting electrical driving. We report on the design of a driving platform for OLED lighting test panels or substrates. It is intended for being a test environment for lighting substrates as well as demonstration/presentation environment. It is based on a 128-channel passive-matrix driver/controller ASIC OC2. Its key component is an MSP430-compatible 16-bit micro-controller core including embedded Flash memory (program), EEPROM (parameter), and RAM (data memory). A significant feature of the device is an electronic approach for improving the lifetime/uniformity behavior of connected OLED. The embedded micro-controller is the key to the high versatility of OC2, since by firmware modification it can be adapted to various applications and conditions. Here its application for an OLED lighting driving platform is presented. Major features of this platform are PC-control mode (via USB interface), stand-alone mode (no external control necessary, just power supply), on-board OLED panel parameter storage, flat geometry of OLED lighting panel carrier (board), AC and DC driving regimes, adjustable reverse voltage, dedicated user SW (PC/Windows-based), sub-tile patterning and single sub-tile control, combination of multiple channels for increasing driving current. This publication contains results of the project "High Brightness OLEDs for ICT & Next Generation Lighting Applications" (OLLA), funded by the European Commission.

  16. Sex drives intracellular conflict in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, E; MacLean, R C; Koufopanou, V; Burt, A

    2014-08-01

    Theory predicts that sex can drive the evolution of conflict within the cell. During asexual reproduction, genetic material within the cell is inherited as a single unit, selecting for cooperation both within the genome as well as between the extra-genomic elements within the cell (e.g. plasmids and endosymbionts). Under sexual reproduction, this unity is broken down as parental genomes are distributed between meiotic progeny. Genetic elements able to transmit to more than 50% of meiotic progeny have a transmission advantage over the rest of the genome and are able to spread, even where they reduce the fitness of the individual as a whole. Sexual reproduction is therefore expected to drive the evolution of selfish genetic elements (SGEs). Here, we directly test this hypothesis by studying the evolution of two independent SGEs, the 2-μm plasmid and selfish mitochondria, in populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following 22 rounds of sexual reproduction, 2-μm copy number increased by approximately 13.2 (±5.6) copies per cell, whereas in asexual populations copy number decreased by approximately 5.1 (±1.5) copies per cell. Given that the burden imposed by this parasite increases with copy number, these results support the idea that sex drives the evolution of increased SGE virulence. Moreover, we found that mitochondria that are respiratory-deficient rapidly invaded sexual but not asexual populations, demonstrating that frequent outcrossed sex can drive the de novo evolution of genetic parasites. Our study highlights the genomic perils of sex and suggests that SGEs may play a key role in driving major evolutionary transitions, such as uniparental inheritance. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Cannabis and its effects on driving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondallaz, Percy; Favrat, Bernard; Chtioui, Haïthem; Fornari, Eleonora; Maeder, Philippe; Giroud, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Traffic policies show growing concerns about driving under the influence of cannabis, since cannabinoids are one of the most frequently encountered psychoactive substances in the blood of drivers who are drug-impaired and/or involved in accidents, and in the context of a legalization of medical marijuana and of recreational use. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of cannabis on safe driving remain poorly understood. In order to better understand its acute and long-term effects on psychomotor functions involved in the short term ability and long-term fitness to drive, experimental research has been conducted based on laboratory, simulator or on-road studies, as well as on structural and functional brain imaging. Results presented in this review show a cannabis-induced impairment of actual driving performance by increasing lane weaving and mean distance headway to the preceding vehicle. Acute and long-term dose-dependent impairments of specific cognitive functions and psychomotor abilities were also noted, extending beyond a few weeks after the cessation of use. Some discrepancies found between these studies could be explained by factors such as history of cannabis use, routes of administration, dose ranges, or study designs (e.g. treatment blinding). Moreover, use of both alcohol and cannabis has been shown to lead to greater odds of making an error than use of either alcohol or cannabis alone. Although the correlation between blood or oral fluid concentrations and psychoactive effects of THC needs a better understanding, blood sampling has been shown to be the most effective way to evaluate the level of impairment of drivers under the influence of cannabis. The blood tests have also shown to be useful to highlight a chronic use of cannabis that suggests an addiction and therefore a long-term unfitness to drive. Besides blood, hair and repeated urine analyses are useful to confirm abstinence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  18. Return to Driving After Hip Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momaya, Amit M; Stavrinos, Despina; McManus, Benjamin; Wittig, Shannon M; Emblom, Benton; Estes, Reed

    2017-07-11

    The objective of this study was to evaluate patients' braking performance using a modern driving simulator after undergoing a right hip arthroscopy. This prospective study included 5 total driving sessions at which measurements were taken. The study was conducted at an academic medical center. A total of 14 patients scheduled to undergo a right hip arthroscopy were enrolled and compared with a control group of 17 participants to account for a potential learning phenomenon. Patients drove in the simulator preoperatively to establish a baseline, and then drove again at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postoperatively. The control group did not undergo any type of surgical procedure. The main independent variable was time from surgery. A modern driving simulator was used to measure initial reaction time (IRT), throttle release time (TRT), foot movement time (FMT), and brake travel time (BTT). The braking reaction time (BRT) was calculated as the sum of IRT + TRT + FMT, and the total braking time (TBT) was calculated as the sum of BRT + BTT. The experimental group showed no significant changes in BTT (P = 0.11, ηG = 0.04) nor TBT (P = 0.20, ηG = 0.03) over the duration of 8 weeks. Although the experimental group did exhibit significant improvements in IRT (P = 0.002), TRT (P < 0.0001), FMT (P < 0.0001), and BRT (P = 0.0002) between preoperative and 2 weeks postoperative driving sessions, there were no significant changes thereafter. The mean preoperative TBT and 2 weeks postoperative TBT for the experimental group were 3.07 seconds (SD = 0.50) and 2.97 seconds (SD = 0.57), respectively. No learning phenomenon was observed in the control group. This study's findings suggest that patients may return to driving 2 weeks postoperatively from a right-sided hip arthroscopy procedure.

  19. Current drive for spherical tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storer, R.

    1999-01-01

    Very low aspect ratio spherical tokamaks have proved to have some very useful and remarkable properties including very high values of the plasma pressure to magnetic field pressure. Following the construction of the Start tokamak, a number of such configurations have been constructed. One of the difficulties encountered is in providing sufficient inductive current drive due to the competing requirements of the need to keep the aspect ratio low and providing the space for the central current-carrying rod with an internal inductive coil. An alternative current drive technique would be very useful. In a parallel development it has been shown that a rotating magnetic field can drive a significant non-linear Hall current in a spherical plasma. Successful experiments of this concept have been made with a device called the Rotamak. In its original configuration this device was a field reversed configuration without a toroidal magnetic field but with a vertical field to establish the magnetic hydrodynamical equilibrium. However, recent modifications have shown that increased current can be driven if a central current-carrying rod is used to provide an applied toroidal field. The new Rotamak has then a spherical tokamak magnetic field structure. This work will present new calculations which model the above structure and include the effect of the applied toroidal field in addition to the steady vertical field and the rotating (current-drive) magnetic field. The problem is fully three dimensional and non-linear and involves the application of interesting computational techniques. The potential of using the rotating field current drive technique for spherical tokamaks will be evaluated

  20. Polio and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Photo Collections Videos Polio Today → Polio + Prevention Polio + Prevention Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling and ... a child for life. Learn more about polio + prevention The Virus The Vaccines The Communities Related resources ...

  1. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  2. A Study of Innovation: ERD Takes Pollution Prevention to a New Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southmayd, A.

    1999-01-01

    ERD approaches its mission with a vision of continuously exceeding customer needs and expectations and continuously improving. It's this vision of continuous improvement that drives the ERD pollution prevention program towards innovation

  3. A Study of Innovation: ERD Takes Pollution Prevention to a New Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southmayd, A.

    1999-01-20

    ERD approaches its mission with a vision of continuously exceeding customer needs and expectations and continuously improving. It's this vision of continuous improvement that drives the ERD pollution prevention program towards innovation.

  4. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant Revision 2: January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Stormwater Pollution Prevention Team (PPT) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area (TA)- 60 Asphalt Batch Plant (ABP) located on Eniwetok Drive/Sigma Mesa, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  5. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area -60 (TA-60) Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area off Eniwetok Drive, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico.

  6. Young and unlicensed: risky driving before entering the licensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, B; Watson, B; King, M J; Hyde, M K

    2012-01-01

    On-road driving before gaining a valid license (prelicense driving) represents a risk for all road users. Prelicense driving among young people who obtained a provisional license within an enhanced graduated driver licensing program in Queensland, Australia, was investigated. Recently licensed drivers (n = 1032) aged 17 to 19 years (M = 17.54) completed a survey exploring their driving experiences while on their learner's license. Six months later, 355 of these drivers completed the same survey exploring their experiences on their provisional (intermediate) license. Twelve percent of participants reported prelicense driving. Prelicense drivers reported significantly more risky driving as learners and provisional drivers. Prelicense drivers not only place themselves and other road users at risk at the time but also continue to do so through their subsequent risky driving. Prelicense driving should be discouraged, and parents should be encouraged to monitor car use and the driving behavior of their children.

  7. The influence of music on mental effort and driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Ayça Berfu; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai

    2012-09-01

    The current research examined the influence of loud music on driving performance, and whether mental effort mediated this effect. Participants (N=69) drove in a driving simulator either with or without listening to music. In order to test whether music would have similar effects on driving performance in different situations, we manipulated the simulated traffic environment such that the driving context consisted of both complex and monotonous driving situations. In addition, we systematically kept track of drivers' mental load by making the participants verbally report their mental effort at certain moments while driving. We found that listening to music increased mental effort while driving, irrespective of the driving situation being complex or monotonous, providing support to the general assumption that music can be a distracting auditory stimulus while driving. However, drivers who listened to music performed as well as the drivers who did not listen to music, indicating that music did not impair their driving performance. Importantly, the increases in mental effort while listening to music pointed out that drivers try to regulate their mental effort as a cognitive compensatory strategy to deal with task demands. Interestingly, we observed significant improvements in driving performance in two of the driving situations. It seems like mental effort might mediate the effect of music on driving performance in situations requiring sustained attention. Other process variables, such as arousal and boredom, should also be incorporated to study designs in order to reveal more on the nature of how music affects driving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In Patients with Cirrhosis, Driving Simulator Performance is Associated With Real-life Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Enok Munk; Thacker, Leroy R; White, Melanie B

    2016-01-01

    , not all patients with MHE are unsafe drivers, but it is unclear how to distinguish them from unsafe drivers. We investigated the link between performance on driving simulators and real-life automobile accidents and traffic violations. We also aimed to identify features of unsafe drivers with cirrhosis...... collected on traffic violations and automobile accidents from the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles and from participants' self-assessments when they entered the study, and from 73 participants 1 year later. Participants also completed a questionnaire about alcohol use and cessation patterns....... The driving simulator measured crashes, run-time, road center and edge excursions, and illegal turns during navigation; before and after each driving simulation session, patients were asked to rate their overall driving skills. Drivers were classified as safe or unsafe based on crashes and violations reported...

  9. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C Davis

    Full Text Available A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI.Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865 served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1 any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2 driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model.Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P < 0.01 and lower past-month odds of driving 5 or more times within 1 hour of using marijuana (OR = 0.26, P < 0.01. Increased knowledge of marijuana DUI laws was also associated

  10. The 2006 National Labor Day impaired driving enforcement crackdown : Drunk driving. Over the limit. Under arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administrations 2006 Drunk Driving. Over the Limit. Under Arrest. Labor Day holiday campaign had three main components: (1) DWI enforcement, (2) public awareness efforts, and (3) evaluation. The 2006 program use...

  11. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Kevin C.; Allen, Jane; Duke, Jennifer; Nonnemaker, James; Bradfield, Brian; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Shafer, Paul; Novak, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Aims A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of...

  12. The impact of visual field loss on driving performance: evidence from on-road driving assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Lyne; Casson, Evanne J

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between visual field loss and driving performance as determined by on-road driving assessments. We reviewed the files of 1350 patients enrolled in a rehabilitation program at the Bloorview MacMillan Rehabilitation Centre, Toronto, Canada. We identified 131 patients with visual field loss who had undergone an on-road driving assessment. These patients had a primary diagnosis of visual impairment or a primary diagnosis of cerebral vascular accident (CVA) with a secondary diagnosis of visual impairment. None of these patients had documentation of neglect, substantial motor or cognitive deficits. We report the data obtained from 13 hemianopics, 7 quadrantanopics, 25 patients with monocular vision, 10 patients with moderate peripheral losses (worse impact on driving performance than quadrantanopia with a marginally significant result (chi2 = 3.33, p = 0.068). Overall, the location of the visual loss was not significantly related to driving fitness (chi2 = 1.05, p = 0.30). However, localized defects in the left hemifield (chi2 = 9.561, p = 0.002) and diffuse visual loss in the right hemifield (chi2 = 10.395, p = 0.001) seemed to be associated with driving impairments. A large proportion of monocular drivers were safe drivers and the location of their deficit had no significant impact. Although the extent of visual field defects appears to be related to driving performance as determined by an on-road driving assessment, large individual differences were observed. This highlights the need for individualized on-road assessments for patients with visual field defects.

  13. Class-D amplifier design and performance for driving a Piezo Actuator Drive servomotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsurzsan, Tiberiu-Gabriel; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the behavior of piezoelectric stacks in a Piezoelectric Actuator Drive (PAD) motor, which shows non-linear equivalent impedance and has a dramatic impact on the overall system performance. Therefore, in this paper, the piezo stackt’s model is discussed and an improved large...... signal model is proposed and verified by measurement. Finally, a Class-D amplifier as a power driver and its associated closed-loop control are implemented and tested to control PAD drive effectively....

  14. Predictions of fast wave heating, current drive, and current drive antenna arrays for advanced tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Baity, F.W.; Carter, M.D. [and others

    1994-12-31

    The objective of the advanced tokamak program is to optimize plasma performance leading to a compact tokamak reactor through active, steady state control of the current profile using non-inductive current drive and profile control. To achieve these objectives requires compatibility and flexibility in the use of available heating and current drive systems--ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF), neutral beams, and lower hybrid. For any advanced tokamak, the following are important challenges to effective use of fast waves in various roles of direct electron heating, minority ion heating, and current drive: (1) to employ the heating and current drive systems to give self-consistent pressure and current profiles leading to the desired advanced tokamak operating modes; (2) to minimize absorption of the fast waves by parasitic resonances, which limit current drive; (3) to optimize and control the spectrum of fast waves launched by the antenna array for the required mix of simultaneous heating and current drive. The authors have addressed these issues using theoretical and computational tools developed at a number of institutions by benchmarking the computations against available experimental data and applying them to the specific case of TPX.

  15. Predictions of fast wave heating, current drive, and current drive antenna arrays for advanced tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Baity, F.W.; Carter, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the advanced tokamak program is to optimize plasma performance leading to a compact tokamak reactor through active, steady state control of the current profile using non-inductive current drive and profile control. To achieve these objectives requires compatibility and flexibility in the use of available heating and current drive systems--ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF), neutral beams, and lower hybrid. For any advanced tokamak, the following are important challenges to effective use of fast waves in various roles of direct electron heating, minority ion heating, and current drive: (1) to employ the heating and current drive systems to give self-consistent pressure and current profiles leading to the desired advanced tokamak operating modes; (2) to minimize absorption of the fast waves by parasitic resonances, which limit current drive; (3) to optimize and control the spectrum of fast waves launched by the antenna array for the required mix of simultaneous heating and current drive. The authors have addressed these issues using theoretical and computational tools developed at a number of institutions by benchmarking the computations against available experimental data and applying them to the specific case of TPX

  16. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C; Allen, Jane; Duke, Jennifer; Nonnemaker, James; Bradfield, Brian; Farrelly, Matthew C; Shafer, Paul; Novak, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI. Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865) served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1) any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2) driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model. Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P marijuana (OR = 0.26, P marijuana DUI laws was also associated with lower odds of each of these outcomes (OR = 0.63, P marijuana DUI were greater in magnitude for safety perceptions than

  17. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C.; Allen, Jane; Duke, Jennifer; Nonnemaker, James; Bradfield, Brian; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Shafer, Paul; Novak, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Aims A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI. Methods Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865) served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1) any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2) driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model. Results Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P marijuana (OR = 0.26, P marijuana DUI laws was also associated with lower odds of each of these outcomes (OR = 0.63, P marijuana DUI were greater in magnitude for safety

  18. Comments on ICRH current drive in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fried, B.; Hellsten, T.; Moreau, D.

    1989-01-01

    To study current drive via the mode-converted slow wave during ICRH an assessment for which plasma compositions and wave number mode conversion from the magnetosonic wave to the slow wave can dominate is made. A simple slab model is used to investigate the competition between mode conversion and minority cyclotron absorption for a deuterium plasma with H + and 3 He 2+ minority species in JET. A 3 He 2+ minority should be more appropriate for mode conversion current drive than H + because the 3 He 2+ concentration can be chosen near its optimum for the ''Budden absorption'' without bringing the ion hybrid resonance and the cyclotron resonance so close that the minority absorption dominates. 3 He 2+ minority also allows operation at toroidal numbers which are characteristic of present JET antennae. (author)

  19. Wormholes, warp drives and energy conditions

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Top researchers in the field of gravitation present the state-of-the-art topics outlined in this book, ranging from the stability of rotating wormholes solutions supported by ghost scalar fields, modified gravity applied to wormholes, the study of novel semi-classical and nonlinear energy conditions, to the applications of quantum effects and the superluminal version of the warp drive in modified spacetime. Based on Einstein's field equations, this cutting-edge research area explores the more far-fetched theoretical outcomes of General Relativity and relates them to quantum field theory. This includes quantum energy inequalities, flux energy conditions, and wormhole curvature, and sheds light on not just the theoretical physics but also on the possible applications to warp drives and time travel. This book extensively explores the physical properties and characteristics of these 'exotic spacetimes,' describing in detail the general relativistic geometries that generate closed timelike curves.

  20. Raytracing and Direct-Drive Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Andrew J.; Bates, Jason; Fyfe, David; Eimerl, David

    2013-10-01

    Accurate simulation of the effects of laser imprinting and drive asymmetries in directly driven targets requires the ability to distinguish between raytrace noise and the intensity structure produced by the spatial and temporal incoherence of optical smoothing. We have developed and implemented a smoother raytrace algorithm for our mpi-parallel radiation hydrodynamics code, FAST3D. The underlying approach is to connect the rays into either sheets (in 2D) or volume-enclosing chunks (in 3D) so that the absorbed energy distribution continuously covers the propagation area illuminated by the laser. We will describe the status and show the different scalings encountered in 2D and 3D problems as the computational size, parallelization strategy, and number of rays is varied. Finally, we show results using the method in current NIKE experimental target simulations and in proposed symmetric and polar direct-drive target designs. Supported by US DoE/NNSA.