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Sample records for prevalent severe vertebral

  1. Prevalence of thoracolumbar vertebral fractures on multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartalena, Tommaso; Giannelli, Giovanni; Rinaldi, Maria Francesca; Rimondi, Eugenio; Rinaldi, Giovanni; Sverzellati, Nicola; Gavelli, Giampaolo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures in patients undergoing multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the chest and/or abdomen. Materials and methods: 323 consecutive patients (196 males, 127 females) with a mean age of 62.6 years (range 20-88) who had undergone chest and/or abdominal MDCT were evaluated. Sagittal reformats of the spine obtained from thin section datasets were reviewed by two radiologists and assessed for vertebral fractures. Morphometric analysis using electronic calipers was performed on vertebral bodies which appeared abnormal upon visual inspection. A vertebral body height loss of 15% or more was considered a fracture and graded as mild (15-24%), moderate (25-49%) or severe (more than 50%). Official radiology reports were reviewed and whether the vertebral fractures had been reported or not was noted. Results: 31 out of 323 patients (9.5%) had at least 1 vertebral fracture and 7 of those patients had multiple fractures for a total of 41 fractures. Morphometric grading revealed 10 mild, 16 moderate and 15 severe fractures. Prevalence was higher in women (14.1%) than men (6.6%) and increased with patients age with a 17.1% prevalence in post-menopausal women. Only 6 out 41 vertebral fractures (14.6%) had been noted in the radiology final report while the remaining 35 (85.45) had not. Conclusion: although vertebral fractures represent frequent incidental findings on multidetector CT studies and may be easily identified on sagittal reformats, they are often underreported by radiologists, most likely because of unawareness of their clinical importance.

  2. Kyphoplasty for severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Zhaohua; Wang Genlin; Yang Huilin; Meng Bin; Chen Kangwu; Jiang Weimin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clininal efficacy of kyphoplasty for severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Methods: Forty-five patients with severe osteoporotic compressive fractures were treated by kyphoplasty from Jan 2005 to Jan 2009. The compressive rate of the fractured vertebral bodies was more than 75%. According to the morphology of the vertebral compression fracture bodies the unilateral or bilateral balloon kyphoplasty were selected. The anterior vertebral height was measured on a standing lateral radiograph at pre-operative, post-operative (one day after operation) and final follow-up time. A visual analog scale(VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) were chosen to evaluate pain status and functional activity. Results: The mean follow-up was for 21.7 months (in range from 18 to 48 months). The anterior vertebral body height of fracture vertebra was restored from preoperative (18.7 ± 3.1)% to postoperative (51.4 ± 2.3)%, the follow-up period (50.2 ± 2.7)%. There was a significant improvement between preoperative and postoperative values (P 0.05). The VAS was 8.1 ± 1.4 at preoperative, 2.6 ± 0.9 at postoperative, 2.1 ± 0.5 at final follow-up time; and the ODI was preoperative 91.1 ± 2.3, postoperative 30.7 ± 7.1, follow-up period 26.1 ± 5.1. There was statistically significant improvement in the VAS and ODI in the post-operative assessment compared with the pre-operative assessment (P 0.05). Asymptomatic cement leakage occurred in three cases. New vertebral fracture occurred in one case. Conclusion: The study suggests that balloon kyphoplasty is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. (authors)

  3. Prevalent Vertebral Fractures in Black Women and White Women

    OpenAIRE

    Cauley, Jane A; Palermo, Lisa; Vogt, Molly; Ensrud, Kristine E; Ewing, Susan; Hochberg, Marc; Nevitt, Michael C; Black, Dennis M

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fracture. Hip and clinical fractures are less common in black women, but there is little information on vertebral fractures. We studied 7860 white and 472 black women ≥65 yr of age enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Prevalent vertebral fractures were identified from lateral spine radiographs using vertebral morphometry and defined if any vertebral height ratio was >3 SD below race-specific means for each vertebral level. Infor...

  4. Prevalent morphometric vertebral fractures in professional male rugby players.

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    Karen Hind

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n = 52 and union (n = 43 players (n = 95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3 years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9 kg.m2 participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA. One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1, 40 moderate (grade 2 and 6 severe (grade 3. Multiple vertebral fractures (≥2 were found in 37 players (39%. There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05. The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n = 23, T9 (n = 18 and T10 (n = 21. The mean (SD lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3 indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation.

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE The pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vertebral artery injury in all patients who have fractures involving the transverse foraminae of the cervical spine, those with facet joint dislocations, and those with fractures involving the first to the third cervical vertebrae. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury using CTA in ...

  6. Global patterns of Leptospira prevalence in vertebrate reservoir hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie U.; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Jensen, Per Moestrup

    2016-01-01

    leptospirosis requires more detailed information on animal reservoirs that are the source of human infection. We evaluated the prevalence of Leptospira in vertebrates worldwide and its association with taxonomy, geographic region, host biology, ambient temperature, and precipitation patterns. A multivariate...

  7. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballane, G; Cauley, J A; Luckey, M M; El-Hajj Fuleihan, G

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence and incidence of vertebral fractures worldwide. We used a systematic Medline search current to 2015 and updated as per authors' libraries. A total of 62 articles of fair to good quality and comparable methods for vertebral fracture identification were considered. The prevalence of morphometric vertebral fractures in European women is highest in Scandinavia (26%) and lowest in Eastern Europe (18%). Prevalence rates in North America (NA) for White women ≥50 are 20-24%, with a White/Black ratio of 1.6. Rates in women ≥50 years in Latin America are overall lower than Europe and NA (11-19%). In Asia, rates in women above ≥65 are highest in Japan (24%), lowest in Indonesia (9%), and in the Middle East, Lebanon, rates are 20%. The highest-lowest ratio between countries, within and across continents, varied from 1.4-2.6. Incidence data is less abundant and more heterogeneous. Age-standardized rates in studies combining hospitalized and ambulatory vertebral fractures are highest in South Korea, USA, and Hong Kong and lowest in the UK. Neither a North-South gradient nor a relation to urbanization is evident. Conversely, the incidence of hospitalized vertebral fractures in European patients ≥50 shows a North-South gradient with 3-3.7-fold variability. In the USA, rates in Whites are approximately 4-fold higher than in Blacks. Vertebral fractures variation worldwide is lower than observed with hip fractures, and some of highest rates are unexpectedly from Asia. Better quality representative studies are needed. We investigate the occurrence of vertebral fractures, worldwide, using published data current until the present. Worldwide, the variation in vertebral fractures is lower than observed for hip fractures. Some of the highest rates are from North America and unexpectedly Asia. The highest-lowest ratio between countries, within and across continents, varied from 1.4-2.6. Better quality representative data is needed.

  8. High prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures in HIV-infected males.

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    Torti, Carlo; Mazziotti, Gherardo; Soldini, Pier Antonio; Focà, Emanuele; Maroldi, Roberto; Gotti, Daria; Carosi, Giampiero; Giustina, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Age-related co-morbidities including osteoporosis are relevant in patients responding to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Vertebral fractures are common osteoporotic fractures and their diagnosis is useful for managing at-risk individuals. However, there are few data from HIV-infected patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with vertebral fractures in a population of HIV-infected males. A cross-sectional study of 160 HIV-infected patients with available chest X-rays was conducted from 1998 to 2010. One hundred and sixty-three males with comparable age and with no history of HIV infection were recruited as controls. Semi-quantitative evaluation of vertebral heights in lateral chest X-rays and quantitative morphometry assessment of centrally digitized images using dedicated morphometry software were utilized to detect prevalent vertebral fractures. The result showed that the vertebral fractures were detected in 43/160 (26.9%) HIV-infected patients and in 21/163 (12.9%) controls (P = 0.002). In HIV-infected patients with fractures, 27 had two or more fractures and ten patients had severe fractures. The prevalence of any fractures and multiple fractures in HIV-infected patients receiving cART (29.6 and 20.0%) was slightly higher than in HIV-infected patients not exposed to cART (17.1 and 5.7%), but significantly higher than control subjects (12.9 and 3.7%). At multivariable analyses, body mass index and diabetes mellitus were independently correlated with vertebral fractures in HIV-infected patients. We concluded that a significant proportion of HIV-infected males receiving cART showed vertebral fractures. Furthermore, proactive diagnosis of vertebral fragility fractures is particularly relevant in patients who are overweight or suffer from diabetes.

  9. Prevalence of silent vertebral fractures detected by vertebral fracture assessment in young Portuguese men with hyperthyroidism.

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    Barbosa, Ana Paula; Rui Mascarenhas, Mário; Silva, Carlos Francisco; Távora, Isabel; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; de Oliveira, António Gouveia

    2015-02-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporotic fractures. Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a radiological method of visualization of the spine, which enables patient comfort and reduced radiation exposure. This study was carried out to evaluate BMD and the prevalence of silent vertebral fractures in young men with hyperthyroidism. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a group of Portuguese men aged up to 50 years and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. A group of 48 Portuguese men aged up to 50 years was divided and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. BMD (g/cm(2)) at L1-L4, hip, radius 33%, and whole body as well as the total body masses (kg) were studied by DXA. VFA was used to detect fractures and those were classified by Genant's semiquantitative method. No patient had previously been treated for hyperthyroidism, osteoporosis, or low bone mass. Adequate statistical tests were used. The mean age, height, and total fat mass were similar in both groups (P≥0.05). The total lean body mass and the mean BMD at lumbar spine, hip, and whole body were significantly decreased in the hyperthyroidism group. In this group, there was also a trend for an increased prevalence of reduced BMD/osteoporosis and osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The results obtained using VFA technology (confirmed by X-ray) suggest that the BMD changes in young men with nontreated hyperthyroidism may lead to the development of osteoporosis and vertebral fractures. This supports the pertinence of using VFA in the routine of osteoporosis assessment to detect silent fractures precociously and consider early treatment. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  10. GLOBAL PATTERNS OF LEPTOSPIRA PREVALENCE IN VERTEBRATE RESERVOIR HOSTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie U; Pipper, Christian; Jensen, Per M

    2016-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread emerging bacterial zoonosis. As the transmission is believed to be predominantly waterborne, human incidence is expected to increase in conjunction with global climate change and associated extreme weather events. Providing more accurate predictions of human leptospirosis requires more detailed information on animal reservoirs that are the source of human infection. We evaluated the prevalence of Leptospira in vertebrates worldwide and its association with taxonomy, geographic region, host biology, ambient temperature, and precipitation patterns. A multivariate regression analysis with a meta-analysis-like approach was used to analyze compiled data extracted from 300 Leptospira-related peer reviewed papers. A fairly uniform Leptospira infection prevalence of about 15% was found in the majority of mammalian families. Higher prevalence was frequently associated with species occupying urban habitats, and this may explain why climatic factors were not significantly correlated with prevalence as consistently as expected. Across different approaches of the multiple regression analyses, the variables most frequently correlated with Leptospira infection prevalence were the host's ability to swim, minimum ambient temperature, and methodologic quality of the study. Prevalence in carnivores was not associated with any climatic variable, and the importance of environmental risk factors were indicated to be of lesser consequence in nonhuman mammals. The dataset is made available for further analysis.

  11. The pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other important risk factors for vertebral artery injury include facet joint dislocations and fractures of the first to the third cervical vertebral bodies. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury on CT angiography (CTA) in patients with cervical spine fractures. Method.

  12. A case report: pregnancy-induced severe osteoporosis with eight vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofluoglu, Onder; Ofluoglu, Demet

    2008-12-01

    Osteoporosis associated with pregnancy and lactation is a rare condition. The prevalence, etiology and its pathogenesis is unknown. It causes one or more vertebral fractures with severe, prolonged back pain and height loss in affected women. Majority of the cases are seen in the third trimester or just after delivery in primagravid women. In this case report, a 30-year-old woman who had severe pregnancy-induced osteoporosis with 8 vertebral fractures was presented. During last month of her first pregnancy she had moderate back pain. After delivery, the back pain has gotten worse. The radiological examinations have shown that there was 50% in T6, T8 and T10; 30% in L2; 20% in L1 height loss and biconcave vertebral images in L3-5. In the bone mineral density, L2-4 T score was -4.7 and total femoral T score was -3.1. There was no abnormality in the laboratory findings except mild elevation in alkaline phosphates. Although pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is a rare condition, when pain occurs in the last trimester or early postpartum period, it should be considered in differential diagnosis.

  13. The prevalence of radiographic vertebral fractures in Latin American countries: the Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P; Cons-Molina, F; Deleze, M; Ragi, S; Haddock, L; Zanchetta, J R; Jaller, J J; Palermo, L; Talavera, J O; Messina, D O; Morales-Torres, J; Salmeron, J; Navarrete, A; Suarez, E; Pérez, C M; Cummings, S R

    2009-02-01

    In the first population-based study of vertebral fractures in Latin America, we found a 11.18 (95% CI 9.23-13.4) prevalence of radiographically ascertained vertebral fractures in a random sample of 1,922 women from cities within five different countries. These figures are similar to findings from studies in Beijing, China, some regions of Europe, and slightly lower than those found in the USA using the same standardized methodology. We report the first study of radiographic vertebral fractures in Latin America. An age-stratified random sample of 1,922 women aged 50 years and older from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Puerto Rico were included. In all cases a standardized questionnaire and lateral X-rays of the lumbar and thoracic spine were obtained after informed consent. A standardized prevalence of 11.18 (95% CI 9.23-13.4) was found. The prevalence was similar in all five countries, increasing from 6.9% (95% CI 4.6-9.1) in women aged 50-59 years to 27.8% (95% CI 23.1-32.4) in those 80 years and older (p for trend < 0.001). Among different risk factors, self-reported height loss OR = 1.63 (95% CI: 1.18-2.25), and previous history of fracture OR = 1.52 (95% CI: 1.14-2.03) were significantly (p < 0.003 and p < 0.04 respectably) associated with the presence of radiographic vertebral fractures in the multivariate analysis. In the bivariate analyses HRT was associated with a 35% lower risk OR = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46-0.93) and physical activity with a 27% lower risk of having a vertebral fracture OR = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.55-0.98), but were not statistically significant in multivariate analyses We conclude that radiographically ascertained vertebral fractures are common in Latin America. Health authorities in the region should be aware and consider implementing measures to prevent vertebral fractures.

  14. The pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury in patients with cervical spine fractures

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    Farzanah Ismail

    2013-06-01

    Method: A retrospective review of patients who had undergone CTA of the vertebral arteries was undertaken. Reports were reviewed to determine which patients met the inclusion criteria of having had both cervical spine fractures and CTA of the vertebral arteries. Images of patients who met the inclusion criteria were analysed by a radiologist. Results: The prevalence of vertebral artery injury was 33%. Four out of the 11 patients who had vertebral artery injury, had post-traumatic spasm of the artery, with associated thrombosis or occlusion of the vessel. In terms of blunt carotid vertebral injury (BCVI grading, most of the patients sustained grade IV injuries. Four patients who had vertebral artery injury had fractures of the upper cervical vertebrae, i.e. C1 to C3. Fifteen transverse process fractures were associated with vertebral artery injury. No vertebral artery injury was detected in patients who had facet joint subluxations. Conclusion: Patients with transverse process fractures of the cervical spine and upper cervical vertebral body fractures should undergo CTA to exclude vertebral artery injury.

  15. High prevalence of morphometric vertebral deformities in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijckmann, Anna Caroline; Huijberts, Maya S P; Schoon, Erik J; Geusens, Piet; de Vries, Jolanda; Menheere, Paul P C A; van der Veer, Eveline; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Stockbrugger, Reinhold W; Dumitrescu, Bianca; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, Arie C

    2008-08-01

    Earlier studies have documented that the prevalence of decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is elevated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral deformities in inflammatory bowel disease patients and their relation with BMD and bone turnover. One hundred and nine patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 72 with ulcerative colitis (UC) (age 44.5+/-14.2 years) were studied. BMD of the hip (by dual X-ray absorptiometry) was measured and a lateral single energy densitometry of the spine for assessment of vertebral deformities was performed. Serum markers of bone resorption (carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen) and formation (procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide) were measured, and determinants of prevalent vertebral deformities were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Vertebral deformities were found in 25% of both CD and UC patients. Comparing patients with and without vertebral deformities, no significant difference was found between Z-scores and T-scores of BMD, or levels of serum carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen and serum procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide. Using logistic regression analysis the only determinant of any morphometric vertebral deformity was sex. The presence of multiple vertebral deformities was associated with older age and glucocorticoid use. The prevalence of morphometric vertebral deformities is high in CD and UC. Male sex, but neither disease activity, bone turnover markers, clinical risk factors, nor BMD predicted their presence. The determinants for having more than one vertebral deformity were age and glucocorticoid use. This implies that in addition to screening for low BMD, morphometric assessment of vertebral deformities is warranted in CD and UC.

  16. Relationship Between BMD and Prevalent Vertebral Fractures in Indian Women Older Than 50 Yr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Yashdeep; Marwaha, Raman K; Kukreja, Subhash; Bhadra, Kuntal; Narang, Archana; Mani, Kalaivani; Mithal, Ambrish; Tandon, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to study the relationship of morphometric vertebral fractures with bone mineral density (BMD) in Indian women older than 50 yr. Four hundred fifteen healthy Indian women older than 50 yr (mean age: 62.8 yr) underwent lateral X-rays of the lumbar and thoracic spine. Genant's semiquantitative method was used to diagnose and classify morphometric vertebral fractures. BMD was measured by DXA at lumbar spine and total hip. Recruited subjects underwent anthropometric, biochemical, and hormonal evaluation. Vertebral fractures were present in 17.1% (95% confidence interval: 13.5, 20.8) subjects. Prevalence of osteoporosis based on BMD was 35.7%. By adding those with prevalent fractures, the number of women requiring therapy for osteoporosis would increase to 46.5%. The BMD measured at femur neck, total hip, and lumbar spine (L1eL4) was not found to be lower in women with vertebral fractures as compared with those without fractures. BMD was not found to be lower in women with vertebral fractures as compared with those without fractures. Significant number of additional subjects with BMD in the normal or osteopenic range become eligible for osteoporosis treatment when presence of vertebral fracture is used as an independent indication for such treatment. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The varying distribution of intra- and inter-vertebral height ratios determines the prevalence of vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebaze, Roger Martin Djoumessi; Djoumessi, Roger Martin Zebaze; Maalouf, Ghassan; Wehbe, Joseph; Nehme, Alexandre; Maalouf, Naim; Seeman, Ego

    2004-08-01

    Credible inferences regarding the burden of vertebral fractures (VFs) cannot be made without a globally accepted quantitative definition of 'fracture'. Currently, differences in anterior, middle, or posterior vertebral heights (VHs) within a vertebra, or between adjacent vertebrae, are used to define 'fracture'. However, VH differences are essential for the construction of thoracolumbar curves, evolutionary adaptations that provide stability in bipedal stance and gait. As there is no reference standard to distinguish anatomical variation from fracture, approaches to defining a VF use a reference range of VH ratios derived in premenopausal women or derived by trimming, a method that iteratively removes the tails of a distribution of VH ratios to produce a normal distribution. From this, reference ranges of VH ratio means and standard deviations (SDs) are obtained and a nominal deviation of 15% or more, or 3 SD or more is regarded as a 'fracture'. We measured VHs by quantitative vertebral morphometry (QVM) and bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 697 Lebanese women (age 20-89 years) to compare the prevalence of VF ascertained by published methods and a new method that uses the premenopausal range (without trimming) and requires two VH abnormalities. VF prevalence using published methods reached 60% to 70% in pre- and post-menopausal women, and in women with normal or high BMD because VH ratios were not normally distributed and cut-offs used to define VF fracture fell within the observed distribution of the data. The new method resulted in a VF prevalence of 3.3% in younger and 14% in older women, 7% (high), 10% (middle), and 20% (low) BMD tertiles consistent with the notion that the method detected VF due to bone fragility. We suggest that using a fixed trimming method to define reference range and cut-offs or applying fixed cut-offs to identify VFs in populations, where these ratios are not normally distributed, may result in the capture

  18. Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis presenting severe vertebral fractures.

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    Ozturk, Cihat; Atamaz, Funda Calis; Akkurt, Halil; Akkoc, Yesim

    2014-01-01

    The syndrome of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis (PAO) is a rare disorder which occurs either in late pregnancy or early post-partum period leading to fragility fracture(s), most commonly in the vertebral bodies. We presented two cases with PAO who had compression fractures at multiple levels involving five vertebrae in one case and 10 vertebrae in the other. Their spinal bone mineral density values were below -2.5 standard deviations. Anti-osteoporotic treatments with nasal calcitonin 400 IU/day, vitamin D 300.000 IU single dose, calcium 1000 mg/day, vitamin D 880 IU/day were initiated. In one case, kyphoplasty was performed by a spinal surgeon. In addition to a thoracolumbosacral orthosis, a rehabilitation program including muscle strengthening, range of motion, relaxation and weight-bearing exercises was started for both cases. These cases emphasize that all pregnant women with complaints of back/lumbar pain should be carefully evaluated. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. High prevalence of morphometric vertebral deformities in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Heijckmann, AC; Huijberts, MSP; Schoon, EJ; GEUSENS, Piet; de Vries, J.; Menheere, Paul P. C. A.; van der Veer, E.; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; Stockbrugger, RW; Dumitrescu, B; Kruseman, ACN

    2008-01-01

    Background Earlier studies have documented that the prevalence of decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is elevated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral deformities in inflammatory bowel disease patients and their relation with BMD and bone turnover. Methods One hundred and nine patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 72 with ulcerative colitis (UC) (age 44.5 +/- 14.2 years) were studied. BMD of the hip (by dual ...

  20. A Radiographic Study on the Associations of Age and Prevalence of Vertebral Fractures with Abdominal Aortic Calcification in Japanese Postmenopausal Women and Men

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    Jun Iwamoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the associations of age and history of non- and low-traumatic fractures with the severity of abdominal aortic calcification in Japanese postmenopausal women and men. Four hundred and one Japanese persons (24 men and 377 postmenopausal women, mean age: 73.8 years for whom thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs had been obtained to evaluate their posture prior to patient participation in a fall-prevention exercise program were enrolled. The associations of sex, age, history of hip fracture, prevalence of vertebral fracture, and spondylosis grade (the Nathan degree with the severity of abdominal aortic calcification (length of calcification, as evaluated according to the number of vertebral bodies were analyzed. Nine subjects (2.2% had a history of hip fracture, and 221 (55.1% had at least one prevalent vertebral fracture. Two hundred and sixty-seven subjects (66.6% had first-degree spondylosis. Age and the number of prevalent vertebral fractures, but not sex, history of hip fracture, or spondylosis grade, were significantly associated with the severity of abdominal aortic calcification. The present study confirmed that age and the number of vertebral fractures were associated with the severity of abdominal aortic calcification in Japanese postmenopausal women and men.

  1. Prevalence of osteoporosis, vertebral fractures and hypovitaminosis D in postmenopausal women living in a rural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de-Tejada Romero, María-Jesús; Navarro Rodríguez, María-del-Carmen; Saavedra Santana, Pedro; Quesada Gómez, José-Manuel; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Sosa Henríquez, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    First, to study the difference between two groups of postmenopausal women living in different population centres (rural vs urban) in the prevalence of osteoporosis, fragility fractures and factors which may influence them: hypovitaminosis D, bone mineral density, coexistence of other diseases which predispose to their appearance; secondly, to observe the influence of low socioeconomic status, categorised as poverty. 1229 postmenopausal women were studied, of whom 390 (31.7%), were living in rural areas and 839 (68.3%), in urban areas. Data regarding risk factors related to osteoporosis were obtained, and, among other biochemical measures, 25 hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone were determined. Bone densitometry was carried out in the lumbar spine and proximal femur, as well as lateral X-rays of the dorsal and lumbar spine. The women who lived in rural areas were older, shorter, heavier and had a higher body mass index than those from urban areas. Among the women from rural areas there was a higher prevalence of poverty, and higher levels of obesity, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus were observed, as well as a higher prevalence of densitometric osteoporosis. The rural women had lower values of bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and a higher prevalence of vertebral fractures and hypovitaminosis D. The variables which were associated independently with living in rural areas were poverty, obesity, vertebral fractures, BMD in the lumbar spine and levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D. In our study, postmenopausal women who live in rural populations have more poverty, lower values of vitamin D, lower BMD in the lumbar spine and a higher prevalence of vertebral fractures and of osteoporosis. The higher prevalence of obesity, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus observed in these women may be adjuvant factors, all fostered by their socioeconomic state of poverty. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Mexican patients with HIV have a high prevalence of vertebral fractures

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    José Antonio Mata-Marín

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Low bone mineral density (BMD and fragility fractures are common in individuals infected with HIV, who are undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART. In high-income countries, dual energy X-ray absorptiometrry is typically used to evaluate osteopenia or osteoporosis in HIV infected individuals. However, this technology is unavailable in low and-middle income countries, so a different approach is needed. The aim of this study was to use X-ray scans of the spine to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for vertebral fractures in HIV-infected patients in a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico. We conducted a cross-sectional study of outpatients who were >40 years old and receiving ART at the Hospital de Infectología, La Raza National Medical Center in Mexico City, Mexico. We used semi-quantitative morphometric analysis of centrally digitized X-ray images to assess vertebral deformities in the spine. Anterior, middle and posterior vertebral heights were measured, and height ratios were calculated. For each vertebral body, fractures were graded on the basis of height ratio reductions, and a spine deformity index’ (SDI value was calculated by summing the grades of the vertebral deformities: An SDI>1 was indicative of a vertebral fracture. We included 104 patients, 87% of whom were men. The median age was 49 years [interquartile range (IQR 42-52]. Themost common stage of HIV infection, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control,was B2 in 40 (39% of patients. Forty seven (45% patients were on ART regimens that included protease inhibitors (PIs and 100 (96% being treated with tenofovir. The median time of ART was 6.5 years (IQR1.6-9.0. Of the 104 patients in our study, 83 (80% had undetectable viral load, as assessed by HIV-1 RNA levels, 32 (31% showed evidence of a previous fracture, 4 (4% were co-infected with hepatitis C virus, and 57 (55% had a history of corticosteroid treatment. The prevalence of vertebral fractures was 25%, 95

  3. Determinants of prevalent vertebral fractures and progressive bone loss in long-term hemodialysis patients.

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    Mares, Jan; Ohlidalova, Kristina; Opatrna, Sylvie; Ferda, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal fractures are common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, consensus regarding technique and site of bone examination has not been reached in HD patients. Seventy-two patients (44% females) aged 65 (1.4) years, treated with HD for 43 (4.6) months were examined with quantitative computed tomography and 53 of them re-examined after 1 year. Bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine was established separately for cortical and trabecular bone, prevalent vertebral fractures were determined. Data are given as mean (standard error). At least one vertebral fracture was discovered in 15 (21%) patients. In a logistic regression model, fractures were best predicted by cortical BMD: OR 0.96 (CI 0.94, 0.99), p multiple regression analysis, time on dialysis was found to be independently correlated to cortical BMD (R = 0.35, p decrement may impose an increased risk of fractures on long-term dialysis patients.

  4. Prevalence Study of Proximal Vertebral Artery Stenosis Using High-Resolution Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Lee, J.S.; Kwon, O.K.; Han, M.K.; Kim, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of proximal vertebral artery stenosis, compared with those of the distal vertebral/basilar artery and extracranial internal carotid artery, in a large population of stroke and non-stroke patients. Material and Methods: Nine-hundred-and-thirty-five patients who underwent high-resolution contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in a regional general hospital were categorized into six groups based on neurological symptoms and disease: an asymptomatic group (n ∼ 182), a minor symptom group with headache or dizziness (n ∼ 519), a cardiac group with coronary artery steno-occlusive disease (n ∼ 15), a hemorrhagic group with old cerebral hemorrhage (n ∼ 26), an anterior circulation infarct group (n ∼ 121), and posterior circulation infarct group (n ∼ 72). Prevalence of stenosis of the proximal vertebral artery, distal vertebral/basilar artery, and internal carotid artery was analyzed. Results: The prevalence of stenosis of the proximal vertebral artery, distal vertebral/basilar artery, and internal carotid artery was 12.9%, 5.5%, and 7.2%, respectively, in the study population, and rose as the age increased (P <0.0001 for all arteries). The prevalence of stenosis of the proximal vertebral artery, distal vertebral/basilar artery, and internal carotid artery was 3.3%, 0.5%, and.1%, respectively, in the asymptomatic group; 8.3%, 2.1%, and 3.7%, respectively, in the minor symptom group; 13.3%, 6.7%, and 6.7%, respectively, in the cardiac group; 19.2%, 7.7%, and 7.7%, respectively, in the hemorrhagic group; 27.3%, 8.3%, and 25.6%, respectively, in the anterior circulation infarct group; and 44.4%, 36.1%, and 16.7%, respectively, in the posterior circulation infarct group. This increasing tendency of stenosis accordingly was statistically significant ( P <0.0001 for all arteries). Conclusion: The prevalence of proximal vertebral artery stenosis was highest, compared with those of the distal vertebral/basilar artery and

  5. High prevalence of simultaneous rib and vertebral fractures in patients with hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bong-Gun; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Kim, Dam; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Hunchul; Kim, Yeesuk

    2017-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the prevalence and location of simultaneous fracture using bone scans in patients with hip fracture and to determine the risk factors associated with simultaneous fracture. One hundred eighty two patients with hip fracture were reviewed for this study. Clinical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebra and femoral neck were investigated. To identify acute simultaneous fracture, a bone scan was performed at 15.4±4.1days after hip fracture. The prevalence and location of simultaneous fracture were evaluated, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors. Simultaneous fracture was observed in 102 of 182 patients, a prevalence of 56.0%. Rib fracture was the most common type of simultaneous fracture followed by rib with vertebral fracture. The BMD of the lumbar vertebra was significantly lower in patients with simultaneous fracture (p=0.044) and was identified as an independent risk factor (odds ratio: OR 0.05, 95% confidence interval: CI 0.01-0.57). The prevalence of simultaneous fracture was relatively high among patients with hip fracture, and BMD was significantly lower in patients with simultaneous fracture than in patients without it. Surgeons should be aware of the possibility of simultaneous fracture in patients with hip fracture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High prevalence of vertebral artery tortuosity of Loeys-Dietz syndrome in comparison with Marfan syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Atsushi K.; Higashi, Masahiro; Tsutsumi, Yoshiaki; Akutsu, Koichi; Naito, Hiroaki; Morisaki, Hiroko; Morisaki, Takayuki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2010-01-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a connective tissue disease caused by mutations in the genes encoding the transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFBR). LDS is associated with aneurysms or dissections of the aorta similar to Marfan syndrome (MFS) as well as arterial tortuosity and aneurysms in the peripheral arteries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the arterial diseases of LDS to differentiate it from MFS. A total of 10 LDS patients with an identified mutation in TGFBR (6 male, 4 female; mean age 36.3 years) and 20 MFS patients with an identified mutation in fibrilin-1 who were age- and sex-matched to the LDS subjects (12 male, 8 female; mean age 37.1 years) were reviewed. The prevalence of vertebral arterial tortuosity (VAT) and peripheral aneurysm (PAN) was studied using computed tomography angiography. In all, 9 of the 10 LDS patients had VAT, and five PANs were observed in 3 patients. In contrast, 8 (40%) of the MFS patients had VAT, and 1 patient had a PAN. LDS had a higher prevalence of VAT (P=0.017) by Fisher's exact test. The VAT was highly prevalent among LDS patients. Thus, the presence of VAT has the potential to differentiate LDS from MFS. (author)

  7. Prevalence of vertebral fractures and quality of life in a sample of postmenopausal Brazilian women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Ferreira, Néville; da Silva, Raimunda Beserra; Arthuso, Michael; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes; Caserta, Nelson; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of vertebral fracture was high in postmenopausal Brazilian osteoporotic women; quality of life was impaired regardless of vertebral fractures, despite a direct correlation between the number of vertebral fractures and a worse quality of life score. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of vertebral fractures (VF), quality of life (QOL), association between number of VF and QOL scores, and correlate the factors associated with QOL in a sample of postmenopausal Brazilian women with osteoporosis. A cross-sectional study of 126 postmenopausal osteoporotic women aged 55-80 years was conducted. Women were interviewed about sociodemographic and clinical data, responded to QUALEFFO-41 questionnaire, and underwent vertebral radiography to measure the anterior, mean, and posterior height at each vertebra (T4 to L5). VF were classified as anterior wedge, posterior wedge, central collapse, and crush. Data was expressed as means (±SD) and frequencies, Mann-Whitney or Student's T tests were used to compare means, and odds ratio and 95 % confidence interval were used for multiple regression analysis. Values were significant when P value obesity, unemployment, sedentary lifestyle, low level of school education, and non-use of osteoporosis drugs. There was a high prevalence of VF in Brazilian postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. QOL was impaired regardless of VF, despite a direct correlation between number of VF and a worse QOL score.

  8. Influence of obesity on vertebral fracture prevalence and vitamin D status in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Maghraoui, A; Sadni, S; El Maataoui, A; Majjad, A; Rezqi, A; Ouzzif, Z; Mounach, A

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that weight is an important determinant of bone health. Whereas obesity is associated with increased mortality and morbidity from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, high body weight is widely believed to be associated to hypovitaminosis D and protective against the development of osteoporosis and fracture risk. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of BMI on vitamin D status and on densitometric vertebral fractures (VFs) in a large series of asymptomatic women aged over 50 who had a VFA examination during their bone mineral density (BMD) testing. We enrolled 429 postmenopausal women (mean age, weight and BMI of 59.5 ± 8.3 (50 to 83) years, 75.8 ± 13.3 (35 to 165) kgs and 29.9 ± 5.2 (14.6 to 50.8) kg/m(2), respectively. Lateral VFA images and scans of the lumbar spine and proximal femur were obtained using a Lunar Prodigy densitometer. VFs were defined using the Genant semiquantitative (SQ) approach. Clinical risk factors of osteoporosis were collected and 25-hydroxivitamin D was measured using electrochimiluminescence (Roche). Prevalence of osteoporosis and hypovitaminosis D (obese women had a higher BMD and less proportion of women with osteoporosis and VFs grade 2/3 than lean and overweight women. The prevalence of VFs globally increased with age and as BMI and BMD declined. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the presence of osteoporosis was independently related to BMI and history of fractures while the presence of grade 2/3 VFs was independently related to age, hypovitaminosis D and years of menopause. Obese women had a higher BMD and lower prevalence of VFs. VFs were significantly related to age, hypovitaminosis D and years since menopause. However, among obese women, prevalence of VFs was increased in osteoporotic women.

  9. prevalence and severity of pterygium among commer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... 1Department of Ophthalmology, Federal medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, ... ies so as to reduce the prevalence of these disorders. ... It is speculated to be associated with corneal and con- ... A number of risk factors have been identified for the ... glaucoma, cataract, refractive errors were referred to the eye ...

  10. Unusual bone dysplasia featuring severe platyspondyly and vertebral 'coronal cleft' in infancy, and changes of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currarino, G.; Texas Univ., Dallas

    1986-01-01

    This is the report of a boy who presented at birth with severe generalized platyspondyly, a vertebral ''coronal cleft'', and an abnormal configuration of the pelvis with short and broad iliac and ischial bones and horizontal acetabular roofs. The rest of the skeleton was normal. In the ensuing years the vertebral bodies and pelvis assumed a near normal configuration, but the patient developed changes of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia in the long bones of the lower limbs with progressive shortness of stature. (orig.)

  11. Prevalence of exchange blood transfusion in severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Exchange blood transfusion (EBT) is carried out for the treatment of conditions presenting with severe hyperbilirubinaemia and anaemia, such as ABO incompatibility, sepsis, prematurity and birth trauma among others. While it is fast being abandoned as treatment modality for severe neonatal jaundice in the ...

  12. Outcome of CT-guided vertebroplasty in outpatients with severe vertebral compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Markus; Gevargez, Athour; Lange, Silke; Leeuwen, Peter van; Groenemeyer, Dietrich H.W.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of computed tomography (CT)/fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for the treatment of painful severe osteoporotic compression fractures. In 26 patients with osteoporotic severe and non-severe compression fractures experiencing pain, 55 PVP were performed. Pain relief and improvement of function were estimated using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Pain Disability Index (PDI) and Hannover functional ability questionnaire (FFbH) at follow-up examinations at a median of 3 (1-31) days and 6.5 (1-18) months after PVP. Pain relief (VAS and PDI) was significant at first and second follow-up. The improvement of function (FFbH) was statistically significant at the second follow-up. Severity of the compression fractures did not influence these results. There were no clinical complications and no patient required follow-up surgery. PVP is a safe and effective treatment of pain even in severe osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures. The advantages of CT-guidance in combination with fluoroscopy technique are a minimally invasive precise procedure with high visualization and with low risk, performed cost effective on out patient basis in local anesthesia, leading to an early recovery of individual independence. (orig.)

  13. Degenerative inter-vertebral disc disease osteochondrosis intervertebralis in Europe: prevalence, geographic variation and radiological correlates in men and women aged 50 and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrecht, Gabriele; Felsenberg, Dieter; Ganswindt, Melanie; Lunt, Mark; Kaptoge, Stephen K; Abendroth, Klaus; Aroso Dias, Antonio; Bhalla, Ashok K; Cannata Andia, Jorge; Dequeker, Jan; Eastell, Richard; Hoszowski, Krzysztof; Lyritis, George; Masaryk, Pavol; van Meurs, Joyce; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Nuti, Ranuccio; Poór, Gyula; Redlund-Johnell, Inga; Reid, David M; Schatz, Helmut; Todd, Christopher J; Woolf, Anthony D; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Javaid, Muhammad K; Cooper, Cyrus; Silman, Alan J; O'Neill, Terence W; Reeve, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    To assess the prevalences across Europe of radiological indices of degenerative inter-vertebral disc disease (DDD); and to quantify their associations with, age, sex, physical anthropometry, areal BMD (aBMD) and change in aBMD with time. In the population-based European Prospective Osteoporosis Study, 27 age-stratified samples of men and women from across the continent aged 50+ years had standardized lateral radiographs of the lumbar and thoracic spine to evaluate the severity of DDD, using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scale. Measurements of anterior, mid-body and posterior vertebral heights on all assessed vertebrae from T4 to L4 were used to generate indices of end-plate curvature. Images from 10 132 participants (56% female, mean age 63.9 years) passed quality checks. Overall, 47% of men and women had DDD grade 3 or more in the lumbar spine and 36% in both thoracic and lumbar spine. Risk ratios for DDD grades 3 and 4, adjusted for age and anthropometric determinants, varied across a three-fold range between centres, yet prevalences were highly correlated in men and women. DDD was associated with flattened, non-ovoid inter-vertebral disc spaces. KL grade 4 and loss of inter-vertebral disc space were associated with higher spine aBMD. KL grades 3 and 4 are often used clinically to categorize radiological DDD. Highly variable European prevalences of radiologically defined DDD grades 3+ along with the large effects of age may have growing and geographically unequal health and economic impacts as the population ages. These data encourage further studies of potential genetic and environmental causes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Degenerative Inter-Vertebral Disc Disease (Osteochondrosis Intervertebralis) in Europe: Prevalence, Geographic Variation, and Radiological Correlates in Men and Women Aged 50 and Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrecht, Gabriele; Felsenberg, Dieter; Ganswindt, Melanie; Lunt, Mark; Kaptoge, Stephen K; Abendroth, Klaus; Aroso Dias, Antonio; Bhalla, Ashok K; Cannata Andia, Jorge; Dequeker, Jan; Eastell, Richard; Hoszowski, Krysztoff; Lyritis, George; Masaryk, Pavol; van Meurs, Joyce; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Nuti, Ranuccio; Poór, Gyula; Redlund-Johnell, Inga; Reid, David M; Schatz, Helmut; Todd, Christopher J; Woolf, Anthony D; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Javaid, Muhammad K; Cooper, Cyrus; Silman, Alan J; O’Neill, Terence W; Reeve, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence across Europe of radiological indices of degenerative inter-vertebral disc disease (DDD); and to quantify their associations with, age, sex, physical anthropometry, areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and change in aBMD with time. Methods In the population-based European Prospective Osteoporosis Study 27 age-stratified samples of men and women from across the continent aged 50+ had standardized lateral radiographs of the lumbar and thoracic spine to evaluate the severity of DDD, using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scale. Measurements of anterior, mid-body and posterior vertebral heights on all assessed vertebrae from T4 to L4 were used to generate indices of end-plate curvature. Results Images from 10,132 participants (56% female, mean age 63.9 years) passed quality checks. Overall, 47% of men and women had DDD grade 3 or more in the lumbar spine and 36% in both thoracic and lumbar spine. Risk ratios for DDD grades 3 and 4, adjusted for age and anthropometric determinants, varied across a three-fold range between centres, yet prevalences were highly correlated in men and women. DDD was associated with flattened, non-ovoid inter-vertebral disc spaces. KL grade 4 and loss of inter-vertebral disc space were associated with higher spine aBMD. Discussion KL Grades 3 and 4 are often used clinically to categorise radiological DDD. Highly variable European prevalences of radiologically-defined DDD Grades 3+ along with the large effects of age may have growing and geographically unequal health and economic impacts as the population ages. These data encourage further studies of potential genetic and environmental causes. PMID:28398504

  15. Prevalence of very mild to severe dementia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K; Lolk, A; Nielsen, H

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of dementia has been estimated in several countries and a meta-analysis has shown moderate and severe dementia in people aged 65 years and older to be between 4% and 6%. The Odense study is aiming to estimate the prevalence and incidence of dementia and to identify risk factors....

  16. Carotid and vertebral arterial fibromuscular dysplasia masquerading as severe preeclampsia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawley, Brenda; Ritchie, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia is a non-atherosclerotic noninflammatory vascular disease that can affect any vascular bed. Dysplasia of the intima, media, or adventitia layer of the affected arteries causes stenosis and hypertension. Pregnant or post-partum patients may present with hypertension and be mistakenly diagnosed with preeclampsia. A 26 year old Gravida 1 Para 1 female 20 days post partum from a spontaneous vaginal delivery was transported from an outlying facility due to severely elevated blood pressure and transient left arm numbness and left sided facial droop. Upon arrival the patient was begun on intravenous magnesium sulfate and labetalol for a presumptive diagnosis of severe post partum preeclampsia. Her blood pressure and symptoms responded promptly. Due to her neurologic symptoms a magnetic resonance angiogram was ordered revealing 90% stenosis of her bilateral carotid and vertebral arteries. Severe hypertension and minimal neurologic symptoms may be the presenting symptoms for fibromuscular dysplasia. Cranial imaging is warranted in any pregnant or post partum patient who presents with these symptoms to allow appropriate treatment.

  17. Vertebral artery stenosis in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS): prevalence and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compter, Annette; van der Hoeven, Erik J R J; van der Worp, H Bart; Vos, Jan Albert; Weimar, Christian; Rueckert, Christina M; Kappelle, L Jaap; Algra, Ale; Schonewille, Wouter J

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence of vertebral artery (VA) stenosis or occlusion and its influence on outcome in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO). We studied 141 patients with acute BAO enrolled in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS) registry of whom baseline CT angiography (CTA) of the intracranial VAs was available. In 72 patients an additional CTA of the extracranial VAs was available. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) for death and poor outcome, defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≥4, were calculated with Poisson regression in relation to VA occlusion, VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 %, and bilateral VA occlusion. Sixty-six of 141 (47 %) patients had uni- or bilateral intracranial VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 %. Of the 72 patients with intra- and extracranial CTA, 46 (64 %) had uni- or bilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 % and 9 (12 %) had bilateral VA occlusion. Overall, VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 % was not associated with the risk of poor outcome. Patients with intra- and extracranial CTA and bilateral VA occlusion had a higher risk of poor outcome than patients without bilateral VA occlusion (aRR, 1.23; 95 % CI 1.02-1.50). The risk of death did not depend on the presence of unilateral or bilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 %. In conclusion, in patients with acute BAO, unilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 % is frequent, but not associated with an increased risk of poor outcome or death. Patients with BAO and bilateral VA occlusion have a slightly increased risk of poor outcome.

  18. C1-C2 instability with severe occipital headache in the setting of vertebral artery facet complex erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Fadi; Bokums, Kristaps; Aichmair, Alexander; Hughes, Alexander P

    2014-05-01

    An exact understanding of patient vertebral artery anatomy is essential to safely place screws at the atlanto-axial level in posterior arthrodesis. We aim to report a case of erosion of the left vertebral artery into the C1-C2 facet complex with resultant rotatory and lateral listhesis presenting with severe occipital headache. This represents a novel etiology for this diagnosis and our report illustrates technical considerations when instrumenting the C1-C2 segment. We report a case of severe occipital headache due to C1-C2 instability with resultant left C2 nerve compression in the setting of erosion of the vertebral artery into the C1-C2 facet complex. A 68-year-old woman presented with a 12-month history of progressively debilitating headache and neck pain with atlanto-axial instability. Computed tomography (CT) angiography demonstrated erosion of the left vertebral artery into the left C1-C2 facet complex. In addition, the tortuous vertebral arteries had eroded into the C2 pedicles, eliminating the possibility for posterior pedicle screw placement. The patient underwent posterior arthrodesis of C1-C2 utilizing bilateral lateral mass fixation into C1 and bilateral trans-laminar fixation into C2 with resolution of all preoperative complaints. This study constitutes the first report of a tortuous vertebral artery causing the partial destruction of a C1-C2 facet complex, as well as instability, with the clinical presentation of severe occipital headache. It hereby presents a novel etiology for both the development of C1-C2 segment instability as well as the development of occipital headache. Careful evaluation of such lesions utilizing CT angiography is important when formulating a surgical plan.

  19. Insect herbivory and vertebrate grazing impact food limitation and grasshopper populations during a severe outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific competition between distantly related herbivores, as well as between large vertebrate herbivores and phytophagous insects, has received little attention. Livestock grazing is the dominant land use in western North American grasslands, where phytophagous insects can be the dominant herb...

  20. Prevalence, prenatal diagnosis and clinical features of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum: a registry-based study in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barisic, Ingeborg

    2014-01-08

    Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum is a complex developmental disorder characterised mainly by anomalies of the ear, hemifacial microsomia, epibulbar dermoids and vertebral anomalies. The aetiology is largely unknown, and the epidemiological data are limited and inconsistent. We present the largest population-based epidemiological study to date, using data provided by the large network of congenital anomalies registries in Europe. The study population included infants diagnosed with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum during the 1990-2009 period from 34 registries active in 16 European countries. Of the 355 infants diagnosed with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, there were 95.8% (340\\/355) live born, 0.8% (3\\/355) fetal deaths, 3.4% (12\\/355) terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly and 1.5% (5\\/340) neonatal deaths. In 18.9%, there was prenatal detection of anomaly\\/anomalies associated with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, 69.7% were diagnosed at birth, 3.9% in the first week of life and 6.1% within 1 year of life. Microtia (88.8%), hemifacial microsomia (49.0%) and ear tags (44.4%) were the most frequent anomalies, followed by atresia\\/stenosis of external auditory canal (25.1%), diverse vertebral (24.3%) and eye (24.3%) anomalies. There was a high rate (69.5%) of associated anomalies of other organs\\/systems. The most common were congenital heart defects present in 27.8% of patients. The prevalence of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, defined as microtia\\/ear anomalies and at least one major characteristic anomaly, was 3.8 per 100 000 births. Twinning, assisted reproductive techniques and maternal pre-pregnancy diabetes were confirmed as risk factors. The high rate of different associated anomalies points to the need of performing an early ultrasound screening in all infants born with this disorder.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 8 January 2014; doi:10.1038\\/ejhg.2013.287.

  1. [Prevalence and severity of domestic violence among pregnant women, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Roberto; Ruíz, Agustín

    2004-02-01

    To determine whether pregnancy is a risk factor for domestic violence and to compare prevalence and severity of violence reported by women before and during pregnancy. There were interviewed 468 women in the third trimester of pregnancy who were seen during prenatal visits at public clinics in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Emotional, physical and sexual violence were investigated. A severity index was built up. Logistic regression analysis was applied in order to identify the main variables associated to domestic violence during pregnancy. The prevalence of domestic violence did not change significantly before and during pregnancy (32%). The prevalence of each type of violence remained the same. About 27% of women who reported violence during pregnancy did not have experience it before, and a comparable proportion had experienced violence before but not during pregnancy. The severity of emotional violence significantly increased during pregnancy (compared to the previous year) whereas the severity of physical violence decreased. Variables most clearly related to violence during pregnancy were: couple's past history of child abuse; women witnessing domestic violence during childhood; and violence in the year before pregnancy. Several risk scenarios were identified, which could be helpful for health care providers. The results showed that emotional violence is more prevalent than physical and sexual violence, allowing for a better understanding of this phenomenon.

  2. Prevalence, prenatal diagnosis and clinical features of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria

    2014-01-01

    . Of the 355 infants diagnosed with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, there were 95.8% (340/355) live born, 0.8% (3/355) fetal deaths, 3.4% (12/355) terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly and 1.5% (5/340) neonatal deaths. In 18.9%, there was prenatal detection of anomaly/anomalies associated with oculo......-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, 69.7% were diagnosed at birth, 3.9% in the first week of life and 6.1% within 1 year of life. Microtia (88.8%), hemifacial microsomia (49.0%) and ear tags (44.4%) were the most frequent anomalies, followed by atresia/stenosis of external auditory canal (25.1%), diverse vertebral (24.3%) and eye...... anomaly, was 3.8 per 100,000 births. Twinning, assisted reproductive techniques and maternal pre-pregnancy diabetes were confirmed as risk factors. The high rate of different associated anomalies points to the need of performing an early ultrasound screening in all infants born with this disorder....

  3. Severe Family Violence and Alzheimer's Disease: Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paveza, Gregory J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined violence among 184 Alzheimer patients and their caregivers. Analysis of severe violence subscale of Conflict Tactics Scale indicated that 15.8 percent of patients had been violent in year since diagnosis; 5.4 percent of caregivers had been violent toward patient; and prevalence of violence was 17.4 percent. Variables most associated with…

  4. INFLUENCE OF HOMOCYSTEINE AND VERTEBRAL FRACTURES ON PREVALENT ABDOMINAL AORTIC CALCIFICATION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN - A MULTICENTRIC CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad GHOZLANI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main of this study was to examine the relationship between plasma homocysteine (Hcy, asymptomatic osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA and prevalent abdominal aortic calcification (AAC in Moroccan postmenopausal women. The study cohort consisted of 188 consecutive postmenopausal women with no prior known diagnosis of osteoporosis or taking medication interfering with bone metabolism. Mean age, weight, height, body mass index and plasma homocysteine were determined. Lateral VFA images and scans of the lumbar spine and proximal femur were obtained using a Lunar Prodigy Vision densitometer (GE Healthcare Inc., Waukesha, WI. VFs were defined using a combination of Genant’s semiquantitative approach and morphometry. VFA images were also scored for prevalent AAC using a validated 24 point scale. Fifty-eight (30.9% patients had densitometric osteoporosis. VFs were identified using VFA in 76 (40.4% patients: 61 women had grade 1 VFs and 15 had grade 2 or 3 VFs. One hundred twenty nine women (68.6% did not have any detectable AAC, whereas the prevalence of significant atherosclerotic burden defined as AAC score of 5 or higher, was 13.8%. A significant positive correlation between AAC score and homocysteine was observed. Women with extended AAC, were older, had a lower weight, BMI and BMD, higher homocysteine levels and more prevalent VFs than women without extended AAC. Multiple regression analysis showed that the presence of extended AAC was significantly associated with Age and grade 2/3 VFs and not independently associated with homocysteine levels.This study did not confirm that homocysteine is important determinant of extended AAC in postmenopausal women. However, this significant atherosclerotic marker is independently associated with VFs regardless of age. 

  5. Pterygium: prevalence and severity in an Amazonian ophthalmic setting, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Joanna Coutts

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This is a cross sectional ophthalmic clinic-based study to estimate the prevalence and severity of pterygium in a selected population in the Amazon Basin, Brazil. METHODS: The study included 225 subjects above 20 years age from three different places of residence of Manaus city (group 1, n=89, river based communities (group 2, n= 116 and indigenous rainforest inhabitants (group 3, n=20. Pterygia was graded 1-4 by torch examination and gender, age and occupation determined. RESULTS: were assessed to have pterygia (grades 2-4 117 people; 52% against 108 control subjects with bilateral disease in 43% of subjects. Prevalence of grades 2-4 increased from 36% in group 1 to 62.5 % in group 2 and 75% in group 3. Of these subjects the percentage with outdoor professions increased across the groups from 31.2% to 67.1 % and 70% respectively. Also subjects of group 2 who worked largely outdoors, showed increasing pterygia severity, from grades 2 at 57% (p=0.0002, grade 3 at 93.3% (p,0.0001 to grade 4 at 100% (p=0.0004 CONCLUSION: Amazonian communities have a high prevalence of pterygia, which correlates to greater outdoor occupation and sun exposure. This study agrees with previous worldwide reports and it is the first study to compare the prevalence of pterygium in rural and urban living in Amazonian in Brazil. This study highlights the public health significance and gross need for intervention studies.

  6. Prevalence of celiac disease in patients with severe food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillon, R; Ziberna, F; Badina, L; Ventura, A; Longo, G; Quaglia, S; De Leo, L; Vatta, S; Martelossi, S; Patano, G; Not, T; Berti, I

    2015-10-01

    The association between food allergy and celiac disease (CD) is still to be clarified. We screened for CD 319 patients with severe food allergy (IgE > 85 kU/l against food proteins and a history of severe allergic reactions) who underwent specific food oral immunotherapy (OIT), together with 128 children with mild allergy who recovered without OIT, and compared the prevalence data with our historical data regarding healthy schoolchildren. Sixteen patients (5%) with severe allergy and one (0.8%) with mild allergy tested positive for both genetic and serological CD markers, while the prevalence among the schoolchildren was 1%. Intestinal biopsies were obtained in 13/16 patients with severe allergy and in the one with mild allergy, confirming the diagnosis of CD. Sufferers from severe food allergy seem to be at a fivefold increased risk of CD. Our findings suggest that routine screening for CD should be recommended in patients with severe food allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Prevalence of vertebral fractures in a disease activity steered cohort of patients with early active rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirven Linda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the prevalence of vertebral fractures (VFs after 5 years of disease activity score (DAS-steered treatment in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA and to investigate the association of VFs with disease activity, functional ability and bone mineral density (BMD over time. Methods Five-year radiographs of the spine of 275 patients in the BeSt study, a randomized trial comparing four treatment strategies, were used. Treatment was DAS-steered (DAS ≤ 2.4. A height reduction >20% in one vertebra was defined a vertebral fracture. With linear mixed models, DAS and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ scores over 5 years were compared for patients with and without VFs. With generalized estimating equations the association between BMD and VFs was determined. Results VFs were observed in 41/275 patients (15%. No difference in prevalence was found when stratified for gender, prednisone use and menopausal status. Disease activity over time was higher in patients with VFs, mean difference 0.20 (95% CI: 0.05-0.36, and also HAQ scores were higher, independent of disease activity, with a mean difference of 0.12 (95% CI: 0.02-0.2. Age was associated with VFs (OR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.09, mean BMD in spine and hip over time were not (OR 95% CI, 0.99: 0.78-1.25 and 0.94: 0.65-1.36, respectively. Conclusion After 5 years of DAS-steered treatment, 15% of these RA patients had VFs. Higher age was associated with the presence of VFs, mean BMD in hip and spine were not. Patients with VFs have greater functional disability over time and a higher disease activity, suggesting that VFs may be prevented by optimal disease activity suppression.

  8. Percutaneous vertebroplasty performed with an 18 G needle for the treatment of severe compression fracture of cervical vertebral body due to malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Long; Ni Caifang; Wang Zhentang; Liu Yizhi; Jin Yonghai; Zhu Xiaoli; Zou Jianwei; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical feasibility and efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty performed with an 18G needle for the treatment of severe compression fracture of cervical vertebral body due to malignancy. Methods: During the period of 2006-2010 percutaneous vertebroplasty was performed in 10 patients with severe compression fracture of cervical vertebral body due to metastatic lesions. A total of 12 diseased vertebral bodies were detected, which distributed in the C 4 (n = 3), C 5 (n = 3), C 6 (n = 4) and C 7 (n = 2) vertebral bodies. Under DSA guidance an 18G needle was punctured into the target vertebral body and then polymethylmethacrylate bone cement was injected in. A follow-up lasting for one month was conducted. Results: The technical success of both needle puncturing and bone cement injection was achieved in all patients. The mean amount of bone cement injected in each diseased vertebra was 2.2 ml(1.5-3.2)ml. Marked pain relief was quickly obtained in al1 10 patients. No major complications occurred in this series, except for asymptomatic bone cement leaking around vertebra which appeared in 4 vertebral bodies. Conclusion: Percutaneous vertebroplasty, which is performed with an 18G needle, is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of severe compression fracture of cervical vertebral body due to malignancy. (authors)

  9. Vertebral fracture prevalence among Greek healthy middle-aged postmenopausal women: association with demographics, anthropometric parameters, and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Flokatoula, Maria; Armeni, Eleni; Pliatsika, Paraskevi; Augoulea, Areti; Antoniou, Aris; Alexandrou, Andreas; Creatsa, Maria; Panoulis, Constantinos; Dendrinos, Spyridon; Papacharalambous, Xenofon

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of skeletal fractures shows a marked geographic variability; however, data regarding the Greek population remain limited. To evaluate the frequency of asymptomatic vertebral fractures (VFs), and potential risk factors, in a large sample of Greek postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study at the University Menopause Clinic. Four hundred fifty-four postmenopausal women aged 35 to 80 years, with an average menopausal age of 9.2±7.1 years. They included medical history, anthropometric and biochemical parameters, bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), and LS lateral radiographs. Lumbar spine lateral radiographs were evaluated according to quantitative procedures, aiming to identify VFs. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters and values of BMD were compared according to the presence of VFs. A total of 37 (8.15%) women had at least one VF. Lumbar spine and FN-osteoporosis was identified in up to 23.1% and 40.9% subjects with prevalent VFs, respectively. The prevalence of VFs was largely associated with age, with women aged 60 years or more presenting an up to fourfold risk compared with younger women. Moreover, the presence of VFs was associated with higher menopausal age, advanced age at menarche, a history of early menopause, and prolonged lactation. Lower LS-BMD and, especially, FN-BMD were negatively associated with VF prevalence (prevalent VF vs. no VF: LS-BMD, 0.89±0.16 g/cm(2) vs. 0.98±0.16 g/cm(2), p=.010; FN-BMD, 0.72±0.10 g/cm(2) vs. 0.81±0.12 g/cm(2), p=.008). Asymptomatic VFs are common among Greek healthy middle-aged postmenopausal women. More than 50% subjects with prevalent VFs present with normal BMD or osteopenia. Age and bone density classification at the FN presented the strongest association with the prevalence of VFs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The main autoimmune and nonautoimmune etiologies of endogenous hyperthyroidism do not seem to influence the increased prevalence of morphometric vertebral fractures and osteoporosis in Portuguese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Barbosa

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that in a group of hyperthyroid men aged over 50 there are significant decreases in cortical bone BMD and lean mass and a higher prevalence of osteoporosis and silent vertebral fractures, but the etiology of the hyperthyroidism does not seem to influence it. Besides the antithyroid drugs, some patients may benefit from bone-directed treatments.

  11. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in Norway: prevalence, clinical and genetic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retterstøl, Kjetil; Narverud, Ingunn; Selmer, Randi; Berge, Knut E; Osnes, Ingvild V; Ulven, Stine M; Halvorsen, Bente; Aukrust, Pål; Holven, Kirsten B; Iversen, Per O

    2017-06-12

    There is a lack of comprehensive patient-datasets regarding prevalence of severe hypertriglyceridemia (sHTG; triglycerides ≥10 mmol/L), frequency of co-morbidities, gene mutations, and gene characterization in sHTG. Using large surveys combined with detailed analysis of sub-cohorts of sHTG patients, we here sought to address these issues. We used data from several large Norwegian surveys that included 681,990 subjects, to estimate the prevalence. Sixty-five sHTG patients were investigated to obtain clinical profiles and candidate disease genes. We obtained peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from six male patients and nine healthy controls and examined expression of mRNAs involved in lipid metabolism. The prevalence of sHTG was 0.13 (95% CI 0.12-0.14)%, and highest in men aged 40-49 years and in women 60-69 years. Among the 65 sHTG patients, a possible genetic cause was found in four and 11 had experienced acute pancreatitis. The mRNA expression levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1A, CPT2, and hormone-sensitive lipase, were significantly higher in patients compared to controls, whereas those of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G, member 1 were significantly lower. In Norway, sHTG is present in 0.1%, carries considerable co-morbidity and is associated with an imbalance of genes involved in lipid metabolism, all potentially contributing to increased cardiovascular morbidity in sHTG.

  12. Prevalence of radiological findings among cases of severe secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gustavo Sampaio Lacativa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD and secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT2 are prone to develop heterotopic calcifications and severe bone disease. Determination of the sites most commonly affected would decrease costs and patients' exposure to X-ray radiation. The aim here was to determine which skeletal sites produce most radiographic findings, in order to evaluate hemodialysis patients with HPT2, and to describe the most prevalent radiographic findings. DESIGN AND SETTING: This study was cross-sectional, conducted in one center, the Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Whole-body radiographs were obtained from 73 chronic hemodialysis patients with indications for parathyroidectomy due to severe HPT2. The regions studied were the skull, hands, wrists, clavicles, thoracic and lumbar column, long bones and pelvis. All the radiographs were analyzed by the same two radiologists, with great experience in bone disease interpretation. RESULTS: The most common abnormality was subperiosteal bone resorption, mostly at the phalanges and distal clavicles (94% of patients, each. "Rugger jersey spine" sign was found in 27%. Pathological fractures and deformities were seen in 27% and 33%, respectively. Calcifications were presented in 80%, mostly at the forearm fistula (42%, abdominal aorta and lower limb arteries (35% each. Brown tumors were present in 37% of the patients, mostly on the face and lower limbs (9% each. CONCLUSION: The greatest prevalence of bone findings were found on radiographs of the hands, wrists, lateral view of the thoracic and lumbar columns and femurs. The most prevalent findings were bone resorption and ectopic calcifications.

  13. Prevalence and Predictors of Personality Change After Severe Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Results Of the sample, 59.1% experienced personality change after acquired brain injury, and the most dominant changes were observed in the personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Changes in neuroticism were most......Objectives To investigate the prevalence of personality change after severe brain injury; to identify predictors of personality change; and to investigate whether personality change is associated with distress in family members. Design A longitudinal study of personality change. Setting...... often observed in patients with frontal or temporal lesions. Generally, personality changes in patients were not associated with more distress and lower HRQOL in family members; however, change in patient agreeableness was associated with lower HRQOL on the role limitations-emotional scale. Conclusions...

  14. Are the determinants of vertebral endplate changes and severe disc degeneration in the lumbar spine the same? A magnetic resonance imaging study in middle-aged male workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpelainen Raija

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modic changes are bone marrow lesions visible in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and they are assumed to be associated with symptomatic intervertebral disc disease, especially changes located at L5-S1. Only limited information exists about the determinants of Modic changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the determinants of vertebral endplate (Modic changes, and whether they are similar for Modic changes and severe disc degeneration focusing on L5-S1 level. Methods 228 middle-aged male workers (159 train engineers and 69 sedentary factory workers from northern Finland underwent sagittal T1- and T2-weighted MRI. Modic changes and disc degeneration were analyzed from the scans. The participants responded to a questionnaire including items of occupational history and lifestyle factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations between selected determinants (age, lifetime exercise, weight-related factors, fat percentage, smoking, alcohol use, lifetime whole-body vibration and Modic type I and II changes, and severe disc degeneration (= grade V on Pfirrmann's classification. Results The prevalences of the Modic changes and severe disc degeneration were similar in the occupational groups. Age was significantly associated with all degenerative changes. In the age-adjusted analyses, only weight-related determinants (BMI, waist circumference were associated with type II changes. Exposure to whole-body vibration, besides age, was the only significant determinant for severe disc degeneration. In the multivariate model, BMI was associated with type II changes at L5-S1 (OR 2.75 per one SD = 3 unit increment in BMI, and vibration exposure with severe disc degeneration at L5-S1 (OR 1.08 per one SD = 11-year increment in vibration exposure. Conclusion Besides age, weight-related factors seem important in the pathogenesis of Modic changes, whereas whole-body vibration was the only significant determinant

  15. Pterygium in Indonesia: prevalence, severity and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzard, G; Saw, S-M; Farook, M; Koh, D; Widjaja, D; Chia, S-E; Hong, C-Y; Tan, D T H

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To determine prevalence rates, severity, and risk factors for pterygium in adults in provincial Indonesia and to validate a clinical grading scheme in a population based setting. Methods: A population based prevalence survey of 1210 adults aged 21 years and above was conducted in five rural villages and one provincial town in Riau province, Sumatra, Indonesia, an area near to the equator. A one stage household cluster sampling procedure was employed: 100 households were randomly selected from each village or town. Pterygia were graded for severity (T1 to T3, by visibility of episcleral vessels) and the basal and apical extent measured by an ophthalmologist (GG) with a hand held slit lamp. Refraction was measured by hand held autorefractor (Retinomax). Face to face household interviews assessed outdoor activity, occupation, and smoking. The participation rate was 96.7%. Results: The mean age was 36.6 years (SD 13.1), 612 were male. The age adjusted prevalence rate of any pterygium was 10.0% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 8.2 to 11.7) and of bilateral pterygia was 4.1% (95% CI 2.9 to 5.3). There was a significant dose-response relation with age (2.9% (95% CI 0.4 to 5.8) for 21–29 years versus 17.3% (95% CI 10.4 to 24.2) 50 years and above; p for trend <0.001) and occupations with more time outdoors (p for trend = 0.02). This was true for both sexes, all grades of lesion (T1 to T3), and bilateral disease. A multivariate logistic regression model showed pterygium was independently related to increasing age and outdoor activity 10 years earlier. The mean basal diameter = 3.3 mm (SD 1.51, range 0.1–9.5) and extent from limbus = 1.4 mm (SD 1.18, range 0.1–8.0). Higher grade pterygia were larger for basal and apical extent (p for trend <0.001). The presence of pterygium was associated with astigmatism (defined as cylinder at least −0.5 dioptres (D); p <0.001). This association increased with increasing grade of lesion (p for trend <0.001). Median cylinder for

  16. V. Terrestrial vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Deborah Finch

    2011-01-01

    Within the Interior West, terrestrial vertebrates do not represent a large number of invasive species relative to invasive weeds, aquatic vertebrates, and invertebrates. However, several invasive terrestrial vertebrate species do cause substantial economic and ecological damage in the U.S. and in this region (Pimental 2000, 2007; Bergman and others 2002; Finch and...

  17. The temporal patterns of disease severity and prevalence in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciddio, Manuela; Gatto, Marino; Casagrandi, Renato; Mari, Lorenzo; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. In this work, we introduce an eco-epidemiological model for its transmission and dynamics with the purpose of explaining both intra- and inter-annual fluctuations of disease severity and prevalence. The model takes the form of a system of nonlinear differential equations that incorporate biological complexity associated with schistosome's life cycle, including a prepatent period in snails (i.e., the time between initial infection and onset of infectiousness). Nonlinear analysis is used to explore the parametric conditions that produce different temporal patterns (stationary, endemic, periodic, and chaotic). For the time-invariant model, we identify a transcritical and a Hopf bifurcation in the space of the human and snail infection parameters. The first corresponds to the occurrence of an endemic equilibrium, while the latter marks the transition to interannual periodic oscillations. We then investigate a more realistic time-varying model in which fertility of the intermediate host population is assumed to seasonally vary. We show that seasonality can give rise to a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos for larger, though realistic, values of the amplitude of the seasonal variation of fertility

  18. Cognitive impairment in patients with AIDS – prevalence and severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins CC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystal C Watkins,1,2 Glenn J Treisman2 1The Memory Center in Neuropsychiatry, Sheppard Pratt Health System, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has prolonged the life expectancy of HIV patients and decreased the number of adults who progress to AIDS and HIV-associated dementia. However, neurocognitive deficits remain a pronounced consequence of HIV/AIDS. HIV-1 infection targets the central nervous system in subcortical brain areas and leads to high rates of delirium, depression, opportunistic central nervous system infections, and dementia. Long-term HIV replication in the brain occurs in astrocytes and microglia, allowing the virus to hide from antiviral medication and later compromise neuronal function. The associated cognitive disturbance is linked to both viral activity and inflammatory and other mediators from these immune cells that lead to the damage associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, a general term given for these disturbances. We review the severity and prevalence of the neuropsychiatric complications of HIV including delirium, neurobehavioral impairments (depression, minor cognitive-motor dysfunction, and HIV-associated dementia. Keywords: HIV, delirium, depression, HAND, dementia; HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder

  19. Multidimensional fatigue in pulmonary hypertension: prevalence, severity and predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartavoulle, Todd M.; Karpinski, Aryn C.; Aubin, Andrew; Kluger, Benzi M.; Distler, Oliver; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a potentially fatal disease. Despite pharmacological advances in pulmonary hypertension, fatigue remains common in patients with pulmonary hypertension. A convenience sample of 120 participants at an international patient conference completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI)-20 scale. Data on New York Heart Association Functional Class, body mass index, oxygen use and medication type/use were also collected. There was a high prevalence of “severe” to “very severe” fatigue for each dimension: General Fatigue (60%), Physical Fatigue (55.8%), Reduced Activity (41.7%), Reduced Motivation (32.5%) and Mental Fatigue (27.5%). The mean±sd overall MFI-20 score was 58±5.1. Dimensions with the highest averaged levels were General Fatigue (13.40±3.61), Physical Fatigue (13.23±3.67) and Reduced Activity (11.33±4.16). Body mass index correlated with higher fatigue scores. Phosphodiesterase inhibitor plus endothelin receptor antagonist combination negatively predicted General Fatigue, Physical Fatigue, Reduced Motivation and Reduced Activity. Triple therapy was a significant predictor of General Fatigue, Physical Fatigue and Reduced Activity. There were no significant predictors of Mental Fatigue. Multidimensional fatigue is common and severe in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Phosphodiesterase inhibitor plus endothelin receptor antagonist combination resulted in lower scores in most fatigue dimensions. Comprehensive assessment of fatigue should be considered in the clinical care of patients with pulmonary hypertension and clinical research to develop formal interventions that target this disabling symptom. PMID:29577043

  20. Vertebral morphometry by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanov, M.

    2002-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are a key feature of overt osteoporosis. Different X-ray morphometric techniques have been developed for quantification of changes in vertebral body shape. In recent years, a new method was implemented based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Morphometric X-ray absorptiometry, MXA, is a source of lower radiation and there is no image distortion. Several aspects of its application are under heavy discussion: image quality, accuracy and precision, reference databases, age changes in vertebral shape. The differential diagnosis of vertebral fracture/deformity is difficult. MXA has prove its value in large epidemiological studies on prevalence of vertebral deformities, as well in assessing the effects of different diseases and medications on vertebral body architecture. MXA is a promising method for future research and clinical work. (author)

  1. Prevalence, severity and risk factors of allergic disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To find out the prevalence and risk factors of allergic disorders. Methods: Data ..... with being continuously alert to their eating habits due to fear of allergic ... and fish.6,13,20,23 Genetic factors are known to be incrim- inated with ...

  2. Periodontitis prevalence and severity in Indonesians with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, H.; Nesse, W.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Agustina, D.; Vissink, A.; Abbas, F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) in Indonesia is high and still rising. Periodontitis is associated with DM2. No study has investigated this association in Indonesia, nor has any study investigated this association using a variety of methods to operationalize

  3. Periodontitis Prevalence and Severity in Indonesians With Type 2 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, Hendri; Nesse, Willem; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Agustina, Dewi; Vissink, Arjan; Abbas, Frank

    Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) in Indonesia is high and still rising. Periodontitis is associated with DM2. No study has investigated this association in Indonesia, nor has any study investigated this association using a variety of methods to operationalize

  4. Prevalence and Severity of Depression among People Living with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The validated Patient Health, Duke University of North Carolina functional social support questionnaires were used as interviewer-administered tools. The study revealed 14.4% prevalence of depression, with the mild category (9.5%) as the predominant subtype. Factors associated with the risk of developing depression ...

  5. Osteoporosis with vertebral fractures associated with pregnancy: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaetà, Gloria; Mazzantini, Maurizio; Menconi, Agnese; Bottai, Vanna; Falossi, Francesca; Celauro, Ilenia; Guido, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PAO) is a rare condition characterized by the occurrence of fragility fractures, most commonly vertebral, in late pregnancy or the early postpartum period. The prevalence, etiology and pathogenesis of this osteoporosis are unknown, although there are several hypotheses attempting to explain the etiopathogenesis of pregnancy associated osteoporosis. In this paper we present two cases of young women who developed severe PAO with vertebral fractur...

  6. Prevalence of exchange blood transfusion in severe hyper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-09

    Nov 9, 2015 ... cause a large number of our pa- tients had severe NNJ at presenta- ... bilirubinaemiadue such as prematurity, rhesus isoimmu- nization, ABO ... presents very late to health facilities, often with severe neonatal jaundice, some ...

  7. Prevalence and Severity of Malaria Parasitemia among Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced anemia is much more common in younger children and may require blood transfusion with high mortality rates.[2,3]. In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), children admitted with severe anemia are more likely to die than those without anemia.[4,5]. Blood transfusion in severe malarial anemia can be important in preventing ...

  8. Pain symptoms in patients with severe cerebral palsy: Prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the presence of pain in patients diagnosed with severe cerebral palsy (CP) according to the degree of motor function impairment. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on students of the Association of Parents and Friends of Exceptional Children (APAE) diagnosed with cerebral palsy and ...

  9. Prevalence and Severity of Periodontitis in Indonesian Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, Hendri; Nesse, Willem; Kertia, Nyoman; Soeroso, Juwono; van Reenen, Yvonne Huijser; Hoedemaker, Eveliene; Agustina, Dewi; Vissink, Arjan; Abbas, Frank; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Soeroso§, Juwono

    Background: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may have more prevalent and severe periodontitis than healthy controls. Periodontitis may increase the systemic inflammation in RA. The aim of this study is to assess periodontitis prevalence and severity and its potential association with systemic

  10. Skin diseases: prevalence and predictors of itch and disease severity.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeven, E.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic skin diseases are known to be common among the general population. Nevertheless, little research attention has been paid to patients with skin diseases in the general population, and consequently, little is known about the impact of skin diseases on daily life within this population. General definitions of health encompass different dimensions of disease outcome divided in disease severity, accompanying physical symptoms, and psychosocial well-being. These dimensions of disease outcom...

  11. The prevalence of severe fatigue in rheumatic diseases: an international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, Cécile L; Kool, Marianne B; Da Silva, José A P; Geenen, Rinie

    2016-02-01

    Fatigue is a common, disabling, and difficult-to-manage problem in rheumatic diseases. Prevalence estimates of fatigue within rheumatic diseases vary considerably. Data on the prevalence of severe fatigue across multiple rheumatic diseases using a similar instrument is missing. Our aim was to provide an overview of the prevalence of severe fatigue across a broad range of rheumatic diseases and to examine its association with clinical and demographic variables. Online questionnaires were filled out by an international sample of 6120 patients (88 % female, mean age 47) encompassing 30 different rheumatic diseases. Fatigue was measured with the RAND(SF)-36 Vitality scale. A score of ≤35 was taken as representing severe fatigue (90 % sensitivity and 81 % specificity for chronic fatigue syndrome). Severe fatigue was present in 41 to 57 % of patients with a single inflammatory rheumatic disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, Sjögren's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, and scleroderma. Severe fatigue was least prevalent in patients with osteoarthritis (35 %) and most prevalent in patients with fibromyalgia (82 %). In logistic regression analysis, severe fatigue was associated with having fibromyalgia, having multiple rheumatic diseases without fibromyalgia, younger age, lower education, and language (French: highest prevalence; Dutch: lowest prevalence). In conclusion, one out of every two patients with a rheumatic disease is severely fatigued. As severe fatigue is detrimental to the patient, the near environment, and society at large, unraveling the underlying mechanisms of fatigue and developing optimal treatment should be top priorities in rheumatologic research and practice.

  12. High prevalence of seasonal affective disorder among persons with severe visual impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Light severely affects the occurrence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). AIMS: To compare the prevalence of SAD in persons with severe visual impairment and persons with full sight, and in persons with severe visual impairment with or without light perception. METHOD: This cross......-sectional study assessed the Global Seasonality Score (GSS) and the prevalence of SAD among 2781 persons with visual impairment and 4099 persons with full sight using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). RESULTS: Respondents with visual impairment had significantly higher GSS and prevalence...... of SAD compared with full sight controls, Pvisual impairment and SPAQ-defined SAD parameters...

  13. Severe fatigue is highly prevalent in ALL rheumatic diseases : an international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, R.; Overman, C.L.; Da Silva, J.A.P.; Kool, M.B.

    Background Fatigue is a common, disabling, and difficult to manage problem in rheumatic diseases. Prevalence estimates of fatigue within various rheumatic disease groups vary considerably. Data on the relative prevalence of severe fatigue across multiple rheumatic diseases using a similar instrument

  14. Osteoporosis grave con aplastamientos vertebrales en dermatomiositis juvenil: Efecto del tratamiento con alendronato oral Severe osteoporosis with vertebral crushes in juvenile dermatomyositis: Effect of oral alendronate therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tau

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Los glucocorticoides son usados comúnmente para el tratamiento de enfermedades inflamatorias, autoinmunes, enfermedades malignas, y en la prevención de rechazo de órganos trasplantados. Un efecto secundario frecuente del tratamiento prolongado es la pérdida de masa ósea que se produce por varios mecanismos y es causa de osteoporosis y fracturas vertebrales. El tratamiento con disfosfonatos ha sido propuesto para esta situación. Presentamos un caso clínico de osteoporosis grave en una niña con dermatomiositis juvenil, que respondió favorablemente al tratamiento con disfosfonatos orales.Glucocorticoids are used for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, cancer, and in prevention of organ rejects. A frequent secondary effect of longterm treatment with corticoids is the loss of bone mass, caused by several mechanisms: decrease in the intestinal calcium absorption, increase of the renal calcium excretion at the distal renal tubule, suppressive effect on the osteoblast and also in apoptosis of osteoclasts, inhibition in local production of IGF I (Insulin-like growth factor and IGFBPs (binding IGF I proteins necessary for bone metabolism, and decrease on osteocalcin production. Longterm treatment with corticoids is associated with osteoporosis and vertebral fractures. To improve this condition, treatment with bisphosphonates has been proposed. We present here a clinical case of a girl with dermatomyositis and severe osteoporosis with vertebral crushes, who responded well to oral bisphophonate treatment.

  15. Prevalência de osteoporose e fraturas vertebrais em mulheres na pós-menopausa atendidas em serviços de referência Prevalence of osteoporosis and vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women attending reference centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bandeira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo verificar a prevalência de osteoporose e a presença de fraturas vertebrais em mulheres na pós-menopausa. Foram estudadas, em serviços de referências, 627 mulheres com idade acima de 50 anos, com média de idade de 63,9 ± 8,3 anos, tempo de menopausa de 16,2 ± 8,6 anos, e índice de massa corpórea de 26,6 ± 4.3 Kg/m2. A prevalência de osteoporose foi de 28,8% na coluna lombar e de 18,8% no colo do fêmur. Esta foi maior nas pacientes que apresentaram história de fraturas quando jovens. Na faixa entre 60 a 69 anos, 33,2% tinham osteoporose na coluna lombar e entre 70 e 79 anos, 38,2%. Das pacientes com mais de 80 anos 54,5% apresentam osteoporose na coluna lombar e 72,7% no colo do fêmur. Trinta e sete por cento tinham fraturas, sendo que 9% apresentam fraturas grau I, e 10,9% fraturas severas. Considerando-se os diversos grupos etários, a prevalência de fraturas vertebrais foi de 20% entre 50 e 59 anos, 25,6% entre 60 e 69 anos, 58,3% entre 70 e 79 anos, e 81,8% entre 80 e 89 anos. Em mulheres na pós-menopausa, a maioria sem sintomas clínicos, verificamos uma alta taxa de prevalência de osteoporose, e fraturas vertebrais.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women. We studied 627 women, aged 50 years and over in reference centers (mean age 63.9±8.3 years, 16.2 ± 8.6 mean years since menopause, and mean body mass index 26.6 ± 4.3 Kg/m2. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 28.8% for lumbar spine and 18.8% for femoral neck. The prevalence was higher in patients who had had a fracture during youth. In the 60-69 year-old group, 32.2% had lumbar spine osteoporosis and 17.4% femoral neck osteoporosis. In the 70-79 year-old group, 38.2% had lumbar spine osteoporosis and 34% femoral neck osteoporosis. In the 80 years and over age group, 54.5% had lumbar spine osteoporosis and 72.7% femoral neck osteoporosis. Thirty-seven percent had

  16. Targeted BCG Vaccination Against Severe Tuberculosis in Low-prevalence Settings Epidemiologic and Economic Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altes, Hester Korthals; Dijkstra, Frederika; Lugnèr, Anna; Cobelens, Frank; Wallinga, Jacco

    2009-01-01

    Background: BCG vaccine protects against the severe forms of tuberculosis (TB) in children. Several low-prevalence countries are reviewing their policy, usually shifting from universal vaccination to vaccination of infants in high-risk groups only. We combined an epidemiologic analysis with a

  17. Prevalence and severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and their relationships with dermatological diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Sheikhmoonesi; Zohreh Hajheidari; Abbas Masoudzadeh; Reza Ali Mohammadpour; Mahbubeh Mozaffari

    2014-01-01

    Most obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients meet psychiatrists 5 to 10 years after onset of OCD .Its relatively high prevalence ratio and the delay in seeking help suggest that patients with OCD may seek help at non-psychiatric clinics. The present study was undertaken to provide some epidemiological data on the prevalence and severity of OCD in dermatological patients. The participants included 265 consecutive patients with primary dermatologic chief complaint. They were visited by a d...

  18. Prevalence of degree of severity of temporomandibular joint disorder based on sex and age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dewanti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint disorders are disturbances of mastication system due to one or more component of mastication system does not properly function. The factors that play a role in this problem divided into three factors; a predisposition factor (systemic, occlusion disturbances and psychological trouble, b initiation factor (traumatic and c perpetuation factor (social behavior. These disorders are able to cause a variety of symptom suck as limitedness of jaw movement, clicking, deviation locked joint, muscle pain, joint pain, jaw movement pain and pain of ear and headache. The objective of this study was to obtain information about the prevalence degree of severity of the temporomandibular joint disorder, the differences of prevalence between man and woman and the different among age groups. The study was descriptive and analysis survey, done to 134 patients as an experimental sample of 3–75-year old that have visited Dental Hospital, Padjadjaran University Bandung, during February 2008. Sample consist of 57 men and 77 women were evaluated by using Helkimo Index and analysis by using Z statistical proportion test to know the existence of difference prevalence degree of severity between man and woman and using the chi-square test to know the difference prevalence among age groups.The result of this study shows that there is highly prevalence severity of temporomandibular joint disorder (84,33% and significantly different on prevalence severity between man and woman and among a group of ages.The conclusion can be drawn that patients who visited the dental hospital, Padjadjaran University have higher prevalence severity of temporomandibular joint disorder where a woman has higher level compare to man, and the young adult group has highest either man and woman. Clicking is the most often symptom appear to man and woman.

  19. DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder Severity in Puerto Rico: Prevalence, Criteria Profile, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Gruenewald, Paul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Canino, Glorisa

    2018-02-01

    Our aim was to examine lifetime criteria profiles and correlates of severity (mild, moderate, severe) of DSM-5 alcohol use disorders (AUD) in Puerto Rico. Data are from a household random sample of individuals 18 to 64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The survey response rate was 83%. DSM-5 AUD was identified with the Spanish version of the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The analyses also identify correlates of each severity level using an ordered logistic regression model. The prevalence of lifetime DSM-5 AUD among men and women was 38 and 16%, respectively. Mild lifetime DSM-5 AUD was the most prevalent severity level among both men (18%) and women (9%). The most common criteria, independent of gender and severity level, were drinking larger quantities and for longer than planned (men range: 80 to 97%; women range: 78 to 91%) and hazardous use (men range: 56 to 91%; women range: 42 to 74%). Results from ordered logistic regression showed that the adjusted odds ratio for weekly drinking frequency, greater volume of alcohol consumed per drinking occasion, positive attitudes about drinking, drinking norms, and male gender invariantly increased risks across all DSM-5 AUD severity levels (mild, moderate, severe). Greater negative attitudes about drinking, low family cohesion, and Protestant religion were related to greater risks at higher AUD severity levels. AUD prevalence is high in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Prevalence rates for some criteria are equally high across severity levels and poorly differentiate between mild, moderate, or severe DSM-5 AUD. The sociodemographic and alcohol-related risks vary across DSM-5 severity levels. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Hyperhidrosis: an update on prevalence and severity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, James; Walker, Patricia; Mills, Thomas; Thurston, Jane

    2016-12-01

    Current published estimates of the prevalence of hyperhidrosis in the United States are outdated and underestimate the true prevalence of the condition. The objectives of this study are to provide an updated estimate of the prevalence of hyperhidrosis in the US population and to further assess the severity and impact of sweating on those affected by the condition. For the purposes of obtaining prevalence, a nationally representative sample of 8160 individuals were selected using an online panel, and information as to whether or not they experience hyperhidrosis was obtained. The 393 individuals (210 female, 244 non-Hispanic white, 27 black, mean age 40.3, SE 0.64) who indicated that they have hyperhidrosis were asked further questions, including body areas impacted, severity of symptoms, age of onset, and socioemotional impact of the condition. Current results estimate the prevalence of hyperhidrosis at 4.8 %, which represents approximately 15.3 million people in the United States. Of these, 70 % report severe excessive sweating in at least one body area. In spite of this, only 51 % have discussed their excessive sweating with a healthcare professional. The main reasons are a belief that hyperhidrosis is not a medical condition and that no treatment options exist. The current study's findings with regard to age of onset and prevalence by body area generally align with the previous research. However, current findings suggest that the severity and prevalence are both higher than previously thought, indicating a need for greater awareness of the condition and its associated treatment options among medical professionals.

  1. Incidence of traumatic carotid and vertebral artery dissections: results of cervical vessel computed tomography angiogram as a mandatory scan component in severely injured patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schicho A

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Andreas Schicho,1 Lukas Luerken,1 Ramona Meier,1 Antonio Ernstberger,2 Christian Stroszczynski,1 Andreas Schreyer,1 Lena-Marie Dendl,1 Stephan Schleder1 1Department of Radiology, 2Department of Trauma Surgery, University Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the true incidence of cervical artery dissections (CeADs in trauma patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS of ≥16, since head-and-neck computed tomography angiogram (CTA is not a compulsory component of whole-body trauma computed tomography (CT protocols. Patients and methods: A total of 230 consecutive trauma patients with an ISS of ≥16 admitted to our Level I trauma center during a 24-month period were prospectively included. Standardized whole-body CT in a 256-detector row scanner included a head-and-neck CTA. Incidence, mortality, patient and trauma characteristics, and concomitant injuries were recorded and analyzed retrospectively in patients with carotid artery dissection (CAD and vertebral artery dissection (VAD. Results: Of the 230 patients included, 6.5% had a CeAD, 5.2% had a CAD, and 1.7% had a VAD. One patient had both CAD and VAD. For both, CAD and VAD, mortality is 25%. One death was caused by fatal cerebral ischemia due to high-grade CAD. A total of 41.6% of the patients with traumatic CAD and 25% of the patients with VAD had neurological sequelae. Conclusion: Mandatory head-and-neck CTA yields higher CeAD incidence than reported before. We highly recommend the compulsory inclusion of a head-and-neck CTA to whole-body CT routines for severely injured patients. Keywords: polytrauma, carotid artery, vertebral artery, dissection, blunt trauma, computed tomography angiogram

  2. Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis with severe vertebral deformities: can strontium ranelate be a new alternative for the treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriover, Mine Durusu; Oz, S Gul; Sozen, Tumay; Kilicarslan, Alpaslan; Guven, Gulay Sain

    2009-04-01

    Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis is an uncommon condition that may be a consequence of preexisting low bone density, loss of bone mineral content during pregnancy, and increased bone turnover. To present a case of severe osteoporosis associated with pregnancy and lactation and its treatment protocol. A tertiary care hospital. A young female after twin pregnancy presenting with severe osteoporosis. The diagnosis was done on the basis of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. The patient was treated with first alendronate and then strontium ranelate. She was considered as a candidate for kyphoplasty. A dramatic increase in the BMD and palliation of back pain were observed. Strontium ranelate may be a new alternative in the treatment of pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis.

  3. Prevalence and Severity of Oral Diseases in the Africa and Middle East Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, A; Maatouk, F; Berrezouga, L; Azodo, C; Uti, O; El-Shamy, H; Oginni, A

    2015-07-01

    This review aims to determine the prevalence and severity of oral health diseases in the Africa and Middle East region (AMER). The profile of oral diseases is not homogeneous across the AMER. There are large disparities between groups. Reliable data are scarce. The prevalence and severity of oral diseases appear to be increasing in the African region, as does associated morbidity. There are substantial differences in inequalities in oral health. Dental caries prevalence is less severe in most African countries than in developed countries, but the high rate of untreated caries reflects the limited resources available and difficulties of access and affordability to essential oral health care services. The prevalence of gingival inflammation is very high in all age groups in several African countries. The prevalence of maxillofacial trauma has increased in many countries, with a wide variation of the incidence and high prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in primary and permanent teeth. Orofacial clefts are among the most common birth defects. Annual incidence of oral cancer is estimated as 25 cases per 100,000 people in Africa. Noma is a major public health problem for the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. Data about human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS are limited, particularly in the MENA region. According to the World Health Organization Regional Committee for Africa report, some fundamental key basic knowledge gaps need to be underlined. They include inequalities in oral health, low priority for oral health, lack of adequate funding, inadequate dental student training, obstacles to medical and dental research, and poor databases. There are very few effective public prevention and oral health promotion programs in the AMER. Universal health coverage is not achievable without scientific research on the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  4. Prevalence and predictors of severe hypoglycemia in Danish children and adolescents with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Kanijo, B; Fredheim, S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of severe hypoglycemia in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to pinpoint predictors of this acute complication in children on modern treatment modalities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study is based on data from DanDiabKids...

  5. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauritz, M.W.; Goossens, P.J.J.; Draijer, N.; Achterberg, T. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. METHODS: We

  6. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauritz, M.W.; Goossens, P.J.J.; Draijer, N.; van Achterberg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. Objective: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. Methods: We

  7. Severe bacterial infections in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia: prevalence and clinical risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattiya Teawtrakul

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of bacterial infection in patients with NTDT was found to be moderate. Time after splenectomy >10 years, deferoxamine therapy, and iron overload may be clinical risk factors for severe bacterial infection in patients with NTDT. Bacterial infection should be recognized in splenectomized patients with NTDT, particularly those who have an iron overload.

  8. Using the symptom monitor in a randomized controlled trial: the effect on symptom prevalence and severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Johanna; de Vos, Rien; van Duijn, Nico P.; Schadé, Egbert; Bindels, Patrick J. E.

    2006-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of reporting physical symptoms by using a systematic symptom monitoring instrument, the Symptom Monitor, on symptom prevalence and severity among patients with cancer in the palliative phase. The overall objective was to achieve symptom relief

  9. Prevalence and Severity of DSM-5 Eating Disorders in a Community Cohort of Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Hoek, Hans W.

    Objective: The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes a considerably revised eating disorder section. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence and severity of eating disorders based on the new DSM-5 criteria in a community cohort of

  10. Prevalence, severity, and natural history of jack jumper ant venom allergy in Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Simon G A; Franks, Rodney W; Baldo, Brian A; Heddle, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    The jack jumper ant (Myrmecia pilosula) is responsible for greater than 90% of Australian ant venom allergy. However, deaths have only been recorded in the island of Tasmania. We sought to determine the prevalence, clinical features, natural history, and predictors of severity of M pilosula sting allergy in Tasmania. We performed a random telephone survey supported by serum venom-specific IgE analysis, review of emergency department presentations, and follow-up of allergic volunteers. M pilosula, honeybee (Apis mellifera), and yellow jacket wasp (Vespula germanica) sting allergy prevalences were 2.7%, 1.4%, and 0.6% compared with annual sting exposure rates of 12%, 7%, and 2%, respectively. Similarly, emergency department presentations with anaphylaxis to M pilosula were double those for honeybee. M pilosula allergy prevalence increased with age of 35 years or greater (odds ratio [OR], 2.4) and bee sting allergy (OR, 16.9). Patients 35 years of age or older had a greater risk of hypotensive reactions (OR, 2.9). Mueller reaction grades correlated well with adrenaline use. During follow-up, 79 (70%) of 113 jack jumper stings caused anaphylaxis. Prior worst reaction severity predicted the likelihood and severity of follow-up reactions; only 3 subjects had more severe reactions. Venom-specific IgE levels and other clinical features, including comorbidities, were not predictive of severity. Sting allergy prevalence is determined by age and exposure rate. M pilosula sting exposure in Tasmania is excessive compared with that found in mainland Australia, and there is a high systemic reaction risk in allergic people on re-sting. Prior worst reaction severity (Mueller grade) and age predict reaction severity and might be used to guide management.

  11. Prevalence, severity, and related factors of anemia in HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Meidani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of anemia in HIV infected patients has not been well characterized in Iran. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of anemia and related factors in HIV positive patients. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, anemia prevalence and risk factors of 212 HIV positive patients were assessed, at the behavioral disease consulting center in Isfahan. The relationship between anemia, demographic variables, and clinical histories were analyzed. Mild to moderate anemia was defined as hemoglobin 8-13 g/dL for men and 8-12 g/dL for women. Severe anemia was defined as hemoglobin, 8 g/dL. Results: A total of 212 HIV positive patients with a mean±SD age of 36.1 ± 9.1 years were assessed. We found that hemoglobin levels were between 4.7 and 16.5 gr/dL. In this study, the overall prevalence of anemia was 71%, with the majority of patients having mild to moderate anemia. Mild to moderate anemia and severe anemia occurred in 67% and 4% of patients, respectively. The mean absolute CD4 count was 348 ± 267.8 cells/cubic mm. Sixty one of 212 patients were at late stage of HIV infection (males=51 and female=10. Of the 212 HIV positive patients enrolled, 17 (8% had a positive history of tuberculosis. We found a strong association between anemia and death. Conclusion: Normocytic anemia with decreased reticulocyte count was the most common type of anemia in overall. Prevalence of anemia in this study is relatively higher than other similar studies. Such a high prevalence of anemia needs close monitoring of patients on a zidovudine-based regimen. Better screening for anemia and infectious diseases, and modified harm reduction strategy (HRS for injection drug users are primary needs in HIV seropositive patients.

  12. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Mauritz, Maria W.; Goossens, Peter J.J.; Draijer, Nel; Achterberg, Theo van

    2013-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice.Objective: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI.Methods: We conducted a systematic review of four databases (1980-2010) and then described and analysed 33 studies in terms of primary diagnosis and instruments used to measure trauma exposure and traumarelated dis...

  13. Lower prevalence and greater severity of asthma in hot and dry climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Valois Correia Junior

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Asthma prevalence in this low‐humidity environment was lower, but more severe than those reported in other Brazilian cities. The dry climate might hamper disease control and this may have contributed to the higher school absenteeism observed. The association of asthma with allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis as well as a history of asthma in parents suggests that atopy is an important risk factor for asthma in this population.

  14. Social anxiety symptoms in alcohol-dependent outpatients: prevalence, severity and predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimi, Nicoli Tamie; Campos, Luana Moraes; Simão, Maria Odete; Torresan, Ricardo Cezar; Torres, Albina Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives High rates of comorbidity between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol use disorders have been reported, but the predictors of this comorbidity are poorly known and most studies involve primary SAD samples. The aims were to estimate the prevalence and severity of SAD symptoms among alcohol-dependent patients and to investigate sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with SAD comorbidity, including suicidal behaviors. Methods A cross-sectional study with 5...

  15. The disease prevalence and severity of Cercospora leaf spot in sugar beet cultivations in Kayseri

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    Hacer Handan ALTINOK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cercospora leaf spot disease (Cercospora beticola Sacc., is one of the most economically important fungal diseases in sugar beet growing. Under appropriate climatic conditions, the disease can reach epidemic levels. Although some fungicides exist for disease control, resistance development by pathogen against fungicides is creating difficulties. Besides, use of resistant varieties which is considered as the most efficient and environment-friendly method is adversely affected by pathogen’s ability to exhibit high genetic variations and varying resistance levels against different races of pathogen restricts the success of resistance breeding studies. In order to reveal status of this disease in Kayseri province, surveys were conducted in 2010 and 2011 in sugar beet growing areas and disease prevalence and severity were determined. Approximately, 1500 da area in 90 fields were examined and about 700 da of this area found as infected with Cercospora leaf spot disease in both years of the survey. Highest disease prevalence and severity were found as 80 % and 45 %, respectively, in Sarıoğlan district, which is followed by central district, Develi and Bünyan. Among surveyed districts, lowest prevalence and severity were detected as approx. 65 % and 35 %, respectively, in Yeşilhisar.

  16. Prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis in a Saudi adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Majdy M.; Azzeghaiby, Saleh N.; Hammad, Mohammad M.; Kujan, Omar B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis among a Saudi adult population in Riyadh region. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-five eligible participants in this cross-sectional study were recruited from routine dental patients attending the oral diagnosis clinic at Al-Farabi College in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 2013 to December 2013. A clinical examination was performed by 2 dentists to measure the gingival and plaque indices of Löe and Silness for each participant. Results: The prevalence of gingivitis was 100% among adult subjects aged between 18-40 years old. Moreover, the mean gingival index was 1.68±0.31, which indicates a moderate gingival inflammation. In fact, males showed more severe signs of gingival inflammation compared with females (p=0.001). In addition, the mean plaque index was 0.875±0.49, which indicates a good plaque status of the participants. Interestingly, the age was not related either to the gingival inflammation (p=0.13), or to the amount of plaque accumulation (p=0.17). However, males were more affected than females (p=0.005). Conclusion: The results of this study show that plaque accumulation is strongly associated with high prevalence of moderate to severe gingivitis among Saudi subjects. PMID:25399215

  17. Prevalence and severity of self-reported asthma in young adults, 1976-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browatzki, A; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and severity of asthma in young Danish adults over three decades. Males and females aged 20-35 yrs were sampled from the population of Copenhagen for the three surveys (1976-1978, 1991-1993 and 2001-2004). A total of 3,285 (46% male) sub...... to increase over the last three decades among young Danish adults, and the observed increase in severity seems, at least partly, to be related to the increase in prevalence of obesity.......The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and severity of asthma in young Danish adults over three decades. Males and females aged 20-35 yrs were sampled from the population of Copenhagen for the three surveys (1976-1978, 1991-1993 and 2001-2004). A total of 3,285 (46% male...... index, especially >30 kg.m(-2), was associated with a lower percentage predicted FEV1 (pobesity on FEV1. The proportion of smokers declined from 60 to 38% (p

  18. Prevalence and severity of anemia among pregnant women in primary health centers/Erbil City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushna Ghazi Abdulwahid

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem, especially in developing countries. Nutritional anemia is the most common type of anemia worldwide and mainly includes iron, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin C deficiencies. Iron deficiency contributes to half of the burden of anemia globally. The objectives of this study were to find out the prevalence and severity of anemia among pregnant women. A descriptive study was conducted on 600 pregnant women, during the period October 2015 to November 2016 at four primary health care centers in Erbil city. Data gathered through interview with study sample and filling questionnaire format and reviewing their antenatal records. Blood hemoglobin level was measured to assess the severity of anemia. Chi-square test and regression were used to analyze the data. Prevalence of anemia was 46.2%, and 67.1% of the anemic women had mild anemia. There was a significant association of severity of anemia with wife education and occupation, smoking, the number of abortions and cesarean section, ante partum hemorrhage, taking tablets of iron and folic acid per month. The study concluded that prevalence of anemia considered high in Erbil city, the highest percentage had mild anemia.

  19. Dental erosion: Prevalence and severity among 16-year-old adolescents in Troms, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulic, A; Fredriksen, Ø; Jacobsen, I D; Tveit, A B; Espelid, I; Crossner, C G

    2016-09-01

    To study the prevalence, distribution and severity of dental erosion among 16-year-old adolescents in the Troms region of Norway. Study design: The participants were recruited through the Tromsø-study ("Fit Futures"), and 392 16-year-olds were examined for dental erosion using clinical intraoral photographs. Three calibrated clinicians used the Visual Erosion Dental Examination (VEDE) system to register and grade the dental erosive wear. More than one third (38%) of the participants showed dental erosion on at least one tooth surface, 18% were limited to the enamel, while 20% of the adolescents showed erosive wear extending into the dentine. The occlusal surfaces of the lower first molars, and the palatal surfaces of the maxillary incisors were the most often and most severely affected. Of the participants showing dental erosion, 93% exhibited "cuppings" on the molars, with 48% limited to the enamel and 52% extending into the dentine. The highest prevalence of "cuppings" (73%) was found on the first lower molars, especially the mesiobuccal cusp of the teeth. The prevalence and severity of dental erosion was found to be higher in male than in female participants (p dental erosion among adolescents in Troms and stress the importance of information, early and effective diagnostics and implementation of prevention strategies.

  20. Prevalence and predictors of severe menopause symptoms among HIV-positive and -negative Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaba, Patricia A; Meloni, Seema T; Sule, Halima M; Ocheke, Amaka N; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Idoko, John A; Kanki, Phyllis J

    2017-11-01

    We compared the prevalence of menopause symptoms between women living with HIV to their HIV-negative peers and determined predictors of severe menopause symptoms in Jos, Nigeria. This descriptive cross-sectional study included 714 women aged 40-80 years. We compared prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms using the menopause rating scale (MRS). Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of severe symptoms. Six-hundred and seven (85.0%) were HIV-positive, with a mean duration of infection of 5.6 ± 2.7 years. The mean age of the cohort was 46 ± 5 years. The most prevalent menopause symptoms were hot flushes (67.2%), joint and muscle discomfort (66.2%), physical/mental exhaustion (65.3%), heart discomfort (60.4%), and anxiety (56.4%). The median MRS score was higher for HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative women (p = 0.01). Factors associated with severe menopause symptoms included HIV-positive status (aOR: 3.01, 95% CI: 1.20-7.54) and history of cigarette smoking (aOR: 4.18, 95% CI: 1.31-13.26). Being married (aOR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.32-0.77), premenopausal (aOR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39-0.94), and self-reporting good quality of life (aOR: 0.62. 95% CI: 0.39-0.98) were protective against severe menopause symptoms. We found HIV infection, cigarette smoking, quality of life, and stage of the menopause transition to be associated with severe menopause symptoms. As HIV-positive populations are aging, additional attention should be given to the reproductive health of these women.

  1. Prevalence and severity of dental caries among 18-year-old Lithuanian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žemaitienė, Miglė; Grigalauskienė, Rūta; Vasiliauskienė, Ingrida; Saldūnaitė, Kristina; Razmienė, Jaunė; Slabšinskienė, Eglė

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of dental caries among 18-year-old Lithuanian adolescents and to disclose possible differences in the prevalence and severity of dental caries related to gender, urbanization, and different county. A total of 1063 18-year-old adolescents attending school, 427 boys and 636 girls from 10 Lithuanian counties including urban and rural areas, were included in the cross-sectional study on dental caries. The method of multistage cluster sampling was used. The dental examination was performed according to the methodology of oral status evaluation recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO). The prevalence of dental caries, DMFT score, Significant Caries Index, and dental care index were determined. The overall prevalence of dental caries among 18-year-old Lithuanian adolescents was 78.3%. The study population had a mean DMFT score of 2.93 [SD, 2.81]. Considering the gender, a higher DMFT score was observed among girls than boys (3.03 [SD, 2.88] versus 2.73 [SD, 2.71]) and in rural than urban areas (3.02 [SD, 2.98] versus 2.89 [SD, 2.73]). The Significant Caries Index and the dental care index among 18-year-old adolescents were 6.14 and 62.3%, respectively. This study showed a relatively high prevalence of dental caries. The existing differences of caries experience between the urban and the rural areas as well as between the counties could be influenced by the socioeconomic differences in the country. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and severity of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients with aortic valve calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhang-wei; Qian, Ju-ying; Jian, Ying; Ge, Lei; Liu, Xue-bo; Shu, Xian-hong; Ge, Junbo

    2011-02-01

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is common in the elderly and associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, while diabetes is one of the confirmed risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence and severity of CAD in type-2 diabetic patients with AVC. From June to December in 2007, a total of 325 consecutive patients with chest pain or chest distress were admitted for coronary angiography. The severity of CAD was evaluated by the Gensini score and the number of stenosed vessels. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography for detecting AVC. Compared with the patients without diabetes (n = 221), the type-2 diabetic patients (n = 104) had a similar prevalence of CAD (66.5% vs. 72.1%, P = 0.312). Further classified by the presence of AVC, patients with AVC had a higher prevalence of CAD, average Gensini score and the number of stenosed vessels, both in the group with and without diabetes. It was also demonstrated that the odds ratio (OR) of AVC for CAD in the diabetic patients was higher than in the non-diabetic ones (3.405 vs 2.515) after chi-square analysis (single-variable). However, at multivariable logistic regression analysis for CAD, the OR of AVC was 3.757 (P = 0.03) in diabetic group, while it did not achieve statistical significance in the non-diabetic group (OR = 2.130, P= 0.074). Type-2 diabetic patients with AVC had a higher prevalence of and more severe CAD.

  3. The prevalence of urinary tract infection in children with severe acute malnutrition: a narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwaezuoke, Samuel N

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to review the current evidence which shows that the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) has been increasing in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). UTI remains one of the most common causes of febrile illness in pediatric practice. Most studies conducted among hospitalized children with complicated SAM have reported high prevalence rates of UTI. Clearly, the knowledge of baseline risk of UTI can help clinicians to make informed diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in these children. From the global reports reviewed in this article, UTI prevalence rates range from as low as 6% to as high as 37% in developing countries, while the most common bacterial isolates from urine cultures are Gram-negative coliform organisms such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species. These findings form the basis for the current diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for clinicians managing children with complicated SAM. With the reported high prevalence of UTI among these children and concerns over antibiotic resistance, more extensive data are required using standardized microbiological methods. Thus, the assessment of the performance of urine dipsticks and microscopy against the gold standard urine culture is an important step toward strengthening the evidence for the therapeutic guidelines for UTI in children with SAM. PMID:29388594

  4. Dental trauma in individuals with severe cerebral palsy: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Batista Miamoto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental trauma and associated factors among a sample of patients with severe cerebral palsy. The sample was made up of 120 individuals equally divided into two groups. The group with cerebral palsy was made up of 60 patients diagnosed with the spastic form of the disease. The control group was made up of 60 individuals with no mental impairment. Questionnaires were used to collect information on individual, socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Dental trauma was assessed based on the clinical chart of each participant, on a questionnaire and on a clinical evaluation to determine past injuries. Mouth mirrors and millimeter periodontal probes (Community Periodontal Index probe were used to measure overjet. Lip seal and breathing type were determined during the clinical exams and interviews. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05 and multivariate logistic regression (forward stepwise procedure. The prevalence of dental trauma was greater among individuals with cerebral palsy (18% than in the control group (5%, with the difference achieving statistical significance (p = 0.023. Individuals with lip incompetence had a greater chance of exhibiting dental trauma (OR [CI 95%] = 3.81 [1.19-12.24]. The prevalence of dental trauma among individuals with cerebral palsy was high. A lack of lip seal was identified as a factor directly associated to this prevalence.

  5. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria W. Mauritz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI are often not recognized in clinical practice. Objective: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of four databases (1980–2010 and then described and analysed 33 studies in terms of primary diagnosis and instruments used to measure trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders. Results: Population-weighted mean prevalence rates in SMI were physical abuse 47% (range 25–72%, sexual abuse 37% (range 24–49%, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD 30% (range 20–47%. Compared to men, women showed a higher prevalence of sexual abuse in schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, and mixed diagnosis groups labelled as having SMI. Conclusions: Prevalence rates of interpersonal trauma and trauma-related disorders were significantly higher in SMI than in the general population. Emotional abuse and neglect, physical neglect, complex PTSD, and dissociative disorders have been scarcely examined in SMI.

  6. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Maria W; Goossens, Peter J J; Draijer, Nel; van Achterberg, Theo

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. We conducted a systematic review of four databases (1980-2010) and then described and analysed 33 studies in terms of primary diagnosis and instruments used to measure trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders. Population-weighted mean prevalence rates in SMI were physical abuse 47% (range 25-72%), sexual abuse 37% (range 24-49%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 30% (range 20-47%). Compared to men, women showed a higher prevalence of sexual abuse in schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, and mixed diagnosis groups labelled as having SMI. Prevalence rates of interpersonal trauma and trauma-related disorders were significantly higher in SMI than in the general population. Emotional abuse and neglect, physical neglect, complex PTSD, and dissociative disorders have been scarcely examined in SMI.

  7. Vertebral chondroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali; Unni, Krishnan K.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the age distribution, gender, incidence, and imaging findings of vertebral chondroblastoma, and to compare our series with findings from case reports in the world literature.Design and patients Case records and imaging findings of nine histologically documented vertebral chondroblastomas were retrospectively reviewed for patient age, gender, vertebral column location and level, morphology, matrix, edema, soft tissue mass, spinal canal invasion, and metastases. Our findings were compared with a total of nine patients identified from previous publications in the world literature. The histologic findings in our cases was re-reviewed for diagnosis and specifically for features of calcification and secondary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). Clinical follow-up was requested from referring institutions. Nine of 856 chondroblastomas arose in vertebrae (incidence 1.4%; thoracic 5, lumbar 1, cervical 2, sacral 1). There were six males and three females ranging in age from 5 to 41 years (mean 28 years). Satisfactory imaging from seven patients revealed the tumor to arise from the posterior elements in four and the body in three. All tumors were expansive, six of seven were aggressive, and the spinal canal was significantly narrowed by bone or soft tissue mass in six. In one patient canal invasion was minimal. Calcification was pronounced in two and subtle in four. The sole nonaggressive-appearing tumor was heavily mineralized. Bony edema and secondary ABC were not seen on MR imaging. None of the cases had microscopic features of significant secondary ABC. Calcification, and specifically ''chicken wire'' calcification, was identified in two patients. Pulmonary metastases occurred in none. Vertebral chondroblastoma is a rare neoplasm that presents later in life than its appendicular counterpart. On imaging it is aggressive in appearance with bone destruction, soft tissue mass, and spinal canal invasion. The lesions contain variable amounts of mineral. Secondary

  8. Vertebral chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Unni, Krishnan K. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2003-02-01

    To determine the age distribution, gender, incidence, and imaging findings of vertebral chondroblastoma, and to compare our series with findings from case reports in the world literature.Design and patients Case records and imaging findings of nine histologically documented vertebral chondroblastomas were retrospectively reviewed for patient age, gender, vertebral column location and level, morphology, matrix, edema, soft tissue mass, spinal canal invasion, and metastases. Our findings were compared with a total of nine patients identified from previous publications in the world literature. The histologic findings in our cases was re-reviewed for diagnosis and specifically for features of calcification and secondary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). Clinical follow-up was requested from referring institutions. Nine of 856 chondroblastomas arose in vertebrae (incidence 1.4%; thoracic 5, lumbar 1, cervical 2, sacral 1). There were six males and three females ranging in age from 5 to 41 years (mean 28 years). Satisfactory imaging from seven patients revealed the tumor to arise from the posterior elements in four and the body in three. All tumors were expansive, six of seven were aggressive, and the spinal canal was significantly narrowed by bone or soft tissue mass in six. In one patient canal invasion was minimal. Calcification was pronounced in two and subtle in four. The sole nonaggressive-appearing tumor was heavily mineralized. Bony edema and secondary ABC were not seen on MR imaging. None of the cases had microscopic features of significant secondary ABC. Calcification, and specifically ''chicken wire'' calcification, was identified in two patients. Pulmonary metastases occurred in none. Vertebral chondroblastoma is a rare neoplasm that presents later in life than its appendicular counterpart. On imaging it is aggressive in appearance with bone destruction, soft tissue mass, and spinal canal invasion. The lesions contain variable amounts of mineral

  9. Prevalence of lattice degeneration and its relation to axial length in severe myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celorio, J M; Pruett, R C

    1991-01-15

    We studied 436 eyes of 218 patients with myopia of -6.00 diopters or more in both eyes. Of 218 patients, 72 (33.0%) had lattice degeneration of the retina. Among these 72 patients, lattice lesions were uniocular in 39 (54.2%) and binocular in 33 (45.8%). Of 105 males, 33 (31.4%) had lattice degeneration; of 113 females, 39 (34.5%) had lattice degeneration. Contrary to previously published data, we found an inverse relationship between axial length and the prevalence of lattice degeneration in severely myopic eyes. The greatest prevalence of lattice degeneration (63 of 154 eyes, 40.9%) was found in eyes with an axial length of 26.0 to 26.9 mm (-6.00 to -8.70 diopters), and the least prevalence of lattice degeneration (five of 71 eyes, 7.0%) was found in eyes with an axial length of 32.0 mm (-24.00 diopters) or greater. This may explain the observation that retinal detachment after cataract surgery has been noted more commonly among patients with moderate than severe myopia.

  10. Socio-behavioral factors influence prevalence and severity of dental caries in children with primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Heloisa Carvalho; Garbín, Cléa Adas Saliba; Saliba, Orlando; Saliba, Nemre Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of socio-behavioral variables on the prevalence and severity of dental caries in 4- to 6-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1993 children enrolled in 58 public preschools from Araçatuba City, São Paulo State, Brazil, during 2010. The exams were made using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (World Health Organization methodology) and detection criteria for non-cavitated lesions. A tested, self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents to obtain information about their socio-behavioral characteristics. Standardization was performed to verify concordance among examiners (kappa = 0.84). The prevalence of cavitated caries lesions was 41.2% (821), and the prevalence of both, cavitated and non-cavitated caries lesions, was 43.9% (875). The means ± standard deviations of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index for children aged 4, 5, and 6 years were 1.18 ± 2.45, 1.65 ± 2.67, and 1.73 ± 2.77, respectively. Caries were significantly more prevalent in children from families with low incomes and low educational levels. The presence of dental caries was associated with access to dental services (p dental caries lesions, and the frequency of oral hygiene were statistically significant. The prevalence of dental caries in preschoolers was strongly associated with factors related to the children's parents. Therefore, information about parents' socio-economic status, behaviors, and attitudes in relation to oral health should be considered when planning prevention and educational programs for the oral health of preschool children.

  11. Socio-behavioral factors influence prevalence and severity of dental caries in children with primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Carvalho Borges

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of socio-behavioral variables on the prevalence and severity of dental caries in 4- to 6-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1993 children enrolled in 58 public preschools from Araçatuba City, São Paulo State, Brazil, during 2010. The exams were made using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (World Health Organization methodology and detection criteria for non-cavitated lesions. A tested, self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents to obtain information about their socio-behavioral characteristics. Standardization was performed to verify concordance among examiners (kappa = 0.84. The prevalence of cavitated caries lesions was 41.2% (821, and the prevalence of both, cavitated and non-cavitated caries lesions, was 43.9% (875. The means ± standard deviations of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index for children aged 4, 5, and 6 years were 1.18 ± 2.45, 1.65 ± 2.67, and 1.73 ± 2.77, respectively. Caries were significantly more prevalent in children from families with low incomes and low educational levels. The presence of dental caries was associated with access to dental services (p < 0.05. The associations between both, cavitated and non-cavitated dental caries lesions, and the frequency of oral hygiene were statistically significant. The prevalence of dental caries in preschoolers was strongly associated with factors related to the children's parents. Therefore, information about parents' socio-economic status, behaviors, and attitudes in relation to oral health should be considered when planning prevention and educational programs for the oral health of preschool children.

  12. Prevalence, severity and determinations of asthma in Danish five-year-olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Christian; De Fine Olivarius, Niels; Høst, Arne

    2006-01-01

    regarding respiratory symptoms and our own questions on sociodemography and tobacco exposure. RESULTS: "Wheeze ever" was reported in 38.3%, "doctor-diagnosed asthma ever" in 10.5%, "childhood bronchitis ever" in 30.0%, "current wheeze" (3 episodes) in 3.......9% of the children. Current wheeze was associated with male gender (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.35-1.96), low parental post-primary education (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02-1.63 for or =3 y) and current maternal smoking (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.39-2.04). "Severe current wheeze" was recognized as asthma in six and childhood......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of asthma and wheeze is increasing. AIM: To study the annual and cumulative prevalence of asthma and wheeze in 5-y-old Danish children. METHODS: We obtained data on 3052 (82.0% of eligible) Danish children by a postal parental questionnaire including ISAAC questions...

  13. Prevalence and Severity of Dysphonia in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, John; Michael, Deirdre D; Boyer, Holly; Misono, Stephanie

    2015-07-01

    To assess the prevalence and severity of dysphonia in patients with cystic fibrosis sinusitis. We hypothesized that patients with CF sinusitis, compared with 2 control groups, would have higher self-reported prevalence of dysphonia and greater severity of dysphonia, according to patient-reported outcome measures as well as auditory-perceptual evaluation by expert listeners. Cross-sectional comparative pilot study. Academic tertiary care clinic. Analysis included 37 study participants: 17 patients with CF sinusitis, 10 healthy individuals, and 10 patients with non-CF sinusitis. All participants completed the 10-item Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10) questionnaire and provided voice samples. On all samples, 6 blinded speech-language pathologists independently performed auditory-perceptual evaluation, using Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice. To assess severity of sinonasal symptoms, we used the 20-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20). Standard parametric and nonparametric statistical analysis was performed. The differences between the 3 groups in prevalence of abnormal VHI-10 scores were not statistically significant. SNOT-20 scores were similar in the 2 sinusitis patient groups. VHI-10 scores were highest in patients with CF sinusitis, intermediate in patients with non-CF sinusitis, and lowest in healthy individuals (P = .005). Auditory-perceptual evaluation demonstrated greater overall severity of dysphonia in patients with CF sinusitis compared with the 2 control groups (P = .0005). Cystic fibrosis sinusitis appeared to be associated with worse vocal function as measured by patient self-report as well as auditory-perceptual evaluation of voice compared with patients with non-CF sinusitis and healthy controls. Further investigation in this area is warranted. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  14. Prevalence and severity of DSM-5 eating disorders in a community cohort of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smink, Frédérique R E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Hoek, Hans W

    2014-09-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes a considerably revised eating disorder section. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence and severity of eating disorders based on the new DSM-5 criteria in a community cohort of adolescents. This study is part of TRAILS (TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey), a Dutch cohort study on mental health and social development from preadolescence into young adulthood. At baseline, the participants (n = 2,230) were about 11 years old. Body mass index was measured at all four assessment waves. At age 19, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to 1,584 of the participants. A two-stage screening approach was used to estimate the prevalence of DSM-5 eating disorders. Adolescents at high risk for eating disorders (n = 312) were selected for an additional interview administered by eating disorder experts. Of the high-risk group n = 296 (95%) could be interviewed. Among the women, the lifetime prevalence of DSM-5 anorexia nervosa was 1.7%, of bulimia nervosa 0.8% and of binge eating disorder 2.3%. Eating disorders were relatively rare among the men. The severity of most cases was mild to moderate and detection and treatment rates depended on the level of severity. The most common DSM-5 eating disorder diagnoses in adolescents in the community are anorexia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Severity ratings for eating disorders seem valid in terms of both the distribution in the community and the correlation with detection and treatment by health care services. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Impact of malocclusion and dentofacial anomalies on the prevalence and severity of dental caries among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Dos Santos Dullius, Angela Isabel; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Scapini, Annarosa; Busato, Adair Luiz Stefanello; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the association between malocclusion/dentofacial anomalies and dental caries among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 509 adolescents aged 11 to 14 years enrolled at public schools in the city of Osório in southern Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a structured questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic variables. A trained examiner recorded the presence of malocclusion (Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI]), traumatic dental injury, and dental caries. Data analysis involved the chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for the multivariable analysis. A total of 44.8% of the adolescents had dental caries (mean DFMT  =  1.33 ± 1.84). The DAI index ranged from 15 to 77 (mean  =  29.0 ± 7.9); 43.6% of the sample had severe malocclusion and 11.6% had traumatic dental injury. The prevalence and severity of dental caries were significantly greater among adolescents with severe malocclusion. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that adolescents with severe or handicapping malocclusion had a 31% greater probability of having dental caries (prevalence ratio: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.02-1.67), independently of demographic, socioeconomic, or clinical aspects. The orthodontic characteristics associated with the occurrence and severity of caries were maxillary irregularity ≥3 mm (P  =  .021) and abnormal molar relationship (P  =  .021). Handicapping malocclusion, maxillary irregularity, and abnormal molar relationship were associated with the occurrence and severity of dental caries. The findings suggest that the prevention and treatment of these conditions can contribute to a reduction in dental caries among adolescents.

  16. Prevalence of comorbidities according to predominant phenotype and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camiciottoli G

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gianna Camiciottoli,1,2 Francesca Bigazzi,1 Chiara Magni,1 Viola Bonti,1 Stefano Diciotti,3 Maurizio Bartolucci,4 Mario Mascalchi,5 Massimo Pistolesi1 1Section of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, 3Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi,” University of Bologna, Cesena, 4Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Careggi University Hospital, 5Radiodiagnostic Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Background: In addition to lung involvement, several other diseases and syndromes coexist in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of idiopathic arterial hypertension (IAH, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease (PVD, diabetes, osteoporosis, and anxious depressive syndrome in a clinical setting of COPD outpatients whose phenotypes (predominant airway disease and predominant emphysema and severity (mild and severe diseases were determined by clinical and functional parameters. Methods: A total of 412 outpatients with COPD were assigned either a predominant airway disease or a predominant emphysema phenotype of mild or severe degree according to predictive models based on pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/vital capacity; total lung capacity %; functional residual capacity %; and diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide % and sputum characteristics. Comorbidities were assessed by objective medical records. Results: Eighty-four percent of patients suffered from at least one comorbidity and 75% from at least one cardiovascular comorbidity, with IAH and PVD being the most prevalent ones (62% and 28%, respectively. IAH prevailed significantly in predominant airway disease, osteoporosis prevailed

  17. Impact of Childhood Nutritional Status on Pathogen Prevalence and Severity of Acute Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickell, Kirkby D; Pavlinac, Patricia B; John-Stewart, Grace C; Denno, Donna M; Richardson, Barbra A; Naulikha, Jaqueline M; Kirera, Ronald K; Swierczewski, Brett E; Singa, Benson O; Walson, Judd L

    2017-11-01

    Children with acute and chronic malnutrition are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality following a diarrheal episode. To compare diarrheal disease severity and pathogen prevalence among children with and without acute and chronic malnutrition, we conducted a cross-sectional study of human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected Kenyan children aged 6-59 months, who presented with acute diarrhea. Children underwent clinical and anthropometric assessments and provided stool for bacterial and protozoal pathogen detection. Clinical and microbiological features were compared using log binomial regression among children with and without wasting (mid-upper arm circumference ≤ 125 mm) or stunting (height-for-age z score ≤ -2). Among 1,363 children, 7.0% were wasted and 16.9% were stunted. After adjustment for potential confounders, children with wasting were more likely than nonwasted children to present with at least one Integrated Management of Childhood Illness danger sign (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0 to 1.5, P = 0.05), severe dehydration (aPR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5 to 3.8, P malnutrition which may be explained by a delay in care-seeking or diminished immune response to infection. Combating social determinants and host risk factors associated with severe disease, rather than specific pathogens, may reduce the disparities in poor diarrhea-associated outcomes experienced by malnourished children.

  18. Low bone mineral density in noncholestatic liver cirrhosis: prevalence, severity and prediction

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    Figueiredo Fátima Aparecida Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic bone disease has long been associated with cholestatic disorders. However, data in noncholestatic cirrhosis are relatively scant. AIMS: To determine prevalence and severity of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis and to investigate whether age, gender, etiology, severity of underlying liver disease, and/or laboratory tests are predictive of the diagnosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: Between March and September/1998, 89 patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent standard laboratory tests and bone densitometry at lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Bone mass was significantly reduced at both sites in patients compared to controls. The prevalence of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis, defined by the World Health Organization criteria, was 78% at lumbar spine and 71% at femoral neck. Bone density significantly decreased with age at both sites, especially in patients older than 50 years. Bone density was significantly lower in post-menopausal women patients compared to pre-menopausal and men at both sites. There was no significant difference in bone mineral density among noncholestatic etiologies. Lumbar spine bone density significantly decreased with the progression of liver dysfunction. No biochemical variable was significantly associated with low bone mineral density. CONCLUSIONS: Low bone mineral density is highly prevalent in patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis. Older patients, post-menopausal women and patients with severe hepatic dysfunction experienced more advanced bone disease. The laboratory tests routinely determined in patients with liver disease did not reliably predict low bone mineral density.

  19. Presence of Gout is Associated With Increased Prevalence and Severity of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rennie G.; Samuels, Jonathan; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Leung, Joseph; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Pillinger, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gout and osteoarthritis (OA) are the most prevalent arthritides, but their relationship is neither well established nor well understood. Objectives We assessed whether a diagnosis of gout or asymptomatic hyperuricemia (AH) is associated with increased prevalence/severity of knee OA. Methods 119 male patients ages 55–85 were sequentially enrolled from the primary care clinics of an urban VA hospital, assessed and categorized into 3 groups: gout (ACR Classification Criteria), AH ([serum urate] ≥ 6.8 mg/dL, no gout), and control ([serum urate] gout). 25 patients from each group subsequently underwent formal assessment of knee OA presence and severity (ACR Clinical/Radiographic Criteria, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade). Musculoskeletal ultrasound was used to detect monosodium urate (MSU) deposition at the knees and 1st metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints. Results 68.0% of gout, 52.0% of AH, and 28.0% of age-matched control subjects had knee OA (gout vs. control, P=0.017). Odds ratio for knee OA in gout vs. controls was 5.46 prior to, and 3.80 after adjusting for BMI. Gout subjects also had higher KL grades than controls (P=0.001). Subjects with sonographically-detected MSU crystal deposition on cartilage were more likely to have OA than those without (60.0 vs 27.5%, P=0.037), with crystal deposition at the 1st MTP joints correlating most closely with OA knee involvement. Conclusion Knee OA was more prevalent in gout patients vs. controls, and intermediate in AH. Knee OA was more severe in gout patients vs. controls. PMID:25710856

  20. The prevalence and predictors of severe depression among the elderly in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Abdul; Tahir, Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    The population of Malaysia is relatively young, due to this there is a dearth in research conducted among the elderly especially relating to depression. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and the predictors of severe depression among the elderly in Malaysia. A sample of 2005 older adults randomly selected from the Penang State government's list of elderly receiving aid participated in the study. The Geriatric Depression Scale was used to screen for depression. Socio-demographic, social support, disease, functional and other factors were looked at as possible predictor variables. The prevalence of severe depression was 19.2 %. Indians (aOR = 2.0), being married (aOR = 10.5), widowed & divorced (aOR = 5.2), having poor (aOR = 2.7) or moderate social support (aOR = 2.7), having no one (aOR = 2.9), relatives (aOR = 2.3) or religious figures & others (aOR = 1.9) as compared to a spouse as a source of emotional support, feeling extremely lonely (aOR = 3.4), not socially active (aOR = 2.3), cognitively impaired (aOR 2.5), activities limited due to illness or disability (aOR = 1.6) and poor sleep quality (aOR = 3.6) were significant predictor variables. The prevalence of severe depression was high. It is pertinent that older adults, especially those with risk factors identified in this study be screened for depression at every opportunity.

  1. Lower prevalence and greater severity of asthma in hot and dry climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Valois Correia Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate asthma prevalence, severity, and associated factors in adolescents who live in a low relative humidity environment. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, adolescents aged 13-14 years from the city of Petrolina located in the Brazilian semiarid region answered the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire. The possible explanatory variables of the study were gender, family income, mother's education, smokers in the household, parental history of asthma, personal history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis, and physical activity level. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the association between asthma and the explanatory variables. Results: A total of 1591 adolescents participated in the study, of whom 49.7% were male. The prevalence of active asthma, severe asthma, and physician-diagnosed asthma were 14.0%, 10.4%, and 17.8%, respectively. Adolescents with asthma missed more school days than their peers (33 vs. 22 days/year; p < 0.03. Associated factors that remained significant after adjustment were history of asthma in parents (PR = 2.65, p < 0.001 and personal diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (PR = 1.96, p < 0.001 and/or atopic dermatitis (PR = 2.18, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Asthma prevalence in this low-humidity environment was lower, but more severe than those reported in other Brazilian cities. The dry climate might hamper disease control and this may have contributed to the higher school absenteeism observed. The association of asthma with allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis as well as a history of asthma in parents suggests that atopy is an important risk factor for asthma in this population.

  2. Heritability of prevalent vertebral fracture and volumetric bone mineral density and geometry at the lumbar spine in three generations of the Framingham study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Karasik, David; Zhou, Yanhua; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Genant, Harry K; Broe, Kerry E; Lang, Thomas F; Samelson, Elizabeth J; Demissie, Serkalem; Bouxsein, Mary L; Cupples, L Adrienne; Kiel, Douglas P

    2012-04-01

    Genetic factors likely contribute to the risk for vertebral fractures; however, there are few studies on the genetic contributions to vertebral fracture (VFrx), vertebral volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and geometry. Also, the heritability (h(2)) for VFrx and its genetic correlation with phenotypes contributing to VFrx risk have not been established. This study aims to estimate the h(2) of vertebral fracture, vBMD, and cross-sectional area (CSA) derived from quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans and to estimate the extent to which they share common genetic association in adults of European ancestry from three generations of Framingham Heart Study (FHS) families. Members of the FHS families were assessed for VFrx by lateral radiographs or QCT lateral scout views at 13 vertebral levels (T(4) to L(4)) using Genant's semiquantitative (SQ) scale (grades 0 to 3). Vertebral fracture was defined as having at least 25% reduction in height of any vertebra. We also analyzed QCT scans at the L(3) level for integral (In.BMD) and trabecular (Tb.BMD) vBMD and CSA. Heritability estimates were calculated, and bivariate genetic correlation analysis was performed, adjusting for various covariates. For VFrx, we analyzed 4099 individuals (148 VFrx cases) including 2082 women and 2017 men from three generations. Estimates of crude and multivariable-adjusted h(2) were 0.43 to 0.69 (p < 1.1 × 10(-2)). A total of 3333 individuals including 1737 men and 1596 women from two generations had VFrx status and QCT-derived vBMD and CSA information. Estimates of crude and multivariable-adjusted h(2) for vBMD and CSA ranged from 0.27 to 0.51. In a bivariate analysis, there was a moderate genetic correlation between VFrx and multivariable-adjusted In.BMD (-0.22) and Tb.BMD (-0.29). Our study suggests vertebral fracture, vertebral vBMD, and CSA in adults of European ancestry are heritable, underscoring the importance of further work to identify the specific variants underlying

  3. Metabolic Syndrome in South African Patients with Severe Mental Illness: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors.

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    Shamima Saloojee

    Full Text Available There is a surge of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Africa. CVD is the leading cause of mortality among patients with severe mental illness (SMI in developed countries, with little evidence from the African context.To determine the prevalence and risk factors for MetS among South African patients with SMI.In a cross sectional study, individuals with SMI treated with antipsychotics and a control group without a mental illness, matched for age, gender and ethnicity were evaluated for MetS using the 2009 Joint Interim statement (JIS criteria.Of the 276 study group subjects, 65.9% were male, 84.1% black African, 9.1% white, 5.4% of Indian descent and 1.5% coloured (mixed race with a mean age of 34.7 years (±12.5. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis (73.2% and 40% were taking first generation antipsychotics. The prevalence of MetS was 23.2% (M: 15.4%, F: 38.3% in the study group and 19.9% (M: 11.9%, F: 36.3% in the control group (p = 0.4. MetS prevalence was significantly higher in study subjects over 55 years compared to controls (p = 0.03. Increased waist circumference (p< 0.001 and low high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (p = 0.003 were significantly more prevalent in study subjects compared to controls. In study subjects, risk factors associated with MetS included age (OR: 1.09, 95% CI 1.06-1.12, p < 0.001, female gender (OR: 2.19, 95% CI 1.06-4.55, p = 0.035 and Indian descent (OR: 5.84, 95% CI 1.66-20.52, p = 0.006 but not class of antipsychotic (p = 0.26.The overall MetS prevalence was not increased in patients with SMI compared to controls; however, the higher prevalence of the individual components (HDL cholesterol and waist circumference suggests an increased risk for CVD, especially in patients over 55 years.

  4. Self-reported prevalence and severity of xerostomia and its related conditions in individuals attending hospital for general health examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E; Lee, Y-H; Kim, W; Kho, H-S

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and relationships between xerostomia and its related symptoms in individuals who attended hospital for general health examinations. Participants included 883 men and 618 women aged between 30 and 60 years. History of symptoms during the previous 6 months, current symptoms, and severity of current symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire that included questions about xerostomia, burning mouth, taste disturbance, and oral malodor. The prevalence of xerostomia and its related symptoms was 60.2%; the prevalence of oral malodor was 52.3%, xerostomia 33.0%, burning mouth 13.6%, and taste disturbance 12.5%. Men in their 30s and women in their 60s showed significantly higher prevalence and greater severity of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance compared with their counterparts. The prevalence of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance, and the severity of xerostomia increased significantly with age in women. The prevalence and severity of these four symptoms were significantly related and the association was the highest between burning mouth and taste disturbance. In conclusion, xerostomia and its related symptoms were highly prevalent at all ages. The prevalence and severity of these symptoms were closely related. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chronic nutrient enrichment increases prevalence and severity of coral disease and bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Thurber, Rebecca L; Burkepile, Deron E; Fuchs, Corinne; Shantz, Andrew A; McMinds, Ryan; Zaneveld, Jesse R

    2014-02-01

    Nutrient loading is one of the strongest drivers of marine habitat degradation. Yet, the link between nutrients and disease epizootics in marine organisms is often tenuous and supported only by correlative data. Here, we present experimental evidence that chronic nutrient exposure leads to increases in both disease prevalence and severity and coral bleaching in scleractinian corals, the major habitat-forming organisms in tropical reefs. Over 3 years, from June 2009 to June 2012, we continuously exposed areas of a coral reef to elevated levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. At the termination of the enrichment, we surveyed over 1200 scleractinian corals for signs of disease or bleaching. Siderastrea siderea corals within enrichment plots had a twofold increase in both the prevalence and severity of disease compared with corals in unenriched control plots. In addition, elevated nutrient loading increased coral bleaching; Agaricia spp. of corals exposed to nutrients suffered a 3.5-fold increase in bleaching frequency relative to control corals, providing empirical support for a hypothesized link between nutrient loading and bleaching-induced coral declines. However, 1 year later, after nutrient enrichment had been terminated for 10 months, there were no differences in coral disease or coral bleaching prevalence between the previously enriched and control treatments. Given that our experimental enrichments were well within the ranges of ambient nutrient concentrations found on many degraded reefs worldwide, these data provide strong empirical support to the idea that coastal nutrient loading is one of the major factors contributing to the increasing levels of both coral disease and coral bleaching. Yet, these data also suggest that simple improvements to water quality may be an effective way to mitigate some coral disease epizootics and the corresponding loss of coral cover in the future. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Lower prevalence and greater severity of asthma in hot and dry climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia Junior, Marco Aurélio de Valois; Sarinho, Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti; Rizzo, José Angelo; Sarinho, Silvia Wanick

    To estimate asthma prevalence, severity, and associated factors in adolescents who live in a low relative humidity environment. In this cross-sectional study, adolescents aged 13-14 years from the city of Petrolina located in the Brazilian semiarid region answered the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The possible explanatory variables of the study were gender, family income, mother's education, smokers in the household, parental history of asthma, personal history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis, and physical activity level. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the association between asthma and the explanatory variables. A total of 1591 adolescents participated in the study, of whom 49.7% were male. The prevalence of active asthma, severe asthma, and physician-diagnosed asthma were 14.0%, 10.4%, and 17.8%, respectively. Adolescents with asthma missed more school days than their peers (33 vs. 22 days/year; pclimate might hamper disease control and this may have contributed to the higher school absenteeism observed. The association of asthma with allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis as well as a history of asthma in parents suggests that atopy is an important risk factor for asthma in this population. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence, severity, and clinical features of acute and chronic pancreatitis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Shen, Min; Leng, Xiaomei; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fengchun; Qian, Jiaming

    2016-10-01

    Pancreatitis is a rare, life-threatening complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study aimed to describe the clinical features of acute pancreatitis (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) in patients with SLE. Data of patients who fulfilled the revised criteria of the American Rheumatism Association for diagnosis of SLE were retrospectively analyzed. SLE activity was graded according to the SLE Disease Activity Index. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to find out independent associations. Survival rates were estimated by using Kaplan-Meier plots. This study included 5665 SLE patients admitted between January 1983 and January 2014, of whom 52 patients were diagnosed with pancreatitis. Pancreatitis prevalence in SLE patients was 0.92 % (52/5665). AP (0.8 %, 46/5665) was more prevalent than CP (0.1 %, 6/5665), presented mostly during active SLE, and affected more organs. Hypertriglyceridemia occurred in 76.9 % of AP patients and in none of the CP patients. AP patients were divided into severe (n = 10) or mild (n = 20) cases. The average triglyceride level in severe AP cases was higher than that in mild AP cases (P = 0.006), and the mortality rate of lupus-associated AP was 32.6 % (15/46). Concomitant infections and thrombocytopenia were independently associated with poor prognosis (P risk factors for poor prognosis.

  8. PREVALENCE AND PREDICTORS OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE IN SEVERE AORTIC STENOSIS PATIENTS UNDERGOING SURGERY

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    Narayanapilai Jayaprasad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present study is to find out the prevalence of CAD in severe Aortic Stenosis (AS patients undergoing aortic valve replacement and the relation between the conventional risk factors and CAD in them. Calcific aortic stenosis is associated with the same risk factors as coronary artery disease. Studies on calcific aortic stenosis and CAD are rarely reported from India. The aim of the study is to find out the predictive value of angina for presence of CAD in severe aortic stenosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS All cases of isolated severe aortic stenosis undergoing CAG before aortic valve replacement were included in the study. Data regarding various risk factors, symptoms, echocardiographic parameters and angiographic profile were collected. RESULTS Among a total of 94 patients who have undergone aortic valve replacement for severe AS 40 (42.6% had CAD. Risk factors like advanced age, hypertension, diabetes and smoking were more in patients with CAD compared to isolate AS. Mean gradient was more in the AS + CAD group compared with AS group. Presence of angina had a sensitivity of 82.5% and specificity of 51.85% for predicting coexisting CAD. CONCLUSION Among severe aortic stenosis, patients undergoing AVR 42.6% of patients had significant obstructive CAD. The conventional risk factors predict presence of coronary artery disease. Angina has got a fairly good sensitivity, but moderate specificity for CAD.

  9. Prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms and associated factors across menopause status in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Gyeyoon; Ahn, Younjhin; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Kang, Danbee; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Ahn, Jiin; Choi, Yuni; Cho, Juhee; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms experienced by Korean women aged 44 to 56 years and their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed on 2,201 women aged 44 to 56 years in health checkup centers between November 2012 and March 2013. The 29-item Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire was used to assess vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, and sexual symptoms related to menopause. The guidelines for the classification of reproductive aging stages proposed at the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop were used. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with severity of menopause symptoms. Among participants, 42.6% were premenopausal, 36.7% were perimenopausal, and 20.7% were postmenopausal. Although physical symptoms were the most severe menopause symptoms experienced by premenopausal and perimenopausal women, postmenopausal women reported sexual symptoms as the most bothersome. The mean scores for each domain increased from the premenopausal period through the postmenopausal period (P for trend menopause symptoms (P menopause than inactive women. Postmenopausal women experience the most severe symptoms. Obesity and physical activity are the main modifiable factors associated with symptom severity. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of physical activity promotion and weight control interventions on preventing menopause symptoms in Korean women.

  10. Prevalence, severity and correlates of alcohol use in adult renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierz, Katharina; Steiger, Jürg; Denhaerynck, Kris; Dobbels, Fabienne; Bock, Andreas; De Geest, Sabina

    2006-01-01

    Severe alcohol use is recognized as a major public health concern, even though light to moderate alcohol use might have beneficial effects on health. Alcohol use has been studied to some extent in solid organ transplant populations, yet evidence is lacking on alcohol use and its correlates in the renal transplant population. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence, severity and correlates of alcohol use in renal transplant recipients. This cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of the Supporting Medication Adherence in Renal Transplantation (SMART) study. Alcohol use was assessed by patient's self-report. At risk and binge drinkers were classified using World Health Organization criteria. The following correlates of alcohol use were explored: adherence with immunosuppression (Siegal questionnaire; electronic monitoring), smoking, coping style (UCL), depressive symptomatology (BDI) and busyness/routine in life style (ACQ Busyness Scale). Two hundred and eighty-four patients were included in this analysis, 58.1% male, with a mean age of 54 yr (range 20-84) and a median of seven (interquartile ranges [IQR] 8) yr post-transplantation. A total of 52.8% of study participants reported to drink alcohol at least once a week. Two hundred and eighty of 284 subjects (98.5%) were drinking at low risk, four at moderate risk (1.5%). None of the participants were drinking severely. Correlates of alcohol use were male gender and being professionally active. Alcohol use is less prevalent in renal transplant recipients than in the general population. Severe alcohol use does not seem to represent a serious problem in renal transplant patients.

  11. Severe root resorption resulting from orthodontic treatment: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maués, Caroline Pelagio Raick; do Nascimento, Rizomar Ramos; Vilella, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of severe external root resorption and its potential risk factors resulting from orthodontic treatment. A randomly selected sample was used. It comprised conventional periapical radiographs taken in the same radiology center for maxillary and mandibular incisors before and after active orthodontic treatment of 129 patients, males and females, treated by means of the Standard Edgewise technique. Two examiners measured and defined root resorption according to the index proposed by Levander et al. The degree of external apical root resorption was registered defining resorption in four degrees of severity. To assess intra and inter-rater reproducibility, kappa coefficient was used. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and patient's sex, dental arch (maxillary or mandibular), treatment with or without extractions, treatment duration, root apex stage (open or closed), root shape, as well as overjet and overbite at treatment onset. Maxillary central incisors had the highest percentage of severe root resorption, followed by maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular lateral incisors. Out of 959 teeth, 28 (2.9%) presented severe root resorption. The following risk factors were observed: anterior maxillary teeth, overjet greater than or equal to 5 mm at treatment onset, treatment with extractions, prolonged therapy, and degree of apex formation at treatment onset. This study showed that care must be taken in orthodontic treatment involving extractions, great retraction of maxillary incisors, prolonged therapy, and/or completely formed apex at orthodontic treatment onset.

  12. Severe root resorption resulting from orthodontic treatment: Prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Pelagio Raick Maués

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of severe external root resorption and its potential risk factors resulting from orthodontic treatment. METHODS: A randomly selected sample was used. It comprised conventional periapical radiographs taken in the same radiology center for maxillary and mandibular incisors before and after active orthodontic treatment of 129 patients, males and females, treated by means of the Standard Edgewise technique. Two examiners measured and defined root resorption according to the index proposed by Levander et al. The degree of external apical root resorption was registered defining resorption in four degrees of severity. To assess intra and inter-rater reproducibility, kappa coefficient was used. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and patient's sex, dental arch (maxillary or mandibular, treatment with or without extractions, treatment duration, root apex stage (open or closed, root shape, as well as overjet and overbite at treatment onset. RESULTS: Maxillary central incisors had the highest percentage of severe root resorption, followed by maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular lateral incisors. Out of 959 teeth, 28 (2.9% presented severe root resorption. The following risk factors were observed: anterior maxillary teeth, overjet greater than or equal to 5 mm at treatment onset, treatment with extractions, prolonged therapy, and degree of apex formation at treatment onset. CONCLUSION: This study showed that care must be taken in orthodontic treatment involving extractions, great retraction of maxillary incisors, prolonged therapy, and/or completely formed apex at orthodontic treatment onset.

  13. Prevalence and severity of anemia in pediatric hemodialysis patients, a single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Azhir

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and severity of anemia in children and adolescents on chronic hemodialysis, and to identify independent predictors of anemia in children on hemodialysis. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed between September 2005 and January 2006. The study population consisted of 25 patients aged 7−20 years on chronic hemodialysis from pediatric hemodialysis centers in Isfahan. RESULTS: A total of 22 (88% patients had hemoglobin levels of <11 g/dL (anemic and 12 patients (48% had hemoglobin levels of <8 g/dL (severe anemia. The mean age of these patients was 15.5 ± 3.7 years. Mean time on chronic dialysis was 20.44 ± 15.25 months. Anemia was more common and more severe among children who were on dialysis for less than 6 months. There was an inverse relationship between the severity of anemia and duration of hemodialysis (P = 0.019, r = – 0.465. Nearly all patients were treated with erythropoietin, Children with more severe anemia received slightly higher dose of erythropoietin (P = 0.09, r = 0.202. There was a significant difference between serum albumin values in anemic patients and patients without anemia (P = 0.023. There was a correlation between serum albumin and hemoglobin level (r = 0.511, P = 0.01. Intact PTH levels were >200 pg/ml in 16 patients (66% and >400 pg/ml in 9 patients (37. 5%. There was a reverse correlation between intact PTH level >200 pg/ml and hemoglobin level (r = -0.505, P = 0.046. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of anemia in hemodialysis children in Isfahan appears to be higher than that reported in the other studies in spite of extensive use of rHuEPO and iron supplementation. We found this to be especially true for patients new on hemodialysis (less than 6 months and in those with low albumin and severe hyperparathyroidism. KEY WORDS: Hemodialysis, anemia, children.

  14. Under-reporting of osteoporotic vertebral fractures on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Alexandra L.; Al-Busaidi, Aisha; Sparrow, Patrick J.; Adams, Judith E.; Whitehouse, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are frequently asymptomatic. They are often not diagnosed clinically or radiologically. Despite this, prevalent osteoporotic vertebral fractures predict future osteoporotic fractures and are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Appropriate management of osteoporosis can reduce future fracture risk. Fractures on lateral chest radiographs taken for other conditions are frequently overlooked by radiologists. Our aim was to assess the value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of vertebral fracture and identify the frequency with which significant fractures are missed. Materials and methods: The thoracic CT scans of 100 consecutive male and 100 consecutive female patients over 55 years were reviewed. CT images were acquired on General Electric Lightspeed multi-detector (MD) CT scanners (16 or 32 row) using 1.25 mm slice thickness. Midline sagittal images were reconstructed from the 3D volume images. The presence of moderate (25-40% height loss) or severe (>40% height loss) vertebral fractures between T1 and L1 was determined using an established semi-quantitative method and confirmed by morphological measurement. Results were compared with the formal CT report. Results: Scans of 192 patients were analysed (95 female; 97 male); mean age 70.1 years. Thirty-eight (19.8%) patients had one or more moderate to severe vertebral fractures. Only 5 (13%) were correctly reported as having osteoporotic fractures in the official report. The sensitivity of axial CT images to vertebral fracture was 0.35. Conclusion: Incidental osteoporotic vertebral fractures are under-reported on CT. The sensitivity of axial images in detecting these fractures is poor. Sagittal reformations are strongly recommended to improve the detection rate

  15. Prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Whan; Song, Bong Gu; Shin, E-Hyun; Yun, Seok-Min; Han, Myung-Guk; Park, Mi Yeoun; Park, Chan; Ryou, Jungsang

    2014-10-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis a vector that harbors severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a major species of tick in South Korea. To investigate the existence and prevalence of SFTSV in Korea, we collected ticks from nine provinces in South Korea for detecting SFTSV. In all, we collected 13,053 ticks, and H. longicornis (90.8%, 11,856/13,053) was the most abundant among them. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of SFTSV in H. longicornis was 0.46% (55 pools). SFTSV was detected in ticks during all the developmental stages, showing MIR in larvae (2/350, 0.57%), nymphs (38/10,436, 0.36%), males (2/221, 0.90%), and females (13/849, 1.53%), respectively. Viruses were detected in ticks collected between April and September. A higher MIR was detected in ticks from the southern part of the country. We amplified the M and S segment partial genes from a sample and analyzed the nucleotide sequence. The results showed a 93-98% homology to Chinese and Japanese strains registered in Genbank. In this study, we confirmed the existence of SFTSV for the first time in South Korea. The SFTSV prevalence data from the studies are essential for raising the awareness of SFTS in South Korea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Napier grass stunt disease prevalence, incidence, severity and genetic variability of the associated phytoplasma in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawube, Geofrey; Talwana, Herbert; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, incidence and severity of Napier grass stunt disease (NGSD) caused by phytoplasma on Pennisetum purpureum, the main fodder for livestock under intensive and semi-intensive management systems in Uganda were determined following a field survey carried out in 17 districts. A total...... of 298 Napier grass fields were visited and NGSD status visually assessed and 1192 samples collected for identification and confirmation of the phytoplasma by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using universal primers P1/P6 nested with R16F2n/R16R2n and, tuf primers 890/340 nested with 835 and 400....... From these, 221 PCR products were sequenced and sequences aligned. Napier grass stunt disease is widely spread at an epidemic proportion, with the districts at different risk levels. The most affected districts are in central, East and North parts of the country while those in the west are least...

  17. [Institutional Prevalence and Context of Severe Sleep Disorders in Psychosomatic Rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Michael

    2015-07-01

    In cases of burnout, chronic fatigue, depression, somatization, overtaxation, or impairment in wellbeing and work capacity, the cause can be sleep problems. Goal of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of sleep problems in psychosomatic inpatients. Included were 1325 unselected patients from a psychosomatic rehabilitation hospital. They filled in the SCL-90, the PSQI and were assessed in respect to their clinical, social and occupational status. At admission 13.4% of patients had a PSQI score of 5 at maximum (no sleep problem), 34.6% 6 to 10 (moderate sleep problem) und 52.1% over 10 (severe sleep problem). At discharge there was a reduction of sleep problems with 32.7% of patients over 10. Sleep problems were significantly associated with more severe mental problems, older age, women, lower socioeconomic status, and also incapacity to work or early retirement. Mental disorders can cause sleep problems and sleep problems mental disorders and incapacity to work, with a negative interaction. The high rate of severe sleep problems in rehabilitation patients shows that this problem is in need of special diagnostic and therapeutic attention. Also, the equipment of hospitals and the qualification of therapists should allow adequate care. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. High prevalence of methotrexate intolerance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis : development and validation of a methotrexate intolerance severity score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulatović, Maja; Heijstek, Marloes W; Verkaaik, Marleen; van Dijkhuizen, E H Pieter; Armbrust, Wineke; Hoppenreijs, Esther P A; Kamphuis, Sylvia; Kuis, Wietse; Egberts, Toine C G; Sinnema, Gerben; Rademaker, Carin M A; Wulffraat, Nico M

    OBJECTIVE: To design and validate a new questionnaire for identifying patients with methotrexate (MTX) intolerance, and to determine the prevalence of MTX intolerance in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) using this questionnaire. METHODS: The MTX Intolerance Severity Score (MISS)

  19. High prevalence of methotrexate intolerance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: development and validation of a methotrexate intolerance severity score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulatovic, M.; Heijstek, M.W.; Verkaaik, M.; Dijkhuizen, E.H. van; Armbrust, W.; Hoppenreijs, E.P.A.H.; Kamphuis, S.; Kuis, W.; Egberts, T.C.; Sinnema, G.; Rademaker, C.M.A.; Wulffraat, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To design and validate a new questionnaire for identifying patients with methotrexate (MTX) intolerance, and to determine the prevalence of MTX intolerance in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) using this questionnaire. METHODS: The MTX Intolerance Severity Score (MISS)

  20. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with lung cancer: Prevalence, severity, and common pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin JP

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To develop a clinical prediction model of contribution of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD to the pathogenesis of lung cancer, by reporting the estimated prevalence and severity by GOLD criteria in a single-institution cohort of patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. Primary objective was investigating the effects of impaired lung function with various histological cell types on crude survival, while considering the initial staging of disease extent. Materials & methods: A total of 441 patients, in this historical cohort from electronic medical records, completed spirometry prior to invasive diagnostic procedures and initial treatment of their lung cancer. All statistical analyses, including ANOVA and survival analysis, were performed using SAS version 9.1 software. Results: Estimated prevalence of COPD was 79.1% (95% confidence interval: 71.3%-82.9%. Lung function as measured by spirometry was a significant predictor of survival time in months (p<0.0001 both with and without adjusting for tumor-cell-type, age, and stage of disease. Median survival was similar (p=0.32 and longer among those patients with normal pulmonary function, those with restrictive disease patterns, and those with COPD–GOLD-1 defects. Median survival was shortest among patients with COPD–GOLD-4 impairment (p=0.001. Those patients with COPD–GOLD-2 and COPD-GOLD-3 impairment levels had intermediate survival times (p=0.003. Conclusions: This investigation suggests that strategies for early detection and slowing the progression of COPD before the development of lung cancer might increase patient survival. As demonstrated in this study, the presence and severity of COPD in lung cancer patients is an independent predictor of survival time, different from the established staging of initial extent of disease.

  1. Smoke-free air laws and asthma prevalence, symptoms, and severity among nonsmoking youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Melanie S; Dockery, Douglas W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between smoke-free laws and asthma prevalence, symptoms, and severity among nonsmoking youth (aged 3-15 years). We examined data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey designed to monitor the health and nutritional status of the US population. Survey locations were dichotomized as having or not having at least 1 smoke-free workplace, restaurant, or bar law at the county or state level that covered the entire county population. Asthma prevalence was assessed as self-reported current asthma and as ever having asthma with current symptoms. Asthmatic symptoms included persistent wheeze, chronic night cough, and wheeze-medication use. We also examined asthma severity (asthma attack or emergency-department visit for asthma) and persistent ear infection. Smoke-free laws were not associated with current asthma but were significantly associated with lower odds of asthmatic symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-0.93]) among nonsmoking youth. The association between smoke-free laws and ever having asthma with current symptoms approached significance (OR: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.53-1.03]). Smoke-free laws were associated with lower odds of asthma attacks (OR: 0.66 [95% CI: 0.28-1.56]) and emergency-department visits for asthma (OR: 0.55 [95% CI: 0.27-1.13]), although these results were not statistically significant. Our results suggest that smoke-free laws reduce asthmatic symptoms, including persistent wheeze, chronic night cough, and wheeze-medication use in nonsmoking youth.

  2. Prevalence and Severity of Preoperative Disabilities in Iranian Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation

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    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Literature recommends that refractory cases with lumbar disc herniation and appropriate indications are better to be treated surgically, but do all the patients throughout the world consent to the surgery with a same disability and pain threshold? We aim to elucidate the prevalence and severity of disabilities and pain in Iranian patients with lumbar disc herniation who have consented to the surgery.   Methods: In this case series study, we clinically evaluated 194 (81 female and 113 male admitted patients with primary, simple, and stable L4-L5 or L5-S1 lumbar disc herniation who were undergoing surgical discectomy. The mean age of the patients was 38.3±11.2 (range: 18-76 years old. Disabilities were evaluated by the items of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI questionnaire and severity of pain by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Chi-square test was used to compare the qualitative variables. Results: Severe disability (39.2% and crippled (29.9% were the two most common types of disabilities. Mean ODI score was 56.7±21.1 (range: 16-92. Total mean VAS in all patients was 6.1±1.9 (range: 0-10. Sex and level of disc herniation had no statistical effect on preoperative ODI and VAS. The scale of six was the most frequent scale of preoperative VAS in our patients. Conclusion: Iranian patients with lumbar disc herniation who consented to surgery have relatively severe pain or disability. These severities in pain or disabilities have no correlation with sex or level of disc herniation and are not equal with developed countries.

  3. Lower prevalence and greater severity of asthma in hot and dry climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Valois Correia Junior

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate asthma prevalence, severity, and associated factors in adolescents who live in a low relative humidity environment. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, adolescents aged 13–14 years from the city of Petrolina located in the Brazilian semiarid region answered the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire. The possible explanatory variables of the study were gender, family income, mother's education, smokers in the household, parental history of asthma, personal history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis, and physical activity level. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the association between asthma and the explanatory variables. Results: A total of 1591 adolescents participated in the study, of whom 49.7% were male. The prevalence of active asthma, severe asthma, and physician-diagnosed asthma were 14.0%, 10.4%, and 17.8%, respectively. Adolescents with asthma missed more school days than their peers (33 vs. 22 days/year; p < 0.03. Associated factors that remained significant after adjustment were history of asthma in parents (PR = 2.65, p < 0.001 and personal diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (PR = 1.96, p < 0.001 and/or atopic dermatitis (PR = 2.18, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Asthma prevalence in this low-humidity environment was lower, but more severe than those reported in other Brazilian cities. The dry climate might hamper disease control and this may have contributed to the higher school absenteeism observed. The association of asthma with allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis as well as a history of asthma in parents suggests that atopy is an important risk factor for asthma in this population. Resumo: Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência, a gravidade e os fatores associados à asma em adolescentes que vivem em uma região de baixa umidade relativa do ar. Métodos: Estudo transversal em adolescentes de 13 e 14 anos do semiárido brasileiro. Os

  4. Tracheomalacia in adults with cystic fibrosis: determination of prevalence and severity with dynamic cine CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Shaunagh

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and severity of tracheomalacia in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) by using dynamic cine multidetector computed tomography (CT) and to correlate these findings with pulmonary function test (PFT) results and the severity of parenchymal lung disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this institutional review board-approved HIPAA-compliant study, 40 patients with CF (22 men, 18 women; mean age, 28 years +\\/- 8 [standard deviation]; age range, 18-54 years) prospectively underwent PFTs, standard thin-section CT, and two dynamic cine multidetector CT acquisitions. Ten control subjects underwent dynamic cine multidetector CT. After standard thin-section CT was completed, dynamic cine multidetector CT was performed during a forced expiratory maneuver and during coughing. Dynamic cine multidetector CT images in nine patients were excluded. Maximal inspiratory, dynamic expiratory, and end-expiratory tracheal luminal areas were compared (Student t test) and correlated (Spearman rank) with PFT results and severity of parenchymal lung disease. RESULTS: Mean predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) was 70.6% +\\/- 20.7, and mean Bhalla CT score was 41.8% +\\/- 13.6. In patients with CF, dynamic cine mean tracheal cross-sectional area reduction was 51.7% +\\/- 18.4 (range, 9%-89%) for forced expiratory maneuvers and 68.8% +\\/- 11.7 (range, 18%-88%) for coughing (P = .001). Tracheomalacia was demonstrated in 24 (69%) patients and no control subjects during forced expiratory maneuvers (P = .001) and in 10 (29%) patients and one (10%) control subject during coughing. For end-expiration images, mean tracheal luminal reduction was 16.1% +\\/- 14.0% (range, 0.0%-53.0%), with one patient demonstrating tracheal luminal reduction of more than 50%. There was no correlation between tracheal cross-sectional luminal reduction and either predicted FEV(1) or CT Bhalla score. CONCLUSION: Tracheomalacia depicted at dynamic cine multidetector CT is a

  5. Prevalence and clinical presentation of constipation in children with severe generalized cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veugelers, Rebekka; Benninga, Marc A; Calis, Elsbeth A C; Willemsen, Sten P; Evenhuis, Heleen; Tibboel, Dick; Penning, Corine

    2010-09-01

    Our aim was to study the prevalence and characteristics of constipation in children with profound multiple disabilities, as data in this area are scarce. A cross-sectional observational study was performed in specialized day-care centres and schools in the Netherlands. The study included 152 children (81 males, 71 females; mean age 9 y 6 mo, SD 4 y 6 mo). Intellectual disability ranged from moderate (7%) to profound (52%) in all participants who also had severe motor disabilities (83% classified at Gross Motor Function Classification System level V). We collected data on defaecation characteristics, food and fluid intake, and laxative consumption using standardized bowel diaries and interviews. Constipation was defined as (1) scybalous, pebble-like, hard stools in over a quarter of defaecations in combination with a defaecation frequency of less than three times per week during a 2-week study period; (2) large stools palpable on abdominal examination; or (3) laxative use or manual disimpaction of faeces. Of the studied population, 57% were constipated and 55% used laxatives, 27% of whom showed symptoms of constipation. Daily intakes of water and fibre were below the required standards in 87% and 53% of participants respectively, without a proven relation to constipation. Constipation is a common problem in children with severe disabilities. Laxative use is high but dosing is frequently inadequate to prevent symptoms.

  6. Sleep Disruption in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients: Prevalence, Severity, and Clinical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, Heather S.L.; Evans, Bryan; Jeong, Jiyeon M.; Gonzalez, Brian D.; Johnston, Laura; Nelson, Ashley M.; Kesler, Shelli; Phillips, Kristin M.; Barata, Anna; Pidala, Joseph; Palesh, Oxana

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disruption is common among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, with over 50% of patients experiencing sleep disruption pre-transplant, up to 82% experiencing moderate to severe sleep disruption during hospitalization for transplant, and up to 43% in the post-transplant period. These rates of sleep disruption are substantially higher than the general population. Although sleep disruption can be distressing to patients and contribute to diminished quality of life, it is rarely discussed during clinical visits. The goal of the current review is to draw attention to sleep disruption as a clinical problem in HCT in order to facilitate patient education, intervention, and research. The review opens with a discussion of sleep disruption measurement and clinical diagnosis of sleep disorders. An overview of the prevalence, severity, and chronicity of sleep disruption and disorders in patients receiving HCT follows. Current evidence regarding sociodemographic and clinical predictors of sleep disruption and disorders is summarized. The review concludes with suggestions for behavioral and pharmacologic management of sleep disruption and disorders as well as directions for future research. PMID:24747335

  7. Prevalence and severity of sleep disturbances among patients with early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Fakih

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Data regarding health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients in the Middle East are limited with fatigue and sleep disturbance being the most distressing symptoms reported by patients treated for early breast cancer. Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and incidence of insomnia among patients with early-stage breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. We enrolled patients with stage I-III breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. At three different time points (prior to, during, and following chemotherapy, we assessed the severity of sleep disturbances using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index. The Institution Review Board approved the study. Results: Fifty-two patients were recruited. There was a significant increase in sleep disturbances during chemotherapy which improved to below baseline levels on completion of therapy. Prior to chemotherapy, 36% of patients reported poor sleep versus 58% during chemotherapy. The percentage of patients reporting clinical insomnia rose from 11% pretreatment to 36% during chemotherapy reflecting a significant symptomatic burden that is poorly documented and managed in routine clinical practice. Conclusions: Patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer experience an increase in sleep disturbances during the treatment phase. Physicians should be aware of the need to routinely screen for sleep disturbance in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  8. High prevalence of subtle and severe menstrual disturbances in exercising women: confirmation using daily hormone measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, M J; Toombs, R J; Scheid, J L; O'Donnell, E; West, S L; Williams, N I

    2010-02-01

    The identification of subtle menstrual cycle disturbances requires daily hormone assessments. In contrast, the identification of severe menstrual disturbances, such as amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea, can be established by clinical observation. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of subtle menstrual disturbances, defined as luteal phase defects (LPD) or anovulation, in exercising women, with menstrual cycles of 26-35 days, who engage in a variety of sports, both recreational and competitive. Secondly, the prevalence of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea was also determined via measurement of daily urinary ovarian steroids rather than self report alone. Menstrual status was documented by daily measurements of estrone and pregnanediol glucuronide and luteinizing hormone across two to three consecutive cycles and subsequently categorized as ovulatory (Ovul), LPD, anovulatory (Anov), oligomenorrheic (Oligo) and amenorrheic (Amen) in sedentary (Sed) and exercising (Ex) women. Sed (n = 20) and Ex women (n = 67) were of similar (P > 0.05) age (26.3 +/- 0.8 years), weight (59.3 +/- 1.8 kg), body mass index (22.0 +/- 0.6 kg/m2), age of menarche (12.8 +/- 0.3 years) and gynecological maturity (13.4 +/- 0.9 years). The Sed group exercised less (P exercising women experience subtle menstrual disturbances, i.e. LPD and anovulation, and that one third of exercising women may be amenorrheic. Estimates of the prevalence of subtle menstrual disturbances in exercising women determined by the presence or absence of short or long cycles does not identify these disturbances. In light of known clinical consequences of menstrual disturbances, these findings underscore the lack of reliability of normal menstrual intervals and self report to infer menstrual status.

  9. Determining the Prevalence and Assessing the Severity of Injuries in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Mixed martial arts (MMA) is currently the fastest growing sport in the United States and has recently surpassed boxing as the most popular full contact sport. Due to the physical nature of the sport, MMA is associated with various types of injuries. Objective The purpose of this study was aimed at identifying prevalence and assessing the severity, location, and type of injuries in MMA athletes sustained during MMA related activities in the twelve month period prior to the survey. Methods A total of fifty-five subjects between the ages of 18 to 39 participated in the study. Participants were given a two-part questionnaire to collect demographic and injury data. Results Two hundred seven injuries were reported in the study. Low belt ranks had significantly more injuries more than any other belt rank, resulting in more than two times higher injury rate. Professional fighters had significantly more injuries than amateur fighters, resulting in three times higher injury rate. The most common body region injured was the head/neck/face (38.2%), followed by the lower extremities (30.4%), upper extremities (22.7%), torso (8.2%), and groin (0.5%). Injuries to the nose (6.3%), shoulder (6.3%), and toe (6.3%) were the most common. The most common type of injury was contusions (29.4%), followed by strains (16.2%), sprains (14.9%), and abrasions (10.1%). Conclusion Injury prevention efforts should consider the prevalence and distribution of injuries and focus on reducing or preventing injuries to the head/neck/face in MMA related activities. Preventative measures should focus on improving protective equipment during training, and possible competition rule modifications to further minimize participant injury. PMID:21509103

  10. Prevalence, subtypes, severity and determinants of ocular trauma: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mark Yz; Man, Ryan Ek; Gupta, Preeti; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Lamoureux, Ecosse Luc

    2018-02-01

    To describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and determinants of ocular trauma (OT) in a population-based study in Singapore. We included 3353 Chinese adults aged ≥40 years from the Singapore Chinese Eye Study, a population-based study, conducted between 2009 and 2011. OT was defined as self-reported history of any eye injury requiring medical attention with or without hospitalisation, and further classified as blunt object, sharp object or chemical burns related. Age and gender-standardised prevalence was estimated using the 2010 Singapore Chinese population census. Multivariable models were used to assess the independent associations of OT with age, gender, income, education, literacy, alcohol consumption, smoking and history of falls. The mean (SD) age was 59.7 (9.9) years and 49.4% were male. There were 138 OT cases, giving a crude and age and gender-standardised prevalence of 4.1% (95% CI 3.5% to 4.8%) and 4.4% (95% CI 3.7% to 5.2%), respectively. Of these, 45 (32.6%), 56 (40.6%) and 10 (7.3%) were blunt object, sharp object and chemical burns-related trauma, respectively. Twenty eight (20.3%) required hospitalisation, with no difference between subtypes. In multivariable models, men (OR (95% CI): 2.80 (1.79-4.39)), younger persons (per year decrease in age (1.03 (1.00-1.05)) and lower education levels (1.8 (1.25-2.60); comparing ≤6 years vs >6 years of education) were independent determinants of OT. OT affected one in 25 adults, with 20% of these requiring hospitalisation. Because OT is preventable, raising awareness and education strategies in the population would allow prevention of vision loss particularly in men, and younger and lesser-educated individuals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Sex differences in the prevalence, symptoms, and associated features of migraine, probable migraine and other severe headache: results of the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Dawn C; Loder, Elizabeth W; Gorman, Jennifer A; Stewart, Walter F; Reed, Michael L; Fanning, Kristina M; Serrano, Daniel; Lipton, Richard B

    2013-09-01

    The strikingly higher prevalence of migraine in females compared with males is one of the hallmarks of migraine. A large global body of evidence exists on the sex differences in the prevalence of migraine with female to male ratios ranging from 2:1 to 3:1 and peaking in midlife. Some data are available on sex differences in associated symptoms, headache-related disability and impairment, and healthcare resource utilization in migraine. Few data are available on corresponding sex differences in probable migraine (PM) and other severe headache (ie, nonmigraine-spectrum severe headache). Gaining a clear understanding of sex differences in a range of severe headache disorders may help differentiate the range of headache types. Herein, we compare sexes on prevalence and a range of clinical variables for migraine, PM, and other severe headache in a large sample from the US population. This study analyzed data from the 2004 American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study. Total and demographic-stratified sex-specific, prevalence estimates of headache subtypes (migraine, PM, and other severe headache) are reported. Log-binomial models are used to calculate sex-specific adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for each across demographic strata. A smoothed sex prevalence ratio (female to male) figure is presented for migraine and PM. One hundred sixty-two thousand seven hundred fifty-six individuals aged 12 and older responded to the 2004 American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study survey (64.9% response rate). Twenty-eight thousand two hundred sixty-one (17.4%) reported "severe headache" in the preceding year (23.5% of females and 10.6% of males), 11.8% met International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 criteria for migraine (17.3% of females and 5.7% of males), 4.6% met criteria for PM (5.3% of females and 3.9% of males), and 1.0% were categorized with other severe headache (0.9% of females and 1.0% of males). Sex differences were observed in

  12. Comparison of vertebral morphometry in the lumbar vertebrae by T1-weighted sagittal MRI and radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Murase, Kenya; Sone, Teruki; Fukunaga, Masao

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we investigated the usefulness of T1-weighted sagittal MR images at the lumbar vertebrae in the vertebral morphometry, in comparison with lateral radiographs. Subjects and methods: The subjects were 42 men (mean age: 53.0 years) and 41 women (mean age: 57.9 years). Both MRI and radiography of the lumbar spine were performed within 1 month. The vertebral body heights and their ratios were measured by the semi-automatic measuring system. The frequency of a vertebral fracture and the absolute value of vertebral body height in both morphometry were compared. Results: Based on the criteria for prevalent vertebral fracture using vertebral height ratios, the vertebrae were classified into four groups. Group 1 was defined as the vertebrae without fracture (n = 347 vertebrae). Groups 2-4 were defined as the vertebrae with fracture; Group 2 by both MRI and X-ray morphometry (n = 17), Group 3 by MRI morphometry alone (n = 17), and Group 4 by X-ray morphometry alone (n = 4). The rate of prevalent vertebral fracture diagnosed by MRI morphometry (8.8%) was higher than that by X-ray morphometry (5.5%). In Group 1, the values of anterior and posterior vertebral height obtained by MRI morphometry were greater than those obtained by X-ray morphometry. On the other hand, the values of central vertebral height obtained by MRI morphometry were smaller than those obtained by X-ray morphometry. Conclusion: Severe biconcave deformity of vertebra can be detected by both MRI and X-ray morphometry, although mild biconcave deformity can be detected only by MRI morphometry

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers: a study on 1311 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Matthieu; Lanquart, Jean-Pol; Loas, Gwénolé; Hubain, Philippe; Linkowski, Paul

    2017-07-06

    Several studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of insomnia in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a large sample of insomnia sufferers. Data from 1311 insomnia sufferers who were recruited from the research database of the sleep laboratory of the Erasme Hospital were analysed. An apnea-hypopnea index of ≥15 events per hour was used as the cut-off score for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine clinical and demographic risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers. The prevalence of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in our sample of insomnia sufferers was 13.88%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender, snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, lower maintenance insomnia complaint, presence of metabolic syndrome, age ≥ 50 & 30 kg/m 2 , and CRP >7 mg/L were significant risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers. Moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a common pathology in insomnia sufferers. The identification of these different risk factors advances a new perspective for more effective screening of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers.

  14. Prevalence and severity of categorical and dimensional personality disorders in adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magallón-Neri, Ernesto; González, Esther; Canalda, Gloria; Forns, Maria; De La Fuente, J Eugenio; Martínez, Estebán; García, Raquel; Lara, Anais; Vallès, Antoni; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study is to explore and compare the prevalence of categorical and dimensional personality disorders (PDs) and their severity in Spanish adolescents with Eating Disorders (EDs). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision-10 modules of the International Personality Disorder Examination were administered to a sample of 100 female adolescents with EDs (mean age=15.8 years, SD=0.9). 'Thirty-three per cent of the sample had at least one PD, in most cases a simple PD. The rate of PDs was 64-76% in bulimia patients, 22-28% in anorexia and 25% in EDs not otherwise specified. The highest dimensional scores were observed in bulimia, [corrected] mainly in borderline and histrionic PDs, and higher scores for anankastic PD in anorexia than in the other ED diagnoses. Overall, purging type EDs had higher cluster B personality pathology scores than restrictive type.' [corrected] The Publisher would like to apologize for this error and any confusion it may have caused. [corrected]. Adolescent female patients with ED have a risk of presenting a comorbid PD, especially patients with bulimia and purging type EDs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  15. Children in families with a severely mentally ill member. Prevalence and needs for support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostman, Margareta; Hansson, Lars

    2002-05-01

    The prevalence of minor children in families with a severely mentally ill member, these children's needs for support and the situation of the spouses were investigated as part of a multi-centre study of the quality of the mental health services in Sweden performed in 1986, 1991 and 1997. The sample was drawn from relatives of compulsorily and voluntarily admitted inpatients to acute psychiatric wards. The instrument used was a semi-structured questionnaire, interviewing relatives about the burden of relatives, their needs for support and participation in care and items concerning the situation of the under-aged children in these families. The results over the years investigated showed the same proportion of patients admitted to hospital who were also parents to minor children and a decreasing proportion of patients who had the custody of their children. Female patients were more often a parent and also more often had the custody of the children. The majority of the children had needs for support caused by their parent's illness and these needs were met in half of the cases. The healthy spouses in families with minor children more often had to give up their own occupation and to a higher extent experienced own needs for care and support from psychiatric services compared to spouses without minor children. The study supports that there is an urgent need for the psychiatric services to initiate parental issues in programmes for treatment and rehabilitation to ensure that the specific needs of minor children are met.

  16. Knee flexion contractures in institutionalized elderly: prevalence, severity, stability, and related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollinger, L A; Steffen, T M

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence, severity, and progression of knee flexion contractures (KFCs) in a population of institutionalized elderly and to identify relationships between knee extension and other variables. The subjects were 112 nursing home residents who exhibited a broad range of ambulation and cognitive function abilities. Data were collected initially (T1) and after a 10-month period (T2). Only 25% of the population had extension in the 0- to 5-degree (lacking full extension) range bilaterally at T1 and T2, leaving the majority of subjects with some degree of unilateral KFC. Most of the subjects with a KFC greater than 20 degrees were nonambulatory and had a significantly higher occurrence of resistance to motion than did nonambulators with a KFC of less than 20 degrees. Knee extension measurements did not change in most subjects between T1 and T2. The knees that did show a change in KFC (either an increase or a decrease) had a significantly higher occurrence of resistance to passive motion than did other knees. Compared with the subjects who gained extension, the subjects who lost extension over the study period more frequently had minimal KFC at T1, were ambulatory at T1, showed a regression in ambulation at T2, and developed resistance to motion at T2. The data confirmed significant positive correlations between degree of KFC and presence of resistance to passive knee motion, cognitive impairment, impaired ambulation, and presence of knee pain. Physical therapy assessment and intervention may be appropriate in nonambulatory nursing home residents with resistance to passive motion, residents with KFC approaching 20 degrees, and ambulatory residents with minimal KFC who develop resistance and begin to regress in ambulation. Several areas for future study are suggested.

  17. High frequency of vertebral fracture and low bone quality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis-Results from TOMORROW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Tadashi; Inui, Kentaro; Tada, Masahiro; Sugioka, Yuko; Mamoto, Kenji; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Koike, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-05-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the complications in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we researched the morbidity of existing vertebral fractures and the risk factors for vertebral fractures in patients with RA. This study included 413 participants, 208 patients with RA, and 205 age- and sex-matched controls without RA. Clinical data, radiographic assessment of vertebral fracture from T4 to L4 in thoracic and lumber spine, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone metabolic markers (BMM) were analyzed. Vertebral fractures were observed more frequently, severe and multiple in patients with RA. In the logistic regression analysis, age (adjusted odds ratios (OR): 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.09) and RA (adjusted OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.04-2.83) were risk factors for existing vertebral fracture. Moreover, two bone matrix-related markers, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) (adjusted OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02-2.78), and urinary pentocidine (adjusted OR: 2.51, 95% CI: 1.48-4.24) were associated with existing vertebral fracture. High frequent, multiple, and severe vertebral fractures were found in patients with RA compared to the controls. Low bone quality might be the cause of the frequent prevalence of vertebral fracture in patients with RA.

  18. Molar-incisor hypomineralization: Prevalence, severity and clinical characteristics in 8- to 13-year-old children of Udaipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shubha Arehalli Bhaskar; Sapna Hegde

    2014-01-01

    Background: The last couple of decades has seen an increasing interest in molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH). Although the reported prevalence of MIH ranges from 2.4% to 40.2% worldwide, very little data is available from India. Objective: To assess the prevalence, clinical characteristics, distribution, severity and association with caries of MIH defects in children aged 8-13 years of Udaipur, Rajasthan. Study design: This cross-sectional descriptive study consisted of 1173 children aged...

  19. High Prevalence of Severe Food Insecurity and Malnutrition among HIV-Infected Adults in Senegal, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Benzekri, Noelle A.; Sambou, Jacques; Diaw, Binetou; Sall, El Hadji Ibrahima; Sall, Fatima; Niang, Alassane; Ba, Selly; Ngom Gu?ye, Nd?ye Fatou; Diallo, Mouhamadou Ba?la; Hawes, Stephen E.; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Malnutrition and food insecurity are associated with increased mortality and poor clinical outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS; however, the prevalence of malnutrition and food insecurity among people living with HIV/AIDS in Senegal, West Africa is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of food insecurity and malnutrition among HIV-infected adults in Senegal, and to identify associations between food insecurity, malnutrition, and HI...

  20. [Effect of litter type on prevalence and severity of pododermatitis in male broilers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Jutta

    2009-01-01

    During the course of two trial periods on broilers (Ross 308), the effects of 5 different types of litter (chopped straw, wood shavings, spelt glumes, Pelletinos, HygieneWood-Shavings) on the development of pododermatitis and animal performance (body weight, feed conversion, mortality) were investigated. Pelletinos are for sale under the name Pelletino Strohstreugranulat G. HygieneWood-Shavings are a special product that currently is not available on the market. Male broilers were kept under practical conditions (feeding, light program) for 35 days. Foot pad lesions could already be observed at the first assessment on their 7th day after hatching. Broilers kept on chopped straw showed in both trials the highest score (trial 1: 1.50; trial 2: 1.58). Animals reared on Pelletinos (trial 1: 0.59; trial 2: 0.17) followed by HygieneWood-Shavings (trial 1: 0.63; trial 2: 0.47), wood shavings (trial 1: 1.30; trial 2: 0.71) and spelt glumes (trial 1: 1.13, trial 2:0.93) showed significant lower lesions. During the second trial, the average body weights were significantly higher while feed conversion was lower.The mortality on the other hand showed no significant differences between the trials. Groups kept on Pelletinos showed the best foot pads and the highest body weights in both trials at the end of experiments. The investigation showed that the prevalence and the severity of pododermatitis as well as the performance could be influenced by various types of litter. Chopped straw which is standard for the broiler industry in Germany, seems to be the least suitable variant in our study.

  1. Social anxiety symptoms in alcohol-dependent outpatients: prevalence, severity and predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoli Tamie Yoshimi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives High rates of comorbidity between social anxiety disorder (SAD and alcohol use disorders have been reported, but the predictors of this comorbidity are poorly known and most studies involve primary SAD samples. The aims were to estimate the prevalence and severity of SAD symptoms among alcohol-dependent patients and to investigate sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with SAD comorbidity, including suicidal behaviors. Methods A cross-sectional study with 53 adults who were in treatment for alcohol dependence at a Brazilian public university outpatient service. Assessment instruments Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN, Short Alcohol Dependence Data and Beck Depression Inventory. Bivariate analyses between the categorical outcome (Probable SAD: SPIN ≥ 19 and explanatory variables were conducted. Correlates of SPIN total and subscales scores (dimensional outcomes were also investigated. Results The diagnosis and treatment of alcohol dependence occurred, on average, 30 years after the onset of alcohol use and 39.6% of the 53 patients (37 men and 16 women reported alleviation of social anxiety symptoms with alcohol use. Twenty-four (45.3% patients presented probable SAD. These patients differed from non-SAD alcohol-dependent individuals by having lower income and higher frequency of depression, suicidal ideation, suicide plans and attempts. The SPIN subscales mostly associated with suicidal behaviors were social inadequacy and social inferiority. Conclusions SAD symptoms are common among help-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals and should be directly investigated and treated, since depression and suicidality are associated with this comorbidity. Prospective studies are needed to assess the impact of SAD treatment on the clinical course of alcohol dependence.

  2. CIRSE Guidelines on Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com; Too, Chow Wei, E-mail: spyder55@gmail.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@gmail.com; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juliengarnon@gmail.com; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Strasbourg University Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (France)

    2017-03-15

    Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is an important cause of severe debilitating back pain, adversely affecting quality of life, physical function, psychosocial performance, mental health and survival. Different vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs) are used in order to consolidate the VCFs, relief pain,and whenever posible achieve vertebral body height restoration. In the present review we give the indications, contraindications, safety profile and outcomes of the existing percutaneous VAPs.

  3. Elevated Serum Cyclophilin B Levels Are Associated with the Prevalence and Severity of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveInflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Cyclophilin B (CypB can be constitutively secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli and oxidative stress, participating in tissue or systemic inflammation. We investigated the relationship between CypB and MetS in both humans and mice.MethodsSerum CypB levels were determined in 211 subjects with MetS and 292 subjects without MetS (non-MetS (133 healthy controls and 159 high-risk subjects with one to two MetS components. Additionally, CypB expression in metabolic organs was examined in mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD and genetically obese (ob/ob mice.ResultsSerum CypB level was significantly higher in MetS subjects compared with both groups of non-MetS subjects (193.80 ± 83.22 vs. 168.38 ± 65.01 vs. 124.26 ± 47.83 ng/mL, P < 0.001. Particularly, serum CypB level was significantly higher in subjects with hypertension, central obesity, diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia, elevated levels of triglycerides, or reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein than in those without. Moreover, CypB was positively associated with the number of MetS components (r = 0.404, P < 0.001, indicating that a higher serum CypB level reflected more severe MetS. Multivariate regression revealed that a one SD increase in CypB was associated with an odds ratio of 1.506 (1.080–2.101, P = 0.016 for MetS prevalence after adjusting for age, gender, conventional risk factors, and medication. Stratified analyses by age and gender demonstrated that subjects >60 years old with higher CypB levels were more likely to have MetS, and the risk for MetS was higher and more significant in women compared with men. Additionally, CypB expression levels were lower at baseline and dramatically enhanced in metabolic organs (such as the liver and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from HFD-induced obese mice and ob/ob mice.ConclusionIncreased CypB levels were

  4. Elevated Serum Cyclophilin B Levels Are Associated with the Prevalence and Severity of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Fan, Qin; Xie, Hongyang; Lu, Lin; Tao, Rong; Wang, Fang; Xi, Rui; Hu, Jian; Chen, Qiujing; Shen, Weifeng; Zhang, Ruiyan; Yan, Xiaoxiang

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cyclophilin B (CypB) can be constitutively secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli and oxidative stress, participating in tissue or systemic inflammation. We investigated the relationship between CypB and MetS in both humans and mice. Serum CypB levels were determined in 211 subjects with MetS and 292 subjects without MetS (non-MetS) (133 healthy controls and 159 high-risk subjects with one to two MetS components). Additionally, CypB expression in metabolic organs was examined in mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and genetically obese (ob/ob) mice. Serum CypB level was significantly higher in MetS subjects compared with both groups of non-MetS subjects (193.80 ± 83.22 vs. 168.38 ± 65.01 vs. 124.26 ± 47.83 ng/mL, P  CypB level was significantly higher in subjects with hypertension, central obesity, diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia, elevated levels of triglycerides, or reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein than in those without. Moreover, CypB was positively associated with the number of MetS components ( r  = 0.404, P  CypB level reflected more severe MetS. Multivariate regression revealed that a one SD increase in CypB was associated with an odds ratio of 1.506 (1.080-2.101, P  = 0.016) for MetS prevalence after adjusting for age, gender, conventional risk factors, and medication. Stratified analyses by age and gender demonstrated that subjects >60 years old with higher CypB levels were more likely to have MetS, and the risk for MetS was higher and more significant in women compared with men. Additionally, CypB expression levels were lower at baseline and dramatically enhanced in metabolic organs (such as the liver) and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from HFD-induced obese mice and ob/ob mice. Increased CypB levels were significantly and independently associated with the presence and severity of MetS, indicating that CypB could be

  5. [Experience, prevalence, severity, treatment needs for dental caries and care index in Mexican adolescents and young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cortés, José Obed; Mejia-Cruz, Jorge Adrián; Medina-Cerda, Eduardo; Orozco-De la Torre, Guillermo; Medina-Solís, Carlo Carlo; Márquez-Rodríguez, Sonia; Navarrete-Hernández, José de Jesús; Islas-Granillo, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    To determine the experience, prevalence and severity of dental caries as well as to establish the treatment needs and restorative care in adolescents and young adults. This cross-sectional study included 638 subjects 16-25 years old candidates to enter to state public university of San Luis Potosí, México. For caries detection was used the DMFT index (sum of decayed teeth + missing teeth + filled teeth in the permanent dentition). With DMFT index data were calculated the experience, the prevalence and the severity of caries. Also are reported the significant caries index (SiC), the treatment needs index (TNI) and the care index (CI). Statistical analysis was performed using nonparametric tests. The mean DMFT index was 4.24 ± 3.85, prevalence 76.5% and severity of 52.3% for DMFT > 3 and 26.2% for DMFT > 6. The SiC index was 8.7. The TNI was 43.0% and 52.8% CI. No variation was observed (p > 0.05) on the experience, prevalence and severity of caries by age. The component "filled teeth" showed differences by age (p caries experience and severity than men (p dental caries in this sample of adolescents and young adults. We found almost 40% of untreated caries lesions. We found some differences by sex.

  6. Prevalence and impact of severe fatigue in adolescent and young adult cancer patients in comparison with population-based controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poort, Hanneke; Kaal, Suzanne E J; Knoop, Hans; Jansen, Rosemarie; Prins, Judith B; Manten-Horst, Eveliene; Servaes, Petra; Husson, Olga; van der Graaf, Winette T A

    2017-09-01

    The current study determined the prevalence of severe fatigue in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients (aged 18-35 years at diagnosis) consulting a multidisciplinary AYA team in comparison with gender- and age-matched population-based controls. In addition, impact of severe fatigue on quality of life and correlates of fatigue severity were examined. AYAs with cancer (n = 83) completed questionnaires including the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS-fatigue), Quality of Life (QoL)-Cancer Survivor, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (reflecting psychological distress), and the Cancer Worry Scale (reflecting fear of cancer recurrence or progression). The vast majority of participants had been treated with chemotherapy (87%) and had no active treatment at the time of participation (73.5%). Prevalence of severe fatigue (CIS-fatigue score ≥35) in AYAs with cancer (48%, n = 40/83) was significantly higher in comparison with matched population-based controls (20%, n = 49/249; p fatigued AYAs with cancer reported lower QoL compared to non-severely fatigued AYAs with cancer (p fatigue severity (p fatigue based on a validated cut-off score was highly prevalent in this group of AYAs with cancer. QoL is significantly affected by severe fatigue, stressing the importance of detection and management of this symptom in those patients affected by a life-changing diagnosis of cancer in late adolescence or young adulthood.

  7. High Prevalence of Severe Food Insecurity and Malnutrition among HIV-Infected Adults in Senegal, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle A Benzekri

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and food insecurity are associated with increased mortality and poor clinical outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS; however, the prevalence of malnutrition and food insecurity among people living with HIV/AIDS in Senegal, West Africa is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of food insecurity and malnutrition among HIV-infected adults in Senegal, and to identify associations between food insecurity, malnutrition, and HIV outcomes.We conducted a cross-sectional study at outpatient clinics in Dakar and Ziguinchor, Senegal. Data were collected using participant interviews, anthropometry, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, the Individual Dietary Diversity Scale, and chart review.One hundred and nine HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 participants were enrolled. The prevalence of food insecurity was 84.6% in Dakar and 89.5% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of severe food insecurity was 59.6% in Dakar and 75.4% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of malnutrition (BMI <18.5 was 19.2% in Dakar and 26.3% in Ziguinchor. Severe food insecurity was associated with missing clinic appointments (p = 0.01 and not taking antiretroviral therapy due to hunger (p = 0.02. Malnutrition was associated with lower CD4 cell counts (p = 0.01.Severe food insecurity and malnutrition are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults in both Dakar and Ziguinchor, and are associated with poor HIV outcomes. Our findings warrant further studies to determine the root causes of malnutrition and food insecurity in Senegal, and the short- and long-term impacts of malnutrition and food insecurity on HIV care. Urgent interventions are needed to address the unacceptably high rates of malnutrition and food insecurity in this population.

  8. [Prevalence of rhinitis allergic in populations of several states of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Hernández, Eleazar; Medina-Ávalos, Miguel Alejandro; Barnica-Alvarado, Raúl Humberto; Soto-Candia, Diego; Guerrero-Venegas, Rosario; Zecua-Nájera, Yahvéh

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder of the nasal mucosa, characterized by symptoms of itching, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion and sneezing induced by an IgE-mediated response. In Mexico we have reports of prevalence, with fluctuations of 5.5% to 47.7% with the question of rhinitis symptoms the past 12 months. To determine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in schoolchildren from various states of Mexico. A descriptive study of prevalence in which a questionnaire was applied to preschool, elementary-, middle- and high-school population. It was performed in four cities in four states of Mexico: Puebla, Puebla, Tulancingo, Hidalgo, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala and Cancun, Quintana Roo. Parents answered questionnaires of preschool and elementary school and middle- and high-school students answered their questionnaires. The study was conducted from June 2014 to January 2015. The instrument used was: questionnaire diagnosis of allergic rhinitis for epidemiological studies. Of the surveys, 8,159 completed questionnaires were obtained, in the city of Puebla: 2,267, Tulancingo, Hidalgo: 2,478, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala: 2,574, Cancun, Quintana Roo: 840; total male: 4,190 (51%). The overall average rate of prevalence of allergic rhinitis among four states including all respondents ages was 15%. With the use of the questionnaire diagnosis of allergic rhinitis for epidemiological studies in the four cities in four different states, we found a prevalence of allergic rhinitis of 15% in ≥13 yearpopulation and 13% in ≤12 year-old children.

  9. Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. I. Prevalence, impact of medications and disparities in health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hert, Marc; Correll, Christoph U.; Bobes, Julio; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Cohen, Dan; Asai, Itsuo; Detraux, Johan; Gautam, Shiv; Moeller, Hans-Jurgen; Ndetei, David M.; Newcomer, John W.; Uwakwe, Richard; Leucht, Stefan

    The lifespan of people with severe mental illness (SMI) is shorter compared to the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. We report prevalence rates of different physical illnesses as well as important individual lifestyle choices, side effects of psychotropic

  10. Prevalence and severity of malnutrition in pre-school children in a rural area of western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwena, Arthur M.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; de Vlas, Sake J.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Hawley, William A.; Friedman, Jennifer F.; Vulule, John M.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.

    2003-01-01

    We determined the nutritional status of children less than five years of age in an area in rural western Kenya with intense malaria transmission, a high prevalence of severe anemia and human immunodeficiency virus, and high infant and under-five mortality (176/1,000 and 259/1,000). No information is

  11. Prevalence and outcome of severe malnutrition in children less than five-year-old in Omdurman Paediatric Hospital, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Kanan, Shaza O H; Swar, Mohammed Osman

    2016-01-01

    This is a retrospective observational hospital-based study aimed to determine the prevalence and outcome of severe acute malnutrition in children less than five years admitted to Omdurman Paediatric Hospital during the period January 2014 to December 2014. Data was collected from patient’s hospital records during the study period. Ethical approval and permission to access patients’ record were obtained. A total of 593 children with severe malnutrition were identified; 305 of cases were male (...

  12. Increase in prevalence and severity of asthma in young adults in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind Frausing; Rappeport, Y; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is the general impression that the prevalence of asthma has increased during recent decades. A study was undertaken to investigate asthma prevalence, respiratory symptoms, and lung function in young adults in the City of Copenhagen 15 years apart. METHODS: Men and women aged 20......-35 years were sampled from the general population living in a defined area of central Copenhagen. The first examination took place in 1976-8 and comprised 1034 subjects (response rate 67.2%). A new sample comprising 1104 subjects (response rate 62.6%) from exactly the same area was examined 15 years later...... in 1991-4. All participants answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and diseases and performed spirometric tests with measurement of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC). RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported asthma increased from 1.5% in the first...

  13. High Prevalence of Severe Food Insecurity and Malnutrition among HIV-Infected Adults in Senegal, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzekri, Noelle A; Sambou, Jacques; Diaw, Binetou; Sall, El Hadji Ibrahima; Sall, Fatima; Niang, Alassane; Ba, Selly; Ngom Guèye, Ndèye Fatou; Diallo, Mouhamadou Baïla; Hawes, Stephen E; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition and food insecurity are associated with increased mortality and poor clinical outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS; however, the prevalence of malnutrition and food insecurity among people living with HIV/AIDS in Senegal, West Africa is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of food insecurity and malnutrition among HIV-infected adults in Senegal, and to identify associations between food insecurity, malnutrition, and HIV outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional study at outpatient clinics in Dakar and Ziguinchor, Senegal. Data were collected using participant interviews, anthropometry, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, the Individual Dietary Diversity Scale, and chart review. One hundred and nine HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 participants were enrolled. The prevalence of food insecurity was 84.6% in Dakar and 89.5% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of severe food insecurity was 59.6% in Dakar and 75.4% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of malnutrition (BMI insecurity was associated with missing clinic appointments (p = 0.01) and not taking antiretroviral therapy due to hunger (p = 0.02). Malnutrition was associated with lower CD4 cell counts (p = 0.01). Severe food insecurity and malnutrition are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults in both Dakar and Ziguinchor, and are associated with poor HIV outcomes. Our findings warrant further studies to determine the root causes of malnutrition and food insecurity in Senegal, and the short- and long-term impacts of malnutrition and food insecurity on HIV care. Urgent interventions are needed to address the unacceptably high rates of malnutrition and food insecurity in this population.

  14. Recognizing and reporting vertebral fractures: reducing the risk of future osteoporotic fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.; Brown, J.P.; Khan, A.

    2007-01-01

    Given the increasing evidence that vertebral fractures are underdiagnosed and not acted on, Osteoporosis Canada and the Canadian Association of Radiologists initiated a project to develop and publish a set of recommendations to promote and facilitate the diagnosis and reporting of vertebral fractures. The identification of spinal fractures is not uniform. More than 65% of vertebral fractures cause no symptoms. It is also apparent that vertebral fractures are inadequately recognized when the opportunity for diagnosis arises fortuitously. It is to patients' benefit that radiologists report vertebral fractures evident on a chest or other radiograph, no matter how incidental to the immediate clinical indication for the examination. The present recommendations can help to close the gap in care in recognizing and treating vertebral fractures, to prevent future fractures and thus reduce the burden of osteoporosis-related morbidity and mortality, as well as fracture-related costs to the health care system. Several studies indicate that a gap exists in regard to the diagnosis of vertebral fractures and the clinical response following such diagnosis. All recommendations presented here are based on consensus. These recommendations were developed by a multidisciplinary working group under the auspices of the Scientific Advisory Council of Osteoporosis Canada and the Canadian Association of Radiologists. Prevalent vertebral fractures have important clinical implications in terms of future fracture risk. Recognizing and reporting fractures incidental to radiologic examinations done for other reasons has the potential to reduce health care costs by initiating further steps in osteoporosis diagnosis and appropriate therapy. Physicians should be aware of the importance of vertebral fracture diagnosis in assessing future osteoporotic fracture risk. Vertebral fractures incidental to radiologic examinations done for other reasons should be identified and reported. Vertebral fractures

  15. Prevalence and clinical presentation of constipation in children with severe generalized cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugelers, Rebekka; Benninga, Marc A.; Calis, Elsbeth Ac; Willemsen, Sten P.; Evenhuis, Heleen; Tibboel, Dick; Penning, Corine

    2010-01-01

    AIM Our aim was to study the prevalence and characteristics of constipation in children with profound multiple disabilities, as data in this area are scarce. METHOD A cross-sectional observational study was performed in specialized day-care centres and schools in the Netherlands. The study included

  16. Prevalence and Clinical Presentation of Constipation in Children with Severe Generalized Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veugelers, Rebekka; Benninga, Marc A.; Calis, Elsbeth A. C.; Willemsen, Sten P.; Evenhuis, Heleen; Tibboel, Dick; Penning, Corine

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Our aim was to study the prevalence and characteristics of constipation in children with profound multiple disabilities, as data in this area are scarce. Method: A cross-sectional observational study was performed in specialized day-care centres and schools in the Netherlands. The study included 152 children (81 males, 71 females; mean age 9y…

  17. Prevalence of rhinitis allergic in populations of several states of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleazar Mancilla-Hernández

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: With the use of the questionnaire diagnosis of allergic rhinitis for epidemiological studies in the four cities in four different states, we found a prevalence of allergic rhinitis of 15% in ≥13 yearpopulation and 13% in ≤12 year-old children.

  18. [Prevalence of severe periodontal disease and its association with respiratory disease in hospitalized adult patients in a tertiary care center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Olmedo-Torres, Daniel; Martínez-Briseño, David; García-Sancho, Cecilia; Franco-Marina, Francisco; González-Cruz, Herminia

    2015-01-01

    Severe periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory gingival process associated with systemic diseases. To determine the prevalence of severe periodontal disease and its association with respiratory diseases among hospitalized patients at the Institute of Respiratory Diseases "Ismael Cosio Villegas" (INER) in 2011. A cross-sectional study was developed. The severe periodontal disease was diagnosed by the Department of Stomatology. The International Classification of Diseases 10th revision was used. A multinomial logistic was fit to estimate relative-risk. Three thousand and fifty-nine patients were included; 772/3,059 (25.2%) had severe periodontal disease. After controlling for age, sex, inpatient days, death, and socioeconomic status, the infectious respiratory diseases that were significantly associated with severe periodontal disease were: HIV/AIDS (RR: 10.6; 95% CI: 9.1-23.3; p abscess (RR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6-7.8; p = 0.002). Lung cancer and pleural diseases were also significantly associated with severe periodontal disease. High prevalence of severe periodontal disease was observed in the different respiratory diseases. Severe periodontal disease was associated with both infectious and non-infectious respiratory diseases. It is important to study an oral health intervention.

  19. Esophagitis in a high H. pylori prevalence area: severe disease is rare but concomitant peptic ulcer is frequent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Ponce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few data are available on the prevalence of erosive and severe esophagitis in Western countries. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively determine the prevalence and the factors predicting erosive esophagitis and severe esophagitis in a large series of endoscopies in Spain. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine variables predicting severe esophagitis. SETTING: Databases of 29 Spanish endoscopy units. PATIENTS: Patients submitted to a diagnostic endoscopy during the year 2005. INTERVENTIONS: Retrospective review of the databases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Esophagitis severity (graded according to the Los Angeles classification and associated endoscopic findings. RESULTS: Esophagitis was observed in 8.7% of the 93,699 endoscopies reviewed. Severe esophagitis (LA grade C or D accounted for 22.5% of cases of the disease and was found in 1.9% of all endoscopies. Incidences of esophagitis and those of severe esophagitis were 86.2 and 18.7 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year respectively. Male sex (OR 1.89 and advanced age (OR 4.2 for patients in the fourth age quartile were the only variables associated with severe esophagitis. Associated peptic ulcer was present in 8.8% of cases. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective study, no data on individual proton pump inhibitors use. CONCLUSIONS: Severe esophagitis is an infrequent finding in Spain. It occurs predominantly in males and in older individuals. Peptic ulcer disease is frequently associated with erosive esophagitis.

  20. Criminal victimisation in people with severe mental illness: a multi-site prevalence and incidence survey in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid M Kamperman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although crime victimisation is as prevalent in psychiatric patients as crime perpetration (and possibly more so, few European figures for it are available. We therefore assessed its one-year prevalence and incident rates in Dutch severely mentally ill outpatients, and compared the results with victimisation rates in the general population. METHOD: This multisite epidemiological survey included a random sample of 956 adult severely mentally ill outpatients. Data on victimisation were obtained using the victimisation scale of the Dutch Crime and Victimisation Survey, which assesses crime victimisation over the preceding 12 months. Comparison data were derived from the nationwide survey on safety and victimisation in the Netherlands. Prevalence and incident rates were weighted for sex, age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status, and compared with a general population sample matched by region (N = 38,227. RESULTS: In the past year, almost half of the severely mentally ill outpatients (47% had been victim of a crime. After control for demographic differences, prevalence rates of overall and specific victimisation measures were significantly higher in severely mentally ill outpatients than in the general population. The relative rates were especially high for personal crimes such as violent threats (RR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.72-2.61, physical assaults (RR = 4.85, 95% CI: 3.69-6.39 and sexual harassment and assaults (RR = 3.94, 95% CI: 3.05-5.09. In concordance, severely mentally ill outpatients reported almost 14 times more personal crime incidents than persons from the general population (IRR = 13.68, 95% CI: 12.85-14.56. CONCLUSION: Crime victimisation is a serious problem in Dutch severely mentally ill outpatients. Mental-healthcare institutions and clinicians should become aware of their patients' victimisation risk, and should implement structural measures to detect and prevent (re-victimisation.

  1. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  2. High prevalence of psoriatic arthritis in patients with severe psoriasis with suboptimal performance of screening questionnaires.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haroon, Muhammad

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess the prevalence of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) among Psoriasis (Ps) patients attending dermatology clinics; (2) identify clinical predictors of the development of PsA; and (3) compare the performance of three PsA screening questionnaires: Psoriatic Arthritis Screening and Evaluation (PASE), Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool (PEST) and Toronto Psoriatic Arthritis Screening (ToPAS).

  3. Prevalence and outcome of severe malnutrition in children less than five-year-old in Omdurman Paediatric Hospital, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanan, Shaza O H; Swar, Mohammed Osman

    2016-01-01

    This is a retrospective observational hospital-based study aimed to determine the prevalence and outcome of severe acute malnutrition in children less than five years admitted to Omdurman Paediatric Hospital during the period January 2014 to December 2014. Data was collected from patient's hospital records during the study period. Ethical approval and permission to access patients' record were obtained. A total of 593 children with severe malnutrition were identified; 305 of cases were male (51.4%) with a male: female ratio of 1:0.9. The mean age these children was 22.3 months. Children 36-59 months were least affected. 35.4% were classified as low socioeconomic class, 22.9% classified as an average class and there were no sufficient data to classify the remaining. The overall prevalence of severe malnutrition was 6.5%, and the general mortality rate was 2.4% while mortality rate among children with severe malnutrition was 9.3%. Among the 593 admitted children with malnutrition, 407 (68.6%) had marasmus, 141 (23.8%) had kwashiorkor and 45 (7.6%) had marasmic-kwashiorkor. The highest prevalence and mortality rate occurred in September. The most common clinical presentations were gastroenteritis, malaria, urinary tract infections, giardiasis, tuberculosis and AIDS. Only 10.8% of the admitted children were exclusively breast fed for the first three months. 33% were fully vaccinated. Overall 75.7% improved and discharged, 15% discharged against medical advice and 9.3% died. We concluded that prevalence and mortality among children with acute severe malnutrition at Omdurman paediatrics hospital were high, and the current management strategies require review to identify the causes. We recommended adopting policies to manage malnutrition in the community and hospitals.

  4. Dental caries in young male adults: prevalence, severity and associated factors Cárie dentária em homens jovens: prevalência, severidade e fatores associados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Amaral

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries as well as the needs for dental treatment in 18-year-old males from Maringá, PR, Brazil. The association of dental caries experience with socioeconomic variables was also tested. A cross sectional study was conducted in a random sample of 241 conscripts of the Brazilian Army. The adopted diagnosis criteria were those proposed by the World Health Organization. A socioeconomic questionnaire was utilized to determine family income and the criterion of the Brazil Economic Classification of the National Association of Research Enterprises. Associations among caries prevalence, DMF-T index, treatment needs and socioeconomic variables were evaluated by means of the Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Caries prevalence was 82.6% and the mean DMF-T index was 4.6. Only a mean of 0.8 tooth per individual presented treatment needs. Significant statistical differences were found in caries prevalence and severity (DMF-T. The worst results were observed in the groups of lower income and purchasing power, indicating a need for the implementation of social policies that address these populations aiming at diminishing the existing differences in the health-disease process indicators. On the other hand, treatment needs were only associated to the Brazil Economic Classification Criterion variable (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi conhecer a prevalência e a severidade da cárie dentária, bem como as necessidades de tratamento odontológico de jovens de 18 anos de idade do sexo masculino em Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. A associação da experiência de cárie com variáveis socioeconômicas também foi testada. Foi realizado um estudo transversal em uma amostra aleatória de conscritos (n = 241 do Exército Brasileiro. Os critérios de diagnóstico adotados foram aqueles estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. Foram utilizados um question

  5. Prevalence and severity of dysmenorrhea: a problem related to menstruation, among first and second year female medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amita; Kiran, Dukhu; Singh, Harminder; Nel, Bithika; Singh, Prabhakar; Tiwari, Pavan

    2008-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is the most common of gynecologic complaints. It affects half of all female adolescents today and represents the leading cause of periodic college/school absenteeism among that population. To evaluate the menstrual problem specially dysmenorrhea and its severity in female medical students and its effect on their regular activities. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study; conducted on 107 female medical students, all participants were given a questionnaire to complete; questions were related to menstruation elucidating variations in menstrual patterns, history of dysmenorrhea and its severity, pre-menstrual symptom and absenteeism from college and/or class; to detect the severity of dysmenorrhea we used the verbal multi-dimensional scoring system, participants were given 20 minutes to complete the questionnaire. The mean age of subjects at menarche was 12.5 (+/-1.52) years, with a range of 10-15 years. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 73.83%; approximately 4.67% of dysmenorrhic subjects had severe dysmenorrhea. The average duration between two periods and the duration of menstrual flow were 28.34 (+/-7.54) days and 4.5 (+/-2.45) days respectively. Prevalence of other menstrual disorders like irregularity, prolonged menstrual bleeding, heavy menstrual bleeding and PCOD were 7.47%, 10.28%, 23.36% and 3.73% respectively. Among female medical students who reported dysmenorrhea; 31.67% and 8.68% were frequently missing college & classes respectively. Premenstrual symptom was the second most (60.50%) prevalent disorder and 67.08% reported social withdrawal. Dysmenorrhea and PMS is highly prevalent among female medical students, it is related to college/class absenteeism, limitations on social, academic, sports and daily activities. Maximum participants do not seek medical advice and self treat themselves with prostaglandin inhibitors; like Ibuprofen.

  6. Depressive symptomatology in severe dementia in a European sample: prevalence, associated factors and prescription rate of antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa M; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Renom-Guiteras, Anna; Arve, Seija; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm; Soto, Maria; Zabalegui, Adelaida; Hamers, Jan; Saks, Kai; Challis, David

    2015-04-01

    Depression is a common comorbid disorder of dementia. This study explores the prevalence of and factors associated with depressive symptomatology, and antidepressant prescription rates in severe dementia across eight European countries. In total, 414 people with severe dementia completed measures of cognition and quality of life (QoL), whilst carers completed proxy measures of activities of daily living (ADLs), depression, neuropsychiatric symptoms, QoL and comorbidity. Findings indicated that 30% of the sample had depression, whilst the highest and lowest prevalence of depression was reported in Germany and Finland, respectively. Lower QoL, the presence of pain and more frequent neuropsychiatric symptoms were associated with depressive symptomatology, whilst no significant relationship between impairment of ADLs, comorbidity, and depression emerged. Spain and Estonia had the highest and lowest rates of antidepressant prescribing, respectively, whilst Germany had the highest discrepancy between depressive symptomatology and prescription. The study highlights variations across countries in the prevalence of depressive symptomatology in severe dementia and prescription of antidepressants. Information about factors associated with depressive symptomatology may help to better identify and manage depression.

  7. Prevalence and severity of dental erosion among jeep battery manufacturing workers at Metagalli, Mysore: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Chavan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Majority of people employed in various industries are exposed to hazardous environment. Exposure to chemical agents in the workplace can result in adverse effects on workers. This exposure deteriorates the general and oral health of people, working in industries for long hours. Aim: The aim is to assess the prevalence and severity of dental erosion among battery manufacturing factory workers at Metagalli, Mysore, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 175 jeep battery manufacturing factory workers were enrolled and divided into study and comparison groups based on acid exposure. Demographic details of workers were recorded. Severity of dental erosion was calculated using Smith and Knight tooth wear index. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.0 software. Chi-square test was used to compare the categorical variables. Results: The prevalence of dental erosion among the jeep battery manufacturing factory workers was 80%. Majority of the participants in the study group had severe degree of dental erosion (scores of 3 and 4 when compared to the comparison group. Conclusion: Dental erosion was more prevalent among the jeep battery manufacturing factory workers. Study participants were the more affected group with dental erosion when compared to comparison group.

  8. Prevalence, Severity and Potential Nutritional Causes of Gastrointestinal Symptoms during a Marathon in Recreational Runners

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    Jamie N. Pugh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS amongst recreational runners during a marathon race, and potential nutritional factors that may contribute. Recreational runners of the 2017 Liverpool (n = 66 and Dublin (n = 30 marathons were recruited. GIS were reported post-marathon and we considered GIS in the 7 days prior to the marathon and during the marathon using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS. Nutritional intake was recorded using food diaries for the day before the race, morning of the race, and during the race; 43% of participants reported moderate (≥4 GIS in the 7 days prior to the marathon and 27% reported moderate symptoms during the marathon with most common symptoms being flatulence (16% during training, and nausea (8% during the marathon race. Correlations between all nutritional intake and GIS were not statistically significant (p > 0.05. There were significant correlations between total GIS score (r = 0.510, p < 0.001, upper GIS score (r = 0.346, p = 0.001 and lower GIS score (r = 0.483, p < 0.001 in training and during the marathon. There appears to be a modest prevalence of GIS in recreational runners, in the week prior to a marathon and during marathon running, although there was no association with nutritional intake before or during the race.

  9. Prevalence, Severity and Potential Nutritional Causes of Gastrointestinal Symptoms during a Marathon in Recreational Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie N; Kirk, Ben; Fearn, Robert; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2018-06-24

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) amongst recreational runners during a marathon race, and potential nutritional factors that may contribute. Recreational runners of the 2017 Liverpool ( n = 66) and Dublin ( n = 30) marathons were recruited. GIS were reported post-marathon and we considered GIS in the 7 days prior to the marathon and during the marathon using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS). Nutritional intake was recorded using food diaries for the day before the race, morning of the race, and during the race; 43% of participants reported moderate (≥4) GIS in the 7 days prior to the marathon and 27% reported moderate symptoms during the marathon with most common symptoms being flatulence (16%) during training, and nausea (8%) during the marathon race. Correlations between all nutritional intake and GIS were not statistically significant ( p > 0.05). There were significant correlations between total GIS score ( r = 0.510, p training and during the marathon. There appears to be a modest prevalence of GIS in recreational runners, in the week prior to a marathon and during marathon running, although there was no association with nutritional intake before or during the race.

  10. Severe Intellectual Disability: Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Nature of Presentation of Unipolar Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Catherine; Kerr, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of depression in severe and profound intellectual disability is challenging. Without adequate skills in verbal self-expression, standardized diagnostic criteria cannot be used with confidence. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the assessment and diagnosis of unipolar depression in severe and…

  11. Severely disabling chronic pain in young adults: prevalence from a population-based postal survey in North Staffordshire

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    Thomas Elaine

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severely disabling chronic pain in the adult population is strongly associated with a range of negative health consequences for individuals and high health care costs, yet its prevalence in young adults is less clear. Methods All adults aged 18–25 years old registered with three general practices in North Staffordshire were invited to complete a postal questionnaire containing questions on pain within the last 6 months, pain location and duration. Severity of chronic pain was assessed by the Chronic Pain Grade. Severely disabling chronic pain was defined as pain within the last six months that had lasted for three months or more and was highly disabling-severely limiting (Grade IV. Results 858 responses from 2,389 were received (adjusted response = 37.0%. The prevalence of any pain within the previous six months was 66.9% (95%CI: 63.7%, 70.1%. Chronic pain was reported by 14.3% (95%CI: 12.0%, 16.8% of respondents with severely disabling chronic pain affecting 3.0% (95%CI: 2.0%, 4.4% of this population. Late responders were very similar to early responders in their prevalence of pain. Cross-checking the practice register against the electoral roll suggested register inaccuracies contributed to non-response. Conclusion Pain is a common phenomenon encountered by young adults, affecting 66.9% of this study population. Previously observed age-related trends in severely disabling chronic pain in older adults extend to younger adults. Although a small minority of younger adults are affected, they are likely to represent a group with particularly high health care needs. High levels of non-response in the present study means that these estimates should be interpreted cautiously although there was no evidence of non-response bias.

  12. The prevalence and correlates of severe depression in a cohort of Mexican teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Saucedo, Rene; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Lajous, Martin; Wirtz, Veronika J

    2018-07-01

    Depression is among the 10 major causes of disability in Mexico. Yet, local contextual factors associated to the disorder remain poorly understood. We measured the impact of several factors on severe depression such as demographics, pharmacotherapy, multimorbidity, and unhealthy behaviors in Mexican teachers. A total of 43,845 Mexican female teachers from 12 Mexican states answered the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9). Data were part the Mexican Teacher's Cohort prospective study, the largest ongoing cohort study in Latin America. Unadjusted and adjusted estimates assessed the impact of several contextual factors between severe versus mild-no depression cases. In total 7026 teachers (16%) had a PHQ9 score compatible with severe depression. From them, only 17% received psychotropics, compared to 60% for those with a formal diagnosis. Less than 5% of teachers with PHQ9 scores compatible with severe depression had a formal diagnosis. Adjusted analysis reported higher odds of pharmacotherapy, having ≥ 3 comorbidities, higher levels of couple, family and work stress, fewer hours of vigorous physical activity, higher alcohol consumption, and smoking as risk factors for severe depression. Also, rural residents of northern and center states appeared more severely depressed compared to their urban counterparts. On average, the PHQ9 scores differed by ~ 10 points between severe and mild-no depressed teachers. A cross-sectional design. Also, the study focused on female teachers between ages 25 and 74 years old, reducing the generalizability of the estimates. Under-diagnosis of clinical depression in Mexican teachers is concerning. Unhealthy behavior is associated with severe depression. The information collected in this study represents an opportunity to build prevention mechanisms of depression in high-risk subgroups of female educators and warrants improving access to mental care in Mexico. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Matrix metalloproteinases outside vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino-Puertas, Laura; Goulas, Theodoros; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier

    2017-11-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family belongs to the metzincin clan of zinc-dependent metallopeptidases. Due to their enormous implications in physiology and disease, MMPs have mainly been studied in vertebrates. They are engaged in extracellular protein processing and degradation, and present extensive paralogy, with 23 forms in humans. One characteristic of MMPs is a ~165-residue catalytic domain (CD), which has been structurally studied for 14 MMPs from human, mouse, rat, pig and the oral-microbiome bacterium Tannerella forsythia. These studies revealed close overall coincidence and characteristic structural features, which distinguish MMPs from other metzincins and give rise to a sequence pattern for their identification. Here, we reviewed the literature available on MMPs outside vertebrates and performed database searches for potential MMP CDs in invertebrates, plants, fungi, viruses, protists, archaea and bacteria. These and previous results revealed that MMPs are widely present in several copies in Eumetazoa and higher plants (Tracheophyta), but have just token presence in eukaryotic algae. A few dozen sequences were found in Ascomycota (within fungi) and in double-stranded DNA viruses infecting invertebrates (within viruses). In contrast, a few hundred sequences were found in archaea and >1000 in bacteria, with several copies for some species. Most of the archaeal and bacterial phyla containing potential MMPs are present in human oral and gut microbiomes. Overall, MMP-like sequences are present across all kingdoms of life, but their asymmetric distribution contradicts the vertical descent model from a eubacterial or archaeal ancestor. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Matrix Metalloproteinases edited by Rafael Fridman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Prevalence of Severe Asthma and Low Asthma Control Among Danish Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Anna; Kriegbaum, Margit; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    asthma, the extent of asthma control, and contact with specialist care. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional register study was performed. By using a nationwide prescription database, we identified current patients with asthma (age, 18-44 years) in 2010. Severity was classified as severe versus mild......-moderate asthma according to the level of antiasthma treatment. We investigated prescription drug use, hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and outpatient clinic visits according to severity. RESULTS: Among a nationwide population, we identified 61,583 current patients with asthma. Based on the level...... asthma and low asthma control were not managed by specialist care. Patients with severe asthma with specialist contact more frequently had impaired asthma control compared with subjects not treated by a specialist (44.4% vs 33.1%, P

  15. Indexing aortic valve area by body surface area increases the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jander, Nikolaus; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Bahlmann, Edda

    2014-01-01

    To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are......To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are...

  16. Prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization in children aged 11-16 years of a city in Karnataka, Davangere

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    M Kirthiga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH describes the clinical picture of hypomineralization of systemic origin affecting one or more first permanent molar. There is a rarity of prevalence studies in Indian population. Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MIH in a population of South Indian children. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey, included 2000 children aged 11-16 years chosen by stratified random sampling from government and private schools of Davangere, a city in South India. Materials and Methods: Evaluation of MIH and decayed, missing and filled teeth was carried out in these children by a calibrated examiner. The severity of hypomineralization was recorded according to the Wetzel and Reckel scale. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical data. P ≤ 0.05 was considered for statistical significance. Results: About 8.9% of all examined children showed at least one ill-structured first permanent molar in terms of MIH. The male and female ratio was found to be 1:1.1. The decreasing order of occurrence of MIH affected teeth were permanent maxillary molars, maxillaryincisors, mandibular molars and the mandibular incisors. Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH in the permanent dentition of south Indian children was 8.9%. There is a need for a proper planned preventive and restorative program with regard to the increasing prevalence of MIH.

  17. Prevalence of severe pelvic organ prolapse in relation to job description and socioeconomic status: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Patrick J; Swift, Steven E; O'Boyle, Amy L; Valley, Michael T; Bland, Deirdre R; Kahn, Margie A; Schaffer, Joseph I

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if certain occupations or socioeconomic levels are associated with pelvic organ prolapse. Investigators at six American sites performed pelvic organ prolapse quantification examinations on women presenting for routine gynecologic care. Between September 1999 and March 2002, 1,004 patients were examined. Severe pelvic organ prolapse was defined as the leading edge being 1 cm or more beyond the hymeneal ring. The data was analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance, Bonferroni test, multiple logistic regression, and descriptive statistics. The prevalence of severe pelvic organ prolapse in our group was 4.3%. Women who were laborers/factory workers had significantly more severe prolapse than the other job categories (p 30, and smoking status (all p jobs and an annual household income of Dollars 10,000 or less are associated with severe pelvic organ prolapse.

  18. Molar-incisor hypomineralization: Prevalence, severity and clinical characteristics in 8- to 13-year-old children of Udaipur, India

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    Shubha Arehalli Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The last couple of decades has seen an increasing interest in molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH. Although the reported prevalence of MIH ranges from 2.4% to 40.2% worldwide, very little data is available from India. Objective: To assess the prevalence, clinical characteristics, distribution, severity and association with caries of MIH defects in children aged 8-13 years of Udaipur, Rajasthan. Study design: This cross-sectional descriptive study consisted of 1173 children aged 8-13 years selected by random sampling procedure. The European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry criteria were followed for MIH diagnosis. The presence of dental caries and treatment need for MIH-affected teeth were recorded as per the WHO criteria. Results: The prevalence of MIH in the children examined was 9.46%. Severity of the defects increased with the age of the children. Involvement of incisors increased when more First permanent molars (FPMs were affected. An average of 3.65 teeth was involved per MIH-affected individual. Significantly larger numbers of mandibular FPMs and maxillary central incisors were diagnosed with MIH. The association of dental caries was significantly higher with MIH-affected FPMs. Primary molars and permanent canines and premolars were also showed MIH like lesions in some of the MIH-affected children. Conclusion: MIH was observed in about 10% of the children examined. MIH-affected FPMs appear to be more vulnerable to early caries and subsequent pulp involvement with need for extensive dental treatment.

  19. The Prevalence of Anemia and Moderate-Severe Anemia in the US Population (NHANES 2003-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Since anemia is associated with poor health outcomes, the prevalence of anemia is a significant public health indicator. Even though anemia is primarily caused by iron deficiency, low oxygen-carrying capacity may result from other conditions such as chronic diseases, which remain a relevant health concern in the United States. However, studies examining current rates of anemia in the total US population and in more specific subgroups are limited. Data from five National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2003 to 2012 were analyzed to assess two outcomes: anemia and moderate-severe anemia, which were based upon serum hemoglobin levels (Hb) as per World Health Organization (WHO) definitions. Statistical analysis using SAS examined temporal trends and the prevalence of anemia among sexes, age groups, and races/ethnicities. The study estimated that an average of 5.6% of the U.S. population met the criteria for anemia and 1.5% for moderate-severe anemia during this 10-year period. High-risk groups such as pregnant women, elderly persons, women of reproductive age, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics were identified, and relationships between multiple risk factors were examined. Rates of anemia in men increased monotonically with age, while that of women increased bimodally with peaks in age group 40–49 years and 80–85 years. The effect of risk factors was observed to compound. For instance, the prevalence of anemia in black women aged 80–85 years was 35.6%, 6.4 times higher than the population average. Moreover, anemia is a growing problem because of the increased prevalence of anemia (4.0% to 7.1%) and moderate-severe anemia (1.0% to 1.9%), which nearly doubled from 2003–2004 to 2011–2012. Thus, these results augment the current knowledge on anemia prevalence, severity, and distribution among subgroups in the US and raised anemia as an issue that requires urgent public health intervention. PMID:27846276

  20. Prevalence of Auditory Neuropathy in a Population of Children with Severe to Profound Hearing Loss

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    Nader Saki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this investigation is to determine auditory neuropathy in the students with severe to profound hearing losses in Ahwaz.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 212 children of 7-11 year old with severe to profound hearing loss performed ordinary audiometric evaluations as well as ABR and OAE. The patients with normal DPOAE who had no record of acoustic reflex having normal ABR, were considered as the patients with auditory neuropathy. Results: The neuropathic complication found in 14 children was appeared in 8 ones as one-sided (57.14% and in 6 ones (42.86% as two-sided. 68% of the patients as diagnosed had a very low Speech Discrimination Score (SDS.Conclusion: we must be very vigilant in auditory neuropathy diagnosis for the purpose to be successful in appropriate treatment of severe to profound hearing losses.

  1. Imaging the vertebral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Keng Yeow; U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Davies, John R.; Weissberg, Peter L. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gillard, Jonathan H. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospitald, University Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Imaging the vertebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Keng Yeow; U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M.; Davies, John R.; Weissberg, Peter L.; Gillard, Jonathan H.

    2005-01-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Phylogenetic Analysis and Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in Women with Several Cervical Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Alp Avcı

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determinate the prevalence of HPV types in patients with cervical cancers in our legion by Real time PCR and DNA sequence analysis and to make phylogenetic analysis was aimed in this study. Material and methods: From January to October 2010, cervical swap samples of 77 patients directed to colposcopy were included in the study. HPV DNA and HPV type 16 were detected by Real Time polymerase chain reaction using the L1 region. Real Time PCR amplifications of MY09/11 products were done by GP5+/GP6+ primers and Cyanine-5 labeled HPV DNA and HPV type 16 specific probe. HPV types determinate by GP5+/GP6+. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences was calculated by Kimura’s two parameters method. Statistically analyses were by using Pearson chi-square and odss ratio tests. Results: Forty seven samples (prevalence; 61% of total seventy seven cervical samples detected as HPV DNA positive. While HPV type 16; 52%, HPV type 16+11; 4%, HPV type 16+6; 1% and non-typing HPV DNA 4% of seventy seven samples determining, 39% of samples observed as negative HPV. Participated in the study population, HPV DNA positive individuals are among 34-56 years. Most HPV DNA positivity rate of 80.0% was between the ages of 31-40. 52.2% of HPV DNA positivity between the ages of 41-50 to fall, but again, 83.3% between the ages of 51-60 to a second peak was determined that increased. 60.0% of 20 ASC-H cases, 63.8% of 36 ASC-US cases, 100% 9 of HSIL cases and 25.0% of 12 LSIL cases were positive for HPV DNA. Conclusion: The investigation of the distribution of HPV genotypes in women with cervical cancer and precancerous lesions in our region is important. Early diagnosis of HPV by using improved technological assays, play a key role to prevent the turn precancerous lesions into invasive cancers.

  4. Recovery from anemia in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation--prevalence, predictors and clinical outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Arnous, Samer; Lønborg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Preoperative anemia is common in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and has been linked to a poorer outcome--including a higher 1-year mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of successful TAVI...... on baseline anemia. METHODS: A total of 253 patients who survived at least 1 year following TAVI were included in this study. The prevalence, predictors and clinical outcome of hemoglobin (Hb)-recovery were assessed. RESULTS: The prevalence of baseline anemia was 49% (n = 124)--recovery from anemia occurred......-recovery, while blood transfusion (OR 0.31, P = 0.038) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, OR 0.33, P = 0.043) were identified as negative predictors at, respectively, one and two years after TAVI. When compared to patients without baseline anemia, those anemic patients with Hb-recovery had a similar functional...

  5. Prevalence and severity of pain in adult end-stage renal disease patients on chronic intermittent hemodialysis: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkovic T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tonci Brkovic,1 Eliana Burilovic,2 Livia Puljak3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, 2Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Split, 3Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia Objectives: Understanding the epidemiology of pain in patients on hemodialysis (HD is crucial for further improvement in managing pain. The aim of this study was to systematically review available evidence on the prevalence and severity of pain in adult end-stage renal disease patients on chronic intermittent HD. Materials and methods: We carried out a systematic review of the literature and developed a comprehensive search strategy based on search terms on pain and HD. We searched the databases MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, and CINAHL from the earliest date of each database to July 24, 2014. Manuscripts in all languages were taken into consideration. Two authors performed each step independently, and all disagreements were resolved after discussion with the third author. The quality of studies was estimated using the STROBE checklist and Cochrane risk-of-bias tool.Results: We included 52 studies with 6,917 participants. The prevalence of acute and chronic pain in HD patients was up to 82% and 92%, respectively. A considerable number of patients suffered from severe pain. Various locations and causes of pain were described, with most of the studies reporting pain in general, pain related to arteriovenous access, headache, and musculoskeletal pain.Conclusion: The findings of this systematic review indicate high prevalence of pain in HD patients and considerable gaps and limitations in the available evidence. Pain in this population should be recognized as a considerable health concern, and the nephrology community should promote pain management in HD patients as a clinical and research priority to improve patients’ quality of life and pain

  6. Prevalence of Problem Gambling Among Adolescents: A Comparison Across Modes of Access, Gambling Activities, and Levels of Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Roz, Alba; Fernández-Hermida, José R; Weidberg, Sara; Martínez-Loredo, Victor; Secades-Villa, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    The high availability and accessibility of online gambling have recently caused public concern regarding the potential increase of gambling-related problems among young people. Nonetheless, few studies among adults and none among adolescents have explored specific characteristics of gamblers as a function of gambling venues to date. This study sought to analyze the prevalence of gambling among a sample of adolescents in the last year, as well as sociodemographic and gambling-related characteristics as possible predictors of at-risk and problem gambling. The sample comprised 1313 adolescents aged 14-18 years. Participants were asked to respond to several questions regarding their gambling behavior. Chi square and ANOVA tests were performed in order to explore differences between groups, and a set of multinomial regressions established significant severity predictors. The prevalence of at-risk and problem gambling was 4 and 1.2 %, respectively. Regression analyses showed that having a relative with gambling problems predicted at-risk gambling. Both living with only one parent or not living with parents at all, and the prevalence of Electronic Gambling Machines in the last year were associated with problem gambling. Mixed-mode gambling was a predictor of both at-risk and problem gambling. Our findings extend previous research on gambling among adolescents by exploring gambling behavior according to different modes of access. Although the prevalence of exclusive online gambling among the total sample was low, these results support the need to consider specific subgroups of gamblers and their concrete related features when conducting both indicated prevention and treatment protocols for adolescents.

  7. The impact of climatic risk factors on the prevalence, distribution, and severity of acute and chronic trachoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ramesh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Trachoma is the most common cause of infectious blindness. Hot, dry climates, dust and water scarcity are thought to be associated with the distribution of trachoma but the evidence is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological evidence regarding the extent to which climatic factors explain the current prevalence, distribution, and severity of acute and chronic trachoma. Understanding the present relationship between climate and trachoma could help inform current and future disease elimination. METHODS: A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was conducted to identify observational studies which quantified an association between climate factors and acute or chronic trachoma and which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies that assessed the association between climate types and trachoma prevalence were also reviewed. RESULTS: Only eight of the 1751 papers retrieved met the inclusion criteria, all undertaken in Africa. Several papers reported an association between trachoma prevalence and altitude in highly endemic areas, providing some evidence of a role for temperature in the transmission of acute disease. A robust mapping study found strong evidence of an association between low rainfall and active trachoma. There is also consistent but weak evidence that the prevalence of trachoma is higher in savannah-type ecological zones. There were no studies on the effect of climate in low endemic areas, nor on the effect of dust on trachoma. CONCLUSION: Current evidence on the potential role of climate on trachoma distribution is limited, despite a wealth of anecdotal evidence. Temperature and rainfall appear to play a role in the transmission of acute trachoma, possibly mediated through reduced activity of flies at lower temperatures. Further research is needed on climate and other environmental and behavioural factors, particularly in arid and savannah areas. Many studies did not

  8. Vertebrate Embryonic Cleavage Pattern Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasley, Andrew; Chavez, Shawn; Danilchik, Michael; Wühr, Martin; Pelegri, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The pattern of the earliest cell divisions in a vertebrate embryo lays the groundwork for later developmental events such as gastrulation, organogenesis, and overall body plan establishment. Understanding these early cleavage patterns and the mechanisms that create them is thus crucial for the study of vertebrate development. This chapter describes the early cleavage stages for species representing ray-finned fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals, and proto-vertebrate ascidians and summarizes current understanding of the mechanisms that govern these patterns. The nearly universal influence of cell shape on orientation and positioning of spindles and cleavage furrows and the mechanisms that mediate this influence are discussed. We discuss in particular models of aster and spindle centering and orientation in large embryonic blastomeres that rely on asymmetric internal pulling forces generated by the cleavage furrow for the previous cell cycle. Also explored are mechanisms that integrate cell division given the limited supply of cellular building blocks in the egg and several-fold changes of cell size during early development, as well as cytoskeletal specializations specific to early blastomeres including processes leading to blastomere cohesion. Finally, we discuss evolutionary conclusions beginning to emerge from the contemporary analysis of the phylogenetic distributions of cleavage patterns. In sum, this chapter seeks to summarize our current understanding of vertebrate early embryonic cleavage patterns and their control and evolution.

  9. Prevalence of severe obesity among New Zealand adolescents and associations with health risk behaviors and emotional well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrant, Bridget; Utter, Jennifer; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Clark, Terryann; Fleming, Theresa; Denny, Simon

    2013-07-01

    To describe the prevalence of severe obesity among New Zealand young people attending secondary school and the associations of severe obesity with health risk behaviors and emotional well-being. A random sample of 9107 secondary school students in New Zealand participated in a 2007 health survey. Participants had their height and weight measured and answered an anonymous survey on multiple aspects of their health and well-being. Overall, 2.5% of students met the International Obesity Task Force definition of severe obesity. Students with severe obesity had more weight-related concerns, were more likely to have used unhealthy weight control strategies, and were more likely to experience bullying compared with healthy weight students. For example, students with severe obesity were 1.7 times more likely to have been bullied at school (95% CI 1.2-2.7) and 1.9 times more likely to vomit for weight loss (95% CI 1.1-3.3) than were healthy weight students. Indicators of emotional well-being and most health risk behaviors were similar among young people with severe obesity and a healthy weight. Clinicians who work with young people with severe obesity should prioritize discussing issues of bullying and healthy weight control strategies with families and their children. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Severe Intellectual Disability: Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Nature of Presentation of Unipolar Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Catherine; Kerr, Mike

    2016-09-01

    The diagnosis of depression in severe and profound intellectual disability is challenging. Without adequate skills in verbal self-expression, standardized diagnostic criteria cannot be used with confidence. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the assessment and diagnosis of unipolar depression in severe and profound intellectual disability. The review aimed to examine the methods used to assess for depression. The secondary aim was to explore the frequency and symptoms of depression. The PRISMA (2009) Checklist for systematic review was followed, and a search of electronic databases was undertaken. Nine studies were included in the qualitative synthesis from over 2000 records identified. The quality of the studies was assessed and scored, with a wide range of results. Individual studies scored between 2 and 7 of a maximum possible score of 8. The diagnostic tools utilized by each of the studies were assessed and compared. In terms of the methods used to assess for depression, results were varied. This was due to the heterogeneous nature of the individual study designs. The Aberrant Behaviour Checklist consistently showed promise, in particular when combined with other instruments or clinical examination. Qualitative analysis of the selected studies has shown a wide variation in the quality of primary research in this field, with more required to make firm conclusions regarding the diagnosis, frequency and presentation of depression in severe and profound intellectual disability. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. I. Prevalence, impact of medications and disparities in health care

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE HERT, MARC; CORRELL, CHRISTOPH U.; BOBES, JULIO; CETKOVICH-BAKMAS, MARCELO; COHEN, DAN; ASAI, ITSUO; DETRAUX, JOHAN; GAUTAM, SHIV; MÖLLER, HANS-JURGEN; NDETEI, DAVID M.; NEWCOMER, JOHN W.; UWAKWE, RICHARD; LEUCHT, STEFAN

    2011-01-01

    The lifespan of people with severe mental illness (SMI) is shorter compared to the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. We report prevalence rates of different physical illnesses as well as important individual lifestyle choices, side effects of psychotropic treatment and disparities in health care access, utilization and provision that contribute to these poor physical health outcomes. We searched MEDLINE (1966 – August 2010) combining the MeSH terms of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder with the different MeSH terms of general physical disease categories to select pertinent reviews and additional relevant studies through cross-referencing to identify prevalence figures and factors contributing to the excess morbidity and mortality rates. Nutritional and metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, viral diseases, respiratory tract diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, sexual dysfunction, pregnancy complications, stomatognathic diseases, and possibly obesity-related cancers are, compared to the general population, more prevalent among people with SMI. It seems that lifestyle as well as treatment specific factors account for much of the increased risk for most of these physical diseases. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence that people with SMI are less likely to receive standard levels of care for most of these diseases. Lifestyle factors, relatively easy to measure, are barely considered for screening; baseline testing of numerous important physical parameters is insufficiently performed. Besides modifiable lifestyle factors and side effects of psychotropic medications, access to and quality of health care remains to be improved for individuals with SMI. PMID:21379357

  12. What’s new? Investigating risk factors for severe childhood malnutrition in a high HIV prevalence South African setting1

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALOOJEE, HAROON; DE MAAYER, TIM; GARENNE, MICHEL L.; KAHN, KATHLEEN

    2010-01-01

    Aim To identify risk factors for severe childhood malnutrition in a rural South African district with a high HIV/AIDS prevalence. Design Case-control study. Setting Bushbuckridge District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Participants 100 children with severe malnutrition (marasmus, kwashiorkor, and marasmic kwashiorkor) were compared with 200 better nourished (>−2 SD weight-for-age) controls, matched by age and village of residence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on a variety of biological and social risk factors. Results HIV status was known only for a minority of cases (39%), of whom 87% were HIV positive, while 45% of controls were stunted. In multivariate analysis, risk factors for severe malnutrition included suspicion of HIV in the family (parents or children) (OR 217.7, 95% CI 22.7–2091.3), poor weaning practices (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.0–4.6), parental death (OR 38.0, 95% CI 3.8–385.3), male sex (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2–6.0), and higher birth order (third child or higher) (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.1). Protective factors included a diverse food intake (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.41–0.67) and receipt of a state child support grant (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.20–0.97). A borderline association existed for family wealth (OR 0.9 per unit, 95% CI 0.83–1.0), father smoking marijuana (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.1–14.5), and history of a pulmonary tuberculosis contact (OR 3.2, 95% CI 0.9–11.0). Conclusions Despite the increasing contribution of HIV to the development of severe malnutrition, traditional risk factors such as poor nutrition, parental disadvantage and illness, poverty, and social inequity remain important contributors to the prevalence of severe malnutrition. Interventions aiming to prevent and reduce severe childhood malnutrition in high HIV prevalence settings need to encompass the various dimensions of the disease: nutritional, economic, and social, and address the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. PMID:17676510

  13. What's new? Investigating risk factors for severe childhood malnutrition in a high HIV prevalence South African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloojee, Haroon; De Maayer, Tim; Garenne, Michel L; Kahn, Kathleen

    2007-08-01

    To identify risk factors for severe childhood malnutrition in a rural South African district with a high HIV/AIDS prevalence. Case-control study. Bushbuckridge District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. 100 children with severe malnutrition (marasmus, kwashiorkor, and marasmic kwashiorkor) were compared with 200 better nourished (>-2 SD weight-for-age) controls, matched by age and village of residence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on a variety of biological and social risk factors. HIV status was known only for a minority of cases (39%), of whom 87% were HIV positive, while 45% of controls were stunted. In multivariate analysis, risk factors for severe malnutrition included suspicion of HIV in the family (parents or children) (OR 217.7, 95% CI 22.7-2091.3), poor weaning practices (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.0-4.6), parental death (OR 38.0, 95% CI 3.8-385.3), male sex (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.0), and higher birth order (third child or higher) (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.1). Protective factors included a diverse food intake (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.41-0.67) and receipt of a state child support grant (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.20-0.97). A borderline association existed for family wealth (OR 0.9 per unit, 95% CI 0.83-1.0), father smoking marijuana (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.1-14.5), and history of a pulmonary tuberculosis contact (OR 3.2, 95% CI 0.9-11.0). Despite the increasing contribution of HIV to the development of severe malnutrition, traditional risk factors such as poor nutrition, parental disadvantage and illness, poverty, and social inequity remain important contributors to the prevalence of severe malnutrition. Interventions aiming to prevent and reduce severe childhood malnutrition in high HIV prevalence settings need to encompass the various dimensions of the disease: nutritional, economic, and social, and address the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS.

  14. Open standing castration in Thoroughbred racehorses in Hong Kong: Prevalence and severity of complications 30 days post-castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanowski, S M; MacEoin, F; Graham, R J T Y; Riggs, C M

    2018-05-01

    Complications following open standing castration (OSC) in Thoroughbred racehorses are well recognised but variation in their prevalence and severity between populations is not well documented. To describe the prevalence and severity of complications in the 30 days following OSC. A retrospective cohort study of veterinary clinical records relating to horses that underwent OSC between July 2007 and July 2012. Complications were graded on a severity score from N, no complications, to C3, severe complications. Additional data were accessed for each horse including age, import date, racing history, trainer and veterinarian performing the castration. Bacterial culture and antimicrobial sensitivities were performed on a limited number of castration wounds that became infected. In total, 250 horses were castrated in Hong Kong using the OSC technique over the period of the study. Sixty percent (150/250) of horses experienced some type of post-castration complication, with eight horses experiencing a severe (C3) complication requiring intensive veterinary treatment. Scrotal swelling, funiculitis and seroma formation were present in 70.0%, 36.7% and 24.7% of cases respectively. Most horses experiencing complications required wound reopening (87.3%; 131/150), and/or an extended course of first-line antimicrobials and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (75/150; 50.0%). Eight horses had cultures submitted for bacterial sensitivity, with 17 bacterial isolates grown. In vitro, the bacteria cultured were sensitive to enrofloxacin (76%; 13/17) and ceftiofur (100%; 17/17). Resistance was detected to penicillin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline, metronidazole and trimethoprim-sulfadiazine. Differences in post-castration management cannot be accounted for in this study. Complications following OSC in horses in Hong Kong were common. The majority were mild and were successfully treated using antimicrobials and simple wound management. Given the high rate of complications and

  15. Item response theory analysis to evaluate reliability and minimal clinically important change of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire in patients with severe disability due to back pain from vertebral compression fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minji K; Yost, Kathleen J; McDonald, Jennifer S; Dougherty, Ryne W; Vine, Roanna L; Kallmes, David F

    2017-06-01

    The majority of validation done on the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) has been in patients with mild or moderate disability. There is paucity of research focusing on the psychometric quality of the RMDQ in patients with severe disability. To evaluate the psychometric quality of the RMDQ in patients with severe disability. Observational clinical study. The sample consisted of 214 patients with painful vertebral compression fractures who underwent vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. The 23-item version of the RMDQ was completed at two time points: baseline and 30-day postintervention follow-up. With the two-parameter logistic unidimensional item response theory (IRT) analyses, we derived the range of scores that produced reliable measurement and investigated the minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Scores for 214 (100%) patients at baseline and 108 (50%) patients at follow-up did not meet the reliability criterion of 0.90 or higher, with the majority of patients having disability due to back pain that was too severe to be reliably measured by the RMDQ. Depending on methodology, MCID estimates ranged from 2 to 8 points and the proportion of patients classified as having experienced meaningful improvement ranged from 26% to 68%. A greater change in score was needed at the extreme ends of the score scale to be classified as having achieved MCID using IRT methods. Replacing items measuring moderate disability with items measuring severe disability could yield a version of the RMDQ that better targets patients with severe disability due to back pain. Improved precision in measuring disability would be valuable to clinicians who treat patients with greater functional impairments. Caution is needed when choosing criteria for interpreting meaningful change using the RMDQ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and consequences of the dual diagnosis of substance abuse and severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Peter F

    2006-01-01

    The co-occurrence of a severe mental illness and a substance use or abuse disorder is common in the United States as well as internationally and could be considered as more the expectation than the exception when assessing patients with serious mental illness. Substance use disorders can occur at any phase of the mental illness, perhaps even inducing psychosis. Causes of this comorbidity may include self-medication, genetic vulnerability, environment or lifestyle, underlying shared origins, and/or a common neural substrate. The consequences of dual diagnosis include poor medication compliance, physical comorbidities and poor health, poor self-care, increased suicide risk or aggression, increased sexual behavior, and possible incarceration. All of these factors contribute to a greater health burden, which reduces the health care system's capacity to adequately treat patients. Therefore, screening, assessment, and integrated treatment plans for dual diagnosis that can address both the addiction disorder and the mental illness are recommended in order to provide accurate treatment, after-care, and other health care to accommodate patients' social and vocational needs.

  17. Respiratory syncytial virus in adults with severe acute respiratory illness in a high HIV prevalence setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Jocelyn; Walaza, Sibongile; Pretorius, Marthi; Groome, Michelle; von Gottberg, Anne; Wolter, Nicole; Haffejee, Sumayya; Variava, Ebrahim; Cohen, Adam L; Tempia, Stefano; Kahn, Kathleen; Dawood, Halima; Venter, Marietjie; Cohen, Cheryl; Madhi, Shabir A

    2017-10-01

    There are limited data on the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) illness in HIV-infected adults or the elderly in Africa. We studied the epidemiology of RSV-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalizations in adults in South Africa from 2009 through 2013. Individuals admitted to sentinel surveillance hospitals were investigated by respiratory tract swabs for RSV, using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The incidence of RSV-associated SARI was calculated for the one site with population denominators. Of 7796 participants investigated, 329 (4%) tested positive for RSV. On multivariable analysis, HIV-infected individuals with RSV-associated SARI had greater odds of being in the age groups 18-44 and 45-64 years (odd ratios (OR) 26.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.2-112.1 and OR 11.4; 95% CI 2.6-50.0) compared with those ≥65 years and being female (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.4-5.4). The relative risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated SARI was 12-18 times higher in HIV infected individual compared to that of HIV-uninfected. The incidence of RSV-associated SARI was higher in HIV-infected individuals and those aged 65 years and older. Further studies are warranted to describe the disease association of RSV detected in adults with SARI. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep disruption in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients: prevalence, severity, and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, Heather S L; Evans, Bryan; Jeong, Jiyeon M; Gonzalez, Brian D; Johnston, Laura; Nelson, Ashley M; Kesler, Shelli; Phillips, Kristin M; Barata, Anna; Pidala, Joseph; Palesh, Oxana

    2014-10-01

    Sleep disruption is common among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, with over 50% of recipients experiencing sleep disruption pre-transplant, with up to 82% of patients experiencing moderate to severe sleep disruption during hospitalization for transplant and up to 43% after transplant. These rates of sleep disruption are substantially higher than what we see in the general population. Although sleep disruption can be distressing to patients and contribute to diminished quality of life, it is rarely discussed during clinical visits. The goal of the current review is to draw attention to sleep disruption and disorders (ie, insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome) as a clinical problem in HCT in order to facilitate patient education, intervention, and research. We identified 35 observational studies published in the past decade that examined sleep disruption or disorders in HCT. Most studies utilized a single item measure of sleep, had small sample size, and included heterogeneous samples of patients. Six studies of the effects of psychosocial and exercise interventions on sleep in HCT have reported no significant improvements. These results highlight the need for rigorous observational and interventional studies of sleep disruption and disorders in HCT recipients.. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors for vertebral artery injury accompanied by cervical trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Masaaki; Shingu, Hikosuke; Kimura, Isao; Nasu, Yoshiro; Shiotani, Akihide

    2001-01-01

    Injury of the vertebral artery with cerebellar and brain stem infarction is a complication of cervical vertebral trauma. However, the pathogenesis and etiological factors remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury. This study included 51 patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury who were treated in our department. In these patients, plain X-ray, CT, MRI, and MRA findings were examined. The incidence of vertebral arterial injury was 33.3% (17 of 51 patients with cervical vertebral trauma). In 11 of the 17 patients, dislocation fracture was noted, comprising a markedly high percentage (64.7%). Particularly, vertebral arterial injury was commonly observed in patients with a large dislocation distance and severe paralysis. Cerebellar and brain stem infarction related to vertebral arterial injury was observed in 5 of the 17 patients (29.4%). No infarction developed in patients 50 years old or younger. Infarction was detected in relatively elderly patients. Vertebral arterial injury and cerebellar/brain stem infarction related to cervical vertebral trauma were frequently observed in patients with high energy injury. However, these disorders commonly occurred in elderly patients. Therefore, age-related factors such as arteriosclerosis may also be closely involved. In the acute stage, the state of the vertebral artery should be evaluated by MRA and MRI. Among patients with vertebral arterial injury, caution is needed during follow-up those with risk factors such as high energy injury and advanced age. (author)

  20. Factors for vertebral artery injury accompanied by cervical trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Masaaki; Shingu, Hikosuke; Kimura, Isao; Nasu, Yoshiro; Shiotani, Akihide [San-in Rosai Hospital, Yonago, Tottori (Japan). Spine and Low Back Pain Center

    2001-09-01

    Injury of the vertebral artery with cerebellar and brain stem infarction is a complication of cervical vertebral trauma. However, the pathogenesis and etiological factors remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury. This study included 51 patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury who were treated in our department. In these patients, plain X-ray, CT, MRI, and MRA findings were examined. The incidence of vertebral arterial injury was 33.3% (17 of 51 patients with cervical vertebral trauma). In 11 of the 17 patients, dislocation fracture was noted, comprising a markedly high percentage (64.7%). Particularly, vertebral arterial injury was commonly observed in patients with a large dislocation distance and severe paralysis. Cerebellar and brain stem infarction related to vertebral arterial injury was observed in 5 of the 17 patients (29.4%). No infarction developed in patients 50 years old or younger. Infarction was detected in relatively elderly patients. Vertebral arterial injury and cerebellar/brain stem infarction related to cervical vertebral trauma were frequently observed in patients with high energy injury. However, these disorders commonly occurred in elderly patients. Therefore, age-related factors such as arteriosclerosis may also be closely involved. In the acute stage, the state of the vertebral artery should be evaluated by MRA and MRI. Among patients with vertebral arterial injury, caution is needed during follow-up those with risk factors such as high energy injury and advanced age. (author)

  1. High prevalence/low severity language delay in preschool children born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H; Friesen, Myron D; Champion, Patricia R; Woodward, Lianne J

    2010-10-01

    To examine the language development at corrected age 4 years of a regionally representative cohort of children born very preterm (VPT). Of particular interest was the identification of biological and socioenvironmental risk and protective factors that influence VPT children's early language development. Data were collected as part of a prospective longitudinal study of 110 VPT (VPT: ≤ 33 weeks gestation) and 113 full-term children (full term: 37-41 weeks gestation) born in Canterbury, New Zealand from 1998 to 2000. At corrected age 4 years, all children were assessed with the preschool version of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals. Extensive information was also collected about children's family social background, perinatal health, childrearing environment, education/intervention exposures, and neurodevelopmental progress from birth to age 4. At the age of 4 years, VPT children were characterized by poorer receptive and expressive language development than full-term children. These differences persisted after exclusion of children with neurosensory impairment as well as statistical adjustment for the effects of social risk. Within the VPT group, the key predictors of children's overall language development were family social risk at birth (p =.05), severity of white matter abnormalities on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (p =.49), observed parent-child synchrony (p =.001), and concurrent child cognitive ability (p =.001). Together, these factors accounted for 45% of the variance in children's total Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool scores. By preschool age, children born VPT show early emerging mild to moderate language delays that are likely to affect their school success and longer-term developmental progress. Findings highlight the importance of potentially modifiable factors such as early brain injury and parenting quality in predicting the language outcomes of children born VPT.

  2. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome amongst patients with severe mental illness in the community in Hong Kong ? a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bressington, Daniel T; Mui, Jolene; Cheung, Eric F C; Petch, Joel; Clark, Allan B; Gray, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients with severe mental illness are at increased risk of developing metabolic disorders. The risk of metabolic syndrome in the Hong Kong general population is lower than that observed in western countries; however the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Hong Kong is unknown. Method: This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Hong Kong and to identify the rela...

  3. Genetic polymorphisms and their association with the prevalence and severity of chronic postsurgical pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoofwijk, D M N; van Reij, R R I; Rutten, B P; Kenis, G; Buhre, W F; Joosten, E A

    2016-12-01

    Although several patient characteristic, clinical, and psychological risk factors for chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) have been identified, genetic variants including single nucleotide polymorphisms have also become of interest as potential risk factors for the development of CPSP. The aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence on genetic polymorphisms associated with the prevalence and severity of CPSP in adult patients. A systematic review of the literature was performed, and additional literature was obtained by reference tracking. The primary outcome was CPSP, defined as pain at least 2 months after the surgery. Studies performed exclusively in animals were excluded. Out of the 1001 identified studies, 14 studies were selected for inclusion. These studies described 5269 participants in 17 cohorts. A meta-analysis was not possible because of heterogeneity of data and data analysis. Associations with the prevalence or severity of CPSP were reported for genetic variants in the COMT gene, OPRM1, potassium channel genes, GCH1, CACNG, CHRNA6, P2X7R, cytokine-associated genes, human leucocyte antigens, DRD2, and ATXN1 CONCLUSIONS: Research on the topic of genetic variants associated with CPSP is still in its initial phase. Hypothesis-free, genome-wide association studies on large cohorts are needed in this field. In addition, future studies may also integrate genetic risk factors and patient characteristic, clinical, and psychological predictors for CPSP. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Prevalence, severity and early outcomes of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy among newborns at a tertiary hospital, in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simiyu, Irene N; Mchaile, Deborah N; Katsongeri, Kahindo; Philemon, Rune N; Msuya, Sia E

    2017-05-25

    Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) remains a problem of great concern worldwide especially in developing countries. The occurrence of a neurological syndrome can be an indicator of insult to the brain. We aimed to determine the prevalence, HIE proportions, neurological signs and early outcomes of newborns that developed birth asphyxia at KCMC Tanzania. A prospective study was conducted at KCMC from November 2014 to April 2015 among newborns with birth asphyxia. Sarnat and Sarnat score was used to assess newborns immediately after birth to classify HIE and were later followed daily for 7 days or until discharge. Of the 1752 deliveries during the study period, 11.5% (n = 201) had birth asphyxia. Of the 201 newborns, 187 had HIE. Of these 187 with HIE; 39.0% had moderate HIE and 10.2% had severe HIE according to the Sarnat and Sarnat classification. Neurological signs that were observed during the study period were; weak/absent reflexes (46.0%), hypotonia (43.3%) and lethargy (42.2%). Mortality was 9.1% among the 187 newborns with HIE. Mortality was higher among newborns with severe HIE 84.2% (16/19) compared to those with moderate HIE 1.4% (1/73). On the 7th day after delivery, 17.1% (32/187) of the newborns did not show any change from the initial score at delivery. Prevalence of birth asphyxia is high in our setting and most of the newborns (49%) end up with moderate/severe HIE. Good obstetric care and immediate resuscitation of newborns are vital in reducing the occurrence of HIE and improving the general outcome of newborns.

  5. WHO systematic review of maternal morbidity and mortality: the prevalence of severe acute maternal morbidity (near miss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattinson Robert C

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To determine the prevalence of severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM worldwide (near miss. Method Systematic review of all available data. The methodology followed a pre-defined protocol, an extensive search strategy of 10 electronic databases as well as other sources. Articles were evaluated according to specified inclusion criteria. Data were extracted using data extraction instrument which collects additional information on the quality of reporting including definitions and identification of cases. Data were entered into a specially constructed database and tabulated using SAS statistical management and analysis software. Results A total of 30 studies are included in the systematic review. Designs are mainly cross-sectional and 24 were conducted in hospital settings, mostly teaching hospitals. Fourteen studies report on a defined SAMM condition while the remainder use a response to an event such as admission to intensive care unit as a proxy for SAMM. Criteria for identification of cases vary widely across studies. Prevalences vary between 0.80% – 8.23% in studies that use disease-specific criteria while the range is 0.38% – 1.09% in the group that use organ-system based criteria and included unselected group of women. Rates are within the range of 0.01% and 2.99% in studies using management-based criteria. It is not possible to pool data together to provide summary estimates or comparisons between different settings due to variations in case-identification criteria. Nevertheless, there seems to be an inverse trend in prevalence with development status of a country. Conclusion There is a clear need to set uniform criteria to classify patients as SAMM. This standardisation could be made for similar settings separately. An organ-system dysfunction/failure approach is the most epidemiologically sound as it is least open to bias, and thus could permit developing summary estimates.

  6. Prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in black goats (Capra hircus coreanae) in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Oh, Sung-Suck; Kim, Kye-Hyung; Ko, Mee-Kyung; Yi, Jongyoun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Choi, Chang-Yong; Jung, Young-Hun; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2018-04-26

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne pathogen in China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea (ROK). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of SFTSV antigens and anti-SFTSV antibodies in black goats (Capra hircus coreanae) throughout the ROK. Sera were collected from 737 black goats in nine provinces in the ROK. Eighteen of 737 (2.4%) goat sera were positive for SFTSV on one-step reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction. The amplified 346-bp S segments of SFTSV sequences were classified into three genotypes (BG1, BG2, and BG3), and were included in the Japanese clade rather than the Chinese clade, based on phylogenetic analysis. Forty-three of 624 (6.9%) serum samples were seropositive for anti-SFTSV antibodies on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. This study is the first to examine the molecular prevalence of SFTSV in goats and the first to perform serological detection of anti-SFTSV antibodies in livestock in the ROK. Moreover, the results indicate that SFTSV is widely distributed in goats and that additional monitoring for SFTSV is needed in livestock in the ROK. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...

  8. Prevalence, severity, and relationships of lung lesions, liver abnormalities, and rumen health scores measured at slaughter in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, D J; Thomson, D U; Bartle, S J; Osterstock, J B; Prouty, F L; Reinhardt, C D

    2014-06-01

    population were observed with a severe lesion (lung, liver, or rumen). In conclusion, a gross pathology monitoring system is feasible and the 22.9% prevalence of severe lesions (lung, liver, or rumen) indicates that significant opportunity exists to improve beef cattle health, well-being, and productivity. Data generated using HAP may be used to support decisions concerning the implementation or removal of managerial practices and health interventions in beef cattle production systems.

  9. Prevalence of oral health-related conditions that could trigger accidents for patients with moderate-to-severe dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naoki; Soga, Yoshihiko; Maekawa, Kyoko; Kanda, Yuko; Kobayashi, Eiko; Inoue, Hisako; Kanao, Ayana; Himuro, Yumiko; Fujiwara, Yumi

    2017-03-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of oral health conditions unnoticed by doctors and ward staff that may increase risk of incidents and/or accidents in hospitalised patients with moderate-severe dementia. Dementia patients may not recognise risks in the mouth, such as tooth mobility or ill-fitting dental prostheses and/or dentures. In addition to the risk of choking, injury by sharp edges of collapsed teeth or prosthodontics could pose risks. However, many previous publications were limited to case reports or series. Ninety-two consecutive hospitalised dementia patients (M: 52, F: 40, median age: 82.5 years, range: 62-99 years, from 2011 to 2014), referred for dentistry for dysphagia rehabilitation, were enrolled in this study. Participants referred for dental treatment with dental problems detected by ward staff were excluded. All participants had a Global Clinical Dementia Rating Score >2. Their dental records were evaluated retrospectively for issues that may cause incidents and/or accidents. Problems in the mouth, for example tooth stumps, dental caries, and ill-fitting dentures, were detected in 51.1% of participants (47/92). Furthermore, 23.9% (22/92) showed risk factors that could lead to incidents and/or accidents, for example falling out of teeth and/or prosthodontics or injury by sharp edges of teeth and/or prosthodontics. Hospitalised moderate-severe dementia patients had a high prevalence of oral health conditions unnoticed by doctors and ward staff that may increase risk of incidents and/or accidents. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  11. The origin of vertebrate limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, M I

    1994-01-01

    The earliest tetrapod limbs are polydactylous, morphologically varied and do not conform to an archetypal pattern. These discoveries, combined with the unravelling of limb developmental morphogenetic and regulatory mechanisms, have prompted a re-examination of vertebrate limb evolution. The rich fossil record of vertebrate fins/limbs, although restricted to skeletal tissues, exceeds the morphological diversity of the extant biota, and a systematic approach to limb evolution produces an informative picture of evolutionary change. A composite framework of several phylogenetic hypotheses is presented incorporating living and fossil taxa, including the first report of an acanthodian metapterygium and a new reconstruction of the axial skeleton and caudal fin of Acanthostega gunnari. Although significant nodes in vertebrate phylogeny remain poorly resolved, clear patterns of morphogenetic evolution emerge: median fin origination and elaboration initially precedes that of paired fins; pectoral fins initially precede pelvic fin development; evolving patterns of fin distribution, skeletal tissue diversity and structural complexity become decoupled with increased taxonomic divergence. Transformational sequences apparent from the fish-tetrapod transition are reiterated among extant lungfishes, indicating further directions for comparative experimental research. The evolutionary diversification of vertebrate fin and limb patterns challenges a simple linkage between Hox gene conservation, expression and morphology. A phylogenetic framework is necessary in order to distinguish shared from derived characters in experimental model regulatory systems. Hox and related genomic evolution may include convergent patterns underlying functional and morphological diversification. Brachydanio is suggested as an example where tail-drive patterning demands may have converged with the regulation of highly differentiated limbs in tetrapods.

  12. Hypercoagulability in end-stage liver disease: prevalence and its correlation with severity of liver disease and portal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Ashish; Karachristos, Andreas; Bromberg, Michael; Daly, Ellen; Maloo, Manoj; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Contrary to well-recognized bleeding diathesis in chronic liver disease, thrombotic events can occur in these patients due to reduction or loss of synthesis of anticoagulant proteins. Forty-seven consecutive patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) were investigated for activity of protein C, protein S, antithrombin, and factor V Leiden mutation. Forty-two (89.4%) patients had low levels of at least 1 while 33 (70.2%) patients were deficient for all anticoagulant proteins studied. Forty-six (97.9%) patients were negative for factor V Leiden mutation. The deficiencies were more marked in hepatitis C virus-positive patients and patients with model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score >15. Six (12.8%) patients had portal vein thrombosis (PVT), and all had diminished protein S activity. In conclusions, deficiency of anticoagulant proteins occur in early phase of chronic liver disease. The severity of deficiency is proportional to the severity of liver disease. Despite the high prevalence of hypercoagulability, the incidence of PVT is low. Further studies with larger cohort of patients are needed to support these conclusions and to study other associated factors.

  13. Differences in Ichthyophonus prevalence and infection severity between upper Yukon River and Tanana River chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R; Hershberger, P

    2006-08-01

    Two genetically distinct populations of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), were simultaneously sampled at the confluence of the Yukon and Tanana rivers in 2003. Upper Yukon-Canadian fish had significantly higher infection prevalence as well as more severe infections (higher parasite density in heart tissue) than the lower Yukon-Tanana River fish. Both populations had migrated the same distance from the mouth of the Yukon River at the time of sampling but had significantly different distances remaining to swim before reaching their respective spawning grounds. Multiple working hypotheses are proposed to explain the differences between the two stocks: (1) the two genetically distinct populations have different inherent resistance to infection, (2) genetically influenced differences in feeding behaviour resulted in temporal and/or spatial differences in exposure, (3) physiological differences resulting from different degrees of sexual maturity influenced the course of disease, and (4) the most severely infected Tanana River fish either died en route or fatigued and were unable to complete their migration to the Tanana River, thus leaving a population of apparently healthier fish.

  14. Severe aortic stenosis patients with preserved ejection fraction according to flow and gradient classification: Prevalence and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Gómez, Ariana; Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; Monteagudo, Juan Manuel; Izurieta, Carlos; Hinojar, Rocío; García, Ana; Casas, Eduardo; Jiménez-Nacher, José Julio; Moya, José Luis; Ruiz, Soledad; Zamorano, José Luis

    2017-12-01

    Clinicians often encounter patients with apparently discordant echocardiographic findings, severe aortic stenosis (SAS) defined by aortic valve area (AVA) despite a low mean gradient. A new classification according to flow state and pressure gradient has been proposed. We sought to assess the prevalence, characteristics and outcomes of patients with asymptomatic SAS with preserved left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) according to flow and gradient. In total 442 patients with SAS (AVAigradient (≥ or Gradient (LF/LG): 21.3%(n=94); Normal Flow/Low Gradient (NF/LG): 32.1%(n=142); Low Flow/High Gradient (LF/HG): 6.8%(n=30); Normal Flow/High Gradient (NF/HG): 39,8%(n=176). Mean follow-up time was 20.5months (SD=10.3). Primary combined endpoint was cardiovascular mortality and hospital admission for SAS related symptom, secondary endpoint was aortic valve replacement (AVR), comparing HG group to LF/LG group. During follow-up 17 (18%) of LF/LG patients and 21 (10.2%) of HG patients met the primary endpoint. A lower free of event survival (cardiovascular mortality and hospital admission) was observed in patients with LF/LG AS (Breslow, p=0.002). Significant differences were noted between groups with a lower AVR free survival in the LF/LG group compared to HG groups (Breslow, p=0.002). Our study confirms the high prevalence and worse prognosis of LF/LG SAS. Clinicians must be aware of this entity to ensure appropriate patient management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hormonally active phytochemicals and vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Max R; Edwards, Thea M

    2017-06-01

    Living plants produce a diversity of chemicals that share structural and functional properties with vertebrate hormones. Wildlife species interact with these chemicals either through consumption of plant materials or aquatic exposure. Accumulating evidence shows that exposure to these hormonally active phytochemicals (HAPs) often has consequences for behavior, physiology, and fecundity. These fitness effects suggest there is potential for an evolutionary response by vertebrates to HAPs. Here, we explore the toxicological HAP-vertebrate relationship in an evolutionary framework and discuss the potential for vertebrates to adapt to or even co-opt the effects of plant-derived chemicals that influence fitness. We lay out several hypotheses about HAPs and provide a path forward to test whether plant-derived chemicals influence vertebrate reproduction and evolution. Studies of phytochemicals with direct impacts on vertebrate reproduction provide an obvious and compelling system for studying evolutionary toxicology. Furthermore, an understanding of whether animal populations evolve in response to HAPs could provide insightful context for the study of rapid evolution and how animals cope with chemical agents in the environment.

  16. Prevalence and severity of ocular involvement in Graves' disease according to sex and age: A clinical study from Babol, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Sara; Moazezi, Zoleika; Bayani, Mohammad Ali

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid-associated eye disease (TED), previously known as Graves' ophthalmopathy is a cosmetically and functionally debilitating disease that is seen worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical severity of ocular manifestations of Graves' disease according to sex, age and duration in northern Iran. Between April 2011 and March 2012, 105 patients with Graves' disease, underwent ophthalmic examination, including ocular motility, exophthalmometry, intraocular pressure (IOP), slit lamp and fundoscopy. Patients received scores according to modified Werner's NO SPECS classification. Ocular involvement was found in 70 patients with established Graves's disease. The mean age was 35.0 years, (SD 13.0, range 15 to 69). The most common ocular findings were exophthalmometric proptosis of more than 20 mm (63.8%), lid lag (55.7%), lid retraction (52.8%) and tearing (38.6%). Almost 70% of patients had bilateral involvement. Elevated IOP was seen in 15 (25.4%) patients, and was significantly related to proptosis (P=0.007). More than half of the patients (n=36, 52.2%) had a modified Werner's NO SPECS score of 3.00. Clinical severity as shown by the increasing number of signs and symptoms per patient was correlated to increasing age (r=0.31, P=0.01) but not to gender (P=0.17). Both functional (ocular motility disorders, increased IOP) and cosmetic (proptosis, periorbital edema) sequels are common ocular presentations in patients with Graves' disease. Proptosis was the most common finding in this study and was associated with elevated IOP. Clinical severity was found to correlate to increasing age.

  17. Vascular complications of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Kevin J.; Ross, E. Raymond S.; Norris, Heather; McCollum, Charles N.

    2006-01-01

    Five consecutive cases of prosthetic inter-vertebral disc displacement with severe vascular complications on revisional surgery are described. The objective of this case report is to warn spinal surgeons that major vascular complications are likely with anterior displacement of inter-vertebral discs. We have not been able to find a previous report on vascular complications associated with anterior displacement of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs. In all five patients the prosthetic disc had e...

  18. The Association Between Body Mass Index and the Prevalence, Severity, and Frequency of Low Back Pain: Data From the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Charles A; Kusin, David J; Li, Samuel Q; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2018-02-16

    Cross-sectional study. To determine whether there is an association between body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence, severity, and frequency of low back pain and identify other potential patient risk factors for the development of low back pain. Many studies have implicated that a high BMI is a risk factor for low back pain. However, few studies have examined the association between increased BMI and the prevalence, severity, and frequency of low back pain. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, a multicenter, prospective study of knee osteoarthritis, were used to conduct this study, which included 4796 patients. BMI was categorized according to the World Health Organization classification and the prevalence, severity, and frequency of low back pain were assessed. Logistic regression was performed to identify additional patient risk factors associated with low back pain. The prevalence of low back pain was found to be significantly higher in patients with an elevated BMI compared to those with normal or underweight BMI and demonstrated a stepwise increase with each BMI category. Approximately 47.4% of patients with normal or underweight BMI complained of low back pain compared with 72.8% of morbidly obese patients (P frequency or severity of low back pain episodes. Osteoarthritis of the back and depression were patient variables found to be associated with all three measures (prevalence, severity, and frequency) of low back pain. Elevated BMI is strongly associated with an increased prevalence of low back pain. Depression and osteoarthritis of the back are associated with the prevalence, severity, and frequency of low back pain. 3.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence by type and severity: population-based studies in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2013-08-01

    The article estimates the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) by type and severity in population-based samples from three countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). The article utilized nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in Azerbaijan (2006), Moldova (2005), and Ukraine (2007). Respondents were selected using stratified multistage cluster sampling. The sample included ever-married (or cohabitating) females of reproductive age (15-49 years old); weighted sample n = 3,847 in Azerbaijan, n = 4,321 in Moldova, and n = 2,355 in Ukraine. The analysis used multinomial survey logistic regression adjusting for the sampling design and sampling weights. Ten percent of ever-partnered women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 20% in Moldova ever experienced physical IPV (without sexual) from their most recent husband or cohabitating partner; 3% of women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 5% in Moldova experienced sexual IPV (with or without physical), and 2% of women in Azerbaijan, 3% in Ukraine, and 6% in Moldova experienced violence resulting in severe physical injuries from their most recent partner. In all three countries physical, sexual, and injurious IPV was higher among formerly married women. Compared to women with above secondary education, women with secondary education or below demonstrated higher risk for physical IPV (in Moldova and Ukraine), sexual IPV in Moldova, and injurious IPV in all three countries. Poor socioeconomic status-as indicated by low household wealth status in Azerbaijan and partner's unemployment in Moldova and Ukraine-was significantly associated with higher risk for physical and injurious IPV. In Moldova and Ukraine partners' low level of education was associated with higher risk for sexual IPV. The article demonstrates that experiences and factors associated with IPV are diverse and context specific. The findings may be helpful in targeting interventions to

  20. Influence of physical activity on vertebral strength during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junno, Juho-Antti; Paananen, Markus; Karppinen, Jaro; Tammelin, Tuija; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Niskanen, Markku; Nieminen, Miika T; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Takatalo, Jani; Tervonen, Osmo; Tuukkanen, Juha

    2013-02-01

    Reduced vertebral strength is a clear risk factor for vertebral fractures. Men and women with vertebral fractures often have reduced vertebral size and bone mineral density (BMD). Vertebral strength is controlled by both genetic and developmental factors. Malnutrition and low levels of physical activity are commonly considered to result in reduced bone size during growth. Several studies have also demonstrated the general relationship between BMD and physical activity in the appendicular skeleton. In this study, we wanted to clarify the role of physical activity on vertebral bodies. Vertebral dimensions appear to generally be less pliant than long bones when lifetime changes occur. We wanted to explore the association between physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength parameters such as cross-sectional size and BMD. The association between physical activity and vertebral strength was explored by measuring vertebral strength parameters and defining the level of physical activity during adolescence. The study population consisted of 6,928 males and females who, at 15 to 16 and 19 years of age, responded to a mailed questionnaire inquiring about their physical activity. A total of 558 individuals at the mean age of 21 years underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We measured the dimensions of the fourth lumbar vertebra from the MRI scans of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 and performed T2* relaxation time mapping, reflective of BMD. Vertebral strength was based on these two parameters. We analyzed the association of physical activity on vertebral strength using the analysis of variance. We observed no association between the level of physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength at 21 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Imaging of vertebral trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daffner, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This translation of the toolbook published in the 'US-ART' series, offers invaluable help to medical radiologists in the diagnostic imaging and evaluation of complex vertebral traumas which are on the rise, inter alia due to increasingly dangerous leisure sports. (orig./CB) [de

  2. Reintroduction of locally extinct vertebrates impacts arid soil fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Introduced species have contributed to extinction of native vertebrates in many parts of the world. Changes to vertebrate assemblages are also likely to alter microbial communities through coextinction of some taxa and the introduction of others. Many attempts to restore degraded habitats involve removal of exotic vertebrates (livestock and feral animals) and reintroduction of locally extinct species, but the impact of such reintroductions on microbial communities is largely unknown. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) region to examine whether replacing exotic vertebrates with reintroduced native vertebrates led to changes in soil fungal communities at a reserve in arid central Australia. Soil fungal diversity was significantly different between dune and swale (interdune) habitats. Fungal communities also differed significantly between sites with exotic or reintroduced native vertebrates after controlling for the effect of habitat. Several fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found exclusively inside the reserve were present in scats from reintroduced native vertebrates, providing a direct link between the vertebrate assemblage and soil microbial communities. Our results show that changes to vertebrate assemblages through local extinctions and the invasion of exotic species can alter soil fungal communities. If local extinction of one or several species results in the coextinction of microbial taxa, the full complement of ecological interactions may never be restored. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The National and Regional Prevalence Rates of Disability, Type, of Disability and Severity in Saudi Arabia-Analysis of 2016 Demographic Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindawas, Saad M; Vennu, Vishal

    2018-02-28

    The prevalence of disability varies between countries ranging from less than 1% to up to 30% in some countries, thus, the estimated global disability prevalence is about 15%. However, it is unknown what the current estimate of disability and its types and severity are in Saudi Arabia. Thus, the objective of this study is to estimate national and regional prevalence rates of any disability, types of disability, and their severity among Saudi populations. Data on disability status were extracted from the national demographic survey conducted in 2016 as reported by the General Authority for Statistics, Saudi Arabia (N = 20,064,970). Prevalence rates per a population of 100,000 of any disability, type of disability, and its severity were calculated at the national level and in all 13 regions. Out of 20,064,970 Saudi citizens surveyed, 667,280 citizens reported disabilities, accounting for a prevalence rate of 3326 per a population of 100,000 (3.3%). Individuals aged 60 years and above (11,014) and males (3818) had a higher prevalence rate of disability compared with females (2813). The Tabuk region has the highest rate of reported disability, at 4.3%. The prevalence rates of extreme disabilities in mobility and sight were higher in Madinah (57,343) and Northern border (41,236) regions, respectively. In Saudi Arabia, more than half a million Saudi citizens (1 out of every 30 individuals) reported the presence of disability during the year 2016. A higher prevalence rate of disability was seen among those aged 60 years and above, and males. Targeted efforts are required at the national and regional levels to expand and improve rehabilitation and social services for all people with disabilities.

  4. Management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Dionyssiotis, Yannis

    2010-01-01

    Yannis DionyssiotisRhodes General Hospital, Rhodes, GreeceAbstract: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with considerable reduction of quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. The management of patients with vertebral fractures should include treatment for osteoporosis and measures to reduce pain and improve mobility. This article provides information for management and rehabilitation of vertebral fractures based on clinical experience and literature.Keywords: vertebral fracture...

  5. Socio-economic factors associated with the 1‑year prevalence of severe pain and pain-related sickness absence in the Austrian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) investigate the relation of socio-economic status (SES), measured as education, occupation, and income, with the 12-month prevalence of severe pain and with pain-related sickness absence, and (2) analyse to what extent sociodemographic and medical factors influence these associations. The study population comprised 8084 subjects aged between 15 and 65 years from the Austrian Health Interview Survey in 2006/07. Associations of SES with the 1‑year prevalence of severe pain and sickness absence due to pain in those with severe pain was assessed with logistic regression analysis and adjusted for socio-demographic and chronic medical conditions. The 1‑year prevalence of severe pain was 33.7%. Among those with severe pain, 32.9% were on sickness absence due to pain. SES was significantly associated with the prevalence of severe pain and even more strongly with sickness absence due to pain. Stepwise adjustment for socio-demographics and medical factors had only marginal effects on these associations. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) for severe pain were 1.14; 1.18 and 1.32 for low income, blue-collar workers, and low education, respectively. Related ORs for sickness absence due to pain were 1.52; 1.14 and 2.05. There was an association between SES, particularly measured as educational level, and the prevalence of severe pain, which was even stronger with sickness absence due to pain.

  6. Prevalence, Nature, Severity and Risk Factors for Prescribing Errors in Hospital Inpatients: Prospective Study in 20 UK Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Darren M; Lewis, Penny J; Tully, Mary P; Farragher, Tracey M; Taylor, David; Wass, Valerie; Williams, Steven D; Dornan, Tim

    2015-09-01

    It has been suggested that doctors in their first year of post-graduate training make a disproportionate number of prescribing errors. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of prescribing errors made by first-year post-graduate doctors with that of errors by senior doctors and non-medical prescribers and to investigate the predictors of potentially serious prescribing errors. Pharmacists in 20 hospitals over 7 prospectively selected days collected data on the number of medication orders checked, the grade of prescriber and details of any prescribing errors. Logistic regression models (adjusted for clustering by hospital) identified factors predicting the likelihood of prescribing erroneously and the severity of prescribing errors. Pharmacists reviewed 26,019 patients and 124,260 medication orders; 11,235 prescribing errors were detected in 10,986 orders. The mean error rate was 8.8 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 8.6-9.1) errors per 100 medication orders. Rates of errors for all doctors in training were significantly higher than rates for medical consultants. Doctors who were 1 year (odds ratio [OR] 2.13; 95 % CI 1.80-2.52) or 2 years in training (OR 2.23; 95 % CI 1.89-2.65) were more than twice as likely to prescribe erroneously. Prescribing errors were 70 % (OR 1.70; 95 % CI 1.61-1.80) more likely to occur at the time of hospital admission than when medication orders were issued during the hospital stay. No significant differences in severity of error were observed between grades of prescriber. Potentially serious errors were more likely to be associated with prescriptions for parenteral administration, especially for cardiovascular or endocrine disorders. The problem of prescribing errors in hospitals is substantial and not solely a problem of the most junior medical prescribers, particularly for those errors most likely to cause significant patient harm. Interventions are needed to target these high-risk errors by all grades of staff and hence

  7. Standards for reporting chronic periodontitis prevalence and severity in epidemiologic studies: Proposed standards from the Joint EU/USA Periodontal Epidemiology Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtfreter, Birte; Albandar, Jasim M; Dietrich, Thomas; Dye, Bruce A; Eaton, Kenneth A; Eke, Paul I; Papapanou, Panos N; Kocher, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Periodontal diseases are common and their prevalence varies in different populations. However, prevalence estimates are influenced by the methodology used, including measurement techniques, case definitions, and periodontal examination protocols, as well as differences in oral health status. As a consequence, comparisons between populations are severely hampered and inferences regarding the global variation in prevalence can hardly be drawn. To overcome these limitations, the authors suggest standardized principles for the reporting of the prevalence and severity of periodontal diseases in future epidemiological studies. These principles include the comprehensive reporting of the study design, the recording protocol, and specific subject-related and oral data. Further, a range of periodontal data should be reported in the total population and within specific age groups. Periodontal data include the prevalence and extent of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and probing depth (PD) on site and tooth level according to specific thresholds, mean CAL/PD, the CDC/AAP case definition, and bleeding on probing. Consistent implementation of these standards in future studies will ensure improved reporting quality, permit meaningful comparisons of the prevalence of periodontal diseases across populations, and provide better insights into the determinants of such variation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Height gain of vertebral bodies and stabilization of vertebral geometry over one year after vertebroplasty of osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitton, Michael B.; Morgen, Nadine; Herber, Sascha; Dueber, Christoph; Drees, Philipp; Boehm, Bertram

    2008-01-01

    The height gain of vertebral bodies after vertebroplasty and geometrical stability was evaluated over a one-year period. Osteoporotic fractures were treated with vertebroplasty. The vertebral geometry and disc spaces were analysed using reformatted computed tomography (CT) images: heights of the anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral walls, disc spaces, endplate angles, and minimal endplate distances. Vertebrae were assigned to group I [severe compression (anterior height/posterior height) 0.75). A total of 102 vertebral bodies in 40 patients (12 men, 28 women, age 70.3 ± 9.5) were treated with vertebroplasty and prospectively followed for 12 months. Group I showed a greater benefit compared with group II with respect to anterior height gain (+2.1 ± 1.9 vs +0.7 ± 1.6 mm, P < 0.001), reduction of endplate angle (-3.6 ± 4.2 vs -0.8 ± 2.3 , P < 0.001), and compression index (+0.09 ± 0.11 vs +0.01 ± 0.06, P < 0.001). At one-year follow-up, group I demonstrated preserved anterior height gain (+1.5 ± 2.8 mm, P < 0.015) and improved endplate angle (-3.4 ± 4.9 , P < 0.001). In group II, the vertebral heights returned to and were fixed at the pre-interventional levels. Vertebroplasty provided vertebral height gain over one year, particularly in cases with severe compression. Vertebrae with moderate compression were fixed and stabilized at the pre-treatment level over one year. (orig.)

  9. Predicting vertebral bone strength by vertebral static histomorphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Mosekilde, Lis

    2002-01-01

    of the entire vertebral bodies (L-2) were used for histomorphometry. The other iliac crest biopsies and the L-3 were destructively tested by compression. High correlation was found between BV/TV or Tb.Sp and vertebral bone strength (absolute value of r = 0.86 in both cases). Addition of Tb.Th significantly....... No gender-related differences were found in any of the relationships. Neither static histomorphometry nor biomechanical testing of iliac crest bone biopsies is a good predictor of vertebral bone strength.......The study investigates the relationship between static histomorphometry and bone strength of human lumbar vertebral bone. The ability of vertebral histomorphometry to predict vertebral bone strength was compared with that of vertebral densitometry, and also with histomorphometry and bone strength...

  10. Slipped vertebral epiphysis (report of 2 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Reza Farrokhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • Avulsion or fracture of posterior ring apophysis of lumbar vertebra is an uncommon cause of radicular low back pain in pediatric age group, adolescents and athletes. This lesion is one of differential diagnosis of disc herniation. We reported two teenage boys with sever low back pain and sciatica during soccer play that ultimately treated with diagnosis of lipped vertebral apophysis.
    • KEY WORDS: Ring Apophysis, vertebral fracture, sciatica, low back pain, disc herniation.

  11. Vertebral Column Resection for Rigid Spinal Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifi, Comron; Laratta, Joseph L; Petridis, Petros; Shillingford, Jamal N; Lehman, Ronald A; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2017-05-01

    Broad narrative review. To review the evolution, operative technique, outcomes, and complications associated with posterior vertebral column resection. A literature review of posterior vertebral column resection was performed. The authors' surgical technique is outlined in detail. The authors' experience and the literature regarding vertebral column resection are discussed at length. Treatment of severe, rigid coronal and/or sagittal malalignment with posterior vertebral column resection results in approximately 50-70% correction depending on the type of deformity. Surgical site infection rates range from 2.9% to 9.7%. Transient and permanent neurologic injury rates range from 0% to 13.8% and 0% to 6.3%, respectively. Although there are significant variations in EBL throughout the literature, it can be minimized by utilizing tranexamic acid intraoperatively. The ability to correct a rigid deformity in the spine relies on osteotomies. Each osteotomy is associated with a particular magnitude of correction at a single level. Posterior vertebral column resection is the most powerful posterior osteotomy method providing a successful correction of fixed complex deformities. Despite meticulous surgical technique and precision, this robust osteotomy technique can be associated with significant morbidity even in the most experienced hands.

  12. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  13. Effects of biomarkers of oxidative stress damage on prevalence and severity of visual disability among black Central Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Mbenza, B; Muaka, M Mvitu; Yokobo, E Cibanda; Phemba, I Longo; Mokondjimobe, E; Gombet, T; Ndembe, D Kibokela; Mona, D Tulomba; Masamba, S Wayiza

    2012-01-01

    Because of the demographic transition, lifestyle changes, urbanization, and nutrition transition, Central Africans are at higher risk of ocular diseases associated with oxidative stress and visual disability. This study aimed to estimate the normal values of oxidant status defined by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), 8-Isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and to determine their pathogenic role in the prevalence and the severity of visual disability among these black Africans. This was a cross-sectional study, run in a case-control study randomly selected from Kinshasa province, DR Congo. The study included 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (cases) matched for sex and age to 50 healthy non diabetic controls. Logistic regression models were used to identify independent determinants of visual disability. The presence rates were 8.5% for blindness, 20.5% for visual impairment and 29% for visual disability including blindness and visual impairment. After adjusted for taro leaves intake, red beans intake, T2DM, aging, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure, we identified low education level (OR=3.3 95%CI 1.5-7.2; p=0.003), rural-urban migration (OR=2.6 95% CI 1.2-5.6; p=0.017), and high Ox-LDL (OR=2.3 95% CI 1.1-4.7; p=0.029) as the important independent determinants of visual disability. After adjusted for education, intake of red beans, intake of taro leaves, triglycerides, and T2DM, we identified no intake of safou fruit (OR=50.7 95% CI 15.2-168.5; pvisual disability. After adjusted for education level, no intake of red beans, no intake of Taro leaves, triglycerides, and T2DM, we identified no intake of Safou fruit (OR=43.1 95% CI 13.7-135.4; pvisual disability. Visual disability remains a public health problem in Central Africa. Antioxidant supplement, fruit intake, nutrition education, control of migration, and blocking of oxidative stress are crucial steps for delayed development of vision loss.

  14. Mental health problems in deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents : findings on prevalence, pathogenesis and clinical complexities, and implications for prevention, diagnosis and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gent, Tiejo van

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to expand the knowledge of mental health problems with deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents in the following domains: 1. The prevalence of mental health problems; 2. Specific intra- and interpersonal aspects of pathogenesis; 3. characteristics of the

  15. Cement Leakage in Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures: Analysis of Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weixing; Jin, Daxiang; Ma, Hui; Ding, Jinyong; Xu, Jixi; Zhang, Shuncong; Liang, De

    2016-05-01

    The risk factors for cement leakage were retrospectively reviewed in 192 patients who underwent percutaneous vertebral augmentation (PVA). To discuss the factors related to the cement leakage in PVA procedure for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. PVA is widely applied for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Cement leakage is a major complication of this procedure. The risk factors for cement leakage were controversial. A retrospective review of 192 patients who underwent PVA was conducted. The following data were recorded: age, sex, bone density, number of fractured vertebrae before surgery, number of treated vertebrae, severity of the treated vertebrae, operative approach, volume of injected bone cement, preoperative vertebral compression ratio, preoperative local kyphosis angle, intraosseous clefts, preoperative vertebral cortical bone defect, and ratio and type of cement leakage. To study the correlation between each factor and cement leakage ratio, bivariate regression analysis was employed to perform univariate analysis, whereas multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to perform multivariate analysis. The study included 192 patients (282 treated vertebrae), and cement leakage occurred in 100 vertebrae (35.46%). The vertebrae with preoperative cortical bone defects generally exhibited higher cement leakage ratio, and the leakage is typically type C. Vertebrae with intact cortical bones before the procedure tend to experience type S leakage. Univariate analysis showed that patient age, bone density, number of fractured vertebrae before surgery, and vertebral cortical bone were associated with cement leakage ratio (Pcement leakage are bone density and vertebral cortical bone defect, with standardized partial regression coefficients of -0.085 and 0.144, respectively. High bone density and vertebral cortical bone defect are independent risk factors associated with bone cement leakage.

  16. Prevalence and causes of severe visual impairment and blindness among children in the lorestan province of iran, using the key informant method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Hessom; Kuper, Hannah; Rezvan, Farhad; Amelie, Khatere; Mahboobi-Pur, Hassan; Oladi, Mohammad Reza; Muhit, Mohammad; Hashemi, Hassan

    2010-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of severe visual impairment and blindness among children in Lorestan province of Iran, and to assess the feasibility of the Key Informant Method in this setting. Potential cases were identified using the Key Informant Method, in 3 counties of Lorestan province during June through August 2008, and referred for examination. Causes of severe visual impairment/blindness were determined and categorized using standard World Health Organization methods. Of 123 children referred for examination, 27 children were confirmed to have severe visual impairment/blindness or blindness. The median age was11 years (interquartile range 6-13), and 59% were girls. After adjusting for non-attenders, the estimated prevalence of severe visual impairment/blindness was 0.04% (0.03-0.05). The main site of abnormality was retina (44%), followed by disorders of the whole eye (33%). The majority of causes had a hereditary etiology (70%), which was associated with a family history of blindness (P = 0.002). Potentially avoidable causes of severe visual impairment/blindness were found in 14 children (52%). Almost all children with severe visual impairment/blindness had a history of parental consanguinity (93%). Our findings suggest a moderate prevalence of childhood blindness in the Lorestan province of Iran, a high proportion of which may be avoidable, given improved access to ophthalmic and genetic counselling services in rural areas. The Key Informant Method is feasible in Iran; future research is discussed.

  17. [Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County of Guangdong Province: the China Nine-Province Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jian; He, Mingguang; Zhao, Jialiang; Fang, Min; Ellwein, Leon B; He, Ning; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xuecheng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County of Guangdong Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5 531 individuals aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County from September 2006 to January 2007. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated using village registers followed by door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and thirty-one individuals were enumerated and 4 589 persons were examined, the response rate was 82.97%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 2.38% (109/4 589) and 9.44% (433/4 589) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 2.68% (123/4 589) and 18.15% (833/4 589) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 1 239.34, P blindness and visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment is higher among older adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County. Cataract remains as the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment.

  18. Prevalence and severity of behavioural symptoms in patients with Korsakoff syndrome and other alcohol-related cognitive disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerridzen, Ineke J; Moerman-van den Brink, Wiltine G; Depla, Marja F; Verschuur, Els M L; Veenhuizen, Ruth B; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Hertogh, Cees M P M; Joling, Karlijn J

    2017-03-01

    Experiences from clinical practice suggest that behavioural symptoms in patients with Korsakoff syndrome (KS) are a frequent problem. Knowledge about behavioural symptoms is important in understanding and managing these symptoms. The aim of this study is to review the prevalence and severity of behavioural symptoms in KS. Relevant articles were identified by searching Medline (PubMed), PsycINFO, Embase and CINAHL up to 4 June 2014. Two reviewers independently selected the studies, extracted their baseline data and assessed methodological quality using a standardized checklist. Fifteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A diversity of diagnoses was used indicating that KS and other alcohol-related cognitive disorders and terms were used interchangeably. None of the studies were primarily designed to estimate the prevalence or severity of behavioural symptoms in patients with KS. Most studies had serious methodological limitations. The reported prevalence estimates of behavioural symptoms in the included studies varied strongly. Most prevalent were depressive symptoms and disorders (2-50%, median 27%) and agitation and aggression (10-54%, median 27%). None of the reported, mean severity estimates met pathological thresholds. The highest severity estimates were found for apathy. Good quality studies on behavioural symptoms in patients with KS are lacking. Observational research designed to provide reliable estimates of the prevalence and severity of behavioural symptoms in patients with KS is needed. This could improve understanding and managing these symptoms and help care staff to better support the needs of this specific patient group. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Research Review: Changes in the prevalence and symptom severity of child post-traumatic stress disorder in the year following trauma - a meta-analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Rachel M; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Fearon, Pasco; Lobo, Sarah; McKinnon, Anna; Fraser, Abigail; Halligan, Sarah L

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the natural course of child and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has significant implications for the identification of, and intervention for, at-risk youth. We used a meta-analytic approach to examine longitudinal changes in youth PTSD prevalence and symptoms over the first 12 months posttrauma. We conducted a systematic review to identify longitudinal studies of PTSD in young people (5-18 years old), excluding treatment trials. The search yielded 27 peer-reviewed studies and one unpublished dataset for analysis of pooled prevalence estimates, relative prevalence reduction and standardised mean symptom change. Key moderators were also explored, including age, proportion of boys in the sample, initial prevalence of PTSD and PTSD measurement type. Analyses demonstrated moderate declines in PTSD prevalence and symptom severity over the first 3-6 months posttrauma. From 1 to 6 months posttrauma, the prevalence of PTSD reduced by approximately 50%. Symptoms also showed moderate decline, particularly across the first 3 months posttrauma. There was little evidence of further change in prevalence or symptom severity after 6 months, suggesting that it is unlikely a child would lose a PTSD diagnosis without intervention beyond this point. The current findings provide key information about the likelihood of posttrauma recovery in the absence of intervention and have important implications for our understanding of child and adolescent PTSD. Results are discussed with reference to the timing of PTSD screening and the potential role of early interventions. Findings particularly highlight the importance of future research to develop our understanding of what factors prevent the action of normal recovery from the 'acute' posttrauma period. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Prevalence and severity of dental caries in school students aged 6-12 years in Mafraq governorate: Northeast of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Smadi

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The caries prevalence in this age group in Mafraq was very high. One-third of the examined students had very high deft and DMFT scores, which reflected negligence of children oral health. Untreated dental caries was the main component of DMFT scores among the examined population, indicating lack of dental care services for those children, especially for refugees.

  1. Unnoticed Post-Void Residual Urine Volume in People with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, K. H.; Tinselboer, B. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Penning, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Increased post-void residual urine volume (PVR) is often seen in geriatric populations. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have risk factors in common with these populations. Aims: To investigate in adults with ID: (1) Feasibility of portable ultrasound bladder scanning; (2) Prevalence of PVR; and (3) Relations with proposed…

  2. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Prevalence, Severity, and Outcomes in the United States: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Nicole E; Oji, Stefany; Mufti, Arjmand R; Browning, Jeffrey D; Parikh, Neehar D; Odewole, Mobolaji; Mayo, Helen; Singal, Amit G

    2018-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the United States, affecting 75-100 million Americans. However, the disease burden may not be equally distributed among races or ethnicities. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize racial and ethnic disparities in NAFLD prevalence, severity, and prognosis. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through August 2016 for studies that reported NAFLD prevalence in population-based or high-risk cohorts, NAFLD severity including presence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and significant fibrosis, and NAFLD prognosis including development of cirrhosis complications and mortality. Pooled relative risks, according to race and ethnicity, were calculated for each outcome using the DerSimonian and Laird method for a random-effects model. We identified 34 studies comprising 368,569 unique patients that characterized disparities in NAFLD prevalence, severity, or prognosis. NAFLD prevalence was highest in Hispanics, intermediate in Whites, and lowest in Blacks, although differences between groups were smaller in high-risk cohorts (range 47.6%-55.5%) than population-based cohorts (range, 13.0%-22.9%). Among patients with NAFLD, risk of NASH was higher in Hispanics (relative risk, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.98-1.21) and lower in Blacks (relative risk, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.60-0.87) than Whites. However, the proportion of patients with significant fibrosis did not significantly differ among racial or ethnic groups. Data were limited and discordant on racial or ethnic disparities in outcomes of patients with NAFLD. In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found significant racial and ethnic disparities in NAFLD prevalence and severity in the United States, with the highest burden in Hispanics and lowest burden in Blacks. However, data are discordant on racial or ethnic differences in outcomes of patients with NAFLD. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by

  3. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and unmet need for treatment of common mental disorders in Japan: results from the final dataset of World Mental Health Japan Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H.; Kawakami, N.; Kessler, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity, and treatment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th ed. (DSM-IV) mental disorders in Japan based on the final data set of the World Mental Health Japan Survey conducted in 2002–2006. Methods Face-to-face household interviews of 4,130 respondents who were randomly selected from Japanese-speaking residents aged 20 years or older were conducted from 2002 to 2006 in 11 community populations in Japan (overall response rate, 56%). The World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), a fully structured lay administered psychiatric diagnostic interview, was used for diagnostic assessment. Results Lifetime/12-month prevalence of any DSM-IV common mental disorders in Japan was estimated to be 20.3/7.6%. Rank-order of four classes of mental disorders was anxiety disorders (8.1/4.9%), substance disorders (7.4/1.0%), mood disorders (6.5/2.3%), and impulse control disorders (2.0/0.7%). The most common individual disorders were alcohol abuse/dependence (7.3/0.9%), major depressive disorder (6.1/2.2%), specific phobia (3.4/2.3%), and generalized anxiety disorder (2.6/1.3%). While the lifetime prevalence of any mental disorder was greater for males and the middle-aged, the persistence (proportion of 12-month cases among lifetime cases) of any mental disorder was greater for females and younger respondents. Among those with any 12-month disorder, 15.3% were classified as severe, 44.1% moderate, and 40.6% mild. Although a strong association between severity and service use was found, only 21.9% of respondents with any 12-month disorder sought treatment within the last 12 months; only 37.0% of severe cases received medical care. The mental health specialty sector was the most common resource used in Japan. Although the prevalence of mental disorders were quite low, mental disorders were the second

  4. Anthropometric measurements and vertebral deformities. European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS) Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnell, O; O'Neill, T; Felsenberg, D; Kanis, J; Cooper, C; Silman, A J

    1997-08-15

    To investigate the association between anthropometric indices and morphometrically determined vertebral deformity, the authors carried out a cross-sectional study using data from the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS), a population-based study of vertebral osteoporosis in 36 European centers from 19 countries. A total of 16,047 EVOS subjects were included in this analysis, of whom 1,973 subjects (915 males, 1,058 females) (12.3%) aged 50 years or over had one or more vertebral deformities ("cases"). The cases were compared with the 14,074 subjects (6,539 males, 7,535 females) with morphometrically normal spines ("controls"). Data were collected on self-reported height at age 25 years and minimum weight after age 25 years, as well as on current measured height and weight. Body mass index (BMI) and height and weight change were calculated from these data. The relations between these variables and vertebral deformity were examined separately by sex with logistic regression adjusting for age, smoking, and physical activity. In females, there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing quintile of current weight, current BMI, and weight gain since age 25 years. In males, subjects in the lightest quintile for these measures were at increased risk but there was no evidence of a trend. An ecologic analysis by country revealed a negative correlation between mean BMI and the prevalence of deformity in females but not in males. The authors conclude that low body weight is associated with presence of vertebral deformity.

  5. Prevalence, Disparities, and Trends in Obesity and Severe Obesity Among Students in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, School District, 2006–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Jessica M.; Mallya, Giridhar; Polansky, Marcia; Schwarz, Donald F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Epidemic increases in obesity negatively affect the health of US children, individually and at the population level. Although surveillance of childhood obesity at the local level is challenging, height and weight data routinely collected by school districts are valuable and often underused public health resources. Methods We analyzed data from the School District of Philadelphia for 4 school years (2006–2007 through 2009–2010) to assess the prevalence of and trends in obesity and...

  6. Midterm Follow-Up of Vertebral Geometry and Remodeling of the Vertebral Bidisk Unit (VDU) After Percutaneous Vertebroplasty of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitton, Michael Bernhard; Koch, Ulrike; Drees, Philip; Dueber, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate geometrical stability and preservation of height gain of vertebral bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty during 2 years' follow-up and to elucidate the geometric remodeling process of the vertebral bidisk unit (VDU) of the affected segment. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with pain resistant to analgetic drugs were treated with polymethylmethacrylate vertebroplasty. Mean ± standard error cement volume was 5.1 ± 2.0 ml. Vertebral geometry was documented by sagittal and coronal reformations from multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral heights, end plate angles, and compression index (CI = anterior/posterior height). Additionally, the VDU (vertebral bodies plus both adjacent disk spaces) was calculated from the multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and both lateral aspects. Patients were assigned to two groups: moderate compression with CI of >0.75 (group 1) and severe compression with CI of o vs. -1.0 ± 2.7 o , P o , P < 0.01) and compression indices (+0.11 ± 0.15, P < 0.01). Thus, posterior height loss of vertebrae and adjacent intervertebral disk spaces contributed to a remodeling of the VDU, resulting in some compensation of the kyphotic malposition of the affected vertebral segment. Vertebroplasty improved vertebral geometry during midterm follow-up. In severe vertebral compression, significant height gain and improvement of end plate angles were achieved. The remodeling of the VDUs contributes to reduction of kyphosis and an overall improvement of the statics of the spine.

  7. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in People With Korsakoff Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders Living in Specialized Long-Term Care Facilities: Prevalence, Severity, and Associated Caregiver Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerridzen, Ineke J; Hertogh, Cees M P M; Depla, Marja F; Veenhuizen, Ruth B; Verschuur, Els M L; Joling, Karlijn J

    2018-03-01

    Caring for people with Korsakoff syndrome (KS) residing in specialized long-term care facilities (LTCFs) can be distressing because of challenging neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). However, good-quality studies on NPS in this under-researched population are lacking. This study examined the prevalence and severity of NPS in people with KS living in specialized LTCFs and the associated caregiver distress. Cross-sectional, observational study. Data were obtained using structured interviews with care staff, elderly care physicians, and residents. Nine specialized LTCFs in the Netherlands. KS residents admitted for at least 3 months. The prevalence and severity of NPS were measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire (NPI-Q). The associated caregiver distress was assessed with the NPI Distress Scale (NPI-D) according to the nurse or nurse assistant. Almost all of the 281 residents (96.4%) showed at least 1 NPS and 45.8% showed 5 or more symptoms. Irritability/lability (68.3%), agitation/aggression (58.7%), and disinhibition (52.7%) were most prevalent. Although the mean level of severity for all NPS was relatively low, half of the residents (49.1%) had at least 1 severe NPS. Care staff experienced low levels of distress associated with NPS. NPS are highly prevalent in KS residents. Unexpectedly, these did not have any severe impact on residents and care staff. Acquiring more insight into the persistence and course of NPS, and its associations, among KS residents is important to better understand and reduce these symptoms and, ultimately, improve the quality of care for these residents. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiotherapy of vertebral hemangiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Kohichi; Hareyama, Masato; Oouchi, Atushi; Sido, Mitsuo; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Tamakawa, Mituharu; Akiba, Hidenari; Morita, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1996, 14 patients (11 females, 3 males) with vertebral hemangioma received treatment with radiotherapy. Thirteen patients had a history of back pain or lumbago and 2 patients had neurological symptoms such as sensory impairment or paraplegia. The standard dose administered was 36 Gy in 18 fractions (five treatments per week). In the 13 patients with pain, this was completely or partially relieved. The condition of a man with hypesthesia of the legs deteriorated and a woman with paraplegia who was treated with decompressive laminectomy followed by radiotherapy recovered completely after irradiation. CT scan before irradiation showed thickened trabeculae as small punctate areas of sclerosis in all patients. At MR imaging before irradiation, T2-weighted MR images showed areas of high intensity in all patients and MR images demonstrated lesion enhancement. However, none of the patients who were treated successfully with radiation demonstrated any changes of the affected vertebra in the conventional radiographic films, CT scan or MR imaging, even 5 years after irradiation. Radiological imaging is indispensable for the diagnosis of vertebral hemangiomas but does not appear to be useful for evaluating the effects of radiotherapy. (orig.)

  9. [Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Shuangcheng City of Heilongjiang Province: the China Nine-Province Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiong; Cui, Hao; Zhao, Jialiang; Ellwein, Leon B; Li, Zhijian; Li, Mingsheng; Yu, Nannan; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xuecheng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Shuangcheng City of Heilongjiang Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5 841 individuals aged 50 years or above in 28 basic sample units in Shuangcheng City from September to December 2006. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands four hundreds and eighty-one individuals were enumerated and 5 047 persons were examined, the response rate was 92.08%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 1.72% (87/5 047) and 4.69% (237/5 047) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.90% (96/5 047) and 7.23% (365/5 047) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2)=674.44, P blindness and visual impairment. The percentage of the retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, high myopic retinopathy and diabetic retinopathy was 11.31% among the eyes with blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment. Un-corrected refractive error(13.38%) also was the main cause of visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe

  10. Severe MUPS in a sick-listed population: a cross-sectional study on prevalence, recognition, psychiatric co-morbidity and impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopmans Petra C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS have a high prevalence in the general population and are associated with psychiatric morbidity. There are indications that MUPS are an important determinant of frequent and long-term disability. The primary objective was to assess the prevalence of MUPS in sick-listed-employees and its associations with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, health anxiety, distress and functional impairment. Secondary objectives were to investigate the classification of the occupational health physicians (OHPs, their opinions about the causes as well as the attributions of the employee. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 489 sick-listed employees from 5 OHP group practices, MUPS, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, health anxiety, distress and functional impairment were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ, the Whitely Index (WI, the Four- Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36. We used a cut off score of 15 on the PHQ for the categorisation of severe MUPS. The opinions of the OHPs were evaluated by means of a separate questionnaire with regard to the presence of employees physical symptoms, and the symptoms attributions, and the diagnoses of the OHPs. Results Severe MUPS had a prevalence of 15.1% in this population of sick-listed employees. These employees had 4-6 times more depressive and anxiety disorders, and were more impaired. Female gender and PHQ-9 scores were determinants of severe MUPS. Most of the time the OHPs diagnosed employees with severe MUPS as having a mental disorder. The employees attributed their physical symptoms in 66% to mental or to both mental and physical causes. Conclusion The prevalence of severe MUPS is higher in long-term sick-listed employees than in the non-sick- listed working population and at least equals the prevalence in the general practice population. Severe MUPS are associated with

  11. Vertebral endplate (modic) changes and the treatment of back pain using antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manniche, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral end-plate changes/modic changes are the MRI-image of inflammatory vertebral endplate damage, most often related to general disc degeneration. However, in a subgroup of patients disc infection may be the causal factor. In patients with prolonged back pain, the prevalence of modic changes......'. Most commonly, Propionibacterium acnes is involved. Long-term antibiotics may be effective....

  12. Prevalence and severity of eating disorders: A comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-5 among German adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Verena; Bürger, Arne; Hammerle, Florian

    2017-11-01

    Changes in the DSM-5 eating disorders criteria sought to increase the clarity of the diagnostic categories and to decrease the preponderance of nonspecified eating disorders. The first objective of this study was to analyze how these revisions affect threshold and EDNOS/OSFED eating disorder diagnoses in terms of prevalence, sex ratios, and diagnostic distribution in a student sample. Second, we aimed to compare the impairment levels of participants with a threshold, an EDNOS/OSFED and no diagnosis using both DSM-IV and DSM-5. A sample of 1654 7th and 8th grade students completed self-report questionnaires to determine diagnoses and impairment levels in the context of an eating disorder prevention program in nine German secondary schools. Height and weight were measured. The prevalence of threshold disorders increased from .48% (DSM-IV) to 1.15% (DSM-5). EDNOS disorders increased from 2.90 to 6.23% when using OSFED-categories. A higher proportion of girls was found throughout all the diagnostic categories, and the sex ratios remained stable. The effect sizes of DSM-5 group differences regarding impairment levels were equal to or larger than those of the DSM-IV comparisons, ranging from small to medium. We provide an in-depth overview of changes resulting from the revisions of DSM eating disorder criteria in a German adolescent sample. Despite the overall increase in prevalence estimates, the results suggest that the DSM-5 criteria differentiate participants with threshold disorders and OSFED from those no diagnosis as well as or even more distinctly than the DSM-IV criteria. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Future trends in the prevalence of severe activity limitations among older adults in Europe: a cross-national population study using EU-SILC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbov, Sergei; Weber, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Objective To project the proportion of population 65+ years with severe long-term activity limitations from 2017 to 2047. Design Large population study. Setting Population living in private households of the European Union (EU) and neighbouring countries. Participants Participants from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions aged 55 years and older and living in one of 26 EU and neighbouring countries, who answered the health section of the questionnaire. Outcome measures Prevalence of severe long-term activity limitations of particular subpopulations (ie, 55+, 65+, 75+ and 85+ years) by sex and country. Results We find a huge variation in the prevalence of self-reported severe long-term limitations across Europe for both sexes. However, in 2017, about 20% of the female population aged 65 years and above and about 16% of their male counterparts are expected to report severe long-term activity limitations after accounting for differences in reporting. Accounting for cultural differences in reporting, we expect that European countries will have about 21% (decile 1: 19.5%; decile 9: 22.9%) of female and about 16.8% (decile 1: 15.4%; decile 9: 18.1%) of male 65+ years population with severe long-term activity limitations by 2047. Conclusions Overall, despite the expected increase of life expectancy in European countries, our results suggest almost constant shares of older adults with severe long-term activity limitations within the next 30 years. PMID:29061570

  14. Epidemiologia do traumatismo da coluna vertebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ferraz de Campos

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação epidemiológica retrospectiva de 100 casos de traumatismo da coluna vertebral. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de dados colhidos por levantamento de prontuário, segundo protocolo de decodificação local. RESULTADOS: Predomínio etário de 20 a 40 anos em 64% dos casos; sexo masculino em 86%; segmento toracolombar mais comumente atingido 64% e 36% para o segmento cervical; principais causas foram às quedas em 40%, seguidas de acidentes automobilísticos em 25% e quedas da laje 23%. A prevalência dos ferimentos por arma de fogo foi de 7%, mergulho em águas rasas 3% e agressões 2%. Houve análise complementar com cruzamentos entre idade, sexo, causa e segmento da coluna vertebral acometido, observando que o segmento cervical teve grande predomínio nas mulheres em relação aos homens em 85,7% X 14,3%. CONCLUSÃO: O traumatismo da coluna vertebral ocorreu predominantemente em homens entre 20 e 40 anos e o segmento cervical foi o mais acometido nas mulheres em relação aos homens na proporção de 6:1.

  15. The comparison of severity and prevalence of major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder and eating disorders before and after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matini, Diana; Ghanbari Jolfaei, Atefeh; Pazouki, Abdolreza; Pishgahroudsari, Mohadeseh; Ehtesham, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Severe obesity is highly co-morbid with psychiatric disorders and may have effect on the quality of life. This study aimed to compare severity and prevalence rate of depression, anxiety and eating disorders and quality of life in severe obese patients before and 6 months after the gastric bypass surgery. This was a prospective observational study which conducted at Hazarat Rasool-Akram Hospital in Tehran, 2012. Questionnaires included demographic questions, eating disorder Inventory (EDI), The Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) for quality of life, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and anxiety (HRSA). Participants were interviewed two times, before surgery and six months after, to determine changes of the disorders. Patients with the history of bariatric surgery, individuals younger than 18 year old and those who disagreed to join the study were excluded. In assessing the eating disorder inventory-3rd version (EDI-3), Significant reduction in drive for thinness (DT) (p= 0.010), bulimia (B) (pdepression in HRSD (p= 0.311), prevalence of depression (p= 0.189) and prevalence of general anxiety disorder according to SCID (p=0.167) did not differ significantly, at this period. Although weight loss after bariatric surgery improved the physical component of quality of life, this improvement did not affect the mental aspect of life, depression and anxiety and it seems that these psychopathologies need attention and treatment in addition to weight loss treatments in patients with obesity.

  16. Prevalence and severity of hepatopulmonary syndrome and its influence on survival in cirrhotic patients evaluated for liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascasio, J M; Grilo, I; López-Pardo, F J; Ortega-Ruiz, F; Tirado, J L; Sousa, J M; Rodriguez-Puras, M J; Ferrer, M T; Sayago, M; Gómez-Bravo, M A; Grilo, A

    2014-06-01

    The prevalence of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and its influence on survival before and after liver transplantation (LT) remain controversial. Additionally, the chronology of post-LT reversibility is unclear. This study prospectively analyzed 316 patients with cirrhosis who were evaluated for LT in 2002-2007; 177 underwent LT at a single reference hospital. HPS was defined by a partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2 ) position and positive contrast echocardiography. The prevalence of HPS was 25.6% (81/316 patients), and most patients (92.6%) had mild or moderate HPS. High Child-Pugh scores and the presence of ascites were independently associated with HPS. Patients with and without HPS did not significantly differ in LT waiting list survival (mean 34.6 months vs. 41.6 months, respectively; log-rank, p = 0.13) or post-LT survival (mean 45 months vs. 47.6 months, respectively; log-rank, p = 0.62). HPS was reversed in all cases within 1 year after LT. One-fourth of the patients with cirrhosis who were evaluated for LT had HPS (mostly mild to moderate); the presence of HPS did not affect LT waiting list survival. HPS was always reversed after LT, and patient prognosis did not worsen. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. Vertebral artery variations at the C1-2 level diagnosed by magnetic resonance angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Akira; Saito, Naoko; Watadani, Takeyuki; Okada, Yoshitaka; Kozawa, Eito; Nishi, Naoko; Mizukoshi, Waka; Inoue, Kaiji; Nakajima, Reiko; Takahashi, Masahiro [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hidaka, Saitama (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    The craniovertebral junction is clinically important. The vertebral artery (VA) in its several variations runs within this area. We report the prevalence of these VA variations on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). We retrospectively reviewed MRA images, obtained using two 1.5-T imagers, of 2,739 patients, and paid special attention to the course and branching of the VA at the level of the C1-2 vertebral bodies. There were three types of VA variation at the C1-2 level: (1) persistent first intersegmental artery (FIA), (2) VA fenestration, and (3) posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) originating from the C1/2 level. The overall prevalence of these three variations was 5.0%. There was no laterality in frequency, but we found female predominance (P < 0.05). We most frequently observed the persistent FIA (3.2%), which was sometimes bilateral. We found VA fenestration (0.9%) and PICA of C1/2 origin (1.1%) with almost equal frequency. Two PICAs of C1/2 origin had no normal VA branch. We frequently observed VA variations at the C1-2 level and with female predominance. The persistent FIA was most prevalent and sometimes seen bilaterally. Preoperative identification of these variations in VA is necessary to avoid complications during surgery at the craniovertebral junction. (orig.)

  18. Prevalência e gravidade da asma em adolescentes e sua relação com índice de massa corporal Prevalence and severity of asthma among adolescents and their relationship with the body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Cassol

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a relação entre o aumento do índice de massa corporal e a prevalência e a gravidade da asma em escolares adolescentes residentes em Santa Maria e região (RS. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base populacional, do qual participaram 4.010 adolescentes (13 e 14 anos de idade, sem restrições de sexo, tendo preenchido de forma correta o questionário do International Study of Asthma and Allergies fase III (módulo asma. Utilizou-se o índice de massa corporal (kg/m² com os seguintes percentis (Organização Mundial de Saúde para definir o estado nutricional: abaixo do quinto (desnutrição, igual ou superior ao quinto e inferior ao 85° (normal, igual ou superior ao 85° e inferior ao 95° (sobrepeso, igual ou superior ao 95° (obesidade. Para verificar a associação entre índice de massa corporal e a prevalência e gravidade da asma, foi utilizado o teste do qui-quadrado para tendência linear, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: O aumento do índice de massa corporal mostrou associação positiva e significante com o da prevalência de "sibilos alguma vez" (p = 0,036 e a de "sibilos após exercício" (p = 0,008, independentemente do sexo. Quando estratificado por gênero, houve associação positiva apenas para "sibilos alguma vez" (p = 0,028 para meninos e "sibilos após exercício" (p = 0,03 para meninas. CONCLUSÃO: O aumento do índice de massa corporal associou-se com o aumento da prevalência de sibilos alguma vez na vida, mas não com o aumento da prevalência e gravidade da asma em adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the increase of body mass index and the prevalence and severity of asthma in adolescents from Santa Maria, in southern Brazil, and surrounding regions. METHOD: A cross-sectional, observational, population-based study was carried out with 4,010 schoolchildren aged 13 and 14 years, without any gender restrictions, who answered the written questionnaire of the

  19. The Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Related Metabolic Comorbidities Was Associated with Age at Onset of Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Xin Xu

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been found to be highly prevalent in psoriatic patients. Adult onset psoriasis could be divided into either early or late onset psoriasis. The associations between NAFLD and related metabolic comorbidities and age at onset of psoriasis have not yet been investigated. Our study was to evaluate the associations between prevalence of NAFLD and related metabolic conditions and early, late, and childhood onset psoriasis. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Data on clinical characteristics of NAFLD and related metabolic diseases (diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperuricemia, and metabolic syndrome were collected. The prevalence of NAFLD in 439 patients (mean: 51±14 years, range: 18-85 years was 55.8%. NAFLD was frequently identified in early onset patients (74.2%, and this diagnosis was particularly common in patients currently younger than 40 (85.3%. Diabetes was the least prevalent component of metabolic syndrome in early onset patients with metabolic syndrome but the most often found component in late onset ones. Patients with childhood onset psoriasis had the lowest frequencies of all metabolic comorbidities except hyperuricemia among the three groups. In the multivariate analyses, early onset was independently and positively associated with NAFLD, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperuricemia and independently and negatively associated with diabetes among early and late onset patients. The results suggested prevalence of NAFLD and related metabolic comorbidities was associated with age at onset of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Early onset of psoriasis was independently associated with greater odds of NAFLD, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperuricemia and smaller odds of diabetes compared to late onset. Early onset patients have metabolic syndrome mainly related to lipid disorders and abnormal glucose metabolism was not often involved.

  20. Vertebral basilar artery dissections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hackney, D.B.; Grossman, R.I.; Goldberg, H.I.; Atlas, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    Eleven patients (ten male, one female; range, 2-56 years) presented with posterior circulation ischemic symptoms and were evaluated with computed tomography (CT) (eta=11), arteriography (eta=11), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (eta=6). Angiography showed dissection of a vertebral artery (eta=8), a basilar artery (eta=1), or a combination of both (eta=2). On CT and/or MR images, infarctions were demonstrated in ten of 11 cases. Most frequently involved were the thalmus (eta=7), cerebellum (eta=6), occipital lobes (eta=4), and pons (eta=3). The site of infarction did not correlate with the side or site of angiographic abnormality. In six cases evaluated by all modalities, MR imaging showed more extensive and widespread infarction than did CT and also showed whether or not the infarcts were hemorrhagic. MR imaging was able to demonstrate the presence of intramural dissecting hematoma prior to angiography and to indicate whether or not flow was reconstituted on follow-up examination

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in people with severe mental illness: a total population study of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Staeb, Clarissa; Jörgensen, Lena; Lewis, Glyn; Dalman, Christina; Osborn, David P J; Hayes, Joseph F

    2017-09-01

    Severe mental illness is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The elevated risk of blood-borne viruses (BBVs) in people with severe mental illness is of concern, but the full extent of this problem is unclear. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for BBVs in people with severe mental illness. In this nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional study, we estimated the point prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C (HCV) in people with severe mental illness, including the total adult (≥18 years) Swedish population. We defined severe mental illness as a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or other psychotic illness according to the Swedish version of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases version 8, 9, or 10. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of BBVs in individuals with severe mental illness, relative to the general population, and to identify independent risk factors (age, sex, immigration status, socioeconomic status, education, and substance misuse) for BBV infection. We also did a sensitivity analysis excluding BBV diagnoses made before the introduction of the Register for Infection Disease Control (1997). Of 6 815 931 adults in Sweden, 97 797 (1·43%) individuals had a diagnosis of severe mental illness. Prevalence of BBVs was elevated in people with severe mental illness, of which 230 (0·24%) had HIV, 518 (0·53%) had HBV, and 4476 (4·58%) had HCV. After accounting for sociodemographic characteristics, the odds of HIV were 2·57 (95% CI 2·25-2·94, pmental illness than in the general population, whereas the odds of HBV were 2·29 (2·09-2·51, pmental illness and identify interventions preventing infection. Targeting of comorbid substance misuse would have particular effect on reduction of BBV prevalence in this population. Medical Research Council and Swedish Research Council. Copyright © 2017 The Author

  2. Prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletion among men with severe semen abnormalities and its correlation with successful sperm retrieval

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    Mariano Mascarenhas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To estimate the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletion among men with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia and its correlation with successful surgical sperm retrieval. SETTING AND DESIGN: A prospective study in a tertiary level infertility unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective observation study, men with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia (concentration <5 million/ml attending the infertility center underwent genetic screening. Peripheral blood karyotype was done by Giemsa banding. Y chromosome microdeletion study was performed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 220 men, 133 of whom had azoospermia and 87 had severe oligozoospermia. Overall, 21/220 (9.5% men had chromosomal abnormalities and 13/220 (5.9% men had Y chromosome microdeletions. Chromosomal abnormalities were seen in 14.3% (19/133 of azoospermic men and Y chromosome microdeletions in 8.3% (11/133. Of the 87 men with severe oligozoospermia, chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions were each seen in 2.3% (2/87. Testicular sperm aspiration was done in 13 men and was successful in only one, who had a deletion of azoospermia factor c. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found a fairly high prevalence of genetic abnormality in men with severe semen abnormalities and a correlation of genetic abnormalities with surgical sperm retrieval outcomes. These findings support the need for genetic screening of these men prior to embarking on surgical sperm retrieval and assisted reproductive technology intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  3. Rapid onset aggressive vertebral haemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicholas K; Doorenbosch, Xenia; Christie, John G

    2011-03-01

    Vertebral haemangiomas are generally benign asymptomatic vascular tumours seen commonly in the adult population. Presentations in paediatric populations are extremely rare, which can result in rapid onset of neurological symptoms. We present a highly unusual case of an aggressive paediatric vertebral haemangioma causing significant cord compression. A 13-year-old boy presented with only 2 weeks duration of progressive gait disturbance, truncal ataxia and loss of bladder control. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine revealed a large vascular epidural mass extending between T6 and T8 vertebral bodies. Associated displacement and compression of the spinal cord was present. A highly vascular bony lesion was found during surgery. Histopathology identified this tumour to be a vertebral haemangioma. We present an extremely unusual acute presentation of a paediatric vertebral haemangioma. This study highlights the need for early diagnosis, MRI for investigation and urgent surgical management. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  4. Obesity increases the prevalence and severity of focal knee abnormalities diagnosed using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects - data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laberge, Marc A.; Baum, Thomas; Virayavanich, Warapat; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M.; Nevitt, M.C.; Lynch, J.; McCulloch, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of BMI on the prevalence, severity, and 36-month progression of early degenerative changes in the knee by using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). We examined baseline and 36-month follow-up MR studies from 137 middle-aged individuals (45-55 years old) with risk factors for knee OA but no radiographic OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Subjects were grouped into three categories: normal BMI (BMI 2 , n = 38), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m 2 , n = 37), and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 , n = 62). Using 3T MRI, cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow abnormalities were graded using the OA Whole-organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS). The statistical analysis was corrected as necessary for differences in age, sex, and OA risk factors other than BMI. The overall prevalence of lesions was 64% for meniscus and 79% for cartilage (including low grade lesions). At baseline, the prevalence and severity of knee lesions was positively associated with BMI, with a nearly fourfold increase in meniscal tears and more than twofold increase in high-grade cartilage defects in obese individuals relative to normal-weight subjects. Over the 36-month follow-up period, the number of new or worsening cartilage lesions of any grade was significantly higher in obese subjects (p = 0.039), while there was no significant difference in meniscal lesion progression. Obesity was associated with both higher prevalence and severity of early degenerative changes in the knee in middle-aged individuals without radiographic OA and with significantly increased cartilage lesion progression (of any grade) over 36 months. (orig.)

  5. Obesity increases the prevalence and severity of focal knee abnormalities diagnosed using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects - data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laberge, Marc A.; Baum, Thomas; Virayavanich, Warapat; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nevitt, M.C.; Lynch, J.; McCulloch, C.E. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    To study the effect of BMI on the prevalence, severity, and 36-month progression of early degenerative changes in the knee by using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). We examined baseline and 36-month follow-up MR studies from 137 middle-aged individuals (45-55 years old) with risk factors for knee OA but no radiographic OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Subjects were grouped into three categories: normal BMI (BMI < 25 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 38), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 37), and obese (BMI {>=} 30 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 62). Using 3T MRI, cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow abnormalities were graded using the OA Whole-organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS). The statistical analysis was corrected as necessary for differences in age, sex, and OA risk factors other than BMI. The overall prevalence of lesions was 64% for meniscus and 79% for cartilage (including low grade lesions). At baseline, the prevalence and severity of knee lesions was positively associated with BMI, with a nearly fourfold increase in meniscal tears and more than twofold increase in high-grade cartilage defects in obese individuals relative to normal-weight subjects. Over the 36-month follow-up period, the number of new or worsening cartilage lesions of any grade was significantly higher in obese subjects (p = 0.039), while there was no significant difference in meniscal lesion progression. Obesity was associated with both higher prevalence and severity of early degenerative changes in the knee in middle-aged individuals without radiographic OA and with significantly increased cartilage lesion progression (of any grade) over 36 months. (orig.)

  6. Prevalence and Predictors of Self-Reported Sexual Abuse in Severely Obese Patients in a Population-Based Bariatric Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L. Gabert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sexual abuse may be associated with poorer weight loss outcomes following bariatric treatment. Identifying predictors of abuse would enable focused screening and may increase weight management success. Methods. We analyzed data from 500 consecutively recruited obese subjects from a population-based, regional bariatric program. The prevalence of self-reported sexual abuse was ascertained using a single interview question. Health status was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify sexual abuse predictors. Results. The mean age was 43.7 y (SD 9.6, 441 (88.2% were females, 458 (91.8% were white, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 47.9 kg/m2 (SD 8.1. The self-reported prevalence of past abuse was 21.8% (95% CI 18.4–25.4%. Abused subjects had worse health status (VAS score 53.1 (SD 21.2 versus 58.0 (SD 20.1, P=0.03. BMI was not associated with abuse (P>0.5. Age, sex, BMI, and covariate-adjusted independent predictors of abuse included alcohol addiction (adjusted odds ratio 15.8; 95% CI 4.0–62.8, posttraumatic stress disorder (4.9; 2.5–9.5, borderline personality (3.8; 1.0–13.8, depression (2.4; 1.3–4.3, and lower household income (3.4; 1.6–7.0. Conclusions. Abuse was common amongst obese patients managed in a population-based bariatric program; alcohol addiction, psychiatric comorbidities, and low-income status were highly associated with sexual abuse.

  7. Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and genu valgum among school children in rural field practice area of a medical college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banavaram Anniappan Arvind

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and genu valgum among school children in the above mentioned area. Methods: A Cross sectional study was conducted on school children of 1st to 7th standard in the rural field practice area of a medical college. Children were examined for dental fluorosis and genu valgum. Drinking water samples were also tested for fluoride levels. Proportion of children with dental fluorosis and genu valgum were calculated by severity, age and sex. Statistical significance was analyzed by using Chisquare test or Mc Nemar test. Results: Of the 1 544 children examined 42.1% and 8.4% had dental fluorosis and genu valgum respectively. Prevalence of very mild dental fluorosis and moderate grade genu valgum were high compared to other categories. Prevalence rates increased with the age (P<0.05 and was more among girls (45.2% as compared to boys (39.1% (P<0.05. Of the 26 water samples analysed, 18 samples (69.2% revealed the fluoride content above the permissible limit. Conclusions: Findings of the present study reveal a high prevalence of dental fluorosis and genu valgum amongst school children and high fluoride level in the water. Further studies are needed to evaluate the other risk factors and reasons for gender differences.

  8. Acute diarrhea in hospitalized children of the municipality of juiz de fora, MG, Brazil: prevalence and risk factors associated with disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Couto Guedes Sejanes da Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Acute diarrhea is a common cause of hospitalization among children under 5 years of age. Knowing the prevalence and risk factors associated with the severity of acute diarrhea is essential to control morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of demographic, epidemiologic and clinical features of children under 6 years of age hospitalized for acute diarrhea, and investigate the association between these determinants and the severity of the diarrheic episode. METHOD: Retrospective, cross-sectional study, during the period from January, 2005 through December, 2008, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Files from 6,201 children from 0 to 6 years of age, hospitalized in two public teaching institutions (which account for 84% of all the hospitalizations in the municipality, were assessed. Acute diarrhea was defined as the presence of at least three evacuations of liquid or loose stools, within 24 hours, for a maximum period of 14 days. The patients with acute diarrhea were divided in two groups, according to disease severity, severe diarrhea being considered whenever hospitalization lasted for at least 4 days. Epidemiologic and clinical data were assessed and compared through the application of the chi-squared test and the binomial logistic regression model. RESULTS: The prevalence rate for admission due to acute diarrhea was 8.4%. The factors significantly associated with the severity of the diarrheic episode were: age under 6 months (P = 0.01, OR = 2.762; disease onset during fall (P = 0.033, OR = 1.742, presence of fever (P = 0.017, OR = 1.715 and antibiotic use during hospitalization (P = 0.000, OR = 3.872. CONCLUSIONS: Diarrhea is the third most common cause of hospitalization among children under 6 years of age in Juiz de Fora. Young age (under or equal to 6 months, fever, antibiotic use during hospitalization and disease onset during fall are risk factors associated with longer hospital stay.

  9. Trunk muscle activity is modified in osteoporotic vertebral fracture and thoracic kyphosis with potential consequences for vertebral health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Greig

    Full Text Available This study explored inter-relationships between vertebral fracture, thoracic kyphosis and trunk muscle control in elderly people with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with increased risk of further vertebral fractures; but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Several factors may explain this association, including changes in postural alignment (thoracic kyphosis and altered trunk muscle contraction patterns. Both factors may increase risk of further fracture because of increased vertebral loading and impaired balance, which may increase falls risk. This study compared postural adjustments in 24 individuals with osteoporosis with and without vertebral fracture and with varying degrees of thoracic kyphosis. Trunk muscle electromyographic activity (EMG associated with voluntary arm movements was recorded and compared between individuals with and without vertebral fracture, and between those with low and high thoracic kyphosis. Overall, elderly participants in the study demonstrated co-contraction of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles during forwards arm movements, but those with vertebral fractures demonstrated a more pronounced co-contraction than those without fracture. Individuals with high thoracic kyphosis demonstrated more pronounced alternating flexor and extensor EMG bursts than those with less kyphosis. Co-contraction of trunk flexor and extensor muscles in older individuals contrasts the alternating bursts of antagonist muscle activity in previous studies of young individuals. This may have several consequences, including altered balance efficacy and the potential for increased compressive loads through the spine. Both of these outcomes may have consequences in a population with fragile vertebrae who are susceptible to fracture.

  10. ANOMALOUS PREVERTEBRAL COURSE OF THE LEFT VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Recorrido prevertebral anómalo de la arteria vertebral izquierda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash B Billakanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La arteria vertebral es una de las arterias que irriga el cerebro. El conocimiento de la anatomía normal y las variantes de la arteria vertebral adquiere importancia en la práctica clínica y la radiología vascular. El origen anómalo de la arteria vertebral del arco de la aorta o cualquiera de las arterias del cuello ha sido reportado por muchos autores. En este informe se presenta una variación del curso prevertebral de la arteria vertebral izquierda. La arteria vertebral tenía su origen habitual en la arteria subclavia con un largo curso prevertebral y entraba en el foramen transversarium de la vértebra CII. El origen y recorrido de la arteria vertebral en el lado derecho fue normal. Clínicamente es importante conocer el origen y curso del segmento prevertebral de la arteria vertebral y las posibles variaciones. El presente informe debería ser de interés para el médico vascular con respecto a las variaciones en el cuello y región torácica, y puede dar idea para dilucidar el mecanismo de desarrollo de la angiogénesis. Vertebral artery is one of the arteries supplying the brain. Knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of the vertebral artery assumes importance in clinical practice and vascular radiology. Anomalous origins of the vertebral artery from the arch of the aorta or any one of the arteries of the neck have been reported by several authors. In this report a variation of the prevertebral course of the left vertebral artery is being presented. The Vertebral artery had usual origin from the subclavian artery and had a longer prevertebral course to enter the foramen transversarium of the CII vertebra. The origin and course of the vertebral artery on the right side was normal. It is clinically important to know the origin and course of the prevertebral segment of the vertebral artery and possible variations. The present report should be of interest for clinicians with regard to vascular variations in the neck and thoracic

  11. Associations between the Cervical Vertebral Column and Craniofacial Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To summarize recent studies on morphological deviations of the cervical vertebral column and associations with craniofacial morphology and head posture in nonsyndromic patients and in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Design. In these recent studies, visual assessment of the cerv......Aim. To summarize recent studies on morphological deviations of the cervical vertebral column and associations with craniofacial morphology and head posture in nonsyndromic patients and in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Design. In these recent studies, visual assessment...... of the cervical vertebral column and cephalometric analysis of the craniofacial skeleton were performed on profile radiographs of subjects with neutral occlusion, patients with severe skeletal malocclusions and patients with OSA. Material from human triploid foetuses and mouse embryos was analysed histologically....... Results. Recent studies have documented associations between fusion of the cervical vertebral column and craniofacial morphology, including head posture in patients with severe skeletal malocclusions. Histological studies on prenatal material supported these findings. Conclusion. It is suggested...

  12. Association between l-thyroxine treatment, GH deficiency, and radiological vertebral fractures in patients with adult-onset hypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazziotti, G; Mormando, M; Cristiano, A; Bianchi, A; Porcelli, T; Giampietro, A; Maffezzoni, F; Serra, V; De Marinis, L; Giustina, A

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we aimed at evaluating the association between radiological vertebral fractures and levo-thyroxine (l-T4) replacement doses in adult patients with hypopituitarism. Cross-sectional study. We studied 74 adult hypopituitary patients (males, 43; females, 31; mean age, 57 years; and range, 23-79) with central hypothyroidism treated with l-T4 (median daily dose: 1.1  μg/kg). All patients also had severe GH deficiency (GHD) and 38 of them were replaced with recombinant GH. Vertebral fractures were assessed by a quantitative morphometric analysis performed on thoracic and lumbar spine lateral X-ray. Radiological vertebral fractures were found in 23 patients (31.1%) in association with untreated GHD (P=0.02), higher serum free T4 levels (P=0.03), a higher daily dose of l-T4 (P=0.005), and a longer duration of hypopituitarism (P=0.05). When GHD was treated, the prevalence of vertebral fractures was more frequent (P=0.03) in patients receiving high l-T4 doses (third tertile: >1.35  μg/kg per day) as compared with patients who were treated with lower drug doses (first tertile: hypopituitarism. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. Diagnosis of vertebral fractures on lateral chest X-ray: Intraobserver agreement of semi-quantitative vertebral fracture assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagt-Willems, H.C. van der; Munster, B.C. van; Leeflang, M.; Beuerle, E.; Tulner, C.R.; Lems, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (Lateral) chest X-ray's are often performed in older individuals for various reasons. • Vertebral fractures are visualized on lateral chest X-ray, but the diagnosis of vertebral fractures is until now only validated on (lateral) spine X-ray's. • This study shows that a (lateral) chest X-ray is sufficient for the diagnosis of vertebral fractures. • Older individuals with a vertebral fracture on a (lateral) chest X-ray do not need further radiography with thoracic spine X-ray or vertebral fracture assessment with DXA. - Abstract: Background: In clinical practice lateral images of the chest are performed for various reasons. As these lateral chest X rays show the vertebrae of the thoracic and thoraco-lumbar region, we wondered if these X-rays can be used for evaluation of vertebral fractures instead of separate thoracic spine X-rays. Methods: To evaluate the agreement and intraobserver reliability of the semi-quantitative method for vertebral fractures on the lateral chest X-ray (X-chest) in comparison to the lateral thoracic spine X-ray (X-Tspine), two observers scored vertebral fractures on X-Tspine and twice on X-chest, separately, blinded and in different time periods. Agreement and Cohens’ kappa were calculated for a diagnosis of any fracture on patient level and on vertebral body level. The study was done in patients visiting an outpatient geriatric day clinic, with a high prevalence of vertebral fractures. Results: 109 patients were included. The intraobserver agreement for X-chest versus X-Tspine was 95–98% for the two levels of fracturing, with a Cohen's kappa of 0.88–0.91. The intraobserver agreement and reliability of the re-test on the X-chest showed an agreement between 91 and 98% with a Cohen's kappa of 0.81–0.93. More vertebrae were visible on the X-chest, mean 10.2, SD 0.66 versus mean 9.8, SD 0.73 on the X-Tspine (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results show good agreement and intraobserver reliability on

  14. Diagnosis of vertebral fractures on lateral chest X-ray: Intraobserver agreement of semi-quantitative vertebral fracture assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagt-Willems, H.C. van der, E-mail: Hvanderjagt@spaarneziekenhuis.nl [Department of Geriatrics, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Internal Medicine, Spaarne Hospital, Hoofddorp (Netherlands); Munster, B.C. van [Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Geriatrics, Gelre Hospitals, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Leeflang, M. [Department of Geriatrics, Gelre Hospitals, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Beuerle, E. [Department of Radiology, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tulner, C.R. [Department of Geriatrics, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lems, W.F. [Department of Rheumatology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • (Lateral) chest X-ray's are often performed in older individuals for various reasons. • Vertebral fractures are visualized on lateral chest X-ray, but the diagnosis of vertebral fractures is until now only validated on (lateral) spine X-ray's. • This study shows that a (lateral) chest X-ray is sufficient for the diagnosis of vertebral fractures. • Older individuals with a vertebral fracture on a (lateral) chest X-ray do not need further radiography with thoracic spine X-ray or vertebral fracture assessment with DXA. - Abstract: Background: In clinical practice lateral images of the chest are performed for various reasons. As these lateral chest X rays show the vertebrae of the thoracic and thoraco-lumbar region, we wondered if these X-rays can be used for evaluation of vertebral fractures instead of separate thoracic spine X-rays. Methods: To evaluate the agreement and intraobserver reliability of the semi-quantitative method for vertebral fractures on the lateral chest X-ray (X-chest) in comparison to the lateral thoracic spine X-ray (X-Tspine), two observers scored vertebral fractures on X-Tspine and twice on X-chest, separately, blinded and in different time periods. Agreement and Cohens’ kappa were calculated for a diagnosis of any fracture on patient level and on vertebral body level. The study was done in patients visiting an outpatient geriatric day clinic, with a high prevalence of vertebral fractures. Results: 109 patients were included. The intraobserver agreement for X-chest versus X-Tspine was 95–98% for the two levels of fracturing, with a Cohen's kappa of 0.88–0.91. The intraobserver agreement and reliability of the re-test on the X-chest showed an agreement between 91 and 98% with a Cohen's kappa of 0.81–0.93. More vertebrae were visible on the X-chest, mean 10.2, SD 0.66 versus mean 9.8, SD 0.73 on the X-Tspine (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results show good agreement and intraobserver reliability on

  15. High prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency in combined antiretroviral therapy-naive and successfully treated Swiss HIV patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Nicolas J; Fux, Christoph A; Ledergerber, Bruno; Elzi, Luigia; Schmid, Patrick; Dang, Thanh; Magenta, Lorenzo; Calmy, Alexandra; Vergopoulos, Athanasios; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate the prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency in HIV-positive patients, a population at risk for osteoporosis. Retrospective assessment of vitamin D levels by season and initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). 25(OH)D was measured in 211 HIV-positive patients: samples were taken before initiation of cART from February to April or from August to October as well as 12 (same season) and 18 months (alternate season) after starting cART. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] was measured in a subset of 74 patients. Multivariable analyses included season, sex, age, ethnicity, BMI, intravenous drug use (IDU), renal function, time since HIV diagnosis, previous AIDS, CD4 cell count and cART, in particular nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and tenofovir (TDF) use. At baseline, median 25(OH)D levels were 37 (interquartile range 20-49) nmol/l in spring and 57 (39-74) nmol/l in the fall; 25(OH)D deficiency less than 30 nmol/l was more prevalent in spring (42%) than in fall (14%), but remained unchanged regardless of cART exposure. In multivariable analysis, 25(OH)D levels were higher in white patients and those with a longer time since HIV diagnosis and lower in springtime measurements and in those with active IDU and NNRTI use. 1-Hydroxylation rates were significantly higher in patients with low 25(OH)D. Hepatitis C seropositivity, previous AIDS and higher CD4 cell counts correlated with lower 1,25(OH)2D levels, whereas BMI and TDF use were associated with higher levels. In TDF-treated patients, higher 1,25(OH)2D correlated with increases in serum alkaline phosphatase. Based on the high rate of vitamin D deficiency in HIV-positive patients, systematic screening with consideration of seasonality is warranted. The impact of NNRTIs on 25(OH)D and TDF on 1,25(OH)2D needs further attention.

  16. Prevalence, severity, and risk indicators of gingival inflammation in a multi-center study on South American adults: a cross sectional study

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    Paola Carvajal

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and severity of gingival inflammation and associated risk indicators in South American adults. Material and Methods: Multi-stage samples totaling 1,650 adults from Porto Alegre (Brazil, Tucumán (Argentina, and Santiago (Chile were assessed. The sampling procedure consisted of a 4-stage process. Examinations were performed in mobile dental units by calibrated examiners. A multivariable logistic regression model was utilized for associating variables as indicators of gingival inflammation (GI (Gingival Index ≥0.5. Statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: A total of 96.5% of the adults have GI. Regarding the severity of GI, 22.5% of participants examined have mild GI, 74.0% have moderate GI, and 3.6% have severe GI. The multivariate analyses identify the main risk indicators for GI as adults with higher mean of Calculus Index (OR=18.59; with a Visible Plaque Index ≥30% (OR=14.56; living in Santiago (OR=7.17; having ≤12 years of schooling (OR=2.18, and females (OR=1.93. Conclusions: This study shows a high prevalence and severity of gingival inflammation, being the first one performed in adult populations in three cities of South America.

  17. Congenital abnormalities of the vertebral column in ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proks, Pavel; Stehlik, Ladislav; Paninarova, Michaela; Irova, Katarina; Hauptman, Karel; Jekl, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral column pathologies requiring surgical intervention have been described in pet ferrets, however little information is available on the normal vertebral formula and congenital variants in this species. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe vertebral formulas and prevalence of congenital vertebral anomalies in a sample of pet ferrets. Radiographs of 172 pet ferrets (96 males and 76 females) were included in this retrospective study. In 143 ferrets (83.14%), five different formulas of the vertebral column were recorded with normal morphology of vertebrae (rib attachment included) but with a variable number of thoracic (Th), lumbar (L), and sacral (S) vertebrae. The number of cervical (C) vertebrae was constant in all examined animals. Observed vertebral formulas were C7/Th14/L6/S3 (51.74%), C7/Th14/L6/S4 (22.10%), C7/Th14/L7/S3 (6.98%), C7/Th15/L6/S3 (1.74%), and C7/Th15/L6/S4 (0.58%). Formula C7/Th14/L6/S4 was significantly more common in males than in females (P < 0.05). Congenital spinal abnormalities were found in 29 ferrets (16.86%), mostly localized in the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral regions. The cervical region was affected in only one case. Transitional vertebrae represented the most common congenital abnormalities (26 ferrets) in the thoracolumbar (13 ferrets) and lumbosacral regions (10 ferrets) or simultaneously in both regions (three ferrets). Other vertebral anomalies included block (two ferrets) and wedge vertebra (one ferret). Spina bifida was not detected. Findings from the current study indicated that vertebral formulas may vary in ferrets and congenital abnormalities are common. This should be taken into consideration for surgical planning. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  18. Victimization of patients with severe psychiatric disorders: prevalence, risk factors, protective factors and consequences for mental health. A longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.M.; Theunissen, J.; Van, R.; Duurkoop, P.; Kikkert, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Victimization among people with a Severe Mental Illness is a common phenomenon. The objectives of this study proposal are: to delineate the extent and kind of victimization in a representative sample of chronic psychiatric patients; to contribute to the development and validation of a

  19. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagnarelli, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10–15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292–301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories—a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307–316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119–1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579–589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different

  20. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes

  1. Primary extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasch, Mark D; Phade, Sachin V; Naughton, Peter; Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Escobar, Guillermo; Berguer, Ramon

    2013-05-01

    Extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms are uncommon and are usually associated with trauma or dissection. Primary cervical vertebral aneurysms are even rarer and are not well described. The presentation and natural history are unknown and operative management can be difficult. Accessing aneurysms at the skull base can be difficult and, because the frail arteries are often afflicted with connective tissue abnormalities, direct repair can be particularly challenging. We describe the presentation and surgical management of patients with primary extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms. In this study we performed a retrospective, multi-institutional review of patients with primary aneurysms within the extracranial vertebral artery. Between January 2000 and January 2011, 7 patients, aged 12-56 years, were noted to have 9 primary extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms. All had underlying connective tissue or another hereditary disorder, including Ehler-Danlos syndrome (n=3), Marfan's disease (n=2), neurofibromatosis (n=1), and an unspecified connective tissue abnormality (n=1). Eight of 9 aneurysms were managed operatively, including an attempted bypass that ultimately required vertebral ligation; the contralateral aneurysm on this patient has not been treated. Open interventions included vertebral bypass with vein, external carotid autograft, and vertebral transposition to the internal carotid artery. Special techniques were used for handling the anastomoses in patients with Ehler-Danlos syndrome. Although endovascular exclusion was not performed in isolation, 2 hybrid procedures were performed. There were no instances of perioperative stroke or death. Primary extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms are rare and occur in patients with hereditary disorders. Operative intervention is warranted in symptomatic patients. Exclusion and reconstruction may be performed with open and hybrid techniques with low morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Victimization of patients with severe psychiatric disorders: prevalence, risk factors, protective factors and consequences for mental health. A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Rien

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Victimization among people with a Severe Mental Illness is a common phenomenon. The objectives of this study proposal are: to delineate the extent and kind of victimization in a representative sample of chronic psychiatric patients; to contribute to the development and validation of a set of instruments registering victimization of psychiatric patients; to determine risk factors and protective factors; and to gain insight into the possible consequences of victimization. Methods/Design An extensive data set of 323 patients with Sever Mental Illness (assessed 4 years ago is used. In 2010 a second measurement will be performed, enabling longitudinal research on the predictors and consequences of victimization. Discussion The consequences of (revictimization have barely been subjected to analysis, partially due to the lack of a comprehensive, conceptual model for victimization. This research project will contribute significantly to the scientific development of the conceptual model of victimization in chronic psychiatric patients.

  3. The Sarmatian vertebrates from Draxeni (Moldavian Platform

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    Vlad Codrea

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Middle Miocene (Sarmatian vertebrates had been unearthed at Draxeni (Vaslui district. The site is located in the northern area of the Moldavian Platform. There, the sand belonging to Şcheia Formation (Bessarabian is mined in a restricted open pit. This sand is related to a littoral environment (shoreface and foreshore. Some of its levels are rich in mollusc debris. Vertebrate remains, carried into the Bessarabian brackish basin are present too, but in smaller amounts. Mastodon, rhinoceros, hipparionine, tortoise remains had been collected there over several years. All teeth and bones are isolated and bear the marks of intensive rolling by waves and currents. This assemblage is typical for the top of Bessarabian in Moldavia, i.e. soon after the first hipparionine invasion in this part of the Europe. This assemblage can be related to the base of MN 9 unit.

  4. Prevalence of Electrolyte Disorders Among Cases of Diarrhea with Severe Dehydration and Correlation of Electrolyte Levels with Age of the Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M. S.; Wahid, A.; Ahmad, M.; Mahboob, N.; Mehmood, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out the prevalence of electrolyte disorders among children with severe dehydration, and to study correlation between age and electrolyte, urea and creatinine levels. Study Design: Prospective, analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Outdoor and indoor of Fazle-Omar Hospital, Rabwah, Pakistan, from January to December 2012. Methodology: All patients from birth to 18 years age, presenting with diarrhea and severe dehydration were included in the study. Urea, creatinine and electrolyte levels of all patients included in the study were checked and recorded in the data form with name, age and outcome. The prevalence of electrolyte disorders were ascertained and correlation with age was determined by Pearson's coefficient. Result: At total of 104 patients were included in the study. None of the patients died. Hyperchloremia was the commonest electrolyte disorder (53.8 percentage), followed by hyperkalemia (26.9 percentage) and hypernatremia (17.3 percentage). Hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypochloremia were present in 10.6 percentage, 7.7 percentage, and 10.6 percentage cases, respectively. Weak negative correlation was found between age and chloride and potassium levels. Conclusion: Different electrolyte disorders are common in children with diarrhea-related severe dehydration. (author)

  5. Prevalence of Electrolyte Disorders Among Cases of Diarrhea with Severe Dehydration and Correlation of Electrolyte Levels with Age of the Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mirza Sultan; Wahid, Abdul; Ahmad, Mubashra; Mahboob, Nazia; Mehmood, Ramlah

    2016-05-01

    To find out the prevalence of electrolyte disorders among children with severe dehydration, and to study correlation between age and electrolyte, urea and creatinine levels. Prospective, analytical study. Outdoor and indoor of Fazle-Omar Hospital, Rabwah, Pakistan, from January to December 2012. All patients from birth to 18 years age, presenting with diarrhea and severe dehydration were included in the study. Urea, creatinine and electrolyte levels of all patients included in the study were checked and recorded in the data form with name, age and outcome. The prevalence of electrolyte disorders were ascertained and correlation with age was determined by Pearson's coefficient. At total of 104 patients were included in the study. None of the patients died. Hyperchloremia was the commonest electrolyte disorder (53.8%), followed by hyperkalemia (26.9%) and hypernatremia (17.3%). Hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypochloremia were present in 10.6%, 7.7%, and 10.6% cases, respectively. Weak negative correlation was found between age and chloride and potassium levels. Different electrolyte disorders are common in children with diarrhea-related severe dehydration.

  6. Incomplete pulmonary fissures evaluated by volumetric thin-section CT: Semi-quantitative evaluation for small fissure gaps identification, description of prevalence and severity of fissural defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel, E-mail: marcelk46@yahoo.com.br [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radiology Department, German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum – DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, University Hospital of the School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto – University of Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Campus Universitario Monte Alegre, 14048900 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Paula, Wagner Diniz de, E-mail: wdpaula@unb.br [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, University Hospital of the University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Owsijewitsch, Michael, E-mail: michael.owsijewitsch@med.uniheidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radiology Department, German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum – DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Wielpütz, Mark Oliver, E-mail: mark.wielpuetz@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radiology Department, German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum – DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gompelmann, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.gompelmann@thoraxklinik-heidelberg.de [Pneumology and Respiratory Medicine, Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik) at University of Heidelberg, Amalienstr. 5, 69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter, E-mail: h.schlemmer@dkfz-heidelberg.de [Radiology Department, German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum – DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2013-12-01

    Objective: To assess the interobserver agreement for a semi-quantitative evaluation of the interlobar fissures integrity in volumetric thin-section CT images, looking for more detailed information regarding fissural defects; and describe prevalence and severity of fissural defects between the different functional groups of subjects. Materials and methods: Volumetric scans of 247 individuals exposed to tobacco with different functional status (normal to severe COPD), were retrospectively and independently evaluated by 2 chest radiologists, with a consensual reading additionally with a third reader in disagreement cases. Right oblique (RO), right horizontal (RH) and left oblique fissures (LO) integrity was estimated using a 5% scale. GOLD classification was available for all subjects. Results: Interobserver agreement (weighted Kappa-index) for fissural categorization was 0.76, 0.70 and 0.75, for RO, RH and LO, respectively. Final evaluation found 81%, 89% and 50% of RO, RH and LO to be incomplete, with respective mean integrity of 80%, 58% and 80%. Small fissure gaps (<10%) were present in 30% of patients. Prevalence and severity of fissural defects were not different between the GOLD categories. Conclusions: A substantial agreement between readers was found in the analysis of interlobar fissures integrity. The semi-quantitative method allowed a detailed description of the fissural defects, information that can be important, for example, in endoscopic lung volume reduction therapies for emphysema. Small fissure gaps, overlooked in previous studies, were found in almost a third of the patients. A higher than previously described prevalence of fissural defects was described, but without significant differences among the distinct functional groups.

  7. Prevalência e severidade da cárie dentária em escolares de seis e doze anos de idade Prevalence and severity of dental caries among schoolchildren aged six and twelve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luiz Traebert

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a prevalência e a severidade da cárie dentária e as necessidades de tratamento em escolares de 6 e 12 anos de idade, comparando-se os alunos de escolas públicas com os de privadas. MÉTODOS: Foi estudada a população de escolares do município de Blumenau, SC, a partir de uma amostra de 1.473 escolares, representativa de quatro estratos: escolares de 6 anos de escolas públicas, de 6 anos de escolas privadas, de 12 anos de escolas públicas e de 12 anos de escolas privadas. Utilizaram-se os critérios de diagnóstico da Organização Mundial de Saúde (1997. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de cárie na dentição decídua em escolares de 6 anos foi de 60,9% em escolas públicas e de 34,9% em escolas privadas (pOBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries and to assess treatment needs among schoolchildren aged 6 and 12 in Blumenau, Brazil, and to compare the results found for private and public schools. METHODS: A schoolchildren population of Blumenau, SC, Brazil, was studied. A random sample of 1,473 schoolchildren from Blumenau, Brazil, was obtained. Four strata were studied: 6 and 12 years old schoolchildren attending public and private schools. WHO (1997 criteria for caries diagnosis and treatment needs were used. RESULTS: The prevalence of caries in the primary dentition of 6-years-old children was 60.9% and 34.9% in public and private schools (p<0.0001, respectively. The mean DMF-T for children aged 6 was 2.98 and 1.32 for public and private schools, respectively, (p<0.0001, and 2.42 for the whole sample. The prevalence of caries in the permanent dentition of 12-years-old children was 54.7% and the mean DMF-T was 1.46 for public schools. The response rate for private schools was low and the results could not be analyzed. Forty-two percent and 77.0% of children aged six of public and private schools, respectively, had no treatment needs. For those aged 12, the percentage was 53.0% for public

  8. Mental health in Dutch adolescents: a TRAILS report on prevalence, severity, age of onset, continuity and co-morbidity of DSM disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, J; Raven, D; van Oort, F; Hartman, C A; Reijneveld, S A; Veenstra, R; Vollebergh, W A M; Buitelaar, J; Verhulst, F C; Oldehinkel, A J

    2015-01-01

    With psychopathology rising during adolescence and evidence suggesting that adult mental health burden is often due to disorders beginning in youth, it is important to investigate the epidemiology of adolescent mental disorders. We analysed data gathered at ages 11 (baseline) and 19 years from the population-based Dutch TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) study. At baseline we administered the Achenbach measures (Child Behavior Checklist, Youth Self-Report) and at age 19 years the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) to 1584 youths. Lifetime, 12-month and 30-day prevalences of any CIDI-DSM-IV disorder were 45, 31 and 15%, respectively. Half were severe. Anxiety disorders were the most common but the least severe whereas mood and behaviour disorders were less prevalent but more severe. Disorders persisted, mostly by recurrence in mood disorders and chronicity in anxiety disorders. Median onset age varied substantially across disorders. Having one disorder increased subjects' risk of developing another disorder. We found substantial homotypic and heterotypic continuity. Baseline problems predicted the development of diagnosable disorders in adolescence. Non-intact families and low maternal education predicted externalizing disorders. Most morbidity concentrated in 5-10% of the sample, experiencing 34-55% of all severe lifetime disorders. At late adolescence, 22% of youths have experienced a severe episode and 23% only mild episodes. This psychopathology is rather persistent, mostly due to recurrence, showing both monotypic and heterotypic continuity, with family context affecting particularly externalizing disorders. High problem levels at age 11 years are modest precursors of incident adolescent disorders. The burden of mental illness concentrates in 5-10% of the adolescent population.

  9. Rehabilitation in osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Pratelli, Elisa; Cinotti, Irene; Pasquetti, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Vertebral fractures occur particularly in osteoporotic patients due to an increased bone fragility. Vertebral fractures influence the quality of life, mobility and mortality. Preventive training exercises and proprioception reeducation can be utilised for improving posture, balance and level of daily function and for decreasing pain. Quality of life is improved even beyond the active training period. This mini review provides information based on the literature for the rehabilitation of osteo...

  10. Prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM IV mental disorders and their severity among school going Omani adolescents and youths: WMH-CIDI findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsi Magdi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of studies exploring the magnitude of mental disorders amongst adolescents and youths in the Arab world. To our knowledge, this phase 2 survey in Oman is the first nationally representative school-based study to determine the prevalence of DSM-IV mental disorders (lifetime and over the preceding 12 months, their age-of-onset distributions and determine their severity over the past 12 months using the World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview, the WMH-CIDI, used for international comparison. Methods A total of 1,682 (91.61% students out of 1836 students who formed the phase 2 random sub-sample of a multi-stage, stratified, random sampling design (phase 1, participated in the face-to-face structured interview using the Arabic-version of WMH-CIDI 3.0. Results The phase 1 results using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and Child Depression Inventory (CDI showed depressive symptoms to be 17% prevalent in the larger sample of 5409 adolescents and youths. Amongst the phase 2 respondents from this sample, 13.9% had at least one DSM IV diagnostic label. The lifetime prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD was 3.0%; Bipolar Mood Disorder (BMD was 1%, Specific phobia 5.8% and Social phobia 1.6%. The female gender was a strong predictor of a lifetime risk of MDD (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.7-6.3, p = 0.000; Any Mood Disorders (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.3, p = 0.002 and Specific Phobia (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.4, p = 0.047. The severity of illness for cases diagnosed with 12 month DSM IV disorders was found to be 80% lower in females (OR 0.2, 95%CI 0.0-0.8. The estimates over the previous 12 month period when compared with the lifetime prevalence showed a 25% to 40% lower prevalence for MDD, Specific phobia, Social phobia, Any Anxiety Disorders (AAD and Any Mood disorders (AMD while the rate was 80% lower for Separation Anxiety Disorder/Adult Separation Anxiety (SAD/ASA. Mood disorders were significantly

  11. Trends in Medicinal Uses of Edible Wild Vertebrates in Brazil

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    Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of food medicines is a widespread practice worldwide. In Brazil, such use is often associated with wild animals, mostly focusing on vertebrate species. Here we assessed taxonomic and ecological trends in traditional uses of wild edible vertebrates in the country, through an extensive ethnobiological database analysis. Our results showed that at least 165 health conditions are reportedly treated by edible vertebrate species (n=204, mostly fishes and mammals. However, reptiles stand out presenting a higher plasticity in the treatment of multiple health conditions. Considering the 20 disease categories recorded, treatment prescriptions were similar within continental (i.e., terrestrial and freshwater and also within coastal and marine habitats, which may reflect locally related trends in occurrence and use of the medicinal fauna. The comprehension of the multiplicity and trends in the therapeutic uses of Brazilian vertebrates is of particular interest from a conservation perspective, as several threatened species were recorded.

  12. Prevalence of Charcot Arthropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Aged over 50 Years with Severe Peripheral Neuropathy: A Retrospective Study in a Tertiary Care South Indian Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salini, Dharmadas; Harish, Kumar; Minnie, Pillay; Sundaram, Karimassery R; Arun, Bal; Sandya, Chirukandath J; Mangalanandan, Thacho S; Vivek, Lakshmanan; Praveen, Valiyaparambil P

    2018-01-01

    Available literature on the prevalence of Charcot arthropathy (CA) represents mainly Western population. No study has been reported from India so far. Hence we attempted to study the prevalence of CA in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and severe peripheral neuropathy (T2DMPN), belonging to Indian population amongst whom type 2 diabetes is on the rise in alarming proportions. Medical records of 3387 patients who performed an objective vibration perception threshold test during the year 2015 were screened for T2DMPN. Out of these, 1475 T2DMPN patients above 50 years were selected and analyzed in detail for CA. CA was diagnosed based on clinical features and/or radiological investigations. The anatomical localization of the disease distribution of the affected foot was done according to Brodsky's classification. The prevalence of CA in T2DMPN patients was found to be 9.8%. The mean age of patients diagnosed with CA was 63 ± 8.36 years, and mean duration of DM for CA to develop was 18.01 ± 8.23 years. About 62.5% of the patients were male and 37.5% female. Bilateral presentation of CA was observed in 20.8% of patients. Multiple sites of the foot were affected in 48.6% of patients and belonged to type 4 classification of Brodsky. A high prevalence of CA (9.8%) was observed in the present study conducted on T2DMPN patients who presented to the endocrinology department of a tertiary care South Indian hospital. In the majority of patients, the area of foot affected belonged to type 4 classification of Brodsky.

  13. Prevalence of severe acute malnutrition and associated sociodemographic factors among children aged 6 months–5 years in rural population of Northern India: A population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeet Singh Bhadoria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3 documented that nearly 57 million children are undernourished in India, which is one-third of the world's share. We planned a study to identify the prevalence of severe acute malnutrition (SAM among children aged <5 years in a rural population of Northern India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 2 blocks of District Meerut during 2012–2014. A total of 70 villages were identified and all children in the age group 6–60 months were approached through house-to-house visits. Data on sociodemographic profile and anthropometry were collected utilizing standards methods and equipment. The Z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height (WHZ were calculated using the World Health Organization (WHO reference data as standard. SAM (severe wasting was defined as per the WHO criteria (WHZ score −3 standard deviation or severe visible wasting or bipedal edema. Results: A total of 19,449 children were screened and 18,463 children (age, 32.6 ± 15.4 years, and 53.4% males were enrolled, and 466 were excluded due to erroneous age estimation and physical deformities. The prevalence of SAM was 2.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.02–2.44%, (409/18,463. Multivariate logistic regression documented age (odds ratio [OR]: 0.97, 95% CI 0.96–0.98, nuclear family (OR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.01–1.54, lower occupation of head of family (OR: 1.29, 95% CI 1.05–1.59, and lower paternal education (OR: 1.49, 95% CI 1.16–1.91 as independent predictor of SAM. Conclusion: The prevalence of SAM was lower (2.2% in this Northern district of India as compared to national prevalence (7.9%. Younger age, nuclear family, lower parental education, and poor occupation of the head of the family predispose a child to SAM.

  14. The prevalence and correlates of severe social withdrawal (hikikomori) in Hong Kong: A cross-sectional telephone-based survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W C; Li, Tim M H; Chan, Melissa; Law, Y W; Chau, Michael; Cheng, Cecilia; Fu, K W; Bacon-Shone, John; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-06-01

    Severe social withdrawal behaviors among young people have been a subject of public and clinical concerns. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of social withdrawal behaviors among young people aged 12-29 years in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional telephone-based survey was conducted with 1,010 young individuals. Social withdrawal behaviors were measured with the proposed research diagnostic criteria for hikikomori and were categorized according to the (a) international proposed duration criterion (more than 6 months), (b) local proposed criterion (less than 6 months) and (c) with withdrawal behaviors but self-perceived as non-problematic. The correlates of social withdrawal among the three groups were examined using multinomial and ordinal logistic regression analyses. The prevalence rates of more than 6 months, less than 6 months and self-perceived non-problematic social withdrawal were 1.9%, 2.5% and 2.6%, respectively. In terms of the correlates, the internationally and locally defined socially withdrawn youths are similar, while the self-perceived non-problematic group is comparable to the comparison group. The study finds that the prevalence of severe social withdrawal in Hong Kong is comparable to that in Japan. Both groups with withdrawal behaviors for more or less than 6 months share similar characteristics and are related to other contemporary youth issues, for example, compensated dating and self-injury behavior. The self-perceived non-problematic group appears to be a distinct group and the withdrawal behaviors of its members may be discretionary. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. The effect of education on decreasing the prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain: a longitudinal study in Korean male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Min Jung; Park, Sun Young; Park, Eun Jung; Park, Sang Hoon; Jeon, Hea Rim; Kim, Mun-Gyu; Lee, Se-Jin; Kim, Sang Ho; Ok, Si Young; Kim, Soon Im

    2014-09-01

    Neck and shoulder pain is fairly common among adolescents in Korea and results in significant health problem. The aims of this prospective study was to identify the effects of education, in terms of recognition of this issue and posture correction, on prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain in Korean adolescents. A prospective, observational cohort design was used. The 912 students from two academic high schools in the city of Seoul were eligible for the current study and 887 completed this study. After a baseline cross-sectional survey, students listened to a lecture about cervical health, focusing on good posture, habits, and stretching exercises to protect the spine, and were encouraged by their teachers to keep the appropriate position. And follow-ups were conducted 3 months later, to evaluate the effect of education. The prevalence of neck and shoulder pain was decreased 19.5% (from 82.5 to 66.4%). The baseline mean usual and worst numeric rating scale were 19.9/100 (95% CI, 18.1-21.7) and 31.2/100 (95% CI, 28.7-33.2), respectively. On the follow-up survey, the mean usual and worst numeric rating scale were decreased significantly by 24.1 and 21.7%, respectively, compared with baseline (P students reporting neck and shoulder pain, 16.4% responded that they had experienced improvement during the 3 months. Education; recognition of this issue and posture correction, for cervical health appeared to be effective in decreasing the prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain at a 3 month follow-up.

  16. Prevalence, source and severity of work-related injuries among "foreign" construction workers in a large Malaysian organisation: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerguine, Haroun; Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri Mohd; Jalaludin, Juliana

    2018-02-02

    Malaysian construction sector is regarded as critical in the field of health because of the high rates of accidents and fatalities. This research aimed to determine the prevalence, sources and severity of injuries and its association with commitment to safety among foreign construction workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 323 foreign construction workers from six construction projects of a large organization in Malaysia, using a simple random sampling method. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire to assess work-related injuries and safety commitment. The collected data was analysed by SPSS 22.0 using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. The prevalence of work-related injuries in a one year period was 22.6%, where most of the injuries were of moderate severity (39.7%) and falls from heights represented the main source (31.5%). The majority of the foreign construction workers had perceived between moderate and high safety commitment, which was significantly associated with work-related injuries. The results also showed a significant association of work-related injuries with the company\\'s interest in Safety and Health, Safety and Health training, and safety equipment. Thus, the implementation of new procedures and providing relevant trainings and safety equipment; will lead to a decrease in injury rates in construction sites.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of caregiver reported Severe Early Childhood Caries in Manitoba First Nations children: results from the RHS Phase 2 (2008-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Robert J; Halchuk, Shelley; Star, Leona

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence and severity of caries among Canadian First Nations children is a growing concern. Dental surgery in hospital is often necessary to treat the signs of decay but does not address the underlying factors contributing to its development. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of caregiver-reported Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD), or Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC), among preschool children recruited in Phase 2 of the First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (RHS). Cross-sectional study including interviews with caregivers. This study was limited to data from Manitoba First Nations participating in the RHS Phase 2 (2008-10). Data were restricted to caregiver interviews for their child drink crystal beverages in bottles, and daily intake of soft drinks, juice, sweets and fast food were associated with increased risk. Those who reported that healthcare services were not available and were not culturally appropriate were significantly more likely to have children with S-ECC. Caregiver reports suggest that nearly 1 in every 4 children has been affected by S-ECC. Identified risk factors for Manitoba First Nations children included age, education and employment, dietary practices, access to care, and disruption to family and culture. This local evidence can be used to help inform future caries prevention activities in these Manitoba communities.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of caregiver reported Severe Early Childhood Caries in Manitoba First Nations children: results from the RHS Phase 2 (2008–2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Robert J.; Halchuk, Shelley; Star, Leona

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The high prevalence and severity of caries among Canadian First Nations children is a growing concern. Dental surgery in hospital is often necessary to treat the signs of decay but does not address the underlying factors contributing to its development. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of caregiver-reported Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD), or Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC), among preschool children recruited in Phase 2 of the First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (RHS). Study Design Cross-sectional study including interviews with caregivers. Methods This study was limited to data from Manitoba First Nations participating in the RHS Phase 2 (2008–10). Data were restricted to caregiver interviews for their child drink crystal beverages in bottles, and daily intake of soft drinks, juice, sweets and fast food were associated with increased risk. Those who reported that healthcare services were not available and were not culturally appropriate were significantly more likely to have children with S-ECC. Conclusions Caregiver reports suggest that nearly 1 in every 4 children has been affected by S-ECC. Identified risk factors for Manitoba First Nations children included age, education and employment, dietary practices, access to care, and disruption to family and culture. This local evidence can be used to help inform future caries prevention activities in these Manitoba communities. PMID:23984289

  19. The prevalence and factors for cancer screening behavior among people with severe mental illness in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoenix Kit Han Mo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Screening is useful in reducing cancer incidence and mortality. People with severe mental illness (PSMI are vulnerable to cancer as they are exposed to higher levels of cancer risks. Little is known about PSMI's cancer screening behavior and associated factors. The present study examined the utilization of breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancer screening among PSMI in Hong Kong and to identify factors associated with their screening behaviors. METHOD: 591 PSMI from community mental health services completed a cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: The percentage of cancer screening behavior among those who met the criteria for particular screening recommendation was as follows: 20.8% for mammography; 36.5% for clinical breast examination (CBE; 40.5% for pap-smear test; 12.8% for prostate examination; and 21.6% for colorectal cancer screening. Results from logistic regression analyses showed that marital status was a significant factor for mammography, CBE, and pap-smear test; belief that cancer can be healed if found early was a significant factor for pap-smear test and colorectal screening; belief that one can have cancer without having symptoms was a significant factor for CBE and pap-smear test; belief that one will have a higher risk if a family member has had cancer was a significant factor for CBE; and self-efficacy was a significant factor for CBE and pap-smear test behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer screening utilization among PSMI in Hong Kong is low. Beliefs about cancer and self-efficacy are associated with cancer screening behavior. Health care professionals should improve the knowledge and remove the misconceptions about cancer among PSMI; self-efficacy should also be promoted.

  20. Impact of osteoporosis and vertebral fractures on quality-of-life. a population-based study in Valencia, Spain (The FRAVO Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfélix-Genovés, José; Hurtado, Isabel; Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Reig-Molla, Begoña; Peiró, Salvador

    2011-04-06

    To describe the health related quality of life in a population sample of postmenopausal women over the age of 50 and resident in the city of Valencia (Spain), according to the presence/absence of osteoporosis and the severity of prevalent morphometric vertebral fractures. A cross-sectional age-stratified population-based sample of 804 postmenopausal women of 50 years of age and older were assessed with the SF-12 questionnaire. Information about demographic features, lifestyle, clinical features, educational level, anti-osteoporotic and other treatments, comorbidities and risk factors for osteoporosis were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and densitometric evaluation of spine and hip and spine x-rays were carried out. In the non-adjusted analysis, mild and moderate-severe vertebral fractures were associated with decreased scores in the SF-12 Physical Component Summary (PCS) but not in the Mental Component Summary (MCS), while densitometric osteoporosis with no accompanying fracture was not associated with a worse health related quality of life. In multivariate analysis worse PCS scores were associated to the age groups over 70 (-2.43 for 70-74 group and -2.97 for 75 and older), chronic conditions (-4.66, -6.79 and -11.8 according to the presence of 1, 2 or at least 3 conditions), obesity (-5.35), peripheral fracture antecedents (-3.28), hypoestrogenism antecedents (-2.61) and the presence of vertebral fracture (-2.05). After adjusting for confounding factors, the physical components of health related quality of life were significantly lower in women with prevalent osteoporotic vertebral fractures than in women--osteoporotic or not--without vertebral fractures.

  1. Prospective evaluation of the prevalence and severity of fatigue in patients with prostate cancer undergoing radical external beam radiotherapy and neoadjuvant hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Pauline T; Berthelet, Eric; Lee, Junella C; Petersen, Ross; Lim, Jan T W; Gaul, Catherine A; Pai, Howard; Blood, Paul; Ludgate, Charles M

    2006-06-01

    To prospectively evaluate the prevalence and severity of fatigue and its impact on quality of life (QOL) during and after radical external beam radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Twenty-eight men with prostate cancer undergoing RT over 6-8 consecutive weeks were prospectively accrued. The Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), a validated fatigue assessment tool, was administered at five time points: baseline (week 1), middle of RT (week 3-4), end of RT (last week of RT), and follow-up (median 6.5 weeks after RT). The BFI contained nine questions, each using 0-10 ratings to quantify fatigue severity and interference with six QOL domains. The prevalence of moderate-severe fatigue was plotted as a function of time. Mean sum and subscale scores at each time point were compared to baseline scores using Wilcoxon tests. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess associations between fatigue scores and age, tumor and treatment characteristics. The median age was 69 years (range 57-84), Gleason score 7 (range 6-10), and presenting PSA 9.0 ng/mL (range 2.5 ng/mL-103.0 ng/mL). Patients were treated once daily to a median dose of 74 Gy (range 60 Gy-78 Gy) over a median of 37 fractions (range 30-39). Hormone therapy was used in all patients (median duration 12.2 months). The prevalence of moderate-severe present fatigue increased from 7% at baseline to 8% at mid-RT and 32% at RT completion. Compared to baseline (mean score 11.5), fatigue increased significantly mid-RT (mean score 14.6, p = 0.03) and peaked at the end of RT (mean score 23.5, p = 0.001). Fatigue significantly interfered with walking ability, normal work, daily chores, and enjoyment of life only at the end of RT. After RT completion, fatigue improved but remained higher compared to baseline at 6.5 weeks of follow-up (mean score 15.0, p = 0.02). On linear regression analysis, age, Gleason score, PSA, T-stage, hormone therapy duration, RT dose and fractions were not significantly associated with mean fatigue

  2. Underdiagnosis of Vertebral Collapse on Routine Multidetector Computed Tomography Scan of the Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaid, H.; Husamaldin, Z.; Bhatt, R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Vertebral fractures are commonly associated with osteoporosis and have significant morbidity and mortality rates. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are presently considered as a treatable and preventable condition, and early detection is vital for further management. The evaluation of vertebral compression on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scans of the abdomen has, to our knowledge, not been reported before. Purpose: To assess the prevalence of vertebral collapse on routine abdominal CT scans, and to evaluate the usefulness of the multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) capability of MDCT scans in accurately identifying vertebral abnormalities such as vertebral collapse, spondylolisthesis, and retrolisthesis. Material and Methods: A retrospective review of 307 MDCT scans of the abdomen was carried out at a university teaching hospital. Identifiable patient information was anonymized for data protection. All images were reviewed on a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) using sagittal MPR and bone window for the assessment of the vertebrae. Data were collected from the Computerized Radiology Information System (CRIS). Results: Vertebral collapse was seen in 42 (13.6%) of the 307 patients undergoing routine MDCT of the abdomen. Multilevel and single-level collapses were seen in 24 and 18 patients, respectively. Spondylolisthesis was identified in 5.5% (n=17), and retrolisthesis was seen in 0.6% (n=2). All patients with vertebral fracture were older than 50 years. Women were more commonly affected than men. Conclusion: A significant number of patients with vertebral collapse were diagnosed using MPR on MDCT routine scans of the abdomen

  3. Relative therapeuctic efficacy of vertebral mobilization technique in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative therapeuctic efficacy of vertebral mobilization technique in the management of mechanical low back pain. ... Pre- and post-treatment pain scores among the subjects were compared to determine if there was any significant difference in the severity of pain. The difference in the severity of pain perception before and ...

  4. Prevalência e gravidade de asma brônquica em adultos obesos com indicação de cirurgia bariátrica Prevalence and severity of asthma in obese adult candidates for bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Maia Davila Melo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de asma em um grupo de adultos obesos, candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica e avaliar a gravidade da asma neste grupo de pacientes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, envolvendo 363 pacientes obesos adultos (índice de massa corpórea > 35 kg/m² avaliados por um médico pneumologista, utilizando a avaliação clínica como instrumento diagnóstico de asma. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à avaliação clínica e espirometria e foram divididos em dois grupos (asma e controle. Os pacientes com asma foram classificados conforme a gravidade da doença. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de asma na população de obesos estudada foi de 18,5% (IC95%: 14,5-22,4. Essa prevalência nas mulheres e nos homens foi de 20,4% (IC95%: 16,2-24,5 e 13,7% (IC95%: 10,1-17,2, respectivamente. Havia sintomas de asma nos últimos doze meses em 8,0% (IC95%: 5,2-10,7, e houve manifestação inicial dos sintomas de asma na infância/adolescência em 17,4% (IC95%: 13,5-21,3. No grupo asma, asma intermitente estava presente em 29 pacientes (43,3%; asma persistente leve, em 7 (10,4%; asma moderada, em 25 (37,3%; e asma persistente grave, em 6 (9,0%. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de asma neste grupo de adultos obesos, utilizando-se a avaliação clínica como critério diagnóstico, mostrou-se elevada, com predomínio no sexo feminino e com manifestação inicial dos sintomas de asma na infância/adolescência. A gravidade da asma neste grupo de obesos adultos esteve entre os valores médios estimados para a população geral, com uma maior proporção de asma intermitente, asma persistente leve e asma persistente moderadaOBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of asthma in a group of obese adult candidates for bariatric surgery and to evaluate the severity of asthma in this group of patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 363 obese adults (body mass index > 35 kg/m² evaluated by a pulmonologist, using clinical evaluation as a

  5. Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2000-06-01

    This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

  6. Vertebral deformity arising from an accelerated "creep" mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jin; Pollintine, Phillip; Gomm, Edward; Dolan, Patricia; Adams, Michael A

    2012-09-01

    Vertebral deformities often occur in patients who recall no trauma, and display no evident fracture on radiographs. We hypothesise that vertebral deformity can occur by a gradual creep mechanism which is accelerated following minor damage. "Creep" is continuous deformation under constant load. Forty-five thoracolumbar spine motion segments were tested from cadavers aged 42-92 years. Vertebral body areal BMD was measured using DXA. Specimens were compressed at 1 kN for 30 min, while creep in each vertebral body was measured using an optical MacReflex system. After 30 min recovery, each specimen was subjected to a controlled overload event which caused minor damage to one of its vertebrae. The creep test was then repeated. Vertebral body creep was measurable in specimens with BMD Creep was greater anteriorly than posteriorly (p creep by 800 % (anteriorly), 1,000 % (centrally) and 600 % (posteriorly). In 34 vertebrae with complete before-and-after data, anterior wedging occurring during the 1st creep test averaged 0.07° (STD 0.17°), and in the 2nd test (after minor damage) it averaged 0.79° (STD 1.03°). The increase was highly significant (P creep test was proportional to the severity of damage, as quantified by specimen height loss during the overload event (r (2) = 0.51, p creep to such an extent that it makes a substantial contribution to vertebral deformity.

  7. Prevalencia y severidad de la violencia contra mujeres embarazadas, México Prevalence and severity of domestic violence among pregnant women, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Castro

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar si el embarazo es un factor de riesgo o un factor de protección frente a la violencia doméstica y comparar la prevalencia y severidad de la violencia que sufren las mujeres embarazadas antes y durante el embarazo. MÉTODOS: Encuesta realizada a una muestra de 468 mujeres atendidas en consulta prenatal en su tercer trimestre de embarazo por los servicios de la Secretaría de Salud del estado de Morelos (México. Se exploró violencia emocional, física y sexual. Se construyó un índice para valorar la severidad. Se identificaron las variables más asociadas a la violencia durante el embarazo. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de violencia total no cambió significativamente antes y durante el embarazo (32%. La prevalencia de cada uno de los tres tipos de violencia se mantuvo asimismo sin cambios. El 27% de las mujeres que tuvieron violencia durante el embarazo no la tuvieron antes del mismo; una proporción equivalente tuvieron violencia antes del embarazo pero no durante el mismo. La severidad de la violencia emocional se incrementó significativamente durante el embarazo (en comparación con el año previo, mientras que la severidad de la violencia física disminuyó. Variables asociadas a la violencia durante el embarazo: violencia en la infancia de la pareja; ; que la mujer haya presenciado violencia en casa durante su infancia; y violencia en el año previo al embarazo. Se presentan diversos escenarios de riesgo útiles para los prestadores de servicios. CONCLUSIONES: La violencia emocional durante el embarazo predomina por encima de la violencia fisica y sexual. Diferenciarlas contribuye a esclarecer la complejidad del fenómeno.OBJECTIVES: To determine whether pregnancy is a risk factor for domestic violence and to compare prevalence and severity of violence reported by women before and during pregnancy. METHODS: There were interviewed 468 women in the third trimester of pregnancy who were seen during prenatal visits at

  8. Vertebral Compression Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and monitored to avoid putting pressure on the ribs that can cause new fractures. Surgical Procedures • When there is severe incapacitating pain • When healing is delayed or when bone fragments ...

  9. Importance of Aspergillus spp. isolation in Acute exacerbations of severe COPD: prevalence, factors and follow-up: the FUNGI-COPD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) are often associated with infectious agents, some of which may be non-usual, including Aspergillus spp. However, the importance of Aspergillus spp. in the clinical management of AECOPD still remains unclear. Objectives The aims of the study were to analyze the prevalence and risk factors associated with Aspergillus spp. isolation in AECOPD, and to investigate the associated clinical outcomes during a 1-year follow-up period. Methods Patients presenting with an AECOPD requiring hospitalization were prospectively included from four hospitals across Spain. Clinical, radiological and microbiological data were collected at admission and during the follow-up period (1, 6 and 12 months after discharge), and re-admissions and mortality data collected during the follow-up. Results A total of 240 patients with severe AECOPD were included. Valid sputum samples were obtained in 144 (58%) patients, and in this group, the prevalence of Aspergillus spp. isolation was 16.6% on admission and 14.1% at one-year follow-up. Multivariate logistic-regression showed that AECOPD in the previous year (OR 12.35; 95% CI, 1.9-29.1; p Aspergillus spp. isolation. Conclusions The main risk factors for Aspergillus spp. isolation were AECOPD in the previous year and concomitant isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, although Aspergillus spp. is often isolated in sputum samples from patients with AECOPD, the pathogenic and clinical significance remains unclear. PMID:24517318

  10. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and stro......The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum....... Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural...

  11. Low prevalence of collateral cerebral circulation in the circle of Willis in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis and recent ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badacz, Rafał; Przewłocki, Tadeusz; Karch, Izabela; Pieniążek, Piotr; Rosławiecka, Agnieszka; Mleczko, Szymon; Brzychczy, Andrzej; Trystuła, Mariusz; Żmudka, Krzysztof; Kabłak-Ziembicka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The circle of Willis is thought to play a key role in development of collateral flow in patients with internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS). To assess flow in the circle of Willis in patients with recent ischemic stroke (IS). The study included 371 patients, 102 symptomatic with severe ICAS and recent IS (within the last 3 months) (group I) and 269 asymptomatic with severe ICAS (group II). Flow in the middle (MCA), anterior (ACA) and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries and pattern of the cross-flow through anterior (ACoA) and posterior (PCoA) communicating arteries were assessed with transcranial color-coded Doppler ultrasonography (TCCD). The ACoA or PCoA was less prevalent in group I than in group II (54% vs. 78%, p PCoA and higher PSV in the MCA and ACA were associated with significant risk reduction of IS (RR = 0.28 (95% CI = 0.16-0.49, p PCoA seem to play a key role in the evaluation of IS risk in subjects with severe ICAS.

  12. Extraintestinal manifestations were common in children with coeliac disease and were more prevalent in patients with more severe clinical and histological presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurminen, Samuli; Kivelä, Laura; Huhtala, Heini; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle

    2018-03-22

    This study investigated the prevalence of extraintestinal manifestations (EIM) in paediatric coeliac disease and their associations with other disease features. Researchers at the University of Tampere, Finland, compared EIM in 511 children diagnosed with coeliac disease from 2003 to 2014 and 180 diagnosed with functional gastrointestinal disorders from 2007 to 2013. Disease severity and dietary responses were also compared between coeliac children diagnosed by screening (n = 146) or because of EIM (n = 116) or gastrointestinal symptoms (n = 249). Coeliac patients had more EIM (62%) than those with functional disorders (33%). The most common EIM in coeliac children were poor growth (27%) and anaemia (18%). Children with coeliac disease often showed fatigue (8%) and symptoms affecting the skin (15%), nervous system (9%) and joints (6%). Coeliac patients with EIM as their main clinical presentation had more severe symptoms and histological damage at diagnosis than those with gastrointestinal presentation and screen-detected cases. The subgroups did not differ with regard to other clinical and laboratory parameters and dietary adherence. Concomitant EIM were also common in children diagnosed because of gastrointestinal presentation (60%) and by screening (37%). EIM were common in coeliac disease and associated with more severe clinical and histological presentation. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Association of previous severe low birth weight with adverse perinatal outcomes in a subsequent pregnancy among HIV-prevalent urban African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Marcela C; Ahmed, Yusuf; Stoner, Marie C D; Vwalika, Bellington; Stringer, Elizabeth M; Stringer, Jeffrey S A

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the association between severity of prior low birth weight (LBW) delivery and adverse perinatal outcomes in the subsequent delivery among an HIV-prevalent urban African population. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 41 109 women who had undergone two deliveries in Lusaka, Zambia, between February 1, 2006, and May 31, 2013. The relationship between prior LBW delivery (<2500 g) and a composite measure of adverse perinatal outcome in the second pregnancy was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Women with prior LBW delivery (n=4259) had an increased risk of LBW in the second delivery versus those without prior LBW delivery (n=37 642). Such risk correlated with the severity of first delivery LBW. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 2.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.05-4.09) for a birth weight of 1000-1499 g, 3.05 (95% CI 2.42-3.86) for a birth weight of 1500-1999 g, and 2.02 (95% CI 1.81-2.27) for a birth weight of 2000-2499 g. Previous LBW delivery also increased the risk of adverse perinatal outcome, with an AOR of 1.4 (95% CI 1.2-1.7). Severe prior LBW delivery conferred substantial risk for adverse perinatal outcomes in a subsequent pregnancy. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  14. Investigation of dietary supplements prevalence as complementary therapy: Comparison between hospitalized psoriasis patients and non-psoriasis patients, correlation with disease severity and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, Hadis; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Rastin, Maryam; Azad, Farahzad Jabbari

    2017-08-01

    Psoriasis patients are often displeased with traditional medical treatments and they may self-prescribe dietary supplements as an alternative or complementary treatments. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of self-medication of dietary supplements among psoriasis and non-psoriasis cases and its impact on disease severity and quality of life. This case-control study evaluated 252 records of psoriasis patients and 245 non-psoriasis cases. Dietary supplementation over last 30days and characteristics, including age, age at onset of disease, co-morbidities, smoking and education were recorded. Psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) and dermatology quality of life index (DLQI) were calculated. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant level. This study consisted 138 psoriasis (females; 54) and 138 non-psoriasis cases (females; 50), aged between 21 and 91 years. Among psoriasis patients, 72% reported using at least one of dietary supplements, which was different from non-psoriasis cases (25.36%, P=0.01). Multivitamin/mineral supplements (MVM) were the most frequent used dietary supplements (26.81%) and the most common reasons for the consumption of these supplements were to maintain and improve health. The consumption of folic acid (21.73%), omega-3 fatty acids or fish oil (10.14%), herbs (12.31%) and vitamin E (1.44%) had the most frequencies after MVM. No significant differences in PASI and DLQI were found among patients with consumption of different supplements (P>0.05). There was non-significant and negative correlation between education and use of supplements (P=0.21, r=-0.02). Self-medicating of MVM over last 30days was prevalent among studied psoriasis patients. They took dietary supplements in order to improve and maintain their health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Osteoporosis and vertebral fractures in men aged 60-74 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Wraae, Kristian; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    limited information on the prevalence of osteoporosis and VFxs in men in high-risk populations is available. The choice of reference values for dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is debated. We evaluated the prevalence of osteoporosis and vertebral deformities in a population-based sample of men....

  16. 'Fingerprints' of vertebral trauma - a unifying concept based on mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daffner, R.H.; Deeb, Z.L.; Rothfus, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Vertebral fractures, like fractures in the peripheral skeleton, occur in predictable and reproducible patterns that are related to the kind of force applied to the affected bone. The same force applied to the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar column will result in injuries which appear quite similar. A review of 621 injuries to the vertebral column revealed that there are basically four mechanisms of injury: flexion, extension, shearing, and torque (rotation). These injuries may occur by themselves or in combination with one another. The severity and extent of damage produced by any mechanism is dependent upon the incident force, the position of the patient at the time of injury, and the velocity of the patient. Thus, there is a pattern of recognizable signs which span the spectrum from mild soft tissue damage to severe skeletal and ligamentous disruption. These patterns are termed the 'fingerprints' of the injury, and this presentation illustrates the four basic types of vertebral injury producing those 'fingerprints'. (orig.)

  17. Birth and death of gene overlaps in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makałowska Izabela

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Between five and fourteen per cent of genes in the vertebrate genomes do overlap sharing some intronic and/or exonic sequence. It was observed that majority of these overlaps are not conserved among vertebrate lineages. Although several mechanisms have been proposed to explain gene overlap origination the evolutionary basis of these phenomenon are still not well understood. Here, we present results of the comparative analysis of several vertebrate genomes. The purpose of this study was to examine overlapping genes in the context of their evolution and mechanisms leading to their origin. Results Based on the presence and arrangement of human overlapping genes orthologs in rodent and fish genomes we developed 15 theoretical scenarios of overlapping genes evolution. Analysis of these theoretical scenarios and close examination of genomic sequences revealed new mechanisms leading to the overlaps evolution and confirmed that many of the vertebrate gene overlaps are not conserved. This study also demonstrates that repetitive elements contribute to the overlapping genes origination and, for the first time, that evolutionary events could lead to the loss of an ancient overlap. Conclusion Birth as well as most probably death of gene overlaps occurred over the entire time of vertebrate evolution and there wasn't any rapid origin or 'big bang' in the course of overlapping genes evolution. The major forces in the gene overlaps origination are transposition and exaptation. Our results also imply that origin of overlapping genes is not an issue of saving space and contracting genomes size.

  18. Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every…

  19. Mineral metabolism disorders, vertebral fractures and aortic calcifications in stable kidney transplant recipients: The role of gender (EMITRAL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Torres

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is more common among female kidney transplant recipients at earlier CKD-T stages, and it contributes to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Prevalent vertebral fractures are only related to high serum PTH levels in female recipients.

  20. Relationships between metacarpal morphometry, fore-arm and vertebral bone density and fractures in post-menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wishart, J.M.; Horowitz, M.; Bochner, M.; Need, A.G.; Nordin, B.E.C.

    1993-01-01

    The relationships between metacarpal morphometric, vertebral and forearm density measurement and the prevalence of vertebral and peripheral fractures were examined in 239 postmenopausal women (median age 63, range 32-84 years). Metacarpal cortical area/total area ratio (CA/TA) was measured with needle calipers forearm mineral density (FMD) by single photon absorptiometry and vertebral mineral density (VMD) by single energy quantitative computed tomography. The authors suggest that metacarpal morphometry, which is widely available at relatively low cost, yields cross-sectional information about bone density and fracture risk, comparable with that obtained by forearm and vertebral densitometry. (Author)

  1. Cause analysis of missing diagnosis for vertebral fracture on lateral chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wei; Yao Jinpeng; Lin Qiang; Mu Wenbin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the cause of missing diagnosis for vertebral fracture on lateral chest radiography. Methods: Lateral chest radiographies of 1638 hospitalized patients (871 males and 767 females) were retrospectively reviewed for identifying vertebral fractures. Their ages ranged from 50 to 91 years with the mean of 63.5 years. Complains and application for chest radiography in all patients were not related to osteoporosis and vertebral fracture. Vertebral fracture and fracture severity were evaluated using Genant's semiquantitative visual method, taking approximately a 20%-25% vertebral height reduction as mild grade, 26%--40% as moderate grade and 41% or greater as severe grade. Evaluation results of the vertebral fracture, original X-ray reports, as well as medical records were compared for further analysis. Results: Eighty-four in 1638 patients showed vertebral fractures on the lateral chest radiographies. Of them, vertebral fractures were reported in 30 cases and 54 patients were not reported on their original X-ray reports. There were 63 vertebral fractures in 54 un-reported patients, most of which were single fracture (75% or 47/63). Grade I fracture accounted for 54% (34/63), Grade II fracture 33% (21/63), while 13% presented grade III fracture (8/63). In all 84 patients with vertebral fractures, only 5 cases (6%) underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement, 5 cases (6%) were recorded to have vertebral fractures on the medical papers, as well as 15 cases (18%) were prescribed drugs related to the osteoporosis when discharged from hospital. All drugs prescribed for the 15 patients were limited only to calcium. Conclusions: More attention should be paid to osteoporosis by doctors including radiologists. Vertebral fracture on lateral chest radiography should be completely diagnosed, which is helpful for both prevention and treatment. (authors)

  2. Evolution of endothelin receptors in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, Ingo; Schartl, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Endothelin receptors are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the β-group of rhodopsin receptors that bind to endothelin ligands, which are 21 amino acid long peptides derived from longer prepro-endothelin precursors. The most basal Ednr-like GPCR is found outside vertebrates in the cephalochordate amphioxus, but endothelin ligands are only present among vertebrates, including the lineages of jawless vertebrates (lampreys and hagfishes), cartilaginous vertebrates (sharks, rays, and chimaeras), and bony vertebrates (ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned vertebrates including tetrapods). A bona fide endothelin system is thus a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles for regulating the cardiovascular system, renal and pulmonary processes, as well as for the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. Expectedly, dysregulation of endothelin receptors and the endothelin system leads to a multitude of human diseases. Despite the importance of different types of endothelin receptors for vertebrate development and physiology, current knowledge on endothelin ligand-receptor interactions, on the expression of endothelin receptors and their ligands, and on the functional roles of the endothelin system for embryonic development and in adult vertebrates is very much biased towards amniote vertebrates. Recent analyses from a variety of vertebrate lineages, however, have shown that the endothelin system in lineages such as teleost fish and lampreys is more diverse and is divergent from the mammalian endothelin system. This diversity is mainly based on differential evolution of numerous endothelin system components among vertebrate lineages generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication (three in teleosts) during vertebrate evolution. Here we review current understanding of the evolutionary history of the endothelin receptor family in vertebrates supplemented with surveys on the endothelin receptor gene complement of

  3. Constrained vertebrate evolution by pleiotropic genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Haiyang; Uesaka, Masahiro; Guo, Song

    2017-01-01

    applied to vertebrates than chordates. Furthermore, we found that vertebrates' conserved mid-embryonic developmental programmes are intensively recruited to other developmental processes, and the degree of the recruitment positively correlates with their evolutionary conservation and essentiality...... for normal development. Thus, we propose that the intensively recruited genetic system during vertebrates' organogenesis period imposed constraints on its diversification through pleiotropic constraints, which ultimately led to the common anatomical pattern observed in vertebrates....

  4. Prevalence, characteristics and severity of hypomineralization of the first permanent molars and incisors in children from the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović Brankica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Molar-incisor hypomnineralization (MIH is relatively common developmental anomaly characterized by hypomineralized enamel defects in the first permanent molars and incisors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypomineralization of the first permanent molars and incisors in children aged eight and 10 years who live in the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija. Methods. The study included 712 respondents, 289 of whom aged eight (40.6% and 423 of whom aged 10 years (59.4%. Criteria according to Weerheijm were used for diagnosis of hypomineralization and the severity of changes was determined. Results. The frequency of hypomineralized changes in the first permanent molars and incisors of the examined children in this area was 12.2%. It was lower in children aged eight years (10.7% compared to those aged 10 (13.2%. Demarcated enamel opacity was more common in younger children, whereas both atypical restoration and tooth extraction due to hypomineralization were more common in older children. Mild form is more common in children aged eight years, whereas both severe form and severe form with extracted teeth are more common in children aged 10 years. The results indicate that the first permanent molars were most commonly affected by MIH changes. Conclusion. The percentage of the respondents with MIH changes in the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija, which is 12.2%, is not negligible and points to the necessity of early diagnosis in order to prevent and reduce the complications of the condition by timely prevention and treatment.

  5. A study on the prevalence of depression and the severity of depression in patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a semi-urban Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Abhishekl; Batra, Sakshi; Prasad, Rajendra; Verma, Anand; Jilani, Abdul Q; Kant, Surya

    2018-03-19

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the few respiratory diseases which is associated with a number of comorbidities. Psychiatric disease like depression is a very important comorbidity of COPD because it decreases the feeling of wellbeing in the patient and also interferes with the compliance with medication thereby increasing the risk of hospitalization in the COPD patient. A cross-sectional study was done for two years in the department of pulmonary medicine at Era's Lucknow medical college and hospital, Lucknow. A total of 150 patients were enrolled for the study after a clinico-radiological screening for the diagnosis confirmed on spirometry. After the confirmation of the diagnosis of COPD in these patients, they were screened for depression using the PHQ-9 scale in our department of pulmonary medicine. The confirmation of the diagnosis of depression was done according to the ICD-10 guidelines for depression and the severity of depression was graded using HAM-D scale in the department of psychiatry at our institute. The most common age group enrolled in the study was 51-60 years of age (40.67%). One hundred and fifteen patients (76.7%) of the enrolled patients were smokers while the remaining 35 patients (23.3%) were non-smokers. Depression was found to be present in 46 out of the total 150 patients in the study. Thus, the prevalence of depression in our study was 30.67%. Depression was seen in COPD groups B,C and D. Out of the 46 patients of COPD with depression,18 had mild depression (39.13%), 26 had moderate depression (56.52%) and 2 had severe depression (4.35%). Hence, depression of all grades (i.e., mild, moderate and severe depression) is seen in COPD groups B, C and D.

  6. Assessment of vertebral osteopenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroelner, B.; Berthelsen, B.; Nielsen, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of radiographic morphology and dual-photon ( 153 Gd) absorptiometry was carried out in 132 women. Films of the lumbar spine were graded for osteopenia, spondylosis, and calcification of the abdominal aorta according to definite morphologic criteria. The radiographic grade of osteopenia and the bone mineral content of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th lumbar vertebrae showed a highly significant inverse correlation. However, the mineral content at each radiographic grade of osteopenia differed considerably. Disproportionately high levels occurred in patients with spondylosis and severe calcification of the abdominal aorta. Spinal radiography and dual-photon absorptiometry must be regarded as complementary rather than alternative diagnostic procedures in clinical practice. (Auth.)

  7. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Gilbert, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population...

  8. High prevalence of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Laura G; Lee, Iris; Sammel, Mary D; Dokras, Anuja

    2017-05-01

    Do women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased prevalence of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms compared with control women, and do these symptoms correlate with age, BMI, testosterone, hirsutism or insulin resistance (IR)? Women with PCOS have significantly increased odds of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, independent of obesity, and the symptoms are weakly associated with age, BMI, elevated testosterone, hirsutism and IR. Previous studies have reported that women with PCOS have an increased prevalence of mild depressive and anxiety symptoms or an increase in mean depression and anxiety scores, although these scores are usually within the normal range. Thus, it is therefore not clear whether these findings are clinically significant. The prevalence of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, which require follow-up and would benefit from treatment, is not known in this population. A comprehensive systematic review (SR) was performed up to January 2016 and included 30 cross-sectional studies, representing 3050 subjects with PCOS and 3858 controls, from 10 different countries. The meta-analysis (MA) on depressive symptoms included 18 studies and the MA on anxiety symptoms included 9 studies. A separate SR identified 15 studies for the meta-regression examining the associations with PCOS-related symptoms or comorbidities. All studies included adult women with PCOS, defined by the National Institutes of Health or Rotterdam criteria, and a control group without PCOS. Ovid, Embase, PsychInfo and Cochrane were searched up to January 2016. Included studies used a validated screening tool to compare the prevalence or mean scores of depressive and/or anxiety symptoms. Random effects MA was used to estimate the pooled odds ratio (OR) of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Sensitivity analyses of methodological characteristics and a meta-regression of the pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) to evaluate

  9. Initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse in elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishikawa Y

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoichi KishikawaKishikawa Orthopaedic Clinic, Saga City, Saga, JapanPurpose: The aim of the present conventional observational study was to compare the clinical outcomes of initial non-weight-bearing therapy and conventional relative rest therapy among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures.Methods: In total, 196 consecutive patients with clinical vertebral fractures (mean age: 78 years who were hospitalized for treatment between January 1999 and March 2007 were analyzed. Initial non-weight-bearing therapy consisted of complete bed rest allowing rolling on the bed without any weight-bearing to the spine for 2 weeks, followed by rehabilitation wearing a soft brace. The indications for initial non-weight-bearing therapy were vertebral fracture involving the posterior portion of the vertebral body at the thoraco-lumbar spine, mild neurological deficit, instability of the fracture site, severe pain, multiple vertebral fractures arising from trauma, malalignment at the fracture site, and mild spinal canal stenosis caused by the fracture. Patients who met the indication criteria were treated with initial non-weight-bearing therapy (n = 103, while the other patients were treated with conventional relative rest (n = 93. All the patients were uniformly treated with intramuscular elcatonin to relieve pain. The primary endpoint was progression of the vertebral fracture. The secondary endpoints included bony union and subjective back pain. The follow-up period was 12 weeks.Results: Compared with the conventional relative rest group, the collapse rate of the anterior and posterior portions of the vertebral body was significantly smaller in the initial non-weight-bearing group. The bony union rate was 100% in the initial non-weight-bearing group and 97% in the conventional relative rest group. The number of patients who experienced back pain was significantly lower in the initial non-weight-bearing group than in the conventional relative rest

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of caregiver reported Severe Early Childhood Caries in Manitoba First Nations children: results from the RHS Phase 2 (2008–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Schroth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The high prevalence and severity of caries among Canadian First Nations children is a growing concern. Dental surgery in hospital is often necessary to treat the signs of decay but does not address the underlying factors contributing to its development. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of caregiver-reported Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD, or Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC, among preschool children recruited in Phase 2 of the First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (RHS. Study Design. Cross-sectional study including interviews with caregivers. Methods. This study was limited to data from Manitoba First Nations participating in the RHS Phase 2 (2008–10. Data were restricted to caregiver interviews for their child <72 months of age. The main variable of interest was caregiver-reported BBTD, an antecedent term for S-ECC. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses; p≤0.05 was significant. Results. Overall, caregivers of 431 preschool children responded. According to caregiver reports, 102/410 (24.9% children had S-ECC. Further, 65.0% responded that their child had already undergone treatment for caries. Children with S-ECC were significantly older than those without. S-ECC was also associated with paternal education levels and employment status, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Breastfed children were less likely to have S-ECC, while consuming drink crystal beverages in bottles, and daily intake of soft drinks, juice, sweets and fast food were associated with increased risk. Those who reported that healthcare services were not available and were not culturally appropriate were significantly more likely to have children with S-ECC. Conclusions. Caregiver reports suggest that nearly 1 in every 4 children has been affected by S-ECC. Identified risk factors for Manitoba First Nations children included age, education and employment, dietary practices

  11. Prevalence and severity of disordered mineral metabolism in patients with chronic kidney disease: A study from a tertiary care hospital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Vikrant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disordered mineral metabolism is common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, there are limited data on the pattern of these disturbances in Indian CKD population. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD over a period of 3 years. The biochemical markers of CKD-MBD, namely, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH, and 25-hydoxyvitamin Vitamin D3 (25OHD, were measured in newly diagnosed CKD Stage 3–5 and prevalent CKD Stage 5D adult patients. Results: A total of 462 patients of CKD Stage 3–5D were studied. The frequency of various biochemical abnormalities was hypocalcemia (23.8%, hypercalcemia (5.4%, hypophosphatemia (2.8%, hyperphosphatemia (55.4%, raised alkaline phosphatase (56.9%, secondary hyperparathyroidism (82.7%, and hypoparathyroidism (1.5%. 25OHD was done in 335 (72.5% patients and 90.4% were found to have Vitamin D deficiency. About 70.6% of the patients had iPTH levels were above kidney disease outcomes quality initiative (KDOQI target range. Nondiabetic CKD as compared to diabetic CKD had a higher alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.016, a higher iPTH (P = 0.001 a higher proportion of patients with iPTH above KDOQI target range (P = 0.09, and an elevated alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.004. The 25OHD levels were suggestive of severe Vitamin D deficiency in 33.7%, Vitamin D deficiency in 45.4%, and Vitamin D insufficiency in 11.3% patients. There was a significant positive correlation between iPTH with alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.572, P = 0.001, creatinine (r = 0.424, P = 0.001, and phosphorus (r = 0.241, P = 0.001 and a significant negative correlation with hemoglobin (r = −0.325, 0.001, age (r = −0.169, P = 0.002, and 25OHD (r = −0.126, P = 0.021. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, an elevated alkaline phosphatase was a significant predictor of hyperparathyroidism (odds ratio 9.7, 95

  12. Respiratory physiology of vertebrates: life with and without oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nilsson, Göran E

    2010-01-01

    ... sensing, uptake and transport in a textbook style. Subsequently, the reader is shown important examples of extreme respiratory performance, such as diving and high-altitude survival in mammals and birds, air breathing in fish, and those few vertebrates that can survive without any oxygen at all for several months, showing how evolution has s...

  13. Utilização da tração halo-craniana pré-operatória no tratamento de deformidades vertebrais de alto valor angular Uso de tracción halo gravitacional en el tratamiento quirúrgico de las deformidades graves de la columna vertebral Halo gravity preoperative traction in severe spine deformities treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Aguiar Porto

    2010-09-01

    énitas, dos post neoplasia, dos neurofibromatosis, un idiopático, un raquitismo, cinco neuromusculares sometidos a cirugía para corrección de deformidades graves de la columna vertebral. La edad en el momento de la cirugía variaba de 6 a 26 años (media de 13,75 años ±4,5. Los parámetros clínicos analizados fueron: sexo, edad, tiempo y peso en la tracción y complicaciones clínicas. Los parámetros radiográficos estudiados fueron: medida de la escoliosis, cifosis, altura de la columna vertebral. Los parámetros radiográficos fueron evaluados en el período preoperatorio y post-operatorio. RESULTADOS: el tiempo de tracción varió de 14 hasta 106 días (34.5±20.83 y el porcentaje de peso de la tracción, en relación al peso corporal, varió del 12,5 hasta el 50% (30%±9.36. El valor medio de la escoliosis era de 98.6±25.7º (Cobb antes de la cirugía y de 77±29.4º en el post-operatorio, con una media de corrección de 25º. El valor medio de la cifosis era de 86.3±32.08º (Cobb antes de la cirugía y de 60 º±20.9 º en el post-operatorio, con una media de corrección de 26º. CONCLUSIÓN: el tratamiento quirúrgico de las deformidades graves de la columna vertebral, por medio de la tracción halo gravitacional, mostró buena corrección de la deformidad, reduciendo la corrección aguda intraoperatoria.OBJECTIVE: evaluate the surgical treatment results of severe spine deformities using the preoperative halo gravity traction. METHODS: seventeen scoliosis patients with different pathologies were evaluated (6 congenital, 2 tumor, 2 neurofibromatosis, 1 idiopathic, 1 rickets, and 5 neuromuscular. Those patients underwent a deformity correction surgery in the spine. The variety of age was 6 to 26 years-old (average of 13.75±4.5. The clinical features evaluated were age, gender, time of traction and weight used on traction. The radiographic data analyzed follows: scoliosis curve kyphosis, and spine height. Those features were evaluated in the preoperative, during

  14. Micromechanics of the human vertebral body for forward flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haisheng; Nawathe, Shashank; Fields, Aaron J; Keaveny, Tony M

    2012-08-09

    To provide mechanistic insight into the etiology of osteoporotic wedge fractures, we investigated the spatial distribution of tissue at the highest risk of initial failure within the human vertebral body for both forward flexion and uniform compression loading conditions. Micro-CT-based linear elastic finite element analysis was used to virtually load 22 human T9 vertebral bodies in either 5° of forward flexion or uniform compression; we also ran analyses replacing the simulated compliant disc (E=8 MPa) with stiff polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, E=2500 MPa). As expected, we found that, compared to uniform compression, forward flexion increased the overall endplate axial load on the anterior half of the vertebra and shifted the spatial distribution of high-risk tissue within the vertebra towards the anterior aspect of the vertebral body. However, despite that shift, the high-risk tissue remained primarily within the central regions of the trabecular bone and endplates, and forward flexion only slightly altered the ratio of cortical-to-trabecular load sharing at the mid-vertebral level (mean±SD for n=22: 41.3±7.4% compression; 44.1±8.2% forward flexion). When the compliant disc was replaced with PMMA, the anterior shift of high-risk tissue was much more severe. We conclude that, for a compliant disc, a moderate degree of forward flexion does not appreciably alter the spatial distribution of stress within the vertebral body. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Corticotropin-releasing hormone: Mediator of vertebrate life stage transitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yugo; Grommen, Sylvia V H; De Groef, Bert

    2016-03-01

    Hormones, particularly thyroid hormones and corticosteroids, play critical roles in vertebrate life stage transitions such as amphibian metamorphosis, hatching in precocial birds, and smoltification in salmonids. Since they synergistically regulate several metabolic and developmental processes that accompany vertebrate life stage transitions, the existence of extensive cross-communication between the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes is not surprising. Synergies of corticosteroids and thyroid hormones are based on effects at the level of tissue hormone sensitivity and gene regulation. In addition, in representative nonmammalian vertebrates, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates hypophyseal thyrotropin secretion, and thus functions as a common regulator of both the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes to release corticosteroids and thyroid hormones. The dual function of CRH has been speculated to control or affect the timing of vertebrate life history transitions across taxa. After a brief overview of recent insights in the molecular mechanisms behind the synergic actions of thyroid hormones and corticosteroids during life stage transitions, this review examines the evidence for a possible role of CRH in controlling vertebrate life stage transitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, P.; Goulao, A. [Hospital Garcia de Orta, Servico de Neurorradiologia, Almada (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  17. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilela, P.; Goulao, A.

    2005-01-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  18. Zygotic Genome Activation in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukam, David; Shariati, S Ali M; Skotheim, Jan M

    2017-08-21

    The first major developmental transition in vertebrate embryos is the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) when maternal mRNAs are degraded and zygotic transcription begins. During the MZT, the embryo takes charge of gene expression to control cell differentiation and further development. This spectacular organismal transition requires nuclear reprogramming and the initiation of RNAPII at thousands of promoters. Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is mechanistically coordinated with other embryonic events, including changes in the cell cycle, chromatin state, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic component ratios. Here, we review progress in understanding vertebrate ZGA dynamics in frogs, fish, mice, and humans to explore differences and emphasize common features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The prevalence and severity of non-carious cervical lesions in a group of patients attending a university hospital in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W A J; Marchan, S; Rafeek, R N

    2008-02-01

    Non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) are often encountered in clinical practice and their aetiology attributed to toothbrush abrasion, erosion and tooth flexure. This paper aims to determine the prevalence and severity of NCCLs in a sample of patients attending a university clinic in Trinidad and to investigate the relationship with medical and dental histories, oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and occlusion. Data were collected via a questionnaire and clinical examination. Odds ratios were used to determine the association of the presence of lesions and the factors examined. One hundred and fifty-six patients with a mean age of 40.6 years were examined of whom 62.2% had one or more NCCLs. Forty five per cent of the lesions were sensitive to compressed air. Younger age groups had a significantly lower correlation with the presence of NCCLs than older age groups. Other significant factors included patients who reported heartburn, gastric reflux, headaches, bruxism, sensitive teeth and swimming or had a history of broken restorations in the last year. There was also significant correlation of NCCLs in patients who brushed more than once a day or used a medium or hard toothbrush. Patients with vegetarian diets and those who reported consuming citrus fruits, soft drinks, alcohol, yoghurt and vitamin C drinks were associated with the presence of lesions. Significant associations were also found in patients with group function, faceting, clicking joints or those who wore occlusal splints.

  20. [A vertebral arteriovenous fistula diagnosed by auscultation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Escalera, G; Diaz-Delgado Peñas, R; Carrasco Marina, M Ll; Maraña Perez, A; Ialeggio, D

    2015-01-01

    Cervical artery fistulas are rare arteriovenous malformations. The etiology of the vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) can be traumatic or spontaneous. They tend to be asymptomatic or palpation or continuous vibration in the cervical region. An arteriography is necessary for a definitive diagnosis. The treatment is complete embolization of the fistula. We present the case of a two year-old male, where the mother described it «like a washing machine in his head». On palpation during the physical examination, there was a continuous vibration, and a continuous murmur in left cervical region. A vascular malformation in vertebral region was clinically suspected, and confirmed with angio-MRI and arteriography. AVF are rare in childhood. They should be suspected in the presence of noises, palpation or continuous vibration in the cervical region. Early diagnosis can prevent severe complications in asymptomatic children. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Tandemly Arrayed Genes in Vertebrate Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Pan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs are duplicated genes that are linked as neighbors on a chromosome, many of which have important physiological and biochemical functions. Here we performed a survey of these genes in 11 available vertebrate genomes. TAGs account for an average of about 14% of all genes in these vertebrate genomes, and about 25% of all duplications. The majority of TAGs (72–94% have parallel transcription orientation (i.e., they are encoded on the same strand in contrast to the genome, which has about 50% of its genes in parallel transcription orientation. The majority of tandem arrays have only two members. In all species, the proportion of genes that belong to TAGs tends to be higher in large gene families than in small ones; together with our recent finding that tandem duplication played a more important role than retroposition in large families, this fact suggests that among all types of duplication mechanisms, tandem duplication is the predominant mechanism of duplication, especially in large families. Finally, several species have a higher proportion of large tandem arrays that are species-specific than random expectation.

  2. The MentDis_ICF65+study protocol: prevalence, 1-year incidence and symptom severity of mental disorders in the elderly and their relationship to impairment, functioning (ICF) and service utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas, Sylke; Haerter, Martin; Volkert, Jana; Hausberg, Maria; Sehner, Susanne; Wegscheider, Karl; Rabung, Sven; Ausin, Berta; Canuto, Alessandra; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Lelliott, Paul; Munoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background The EU currently lacks reliable data on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders in older people. Despite the availability of several national and international epidemiological studies, the size and burden of mental disorders in the elderly remain unclear due to various reasons. Therefore, the aims of the MentDis_ICF65+ study are (1) to adapt existing assessment instruments, and (2) to collect data on the prevalence, the incidence, and the natural course and prognosis of me...

  3. Contaminant exposure in terrestrial vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Philip N.; Cobb, George P.; Godard-Codding, Celine; Hoff, Dale; McMurry, Scott T.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reynolds, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Here we review mechanisms and factors influencing contaminant exposure among terrestrial vertebrate wildlife. There exists a complex mixture of biotic and abiotic factors that dictate potential for contaminant exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. Chemical fate and transport in the environment determine contaminant bioaccessibility. Species-specific natural history characteristics and behavioral traits then play significant roles in the likelihood that exposure pathways, from source to receptor, are complete. Detailed knowledge of natural history traits of receptors considered in conjunction with the knowledge of contaminant behavior and distribution on a site are critical when assessing and quantifying exposure. We review limitations in our understanding of elements of exposure and the unique aspects of exposure associated with terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa. We provide insight on taxa-specific traits that contribute, or limit exposure to, transport phenomenon that influence exposure throughout terrestrial systems, novel contaminants, bioavailability, exposure data analysis, and uncertainty associated with exposure in wildlife risk assessments. Lastly, we identify areas related to exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial organisms that warrant additional research. - Both biotic and abiotic factors determine chemical exposure for terrestrial vertebrates

  4. Vascular complications of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Kevin J; Ross, E Raymond S; Norris, Heather; McCollum, Charles N

    2006-10-01

    Five consecutive cases of prosthetic inter-vertebral disc displacement with severe vascular complications on revisional surgery are described. The objective of this case report is to warn spinal surgeons that major vascular complications are likely with anterior displacement of inter-vertebral discs. We have not been able to find a previous report on vascular complications associated with anterior displacement of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs. In all five patients the prosthetic disc had eroded into the bifurcation of the inferior vena cava and the left common iliac vein. In three cases the aortic bifurcation was also involved. The fibrosis was so severe that dissecting out the arteries and veins to provide access to the relevant disc proved impossible. Formal division of the left common iliac vein and artery with subsequent repair was our solution. Anterior inter-vertebral disc displacement was associated with severe vascular injury. Preventing anterior disc displacement is essential in disc design. In the event of anterior displacement, disc removal should be planned with a Vascular Surgeon.

  5. Anomalous Origin of the Left Vertebral Artery from the Aortic Arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Evan H; Song, Linda H; Villela, Natalia L A; Fasani-Feldberg, Gregory B; Jacobs, Jonathan L; Kim, Dolly O; Nathawat, Akshay; Patel, Devika; Bender, Roger B; Peters, Daniel F

    2016-04-01

    Anatomic anomalies of the aortic arch have implications for clinical practice if their significance is understood. Our case study involves a cadaveric finding of the left vertebral artery originating directly from the aortic arch. Although this anatomical variation has been documented, the prevalence of this anomaly may be generally underestimated. After noting this anomaly, we analyzed 27 cases and found that four female cadavers had the left vertebral artery originating from the aortic arch rather than the left subclavian artery. With a prevalence rate of 14.8%, it would seem that this anomaly is more significant than previously thought, which could have implications for surgical practice.

  6. Vertebral morphology influences the development of Schmorl's nodes in the lower thoracic vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomp, Kimberly A; Roberts, Charlotte A; Viðarsdóttir, Una Strand

    2012-12-01

    Schmorl's nodes are the result of herniations of the nucleus pulposus into the adjacent vertebral body and are commonly identified in both clinical and archaeological contexts. The current study aims to identify aspects of vertebral shape that correlate with Schmorl's nodes. Two-dimensional statistical shape analysis was performed on digital images of the lower thoracic spine (T10-T12) of adult skeletons from the late medieval skeletal assemblages from Fishergate House, York, St. Mary Graces and East Smithfield Black Death cemeteries, London, and postmedieval Chelsea Old Church, London. Schmorl's nodes were scored on the basis of their location, depth, and size. Results indicate that there is a correlation between the shape of the posterior margin of the vertebral body and pedicles and the presence of Schmorl's nodes in the lower thoracic spine. The size of the vertebral body in males was also found to correlate with the lesions. Vertebral shape differences associated with the macroscopic characteristics of Schmorl's nodes, indicating severity of the lesion, were also analyzed. The shape of the pedicles and the posterior margin of the vertebral body, along with a larger vertebral body size in males, have a strong association with both the presence and severity of Schmorl's nodes. This suggests that shape and/or size of these vertebral components are predisposing to, or resulting in, vertically directed disc herniation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Regional disc change in segmental hypoplasia of the lumbosacral vertebral bodies: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Kyu; Lee Seung Ro; Moon, Won Jin; Park, Dong Woo; Hahm, Chang Kok

    2000-01-01

    To classify types of vertebral hypoplasia and to investigate the prevalence and patterns of associated disc degeneration. Defining vertebral hypoplasia as occurring when the AP diameter of a lower vertebral body is smaller than that of an upper ones, we retrospectively reviewed the MR images obtained in 34 cases of this condition involving young adults. Two major types and two subtypes, a total of four different entities were classified as follows; type I: hypoplasia involving a single vertebral body; type II: hypoplasia involving serial lower segmental vertebral bodies; subtype a: hypoplastic body located anteriorly along the anterior spinal line; subtype b: hypoplastic body located posteriorly along the posterior spinal line. We also investigated each type of vertebral hypoplasia and patterns of associated disc changes. Three different types were observed. In type IIa (n=3D29), posterior disc occurred in 8/29 cases, diffuse degeneration in 21/29 patients, and posterior disc herniation in all. All type Ia cases (3/3) showed diffuse disc degeneration at both upper and lower disc levels, with posterior disc herniation, while both type IIb cases (2/2) showed diffuse disc degeneration, with bidirectional disc herniation. By identifying the exact patterns of vertebral hypoplasia, we were able to predict which portion of the disc was likely to degenerate. (author)

  8. LncRNAs in vertebrates: advances and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Allison C; Shkumatava, Alena

    2015-10-01

    Beyond the handful of classic and well-characterized long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), more recently, hundreds of thousands of lncRNAs have been identified in multiple species including bacteria, plants and vertebrates, and the number of newly annotated lncRNAs continues to increase as more transcriptomes are analyzed. In vertebrates, the expression of many lncRNAs is highly regulated, displaying discrete temporal and spatial expression patterns, suggesting roles in a wide range of developmental processes and setting them apart from classic housekeeping ncRNAs. In addition, the deregulation of a subset of these lncRNAs has been linked to the development of several diseases, including cancers, as well as developmental anomalies. However, the majority of vertebrate lncRNA functions remain enigmatic. As such, a major task at hand is to decipher the biological roles of lncRNAs and uncover the regulatory networks upon which they impinge. This review focuses on our emerging understanding of lncRNAs in vertebrate animals, highlighting some recent advances in their functional analyses across several species and emphasizing the current challenges researchers face to characterize lncRNAs and identify their in vivo functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of radiological vertebral fractures in HIV-infected patients: clinical implications and predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, L; Savoldi, A; Bai, F; Magenta, A; Dziubak, M; Pietrogrande, L; Tagliabue, L; Del Sole, A; Bini, T; Marchetti, G; d'Arminio Monforte, A

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical impact of including lateral spine X-ray in the screening of bone diseases in HIV-positive patients. A total of 194 HIV-positive patients underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), lateral spine X-ray and bone biochemical analysis. Vertebral fractures were identified using a morphometric analysis of X-rays and classified using the semiquantitative scoring system of Genant et al. For each patient, a spine deformity index (SDI) score was calculated by summing the grades of vertebral deformities. Reductions in vertebral body height of > 25% were considered vertebral fractures, and those Risk factors associated with vertebral fractures were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Vertebral fractures were detected in 24 patients (12.4%) and vertebral deformities in 17 patients (8.7%); 153 patients (78.9%) did not show any vertebral deformity. Among patients with fractures, only two with SDI > 10 reported lumbar pain; the remaining were asymptomatic. Patients over 50 years old showed a higher prevalence of vertebral fracture [24.4% versus 11.8% in patients 41-50 years old (P = 0.05) and 1.9% in patients ≤ 40 years old (P = 0.04)]. No significant increase in the prevalence according to bone mineral density (BMD) reduction was observed, and 70% of fractures were diagnosed in nonosteoporotic patients. Older age [adjusted odds ratio 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.13; P = 0.001] and steroid use (adjusted odds ratio 3.64; 95% CI 1.29-10.3; P = 0.01) were independently associated with vertebral fracture; no association was found with HIV- or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-related variables. A prevalence of vertebral fractures of 12.4% was observed in our HIV-positive cohort. Given that two-thirds of fractures occurred in nonosteoporotic patients, spine X-ray may be considered in patients at increased risk, irrespective of BMD; that is, in elderly patients

  10. Osteomielitis vertebral piógena Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Perrotti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La osteomielitis vertebral piógena (OVP es una localización poco frecuente (2-7% Se confirma con el aislamiento de un microorganismo de una vértebra, disco intervertebral, absceso epidural o paravertebral. Se describe una serie de casos por la infrecuente presentación de esta enfermedad, que puede ser consulta inicial en los servicios de clínica médica y por su sintomatología inespecífica que supone una dificultad diagnóstica. Tanto la columna lumbar como la dorsal fueron los sitios más afectados. El dolor dorsolumbar y la paraparesia fueron los síntomas más frecuentes de presentación. En ocho pacientes se aislaron Staphylococcus aureus, en uno Escherichia coli y en el restante Haemophylus sp. Se observó leucocitosis sólo en tres pacientes, y en dos velocidad de sedimentación globular mayor de 100 mm/h. Los diez pacientes presentaron imágenes características de osteomielitis vertebral piógena en la resonancia nuclear magnética. Dentro de las complicaciones, los abscesos paravertebrales y epidurales fueron los más frecuentes (en cinco enfermos. Además, un paciente presentó empiema pleural. De los diez pacientes de esta serie, siete recibieron inicialmente tratamiento médico empírico y luego específico para el germen aislado. En los restantes el tratamiento fue guiado de acuerdo al antibiograma. A dos enfermos fue necesario realizarles laminectomía descompresiva por compromiso de partes blandas y a otros dos estabilización quirúrgica por inestabilidad espinal, observándose buena evolución en todos los casos. Esta serie demuestra que, ante un paciente con dolor dorsolumbar y síntomas neurológicos se deberá tener en cuenta esta entidad para evitar un retraso en el tratamiento.Pyogenic osteomyelitis seldom affects the spine (2-7%. It is diagnosed by the isolation of a bacterial agent in the vertebral body, the intervertebral disks or from paravertebral or epidural abscesses. We report a retrospective study of ten

  11. Evolution of neural crest and placodes: amphioxus as a model for the ancestral vertebrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, L. Z.; Holland, N. D.

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies of protochordates (ascidian tunicates and amphioxus) have given insights into possible ancestors of 2 of the characteristic features of the vertebrate head: neural crest and placodes. The neural crest probably evolved from cells on either side of the neural plate-epidermis boundary in a protochordate ancestral to the vertebrates. In amphioxus, homologues of several vertebrate neural crest marker genes (BMP2/4, Pax3/7, Msx, Dll and Snail) are expressed at the edges of the neural plate and/or adjacent nonneural ectoderm. Some of these markers are also similarly expressed in tunicates. In protochordates, however, these cells, unlike vertebrate neural crest, neither migrate as individuals through embryonic tissues nor differentiate into a wide spectrum of cell types. Therefore, while the protochordate ancestor of the vertebrates probably had the beginnings of a genetic programme for neural crest formation, this programme was augmented in the earliest vertebrates to attain definitive neural crest. Clear homologues of vertebrate placodes are lacking in protochordates. However, both amphioxus and tunicates have ectodermal sensory cells. In tunicates these are all primary neurons, sending axons to the central nervous system, while in amphioxus, the ectodermal sensory cells include both primary neurons and secondary neurons lacking axons. Comparisons of developmental gene expression suggest that the anterior ectoderm in amphioxus may be homologous to the vertebrate olfactory placode, the only vertebrate placode with primary, not secondary, neurons. Similarly, biochemical, morphological and gene expression data suggest that amphioxus and tunicates also have homologues of the adenohypophysis, one of the few vertebrate structures derived from nonneurogenic placodes. In contrast, the origin of the other vertebrate placodes is very uncertain.

  12. Molecular regionalization of the developing amphioxus neural tube challenges major partitions of the vertebrate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuixech-Crespo, Beatriz; López-Blanch, Laura; Burguera, Demian; Maeso, Ignacio; Sánchez-Arrones, Luisa; Moreno-Bravo, Juan Antonio; Somorjai, Ildiko; Pascual-Anaya, Juan; Puelles, Eduardo; Bovolenta, Paola; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Puelles, Luis; Irimia, Manuel; Ferran, José Luis

    2017-04-01

    All vertebrate brains develop following a common Bauplan defined by anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) subdivisions, characterized by largely conserved differential expression of gene markers. However, it is still unclear how this Bauplan originated during evolution. We studied the relative expression of 48 genes with key roles in vertebrate neural patterning in a representative amphioxus embryonic stage. Unlike nonchordates, amphioxus develops its central nervous system (CNS) from a neural plate that is homologous to that of vertebrates, allowing direct topological comparisons. The resulting genoarchitectonic model revealed that the amphioxus incipient neural tube is unexpectedly complex, consisting of several AP and DV molecular partitions. Strikingly, comparison with vertebrates indicates that the vertebrate thalamus, pretectum, and midbrain domains jointly correspond to a single amphioxus region, which we termed Di-Mesencephalic primordium (DiMes). This suggests that these domains have a common developmental and evolutionary origin, as supported by functional experiments manipulating secondary organizers in zebrafish and mice.

  13. Inference of the ancestral vertebrate phenotype through vestiges of the whole-genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onimaru, Koh; Kuraku, Shigehiro

    2018-03-16

    Inferring the phenotype of the last common ancestor of living vertebrates is a challenging problem because of several unresolvable factors. They include the lack of reliable out-groups of living vertebrates, poor information about less fossilizable organs and specialized traits of phylogenetically important species, such as lampreys and hagfishes (e.g. secondary loss of vertebrae in adult hagfishes). These factors undermine the reliability of ancestral reconstruction by traditional character mapping approaches based on maximum parsimony. In this article, we formulate an approach to hypothesizing ancestral vertebrate phenotypes using information from the phylogenetic and functional properties of genes duplicated by genome expansions in early vertebrate evolution. We named the conjecture as 'chronological reconstruction of ohnolog functions (CHROF)'. This CHROF conjecture raises the possibility that the last common ancestor of living vertebrates may have had more complex traits than currently thought.

  14. Importance of MRI in the diagnosis of vertebral involvement in generalized cystic lymphangiomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renjen, Pooja; Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Brill, Paula W. [New York Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Narula, Navneet [New York Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A 9-year-old boy presented with the sudden onset of pleuritic chest pain and on CT was found to have a large pleural effusion, mediastinal fluid, splenic lesions and multiple apparently sclerotic vertebral bodies. Subsequent MRI showed that those vertebral bodies that appeared sclerotic were in fact normal, and the vertebral bodies initially interpreted as normal had an abnormal T1 and T2 hyperintense signal on MRI and were relatively lucent on CT. MRI also demonstrated abnormal heterogeneous T2 hyperintense paraspinal tissue and several multicystic soft tissue masses. Biopsy of two adjacent vertebral bodies, one relatively sclerotic and one lucent, demonstrated findings of bony remodeling without a specific diagnosis. Biopsy of an infiltrative mediastinal mass confirmed the diagnosis of generalized cystic lymphangiomatosis. MRI should be included in the assessment of vertebral involvement in this condition because CT and biopsy findings may be nonspecific. (orig.)

  15. Delayed vertebral diagnosed L4 pincer vertebral fracture, L2-L3 ruptured vertebral lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture - Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Balasa D; Schiopu M; Tunas A; Baz R; Hancu Anca

    2016-01-01

    An association between delayed ruptured lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture and posttraumaticL4 pincer vertebral fracture (A2.3-AO clasification) at different levels is a very rare entity. We present the case of a 55 years old male who falled down from a bicycle. 2 months later because of intense and permanent vertebral lumbar and radicular L2 and L3 pain (Visual Scal Autologus of Pain7-8/10) the patient came to the hospital. He was diagnosed with pincer vertebral L4 fracture (A2....

  16. Hemifacial spasm; The value of vertebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hak Seok; Kim, Myung Soon; Han, Yong Pyo

    1992-01-01

    In order to evaluate the value of vertebral angiography in assesment of hemifacial spasm, We reviewed retrospectively the vertebral angiography of 28 patients (30 cases) with surgically proved hemifacial spasm but normal CT scans of posterior fossa. There were 9 males and 19 females. Angiography revealed vascular focus of hemifacial spasm located at anterior inferior cerebellar artery , posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and vertebral artery in 19, 9, and 2 cases respectively. Right side was involved in 20 cases. All involved vessels were elongated, tortuous, and dilated. In conclusion, vertebral angiography was valuable in evaluating hemifacial spasm of vascular origin in the posterior fossa

  17. Multiple chromosomal rearrangements structured the ancestral vertebrate Hox-bearing protochromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent J Lynch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available While the proposal that large-scale genome expansions occurred early in vertebrate evolution is widely accepted, the exact mechanisms of the expansion--such as a single or multiple rounds of whole genome duplication, bloc chromosome duplications, large-scale individual gene duplications, or some combination of these--is unclear. Gene families with a single invertebrate member but four vertebrate members, such as the Hox clusters, provided early support for Ohno's hypothesis that two rounds of genome duplication (the 2R-model occurred in the stem lineage of extant vertebrates. However, despite extensive study, the duplication history of the Hox clusters has remained unclear, calling into question its usefulness in resolving the role of large-scale gene or genome duplications in early vertebrates. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of the vertebrate Hox clusters and several linked genes (the Hox "paralogon" and show that different phylogenies are obtained for Dlx and Col genes than for Hox and ErbB genes. We show that these results are robust to errors in phylogenetic inference and suggest that these competing phylogenies can be resolved if two chromosomal crossover events occurred in the ancestral vertebrate. These results resolve conflicting data on the order of Hox gene duplications and the role of genome duplication in vertebrate evolution and suggest that a period of genome reorganization occurred after genome duplications in early vertebrates.

  18. Regions identity between the genome of vertebrates and non-retroviral families of insect viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Gaowei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scope of our understanding of the evolutionary history between viruses and animals is limited. The fact that the recent availability of many complete insect virus genomes and vertebrate genomes as well as the ability to screen these sequences makes it possible to gain a new perspective insight into the evolutionary interaction between insect viruses and vertebrates. This study is to determine the possibility of existence of sequence identity between the genomes of insect viruses and vertebrates, attempt to explain this phenomenon in term of genetic mobile element, and try to investigate the evolutionary relationship between these short regions of identity among these species. Results Some of studied insect viruses contain variable numbers of short regions of sequence identity to the genomes of vertebrate with nucleotide sequence length from 28 bp to 124 bp. They are found to locate in multiple sites of the vertebrate genomes. The ontology of animal genes with identical regions involves in several processes including chromatin remodeling, regulation of apoptosis, signaling pathway, nerve system development and some enzyme-like catalysis. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that at least some short regions of sequence identity in the genomes of vertebrate are derived the ancestral of insect viruses. Conclusion Short regions of sequence identity were found in the vertebrates and insect viruses. These sequences played an important role not only in the long-term evolution of vertebrates, but also in promotion of insect virus. This typical win-win strategy may come from natural selection.

  19. Regions identity between the genome of vertebrates and non-retroviral families of insect viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Gaowei; Li, Jinming

    2011-11-10

    The scope of our understanding of the evolutionary history between viruses and animals is limited. The fact that the recent availability of many complete insect virus genomes and vertebrate genomes as well as the ability to screen these sequences makes it possible to gain a new perspective insight into the evolutionary interaction between insect viruses and vertebrates. This study is to determine the possibility of existence of sequence identity between the genomes of insect viruses and vertebrates, attempt to explain this phenomenon in term of genetic mobile element, and try to investigate the evolutionary relationship between these short regions of identity among these species. Some of studied insect viruses contain variable numbers of short regions of sequence identity to the genomes of vertebrate with nucleotide sequence length from 28 bp to 124 bp. They are found to locate in multiple sites of the vertebrate genomes. The ontology of animal genes with identical regions involves in several processes including chromatin remodeling, regulation of apoptosis, signaling pathway, nerve system development and some enzyme-like catalysis. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that at least some short regions of sequence identity in the genomes of vertebrate are derived the ancestral of insect viruses. Short regions of sequence identity were found in the vertebrates and insect viruses. These sequences played an important role not only in the long-term evolution of vertebrates, but also in promotion of insect virus. This typical win-win strategy may come from natural selection.

  20. Ontogeny of the vertebral column of Eleutherodactylus johnstonei (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) reveals heterochronies relative to metamorphic frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Joya, Fabio Leonardo; Ramos-Pallares, Eliana Patricia; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2013-07-01

    Over the last century, the morphogenesis of the vertebral column has been considered as a highly conserved process among anurans. This statement is based on the study of few metamorphic taxa, ignoring the role of developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of specialized life-histories. Direct development in anurans has been regarded as evolutionarily derived and involves developmental recapitulation and repatterning at different levels in all amphibian taxa studied so far. Herein, we analyze the vertebral column morphogenesis of the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei, describing the sequence of chondrification and ossification, based on cleared and double-stained specimens from early stage embryos to adults. In general, our results show that the morphogenesis of the vertebral column in E. johnstonei recapitulates the ancestral tadpole-like pattern of development. However, the analysis of the sequence of events using heterochrony plots shows important heterocronies relative to metamorphic species, such as a delay in the chondrification of the vertebral centra and in osteogenesis. These ontogenetic peculiarities may represent derived traits in direct-developing frogs and are possibly correlated with its unusual life history. In addition, several features of the vertebral column of E. johnstonei are highly variable from its typical morphology. We report some malformations and small deviations, which do not seem to affect the survival of individuals. These anomalies have also been found in other frogs, and include many vertebral defects, such as vertebral fusion, and vertebral preclusion and/or induction. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Symptomatic intracranial vertebral artery atherosclerotic stenosis (≥70%) with concurrent contralateral vertebral atherosclerotic diseases in 88 patients treated with the intracranial stenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zi-Liang [Stroke Center, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China); Gao, Bu-Lang [Department of Medical Research Shijiazhuang First Hospital, Hebei Medical University (China); Li, Tian-Xiao, E-mail: litianxiaod@163.com [Stroke Center, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China); Cai, Dong-Yang; Zhu, Liang-Fu; Bai, Wei-Xing; Xue, Jiang-Yu; Li, Zhao-Shuo [Stroke Center, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis can be treated with intracranial stenting. • Stenting for intracranial vertebral artery stenosis is safe and effective. • Stenting for intracranial vertebral artery stenosis can prevent long-term stroke. - Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the safety, effect and instent restenosis rate of Wingspan stenting in treating patients with intracranial vertebral artery atherosclerotic stenosis (70–99%) concurrent with contralateral vertebral artery atherosclerotic diseases. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight patients with severe symptomatic intracranial vertebral artery atherosclerotic stenosis (≥70%) combined with contralateral vertebral artery atherosclerotic diseases were treated with the Wingpsan stent. All the baseline, cerebral angiography, success rate, perioperative complications, clinical and imaging follow-up data were prospectively analyzed. Results: The success rate of stenting was 100%, and the mean stenotic rate was reduced from prestenting (84.9 ± 6.8)% to poststenting (17.2 ± 5.9)%. The perioperative stroke rate was 1.1%. Among eighty patients (90.9%) with clinical follow-up 8-62 months (mean 29.3 ± 17.2) poststenting, five (6.3%) had posterior circulation TIA only, three (3.8%) had mild stroke in the posterior circulation but recovered completely, and another five patients greater than 70 years old died of non-ischemic stroke. Imaging follow-up in 46 patients (52.3%) 5–54 months (mean 9.9 ± 9.9) following stenting revealed instent restenosis in 12 patients (26.1%) including 7 (58.3%) symptomatic restenosis. Age and residual stenosis were the two factors to significantly (P < 0.05) affect instent restenosis. Conclusion: Wingspan stenting in the intracranial vertebral artery atherosclerotic stenosis combined with contralateral vertebral artery atherosclerotic diseases has a low perioperative stroke rate and a good preventive effect on long-term ischemic stroke, but the instent restenosis

  2. Rare vertebral metastasis in a case of Hereditary Paraganglioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva Manuel Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Paragangliomas are rare tumours with a prevalence of 1/10000 to 1/30000. Tumors arising from the paraganglia are characteristically of low malignant potential. Vertebral metastases are exceedingly rare, and only isolated case reports have described them. The authors present the clinical course of a 47 years-old female patient with a familial paraganglioma [PGL] with vertebral metastastization, who underwent an intralesional tumor excision and corpectomy. Genetic screening demonstrated a new germinal frameshift mutation of the SDHB exon 6 [c.587-591DelC]. After surgery there was normalization of the analytical parameters and imagiologic screening. One year later she presented a new image in the the pedicle of T11 on the contralateral side of the surgical incision. She performed 2 treatments with MIBG and 1 cicle of radiotherapy that made the new lesion regress. Currently the patient does not present any clinical or analytical evidence of new metastasis. This case outlines the clinical course of a patient with a PGL syndrome for whom a rare vertebral metastasis was diagnosed. It highlights the importance of identifying patients with germline SDHB mutations, as these patients are at a high risk of developing malignant disease.

  3. Severe MUPS in a sick-listed population : a cross-sectional study on prevalence, recognition, psychiatric co-morbidity and impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, R.; Krol, B.; Blankenstein, N.; Koopmans, P.C.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) have a high prevalence in the general population and are associated with psychiatric morbidity. There are indications that MUPS are an important determinant of frequent and long-term disability. The primary objective was to assess the

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar vertebral apophyseal ring fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peh, W.C.G.

    1998-01-01

    Posterior lumbar vertebral apophyseal ring fractures are described in three adolescents presenting with severe low back pain, spinal tenderness and lower limb neurological deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging showed severe L4/5 posterior disc protrusion in all three patients. The actual fracture fragment was visualized with difficulty on MRI alone. The diagnosis of apophyseal ring fracture was made by either radiography or CT. Computed tomography delineated the size, shape and site of the fracture fragment. Surgical confirmation was obtained in all cases. Posterior lumbar vertebral apophyseal ring fractures may be difficult to visualize on MR imaging. Careful review of radiographs, supplemented by targeted CT, is necessary for the correct diagnosis and management of this entity. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar vertebral apophyseal ring fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peh, W.C.G. [University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Department of Diagnostics Radiology and Organ Imaging; Yip, D.K.H.; Leong, J.C.Y. [University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Department of Orthopaedic Surgery; Griffith, J.F. [Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1998-02-01

    Posterior lumbar vertebral apophyseal ring fractures are described in three adolescents presenting with severe low back pain, spinal tenderness and lower limb neurological deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging showed severe L4/5 posterior disc protrusion in all three patients. The actual fracture fragment was visualized with difficulty on MRI alone. The diagnosis of apophyseal ring fracture was made by either radiography or CT. Computed tomography delineated the size, shape and site of the fracture fragment. Surgical confirmation was obtained in all cases. Posterior lumbar vertebral apophyseal ring fractures may be difficult to visualize on MR imaging. Careful review of radiographs, supplemented by targeted CT, is necessary for the correct diagnosis and management of this entity. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 12 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Homenaje a la columna vertebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Brodsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exiliado en Estados Unidos desde comienzos de la década del setenta, el poeta ruso Joseph Brodsky (1940-1996, adquiere en 1977 la nacionalidad norteamericana. Al año siguiente, una década antes de recibir el Premio Nobel, asiste como miembro de la delegación de Estados Unidos a una reunión internacional del PEN Club, en Río de Janeiro, Brasil, reunión a la que asiste también Mario Vargas Llosa. "Homenaje a la columna vertebral" es la crónica de esa experiencia y de su primera y probablemente única visita a Latinoamérica.

  7. Vertebral architecture in the earliest stem tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Stephanie E; Ahlberg, Per E; Hutchinson, John R; Molnar, Julia L; Sanchez, Sophie; Tafforeau, Paul; Clack, Jennifer A

    2013-02-14

    The construction of the vertebral column has been used as a key anatomical character in defining and diagnosing early tetrapod groups. Rhachitomous vertebrae--in which there is a dorsally placed neural arch and spine, an anteroventrally placed intercentrum and paired, posterodorsally placed pleurocentra--have long been considered the ancestral morphology for tetrapods. Nonetheless, very little is known about vertebral anatomy in the earliest stem tetrapods, because most specimens remain trapped in surrounding matrix, obscuring important anatomical features. Here we describe the three-dimensional vertebral architecture of the Late Devonian stem tetrapod Ichthyostega using propagation phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography. Our scans reveal a diverse array of new morphological, and associated developmental and functional, characteristics, including a possible posterior-to-anterior vertebral ossification sequence and the first evolutionary appearance of ossified sternal elements. One of the most intriguing features relates to the positional relationships between the vertebral elements, with the pleurocentra being unexpectedly sutured or fused to the intercentra that directly succeed them, indicating a 'reverse' rhachitomous design. Comparison of Ichthyostega with two other stem tetrapods, Acanthostega and Pederpes, shows that reverse rhachitomous vertebrae may be the ancestral condition for limbed vertebrates. This study fundamentally revises our current understanding of vertebral column evolution in the earliest tetrapods and raises questions about the presumed vertebral architecture of tetrapodomorph fish and later, more crownward, tetrapods.

  8. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  9. Evolutionary Transition of Promoter and Gene Body DNA Methylation across Invertebrate-Vertebrate Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Thomas E; Han, Priscilla; Yi, Soojin V

    2016-04-01

    Genomes of invertebrates and vertebrates exhibit highly divergent patterns of DNA methylation. Invertebrate genomes tend to be sparsely methylated, and DNA methylation is mostly targeted to a subset of transcription units (gene bodies). In a drastic contrast, vertebrate genomes are generally globally and heavily methylated, punctuated by the limited local hypo-methylation of putative regulatory regions such as promoters. These genomic differences also translate into functional differences in DNA methylation and gene regulation. Although promoter DNA methylation is an important regulatory component of vertebrate gene expression, its role in invertebrate gene regulation has been little explored. Instead, gene body DNA methylation is associated with expression of invertebrate genes. However, the evolutionary steps leading to the differentiation of invertebrate and vertebrate genomic DNA methylation remain unresolved. Here we analyzed experimentally determined DNA methylation maps of several species across the invertebrate-vertebrate boundary, to elucidate how vertebrate gene methylation has evolved. We show that, in contrast to the prevailing idea, a substantial number of promoters in an invertebrate basal chordate Ciona intestinalis are methylated. Moreover, gene expression data indicate significant, epigenomic context-dependent associations between promoter methylation and expression in C. intestinalis. However, there is no evidence that promoter methylation in invertebrate chordate has been evolutionarily maintained across the invertebrate-vertebrate boundary. Rather, body-methylated invertebrate genes preferentially obtain hypo-methylated promoters among vertebrates. Conversely, promoter methylation is preferentially found in lineage- and tissue-specific vertebrate genes. These results provide important insights into the evolutionary origin of epigenetic regulation of vertebrate gene expression. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  10. Radiotherapy for vertebral metastases. Analysis of symptoms and clinical effects by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira

    1994-01-01

    Fifty patients with 63 symptomatic vertebral metastasis (18 sites: pain only, 28 sites: radiculopathy with pain, 17 sites: myelopathy) were treated by radiotherapy. Primary lesions were located in the lung (9 cases), breast (9), colorectal area (9), prostate (7) and so on. We correlated the radiologic findings, symptoms and clinical effects with metastatic features which were classified into 4 types by MR imaging: non-deformity, expanding, vertebral collapse, and destructive mass. Each type of metastasis was accompanied with or without epidural tumor. Osteolytic metastases were apt to create features of deformity (expanding type: 18 vertebrae, vertebral collapse type: 17, destructive mass type: 9). The features of osteoblastic metastases were no deformity (18 vertebrae) and expanding type (2). The symptom of pain only occurred most frequently in the lumbosacral spine. The vertebral body deformity of symptomatic sites was relatively slight (non-deformity type: 6 sites, expanding type: 6, vertebral collapse type: 6), and epidural tumors were seen at only 2 sites. The effect of radiotherapy was excellent (complete pain relief: 64.7%, partial pain relief: 29.4%). Radiculopathy occurred most frequently in the lumber spine. Vertebral body deformity was noted in most symptomatic sites (expanding type: 9 sites, vertebral collapse type: 10, destructive mass type: 2). Complete relief was obtained in 6 sites (22.2%), partial relief in 18 (63.0%). Myelopathy occurred most often in the thoracic spine, followed by the lumbar spine. The vertebral body deformity was severe (expanding: 3 cases, vertebral collapse type: 3, destructive mass type: 6). Epidural tumors were also present in all but one case. Six of 13 patients treated with radiation alone improved. These 6 patients had non-deformity or expanding types with epidural tumor. No improvement was seen in the vertebral collapse type with epidural tumor or destructive mass type. (author)

  11. Imaging of vertebral fracture in osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronska-Jozwiak, E.; Lewinski, A.; Bieganski, T.

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral collapses are the most frequent fractures in osteoporosis. They are often overlooked, although their presence is a strong risk factor for development of new fractures. Lateral radiographs of the spine are the accepted standard for assessment of fractures. Qualitative (visual), semiquantitative and quantitative (morphometric) techniques are useful in determining the compressive deformities of vertebral bodies. In the present paper, the advantages and the disadvantages of these methods are discussed. The improvement of scan quality allows to use DXA technique to diagnose the fractures, in both - the visual and the morphometric way. The vertebral morphologic assessment also seems to be an important diagnostic tool in pediatric osteoporosis. Application of multidetector CT and especially MR in vertebral imaging of osteoporosis, improves the sensitivity of fracture detection and enables the differentiation of benign from malignant vertebral body collapses. (author)

  12. Congenital costo-vertebral fibrous band and congenital kyphoscoliosis: a previously unreported combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Tony; Ghostine, Bachir; Kreichaty, Gaby; Daher, Paul; Ghanem, Ismat

    2013-05-01

    Congenital kyphoscoliosis (CKS) results from abnormal vertebral chondrification. Congenital fibrous bands occur in several locations with variable impact on vertebral development. We report a previously unreported case of a female infant with CKS presenting with an L2 hypoplastic vertebra and a costo-vertebral fibrous band extending to the skin in the form of a dimple. We also describe the therapeutic approach, consisting of surgical excision of the fibrous band and postoperative fulltime bracing, with a 7-year follow-up. We recommend a high index of suspicion in any unusual presentation of CKS and insist on case by case management in such cases.

  13. Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Platelet Glycoprotein 4 (CD36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger S. Holmes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36 (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3] is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53–100% identity as compared with 29–32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved which are required for membrane integration. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and predicted secondary structures were also studied. Three CD36 domains were identified including cytoplasmic, transmembrane and exoplasmic sequences. Conserved sequences included N- and C-terminal transmembrane glycines; and exoplasmic cysteine disulphide residues; TSP-1 and PE binding sites, Thr92 and His242, respectively; 17 conserved proline and 14 glycine residues, which may participate in forming CD36 ‘short loops’; and basic amino acid residues, and may contribute to fatty acid and thrombospondin binding. Vertebrate CD36 genes usually contained 12 coding exons. The human CD36 gene contained transcription factor binding sites (including PPARG and PPARA contributing to a high gene expression level (6.6 times average. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate CD36 gene with vertebrate

  14. Computerized detection of vertebral compression fractures on lateral chest radiographs: Preliminary results with a tool for early detection of osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Li Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Doi, Kunio

    2006-01-01

    Vertebral fracture (or vertebral deformity) is a very common outcome of osteoporosis, which is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Early detection of vertebral fractures is important because timely pharmacologic intervention can reduce the risk of subsequent additional fractures. Chest radiographs are used routinely for detection of lung and heart diseases, and vertebral fractures can be visible on lateral chest radiographs. However, investigators noted that about 50% of vertebral fractures visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or under-reported, even when the fractures were severe. Therefore, our goal was to develop a computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs in order to assist radiologists' image interpretation and thus allow the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. The cases used in this study were 20 patients with severe vertebral fractures and 118 patients without fractures, as confirmed by the consensus of two radiologists. Radiologists identified the locations of fractured vertebrae, and they provided morphometric data on the vertebral shape for evaluation of the accuracy of detecting vertebral end plates by computer. In our computerized method, a curved search area, which included a number of vertebral end plates, was first extracted automatically, and was straightened so that vertebral end plates became oriented horizontally. Edge candidates were enhanced by use of a horizontal line-enhancement filter in the straightened image, and a multiple thresholding technique, followed by feature analysis, was used for identification of the vertebral end plates. The height of each vertebra was determined from locations of identified vertebral end plates, and fractured vertebrae were detected by comparison of the measured vertebral height with the expected height. The sensitivity of our computerized method for detection of fracture cases was 95% (19/20), with 1.03 (139/135) false

  15. The role of transposable elements in the evolution of non-mammalian vertebrates and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Transposable elements (TEs) have played an important role in the diversification and enrichment of mammalian transcriptomes through various mechanisms such as exonization and intronization (the birth of new exons/introns from previously intronic/exonic sequences, respectively), and insertion into first and last exons. However, no extensive analysis has compared the effects of TEs on the transcriptomes of mammals, non-mammalian vertebrates and invertebrates. Results We analyzed the influence of TEs on the transcriptomes of five species, three invertebrates and two non-mammalian vertebrates. Compared to previously analyzed mammals, there were lower levels of TE introduction into introns, significantly lower numbers of exonizations originating from TEs and a lower percentage of TE insertion within the first and last exons. Although the transcriptomes of vertebrates exhibit significant levels of exonization of TEs, only anecdotal cases were found in invertebrates. In vertebrates, as in mammals, the exonized TEs are mostly alternatively spliced, indicating that selective pressure maintains the original mRNA product generated from such genes. Conclusions Exonization of TEs is widespread in mammals, less so in non-mammalian vertebrates, and very low in invertebrates. We assume that the exonization process depends on the length of introns. Vertebrates, unlike invertebrates, are characterized by long introns and short internal exons. Our results suggest that there is a direct link between the length of introns and exonization of TEs and that this process became more prevalent following the appearance of mammals. PMID:20525173

  16. Temporal trends in vertebral size and shape from medieval to modern-day.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho-Antti Junno

    Full Text Available Human lumbar vertebrae support the weight of the upper body. Loads lifted and carried by the upper extremities cause significant loading stress to the vertebral bodies. It is well established that trauma-induced vertebral fractures are common especially among elderly people. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological factors that could have affected the prevalence of trauma-related vertebral fractures from medieval times to the present day. To determine if morphological differences existed in the size and shape of the vertebral body between medieval times and the present day, the vertebral body size and shape was measured from the 4th lumbar vertebra using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and standard osteometric calipers. The modern samples consisted of modern Finns and the medieval samples were from archaeological collections in Sweden and Britain. The results show that the shape and size of the 4th lumbar vertebra has changed significantly from medieval times in a way that markedly affects the biomechanical characteristics of the lumbar vertebral column. These changes may have influenced the incidence of trauma- induced spinal fractures in modern populations.

  17. Both Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency and Signs of Pancreatic Inflammation Are Prevalent in Children with Complicated Severe Acute Malnutrition: An Observational Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Rosalie H.; Meyer, Sophie L.; Stehmann, Tijs A.; Bourdon, Céline; Bandsma, Robert H. J.; Voskuijl, Wieger P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether pancreatic function is impaired in children with severe acute malnutrition, is different between edematous vs nonedematous malnutrition, and improves by nutritional rehabilitation. Study design We followed 89 children with severe acute malnutrition admitted to Queen

  18. Both Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency and Signs of Pancreatic Inflammation Are Prevalent in Children with Complicated Severe Acute Malnutrition : An Observational Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Rosalie H.; Meyer, Sophie L.; Stehmann, Tijs A.; Bourdon, Celine; Bandsma, Robert H. J.; Voskuijl, Wieger P.

    Objectives To assess whether pancreatic function is impaired in children with severe acute malnutrition, is different between edematous vs nonedematous malnutrition, and improves by nutritional rehabilitation. Study design We followed 89 children with severe acute malnutrition admitted to Queen

  19. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Longyao County of Hebei Province:the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jian-hua; Zhao, Jia-liang; Ellwein, Leon B; Li, Shan-yu; Han, Dong; Yan, Zhong-yang; Zhang, Hong-bin; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Longyao County, Hebei Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5527 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Longyao County. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and twenty-seven individuals were enumerated and 5051 persons were examined, the response rate was 91.39%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 1.05% (53/5051) and 3.46% (175/5051) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.48% (75/5051) and 7.94% (401/5051) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 897.27, P = 0.000) , female (χ(2) = 30.32, P = 0.000), illiterate (trend χ(2) = 83.20, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness. Un-corrected refractive error also was the main cause of visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe

  20. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yongchuan District of Chongqing City: the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zheng-qin; Zhao, Jia-liang; Li, Ping-hua; Ellwein, Leon b; Song, Sheng-fang; Li, Fu-liang; Wang, Ting-gang; Ren, Yi-ming; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yongchuan of Chongqing City, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5663 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Yongchuan District. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands six hundreds and sixty-three individuals were enumerated and 5390 persons were examined, the response rate was 95.18%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 2.12% (114/5390) and 5.40% (291/5390) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 2.49% (134/5390) and 10.71% (577/5390) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 951.32, P = 0.000) , female (χ(2) = 33.35, P = 0.000) and illiterate (trend χ(2) equals; 141.32, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment.Un-corrected refractive error also was the main cause of visual impairment. The prevalence

  1. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Luxi County of Yunnan Province: the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ning; Yuan, Yuan-sheng; Zhao, Jia-liang; Zhong, Hua; Ellwein, Leon B; Chen, Miao-miao; Dan, Ai-hua; Sun, Peng; Luo, Ting-hao; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Luxi County of Yunnan Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5575 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Luxi County. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and seventy-five individuals were enumerated and 5151 persons were examined, the response rate was 92.39%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 4.95% (255/5151) and 9.51% (490/5151) , respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 5.40% (278/5151) and 15.84% (816/5151) , respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (χ(2) = 1349.21, P = 0.000) , illiterate (χ(2) = 203.55, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment is highest in China Nine-Province Survey among older adults aged ≥ 50 years

  2. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Changji City of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region: the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xian-zhi; Zhao, Jia-liang; Ellwein, Leon B; Wei, Bin; Chen, Jing; Ye, Ying; Tang, Xiao-dong; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Changji City of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5714 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Changji City. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to received visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands seven hundreds and fourteen individuals were enumerated and 5250 persons were examined, the response rate was 91.88%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 0.74% (39/5250) and 3.83% (201/5250) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.33% (70/5250) and 8.02% (421/5250) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 617.06, P = 0.000) , illiterate (trend χ(2) = 222.35, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract and was the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment, the retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, high myopic retinopathy, and diabetic retinopathy, were the

  3. Comparative studies of vertebrate endothelin-converting enzyme-like 1 genes and proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes RS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Roger S Holmes,1,2 Laura A Cox11Department of Genetics and Southwest National Primate Research Center, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA; 2Eskitis Institute for Cell and Molecular Therapies and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Endothelin-converting enzyme-like 1 (ECEL1 is a member of the M13 family of neutral endopeptidases which play an essential role in the neural regulation of vertebrate respiration. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in respiratory failure soon after birth. Comparative ECEL1 amino acid sequences and structures and ECEL1 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate ECEL1 sequences shared 66%–99% identity as compared with 30%–63% sequence identities with other M13-like family members, ECE1, ECE2, and NEP (neprilysin or MME. Three N-glycosylation sites were conserved among most vertebrate ECEL1 proteins examined. Sequence alignments, conserved key amino acid residues, and predicted secondary and tertiary structures were also studied, including cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and luminal sequences and active site residues. Vertebrate ECEL1 genes usually contained 18 exons and 17 coding exons on the negative strand. Exons 1 and 2 of the human ECEL1 gene contained 5'-untranslated (5'-UTR regions, a large CpG island (CpG256, and several transcription factor binding sites which may contribute to the high levels of gene expression previously reported in neural tissues. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate ECEL1 gene with six other vertebrate neutral endopeptidase M13 family genes. These suggested that ECEL1 originated in an ancestral vertebrate genome from a duplication event in an ancestral neutral endopeptidase M13-like gene.Keywords: vertebrates, amino acid sequence, ECEL1, ECE1, ECE2, KELL, NEP, NEPL1, PHEX

  4. Duplication of the Left Vertebral Artery Origin: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Wook; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Young Jun [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Duplication of vertebral arteries is a very rare but clinically important condition. A duplicated vertebral artery origin can influence hemodynamics, pathogenesis of vascular lesions and treatment options. In cases of vertebral artery duplication, the vertebral arteries generally enter the transverse foramen higher up than normal. Awareness of these vertebral artery variants before procedures, such as neurointervention or surgery, may be beneficial. Here, we describe a case of a 51-year-old female patient with left vertebral artery duplication which was detected incidentally.

  5. Duplication of the Left Vertebral Artery Origin: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Wook; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Young Jun

    2013-01-01

    Duplication of vertebral arteries is a very rare but clinically important condition. A duplicated vertebral artery origin can influence hemodynamics, pathogenesis of vascular lesions and treatment options. In cases of vertebral artery duplication, the vertebral arteries generally enter the transverse foramen higher up than normal. Awareness of these vertebral artery variants before procedures, such as neurointervention or surgery, may be beneficial. Here, we describe a case of a 51-year-old female patient with left vertebral artery duplication which was detected incidentally.

  6. Prevalencia de brucelosis en columna: Evolución clínica y manejo quirúrgico Prevalência de brucelose na coluna vertebral: Evolução clínica e conduta cirúrgica Prevalence of brucellosis in the spine: Clinical course and surgical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Horta Coba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer la prevalencia, características clínicas y de tratamiento de la espondilodiscitis por Brucella. MÉTODOS: Un total de 104 pacientes con diagnóstico de espondilitis espinal de los cuales 20 correspondieron a espondilitis por Brucella, tratados de forma conservadora con antibióticos o quirúrgicamente, mediante descompresión y estabilización de la columna en cualquier segmento, en el periodo comprendido entre Enero 2006 a Junio 2011. Se elaboró una hoja de captura para recolección de la información, la cual contenía la identificación del paciente, síntomas referidos, signos físicos, parámetros laboratoriales y tratamiento médico y quirúrgico. RESULTADOS: Trece pacientes del sexo masculino y 7 del sexo femenino, con edad promedio de 59,2 años y desviación estándar de 13,6 años. Tres pacientes tenían afectación del segmento torácico, 13 del segmento lumbar y 4 del segmento lumbo-sacro. Trece pacientes presentaron fiebre, el dolor lumbar se presentó en los 20 pacientes, parestesias en 12, debilidad en 9, artralgias, mialgias y anorexia en 5, radiculopatía en 13, cefalea en 1 y pérdida de peso en 5 pacientes. Veinte casos recibieron tratamiento médico con doxiciclina combinada con rifampicina. En 8 casos se realizó instrumentación posterior combinada con laminectomía y fusión póstero-lateral, en 2 se realizó instrumentación posterior combinada con discectomía del nivel afectado y fusión póstero-lateral y en 1 caso se realizó laminectomía combinada con discectomía y fusión. CONCLUSIÓN: La prevalencia de espondilodiscitis fue del 19,2%, siendo el dolor lumbar y la fiebre síntomas con alto índice de sospecha de espondilitis espinal. La descompresión combinada con estabilización y fusión es el tratamiento quirúrgico de elección.OBJETIVO: Conhecer a prevalência, as características clínicas e de tratamento da espondilodiscite por Brucella. MÉTODOS: Um total de 104 pacientes com diagn

  7. Imaging assessment of vertebral burst fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jianlin; Liang Lihua; Wang Yujia

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of radiography, CT and MRI in diagnosis of vertebral burst fracture. Methods: 51 patients with vertebral burst fracture were evaluated with X-ray, CT and MRI, including 3 cases in cervical vertebra, 18 cases in thoracic vertebra, and 30 cases in lumbar vertebra. The imaging features were comparatively studied. Results: Radiography showed decreased height of the vertebral body, increased antero-posterior diameter and the transverse diameter, and/or the widened interpedicle distance, the inter-spinous distance, as well as the bony fragment inserted into the vertebral canal in 28 cases(54.90%). X-ray findings similar to the compression fracture were revealed in 20 cases(39.21%). And missed diagnosis was made in 3 cases (5.88%). CT clearly demon-strated the vertebral body vertically or transversely burst crack in 49 cases (96.07%); bony fragment inserted into the vertebral canal and narrowed vertebral canal in 35 cases(68. 62% ); fracture of spinal appendix in 22 cases(43.14%). Meanwhile MRI showed abnormal signals within the spinal cord in 35 cases (68.62%),injured intervertebral disk in 29 cases(56.86% ), extradural hematoma in 12 cases(23.52% ) and torn posterior longitudinal ligament in 6 cases (11.76%). Conclusions: Radiography is the routine examination, while with limited diagnostic value in vertebral burst fracture. These patients who have nervous symptoms with simple compression fracture or unremarkable on X-ray should receive the CT or MRI examination. CT is better than MRI in demonstrating the fracture and the displaced bony fragment, while MRI is superior to CT in showing nervous injuries. CT and MRI will provide comprehensive information guiding clinical treatment of vertebral burst fracture. (authors)

  8. The transradial approach for selective carotid and vertebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, S.; Ueda, K.; Sueyosi, S.; Nagasawa, M.; Ude, K. [Higashiosaka City General Hospital, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Yokoyama, K. [Higashiosaka City General Hospital, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Takayama, K.; Nakagawa, H.; Kichikawa, K. [Nara Medical Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-11-01

    Purpose: The transradial approach is not so popular in cerebral angiography. The purpose of this study was therefore to present our experience of success rate and safety of this method. Material and Methods: From December 1998 to June 2001, 526 carotid and vertebral angiographies with DSA were performed via the radial artery. A 1.4-mm catheter was used through a 1.4-mm introducer sheath. We evaluated the procedure as successful if sufficient images for diagnosis were obtained of the bilateral carotid arteries and unilateral vertebral artery. Each patient was reassessed for any complications, occurring until the next morning. The length of time needed for an examination was measured in the last 10 cases. Results: In all but 5 cases, the procedures were evaluated as successful (99.0%). Unsuccessful cases manifested severe pain at the radial puncture, angiospasm at the radial artery, loop formation at the radial artery, occlusion at the subclavian artery, and an aberrant right subclavian artery. No severe complications including neurological ones were encountered. Minor complications were noted in 17 cases (3.2%): 4 cases of thrombus at the ulnar artery, 1 angiospasm at the radial artery, and 12 cases of small hematoma at the puncture site. The radial approach took 14 min less in the common carotid study and 3 min 30 s less in the internal carotid study than by the femoral approach. Conclusion: The transradial approach enabled selective studies for carotid and vertebral angiography with a high success rate and safety with few complications.

  9. The transradial approach for selective carotid and vertebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, S.; Ueda, K.; Sueyosi, S.; Nagasawa, M.; Ude, K.; Yokoyama, K.; Takayama, K.; Nakagawa, H.; Kichikawa, K.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The transradial approach is not so popular in cerebral angiography. The purpose of this study was therefore to present our experience of success rate and safety of this method. Material and Methods: From December 1998 to June 2001, 526 carotid and vertebral angiographies with DSA were performed via the radial artery. A 1.4-mm catheter was used through a 1.4-mm introducer sheath. We evaluated the procedure as successful if sufficient images for diagnosis were obtained of the bilateral carotid arteries and unilateral vertebral artery. Each patient was reassessed for any complications, occurring until the next morning. The length of time needed for an examination was measured in the last 10 cases. Results: In all but 5 cases, the procedures were evaluated as successful (99.0%). Unsuccessful cases manifested severe pain at the radial puncture, angiospasm at the radial artery, loop formation at the radial artery, occlusion at the subclavian artery, and an aberrant right subclavian artery. No severe complications including neurological ones were encountered. Minor complications were noted in 17 cases (3.2%): 4 cases of thrombus at the ulnar artery, 1 angiospasm at the radial artery, and 12 cases of small hematoma at the puncture site. The radial approach took 14 min less in the common carotid study and 3 min 30 s less in the internal carotid study than by the femoral approach. Conclusion: The transradial approach enabled selective studies for carotid and vertebral angiography with a high success rate and safety with few complications

  10. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  11. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Frenkel

    Full Text Available Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  12. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C, has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

  13. Rotations in a Vertebrate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Gin

    2003-05-01

    Rotational movements of the head are often considered to be measured in a single three dimensional coordinate system implemented by the semicircular canals of the vestibular system of the inner ear. However, the vertebrate body -- including the nervous system -- obeys rectangular symmetries alien to rotation groups. At best, nervous systems mimic the physical rotation group in a fragmented way, only partially reintegrating physical movements in whole organism responses. The vestibular canal reference frame is widely used in nervous systems, for example by eye movements. It is used to some extent even in the cerebrum, as evidenced by the remission of hemineglect -- in which half of space is ignored -- when the vestibular system is stimulated. However, reintegration of space by the organism remains incomplete. For example, compensatory eye movements (which in most cases aid visual fixation) may disagree with conscious self-motion perception. In addition, movement-induced nausea, illusions, and cue-free perceptions demonstrate symmetry breaking or incomplete spatial symmetries. As part of a long-term project to investigate rotation groups in nervous systems, we have analyzed the symmetry group of a primary vestibulo-spinal projection.

  14. Climate change and the ecology and evolution of Arctic vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilg, Olivier; Kovacs, Kit M.; Aars, J.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is taking place more rapidly and severely in the Arctic than anywhere on the globe, exposing Arctic vertebrates to a host of impacts. Changes in the cryosphere dominate the physical changes that already affect these animals, but increasing air temperatures, changes in precipitation......, and ocean acidification will also affect Arctic ecosystems in the future. Adaptation via natural selection is problematic in such a rapidly changing environment. Adjustment via phenotypic plasticity is therefore likely to dominate Arctic vertebrate responses in the short term, and many such adjustments have...... already been documented. Changes in phenology and range will occur for most species but will only partly mitigate climate change impacts, which are particularly difficult to forecast due to the many interactions within and between trophic levels. Even though Arctic species richness is increasing via...

  15. Globalisation reaches gene regulation: the case for vertebrate limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Aimée

    2005-08-01

    Analysis of key regulators of vertebrate limb development has revealed that the cis-regulatory regions controlling their expression are often located several hundred kilobases upstream of the transcription units. These far up- or down-stream cis-regulatory regions tend to reside within rather large, functionally and structurally unrelated genes. Molecular analysis is beginning to reveal the complexity of these large genomic landscapes, which control the co-expression of clusters of diverse genes by this novel type of long-range and globally acting cis-regulatory region. An increasing number of spontaneous mutations in vertebrates, including humans, are being discovered inactivating or altering such global control regions. Thereby, the functions of a seemingly distant but essential gene are disrupted rather than the closest.

  16. The evolutionary history of vertebrate cranial placodes II. Evolution of ectodermal patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Gerhard; Patthey, Cedric; Shimeld, Sebastian M

    2014-05-01

    Cranial placodes are evolutionary innovations of vertebrates. However, they most likely evolved by redeployment, rewiring and diversification of preexisting cell types and patterning mechanisms. In the second part of this review we compare vertebrates with other animal groups to elucidate the evolutionary history of ectodermal patterning. We show that several transcription factors have ancient bilaterian roles in dorsoventral and anteroposterior regionalisation of the ectoderm. Evidence from amphioxus suggests that ancestral chordates then concentrated neurosecretory cells in the anteriormost non-neural ectoderm. This anterior proto-placodal domain subsequently gave rise to the oral siphon primordia in tunicates (with neurosecretory cells being lost) and anterior (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, and lens) placodes of vertebrates. Likewise, tunicate atrial siphon primordia and posterior (otic, lateral line, and epibranchial) placodes of vertebrates probably evolved from a posterior proto-placodal region in the tunicate-vertebrate ancestor. Since both siphon primordia in tunicates give rise to sparse populations of sensory cells, both proto-placodal domains probably also gave rise to some sensory receptors in the tunicate-vertebrate ancestor. However, proper cranial placodes, which give rise to high density arrays of specialised sensory receptors and neurons, evolved from these domains only in the vertebrate lineage. We propose that this may have involved rewiring of the regulatory network upstream and downstream of Six1/2 and Six4/5 transcription factors and their Eya family cofactors. These proteins, which play ancient roles in neuronal differentiation were first recruited to the dorsal non-neural ectoderm in the tunicate-vertebrate ancestor but subsequently probably acquired new target genes in the vertebrate lineage, allowing them to adopt new functions in regulating proliferation and patterning of neuronal progenitors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Recent discoveries of Uruguayan Mesozoic vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, M.; Perea, D.; Rinderknetch, A.; Ubilla, M.; Da Silva, J.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, new discoveries of Uruguayan Mesozoic vertebrates have been made, as well as the reinterpretation of already known remains. Its taxonomical and biostratigraphical significance justifies this communication. Concerning the Tacuarembo Formation, on one hand a dipnoan prearticular tooth plate has been reinterpreted as belonging to Ceratodus africanus Haug 1905, a species typical of Late Jurassic-Late Cretaceous deposits of Saharan Africa. This is the second dipnoan taxon recorded in the Tacuarembo Formation, uncovering a previously unrecognized dipnoan diversity in the mid-Mesozoic of South America. On the other hand, a few theropod tooth were confidently identified at the familial level for the first time in our country. The remains include two striated premaxillary tooth crowns, the characters of which, close to Ceratosaurus Marsh 1884, allow to refer them to the family Ceratosauridae, this being the oldest South American record of the family. The striated teeth show strong affinities with those of Late Jurassic ceratosaurids from North America, Iberian Peninsula and Tanzania, which is in accordance with recent proposals about the age of the Lower Member of the Tacuarembo Formation. Concerning the Guichon Formation, we comunicate here in the most important discovery of dinosaur remains in Uruguay. It consist in spatially associated remains from several individuals, including fifty caudal vertebra and several epiphysis, metatarsals and astragali. These materials belong to a titanosaurid sauropod, the characters of which are similar to those of certain Campanian-Maastrichtian titanosaurids. Close to the bones, several eggshell fragments referable to Sphaerovum Mones 1980 - a typical Campanian-Maastrichtian oogenus- were found. This finding represents the first record of sauropod dinosaurs from the Guichon Formation, and suggests a younger age for this unit than early proposed

  18. Case report: Teriparatide treatment in a case of severe pregnancy -and lactation- associated osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropoulou-Adamidou, Kalliopi; Trovas, George; Stathopoulos, Ioannis P; Papaioannou, Nikolaos A

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is an uncommon disease. The majority of cases are seen in the third trimester or early post-partum in primagravid women and the prominent clinical feature of PLO is severe and prolonged back pain and height loss. The prevalence and aetiology of this disorder are as yet unclear and there are no guidelines for its treatment. We report the outcomes of teriparatide (TRP) treatment in a woman suffering from severe PLO with 6 vertebral fragility fractures, severe back pain and very low BMD. Thirteen months after the initiation of therapy, the patient was almost free of back pain. There was no new clinical vertebral fracture. Her laboratory tests were all normal. BMD increased by 24.4% at the lumbar spine, 9.9% and 4.6% at the left and the right total hip and 12.6% and 7.8% at the left and right femur neck, respectively. TRP treatment simultaneously with weaning and calcium and vitamin D supplementation seems to considerably increase BMD, improve severe back pain and quality of life and prevent further occurrence of vertebral fractures, making TRP a helpful tool in restoring bone strength in PLO patients.

  19. Gut Melatonin in Vertebrates: Chronobiology and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Saumen Kumar Maitra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, following discovery in the bovine pineal gland, has been detected in several extra-pineal sources including gastrointestinal tract or gut. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT is the key regulator of its biosynthesis. Melatonin in pineal is rhythmically produced with a nocturnal peak in synchronization with environmental light-dark cycle. A recent study on carp reported first that melatonin levels and intensity of a ~23kDa AANAT protein in each gut segment also exhibit significant daily variations but, unlike pineal, show a peak at midday in all seasons. Extensive experimental studies ruled out direct role of light-dark conditions in determining temporal pattern of gut melatoninergic system in carp, and opened up possible role of environmental non-photic cue(s as its synchronizer. Based on mammalian findings, physiological significance of gut derived melatonin also appears unique because its actions at local levels sharing paracrine and/or autocrine functions have been emphasized. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize existing data on the chronobiology and physiology of gut melatonin and to emphasize their relation with the same hormone derived in the pineal in vertebrates including fish.

  20. Organotin Exposure and Vertebrate Reproduction: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Fernandez Puñal de Araújo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organotin (OTs compounds are organometallic compounds that are widely used in industry, such as in the manufacture of plastics, pesticides, paints, and others. OTs are released into the environment by anthropogenic actions, leading to contact with aquatic and terrestrial organisms that occur in animal feeding. Although OTs are degraded environmentally, reports have shown the effects of this contamination over the years because it can affect organisms of different trophic levels. OTs act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs, which can lead to several abnormalities in organisms. In male animals, OTs decrease the weights of the testis and epididymis and reduce the spermatid count, among other dysfunctions. In female animals, OTs alter the weights of the ovaries and uteri and induce damage to the ovaries. In addition, OTs prevent fetal implantation and reduce mammalian pregnancy rates. OTs cross the placental barrier and accumulate in the placental and fetal tissues. Exposure to OTs in utero leads to the accumulation of lipid droplets in the Sertoli cells and gonocytes of male offspring in addition to inducing early puberty in females. In both genders, this damage is associated with the imbalance of sex hormones and the modulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. Here, we report that OTs act as reproductive disruptors in vertebrate studies; among the compounds are tetrabutyltin, tributyltin chloride, tributyltin acetate, triphenyltin chloride, triphenyltin hydroxide, dibutyltin chloride, dibutyltin dichloride, diphenyltin dichloride, monobutyltin, and azocyclotin.

  1. Innate immunity in vertebrates: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera Romo, Mario; Pérez-Martínez, Dayana; Castillo Ferrer, Camila

    2016-06-01

    Innate immunity is a semi-specific and widely distributed form of immunity, which represents the first line of defence against pathogens. This type of immunity is critical to maintain homeostasis and prevent microbe invasion, eliminating a great variety of pathogens and contributing with the activation of the adaptive immune response. The components of innate immunity include physical and chemical barriers, humoral and cell-mediated components, which are present in all jawed vertebrates. The understanding of innate defence mechanisms in non-mammalian vertebrates is the key to comprehend the general picture of vertebrate innate immunity and its evolutionary history. This is also essential for the identification of new molecules with applications in immunopharmacology and immunotherapy. In this review, we describe and discuss the main elements of vertebrate innate immunity, presenting core findings in this field and identifying areas that need further investigation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Tetanus with multiple wedge vertebral collapses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-07-06

    Jul 6, 2012 ... associated with traumatic injury, often a penetrating wound inflicted by dirty ... multiple vertebral collapses and the management chal- .... back pains and swelling as in our patient.9 There are usually no ... The cervical and.

  3. Delayed vertebral diagnosed L4 pincer vertebral fracture, L2-L3 ruptured vertebral lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasa D

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An association between delayed ruptured lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture and posttraumaticL4 pincer vertebral fracture (A2.3-AO clasification at different levels is a very rare entity. We present the case of a 55 years old male who falled down from a bicycle. 2 months later because of intense and permanent vertebral lumbar and radicular L2 and L3 pain (Visual Scal Autologus of Pain7-8/10 the patient came to the hospital. He was diagnosed with pincer vertebral L4 fracture (A2.3-AO clasification and L2-L3 right ruptured lumbar disc hernia in lateral reces. The patient was operated (L2-L3 right fenestration, and resection of lumbar disc hernia, bilateral stabilisation, L3-L4-L5 with titan screws and postero-lateral bone graft L4 bilateral harvested from iliac crest.

  4. Constrained vertebrate evolution by pleiotropic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyang; Uesaka, Masahiro; Guo, Song; Shimai, Kotaro; Lu, Tsai-Ming; Li, Fang; Fujimoto, Satoko; Ishikawa, Masato; Liu, Shiping; Sasagawa, Yohei; Zhang, Guojie; Kuratani, Shigeru; Yu, Jr-Kai; Kusakabe, Takehiro G; Khaitovich, Philipp; Irie, Naoki

    2017-11-01

    Despite morphological diversification of chordates over 550 million years of evolution, their shared basic anatomical pattern (or 'bodyplan') remains conserved by unknown mechanisms. The developmental hourglass model attributes this to phylum-wide conserved, constrained organogenesis stages that pattern the bodyplan (the phylotype hypothesis); however, there has been no quantitative testing of this idea with a phylum-wide comparison of species. Here, based on data from early-to-late embryonic transcriptomes collected from eight chordates, we suggest that the phylotype hypothesis would be better applied to vertebrates than chordates. Furthermore, we found that vertebrates' conserved mid-embryonic developmental programmes are intensively recruited to other developmental processes, and the degree of the recruitment positively correlates with their evolutionary conservation and essentiality for normal development. Thus, we propose that the intensively recruited genetic system during vertebrates' organogenesis period imposed constraints on its diversification through pleiotropic constraints, which ultimately led to the common anatomical pattern observed in vertebrates.

  5. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  6. The Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool revised for adolescents (PSST-A): prevalence of severe PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Meir; Peer, Miki; Palova, Eva; Freeman, Ellen W; Macdougall, Mary; Soares, Claudio N

    2011-02-01

    The Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool was modified for use in adolescents and piloted in 578 girls at three international sites. Nearly one third (29.6%) reported experiencing severe PMS or PMDD, with irritability being the most commonly reported symptom. Rates of menstrual-related pain were high, particularly in those with severe PMS or PMDD. Severe PMS and PMDD present with similar rates and symptoms in adolescents as in adults, and the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool modified for adolescents is a fast, reliable tool to screen for these syndromes in adolescents.

  7. CT study of vertebral metastasis: re-realization of the diagnostic role of the vertebral pedicle sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Quanfei; Jiang Bo; Chen Yingming; Zhang Chaohui

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the essence of the vertebral pedicle sign of vertebral metastasis on plain film, and to explore the useful CT signs for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this tumor. Methods: The CT scans of the spine obtained in 48 patients with vertebral metastases, 19 patients with vertebral tuberculosis, and 11 with vertebral myeloma, were analyzed. The CT findings were correlated with the abnormalities seen on plain films in 34 of the 48 patients (66 vertebrae involved) with vertebral metastasis. Results: 66 vertebrae were involved in the group of metastasis. Of the 28 vertebrae whose vertebral body were completely destroyed, 15 were seen bilateral pedicles destruction; Of the 22 vertebrae with lateral destruction of the body, 16 were noticed unilateral pedicle destruction which located posterior to the involved side of the body. Of the 62 micro-metastatic foci, 56 were scattered in the vertebral body. In the 19 para-spinal soft-tissue masses of vertebral tuberculosis, 5 were noticed calcifications and 12 with postcontrast rings enhancement. The rates of vertebral pedicle destruction of vertebral metastasis and myeloma were not statistically different (X 2 = 0.03, P > 0.50). The locations of destruction of vertebral body in vertebral metastasis and myeloma had no statistical difference (X 2 = 3.52, P > 0.10), but they differed from that in tuberculosis (X 2 = 39.32, P < 0.001). The distribution of lesions within the vertebrae of metastasis and tuberculosis was similar, but was quite different from myeloma. Conclusion: The vertebral metastasis initially occurs in the vertebral body. The vertebral pedicle sign on plain film of vertebral metastasis is the outcome of the posterior invasion of the tumor in the vertebral body, which is of no differential significance for vertebral metastasis and myeloma. Para-spinal soft tissue mass, location of destruction of vertebral body, and the distribution of lesions within the vertebrae may help

  8. Vertebral column anomalies in Indo-Pacific and Atlantic humpback dolphins Sousa spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Caroline R; Wang, John Y

    2016-08-09

    Conspicuous vertebral column abnormalities in humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) were documented for the first time during 3 photo-identification field studies of small populations in Taiwan, Senegal and Angola. Seven Taiwanese humpback dolphins S. chinensis taiwanensis with vertebral column anomalies (lordosis, kyphosis or scoliosis) were identified, along with 2 possible cases of vertebral osteomyelitis. There was evidence from several individuals photographed over consecutive years that the anomalies became more pronounced with age. Three Atlantic humpback dolphins S. teuszii were observed with axial deviations of the vertebral column (lordosis and kyphosis). Another possible case was identified in a calf, and 2 further animals were photographed with dorsal indents potentially indicative of anomalies. Vertebral column anomalies of humpback dolphins were predominantly evident in the lumbo-caudal region, but one Atlantic humpback dolphin had an anomaly in the cervico-thoracic region. Lordosis and kyphosis occurred simultaneously in several individuals. Apart from the described anomalies, all dolphins appeared in good health and were not obviously underweight or noticeably compromised in swim speed. This study presents the first descriptions of vertebral column anomalies in the genus Sousa. The causative factors for the anomalies were unknown in every case and are potentially diverse. Whether these anomalies result in reduced fitness of individuals or populations merits attention, as both the Taiwanese and Atlantic humpback dolphin are species of high conservation concern.

  9. Vascular Pathology in the Extracranial Vertebral Arteries in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, L; Nygård, A; Ovesen, C

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vascular pathology in the extracranial vertebral arteries remains among the possible causes in cryptogenic stroke. However, the diagnosis is challenged by the great variety in the anatomy of the vertebral arteries, clinical symptoms and difficulties in the radiological assessments....... The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of CT angiography (CTA)-detected pathological findings in the extracranial vertebral arteries in an acute stroke population and secondly to determine the frequency of posterior pathology as probable cause in patients with otherwise cryptogenic stroke....... METHOD: The analysis was based on 657 consecutive patients with symptoms of acute stroke and a final diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. On admission, a noncontrast CT cerebrum and CTA were performed. A senior consultant neuroradiologist, blinded to clinical data, reviewed all CTA...

  10. PREVALENCE, CLINICAL PRESENTATION, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF ACUTE PULMONARY OEDEMA IN SEVERE PREGNANCY-INDUCED HYPERTENSION AND ECLAMPSIA CASES IN TRIBAL POPULATION OF SOUTH RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    (Brig. Pradeep Kuma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pulmonary oedema in severe pregnancy-induced hypertension is a life threatening complication with high maternal mortality, particularly in tribal population of South Rajasthan. METHODS Thirteen cases which occurred in the duration of two and half years were analysed through medical records and findings were recorded. RESULTS Maximum cases 10(76.92% were in less than 20 years of age. 12 (92.30% cases were nulliparous. Out of 13 cases of PIH, pulmonary oedema developed in 5 (38.46% cases of eclampsia and 8 (61.54% cases of severe pregnancy-induced hypertension. 10 (76.92%cases were 28 to 30 weeks of gestation and 3 (23.08% were 31 to 34 weeks of gestation. 8 (61.54% cases were severely anaemic. 12 (92.30% were unbooked cases. CONCLUSION Regular antenatal checkups, early diagnosis, prompt treatment of hypertension and pulmonary oedema and termination of pregnancy is required to prevent maternal death.

  11. Individualized management for intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHANG Yan-guo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the individualized management strategy for intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. Methods Eighteen patients with intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms were treated with different surgical methods. Results Eighteen patients underwent different surgical treatment. Five patients underwent complete occlusion of the aneurysm and parent artery by coiling, 5 were treated by stent -assisted coiling (3 densely packed coiling and 2 non-densely packed coiling, 4 underwent stent-only therapy and 3 of them presented hemodynamic improvement after surgery, 3 were treated by direct surgical clipping, and 1 underwent occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery bypass. Two aneurysms ruptured immaturely, in which one patient died on the third day after operation and one patient occurred moderate disablity. Only 1 patient who underwent complete occlusion of aneurysm and parent artery presented temporarily ischemic symptoms. No adverse effects were seen in other patients. Seventeen patients were followed up for 1 month to 3 years, and all the aneurysms were stable. Conclusion There are many kinds of therapeutic methods for intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. The patients should be treated according to several factors such as the clinical manifestations, aneurysm configuration, and relationship with the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The treatment should be individualized.

  12. Effectiveness and response predictors of omalizumab in a severe allergic asthma population with a high prevalence of comorbidities: the Australian Xolair Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, P G; Reddel, H; McDonald, V M; Marks, G; Jenkins, C; Gillman, A; Upham, J; Sutherland, M; Rimmer, J; Thien, F; Katsoulotos, G P; Cook, M; Yang, I; Katelaris, C; Bowler, S; Langton, D; Robinson, P; Wright, C; Yozghatlian, V; Burgess, S; Sivakumaran, P; Jaffe, A; Bowden, J; Wark, P A B; Yan, K Y; Kritikos, V; Peters, M; Hew, M; Aminazad, A; Bint, M; Guo, M

    2016-09-01

    Severe asthma is a high impact disease. Omalizumab targets the allergic inflammatory pathway; however, effectiveness data in a population with significant comorbidities are limited. To describe severe allergic asthma, omalizumab treatment outcomes and predictors of response among the Australian Xolair Registry participants. A web-based post-marketing surveillance registry was established to characterise the use, effectiveness and adverse effects of omalizumab (Xolair) for severe allergic asthma. Participants (n = 192) (mean age 51 years, 118 female) with severe allergic asthma from 21 clinics in Australia were assessed, and 180 received omalizumab therapy. They had poor asthma control (Asthma Control Questionnaire, ACQ-5, mean score 3.56) and significant quality of life impairment (Asthma-related Quality of Life Questionnaire score 3.57), and 52% were using daily oral corticosteroid (OCS). Overall, 95% had one or more comorbidities (rhinitis 48%, obesity 45%, cardiovascular disease 23%). The omalizumab responder rate, assessed by an improvement of at least 0.5 in ACQ-5, was high at 83%. OCS use was significantly reduced. The response in participants with comorbid obesity and cardiovascular disease was similar to those without these conditions. Baseline ACQ-5 ≥ 2.0 (P = 0.002) and older age (P = 0.05) predicted the magnitude of change in ACQ-5 in response to omalizumab. Drug-related adverse events included anaphylactoid reactions (n = 4), headache (n = 2) and chest pains (n = 1). Australian patients with severe allergic asthma report a high disease burden and have extensive comorbidity. Symptomatic response to omalizumab was high despite significant comorbid disease. Omalizumab is an effective targeted therapy for severe allergic asthma with comorbidity in a real-life setting. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  13. The Prevalence and Severity of Burnout among Physiotherapists in an Arabian Setting and the Influence of Organizational Factors: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Imam, Dalia Muhammed; Al-Sobayel, Hana Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Burnout has been shown to be present in different health professions, but the prevalence among physiotherapists working in an Arabian setting has not been established. [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the burnout levels of physiotherapists working in Saudi Arabia and the association of burnout with work and organization-related factors. [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study was conducted at government hospitals in Saudi Arabia. One hundred and nineteen Saudi physiotherapists were included. They electronically completed a questionnaire that included the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Areas of Worklife Survey. [Results] Participants showed a moderate degree of burnout as reflected by mean scores of the three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The majority of participants demonstrated moderate to high burnout levels across the three subscales. A significant association was found between the exhaustion subscale and the subspecialty in which participants worked. A strong association was found between workload and exhaustion subscale scores. [Conclusion] This study was the first to explore burnout and related factors among physiotherapists in an Arabian setting. A moderate degree of burnout and associations of burnout with work and organizational factors were found. The findings may help human resource planning and managing the physiotherapy services. PMID:25202179

  14. Small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Fisher, Carissa L.; Aggabao, Patricia C.; Chavez, Thomas A.; Broom, Alexander M.; Wren, Tishya A.L.; Skaggs, David L.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    When compared to boys, girls have smaller vertebral cross-sectional area, which conveys a greater spinal flexibility, and a higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To test the hypothesis that small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc height are structural characteristics of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Using multiplanar imaging techniques, measures of vertebral cross-sectional area, vertebral height and intervertebral disc height in the lumbar spine were obtained in 35 pairs of girls and 11 pairs of boys with and without adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of the thoracic spine matched for age, height and weight. Compared to adolescents without spinal deformity, girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had, on average, 9.8% (6.68 ± 0.81 vs. 7.40 ± 0.99 cm 2 ; P = 0.0007) and 13.9% (8.22 ± 0.84 vs. 9.55 ± 1.61 cm 2 ; P = 0.009) smaller vertebral cross-sectional dimensions, respectively. Additionally, patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had significantly greater values for intervertebral disc heights (9.06 ± 0.85 vs. 7.31 ± 0.62 mm and 9.09 ± 0.87 vs. 7.61 ± 1.00 mm for girls and boys respectively; both P ≤ 0.011). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the presence of scoliosis was negatively associated with vertebral cross-sectional area and positively with intervertebral disc height, independent of sex, age and body mass index. We provide new evidence that girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis have significantly smaller vertebral cross-sectional area and taller intervertebral disc heights - two major structural determinants that influence trunk flexibility. With appropriate validation, these findings may have implications for the identification of children at the highest risk for developing scoliosis. (orig.)

  15. Small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Fisher, Carissa L.; Aggabao, Patricia C. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chavez, Thomas A. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Broom, Alexander M.; Wren, Tishya A.L.; Skaggs, David L. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gilsanz, Vicente [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-09-15

    When compared to boys, girls have smaller vertebral cross-sectional area, which conveys a greater spinal flexibility, and a higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To test the hypothesis that small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc height are structural characteristics of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Using multiplanar imaging techniques, measures of vertebral cross-sectional area, vertebral height and intervertebral disc height in the lumbar spine were obtained in 35 pairs of girls and 11 pairs of boys with and without adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of the thoracic spine matched for age, height and weight. Compared to adolescents without spinal deformity, girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had, on average, 9.8% (6.68 ± 0.81 vs. 7.40 ± 0.99 cm{sup 2}; P = 0.0007) and 13.9% (8.22 ± 0.84 vs. 9.55 ± 1.61 cm{sup 2}; P = 0.009) smaller vertebral cross-sectional dimensions, respectively. Additionally, patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had significantly greater values for intervertebral disc heights (9.06 ± 0.85 vs. 7.31 ± 0.62 mm and 9.09 ± 0.87 vs. 7.61 ± 1.00 mm for girls and boys respectively; both P ≤ 0.011). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the presence of scoliosis was negatively associated with vertebral cross-sectional area and positively with intervertebral disc height, independent of sex, age and body mass index. We provide new evidence that girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis have significantly smaller vertebral cross-sectional area and taller intervertebral disc heights - two major structural determinants that influence trunk flexibility. With appropriate validation, these findings may have implications for the identification of children at the highest risk for developing scoliosis. (orig.)

  16. Evolution of circadian organization in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Menaker

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Circadian organization means the way in which the entire circadian system above the cellular level is put together physically and the principles and rules that determine the interactions among its component parts which produce overt rhythms of physiology and behavior. Understanding this organization and its evolution is of practical importance as well as of basic interest. The first major problem that we face is the difficulty of making sense of the apparently great diversity that we observe in circadian organization of diverse vertebrates. Some of this diversity falls neatly into place along phylogenetic lines leading to firm generalizations: i in all vertebrates there is a "circadian axis" consisting of the retinas, the pineal gland and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, ii in many non-mammalian vertebrates of all classes (but not in any mammals the pineal gland is both a photoreceptor and a circadian oscillator, and iii in all non-mammalian vertebrates (but not in any mammals there are extraretinal (and extrapineal circadian photoreceptors. An interesting explanation of some of these facts, especially the differences between mammals and other vertebrates, can be constructed on the assumption that early in their evolution mammals passed through a "nocturnal bottleneck". On the other hand, a good deal of the diversity among the circadian systems of vertebrates does not fall neatly into place along phylogenetic lines. In the present review we will consider how we might better understand such "phylogenetically incoherent" diversity and what sorts of new information may help to further our understanding of the evolution of circadian organization in vertebrates

  17. [Study of the prevalence of severe mental disorder in the penitentiaries Puerto I, II and III of Puerto de Santa María (Cádiz): new strategies of psychiatric care in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Basallote, N; Navarro-Repiso, C

    2012-02-01

    In recent years it has been observed that there is a high level of severe mental disorder within the Spanish prison system. A one year descriptive and transversal study of the psychiatric health care demand in the prisons Puerto I, II and III of Puerto de Santa Maria (Cádiz). Of the 128 patients studied, the psychiatric diagnostics with highest prevalence were personality disorders (F60-69) at 35.16%, the next group was psychosis (F20-29) at 25.78%, and in third place mental and behaviour disorders due to use of psychotropic substances (F10-19) at 16.41%. 46.09% suffered conditions which are categorised as severe mental disorders. This study confirms the high levels of severe mental disorder in prisons located in the area of the Puerto Real Hospital. We are making efforts to improve on psychiatric health care provided to these patients by working closely with the Prison system.

  18. Stress in police officers: a study of the origins, prevalence and severity of stress-related symptoms within a county police force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P A; Gibbs, A C C

    2003-06-01

    High levels of stress-related illness are causing concern across industry. Against a background of impending legislative moves to try to improve this situation, there is a need to identify key work-related stressors. Police work tends to be regarded as inherently stressful because of the personal risk of exposure to confrontation and violence and the day-to-day involvement in a variety of traumatic incidents. As a result, high levels of stress-related symptoms might be expected in this population. To examine the sources of stress-related symptoms within police officers and measure the prevalence of significant associated mental ill-health. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of a population of 1206 police officers was performed to assess levels of strain associated with a series of potential home and work related stressors. Participants were then split into low and high scoring groups on the basis of a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) threshold score in order to identify those stressors most associated with mental ill-health effects. Occupational stressors ranking most highly within the population were not specific to policing, but to organizational issues such as the demands of work impinging upon home life, lack of consultation and communication, lack of control over workload, inadequate support and excess workload in general. The high scoring group constituted 41% of the population and differed significantly from those with low scores in perception of all stressors, ranking both personal and occupational stressors more highly, and from personality constraints appeared significantly more 'stress-prone'. A significant association between gender and mental ill-health was found, with females more likely to score more highly on the GHQ than males. This study confirms previous findings of organizational culture and workload as the key issues in officer stress. Given that the degree of symptomatology appears to be worsening, management action is required. Further

  19. A Case of Duplicated Right Vertebral Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Mayuko; Watanabe, Koichi; Tabira, Yoko; Iwanaga, Joe; Matsuuchi, Wakako; Yoshida, Daichi; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Yamaki, Koh-Ichi

    2018-04-27

    We encountered a case of duplicated right vertebral artery during an anatomical dissection course for medical students in 2015. Two vertebral arteries were found in the right neck of a 91-year-old female cadaver. The proximal leg of the arteries arose from the area between the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery that diverged from the brachiocephalic artery. The distal leg arose from the right subclavian artery as expected. The proximal leg entered the transverse foramen of the fourth cervical vertebra and the distal leg entered the transverse foramen of the sixth cervical vertebra. The two right vertebral arteries joined to form one artery just after the origin of the right vertebral artery of the brachiocephalic artery entered the transverse foramen of the fourth cervical vertebra. This artery then traveled up in the transverse foramina and became the basilar artery, joining with the left vertebral artery. We discuss the embryological origin of this case and review previously reported cases.

  20. Reproducibility of central lumbar vertebral BMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, F.; Pocock, N.; Griffiths, M.; Majerovic, Y.; Freund, J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Lumbar vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has generally been calculated from a region of interest which includes the entire vertebral body. Although this region excludes part of the transverse processes, it does include the outer cortical shell of the vertebra. Recent software has been devised to calculate BMD in a central vertebral region of interest which excludes the outer cortical envelope. Theoretically this area may be more sensitive to detecting osteoporosis which affects trabecular bone to a greater extent than cortical bone. Apart from the sensitivity of BMD estimation, the reproducibility of any measurement is important owing to the slow rate of change of bone mass. We have evaluated the reproducibility of this new vertebral region of interest in 23 women who had duplicate lumbar spine DXA scans performed on the same day. The patients were repositioned between each measurement. Central vertebral analysis was performed for L2-L4 and the reproducibility of area, bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD calculated as the coefficient of variation; these values were compared with those from conventional analysis. Thus we have shown that the reproducibility of the central BMD is comparable to the conventional analysis which is essential if this technique is to provide any additional clinical data. The reasons for the decrease in reproducibility of the area and hence BMC requires further investigation

  1. Experimental taphonomy and the anatomy and diversity of the earliest fossil vertebrates (Chengjiang Biota, Cambrian, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Mark; Gabbott, Sarah; Murdock, Duncan; Cong, Peiyun

    2016-04-01

    The oldest fossil vertebrates are from the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang biota of China, which contains four genera of fish-like, primitive vertebrates: Haikouichthys, Myllokunmingia, Zhongjianichthys and Zhongxiniscus. These fossils play key roles in calibrating molecular clocks and informing our view of the anatomy of animals close to the origin of vertebrates, potentially including transitional forms between vertebrates and their nearest relatives. Despite the evident importance of these fossils, the degree to which taphonomic processes have affected their anatomical completeness has not been investigated. For example, some or all might have been affected by stemward slippage - the pattern observed in experimental decay of non-biomineralised chordates in which preferential decay of synapomorphies and retention of plesiomorphic characters would cause fossil taxa to erroneously occupy more basal positions than they should. This hypothesis is based on experimental data derived from decay of non-biomineralised chordates under laboratory conditions. We have expanded this analysis to include a broader range of potentially significant environmental variables; we have also compared and combined the results of experiments from several taxa to identify general patterns of chordate decay. Examination of the Chengjiang vertebrates in the light of these results demonstrates that, contrary to some assertions, experimentally derived models of phylogenetic bias are applicable to fossils. Anatomical and phylogenetic interpretations of early vertebrates that do not take taphonomic biases into account risk overestimating diversity and the evolutionary significance of differences between fossil specimens.

  2. The sea lamprey meiotic map improves resolution of ancient vertebrate genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeramiah J; Keinath, Melissa C

    2015-08-01

    It is generally accepted that many genes present in vertebrate genomes owe their origin to two whole-genome duplications that occurred deep in the ancestry of the vertebrate lineage. However, details regarding the timing and outcome of these duplications are not well resolved. We present high-density meiotic and comparative genomic maps for the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a representative of an ancient lineage that diverged from all other vertebrates ∼550 million years ago. Linkage analyses yielded a total of 95 linkage groups, similar to the estimated number of germline chromosomes (1n ∼ 99), spanning a total of 5570.25 cM. Comparative mapping data yield strong support for the hypothesis that a single whole-genome duplication occurred in the basal vertebrate lineage, but do not strongly support a hypothetical second event. Rather, these comparative maps reveal several evolutionarily independent segmental duplications occurring over the last 600+ million years of chordate evolution. This refined history of vertebrate genome duplication should permit more precise investigations of vertebrate evolution. © 2015 Smith and Keinath; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. Review of radiological scoring methods of osteoporotic vertebral fractures for clinical and research settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, Ling [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-83, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rivadeneira, Fernando [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee5-79, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Ly, Felisia; Breda, Stephan J. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-83, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Zillikens, M.C. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, ' s Gravendijkwal 230, CE, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hofman, Albert [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Uitterlinden, Andre G. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee5-75B, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krestin, Gabriel P.; Oei, Edwin H.G. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, ' s Gravendijkwal 230, CE, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease; vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures. Several radiological scoring methods using different criteria for osteoporotic vertebral fractures exist. Quantitative morphometry (QM) uses ratios derived from direct vertebral body height measurements to define fractures. Semi-quantitative (SQ) visual grading is performed according to height and area reduction. The algorithm-based qualitative (ABQ) method introduced a scheme to systematically rule out non-fracture deformities and diagnoses osteoporotic vertebral fractures based on endplate depression. The concordance across methods is currently a matter of debate. This article reviews the most commonly applied standardised radiographic scoring methods for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, attaining an impartial perspective of benefits and limitations. It provides image examples and discusses aspects that facilitate large-scale application, such as automated image analysis software and different imaging investigations. It also reviews the implications of different fracture definitions for scientific research and clinical practice. Accurate standardised scoring methods for assessing osteoporotic vertebral fractures are crucial, considering that differences in definition will have implications for patient care and scientific research. Evaluation of the feasibility and concordance among methods will allow establishing their benefits and limitations, and most importantly, optimise their effectiveness for widespread application. (orig.)

  4. Review of radiological scoring methods of osteoporotic vertebral fractures for clinical and research settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oei, Ling; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ly, Felisia; Breda, Stephan J.; Zillikens, M.C.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Oei, Edwin H.G.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease; vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures. Several radiological scoring methods using different criteria for osteoporotic vertebral fractures exist. Quantitative morphometry (QM) uses ratios derived from direct vertebral body height measurements to define fractures. Semi-quantitative (SQ) visual grading is performed according to height and area reduction. The algorithm-based qualitative (ABQ) method introduced a scheme to systematically rule out non-fracture deformities and diagnoses osteoporotic vertebral fractures based on endplate depression. The concordance across methods is currently a matter of debate. This article reviews the most commonly applied standardised radiographic scoring methods for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, attaining an impartial perspective of benefits and limitations. It provides image examples and discusses aspects that facilitate large-scale application, such as automated image analysis software and different imaging investigations. It also reviews the implications of different fracture definitions for scientific research and clinical practice. Accurate standardised scoring methods for assessing osteoporotic vertebral fractures are crucial, considering that differences in definition will have implications for patient care and scientific research. Evaluation of the feasibility and concordance among methods will allow establishing their benefits and limitations, and most importantly, optimise their effectiveness for widespread application. (orig.)

  5. A Prospective Study of the Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Bacteraemia in Bangladeshi Children with Severe Malnutrition and Pneumonia Including an Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Graham, Stephen M.; Duke, Trevor; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ashraf, Hasan; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; La Vincente, Sophie; Banu, Sayera; Raqib, Rubhana; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain. Methods We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years) with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital. Results 405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4%) children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396) of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16%) additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24–94) and 92% (95% CI: 87–95) respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital. Conclusion and Significance TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes. PMID:24695758

  6. A prospective study of the prevalence of tuberculosis and bacteraemia in Bangladeshi children with severe malnutrition and pneumonia including an evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti

    Full Text Available Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain.We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital.405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4% children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396 of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16% additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24-94 and 92% (95% CI: 87-95 respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital.TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes.

  7. Prevalence and Severity of Off-Centering During Diagnostic CT: Observations From 57,621 CT scans of the Chest, Abdomen, and/or Pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin-Akintayo, Oladunni O; Alexander, Lauren F; Neill, Rebecca; Krupinksi, Elizabeth A; Tang, Xiangyang; Mittal, Pardeep K; Small, William C; Moreno, Courtney C

    2018-02-23

    To determine distances between patient centroid and gantry isocenter during CT imaging of the chest, abdomen, and/or pelvis, and to evaluate differences based on patient gender, scan region, patient position, and gantry aperture. A water phantom and an anthropomorphic phantom were imaged in the centered position in the CT gantry and at several off-centered positions. Additionally, data from 57,621 adult chest, abdomen, and/or pelvic CT acquisitions were evaluated. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using the centroid-to-isocenter data as the dependent variable and the other parameters as independent variables. The majority of patient acquisitions (83.7% (48271/57621)) were performed with the patient's centroid positioned below isocenter (mean 1.7 cm below isocenter (SD 1.8 cm); range 12.1 cm below to 7.8 cm above isocenter). Off-centering in the x-axis was less severe (mean 0.01 cm left of isocenter (SD 1.6 cm)). Distance between centroid and isocenter in the y-axis did not differ as a function of sex but did differ based on scan region, patient position, and gantry aperture. Off-centering is common during CT imaging and has been previously demonstrated to impact dose and image quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lower Jump Power Rather Than Muscle Mass Itself is Associated with Vertebral Fracture in Community-Dwelling Elderly Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Kyoung Min; Seo, Da Hea; Lee, Seung Won; Choi, Han Sol; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Chang Oh; Rhee, Yumie

    2017-06-01

    Sarcopenia is considered to be a risk factor for osteoporotic fracture, which is a major health problem in elderly women. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of sarcopenia, with regard to muscle mass and function, with prevalent vertebral fracture in community-dwelling elderly women. We recruited 1281 women aged 64 to 87 years from the Korean Urban Rural Elderly cohort study. Muscle mass and function were measured using bioimpedance analysis and jumping mechanography. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) and jump power were used as an indicator of muscle mass and function, respectively. Among the participants, we observed 282 (18.9%) vertebral fractures and 564 (44.0%) osteoporosis. Although age, body mass index, and prevalence of osteoporosis increased as both SMI and jump power decreased, prevalence of vertebral fracture increased only when jump power decreased. In univariate analysis, compared with the highest quartile of jump power, the lowest quartile had a significant odds ratio of 2.80 (95% CI 1.79-4.36) for vertebral fracture. This association between jump power and vertebral fracture remained significant, with an odds ratio of 3.04 (95% CI 1.77-5.23), even after adjusting for other risk factors including age, bone mineral density, previous fracture, and cognitive function. In contrast, there was no association between SMI and vertebral fracture. Based on our results, low jump power, but not SMI, is associated with vertebral fracture in community-dwelling elderly Korean women. This finding suggests that jump power may have a more important role than muscle mass itself for osteoporotic fracture.

  9. Handed behavior in hagfish--an ancient vertebrate lineage--and a survey of lateralized behaviors in other invertebrate chordates and elongate vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Tetsuto; Palmer, A Richard

    2014-04-01

    Hagfish represent an ancient lineage of boneless and jawless vertebrates. Among several curious behaviors they exhibit, solitary individuals in one dominant genus of hagfish (Eptatretus spp.) regularly rest in a tightly coiled posture. We present the first systematic treatment of this distinctive behavior. Individual northeastern Pacific hagfish (E. stoutii) exhibited significant handedness (preferred orientation of coiling). However, right-coiling and left-coiling individuals were equally common in the population. Individual hagfish likely develop a preference for one direction by repeating the preceding coiling direction. We also revisit classical accounts of chordate natural history and compare the coiling behavior of Eptatretus with other handed or lateralized behaviors in non-vertebrate chordates, lampreys, and derived vertebrates with elongate bodies. Handed behaviors occur in many of these groups, but they likely evolved independently. In contrast to vertebrates, morphological asymmetries may bias lateralized larval behaviors toward one side in cephalochordates and tunicates. As a consequence, no known handed behavior can be inferred to have existed in the common ancestor of vertebrates.

  10. Vertebral<