WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevalent risk factor

  1. Amblyopia risk factor prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) published a set of risk factors for amblyopia. The intent was to promote uniformity of reporting and development in screening. Because this prevalence is not yet known, this meta-analysis is an attempt to estimate it. Major community preschool eye examination studies were reviewed and AAPOS cut-offs estimated. The approximate prevalence of anisometropia is 1.2%, hyperopia is 6%, astigmatism is 15%, myopia is 0.6%, strabismus is 2.5%, and visual acuity less than 20/40 is 6%. The mean combined prevalence is 21% ± 2% compared to a prevalence of amblyopia 20/40 and worse of 2.5%. Knowing risk factor prevalence simplifies validation efforts. Amblyopia screening with a risk factor sensitivity less than 100% is expected and desirable. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Prevalence and obstetric risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    suggest that obstetric factors increase the risk of damage to the anal sphincter and subsequent development of AI.[4-6] These ... variations may impact on obstetric risk factors and AI prevalence. We therefore performed a study in our population, which .... Regulatory approvals. Institutional and hospital ethical approval were ...

  3. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    and Gram-positive bacteria. KEY WORDS: Antenatal women, antibiotic resistance, asymptomatic bacteriuria, prevalence, risk factors. INTRODUCTION. Urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy is classified as either symptomatic or asymptomatic. Symptomatic UTI are divided into lower tract (acute cystitis) and upper ...

  4. Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection among medical students and healthcare workers in Johannesburg, South Africa. A van Rie, K McCarthy, L Scott, A Dow, WDF Venter, WS Stevens ...

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factors of High Risk Human Papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exfoliated cervical cells were harvested and processed using Polymerase Chain Reaction to identify the DNAs of high-risk HPV types 16 and 18. The prevalence rate of HPV infection was 76% [(38/50) at 95% CI=61.8-86.9] with 60.5% (23/38) having co-infections with both HPV type 16 and 18. Risk factors of the infection ...

  6. Prevalence of mental health risk factors among students in lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Pranckevičiūtė, Lina

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of Mental Health Risk Factors among Students in Lithuania There are a numberof studiesin Lithuania and whole world about depression among young people. However, the prevalence of several risk factors (mental health literacy, sense of coherence, depressiveness, suicidal thoughts, social support) among universities, colleges, vocational studentsin Lithuania has not been studied. Aim of the study – to assess mental health risk factors prevalence among Lithuanian students. Objectives: ...

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among emergency department workers and bacterial contamination on touch surfaces in Erciyes University Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey.

  8. Prevalence of bovine brucellosis and analysis of risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information about the prevalence and risk factors for the disease in resident cattle herds in the North Central Zone of Nigeria is however lacking. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis and the risk factors associated with the disease in Kanke Local Government Area (LGA) of ...

  9. Prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its origin is in childhood, but information on its prevalence and associated risk factors in children are scarce. Objective: This study assessed the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors among adolescents in Ondo town. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 965 respondents selected ...

  10. The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the severity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No African-based studies have reported the prevalence or severity of injuries, risk factors associated with injuries or return-to-play (RTP) time. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of injuries and associated risk factors, as well as severity of injuries sustained by professional male MMA athletes competing at the Extreme ...

  11. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yau, Joanne W Y; Rogers, Sophie L; Kawasaki, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes.......To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes....

  12. Prevalence of camel tuberculosis and associated risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels and assess the association of risk factors with the prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels using single intra-dermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT). Of the total of 387 camels investigated, overall camel tuberculosis prevalence of 9.82% (95% CI: 6.84%-12.8%) at a cut off value ≥ ...

  13. Prevalence and associated risk factors for obesity in Jalalabad city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and associated risk factors for obesity in Jalalabad city – Afghanistan. ... This study aims to identify the prevalence of obesity and blood lipid profile and their associated factors in Jalalabad city, Afghanistan. Methods ... The mean age was 38.76± 11.06 years with 60% female, 71.5% illiterate and 6.3% of smokers.

  14. Prevalence of early childhood caries and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier Aguilar-Ayala

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: due to the high prevalence of white spots, is necessary to create prevention programs that educate mothers or caregivers about the caries risk factors and its control, promoting self-care as a preven- tion strategy.

  15. Prevalence, Progression and Associated Risk Factors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) ranges between 4.5% and 57% and is independently associated with cardiovascular disease burden irrespective of symptoms. Two thirds of cases are thought to be asymptomatic and may go unrecognised. Local prevalence and natural progression of ...

  16. Prevalence of some risk factors associated with hypertension among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension is fast becoming a public health problem and has been associated with certain risk factors that have been found to contribute to the increasing rates of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Sub Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of some risk factors associated with ...

  17. Low prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Identification of obesity and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in childhood is strongly recommended for prevention of the diseases in adulthood. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of the conventional cardiovascular risk factors among primary school children aged 6-15 years in Urban Dar es ...

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of arternal hypertension among urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT Background: Studies on the prevalence of hypertension among Africans in workplace did not deal with risk factors of hypertension. Thus there is a need to screen urban central Africans at workplace for environmental risk factors of hypertension. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Kinshasa ...

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin‑resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage inpatients in a tertiary care hospital's chest clinic in Turkey. ... of the participants and risk factors for carriage. Fisher's exact test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. A P < 0.05 ...

  20. Prevalence of camel tuberculosis and associated risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional abattoir based study was conducted from February 2014 to October, 2015 on camels slaughtered at Akaki municipality abattoir to determine the prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels and assess the association of risk factors with the prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels using single intra-dermal ...

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity and high blood pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of diet-related chronic diseases like hypertension and obesity among others has become a public health concern. Risk factors for these diseases have been well studied in high income countries but less studied in developing countries. Objective: The study was to document the prevalence and ...

  2. HIV prevalence and demographic risk factors in blood donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To estimate HIV prevalence in various blood donor populations, to identity sociodemographic risk factors associated with prevalent HIV and to assess the feasibility of offering routine voluntary counselling services to blood donors. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thyolo district, Malawi. Methods: Data ...

  3. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in an African, Urban inner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The object of this community based study was to determine the prevalence of selected cardiovascular risk factors in an urban inner city community which had been followed up prospectively from 1993 to 1998. Results show that the prevalence of hypertension (Blood Pressure BP > 160/95 mm Hg) was 12.4 percent with an ...

  4. Prevalence of health risk factors among fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    AND fisherman OR fishing and only those with precise prevalence estimation were included. Results One Turkish, Scottish, Spanish, Greek and a Danish study were found. The prevalence rate for current smoking varied from 40 % - 82 % in the countries. Daily alcohol use also varied with 80%, 78% and 68 % among...... and accompanied by moderate–high alcohol consumption. On many vessels, food was limited to coffee, sandwiches and occasionally fruit on board. 66% of the Greek fishing workers did not perform any kind of exercise outside work. Obesity (Body mass index > 30.0) was found for 33 % of the Greek fishermen...

  5. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Intestinal Helminth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This studydetermined the prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among school-aged children. ... Using logistic regression, the following factors showed significant effect (p<0.05) as predisposing factors to intestinal helminth infections: water treatment, sanitary habits, refuse disposal, parental ...

  6. prevalence and associated risk factors of asymptomat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    natal clients was conducted over a period of 4 weeks. A face to face questionnaire was completed and mid- stream urine collected for culture and antimicrobial .... risk of infection by meatal trauma, urethral massage and probably changes in vaginal flora.5 However con- trary to our expectations there was no association be-.

  7. Prevalence, Progression and Associated Risk Factors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    early intervention and reducing their increased risk of cardiovascular-related mortality (1,9,10). The primary non-invasive screening test for PAD is the. Ankle Brachial Index (ABI), an accurate, reliable and easily assessable, though poorly utilised tool in general practice (11,12). Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) detects peripheral ...

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of latent Tuberculosis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Latent Tuberculosis treatment is a key tuberculosis control intervention. Adolescents are a high risk group that is not routinely treated in low income countries. Knowledge of latent Tuberculosis (TB) burden among adolescents may influence policy. Objectives: We determined the prevalence and risk factors of ...

  9. Serological prevalence and associated risk factors of Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella infections in chickens. The overall sero-prevalence established using serum plate agglutination test was 16.7% (98/588). Using a univariate logistic analysis, factors significantly associated with Salmonella infections at p < 0.05 were presence of other birds in poultry farms ...

  10. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Tallinn, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Kaldmäe

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The study established a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Estonian adults (20–65 years of age. Younger portion of the population and some extent ethnic considerations should be taken into account when designing future studies, health prevention activities and interventions.

  11. The prevalence and risk factors for gestational diabetes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the common diabetes risk factors (or OGTT; the prevalence of GDM; and the maternal and perinatal outcomes of GDM pregnancies in a Nigerian urban antenatal population. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of pregnant women, who attended antenatal clinic, screened for diabetes ...

  12. Prevalence and risk factors associated with lameness in zero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors associated with lameness in zero-grazed cattle in Uganda. J Okwee-Acai, J Acon, EK Kabagambe. Abstract. No Abstract. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Vol. 52 (2) 2004: pp. 63-70. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  13. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.Y. Yau (Joanne W.); S.L. Rogers (Sophie); Y. Kawasaki; E.L. Lamoureux (Ecosse); J.W. Kowalski (Jonathan); T. Bek (Toke); S.-J. Chen (Shih-Jen); J.M. Dekker (Jacqueline); A.E. Fletcher (Astrid E.); J. Grauslund (Jakob); R.C.G. Haffner; U. Hamman (Ute); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); T. Kayama (Takamasa); B.E.K. Klein (Barbara); B.E.K. Klein (Barbara); S. Krishnaiah (Sannapaneni); K. Mayurasakorn (Korapat); J.P. O'Hare (Joseph); T. Orchard; M. Porta; M. Rema (Mohan); M.S. Roy (Monique); T. Sharma (Tarun); S-M. Saw (Seang-Mei); H. Taylor (Hugh); J.M. Tielsch (James); D. Varma (Dhiraj); J.J. Wang (Jie Jin); N. Wang (Ningli); S. West (Sheila); L. Zu (Liang); M. Yasuda (Maya); X. Zhang (Xinzhi); P. Mitchell (Paul); T.Y. Wong (Tien Yin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE - To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A pooled analysis using individual participant data from population-based studies

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of latent Tuberculosis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: We analyzed baseline data from a study that assessed the prevalence and incidence of Tuberculosis disease among adolescents. We extracted ... Keywords: Latent tuberculosis infection, Adolescents, Risk factors, Tuberculin skin testing, Tuberculosis ..... -302. 26. Targeted tuberculin testing and treatment of la-.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors associated with tungiasis in Mayuge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: tungiasis is an endemic but neglected health problem in Uganda especially in resource poor communities. It is largely affecting rural communities in the Eastern, West Nile and Central regions. This study assessed prevalence and risk factors associated with tungiasis in Mayuge district, Eastern Uganda.

  16. prevalence and risk factors for vaginal candidiasis among women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2005-03-01

    Mar 1, 2005 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 82 No. 3 March 2005. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS FOR VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS AMONG WOMEN SEEKING PRIMARY CARE FOR GENITAL INFECTIONS IN. DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA. L. A. Namkinga, BPharm, MSc, PhD, Applied Microbiology Unit, ...

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for Ascaris and Cryptosporidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases in particular parasitic infestation is among the drawbacks to profitable pig production since parasites compromise the production and reproduction performance of infested pigs. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors for Ascaris and Cryptosporidium infestations in pigs ...

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus transmission among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sharing of toothbrushes among siblings was found to be a significantly associated risk factor. Only 6.4% of mothers knew their hepatitis B status. Conclusion: There is a gradual fall in the prevalence of HBsAg in our environment due to HB immunization. Sharing of toothbrushes may be a potent means of transmission of HBV ...

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal nematode infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2010 and February 2011 to assess the prevalence of intestinal nematode infections among children aged 1 – 14 years living in two communities of rural Ebonyi State, Nigeria, characterize the risk factors for infection and develop environmental ...

  20. Erectile dysfunction: prevalence, risk factors and involvement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, 3Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Lahore,. Lahore, Pakistan ... on the prevalence of sexual/erectile dysfunction in hypertensive men taking antihypertensive drugs and risk factors ..... knowledge of side effects produce anxiety that may affect ...

  1. Prevalence, pattern and risk factors for retinal vascular occlusions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Retinal vascular occlusions are the second most common retinal vascular diseases following diabetic retinopathy. They are associated with several systemic and ocular pathologies and are significant causes of visual loss. Objective: This study aims to determine the prevalence, pattern and risk factors for retinal ...

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of erectile dysfunction in Niger delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Erectile Dysfunction (ED) is one of the major social problems causing significant distress in men. Despite the increasing difficulty in management, knowledge, and understanding of factors responsible for its development are important for prevention and care. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and risk ...

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis C and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection among Children in Enugu, Nigeria. ... The data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 statistical software. The chi squared test was used to test for significant association of categorical ...

  4. Risk factors and prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers at Kenyatta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers and the risk factors in a clinic-based setting. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus who had active foot ulcers in both outpatient and inpatient units. Main outcome ...

  5. Prevalence of camel Trypanosomosis and its associated risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study coupled with questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of camel trypanosomosis and assess associated risk factors in Moyale district, Borena Zone, Oromia region, southern Ethiopia from November 2014 to April 2015. Blood samples were collected from randomly selected ...

  6. Prevalence and associated risk factors of work-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) represent a significant occupational problem among road construction workers. This study conducted a prevalence and symptom survey of WRMDs among road construction workers in a Nigerian community and its relationship with risk factors over a twelve month period.

  7. Early sexual debut: prevalence and risk factors among secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early sexual debut: prevalence and risk factors among secondary school students in Ido-ekiti, Ekiti state, South-West Nigeria. Kabir Adekunle Durowade, Oluwole Adeyemi Babatunde, Lukman Omotayo Omokanye, Olusegun Elijah Elegbede, Lawrence Majekodunmi Ayodele, Kayode Razaq Adewoye, Stella Adetokunbo, ...

  8. Global Prevalence and Major Risk Factors of Diabetic Retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yau, J.W.Y.; Rogers, S.L.; Kawasaki, R.; Lamoureux, E.L.; Kowalski, J.W.; Bek, T.; Chen, S.J.; Dekker, J.M.; Fletcher, A.; Grauslund, J.; Haffner, S.; Hamman, R.F.; Ikram, M.K.; Kayama, T.; Klein, B.E.K.; Klein, R.; Krishnaiah, S.; Mayurasakorn, K.; O'Hare, J.P.; Orchard, T.J.; Porta, M.; Rema, M.; Roy, M.S.; Sharma, T.; Shaw, J.; Taylor, H.; Tielsch, J.M.; Varma, R.; Wang, J.J.; Wang, N.L.; West, S.; Xu, L.; Yasuda, M.; Zhang, X.Z.; Mitchell, P.; Wong, T.Y.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A pooled analysis using individual participant data from population-based studies around the

  9. Prevalence and associated risk factors of ante‑partum hemorrhage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of antepartum hemorrhage (APH) in the third trimester of Arab women residing in Qatar and their neonatal outcome. Design and Setting: A prospective hospital‑based study was conducted in the Women's Hospital and Maternity ...

  10. Prevalence and risks factors of overweight/obesity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risks factors of overweight/obesity among Undergraduate students: An institutional based cross-sectional study, Ghana. ... This institutional based cross-sectional study conducted between November, 2013 and February, 2014 recruited three hundred (300) students from the various academic colleges.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of nutritional anaemia among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wide and yet in Uganda, there is little national data on anaemia and its likely causes amongst school children. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, dietary and health risk factors of nutritional anaemia amongst 11-14 year old girls ...

  12. Early sexual debut: prevalence and risk factors among secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... Abstract. Background: Early adolescent sexual activity remains a recurring problem with negative psychosocial and health outcomes. The age at sexual debut varies from place to place and among different individuals and is associated with varying factors. The aim was to determine the prevalence and risk ...

  13. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To detennine the prevalence of diabetes and its associated risk factors in elderly coloured South Africans. Research design. Cross-sectional analytical study. Methods. A random sample of 200 non-institutionalised coloured (mixed ancestry) subjects aged ~ 65 years of age, resident in urban Cape Town, was ...

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for Active Convulsive Epilepsy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little data in West Africa, to develop public health measures for epilepsy in this region. Methods: We conducted a three-stage cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence and risk factors for active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), and estimated the ...

  15. Prevalence of iron deficiency and its associated risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of iron deficiency and its associated risk factors among primary school children in Kelantan. H Halib, W.M.W. Muda, P.C. Dam, H.J.J. Mohamed. Abstract. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common micronutrient deficiency that may leads to serious health problems such as poor behavior, cognitive and ...

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for Active Convulsive Epilepsy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little data in West Africa, to develop public health measures for epilepsy in this region. Methods: we conducted a three-stage cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence and risk factors for active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), and estimated the ...

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus foot syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... followeAnkle–brachial pressure index d by calluses (42.6%). Conclusion: The prevalence of DMFS amongst persons with Type 2 DM appears to be high which (are)is in keeping with global trends of DM. Routine foot examination aimed at early identification of and modification of risk factors of DMFS is thus recommended ...

  18. Studies on Prevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis B Surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on Prevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen among Secondary School Students in North-central, Nigeria. ... high among the studied population. This suggests that public awareness on the virus be accorded urgent attention, while vaccination programme should be improved in the community.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic malaria among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Enhanced malaria control has resulted in its reduction in some areas of Sub Saharan Africa including Rwanda. However, asymptomatic hosts serve as a reservoir for the malaria parasite for communities. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria parasites and risk factors associated ...

  20. Prevalence and associated risk factors of bovine mastitis in local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was conducted on local and cross bred dairy cows in Jimma town and its surroundings to determine the prevalence of mastitis and potential risk factors. Simple random sampling of dairy herds, clinical examination of udder and milk and udder test card were used. Of the total dairy cows examined ...

  1. Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of contagious Caprine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of contagious Caprine pleuropneumonia in goats in selected districts of bale zone pastoral area, south eastern Ethiopia. ... Multivariable logistic regression statistical analysis revealed that age category, flock size, newly introduced goats and accessibility to veterinary service ...

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of arternal hypertension among urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors of arternal hypertension among urban Africans workplace: The obsolete role of body mass index. ... In another logistic regression model, only waist>90 cm (OR=2.5 CI95% 1.3-4.9; p<0.01) and age=55 years were identified as significant predictors of hypertension. Conclusion: There is a need to ...

  3. The prevalence and risk factors associated with anaemia among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, female sex was the only predictor of anaemia . Conclusion: Anaemia is a common complication seen among HIV patients in view of the prevalence rate of 76% observed in our study. The risk factors associated with anemia were female sex, living in urban area and low ...

  4. Prevalence, distribution and risk factors associated with taeniid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we used the sodium chloride floatation technique and well structured close ended questionnaires to determine the prevalence, distribution and risk factors associated with these infections in trade dogs in Dawaki, Plateau State. Data were analysed using chi-square (x2) test, odds ratio and logistic regression at ...

  5. Prevalence and risk factors associated with retinopathy in diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors associated with retinopathy in diabetic patients at Parirenyatwa Hospital outpatients' clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. ... Using multivariate logistic regression analysis retinopathy was associated with longer duration of diabetes mellitus (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.09, p value ˂ 0.001) and lower serum ...

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Enuresis in Children | Adekanmbi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using logistic regression, maternal history, sibling history of bedwetting, snoring and heavy supper are strong determinants of bedwetting. Enuresis is a common problem among primary school pupils. Intensive public enlightenment is needed. Key words: Enuresis, risk factors, prevalence, children, social-stigma ...

  7. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease in Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. ... History of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM) or its treatment was recorded after observing their medical reports. Results: The proportion of females and males was 65.53 and 34.46 %, respectively. Of the 200 patients, the mean age of ...

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Depression in Ethiopia: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Depression is the most common and disabling mental illness in the globe. It accounts for about 6.5% of the burden of diseases in Ethiopia. Regardless of its severity and relapse rate, there are no synthesized evidences about its prevalence and potential risk factors in Ethiopia. The aim of this review was thus to ...

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Brucellosis in Jazan Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Brucellosis is responsible for considerable public health issues involving economic losses due to abortion, loss of milk production and infertility in adult males. The purpose of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of brucellosis in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia and assess the possible risk factors.

  10. Gambling Disorder and Minority Populations: Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Mayumi; Liu, Weiwei; Cisewski, Jodi A; Segura, Luis; Storr, Carla L; Martins, Silvia S

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies demonstrate disparities in health and health services including gambling disorders (GD) among ethnic and racial minority groups. In this review, we summarize studies examining the prevalence of GD across different ethnic and racial minorities. We describe the sociodemographic subgroup variations at heightened risk for GD and factors associated with GD in racial and ethnic minority groups including gambling availability, comorbid substance use, psychiatric conditions, stress, acculturation, and differences in cultural values and cognitions. We found that research of GD among minority groups is scant, and the prevalence of GD among these groups is at a magnitude of concern. Racial and ethnic minority status in it of itself is not a risk factor for GD but may be a proxy for underlying potential risk factors. The need for prevention and treatment programs for different cultural group remains unmet.

  11. Cardiovascular risk factors prevalence among patients with dyslipidemia in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Machado-Alba, Jorge E.; Grupo de investigación en fármacoepidemiología y farmacovigilancia, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Pereira, Colombia. Audifarma S. A., Pereira, Colombia. Médico cirujano, máster en fármacoepidemiología.; Machado-Duque, Manuel E.; Grupo de investigación en fármacoepidemiología y farmacovigilancia, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Pereira, Colombia. Asociación Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina de Risaralda, ACEMRIS, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Colombia. estudiante de medicina.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the ten years risk of cardio-cerebrovascular event in patients with dyslipidemia who were affiliated to the Colombian health system. Materials and methods. A retrospective study was carried out in a random and stratified sample of 551 patients with dyslipidemia, from a population of 41 201 people with lipid-lowering therapy in ten Colombian cities between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011. Sociodemographic, anthrop...

  12. Gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats - prevalence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sörensen, C.; Holm, S. A.; Thamsborg, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims were to examine prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats, based on faecal examination, in relation to geographical distribution and risk factors, and to investigate the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes in selected farms. In April 2012 all Danish goat farms......, and herds with a mean EPG>150 were offered a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). All herds were asked to complete a questionnaire about management and risk factors concerning parasites, particularly nematodes. Faecal egg counts were generally low; 2 out of 25 herds had a mean EPG>150. Herd prevalence...... of Nematodirus battus was 16%; likewise PNA‐staining revealed H. contortus in 16% of the herds (4 of 5 herds with individual EPG > 500). The overall prevalence of parasites detected by faecal examination were: Eimeria spp.100%, gastrointestinal trichostrongyles (excl. Nematodirus spp.) 66%, Trichuris ovis 36...

  13. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in employees of Brazilian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Sanches BERTASSO-BORGES

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases have been the main cause of death in Brazil and the identification of cardiovascular risk factors is crucial to effective prevention. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in employees of a University in São José do Rio Preto. This analysis was done by a study transverse and descriptive carried out from a questionnaire for the identification of cardiovascular risk factors, anthropometric measures and arterial blood pressure in employees. A total of 127 employees were assessed, being 84 (66.14% of them females. The age group most prevalent is 21 to 30 years (37%. Arterial hypertension was identified in 7.09% of the people and 17.32% of them were in the pre-hypertension range. Positive family history was reported by 82.68% of the employees. Approximately 50% of the population reported alcoholism, with prevalence in males (69.77%. The frequency of a sedentary lifestyle was high in females (73.81% and 52.76% of the total population was overweight. For females there was statistical significance for waist circumference in the analysis by age groups. Based on the results we conclude that hypertension, family history, alcoholism, overweight and a sedentary lifestyle are the main cardiovascular risk factors in this population of employees.

  14. Chronic mucus hypersecretion: prevalence and risk factors in younger individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, L; Thomsen, S F; Ingebrigtsen, T; Steffensen, I E; Skadhauge, L R; Kyvik, K O; Backer, V

    2010-08-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals. To determine prevalence, incidence and risk factors for CMH in a young general population. A cohort of Danish twins (aged 12-41 years) was prospectively examined using questionnaires in 1994 (n = 29 180) and in 2002 (n = 21 130). Prevalence and incidence of CMH were determined, and risk factors for the condition were assessed using logistic regression. Lifetime prevalence of CMH was 8.6% in females and 6.9% in males in 1994, and the cumulative incidence among females and males was respectively 10.7% and 8.7% during the study period. Smoking and asthma were risk factors for CMH, with a dose-response effect of tobacco consumption, and smoking habits also predicting incidence of CMH. Among the young, CMH is a condition related to asthma and smoking, with a dose-response relationship with tobacco consumption and a relation between smoking habits and incidence. Female susceptibility to development of CMH was observed, as well as signs of greater susceptibility related to young age.

  15. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. McLean

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s of this common disease is or are not known, and therefore prevention of the disease is not possible. Due to the multiple risk factors that have been described for feline hyperthyroidism, however, it is likely that more than one factor is involved in its pathogenesis. Continuous, lifelong exposure to environmental thyroid-disruptor chemicals or goitrogens in food or water, acting together or in an additive fashion, may lead to euthyroid goitre and ultimately to autonomous adenomatous hyperplasia, thyroid adenoma and hyperthyroidism. This review aims to summarise the available published evidence for the changes observed in the worldwide prevalence of the disease, as well as risk factors that may contribute to development of hyperthyroidism in susceptible cats.

  16. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. McLean

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s of this common disease is or are not known, and therefore prevention of the disease is not possible. Due to the multiple risk factors that have been described for feline hyperthyroidism, however, it is likely that more than one factor is involved in its pathogenesis. Continuous, lifelong exposure to environmental thyroid-disruptor chemicals or goitrogens in food or water, acting together or in an additive fashion, may lead to euthyroid goitre and ultimately to autonomous adenomatous hyperplasia, thyroid adenoma and hyperthyroidism. This review aims to summarise the available published evidence for the changes observed in the worldwide prevalence of the disease, as well as risk factors that may contribute to development of hyperthyroidism in susceptible cats.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafarnezhad M

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria is prevalent during pregnancy. It can lead to pyelonephritis, premature pregnancy and low birth weight. In this prospective study, to determine prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria, 205 consecutive pregnant women who visited our prenatal care clinic in Mirza-Koochakkhan Hospital and had no urinary symptom were entered. Patients data were recorded using a questionnaire and urine samples were obtained for urinalysis and urine culture. We analysed data by using fisher exact and chi-squared test. 14 cases had positive urine culture (6.8%. Significant correlation was seen between asymptomatic bacteriuria and age, parity, past history of kidney stone, pyelonephritis, urinary tract infection, preterm delivery and pyuria pvalue <0.05. We suggest routine urine culture in first visit of high risk and 16th week of low risk pregnancies.

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Dyslipidemia in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Ding, Xianbin; Tang, Wenge; Li, Qin; Mao, Deqiang; Wang, Yulin

    2015-10-26

    The increasing prevalence of dyslipidemia has become a worldwide public health problem, and the prevalence varies widely according to socioeconomic, cultural and ethnic characteristics. Chongqing has experienced rapid economic development and is now the economic center of Southwestern China. There are scant data on serum lipid profile of residents in Chongqing, the largest municipality directly under the Central Government in China. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a representative sample of 5375 residents of Chongqing, aged ≥18 years, and estimated the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its associated risk factors. According to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, the age-standardized prevalence of dyslipidemia was 35.5% (34.4% among men and 37.6% among women). Among the 2009 patients with dyslipidemia, 44.2% had isolated hypertriglyceridemia, 14.7% had isolated hypercholesterolemia, 13.2% had mixed hyperlipidemia, and 28.0% had isolated low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The peak prevalence of dyslipidemia in men was between 30 and 39 years (48.2%), and then declined gradually; in women, the prevalence of dyslipidemia increased with age, with the peak prevalence occurring after age 60 (46.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that dyslipidemia was associated with age, education level, physical activity, obesity and central obesity for both men and women. In conclusion, the results indicated dyslipidemia, particularly hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, are very common in Chongqing. To prevent dyslipidemia, it is essential to conduct appropriate intervention programs aimed at risk factor reduction and implement routine screening programs for blood lipid levels in Chongqing, China.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic colorectal diverticulosis in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Wei; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Tu, Ming-Shium; King, Tai-Ming; Wang, Jui-Ho; Hsu, Chao-Wen; Hsu, Ping-I; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic colorectal diverticulosis in Taiwanese general population. From January 2009 to December 2011, consecutive asymptomatic subjects undergoing a health check-up were evaluated by colonoscopy. The colorectal diverticulosis was assessed, and a medical history and demographic data were obtained from each subject. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to search the risk factors of colorectal diverticulosis. Of the 1899 asymptomatic subjects, the prevalence of colorectal diverticulosis was 13.5%. On univariate logistic regression analysis, age over 60 years old, male, adenomatous polyp, current smoking and heavy alcohol consumption were significantly associated with diverticulosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age over 60 years old (relative risk [RR], 2.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64-6.47), adenomatous polyps (RR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.18-4.61) and heavy alcohol consumption (RR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.04-3.08) were independent predictors for colorectal diverticulosis. The prevalence of asymptomatic colorectal diverticulosis was 13.5% in Taiwan. Age over 60 years old, adenomatous polyp and heavy alcohol consumption may affect the risk of development of the disease.

  20. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  1. HIV prevalence and risk factors in a Brazilian penitentiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Harnoldo Colares; Perdoná, Gleici Castro; Neves, Fátima Regina; Passos, Afonso Dinis Costa

    2007-09-01

    HIV infection among prison inmates shows one of the highest prevalence rates for specific population subgroups, reaching as high as 17% in Brazil and elsewhere in the world. The present study aimed to estimate HIV antibody prevalence and risk factors for infection in male inmates at the Ribeirão Preto Penitentiary, São Paulo State, Brazil, from May to August 2003. Using simple random sampling, 333 participants were selected, answered a standardized questionnaire, and had blood samples collected. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence were used for HIV serological diagnosis. Overall HIV prevalence among inmates was 5.7% (95%CI: 3.2-8.2). All variables associated with HIV antibodies in the univariate analysis were submitted to unconditional multivariate logistic regression. Independent predictors of HIV infection were: total prison sentence less than five years and sharing needles and syringes.

  2. Depression in Pregnancy: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul Aktas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression in pregnancy is a common psychiatric disorder affecting health of both the mother and the unborn child. The prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms during pregnancy ranges from 12% to 36%. Genetic, psychological, biological, environmental and hormonal factors comprise the predisposing factors for development of depression. Depression in pregnancy may cause such pregnancy and obstetrical complications as preterm delivery, preeclampsia, difficult birth, increased need for surgical intervention during delivery, smaller fetus compared to the gestational age, newborns with low birth weights and low apgar scores. It is also important due to its potential to increase the risk of suicide attempts and postpartum depression. Depression seen at an early period of the pregnancy affects both the mother and the fetus negatively in the long run. Therefore, early diagnosis of depression and its treatment will decrease the prospective risks for both parts. Health care staff play a key role in the early detection of the risk groups inclined to the gestational depression, in the prevention and treatment of depression. With the present work, we aimed at revising the diagnosis of the depression in pregnancy, its prevalence, risk factors for mother and fetus, its prevention and treatment during pregnancy.

  3. Prevalence of risk factors for sudden cardiac death in competitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) of which 18 were female and 11 male. Irregular heart rhythms were the most prevalent cardiac risk in both males and females with a family history of cardiovascular disease the second most prevalent amongst both males and females.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for scrub typhus in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Paul; P, Divya; Premkumar, Prasanna S; Varghese, George M

    2017-05-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors of scrub typhus in Tamil Nadu, South India. We performed a clustered seroprevalence study of the areas around Vellore. All participants completed a risk factor survey, with seropositive and seronegative participants acting as cases and controls, respectively, in a risk factor analysis. After univariate analysis, variables found to be significant underwent multivariate analysis. Of 721 people participating in this study, 31.8% tested seropositive. By univariate analysis, after accounting for clustering, having a house that was clustered with other houses, having a fewer rooms in a house, having fewer people living in a household, defecating outside, female sex, age >60 years, shorter height, lower weight, smaller body mass index and smaller mid-upper arm circumference were found to be significantly associated with seropositivity. After multivariate regression modelling, living in a house clustered with other houses, female sex and age >60 years were significantly associated with scrub typhus exposure. Overall, scrub typhus is much more common than previously thought. Previously described individual environmental and habitual risk factors seem to have less importance in South India, perhaps because of the overall scrub typhus-conducive nature of the environment in this region. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prevalence of Urinary Incontinence During Pregnancy and Associated Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Ayten

    2017-07-04

    To investigate the prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and associated risk factors. The study is a cross-sectional and descriptive study. A questionnaire was conducted with a total of 750 pregnant women about their urinary incontinence complaints between April and December 2013. The prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy was 300 in 750 (40%). Stress urinary incontinence was the most common type of incontinence during pregnancy. 41.7% of nulliparous women, 38% of primipara women, and 20.3% of multipara women experienced urinary incontinence. Among women reporting UI, 29.3% experienced leakage a few times a day and the amount of leakage was generally (59.7%) moderate. Factors significantly associated with urinary incontinence included age group, gestational age, parity, previous urinary incontinence, constipation, mode of delivery at last childbirth, previous urinary tract infection, body mass index during pregnancy. But on multivariable analysis, the risk factors for urinary incontinence during pregnancy were previous urinary tract infection (OR = 3.8, 95%CI 1.5-9.3), constipation (OR 3.1, 95%CI 1.7-5.6) and gestational age (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.9). As a result of this study, urinary incontinence is a common condition during pregnancy. Results would help the design of more intensive training programs to prevent incontinence during pregnancy by increasing the awareness about urinary incontinence of healthcare staff engaging in the care of pregnant women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Prevalence of Risk Factors Among Women With Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajic Dalibor

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a progressive bone disorder that can be influenced by many different factors. A cross-sectional study has been conducted with the aim to assess the prevalence of risk factors as well as to identify the possible causes of improvement of the disease. Th e study population consisted of 97 women older than 35 who had previously been diagnosed with osteoporosis. Dualenergy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA scan was used to determine bone mineral density (BMD in order to assess the current state of the disease. Th e participants were asked to complete a standardized IOF (International Osteoporosis Foundation questionnaire. According to BMD measurements, 24.7% of women had normal bone density while 18.6% had T-score lower than -2.5. Th ere was a statistically significant correlation between T-score and the history of previous bone fractures. Besides, a relatively high prevalence of certain risk factors (such as underweight, early menopause, oophorectomy, thyroid and parathyroid disorders etc. was observed in woman with osteoporosis

  7. [Delirium in nursing homes. Prevalence and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Rodríguez, José; Rodríguez Piñera, Marian; Ortiz Cachero, Eloy; González Alonso, Anabel; Pérez Guillén, Paloma; Jiménez Muela, Francisco Luis; Alonso Collada, Arsenio; Solano Jaurrieta, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    To study the prevalence of delirium in the residential environment and to analyse the associated clinical, functional and mental factors. A cross-sectional epidemic study was conducted on a population of elderly persons institutionalised in 2011 in 6 nursing homes in Asturias. Socio-demographic, clinical, functional (Barthel Index [BI]) and mental (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]) variables were collected. Delirium was defined by the Confusion Assessment Method. A total of 505 elderly were included in the study (age 83.30 ± 7.33 years, with 67.70% women), and scores on the MMSE of 17.19 ± 10.35 and a BI score of 55.11 ± 35.82. The prevalence of delirium was 11.70%. On examining the risk of delirium among the studied variables, there was statistical significance when considering: BI, MMSE, dementia, pressure ulcers, or urinary catheter, and the prescribing of clomethiazole, ACTH-I or trazodone. In the analysis of the variables in the logistic regression with BI, diagnosis of dementia, the prescribing of clomethiazole or trazodone, in the equation, there was a statistical significance associated with delirium. The prevalence of delirium in a residential environment in our study population was 11.7%. The results show that BI, diagnosis of dementia, and prescribing of clomethiazole or trazodone were associated with risk of delirium in institutionalised patients. Copyright © 2012 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Diabetes mellitus and oral mucosa alterations: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Alliny de Souza; Leite, Andressa Rosa Perin; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Nassar, Patrícia Oehlmeyer; Massucato, Elaine Maria Sgavioli; Orrico, Silvana Regina Perez

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of oral mucosa alterations in patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify possible risk factors related to oral mucosa alterations. 146 patients with type 2 diabetes and 111 age- and gender-matched healthy controls subjects were consecutively recruited from Araraquara School of Dentistry to answer a structured questionnaire designed to collect demographic data as well as current and former history of diabetes. Clinical examination of the oral mucosa was carried out by a stomatologist. A higher prevalence of oral mucosa alterations was found in patients with diabetes than in patients without diabetes (pdiabetes (odds ratio 9.9 IC 5.11-19.16) and smoking habit (odds ratio 3.17 IC 1.42-7.12) increased the odds of oral mucosa alterations significantly. Patients with diabetes mellitus not only showed an increased prevalence of oral mucosa alterations but also a significant percentage of potentially malignant disorders. These findings elucidate the necessity of regular clinical examination to ensure early diagnosis and prompt management of oral mucosa lesions in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for genital high-risk human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the developing countries and the seventh commonest cancer in the developed countries. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is now known to be the main factor in the aetiology of cervical cancer with over 99.7% of cases being associated with ...

  10. Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of frailty among home care clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Minna; Tiihonen, Miia; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Nykänen, Irma

    2017-11-17

    Frailty is a common problem among older people and it is associated with an increased risk of death and long-term institutional care. Early identification of frailty is necessary to prevent a further decline in the health status of home care clients. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of frailty and associated factors among 75-year-old or older home care clients. The study participants were 75-year-old or older home care clients living in three cities in Eastern and Central Finland. Home care clients who had completed the abbreviated Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (aCGA) for frailty (n = 257) were included in the present study. Baseline data were obtained on functional status, cognitive status, depressive symptoms, self-rated health, ability to walk 400 m, nutritional status, drug use and comorbidities. Most of the home care clients (90%) were screened for frailty using the aCGA. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of malnutrition or malnutrition (OR = 4.27, 95% CI = 1.56, 11.68) and a low level of education (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.07, 1.23) were associated with frailty. Frailty is a prevalent problem among home care clients. The risk of malnutrition or malnourishment and a lower level of education increase the risk of frailty. Screening for frailty should be done to detect the most vulnerable older people for further intervention to prevent adverse health problems. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02214758 .

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in Swiss laying hens, prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harisberger, M; Gobeli, S; Hoop, R; Dewulf, J; Perreten, V; Regula, G

    2011-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging concern to public health, and food-producing animals are known to be a potential source for transmission of resistant bacteria to humans. As legislation of the European Union requires to ban conventional cages for the housing of laying hens on the one hand, and a high food safety standard for eggs on the other hand, further investigations about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in alternative housing types are required. In this study, we determined antimicrobial resistance in indicator bacteria from 396 cloacal swabs from 99 Swiss laying hen farms among four alternative housing types during a cross-sectional study. On each farm, four hens were sampled and exposure to potential risk factors was identified with a questionnaire. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined using broth microdilution in Escherichia coli (n=371) for 18 antimicrobials and in Enterococcus faecalis (n=138) and Enterococcus faecium (n=153) for 16 antimicrobials. All antimicrobial classes recommended by the European Food Safety Authority for E. coli and enterococci were included in the resistance profile. Sixty per cent of the E. coli isolates were susceptible to all of the considered antimicrobials and 30% were resistant to at least two antimicrobials. In E. faecalis, 33% of the strains were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials and 40% were resistant to two or more antimicrobials, whereas in E. faecium these figures were 14% and 39% respectively. Risk factor analyses were carried out for bacteria species and antimicrobials with a prevalence of resistance between 15% and 85%. In these analyses, none of the considered housing and management factors showed a consistent association with the prevalence of resistance for more than two combinations of bacteria and antimicrobial. Therefore we conclude that the impact of the considered housing and management practices on the egg producing farms on resistance in laying hens is low. © 2010

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of malaria in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayele Dawit G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 75% of the total area of Ethiopia is malarious, making malaria the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate and the associated socio-economic, geographic and demographic factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT survey results. Methods From December 2006 to January 2007, a baseline malaria indicator survey in Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP regions of Ethiopia was conducted by The Carter Center. This study uses this data. The method of generalized linear model was used to analyse the data and the response variable was the presence or absence of malaria using the rapid diagnosis test (RDT. Results The analyses show that the RDT result was significantly associated with age and gender. Other significant covariates confounding variables are source of water, trip to obtain water, toilet facility, total number of rooms, material used for walls, and material used for roofing. The prevalence of malaria for households with clean water found to be less. Malaria rapid diagnosis found to be higher for thatch and stick/mud roof and earth/local dung plaster floor. Moreover, spraying anti-malaria to the house was found to be one means of reducing the risk of malaria. Furthermore, the housing condition, source of water and its distance, gender, and ages in the households were identified in order to have two-way interaction effects. Conclusion Individuals with poor socio-economic conditions are positively associated with malaria infection. Improving the housing condition of the household is one of the means of reducing the risk of malaria. Children and female household members are the most vulnerable to the risk of malaria. Such information is essential to design improved strategic intervention for the reduction of malaria epidemic in Ethiopia.

  14. Leg disorders in broiler chickens: prevalence, risk factors and prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby G Knowles

    Full Text Available Broiler (meat chickens have been subjected to intense genetic selection. In the past 50 years, broiler growth rates have increased by over 300% (from 25 g per day to 100 g per day. There is growing societal concern that many broiler chickens have impaired locomotion or are even unable to walk. Here we present the results of a comprehensive survey of commercial flocks which quantifies the risk factors for poor locomotion in broiler chickens. We assessed the walking ability of 51,000 birds, representing 4.8 million birds within 176 flocks. We also obtained information on approximately 150 different management factors associated with each flock. At a mean age of 40 days, over 27.6% of birds in our study showed poor locomotion and 3.3% were almost unable to walk. The high prevalence of poor locomotion occurred despite culling policies designed to remove severely lame birds from flocks. We show that the primary risk factors associated with impaired locomotion and poor leg health are those specifically associated with rate of growth. Factors significantly associated with high gait score included the age of the bird (older birds, visit (second visit to same flock, bird genotype, not feeding whole wheat, a shorter dark period during the day, higher stocking density at the time of assessment, no use of antibiotic, and the use of intact feed pellets. The welfare implications are profound. Worldwide approximately 2 x 10(10 broilers are reared within similar husbandry systems. We identify a range of management factors that could be altered to reduce leg health problems, but implementation of these changes would be likely to reduce growth rate and production. A debate on the sustainability of current practice in the production of this important food source is required.

  15. Gambling disorder: estimated prevalence rates and risk factors in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kwok-Kit

    2014-12-01

    An excessive, problematic gambling pattern has been regarded as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) for more than 3 decades (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1980). In this study, its latest prevalence in Macao (one of very few cities with legalized gambling in China and the Far East) was estimated with 2 major changes in the diagnostic criteria, suggested by the 5th edition of DSM (APA, 2013): (a) removing the "Illegal Act" criterion, and (b) lowering the threshold for diagnosis. A random, representative sample of 1,018 Macao residents was surveyed with a phone poll design in January 2013. After the 2 changes were adopted, the present study showed that the estimated prevalence rate of gambling disorder was 2.1% of the Macao adult population. Moreover, the present findings also provided empirical support to the application of these 2 recommended changes when assessing symptoms of gambling disorder among Chinese community adults. Personal risk factors of gambling disorder, namely being male, having low education, a preference for casino gambling, as well as high materialism, were identified.

  16. [Variable prevalence of allergic rhinitis and risk factors affecting the prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Öner; Elmas, Bahri

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is described as a chronic inflammation of the nasal mucosa causing rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal congestion and itching, often characterized with conjunctival injection and ocular itching. The prevalence of pediatric allergic rhinitis has recently shown a sharp increase throughout the world. However, there are significant differences among the regions, thus indicating to the influence of varying genetic and environmental factors upon the development of allergic rhinitis. This regional difference is mainly related to the 'western diet' and 'western lifestyle', with its swift changes in environmental and behavioral factors, besides a genetic predisposition. Some main and potential risk factors contributing to the development of allergic rhinitis are still unclear. In this review, we discuss mostly well known and some emerging new risk factors in the light of recent literature.

  17. Social isolation in older Malaysians: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rahimah; Abolfathi Momtaz, Yadollah; Hamid, Tengku Aizan

    2013-06-01

    Social isolation is one of the most important emerging issues among ageing populations, as it reduces well-being, health and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to identify prevalence and risk factors of social isolation in older Malaysians. The sample for this study was drawn from a national survey entitled 'Patterns of Social Relationships and Psychological Well-Being among Older Persons in Peninsular Malaysia'. Social isolation was measured with the Lubben Social Network Scale. The findings from the present study showed that 49.8% of older Malaysians are at risk for social isolation. The results of logistic regression analysis revealed that the number of sons, number of brothers, number of sisters, household size, self-rated health, place of residence, home ownership, sex and ethnicity were significantly associated with social isolation. These findings may have some implications for social and health-care policymakers in planning and developing new and effective interventions such as educational programmes to reduce social isolation among this vulnerable population. © 2013 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2013 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  18. Obesity after pediatric liver transplantation: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Shikha S; Alonso, Estella M; Zeitler, Phil; Yin, Wanron; Anand, Ravinder

    2012-12-01

    Pediatric obesity has become a significant public health concern. The historical focus in pediatric liver transplant (LT) has been undernutrition, with limited knowledge regarding obesity. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of obesity in pediatric LT, compare it to National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) data, and identify risk factors for obesity in pediatric LT. SPLIT, which collects pediatric LT data at 39 centers, was queried for subjects ages 2 to 18 years at follow-up, LT between 1995 and 2007, and with at least 1 body mass index measured 1 to 5 years after LT. Of 1706 individuals included, 44% had biliary atresia (47% boys, 58% white, mean age at LT 4.6 years). Of these individuals, 19% were obese at 1 year and 18% at 3 years, higher than in the general pediatric population reported by 2003-2004 NHANES, whereas 11% obesity at 5 years after LT was similar to NHANES data. Using logistic regression, Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-2.23), steroid use at follow-up (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.23-1.77), overweight (OR 4.34, 95% CI 2.91-6.68), and obesity (OR 10.62, 95% CI 5.9-19.65) at LT independently predicted post-LT obesity. These findings suggest a need to broaden standard care to include obesity assessment and intervention in routine pre- and posttransplant care.

  19. Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence and Risk Factors of Persons with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draheim, Christopher C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent literature on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence, CVD-related mortality, physiological CVD risk factors, and behavioral CVD risk factors in adults with mental retardation (MR). The literature on the potential influences of modifiable behavioral CVD risk factors and the physiological CVD risk factors are also…

  20. Superficial fungal infection: prevalence and risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the factors which were significantly associated with the risk of acquisition of dermatophytic infections include age of the child, past history of similar lesion, over-crowding in the home, normal sweat pattern and badly smelling socks among others. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that several risk factors are ...

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of syphilis infection among drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhlmann Thomas

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent epidemiological data show an increased trend of official estimates for syphilis infection in the general population. Many of the infected cases remain undetected leaving an underestimation of the true prevalence of syphilis in the general population, but also among subpopulations such as illicit drug users. There is limited epidemiological data published on the proportion and risk factors of syphilis infections associated with illicit drug abuse. Methods Illicit drug addicts (n = 1223 in inpatients units in Germany were screened (2000–01 for syphilis and interviewed regarding patterns of drug use and sexual behaviour. TPHA-test for initial screening and FTA-ABS-IgM test in TPHA-positive patients were used. Results In total, TPHA-tests were positive in 39 (3.3% and 7 patients (0.6% were IgM positive. The prevalence rate for syphilis in males was 1.9% and for women it was 8.5%. Female patients were 4.56 (CI 95% 2.37–8.78 times more likely to have a positive TPHA test than males. Sexual behaviours such as high number of sexual partners, sex for drugs/money, sex on the first day were associated with syphilis infection only in women. Females with frequent sex for drugs or money had 4.31 (CI 95% 2.32–8.52 times more likely a reactive TPHA test than remaining patients. Neither the sociodemographic factors nor sexual behaviour were statistically significant associated with syphilis infection among men at all. Conclusion Our data suggest the need for screening for syphilis among these illicit drug users in inpatient settings, in particular among sexual active women. This conclusion is corroborated by the finding of increasing numbers of syphilis infections in the general population. The identification of syphilis cases among drug addicts would give treatment options to these individuals and would help to reduce the spread of infection in this population, but also a spread into heterosexual populations related to

  2. Prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among tea garden and general population in Dibrugarh, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika G. Mahanta

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: High prevalence of modifiable risk factors like tobacco consumption, high salt intake and high prevalence of hypertension indicates the need for early implementation of preventive actions in this population.

  3. Overweight or Obesity prevalence, trends and risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study was to explore the prevalence of and secular trends in the rate of being overweight/obese in Rwandan women and ... an increase in those who are overweight or obese (Ministry of Health, 2011). However, little is known regarding the rate of the increase or of the causative factors. Understanding the effects of ...

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for gender based violence during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gender Based Violence (GBV) is a pervasive and systemic public health problem affecting pregnant women but there is paucity of data on the magnitude of GBV during pregnancy and the factors associated with it in Kenya, particularly in areas where the prevalence of GBV in the general population is ...

  5. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Trichomonas vaginalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR HUMPHREY

    Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 1464, Mwanza, Tanzania. Abstract. Background: Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted parasitic infection known to cause vaginitis especially in women of child bearing age. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with T. vaginalis among ...

  6. Depression in Pregnancy: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Songul Aktas; Kiymet Yesilcicek Calik

    2011-01-01

    Depression in pregnancy is a common psychiatric disorder affecting health of both the mother and the unborn child. The prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms during pregnancy ranges from 12% to 36%. Genetic, psychological, biological, environmental and hormonal factors comprise the predisposing factors for development of depression. Depression in pregnancy may cause such pregnancy and obstetrical complications as preterm delivery, preeclampsia, difficult birth, increased need for su...

  7. Association between Family Risk of Stroke and Myocardial Infarction with Prevalent Risk Factors and Coexisting Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Richard E.; Howard, George; Go, Rodney C.; Rothwell, Peter M.; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Feng, Rui; McClure, Leslie A.; Prineas, Ronald J.; Banerjee, Amitava; Arnett, Donna K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Familial transmission of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) is partially mediated by transmission of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular risk factors. We examined relationships between family risk of stroke and MI with risk factors for these phenotypes. Methods Cross-sectional association between the stratified log-rank family score (SLFS) for stroke and MI with prevalent risk factors was assessed in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. Results Individuals in the 4th quartile of SLFS scores for stroke were more likely to have prevalent risk factors including hypertension (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: [1.30, 1.58]), left ventricular hypertrophy (OR 1.42; 95% CI: [1.16, 1.42]), diabetes (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: [1.12, 1.43]) and atrial fibrillation (OR 1.23; 95% CI: [1.03, 1.45]) compared to individuals in the 1st quartile. Likewise, individuals in the 4th quartile of SLFS scores for MI were more likely to have prevalent risk factors including hypertension (OR 1.57; 95% CI: [1.27, 1.94]) and diabetes (OR 1.29; 95% CI: [1.12, 1.43]) than the 1st quartile. In contrast to stroke, the family risk score for MI was associated with dyslipidemia (OR 1.38; 95% CI: [1.23, 1.55]) and overweight/obesity (OR 1.22; 95% CI: [1.10, 1.37]). Conclusions Family risk of stroke and MI are strongly associated with the majority of risk factors associated with each disease. Family history and genetic studies separating nonspecific contributions of intermediate phenotypes from specific contributions to the disease phenotype may lead to more thorough understanding of transmission for these complex disorders. PMID:22328552

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for infantile colic in District Mansehra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazil, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Infantile colic is a common problem among infants age 3 days to 3 months. It may affect parental feelings negatively and the parents may undertake all kinds of actions to stop excessive crying. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of infantile colic and its risk factors in infants born in District Mansehra. Methods: In this prospective study, all those newborn babies were included who were born at King Abdullah Teaching Hospital Mansehra between January 1 2008 and March 31, 2008, and those newborn babies who were brought to children OPD for routine check-up and EPI centre for vaccination of this hospital during this time period. For every infant, gender, mode of delivery, gestational age at birth, birth weight, birth order, and mother's reproductive history were collected. These babies were seen at least once in a week up to 12 weeks and history from the mothers about the duration of crying and fussiness behaviour was recorded. At the end of 3 months the infants were again assessed and additional information on infant nutritional source was obtained and any medication used for colic relief was identified. Cases of colic were identified by applying Wessel criteria to recorded data. Chi-square tests were used. Results: From total 512 infants, follow-up was completed for 426 infants. In total, 90 infants (21.77%) satisfied the Wessel criteria for infantile colic. No statistical significance was found between colicky and non-colicky infants according to sex, gestational age at birth, birth weight, type of delivery, and, infant's feeding pattern. However, firstborn infants had higher rate for developing colic (p=0.03). Conclusion: Prevalence of colic was 21.77% in this infant population of District Mansehra. Except for birth order, no other variable was significantly associated with infantile colic. (author)

  9. Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenstedt, Helena; Graham, David Y; Kramer, Jennifer R; Rugge, Massimo; Verstovsek, Gordana; Fitzgerald, Stephanie; Alsarraj, Abeer; Shaib, Yasser; Velez, Maria E; Abraham, Neena; Anand, Bhupinderjit; Cole, Rhonda; El-Serag, Hashem B

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies using histology alone in select patients have suggested that Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis may be common. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori among individuals with histologic gastritis. Subjects between 40 and 80 years underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy at a VA Medical Center. Gastric biopsies were mapped from seven prespecified sites (two antrum, four corpus, and one cardia) and graded by two gastrointestinal pathologists, using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori-negative required four criteria: negative triple staining at all seven gastric sites, negative H. pylori culture, negative IgG H. pylori serology, and no previous treatment for H. pylori. Data regarding tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use were obtained by questionnaire. Of the 491 individuals enrolled, 40.7% (200) had gastritis of at least grade 2 in at least one biopsy site or grade 1 in at least two sites. Forty-one (20.5%) had H. pylori-negative gastritis; most (30 or 73.2%) had chronic gastritis, five (12.2%) had active gastritis, and six (14.6%) had both. H. pylori-negative gastritis was approximately equally distributed in the antrum, corpus, and both antrum and corpus. Past and current PPI use was more frequent in H. pylori-negative vs. H. pylori-positive gastritis (68.2% and 53.8%; P=0.06). We used multiple methods to define non-H. pylori gastritis and found it in 21% of patients with histologic gastritis. While PPI use is a potential risk factor, the cause or implications of this entity are not known.

  10. Helicobacter pylori-Negative Gastritis: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenstedt, Helena; Graham, David Y.; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Rugge, Massimo; Verstovsek, Gordana; Fitzgerald, Stephanie; Alsarraj, Abeer; Shaib, Yasser; Velez, Maria E.; Abraham, Neena; Anand, Bhupinderjit; Cole, Rhonda; El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Recent studies using histology alone in select patients have suggested that Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis may be common. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori among individuals with histologic gastritis. METHODS Subjects between 40 and 80 years underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy at a VA Medical Center. Gastric biopsies were mapped from seven prespecified sites (two antrum, four corpus, and one cardia) and graded by two gastrointestinal pathologists, using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori-negative required four criteria: negative triple staining at all seven gastric sites, negative H. pylori culture, negative IgG H. pylori serology, and no previous treatment for H. pylori. Data regarding tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use were obtained by questionnaire. RESULTS Of the 491 individuals enrolled, 40.7% (200) had gastritis of at least grade 2 in at least one biopsy site or grade 1 in at least two sites. Forty-one (20.5%) had H. pylori-negative gastritis; most (30 or 73.2%) had chronic gastritis, five (12.2%) had active gastritis, and six (14.6%) had both. H. pylori-negative gastritis was approximately equally distributed in the antrum, corpus, and both antrum and corpus. Past and current PPI use was more frequent in H. pylori-negative vs. H. pylori-positive gastritis (68.2% and 53.8%; P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS We used multiple methods to define non-H. pylori gastritis and found it in 21% of patients with histologic gastritis. While PPI use is a potential risk factor, the cause or implications of this entity are not known. PMID:23147524

  11. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and risk factors among dyspepsia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori antibody conjugated with colloid gold nitrocellulose membrane strip and a structured face-to-face interview was also administered to assess risk factors for H. pylori infection. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Logistic ...

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity among practicing nurses at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to foster healthy lifestyle is essential in health profession and pertinent to prevent obesity and future morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular metabolic risk factors. Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences (2016) 5(3), 45-55. Keywords: Obesity, overweight, risk, practicing Nurses, Kumasi ...

  13. Prevalence And Risk Factors For Human Pappiloma Virus Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Pappiloma Virus (HPV) infection is a disease of global public health importance, culminating into a high risk of cervical cancer. Most of the risk factors are modifiable, thus making HPV itself preventable. Efforts towards community HPV prevention and vaccination have not yielded the desired results, most especially ...

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of anemia in children,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristie Regine Klotz Zuffo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with anemia in children attending Municipal Early Childhood Education Day Care Center (Centros Municipais de Educação Infantil [CMEI] nurseries in Colombo-PR. Methods: Analytical, cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 334 children obtained by stratified cluster sampling, with random selection of 26 nurseries. Data collection was conducted through interviews with parents, assessment of iron intake by direct food weighing, and hemoglobin measurement using the finger-stick test. Bivariate association tests were performed followed by multiple logistic regression adjustment. Results: The prevalence of anemia was 34.7%. Factors associated with anemia were: maternal age younger than 28 years old (p = 0.03, male children (p = 0.02, children younger than 24 months (p = 0.01, and children who did not consume iron food sources (meat + beans + dark green leafy vegetables (p = 0.02. There was no association between anemia and iron food intake in CMEI. However, iron intake was well below the recommended levels according to the National Education Development Fund resolution, higher prevalence of anemia was observed in children whose intake of iron, heme iron, and nonheme iron was below the median. Conclusions: In terms of public health, the prevalence of anemia is characterized as a moderate problem in the studied population and demonstrates the need for coordination of interdisciplinary actions for its reduction in CMEI nurseries.

  15. Prevalence of amblyopia risk factors in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Noelle S; Singman, Eric L; Silbert, David I

    2010-10-01

    To determine whether children who present to an ophthalmology practice for nasolacrimal duct obstruction are more likely to have risk factors for amblyopia. A retrospective chart review was conducted on all patients presenting to a pediatric oculoplastic specialist between January 1, 2001, and August 8, 2009. The review yielded 402 pediatric patients diagnosed with nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Children were classified as having amblyopia risk factors on the basis of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus referral criteria. Of 402 patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction, 100% received a cyclopegic refraction. Of these, 88 patients (22%) were found to have amblyogenic risk factors; 65 of these patients had amblyogenic refractive errors, 9 had strabismus, and 14 had a combination of the two. Of the 88 patients with amblyopia risk factors, 11% had a family history of strabismus compared with 9% of patients without amblyopia risk factors, which was not a statistically significant difference. There was no other significant pathology found on the dilated fundus examinations except for one child known to have persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous and a congenital cataract and one child with previously known CHARGE syndrome before the examination for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Children who present with nasolacromal duct obstructions seem to be more likely to have amblyopia risk factors and therefore should have a full comprehensive pediatric ophthalmological examination, including cycloplegic refraction. Copyright © 2010 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-05

    Sep 5, 2015 ... factors for colonization with methicillin‑resistant Staphylococcus aureus at the time of hospital admission. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24:409‑14. 16. Lu PL, Chin LC, Peng CF, Chiang YH, Chen TP, Ma L, et al. Risk factors and molecular analysis of community methicillin‑resistant Staphylococcus ...

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors for HIV/AIDS among Male Inmates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and Risk Factors for HIV/AIDS among Male Inmates in Jos Prison, Plateau State, Nigeria. ... Seroprevalence among the prisoners (7%) was higher than the National median prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women in year 2006 survey. This suggests the possibility of the following risk factors. Sharing ...

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Toxoplasmosis in Middle Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retmanasari, Annisa; Widartono, Barandi Sapta; Wijayanti, Mahardika Agus; Artama, Wayan Tunas

    2017-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Risk factors include consumption of undercooked meat, raw vegetables, and unfiltered water. This study aims to determine the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of toxoplasmosis in Middle Java, Indonesia, using an EcoHealth approach, combined with geographic information system (GIS). A total of 630 participants were randomly selected from seven districts. Each participant completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 62.5%. Of those who were seropositive, 90.1% were IgG+, and 9.9% were IgG+ and IgM+. Several risk factors were identified, including living at elevations of ≤200 m, compared with >200 m (OR = 56.2; P toxoplasmosis and identified some important environmental, ecological, and demographic risk factors. When researching diseases, such as toxoplasmosis, where animal hosts, human lifestyle, and environmental factors are involved in transmission, an EcoHealth method is essential to ensure a fully collaborative approach to developing interventions to reduce the risk of transmission in high-risk populations.

  19. Prevalence of and risk factors for cranial ultrasound abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL) contribute to neonatal mortality and morbidity. Low birth weight and gestational age are among the risk factors for IVH and cPVL. Objectives. To assess how many very low birth weight (VLBW) infants had cranial ...

  20. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease in Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the developing world, including Pakistan [1]. The. 'exclusive' disease, which was once restricted to the wealthy class, is now increasingly involving people from lower socio-economic sections especially the younger age groups [2]. The risk factors of CAD, if identified at an early stage can.

  1. Chronic Post Inguinal Herniorraphy Pain: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk factors for chronic post herniorrhaphy groin pain at a tertiary urban hospital. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study using data retrieved from patient files and theatre logs was conducted. Only inguinal herniae patients 13 years and above were considered. Pain was self reported at least 3months to 2 years.

  2. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The risk factors of Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are not routinely monitored, especially among populace reporting to hospitals to detect and also advise on preventive measures, a key strategy to reducing the impact of NCDs on the Health Care System and population. Methods: A cross-sectional survey ...

  3. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and risk factors among dyspepsia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    It is also an important risk factor for the development of gastric cancer and mucosal associated lymphoid tissue. (MALT) lymphoma. Objective: The main aim ... Alcohol drinking, coffee consumption, cigarette smoking and khat ... gastric adenocarcinoma, one of world's deadliest cancers. (3, 4). Although the geographical and ...

  4. Short communication Prevalence and risk factors of bovine mastitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with great emphasis given to risk factors to reduce bovine mastitis and its impact on milk production and food ... the disease in many areas of the country including Ambo in order to support the control and prevention ... of the animals was determined based on birth records and dentition (Payne,. 1990) and grouped as young ...

  5. Chronic Post Inguinal Herniorraphy Pain: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Inguinal hernia is a common surgical condition. Whereas complications associated with hernia repair are well documented, chronic postoperative groin pain has received less attention. Objective: To review the frequency and associated risk factors for chronic post herniorrhaphy groin pain at a tertiary urban ...

  6. Prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors among staff of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim was to describe the frequency of occurrence of traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors among selected university workers in Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH) Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross‑sectional study of 206 staff of LAUTECH, Ogbomoso, Nigeria had an assessment for ...

  7. Knowledge and prevalence of risk factors for arterial hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The risk factors the bankers commonly had knowledge of are alcohol, obesity, high salt intake, certain drugs, stress, emotional problems and family history while the traffic wardens commonly had knowledge of all these in addition to cigarette smoking. Also, more bankers (32.2%) than traffic wardens (13.3%) were smoking ...

  8. Trachoma Prevalence and Risk Factors in Eight Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A regression analysis, however, showed that only access to latrine and knowledge of trachoma prevention remained significantly protective (OR < 1, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The risk factors for trachoma are endemic in the study areas, and active control measures are needed. The burden of the disease is, however, clustered ...

  9. The Prevalence of Kidney Dysfunction and Associated Risk Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic HIV infection is associated with renal complications including renal dysfunction. Risk factors found in literature for kidney disease in the HIV population include hypertension, Diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, low CD4 count, high viral load, hepatitis C virus co-infection, hypoalbuminemia, ...

  10. Suicidality among pregnant women in Brazil: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro e Couto, Tiago; Brancaglion, Mayra Yara Martins; Cardoso, Mauro Nogueira; Faria, Gustavo Coutinho; Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Aguiar, Regina Amélia Lopes P; Leite, Henrique Vitor; Corrêa, Humberto

    2016-04-01

    Suicide is one of the major causes of preventable death. We evaluated suicidality among pregnant women who participated in prenatal care in Brazil. A total of 255 patients were assessed using semi-structured interviews as well as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus. Thereafter, Stata 12 was used to identify the significant predictors of current suicide risk (CSR) among participants using univariate and multivariate analyses (p suicide attempt rate was 12.55%. The overall CSR was 23.53%, distributed across risk levels of low (12.55%), moderate (1.18%), and high (9.80%). Our rates approximate those found in another Brazilian study (18.4%). Antenatal depression (AD), lifetime bipolar disorder, and any current anxiety disorder (as measured using the MINI) as well as BDI scores ≥15 and EPDS scores ≥11 were identified as positive risk factors in a univariate analysis (p suicidality, although only the former remained an independent factor after a multivariate analysis. More than 10 years of education and EPDS scores ≥11 were also independent factors; the latter can be used as a screening tool for suicide risk.

  11. Male urinary incontinence: prevalence, risk factors, and preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamliyan, Tatyana A; Wyman, Jean F; Ping, Ryan; Wilt, Timothy J; Kane, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) in community-dwelling men affects quality of life and increases the risk of institutionalization. Observational studies and randomized, controlled trials published in English from 1990 to November 2007 on the epidemiology and prevention of UI were identified in several databases to abstract rates and adjusted odds ratios (OR) of incontinence, calculate absolute risk difference (ARD) after clinical interventions, and synthesize evidence with random-effects models. Of 1083 articles identified, 126 were eligible for analysis. Pooled prevalence of UI increased with age to 21% to 32% in elderly men. Poor general health, comorbidities, severe physical limitations, cognitive impairment, stroke (pooled OR 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-2.1), urinary tract infections (pooled OR 3.49; 95% CI, 2.33-5.23), prostate diseases, and diabetes (pooled OR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.14-1.61) were associated with UI. Treatment with tolterodine alone (ARD 0.17; 95% CI, 0.02-0.32) or combined with tamsulosin (ARD 0.17; 95% CI, 0.08-0.25) resulted in greater self-reported benefit compared with placebo. Radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy for prostate cancer compared with watchful waiting increased UI. Short-term prevention of UI with pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation after prostatectomy was not consistently seen across randomized, controlled trials. The prevalence of incontinence increased with age and functional dependency. Stroke, diabetes, poor general health, radiation, and surgery for prostate cancer were associated with UI in community-dwelling men. Men reported overall benefit from drug treatments. Limited evidence of preventive effects of pelvic floor rehabilitation requires future investigation.

  12. Social stratification, risk factor prevalence and cancer screening attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger, François; Viguier, Jérôme; Touboul, Chantal; Coscas, Yvan; Pivot, Xavier; Blay, Jean-Yves; Lhomel, Christine; Morère, Jean-François

    2015-06-01

    This analysis aimed to assess the extent to which exposure to cancer risk factors and attendance of screening programmes are influenced by social characteristics. The validated Evaluation of deprivation and health inequalities in public health centres (EPICES) index was used to measure social deprivation. A sample of the general population (N=1603) was assessed to search for potential correlations between screening attendance, risk factors and any components of the EPICES score. In 2011, 33% of the population studied was classified as 'vulnerable'. Sex had no significant impact on this rating (32% men, 35% women), whereas occupational status did. Vulnerable individuals were more likely already to have cancer (10 vs. 7%; nonsignificant difference; odds ratio 1.43 [0.98-2.10]). The mean BMI was 26.0 kg/m (SD 4.9) for the vulnerable population versus 24.8 kg/m (SD 3.9) in the nonvulnerable population (PSocial indicators of vulnerable populations are associated with increased rates of risk factors for cancer, but not with screening attendance. Our data support the previously reported marked impact of organized programmes that reduce or even remove inequalities in access to cancer screening. However, although the organized programmes have indeed enabled population-wide, nonselective access to screening, primary prevention as it stands today remains inadequate in the underserved population and further improvements are warranted.

  13. Prevalence and associated factors of cardio-metabolic risk factors in Iranian seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baygi, Fereshteh; Jensen, Olaf C; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since Iran's economy is based on the sale of petroleum products, seafaring is considered a crucial job. Little research has been done on issues related to seafarers' health in Iranian maritime industry. The present study investigated the prevalence and associated factors of cardio......-metabolic risk factors in seafarers of National Iranian Tanker Company (NITC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 234 Iranian male seafarers of NITC in 2015. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was diagnosed according to the reports of National Committee of Obesity. Three main blood parameters......S was 14.9%. The common cardio-metabolic risk factors were excess weight (51.1%), abdominal obesity (38.5%), and smoking (27.8%) among Iranian seafarers. In multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.09) and body mass index (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.27) were associated with the increase...

  14. Amblyopia prevalence and risk factors in Australian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Amy Shih-I; Rose, Kathryn A; Leone, Jody F; Sharbini, Sharimawati; Burlutsky, George; Varma, Rohit; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with amblyopia in a sample of Australian preschool children. Population-based, cross-sectional study. The Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study examined 2461 (73.8% participation) children aged between 6 and 72 months from 2007 to 2009. Visual acuity (VA) was assessed in children aged ≥ 30 months using the Electronic Visual Acuity system, and a subset using the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution chart. Amblyopia was categorized into unilateral and bilateral subtypes: Unilateral amblyopia was defined as a 2-line difference in reduced VA between the 2 eyes, in addition to strabismus, anisometropia, and/or visual axis obstruction; bilateral amblyopia was defined as bilateral reduced VA with either bilateral visual axis obstruction or significant bilateral ametropia. Information on ethnicity, birth parameters, and measures of socioeconomic status were collected in questionnaires completed by parents. Amblyopia. We included 1422 children aged 30 to 72 months, of whom 27 (1.9%) were found to have amblyopia or suspected amblyopia. Mean spherical equivalent for the amblyopic eyes was +3.57 diopters, with a mean VA of 20/50. Only 3 of the 27 amblyopic children had previous diagnoses or treatments for amblyopia. In regression analysis controlling for age, gender, and ethnicity, amblyopia was significantly associated with hyperopia (odds ratio [OR], 15.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.5-36.4), astigmatism (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 2.5-12.7), anisometropia (OR, 27.8; 95% CI, 11.2-69.3), and strabismus (OR, 13.1; 95% CI, 4.3-40.4). There were no significant associations of amblyopia with low birthweight (0.05). Amblyopia was found in 1.9% of this Australian preschool sample, which is comparable with prevalence rates reported by other recent studies in preschool children. Refractive errors, particularly significant hyperopia and astigmatism, in addition to anisometropia and strabismus, were the major amblyogenic factors

  15. Violence against women: prevalence and risk factors in Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Selma; Bolsoy, Nursen

    2017-11-03

    This study reports on a large cross-sectional study of violence against women in Turkey, and outlines the risk factors associated with intimate partner violence. The purpose of this study was to identify in order to evaluate the domestic violence against women living in Manisa and to determine the risk factors affecting this situation. We implemented a cross-sectional descriptive study in the Manisa province of Turkey. The research data were collected by using a "Women's Information Form" consisting of 32 items, and "Scale of Domestic Violence Against Women". The study was conducted with 1760 women who complied with the inclusion criteria. It was determined that score averages of 30.0% of women from the scale of domestic violence against women were above the score average of the scale (71.38 ± 10.71) and they were exposed to violence more than the others. A statistically significant difference was obtained in the statistical analysis made between score averages from the scale of domestic violence against women and such variables as age, education, employment status, social insurance, immigration status, place of residence, marital age, year of marriage of women; age, education status, employment status of husband; and whether the husband has another wife (p violence against women is high, women does not perceive many behaviors of their husbands as violence, and the most important factor leading to this situation is social status. It is believed that the results of the study will be a guidance to local authorities, formal and voluntary organizations, educational institutions, and relevant researchers in the prevention of violence against women.

  16. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2010. BRFSS land line only prevalence data. BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information about modifiable risk factors for...

  17. Population prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors: What electronic medical records tell us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantxa Catalán-Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Hypertension was the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factor in the Catalan population attended at primary care centers. About two thirds of individuals with hypertension or DM2 were adequately controlled; hypercholesterolemia control was particularly low.

  18. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in the Netherlands: birth prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.C. de; Korver, A.M.H.; Verkerk, P.H.; Rusman, L.; Claas, E.C.J.; Gerard, L.J.; Kroes, A.C.M.; Vossen, A.C.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common congenital viral infection worldwide. The sequela encountered most frequently is hearing impairment, affecting approximately one out of five infants congenitally infected. Data on the birth prevalence and risk factors of congenital CMV

  19. Chronic mucus hypersecretion: prevalence and risk factors in younger individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Lotte; Thomsen, S F; Ingebrigtsen, Truls

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals.......Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Adolescents Smoking: Difference Between Korean and Korean-Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SoonBok E. Park, RN, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: These results highlight the differences of smoking prevalence and risk factors between Korean-Chinese students and Korean students. The findings may help health educators and researchers to better understand adolescent smoking and risk factors cross culturally and aid in the development of more effective education programs, which could lead to preventing tobacco use among these populations.

  1. Prevalence of _on-invasive risk factors of type 2 diabetes among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the prevalence of selected non-invasive risk factors of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) among higher education teachers. Methods: Higher education teachers numbering 876 from three tertiary institutions in Kano, North- Western Nigeria were assessed on selected non-invasive risk factors of T2D including ...

  2. Prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of hepatitis C virus infection among drug users in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoek, J. A.; van Haastrecht, H. J.; Goudsmit, J.; de Wolf, F.; Coutinho, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence, risk factors, and incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were studied in a cohort of drug users in Amsterdam. In intravenous drug users, the seroprevalence was 74% (224/304) versus 10% (4/42) in nonintravenous drug users. Risk factors independently associated with HCV

  3. Prevalence of and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four previously reported risk factors for the development of ROP were identified for use in a multivariate logistic regression (MLR) analysis. Results. A total of 356 patients were included. The overall prevalence of ROP was 21.8% and that of clinically significant ROP (CSROP) 4.4%. The risk factors with a statistically ...

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Self-Reported Violence of Osaka and Seattle Male Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Laura; Farrington, David P.; Ueda, Mitsuaki; Hill, Karl G.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, Japan has been regarded as a country with low crime. Comparative research has given insights into the extent of similarities and differences in crime between America and Japan. The importance of these studies is the examination of whether Western-established criminological knowledge is applicable to non- Western societies like Japan. Unfortunately, comparative self-report studies involving Japan and investigating youth offending are scarce. The current study investigates risk factors and self-reports of violence from Osaka and Seattle male youths. The findings reveal that Japanese male youths self-report a higher prevalence of violence than Seattle male youths. Risk factors for violence, issues of comparability, and prevalence versus strength of relationships of risk factors are examined. It is concluded that the higher prevalence of violence in Osaka is primarily a function of the higher prevalence of troubled peers and risk taking. The findings call for replication of this type of comparative research. PMID:24013769

  5. [Prevalence of mobbing in workers and factor risk associates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Gómez, Oswaldo Sinoe

    2016-01-01

    In Mexico there is little research to know the magnitude of mobbing. To identify the prevalence of mobbing and characteristics associated in workers. A cross-sectional study of 499 workers who use medical unit. A questionnaire was used to determine the presence of mobbing and various instruments to know the personality, vulnerability to stress, self-esteem and depression. Prevalence odds ratio, dispersion, chi-square and Poisson regression were calculated. A prevalence of 36% was found; no significant differences between sex or school level in mobbing presence, 20.2%, were found. Sixty per cent women are perceived as victims of harassment high relative to men (p = 0.04). Workers with low self-esteem have a greater association with high mobbing (p mobbing and personality and emotional disorders were identified.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for schistosomiasis in a rural community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH) were 10.9%, 2.4%, 0.8% and 0.1% for Hook worm, Ascaris, Trichuris trichuria and Enterobius vermicularis respectively. Gender, source of water in school and at home, bathing/playing in the stream were significantly associated with S. hematobium infection. There is also ...

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Chicken Anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 450 serum samples were collected from commercial chicken of 25 farms in different areas in Khartoum State (210 layers and 240 broilers) in 2012. the samples were analysed for chicken anaemia virus antibodies using indirect enzyme linked immuno-sorbant assay The overall prevalence rate of CAV antibodies ...

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic malaria among under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    have resulted in significant decline of malaria incidence between 2006 and 2008 in Rwanda. (Bizimana et al., 2015). The mortality rate in children under-five years old also decreased by 61% between 2000 and 2010. The prevalence of malaria in this age group declined from 2.6% in 2007 to. 1.4% in 2010 (PMI, 2014) .

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for vaginal candidiasis among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conculsion: The high prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among women with genital infections should be taken into account when updating policies concerning syndromic management of sexually transmitted diseases. More gender specific approach to syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections in females ...

  10. Severe Family Violence and Alzheimer's Disease: Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paveza, Gregory J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined violence among 184 Alzheimer patients and their caregivers. Analysis of severe violence subscale of Conflict Tactics Scale indicated that 15.8 percent of patients had been violent in year since diagnosis; 5.4 percent of caregivers had been violent toward patient; and prevalence of violence was 17.4 percent. Variables most associated with…

  11. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and possible risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is currently one of the most common sexual dysfunctions worldwide but it is usually underestimated because it is not a life threatening condition. The associated stigma makes men who have it to suffer in silence. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of erectile ...

  12. The prevalence and risk factors of abnormal glucose tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy amongst women in the reproductive age worldwide. Abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) is common amongst women with PCOS. The prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance amongst Nigerian women with PCOS has not been investigated.

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in various populations, and is becoming a huge problem among occupational/professional groups that are perceived as preponderantly sedentary. An attendant acquisition or imposition of a lowered physical activity level and other lifestyle with such occupations may ...

  14. Original Article Studies on Prevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-20

    Dec 20, 2011 ... Exposure/ sharing of sharp objects had a prevalence of 64.0% in males compared to. 36.0% in females. DISCUSSION. In this study, 35 (18.4%) of the participants were positive for HBsAg. This figure is alarming considering the future role of these youths in the economy of a developing country like Nigeria.

  15. The Prevalence and Awareness of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Southern Chinese Population with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinrui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiometabolic risk factors significantly accelerate the progression of coronary artery disease (CAD; however, whether CAD patients in South China are aware of the prevalence of these risk factors is not clear yet. Methods. The study consisted of 2312 in-admission CAD patients from 2008 to 2011 in South China. Disease history including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes was relied on patients' self-reported records. Physical and clinical examinations were tested to assess the real prevalence of the cardiometabolic risk factors. Results. 57.9% of CAD patients had more than 3 cardiometabolic risk factors in terms of the metabolic syndrome. The self-known and real prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia were 56.6%, 28.3%, and 25.1% and 91.3%, 40.9%, and 92.0%, respectively. The awareness rates were 64.4%, 66.3%, and 28.5% for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors was significantly different among gender and among disease status. Conclusions. Most CAD patients in South China had more than three cardiometabolic risk factors. However, the awareness rate of cardiometabolic diseases was low, especially for dyslipidemia. Strategies of routine physical examination programs are needed for the early detection and treatment of cardiometabolic risk factors in order to prevent CAD progression and prognosis.

  16. The prevalence of hypertension and its modifiable risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were mostly males (65.33%), married (88.33%), and had an average age of 46.06 ± 9.62 years. The prevalence of hypertension was 21.33%; out of which 12 (75.00%) were already aware of their status, and were on appropriate therapy. Only 13 (17.33%) of the lecturers were of normal weight, 45 (60.00%) were ...

  17. Internet addiction in adolescents: prevalence and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, DJ; Van Rooij, AJ; Shorter, GW; Griffiths, MD; Van de Mheen, D

    2013-01-01

    As new media are becoming daily fare, Internet addiction appears as a potential problem in adolescents. From the reported negative consequences, it appears that Internet addiction can have a variety of detrimental outcomes for young people that may require professional intervention. Researchers have now identified a number of activities and personality traits associated with Internet addiction. This study aimed to synthesise previous findings by (i) assessing the prevalence of potential Inter...

  18. Prevalence and associated risk factors of ante-partum hemorrhage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-09

    Oct 9, 2011 ... and APH. Results: The overall prevalence of APH among Arab women residing in Qatar was 15.3% with 6.7% among Qatari's and. 8.6% among .... Intermediate. 141 (8.8). Primary and below. 280 (17.4). Occupation. House wife. 975 (60.6). Sedentary/professional. 443 (27.5). Police/army/manual. 190 (11.8).

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for foot and ankle musculoskeletal disorders experienced by nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Lloyd F; Battistutta, Diana; Young, Jeanine; Newman, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Background Nurses are at high risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Although the prevalence of MSDs of the lower back, upper limbs, neck and shoulders have been reported previously in nursing, few studies have evaluated MSDs of the foot and ankle. This study evaluated the prevalence of foot and ankle MSDs in nurses and their relation to individual and workplace risk factors. Methods A self-administered survey incorporating the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was distributed, ov...

  20. Risk factors associated with high prevalence rates of hepatitis C infection in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reker, Celeste; Islam, K M

    2014-08-01

    Egypt has the highest reported prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) globally. Until now, no systematic review has been conducted to understand risk factors associated with these high prevalence rates of HCV. This study attempted to identify the various HCV risk factors in Egypt responsible for the high incidence and prevalence rates. Using systematic literature review methods, we searched databases for eligible manuscripts, selecting cohort and case-control studies published in English. Peer-reviewed papers published between 2008 and February 2013 were included. A total of 11 articles met the study selection criteria. The most examined risk factors found during our review analysis were surgery, transfusion, and age (64-82% of total articles; n = 11). Multiple risk factors held significant association with HCV infection in the included research. Based on this review, the main HCV risk factor categories are unsafe medical practices and familial risk factors. Improving medical safety and encouraging familial education on HCV may help reduce the incidence of the disease. Most risk factors for HCV transmission in Egypt are healthcare-associated. Primary prevention of HCV infection remains important to reduce HCV transmission. Further research should also focus on risk factor dynamics of HCV in Egypt to reduce transmission and HCV disease burden. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolic syndrome: prevalence and risk factors in Korean gout patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hyun; Song, Gwan Gyu; Ji, Jong Dae; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Young Ho; Choi, Sung Jae

    2016-10-12

    We performed this study to investigate associations between metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and gout. We reviewed the medical records of 151 patients with gout at the Department of Rheumatology in Korea University Ansan Hospital. The following measures were examined: waist circumference, blood pressure, alcohol consumption, and levels of triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting serum glucose, serum uric acid (SUA), creatinine, insulin, and C-peptide. We assessed metabolic syndrome by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and renal function by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation; patients were classified according to World Health Organization Asia-Pacific obesity criteria. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in gout patients (50.8%) was higher than in non-gout patients. The mean SUA level was significantly higher in gout patients with metabolic syndrome (9.13 ± 3.15 mg/dL) than in gout patients without metabolic syndrome (8.14 ± 2.07 mg/dL). The mean SUA level was also significantly higher in patients with gout and CKD (9.55 ± 2.86 mg/dL) than in patients with gout but no CKD (7.74 ± 2.27 mg/dL). In gout patients, HOMA-IR was positively correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.409, p = 0.001). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with gout was 50.8%, which is higher than the prevalence in the general Korean population. Hyperuricemia in gout patients was correlated with metabolic syndrome and CKD. Insulin resistance may provide clues to better understand the relationship between metabolic syndrome, CKD, and gout.

  2. Prevalence and associated factors of cardio-metabolic risk factors in Iranian seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baygi, Fereshteh; Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    Background: Since Iran’s economy is based on the sale of petroleum products, seafaring is considered a crucial job. Little research has been done on issues related to seafarers’ health in Iranian maritime industry. The present study investigated the prevalence and associated factors of cardio......-metabolic risk factors in seafarers of National Iranian Tanker Company (NITC). Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 234 Iranian male seafarers of NITC in 2015. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was diagnosed according to the reports of National Committee of Obesity. Three main blood parameters......S was 14.9%. The common cardio-metabolic risk factors were excess weight (51.1%), abdominal obesity (38.5%), and smoking (27.8%) among Iranian seafarers. In multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01–1.09) and body mass index (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01–1.27) were associated with the increase...

  3. The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the severity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    safety gear (4 ounce or 113.4g gloves, mouth guard and groin protector). Fights take place in a three m2 hexagon/ring fenced in area. This area has a 2.5 cm padded ..... evidence proving that it contributes to the prevention of concussion, and, paradoxically, it may even encourage fighters to take greater risks. Repeated ...

  4. Overweight or obesity prevalence, trends and risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using multivariable logistic regression analysis in the full model, the area of residence, wealth, religion and the number of household members were found to be significantly associated with being overweight/obese. In the adjusted model only the first three of these were still associated with a significantly increased risk.

  5. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in a semi-urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of high blood pressure and other associated cardiovascular risk factors in a semi-urban Nigerian community ... A detailed questionnaire was administered to the subjects to ascertain their risk levels consequent upon life style and genetic disposition. Anthropometric parameters, systolic blood pressure (SBP) ...

  6. The prevalence, clinical features, risk factors and outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %), neck stiffness 76 (69%) and weight loss 53 (48%). Factors independently associated with CM were male sex, headache, blurred vision and previous antifungal drug use. Night sweats and current use of anti-retroviral therapy were ...

  7. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2011 to 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to 2012. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  8. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  9. Cross-National Prevalence and Risk Factors for Suicidal Ideation, Plans, and Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Matthew K.; Borges, Guilherme; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Beautrais, Annette; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José; Williams, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Suicide is a leading cause of death world-wide; however, the prevalence and risk factors for the immediate precursors to suicide: suicidal ideation, plans and attempts, are not well-known, especially in developing countries. Aims To report on the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behaviors across 17 countries. Method 84,850 adults were interviewed regarding suicidal behaviors and socio-demographic and psychiatric risk factors. Results The cross-national lifetime prevalence (standard error) of suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts is 9.2% (0.1), 3.1% (0.1), and 2.7% (0.1). Across all countries, 60% of transitions from ideation to plan and attempt occur within the first year after ideation onset. Consistent cross-national risk factors included being: female, younger, less educated, unmarried, and having a mental disorder. Interestingly, the strongest diagnostic risk factors were mood disorders in developed countries but impulse-control disorders in developing countries. Conclusion Despite cross-national variability in prevalence, there is strong consistency in the characteristics of and risk factors for suicidal behaviors. These findings have significant implications for the prediction and prevention of suicidal behaviors. PMID:18245022

  10. Prevalence of Coronary Risk Factors among Population Aged 35 Years and Above From Rural Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is predicted that cardiovascular diseases will be the most important cause of mortality in India by the year 2015. Since the key to combating the increased incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD is the control of known risk factors by a population based strategy aimed at comprehensive risk reduction, it is pertinent to study the magnitude of the risk. Aim: The present study was therefore conducted to assess the prevalence of certain coronary risk factors among rural population aged 35 years and above in Maharashtra. Methods: The present community based cross sectional survey was carried out in the rural area of Pune district on 272 subjects using a structured questionnaire, clinical examination followed by lab investigations. SPSS version 17.0 was used for analysis. Results: Tobacco consumption was found to be prevalent in 51.83% of the study subjects followed by physical inactivity which was prevalent among 31.61% whereas high diastolic blood pressure was found to be prevalent in 29.41% of the study subjects. Obesity and alcohol consumption were found to be prevalent among 13.97% of the study subjects. Among the biochemical parameters studied, hypertriglyceridemia was found to be prevalent in 22.05% followed by raised fasting blood sugar in 15.44% of the study subjects. Conclusion: Behaviour change communication strategies targeting these modifiable known high risk factors need to be emphasized to lower coronary heart disease (CHD related morbidity burden in the community.

  11. Prevalence of cancer risk factors among women radiologists and radiology assistants in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samerdokiene, V.; Kurtinaitis, J.; Atkocius, V. and others

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study potential cancer risk factors among radiologists and non-radiologists in Lithuania. Cancer risk factors were investigated among female medical staff at the departments of ionizing (243, 33.33%) and non-ionizing environment (486, 66.67%). The questionnaire covered the diet, lifestyle, reproductive factors as well as the demographic and physical characteristics. Univariate analysis was done separately for physicians and nurses. Each of risk factors was evaluated in stratified analysis for unequal ORs using Mantel-Haenszel estimate control for age and occupation. Evaluation of features of risk factors among radiologists vs. non-radiologists has shown that smoking was most the prevalent risk factor among radiologists and radiology assistants. Despite the relatively low prevalence, the questionnaire data showed the higher frequency of smoking among radiologists (OR = 2.78, 95% CI 1.12-6.87) and radiology assistants (OR = 2.25, 95% 1.38-3.66) compared to non-radiologists. The prevalence of non-users and occasional users was 74% to 66%, respectively. Alcohol use by smoking among radiologists was influenced insignificantly. The cohort of radiologists in Lithuania offer an opportunity for obtaining direct observational evidence on health effects associated with chronic low-dose radiation exposure. The data on possible cancer risk factors can be helpful for validation of the risks in future. (author)

  12. Erectile dysfunction: prevalence, risk factors and involvement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The present review indicates the need for research to unravel the role of β-blockers in the manifestation of ED in hypertensive males, whom there are no contributory factors such as sedentary lifestyle, aging, stress and anxiety, etc. Keywords: Hypertension, Antihypertensive drugs, β-Blockers, Propranolol, ...

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of erectile dysfunction in Niger delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    the increasing difficulty in management, knowledge, and understanding of factors responsible for its development are ... men with ED and enhance positive attitude to care. Methods. Study area. This study was carried out at the University of Uyo. Teaching Hospital located on the ... brief, reliable and valid self-administered.

  14. The prevalence of hypertension and its modifiable risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... Awareness of high blood pressure status, treatment and control in a rural community in Edo State. Niger J Clin. Pract 2007;10:208-12. 20. Amira CO, Okubadejo NU. Factors influencing non-compliance with antihypertensive drug therapy in Nigerians. Niger Postgrad Med J 2007;14:325-9. 21. Brisibe SF ...

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Wheeze in Dutch Infants in Their First Year of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Chantal A. N.; Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Eggink, Jenny; Brand, Paul L. P.

    Factors operating in the first year of life are critical in determining the onset and persistence of wheezing in preschool children. This study was designed to examine the prevalence and risk factors of wheeze in the first year of life in Dutch infants. This was a population-based survey of

  16. Prevalence of and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration in a multiethnic Asian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Tai, E Shyong; Kawasaki, Ryo; Tay, Wan Ting; Lee, Jeannette L; Hamzah, Haslina; Wong, Tien Y

    2012-04-01

    To describe the prevalence of and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a multiethnic Asian cohort of Chinese, Malay, and Indian persons. In this population-based study, 3172 persons of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicities 40 years and older were included. Participants underwent comprehensive systemic and ocular examination, retinal photography, and laboratory investigations. Early and late AMD signs were graded from retinal photographs. Age-standardized prevalence estimates were calculated using the 2010 Singapore adult population as the standard population. Association with a range of systemic risk factors was analyzed. Of 3172 participants, AMD was present in 211 subjects. Age-standardized prevalence of AMD was 7.0% in persons 40 years and older. The age-standardized prevalence was similar in all 3 Asian ethnic groups: Chinese, 7.3%; Malay, 7.7%; and Indian, 5.7% (P value = .44). The prevalence increased with age and was higher in men. Of the range of risk factors evaluated, only myopic refractive error (Chinese men. The prevalence of AMD was similar in the 3 major ethnic groups in Asia and comparable with white populations. Myopic refractive error was associated with reduced risk of AMD in Chinese men.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for urinary incontinence in healthy pregnant Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Gisele; Soler, Zaida A S G; Cordeiro, José Antônio; Amaro, João Luiz; Moore, Katherine N

    2010-10-01

    Physiological and anatomical changes of pregnancy are risk factors for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for urinary incontinence (UI) in healthy pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in pregnant Brazilian women who enrolled in the primary health-care system in Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Brazil. Face-to-face interview and completion of two-part questionnaire were administered and done which evaluated the presence of LUTS pre- and during pregnancy. The data were analyzed by logistic regression. Five hundred pregnant women were enrolled ranging from first to third trimester. LUTS present in 63.8% in these women; the main associated risk factors were multiparity and prepregnancy LUTS as well as smoking, constipation, and daily coffee intake. The prevalence of UI during pregnancy is high, highlighting the presence of the risk factors associated with UI during pregnancy.

  18. Sexual risk among orphaned adolescents: is country-level HIV prevalence an important factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Gregson, Simon; Garnett, Geoff P

    2010-08-01

    Previous studies from sub-Saharan Africa have found that orphans experience increased sexual risk compared to non-orphans. We developed a theoretical framework for the investigation of determinants of HIV risk and used it to generate specific hypotheses regarding the effect of country-level HIV prevalence on the sexual risk experience of orphans. We expected that countries with high HIV prevalence would experience a higher prevalence of orphanhood. We further hypothesised that orphans in countries with high HIV prevalence would experience increased sexual risk, compared to non-orphans, due to pressure on the extended family network, which is primarily responsible for the care of orphans in sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in poorer standards of care and guidance. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to investigate this hypothesis using cross-sectional, Demographic and Health Survey data from 10 sub-Saharan African countries. We found that countries with high HIV prevalence did indeed have higher prevalence of orphanhood. We also found that, amongst female adolescents, maternal and double orphans were significantly more likely to have started sex than non-orphans in countries with high HIV prevalence but were not at increased risk in low HIV prevalence countries. This effect of country-level HIV prevalence on the sexual risk of orphans was not explained by household level factors such as wealth, overcrowding or age of the household head. The same pattern of risk was not observed for male adolescents - male orphans were not more likely to have started sex than non-orphans. This suggests that orphaned adolescent women are an important target group for HIV prevention and that efforts should be made to integrate prevention messages into existing support programmes for orphans and vulnerable children.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of asthma in mainland China: The CARE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiangtao; Wang, Wenya; Chen, Ping; Zhou, Xin; Wan, Huanying; Yin, Kaisheng; Ma, Lijun; Wu, Changgui; Li, Jing; Liu, Chuntao; Su, Nan; Liu, Guoliang; Xie, Hua; Tang, Wei; Huang, Mao; Chen, Yan; Liu, Yuanhua; Song, Liqiang; Chen, Xianliang; Zhang, Yongming; Li, Wen; Sun, Lichao

    2018-04-01

    There are limited population based data on the prevalence of asthma in China. The China Asthma and Risk factors Epidemiologic (CARE) survey was designed to understand the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in mainland China. The CARE survey aims to demonstrate the prevalence and risk factors of asthma in mainland China among adolescents (age >14 years) and adults. The survey was performed between February 2010 and August 2012 in eight provinces/cities of seven areas in mainland China. The inhabitants (age, >14 years) recruited in this survey were through multi-stage cluster random sampling. Asthma diagnosis was based on medical history and lung function tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyzed the risk factors for asthma. The study included 164 215 subjects (men, 79 692 [48.53%]; women, 84 523 [51.47%]). 2034 (1.24%) were asthmatic patients. Among all asthmatic patients, 521 (25.61%) were newly diagnosed. Univariable regression analysis showed that risk factors for asthma included smoking, first-degree relatives with asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, COPD, pollinosis, allergic pneumonia, concomitant allergic diseases, BMI and raising pets. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that asthma risk factors included women, age stratification, smoking, first-degree relatives suffering from asthma or pollinosis, combined with allergic rhinitis, eczema or GERD. We speculated that the prevalence of asthma is increasing in mainland China among individuals aged >14 years in the past 10 years. A number of risk factors were identified. The risk factors of asthma would be further elucidated in our future work. Our CARE study highlights that asthma epidemic in mainland China should be paid more attention. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Caries prevalence and risk factors among children aged 0 to 36 months

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana Paula Pires dos; Soviero, Vera Mendes

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries and risk factors in outpatients of the Pediatric Ambulatory of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital aging up to 36 months. After signing informed consent forms, the parents answered a structured questionnaire in order to evaluate risk factors for dental caries, including socioeconomic status, oral hygiene and dietary habits. A single investigator carried out the dental examination which assessed the presence of caries, biofilm and ...

  1. Prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors among staff of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintunde, A A; Salawu, A A; Opadijo, O G

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to describe the frequency of occurrence of traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors among selected university workers in Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH) Nigeria. A cross-sectional study of 206 staff of LAUTECH, Ogbomoso, Nigeria had an assessment for nine traditional CV risk factors. Demographic and clinical parameters were taken. Blood sample was taken to determine the random blood sugar and lipid profile. 12-lead resting electrocardiography (ECG) was done for all participants. Statistical analysis was performed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 (Chicago Ill., USA) Results: The study population included 96 males (46.6%) and 110 females. The mean age was 45.3 ± 7.9 years (range 27-73 years). The prevalence of CV risk factors were as follows: Hypertension 84 (40.8%), visceral obesity 92 (44.7%), generalized obesity 79 (38.3%), low high density lipoprotein 113 (54.9%), impaired blood glucose 16 (7.8%), diabetes mellitus 3 (1.5%), hypercholesterolemia 102 (49.5%), left ventricular hypertrophy-ECG 24 (11.7%), elevated low density lipoprotein-cholesterol 99 (48.1%). About - (72.3%) had two or more CV risk factors clustered together. Females had a higher prevalence of CV risk factors and its clusters than their male counterparts. Of those diagnosed with hypertension in this study, more than half had never been told they were hypertensive 48 (57.1%). This study suggests a very high prevalence of CV risk factors among University Staff in LAUTECH, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Clustering of CV risk factors is more prevalent among women. Appropriate preventive strategy in terms of education and modification of risk factors are important to reduce the burden of CV diseases among this population.

  2. Postnatal depressive symptoms among Pacific mothers in Auckland: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max W; Williams, Maynard M

    2006-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of and risk factors for postnatal depressive symptoms in a cohort of mothers of Pacific Island infants in Auckland, New Zealand. The data were gathered as part of the Pacific Island Families Study, in which 1376 mothers were interviewed when their babies were 6 weeks old. The interview included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). 16.4% of mothers were assessed as probably experiencing depression. Prevalence rates varied from 7.6% for Samoans to 30.9% for Tongans. In addition to ethnicity, risk factors identified by stepwise multiple logistic regression included low Pacific Island acculturation, first birth, stress due to insufficient food, household income less than dollar 40,000, difficulty with transport, dissatisfaction with pregnancy, birth experience, baby's sleep patterns, partner relationship and home. A large prevalence difference between Tongans and other groups remained when the effects of other risk factors were controlled statistically. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among Pacific mothers is at the upper end of the range typically reported. Focus on the overall rate, however, obscures substantial variation between groups. Risk factors are generally similar to those identified in previous research. The findings have implications for prevention and treatment and caution against assuming homogeneity within ethnic categories. Further research is required to explain differences in prevalence between Tongan and other Pacific Island groups.

  3. High prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in young employees of Information Technology industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Tejas Y; Kulkarni, Ravindra L; Deokar, Manisha R; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the burden of cardiometabolic risk factors in Information Technology (IT) employees as they are exposed to adverse lifestyle. In this cross-sectional study, health records were obtained from two IT industries in Pune. Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors [hyperglycemia, high blood pressure (BP), hypertriglyceridemia, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and overweight/obesity] was determined using standard cutoffs. We also examined clustering of risk factors (≥two risk factors). Data were available on 1,350 of 5,800 employees (mean age: 33 ± 6 years, 78% men). Prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was 2.5% and 13.5%, respectively. Prevalence of prediabetes, borderline high BP, hypertriglyceridemia, high LDL-cholesterol, low HDL-cholesterol, and overweight/obesity was 6.5%, 20.3%, 21%, 22.1%, 70.1%, and 51.4%, respectively. Risk factor clustering was observed in 63.5% that increased with age (P < 0.001). Given the high burden of risk factors at relatively young age, spreading awareness and promoting healthy lifestyle through workplace interventions are warranted.

  4. High prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in young employees of Information Technology industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Tejas Y.; Kulkarni, Ravindra L.; Deokar, Manisha R.; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman

    2016-01-01

    Background: We assessed the burden of cardiometabolic risk factors in Information Technology (IT) employees as they are exposed to adverse lifestyle. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, health records were obtained from two IT industries in Pune. Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors [hyperglycemia, high blood pressure (BP), hypertriglyceridemia, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and overweight/obesity] was determined using standard cutoffs. We also examined clustering of risk factors (≥two risk factors). Results: Data were available on 1,350 of 5,800 employees (mean age: 33 ± 6 years, 78% men). Prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was 2.5% and 13.5%, respectively. Prevalence of prediabetes, borderline high BP, hypertriglyceridemia, high LDL-cholesterol, low HDL-cholesterol, and overweight/obesity was 6.5%, 20.3%, 21%, 22.1%, 70.1%, and 51.4%, respectively. Risk factor clustering was observed in 63.5% that increased with age (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Given the high burden of risk factors at relatively young age, spreading awareness and promoting healthy lifestyle through workplace interventions are warranted. PMID:27390483

  5. Prevalence, risk factors, and problems associated with dating violence: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Rey Anacona, César Armando

    2009-01-01

    The physical, psychological and sexual violence among the couples of adolescents and young adults that are not married neither cohabiting (well-known generally as “dating violence”), has been object of a vast number of investigations in the last two decades that show a high prevalence inside the adolescent and juvenile population. The objective of this work was to carry out an analysis of the literature in connection with the prevalence, risk factors and difficulties associated with this part...

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Yin, Chunyan; Chang, Ming; Xiao, Yanfeng

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and the risk factors associated with obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an city. The body mass index of 6,740 children aged 7-18 years was compared with the Working Group on Obesity in China cut-off value to estimate the prevalence of obesity. A case-control study of obese and non-obese children was carried out to study risk factors for obesity. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors causing obesity. Univariate analysis was performed first to compare the distribution of risk factors between cases and controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent risk factors of obesity. The results showed that the overall prevalence of obesity among school-aged children was 4.11% (4.63% for males and 3.57% for females). A total of 516 subjects (258 pairs of cases and controls) were included in the final analysis. High maternal education and a longer sleeping time were shown to be protective factors against obesity (odds ratio [OR] 0.148, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.074-0.296 and OR 0.472, 95% CI 0.342-0.652, respectively). Whereas family history of diabetes (OR 5.498, 95% CI 2.606-11.600), parental overweight (OR 3.720, 95% CI 2.068-6.689), and watching television, playing video games, and using computers (OR 1.564, 95% CI 1.133-2.159) were associated with a higher obesity risk. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Xi'an has become a concern, and sleeping time, sedentary behavior, and family factors have pronounced effects on the prevalence of obesity.

  7. Prevalence and risk factor analysis of lower extremity abnormal alignment characteristics among rice farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karukunchit U

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Usa Karukunchit,1,2 Rungthip Puntumetakul,1,3 Manida Swangnetr,1,4 Rose Boucaut5 1Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH, 2Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, 3School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, 4Department of Production Technology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 5School of Health Sciences (Physiotherapy, iCAHE (International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Rice farming activities involve prolonged manual work and human–machine interaction. Prolonged farming risk-exposure may result in lower limb malalignment. This malalignment may increase the risk of lower extremity injury and physical disabilities. However, the prevalence and factors associated with lower extremity malalignment have not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of lower extremity malalignment among rice farmers.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 249 rice farmers. Lower extremity alignment assessment included: pelvic tilt angle, limb length equality, femoral torsion, quadriceps (Q angle, tibiofemoral angle, genu recurvatum, rearfoot angle, and medial longitudinal arch angle. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze participant characteristics and prevalence of lower extremity malalignment. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors.Results: The highest prevalence of lower extremity malalignment was foot pronation (36.14%, followed by the abnormal Q angle (34.94%, tibiofemoral angle (31.73%, pelvic tilt angle (30.52%, femoral antetorsion (28.11%, limb length inequality (22.49%, tibial torsion (21.29%, and genu recurvatum (11.24%. In females, the risk factors were abnormal Q angle, tibiofemoral angle, and genu recurvatum. Being overweight

  8. Women in Saudi Arabia and the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, Mashael K; Filippidis, Filippos T; Baldove, Juren P; Majeed, Azeem; Rawaf, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Background . Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in Saudi Arabia. Saudi women in particular are more susceptible as there are sociocultural restrictions on female physical activities that may lead to high prevalence of CVD risks, especially obesity, and physical inactivity. This study aims to systematically review the published articles related to the prevalence of CVD risk among women in Saudi Arabia. The search strategy covers all published articles that assess the risk factor of CVD in Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to December 2015, using the following sources: Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. A total of 61 studies were included. Results. Prevalence among Saudi women of smoking ranged from 1.1% to 9.1%, hypertension was 21.8%, diabetes ranged from 9.6% to 27.6%, overweight was 27%, and obesity was 40.23%, and physical inactivity ranged from 53.2% to 98.1%. Hypercholesterolemia prevalence on Saudi women on average was 24.5%, while metabolic syndrome ranged from 13.6% to 40.3%. Conclusion . The prevalence of CVD risk factors is high among women in Saudi Arabia especially in obesity and physical inactivity. Public health authorities must implement solutions from a gender specific aspect to reverse the trend and decrease the prevalence of CVDs among Saudi women.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Sachiko; Yaeko, Kataoka; Porter, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy can result in adverse outcomes for both mothers and their infants. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of IPV associated with abuse during pregnancy via a self-administered questionnaire completed by 302 healthy pregnant women. Demographic information was also collected from medical records to analyze risk factors for abuse. Of the 302 women, 48 (15.9%) were identified as experiencing IPV. The identified risk factors were age over 30, multipara, previous abortion experience, and male partner aged under 30.

  10. [Prevalence and risk factors associated with postpartum depression in puerperal women consulting in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Póo F, Ana María; Espejo S, Claudio; Godoy P, Claudia; Gualda de la C, Micaela; Hernández O, Tamara; Pérez H, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    Mood disorders are common in Chile. Among these, post partum depression (PPD) deranges the maternal and family relationships. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with PPD in puerperal women in Temuco, Chile. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was administered to 73 puerperal women aged 15 to 32 years, between 40 to 45 days after delivery. To detect risk factors, 20 women with and 20 women without post partum depression (PPD) were interviewed and their clinical records were reviewed to assess their perinatal care. The prevalence of PPD in the whole sample was 50.7%. The individual psychological risk factors detected were a feeling of discomfort with their body after giving birth, a personal history of mental health problems and a high level of overload associated to child care. An individual physical risk factor was alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Family risk factors were a poor relationship with the father of the child during pregnancy, a history of mental health problems in close family members, a history of family violence and a poor relationship with parents during puerperium. Having more children was a sociodemographic risk factor. Post partum depression is common. The characterization of risk factors should lead to the implementation of preventive strategies.

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of nine established cardiovascular risk factors in a southern European population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alves

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the gender-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors across socioeconomic position (SEP categories may unravel mechanisms involved in the development of coronary heart disease. Using a sample of 1704 community dwellers of a Portuguese urban center aged 40 years or older, assessed in 1999-2003, we quantified the age-standardized prevalence of nine established cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, sedentariness, abdominal obesity, poor diet, excessive alcohol intake and depression across SEP and gender categories. Data on individual education and occupation were collected by questionnaire and used to characterize SEP. The prevalence of seven out of nine well-established risk factors was higher in men. Among women, the prevalence of most of the studied risk factors was higher in lower SEP groups. The main exception was smoking, which increased with education and occupation levels. Among men, socioeconomic gradients were less clear, but lower SEP was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes, excessive alcohol intake and depression in a graded mode. The historical cultural beliefs and practices captured throughout the lifecourse frame the wide socioeconomic gradients discernible in our study conducted in an unequal European developed population. While men were more exposed to most risk factors, the clearer associations between SEP and risk factors among women support that their adoption of particular healthy behaviors is more dependent on material and symbolic conditions. To fully address the issue of health inequalities, interventions within the health systems should be complemented with population-based policies specifically designed to reduce socioeconomic gradients.

  12. Effects of dietary habits and risk factors on allergic rhinitis prevalence among Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamay, Zeynep; Akcay, Ahmet; Ergin, Ahmet; Guler, Nermin

    2013-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a global health problem affecting many people from childhood to adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of AR and related symptoms, and to assess the risk factors, dietary habits and the Mediterranean diet affecting AR. In a cross-sectional study design, 9991 children, aged 13-14 years in 61 primary schools in 32 districts of Istanbul were evaluated. The prevalence of AR symptoms among the children was evaluated using the ISAAC protocol. In our study, total of 10,984 questionnaires were distributed to 13-14yr-old schoolchildren to 61 schools in 32 district of Istanbul and 9991 questionnaires were suitable for analysis with an overall response of 91.7%. The rates of lifetime rhinitis, rhinitis in last 12 months and lifetime doctor diagnosed AR prevalence were 53.5%, 38.3% and 4.5%, respectively. The variation among districts in the prevalence of doctor diagnosed AR was very high. The highest prevalence was about 10 times higher than in the district with the lowest prevalence (range: 1.4-14.5) of Istanbul. A family history of atopy, mother with a university degree, presence of cat at home during last 12 months and adenoidectomy were significant for increased doctor diagnosed AR risk. Additionally, although fish and other sea foods, fermented drinks made from millets and various seeds, animal fats and butter were independent risk factors for doctor diagnosed AR, fish oil and hamburger were protective foods for doctor diagnosed AR. The MD was not associated with the prevalence of doctor diagnosed AR. This study shows that that there are wide variations for the prevalence of AR related symptoms in 13-14yr-old schoolchildren among districts of Istanbul in Turkey. Socio-economical, environmental factors, some dietary habits, but not Mediterranean diet may affect the prevalence of AR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Bangladesh: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatema, Kaniz; Zwar, Nicholas Arnold; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Ali, Liaquat; Rahman, Bayzidur

    2016-01-01

    Given the rising incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Bangladesh, an improved understanding of the epidemiology of CVD risk factors is needed. Therefore, we reviewed published studies on CVD modifiable risk factors e.g., Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), hypertension (HTN), dyslipidemia and smoking as well as studies on CVDs and conducted a meta-analysis of risk factors and disease prevalence. We searched the GLOBAL HEALTH, MEDLINE, EMBASE 'BanglaJol' databases for all studies in English on CVDs and its associated modifiable risk factors. Random effects meta-analysis methods were used to estimate pooled prevalence. There were 74 eligible studies (outcome: T2DM = 32, HTN = 24, dyslipidaemia = 8 and smoking = 25; CVDs = 10). Due to high between study heterogeneity (p 95%) in the prevalence of CVD risk factors, we presented median and interquartile range (IQR) instead of the pooled estimates as the summary measures. Median (IQR) prevalence of T2DM, HTN, dyslipidemia and smoking were 5.9% (1.97%-8.25%); 15.1% (10.52%-17.60%); 34.35% (10.66%-48.50%) and 40.56% (0.80%-55.95%), respectively. The prevalence of T2DM and dyslipidemia were significantly higher in urban compared to rural populations (13.5 vs 6%, purban areas. Ageing of the population may be a factor but urbanization seems to have an influence, possibly related to changes in dietary and physical activity patterns. Further research, in particular longitudinal studies, is needed to explore the complex interaction of these factors and to inform policies and programs for the prevention and management of CVDs in Bangladesh.

  14. Metabolic syndrome among urban Indian young adults: prevalence and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, Dinaker; Uthappa, Chengapp Kechamada; Kattula, Sri Rama; Allam, Ramesh Reddy; Chava, Nalini; Oruganti, Ganesh

    2014-09-01

    We estimated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among urban Indian young adults (18-25 years) as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), Internation Diabetes Federation (IDF), and Indian consensus statement criteria. We included 473 urban young adults through simple random sampling methodology to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated to be 3.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-5.8], 6.6% (95% CI 4.6-9.1), and 8.7% (95% CI 6.4-11.6) using the NCEP ATP III, IDF, and Indian consensus statement criteria, respectively. Men had significantly higher waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides, whereas mean concentrations of both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol were significantly higher among women. Low HDL-C (38.9%), high blood pressure (26%), and central obesity (16.1%) were the most common component risk factors. Although less than 4% of normal weight adults met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, rates increased in overweight individuals and reached a prevalence of 87% in the obese participants. In all, 61.3% of the total population had one or more risk factors for metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high among urban young adults in India, and it increased with increase in body mass index (BMI). Each component risk factor in isolated form-increased BMI, smoking, and history of hypertension--is an associated risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Although it is unclear whether metabolic syndrome screening in young Indians as a means to prevent adverse cardiovascular health outcomes is appropriate, healthy lifestyles should nevertheless be encouraged, and young adults should be considered as an important group for cardiovascular risk reduction programs.

  15. The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Obesity in Firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality. CVD is the leading cause of duty-related death among firefighters, and the prevalence of obesity is a growing concern in the Fire Service. Methods. Traditional CVD risk factors, novel measures of cardiovascular health and a measurement of CVD were described and compared between nonobese and obese career firefighters who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. Results. In the group of 116 men (mean age 43±8 yrs, the prevalence of obesity was 51.7%. There were no differences among traditional CVD risk factors or the coronary artery calcium (CAC score (criterion measure between obese and nonobese men. However, significant differences in novel markers, including CRP, subendocardial viability ratio, and the ejection duration index, were detected. Conclusions. No differences in the prevalence of traditional CVD risk factors between obese and nonobese men were found. Additionally, CAC was similar between groups. However, there were differences in several novel risk factors, which warrant further investigation. Improved CVD risk identification among firefighters has important implications for both individual health and public safety.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of pre-hypertension in Congolese pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors of pre-hypertension in Congolese pre and post menopausal women. M.J.S. Muchanga, F.B. Lepira, R Tozin, E.P. Mbelambela, N.R. Ngatu, E.K. Sumaili, J.R. Makulo, N Suganuma ...

  17. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Male Sexual Abuse: The Case of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, In Young; Lee, Yongwoo; Yoo, Seo Koo; Hong, Jun Sung

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for sexual abuse of boys in South Korea by asking a national sample of 1,043 adult males whether they had experienced sexual abuse during childhood. The results indicate that 13.5% experienced at least one of the nine types of child sexual abuse assessed. In addition, the majority of the…

  18. Livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs - prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, an association between human carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and contact with pigs was found. To assess the implications of this finding for veterinary and public health more insight into the prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics of this so-called

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV among people aged 50 years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is estimated that over ten percent of the 36.7 million people living with HIV (PLWHIV) globally, are those aged ≥50 years. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for HIV among adult aged 50 years and above in Rombo district, northern Tanzania. Methods: This cross ...

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic status, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension and diabetes mellitus could not predict ... Keywords: sleep apnoea, obstructive, risk factors, prevalence, polysomnography, Tanzania. Introduction ... is the treatment of choice though bariatric surgery can be curative in patients with morbid obesity.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B virus infections among visitors to an STD clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.T.H.P. van Duynhoven; M.J.W. van de Laar; W.A. Schop; Ph.H. Rothbarth (Philip); W.I. van der Meijden (Willem); A.M. van Loon (Anton); M.J.W. Sprenger (Marc)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections among individuals attending an STD clinic in a low endemic region. Study design: A total of 1228 women and 1648 men attending the STD clinic at the University Hospital Rotterdam, Netherlands,

  2. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Older People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, Channa F.; Magilsen, Karla W.; van Alfen, J. Claudia; Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence and correlates of cardiovascular risk factors in older adults with intellectual disability was examined. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 50- to 90-year-old clients (N = 470) of three Dutch intellectual disability care providing organizations and found that healthy behavior was low, with 98.9% of the participants having an…

  3. Prevalence of urinary incontinence among women and analysis of potential risk factors in Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber Pedersen, Louise; Lose, Gunnar; Høybye, Mette Terp

    2017-01-01

    the prevalence of UI and associated risk factors in Germany and Denmark using the same methodology, definition and population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A postal survey was conducted in two regions in Germany and Denmark, including 8000 women aged 18+ years. UI was defined as any complaint of involuntary loss...

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuland, E A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325855633; Al Naiemi, N; Kaiser, A M; Heck, M; Kluytmans, J A J W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323262139; Savelkoul, P H M; Elders, P J M; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in a representative sample of the general adult Dutch community, to identify risk factors and to gain understanding of the epidemiology of these resistant strains.

  5. Mycoplasma genitalium: prevalence and behavioural risk factors in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit; Sokolowski, Ineta; Østergaard, Lars

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium has been shown to cause urethritis in men and cervicitis in women and may also be a causative agent in female infertility. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of urogenital M genitalium infection and identify sexual behavioural risk factors in the general...

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of electronic cigarette use among adolescents: Data from four Swedish municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geidne Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – To assess the prevalence rates and risk factors of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use, with special focus on e-cigarettes containing nicotine, among grade 9 students (aged 15–16 years in four different municipalities in Sweden.

  7. Prevalence of Falls and Risk Factors in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Kelly; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of falls and risk factors for falls in 1,515 adults (greater than or equal to 18 years) with intellectual disability using baseline data from the Longitudinal Health and Intellectual Disability Study. Nearly 25% of adults from the study were reported to have had one or more falls in the past…

  8. Adherence to immunosuppression in adult lung transplant recipients : Prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Otto H.; Vermeulen, Karin M.; Verschuuren, Erik A.; Erasmus, Michiel E.; van der Bij, Wim

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adherence to medication is a favourable with regard to survival after kidney, heart and liver transplantation. Little is known about adherence to medication in lung transplant recipients. To determine the prevalence of adherence and identify risk factors of non-adherence (NA) we

  9. Prevalence of Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes and Associated Risk Factors among Tuberculosis Patients in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Kumpatla, Satyavani; Aravindalochanan, Vigneswari; Rajan, Rajeswari; Chinnasamy, C.; Srinivasan, Rajan; Selvam, Jerard Maria; Kapur, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is recognised as an important risk factor to tuberculosis (TB). India has high TB burden, along with rising DM prevalence. There are inadequate data on prevalence of DM and pre-diabetes among TB cases in India. Aim was to determine diabetes prevalence among a cohort of TB cases registered under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program in selected TB units in Tamil Nadu, India, and assess pattern of diabetes management amongst known cases. Methods 827 among the eligible patients (n = 904) underwent HbA1c and anthropometric measurements. OGTT was done for patients without previous history of DM and diagnosis was based on WHO criteria. Details of current treatment regimen of TB and DM and DM complications, if any, were recorded. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographics, habitual risk factors, and type of TB. Findings DM prevalence was 25.3% (95% CI 22.6–28.5) and that of pre-diabetes 24.5% (95% CI 20.4–27.6). Risk factors associated with DM among TB patients were age (31–35, 36–40, 41–45, 46–50, >50 years vs diabetes, risk factors were age (36–40, 41–45, 46–50, >50 years vs diabetes or pre-diabetes. PMID:22848473

  10. Vitamin D deficiency in Crohn's disease: prevalence, risk factors and supplement use in an outpatient setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Suibhne, Treasa Nic

    2012-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency impacts on bone health and has potential new roles in inflammation. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and to explore vitamin D supplement usage in patients with Crohn\\'s disease (CD) in an outpatient setting, compared with controls.

  11. Depression in older adults: prevalence and risk factors in a primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    U Padayachey

    Depression in older adults: prevalence and risk factors in a primary health care sample. U Padayacheya*, S Ramlalla and J Chippsbc. aDepartment of Psychiatry, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. bFaculty of Community Health, University of the Western Cape, Cape town, South ...

  12. [Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of public and private schools. Salta City, Argentina, 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelf, Susana Judith; Jubany, Lilian Laura

    2010-10-01

    South America is now at a stage of epidemiological transition, changing the condition of high prevalence of underweight and stunting, to a scene marked by increases in obesity that accompanies chronic diseases, such us cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Surveillance of risk factors associated with them is considered a priority. To establish the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in adolescents in public and private schools in the city of Salta, and observe the socioeconomic characteristics and presence of cardiovascular risk factors in parents. Cross-sectional design, adolescents aged 16 to 20 years of public and private schools. Anthropometric, biochemical, food, social, lifestyle and family history variables. Adolescents of private schools had higher average values of cholesterol, LDL and glucose. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in public schools was 15% and 14.2% in private, and of hypertension 11.3% and 12.2%, respectively. It was noted higher consumption of sweets, sodas and juices; 35.1% and 42.5% of adolescents in public and private schools, did not perform physical activity, 14.2% and 27.1% smoked and 66.2% and 54.7%, respectively, consumed alcohol at weekend. The prevalence of obesity in mothers of public school students was significantly higher. There is evidence of the emergence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in adolescents with different characteristics as belonging to public or private schools, but both groups involved in an unhealthy family environment.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for stillbirths in a tertiary hospital in Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stillbirth is a silent but major cause of perinatal mortality and source of foetal wastage. Aim: To determine the prevalence of stillbirth, demographic characteristics and identify the possible risk factors in our Hospital. Methods: This was a ten year cross-sectional retrospective study of stillbirths between 1st ...

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella in veal calves at Danish cattle abattoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. R.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aabo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The study's objectives were to determine herd- and animal-level prevalence and herd-level risk factors for Salmonella in dairy-bred veal calves at slaughter in Denmark. In total, 1296 faecal samples were collected at five cattle abattoirs in Denmark during 2007 2008. The animals came from 71...

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for epilepsy in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Rahmat

    2010-03-01

    Conclusions The prevalence of epilepsy in spastic CP is 39%. The risk factors for epilepsy in spastic CP are post central nervous system infection, and ocurrence of seizure in the first year of life. [Paediatr Indones. 2010;50:11-7].

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of ticks infesting cattle reared on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tick infestation is a major problem constraining animal production and pro- ductivity in Ethiopia showing the need for tackling the situation. A cross- sectional study was carried out to determine tick prevalence and associated risk factors among cattle reared on dairy, beef and free-range grazing farms of Haramaya University ...

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of bovine mastitis in Ambo town of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of mastitis in dairy cows from November, 2012 to July, 2013 in Ambo town of West Shewa Zone, Oromia Regional State. Thorough clinical examination was made on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis ...

  18. Sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection and its Risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The prevalence of HBsAg in this study was not statistically different in pregnant and nonpregnant women. There was a high level of HBeAg infection among pregnant women who tested positive for HBsAg. History of an affected sibling with HBV infection, tattoo, and abortion were significant risk factors for HBV ...

  19. Livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs - prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, an association between human carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and contact with pigs was found. To assess the implications of this finding for veterinary and public health more insight into the prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics of

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common cause of daytime sleepiness, a condition associated with accidents, antisocial behaviour, mood disturbances, cognitive dysfunctions and inefficiency at work. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea in Dar ...

  1. Severe bacterial infections in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia: prevalence and clinical risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattiya Teawtrakul

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of bacterial infection in patients with NTDT was found to be moderate. Time after splenectomy >10 years, deferoxamine therapy, and iron overload may be clinical risk factors for severe bacterial infection in patients with NTDT. Bacterial infection should be recognized in splenectomized patients with NTDT, particularly those who have an iron overload.

  2. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Anemia in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chien, Wu-Chien; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Wu, Chia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Anemia is known to be a significant public health problem in many countries. Most of the available information is incomplete or limited to special groups such as people with intellectual disability. The present study aims to provide the information of anemia prevalence and associated risk factors of children and adolescents with intellectual…

  3. The Prevalence and Risk Factors of GERD among Indonesian Medical Doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari F Syam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on our knowledge, the study of gastrointestinal reflux disease (GERD among certain profession has never been conducted. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors of GERD among Indonesian doctors. Methods: A consecutive study involving 515 doctors was conducted in October 2015.The GerdQ score was used to the diagnosis of GERD and determined its impact on daily life. All possible risk factors were also analyzed. Results: A total of 515 subjects completed the questionnaire. The mean age of them was 41.37±11.92 years old. Fifty-five percent of them were male and 60.6% general practitioners. The prevalence of GERD was 27.4% of which 21.0% was had GERD with low impact on daily life, and 6.4% was GERD with high impact on daily life. The statistically significant risk factors of GERD was found in age >50 y.o (p = 0.002; OR 2.054, BMI >30kg/m2 (p = 0.016; OR 2.53, and smokers (p = 0.031; OR 1.982. Sex and education level were not found significant statistically as the risk factors of GERD. Conclusions: The prevalence of GERD among Indonesian physician was 27.4%. We found that age over 50 y.o, obesity and smoking habit were the risk factors of GERD in Indonesian doctors.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth infection among rural malay children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huat, Lim Boon; Mitra, Amal K; Jamil, Noor Izani Noor; Dam, Pim Chau; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan; Muda, Wan Abdul Manan Wan

    2012-01-01

    Soil-transmitted intestinal helminth infection is prevalent in rural communities of Malaysia. Risk factors contributing to helminth infections are largely unknown in the country. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among children in Beris Lalang, a rural Muslim community of Malaysia. In this cross-sectional study, children aged 7-9 years were recruited during the mass Friday prayer at Beris Lalang mosque by trained imams (religious leaders). A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic profile, daily hygienic practices, and history of helminth infection. Out of 79 samples, 29 (37%) were positive for helminthic ova, of which 24 were ova of Trichuris trichiura. Poor education of the mother (primary education or less) (P=0.015), eating raw salad (P=0.03), and no physical activities (P=0.03) were found independent risk factors for the child's helminth infections in univariate analysis. A higher proportion of children with helminth infections complained of tiredness and fatigue compared to those without such infections (36% vs. 12%, P=0.019). In a multivariate analysis of predictors of helminth infection, poor education of the mother (P=0.02) and eating raw salad (P=0.04) remained statistically significant, after controlling for several other potential risk factors. T. trichiura was the most prevalent intestinal helminth infection in children in rural Malaysia. Risk factors of helminth infection included mother's poor education and eating raw salad and vegetables.

  5. Prevalence of symptomatic dry eye disease among Chinese college students with associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping He

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To obtain the prevalence and risk factors of symptomatic dry eye disease(SDEDamong college students in China.METHODS:Population-based cross-sectional study.Students in Medical School of Lanzhou University were approached. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the prevalence of SDED and its risk factors. The diagnosis of SDED was based on reported symptoms and was established if the participants reported “often” or “all the time” once or more for 6-item questionnaire. Positive tests included a tear-film breakup time(TBUT≤10s and a fluorescein staining score(FSS≥1. Demographic information and possible factors that may contribute to SDED were analyzed in a step-wise multivariate logistic regression modelto assess risk factors of SDED.RESULTS: There were 1139 participants(84.37% response ratehave completed the questionnaire,475 males and 664 females aged 16-26y. The prevalence of SDED was 18.70% \\〖95% confidence interval(CI=16.59-20.81\\〗.A TBUT of ≤10s and a FSS≥1 were noted in 47.67%(95% CI=44.95-50.57and 13.97%(95% CI=11.95-15.99for all participants, respectively.The multivariate regression analysis revealed the following risk factors: daily reading time of ≥4h(OR=1.58,95% CI=1.15-2.18, daily computer use of≥4h(OR=1.52,95% CI=1.02-2.25, and constant eyeglasses wearing(OR=1.54,95% CI=1.08-2.13.The female gender, refractive surgery and contact lens(CLswearing were not risk factors for SDED in this analysis.CONCLUSION:The prevalence for SDED is high in Chinese college students.The risk factors include daily reading time of≥4h,daily computer use of≥4h and constant eyeglasses wearing.

  6. Fall prevalence, time trend and its related risk factors among elderly people in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong; Ouyang, Peng

    2017-11-01

    To study the fall prevalence, time trends and related risk factors among elderly people in the Chinese mainland from 2011 to 2013. Our data were from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2011 and 2013. The population sample included people aged 60 years and over. Whether the person had experienced fall accident in the last two years was used to measure fall incidence. The time trend and age groups were investigated through the chi-square test. The related risk factors were examined based on the binary logistic regression model. In 2011, 19.64% (95% CI, 18.66%, 20.67%) of elderly people experienced fall incidents and in 2013, 19.28% (95% CI, 18.46%, 20.13%) of elderly people experienced fall incidents. However, no significant difference was seen in the fall prevalence between 2011 and 2013. The fall prevalence among elderly people aged 66-70 declined significantly while that among people aged over 80 showed an increasing time trend. The fall prevalence was affected significantly by factors including age (66-70), gender, marital status, self-rated health, quantity of chronic diseases, quantity of disability items, activities of daily living and physical functioning. It is revealed the fall prevalence showed no increment from 2011 to 2013 but at a high level. More efforts should be made to reduce the fall prevalence, and special attention should be paid to the elderly people aged over 80 and older. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Adult Victimization of Mental Health Service Users - A Review of Prevalences, Risk Factors, and Disclosure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Silvia; Checchia, Carmen; Kilian, Reinhold; Becker, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Although adult victimization among psychiatric patients is frequent, the subject is neglected within the mental health service literature in Germany. Systematic review on adult victimization prevalences, introduction of risk factors and discussion against theoretical concepts and findings on disclosure of victimization. International studies consistently indicate high adult victimization risks compared to general population. Risk factors include psychopathology, substance abuse, (former) experiences of violence, and a lack of social integration. Disclosure of victimization is hindered by several barriers. Preventive and interventive measures should be provided at individual, service, and societal level. More research is needed regarding prevalences for German user populations, disclosure within (mental) health services, and situational, interactive and sociocultural factors of victimization. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Prevalence of comorbidity and associated risk factors in adults with atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A.; Andersen, Y. M.F.; Gislason, G. H.

    2017-01-01

    profile of patients with AD, to assess the potential risks, benefits, and complications in management of patients with AD. We described the occurrence of medical and psychiatric comorbidities and associated risk factors in adults with AD compared with psoriasis and the general population. Methods: All....... Prevalence of diabetes was lower in AD than psoriasis patients as well as general population controls. Conclusions: Despite an increased risk of various medical and psychiatric comorbidities compared to general population controls, adult patients with AD had markedly lower prevalence of cardiovascular...... Danish individuals aged ≥18 years with a hospital (inpatient or ambulatory) diagnosis of AD or psoriasis during the study period (January 1, 1995–December 31, 2012) were linked in administrative registers. Results: Overall, prevalence of smoking and alcohol abuse was higher among patients with AD than...

  9. The prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment among the elderly in Eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Li Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Visual impairment is associated with disability and poor quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of visual impairment among the suburban elderly in Eastern Taiwan. The cross-sectional research was conducted from April 2012 to August 2012. The ocular condition examination took place in suburban areas of Hualien County. Medical records from local infirmaries and questionnaires were utilized to collect demographic data and systemic disease status. Logistic regression models were used for the simultaneous analysis of the association between the prevalence of visual impairment and risk factors. Six hundred and eighty-one residents participated in this project. The mean age of the participants was 71.4±7.3 years. The prevalence of vision impairment (better eye 75 years was 10.0 (p<0.001. In addition, patients with diabetic retinopathy had a 3.7 times higher risk of developing visual impairment (p=0.002, while the odds ratio of refractive error was 0.36 (p<0.001. The prevalence of visual impairment was relatively high compared with previous studies. Diabetic retinopathy was an important risk factor of visual impairment; by contrast, refractive error was beneficial to resist visual impairment. Therefore, regular screening of ocular condition and early intervention might aid in the prevention of avoidable vision loss.

  10. Prevalence of Stroke and Its Risk Factors in Urban Sri Lanka: Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Thashi; Gajasinghe, Seneth; Arambepola, Carukshi

    2015-10-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. In the absence of published population-based prevalence data, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors of stroke in a population of varying urbanization in Sri Lanka. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 2313 adults aged ≥18 years residing in Colombo, selected using a multistage, probability proportionate-to-size, cluster sampling technique. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Ever diagnosis of stroke was confirmed by medical doctors based on World Health Organization criteria and corroborated by documental evidence. Of the total population (52.4% women; mean age, 44.2 years; SD, 16.6), the prevalence of stroke was 10.4 per 1000 (95% confidence interval, 6.3-14.5) with a 2:1 male:female ratio. Beyond the age of 65 years, the prevalence was higher by 6-fold among men and by 2-fold among women. Ninety two percent had developed hemiparesis, 58.3% had dysphasia, and 16.7% had loss of balance. Hypertension was the commonest risk factor (62.5%) followed by smoking (45.8%), excess alcohol (41.7%), diabetes mellitus (33.3%), and transient ischemic attack (29.2%); 79.2%, predominantly men, had ≥2 risk factors. A percentage of 58.3 had brain computed tomographic scans, of whom 85.7% had ischemic strokes. A percentage of 64.3 had to change or give up working because of stroke-related disability. Age-adjusted stroke prevalence in urban Sri Lanka lies between high-income and low-/middle-income countries. The prevalence of stroke and its risk factors were higher among men. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. High prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors in a young urban Sri-Lankan population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahen Wijesuriya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: South-Asian's are predisposed to early onset type 2 diabetes (T2DM. The prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk-factors in young Sri-Lankans is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine by questionnaire and anthropometry the prevalence of first degree family history (FH of T2DM, physical inactivity, raised waist circumference (WC and raised body mass index (BMI in a representative healthy urban population selected by cluster sampling. Those with ≥ 2 risk-factors were evaluated for metabolic syndrome (MS and recruited for an intervention trial. Of 23,296 participants screened, 22,507 (53% Female were eligible [8,497 aged 10-14 yrs, 4,763 aged 15-19 yrs and 9,247 aged 20-40 yrs]. 51% had none of the 4 risk-factors, 26% 1 risk-factor and 23% (5,163 ≥ 2 risk-factors of whom 4,532 were assessed for MS. Raised BMI was noted in 19.7% aged 10-14 yrs, 15.3% between 15-19 yrs, and between 20-40 yrs, 27.4% of males vs. 21.8% of females p<0.001. Prevalence of raised WC was greater in females for each age group: 42.7% vs. 32.1%; 28.1% vs. 16.1%; 34.5% vs. 25.7% (p<0.05 for all as was physical inactivity: 39.9% vs. 14.5%; 51.7% vs. 20.0%; 62.7% vs. 41.3% which rose in both sexes with age (p<0.05 for all. FH of T2DM was present in 26.2%. In 4532 (50%<16 yrs with ≥ 2 risk-factors, impaired fasting glycaemia/impaired glucose tolerance (pre-diabetes prevalence was 16%. MS was more prevalent in males [10-16 yrs (13.0% vs. 8.8%, 16-40 yrs (29.5% vs. 20.0% p<0.001 for both]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a high prevalence of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk-factors in young urban Sri-Lankans with significant gender differences. A primary prevention intervention trial is ongoing in this cohort. Clinical Trial Registration Number SLCTR/2008/World Health Organization (WHO international clinical trial registry platform.

  12. National trends in screening, prevalence, and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Sundar; Nietert, Paul J

    2003-04-01

    Few studies have documented national trends in screening, awareness, and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors. We evaluated trends in screening, prevalence, and treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking. Data were analyzed from the 1984-1998 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a series of yearly cross-sectional population-based surveys of U.S. adults. Unadjusted and adjusted time trends (age-, gender-, ethnicity-, education-, and income-adjusted) in screening, prevalence, and treatment were evaluated. From 1984 to 1998, a larger proportion of U.S. adults were older, more educated, richer, and Hispanic. Hypertension screening was >97% (1988-1998), prevalence ranged from 21 to 24% (1984-1998), and approximately 58% (1984-1992) were prescribed blood-pressure-lowering medications. Hypercholesterolemia screening increased from 47 to 67% (1987-1998), prevalence from 18 to 31% (1987-1998), and cholesterol-lowering prescriptions from 22 to 25% (1988-1990). Smoking prevalence remained around 28% (1984-1998), while quit attempts declined from 63 to 47% (1990-1998). Although screening for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia has increased, a substantial proportion of cases were not being prescribed medications. While the prevalence of smoking remains constant, quit attempts have fallen. Continuing challenges for cardiovascular disease prevention include identification of individuals with hypercholesterolemia, appropriate prescription (initiation and/or maintenance) of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medications, and intensifying smoking cessation efforts.

  13. Prevalence and associated factors of cardio-metabolic risk factors in Iranian seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baygi, Fereshteh; Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    Background: Since Iran’s economy is based on the sale of petroleum products, seafaring is considered a crucial job. Little research has been done on issues related to seafarers’ health in Iranian maritime industry. The present study investigated the prevalence and associated factors of cardio-met...

  14. Prevalence and risk factors associated with low back pain in Iranian surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni-Bandpei, Mohammad A; Ahmad-Shirvani, Marjan; Golbabaei, Nazanin; Behtash, Hamid; Shahinfar, Zahra; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common and costly occupational injury among health care professionals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of LBP in surgeons and to analyze how individual and occupational characteristics contribute to the risk of LBP. A cross sectional study was conducted on 250 randomly selected surgeons including 112 general surgeons, 95 gynecologists and 43 orthopedists from 21 hospitals at northern Iran. A structured questionnaire including demographic, lifestyle, occupational characteristics as well as prevalence and risk factors of LBP was used. Visual analogue scale and Oswestry low back disability questionnaires were also used to assess the pain intensity and functional disability, respectively. Point, last month, last six months, last year and lifetime prevalence of LBP was 39.9%, 50.2%, 62.3%, 71.7% and 84.8%, respectively. The highest point prevalence was related to the gynecologists with 44.9%, and the lowest for general surgeons (31.7%). Age, body mass index, smoking, general health, having an assistant, job satisfaction, using preventive strategies and years of practice were found to be correlated with the prevalence of LBP (P chiropractic, and general medicine, should be performed. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of gestational diabetes and its risk factors in Kermanshah 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrali Rahimi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of gestational diabetes (GD varied between 1-14% around the world. Such variation in the prevalence of GD as well as no available information in Kermanshah encouraged us to design this study aimed to investigate about prevalence of GD and factors associated with this condition in Kermanshah.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive analytic study was designed. The study population was 1720 pregnant women referred to Kermanshah's primary health and treatment centers. All recorded information within their profiles including demographic data, last pregnancies, familial history, result of GCT and OGTT (if data were available was collected. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods (logistic regression.Results: Prevalence of GD cases was 3.43%. Diabetic mothers were more obese and older than non-diabetic mothers and greater proportion of such women had previous history of GD, still birth, familial history of diabetes, history of abortion, macrosomia and PCO. In multivariate analysis showed that age, obesity, familial history of diabetes, previous history of GD and abortion increased the risk of GD.Conclusion: The prevalence of GD in Kermanshah is comparable with other studies in Iran. Controlling related risk factors may reduce risk of GD.

  16. [Prevalence survey of cardiovascular risk factors in the general population in St. Louis (Senegal)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessinaba, S; Mbaye, A; Yabéta, G A D; Harouna, H; Sib, A E; Kane, A D; Bodian, M; Ndiaye, M B; Mbaye-Ndour, M; Niang, K; Diagne-Sow, D; Diack, B; Kane, M; Diao, M; Mathieu, J-B S; Kane, A

    2013-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are becoming with their risk factors a real health problem in Africa. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the general population in Saint-Louis, Senegal. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical made in May 2010, in the Senegalese aged 15, residing in the city of Saint-Louis, Senegal. A systematic random sampling and stratified cluster has been achieved. Cardiovascular risk factors for research were: hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and metabolic syndrome. The survey involved 1424 individuals with 983 women (69%). The average age was 43.4±17.8years. The prevalence of risk factors was: hypertension (46%), diabetes (10.4%), total cholesterol (36.3%), hyperLDLcholesterol (20.6%), obesity (body mass index≥30kg/m(2)) (23%), abdominal obesity (48.7% according to International Diabetes Federation and 33.2% according to National Cholesterol Education Program) physical inactivity (64.7%), smoking (5.8%) and metabolic syndrome (15.7%). There was predominance in women of risk factors except for smoking and diabetes. The overall cardiovascular risk was high in 24.9% according to the Framingham model, 28.8% (European Society of Hypertension) and 6.1% (SCORE). This survey found a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a general population in Senegal, predominant in women. This should lead to better develop a strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors associated with suicidal ideation among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ying Ying; Lim, Kuang Hock; Teh, Chien Huey; Kee, Chee Cheong; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Khoo, Yi Yi; Tee, Eng Ong; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Ibrahim, Normala

    2016-08-05

    Suicidal ideation, defined as thoughts, ideas and the desire to commit suicide, is becoming a major public health problem among adolescents. Indeed, suicidal ideation is known as a key predictor of future suicide risk. This study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with suicidal ideation among adolescents in Malaysia. This study used data from the 2013 Malaysian adolescent health risk behavior (MyAHRB) study, a cross-sectional school survey conducted in Peninsular Malaysia among school-going adolescents aged 16-17 years (n=2789). Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors associated with suicidal ideation among Malaysian adolescents. The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation among the adolescents was 6.2%. The prevalence was significantly higher among females than males (7.6% vs. 4.7%; p=0.002). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that adolescents who were females [odds ratio (OR)=2.02; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-2.92] or of Indian ethnicity (OR=2.32; 95% CI: 1.35-3.98) were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Loneliness (OR=2.54; 95% CI: 1.57-4.11), anxiety or worry (OR=2.70; 95% CI: 1.70-4.31), no close friends (OR=2.71; 95% CI: 1.43-5.14), and lack of supportive peers (OR=1.69; 95% CI: 1.15-2.47) were identified as risk factors for adolescents' suicidal ideation. Adolescents who ever had sexual intercourse (OR=2.70; 95% CI: 1.48-4.92) and had been in a physical fight (OR=2.45; 95% CI: 1.62-3.70) were also reported to have higher risks of suicidal ideation. This study provides evidence on risk factors associated with suicidal ideation among Malaysian adolescents. Targeted mental health and health risk behavioral interventions for high-risk adolescents are recommended.

  18. Prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among adolescents in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Sırma; Dallar, Yıldız Bilge; Önen, Serdar; Engiz, Özlem

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and the risk factors associated with obesity among adolescents in Ankara, Turkey. The study was conducted in 26 schools in Ankara during the time period from September 2010 to March 2011. A total of 8848 adolescents aged 11-18 years were chosen using a population-based stratified cluster sampling method. Body mass index (BMI) of the participants was compared with the BMI references for Turkish children and adolescents to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity. A standardized questionnaire aiming to determine the sociodemographic characteristics, computer use, television (TV) watching, physical activity, and presence of obesity in the family was applied to the study group. The results showed that the overall prevalence of obesity among adolescents was 7.7% (8.4 % for females and 7.0% for males). It was observed that BMI increased as computer use increased. A greater proportion of the overweight and obese adolescents watched TV and use computer for more than 2 hours/day as compared to their normal-weight counterparts. The normal-weight subjects were found to show a higher participation in regular physical activity. Obesity prevalence among the families of obese adolescents was 56.5%. The prevalence of adolescent obesity in Ankara, Turkey is lower as compared to many European countries and to the United States. Computer use, watching TV, physical activity and family factors are important risk factors for obesity.

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factor of Neck Pain in Elderly Korean Community Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyeong Min; Cho, Nam H.; Lim, Seung Hun

    2013-01-01

    Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal condition, which causes substantial medical cost. In Korea, prevalence of neck pain in community based population, especially in elderly subjects, has scarcely been reported. We evaluated the prevalence, the severity and the risk factors of neck pain in elderly Korean community residents. Data for neck pain were collected for 1,655 subjects from a rural farming community. The point, 6-months and cumulative lifetime prevalence of neck pain was obtained in addition to the measurement of the severity of neck pain. The mean age of the study subjects was 61 yr and 57% were females. The lifetime prevalence of neck pain was 20.8% with women having a higher prevalence. The prevalence did not increase with age, and the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain. Subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score in all domains except for mental health. The prevalence of neck pain was significantly associated with female gender, obesity and smoking. This is the first large-scale Korean study estimating the prevalence of neck pain in elderly population. Although the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain, subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score indicating that neck pain has significant health impact. PMID:23678258

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of agitation in newly hospitalized schizophrenia patients in China: An observational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Weifeng; Zhang, Suzhen; Liu, Qi; Yang, Fude; Wang, Yong; Li, Tao; Mei, Qiyi; He, Hongbo; Chen, Zhiyu; Su, Zhonghua; Liu, Tiebang; Xie, Shiping; Tan, Qingrong; Zhang, Jinbei; Zhang, Congpei; Sang, Hong; Chen, Wenhao; Shi, Le; Li, Lingzhi; Shi, Ying; Guo, Lihua; Zhang, Hongyan; Lu, Lin

    2017-07-01

    This multi-center observational study investigated the prevalence of agitation in newly hospitalized schizophrenia patients in China and its potential risk factors. It was performed in 2014 and covered 14 hospitals. Newly hospitalized patients with schizophrenia or suspected schizophrenia who met the diagnostic criteria of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision, were recruited. Agitation and related risk factors were evaluated by a questionnaire designed for the survey. General demographic data, disease characteristics, scores on schizophrenia rating scales and agitation rating scales (e.g., Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component [PANSS-EC] and Behavioral Activity Rating Scale [BARS]) were collected. Among the 1512 patients screened in the study, 1400 (92.59%) were eligible. According to the PANSS-EC and BARS, the prevalence of agitation was 60.92% (853 of 1400) and 59.00% (826 of 1400), respectively. The overall prevalence of agitation was 47.50% (665 of 1400). The most important risk factor of agitation was being aggressive at baseline (Modified Overt Aggression Scale score ≥4, odds ratio=6.54; 95% confidence interval=4.93-8.69). Other risk factors included a history of aggressive behavior, northern region of residence, involuntary hospitalization, disease severity, low level of education, living alone, being unemployed or retired. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for human toxoplasmosis in a rural community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Marques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii infection may lead to important pathological questions, especially in rural areas, where several sources of infection exist. Therefore, it is important to determine risk factors in order to establish adequate prophylactic measures. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors involved in human toxoplasmosis infection in a rural community, in Eldorado, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. This community was composed of 185 farms - with 671 inhabitants - from which 20 were randomly chosen. In these farms, blood samples were collected from rural workers, who also answered a risk factor questionnaire. Serum samples were analyzed by means of direct agglutination test for the detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. From 73 samples collected, 79.45% were positive. None of the studied variables was significantly associated with the prevalence of the infection. However, among the individuals who reported eyesight impairments, 94.4% had anti-T. gondii antibodies, compared with 74.0% who did not report eyesight changes (p = 0.0594. Moreover, most individuals in the study (68.20% were older than 18 years and presented 84.44% positivity, compared with 66.67% of positive individuals younger than 18 years old. We were able to conclude that a high prevalence of antibodies did not imply significant associations with the risk factors studied.

  2. Asthma prevalence and risk factors in early childhood at Northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T.B.S. Branco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is the commonest and most important chronic non-infectious disease in childhood and it has become more prevalent in recent years. There is a shortage of studies in relation to early childhood and so, as part of the INAIRCHILD project, this cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of asthma and its associated risk factors, namely demographic, environmental, psychosocial and clinical factors for infants and preschoolers living in Northern Portugal. Data concerning asthma prevalence were collected through questionnaires based on those from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC-derived, the questionnaires were distributed to 1042 children attending the 17 nurseries involved in the INAIRCHILD project (10 in urban and suburban context, and 7 in rural context. The response rate was 48%. Prevalence of asthma based on symptomatology and odds ratio was calculated. Around 52% of the studied children presented at least one of the respiratory symptoms investigated (wheeze, dyspnea and cough in the absence of upper respiratory infections. The prevalence of asthma was 10.7%, comparable to the figures for Portuguese schoolchildren (6–7 years old reported by the national Directorate-General of Health, thus showing that an early diagnosis might be possible and helpful for the mitigation of childhood asthma. Environmental context (urban, suburban or rural, gender and family asthma history showed clear associations with asthma prevalence, namely non-rural location, male gender, and having an asthmatic parent were found to be risk factors. Keywords: Asthma, Children, Demographic, Environmental, Psychosocial and clinical risk factors

  3. Prevalence and risk factors associated with peripheral arterial disease in an adult population from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Lorena; Portilla, Eliana; Muñoz, Wilson; Hofman, Albert; Sierra-Torres, Carlos H

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most important cause of mortality in Latin America, while peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is the third leading cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular morbidity. To establish the prevalence of PAD and the distribution of traditional CVD risk factors in a population from the Department of Cauca, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 10,000 subjects aged ≥40 years, from 36 municipalities. An ankle-brachial index (ABI) ≤ 0.9 in either leg was used as diagnostic criterion of PAD. Overall PAD prevalence was 4.4% (4.7% females vs. 4.0% males), with diabetes being the most prevalent risk factor (23%). Among individuals self-reporting a history of acute myocardial infarction or stroke, PAD prevalence was 31.0% and 8.1%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, PAD was significantly associated with hypertension (OR 4.6; 95% CI; 3.42-6.20), diabetes (4.3; 3.17-5.75), dyslipidaemia (3.1; 2.50-3.88), obesity (1.8; 1.37-2.30), and cigarette smoking (1.6; 1.26-1.94). Analysis for the interaction of risk factors showed that diabetes, dyslipidaemia, and obesity accounted for 13.2 times the risk for PAD (6.9-25.4), and when adding hypertension to the model, the risk effect was the highest (17.2; 8.4-35.1). Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, and obesity, but not smoking were strong predictors of PAD. ABI measurement should be routinely performed as a screening test in intermediate and high-risk patients for CVD prevention. This could lead to an early intervention and follow-up on populations at risk, thus, contributing to improve strategies for reducing CVD burden. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in Chinese women: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Li, Xinyu; Wang, Quanyi; Lu, Yongxian

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the current prevalence rate of urinary incontinence (UI) and to identify risk factors in Chinese women, we conducted a population-based survey in 3058 women in Beijing, China, in 2009. The prevalence rate of UI was estimated to be 22.1%, with stress UI (12.9%) being more prevalent than urgency UI (1.7%) and mixed UI (7.5%). The prevalence rates of UI, urgency UI, and mixed UI increased with age, with the highest recorded in participants aged ≥70 years. However, stress UI was most commonly seen in participants aged 50 to 69 years. Risk factors for UI included aging, lower education background, older age of menarche, menstrual disorder, pregnancy history, episiotomy, chronic pelvic pain, gynecological disease, other chronic diseases, constipation, fecal incontinence, lower daily water intake, and frequency of high protein intake. UI is a common disorder in Chinese women, and many risk factors are able to affect the development of UI. © 2011 APJPH.

  5. The Prevalence and Risk Factors for Preterm Delivery in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Tehranian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Preterm delivery is one of the most important problems in pregnancy, as it is the primary cause of 75% of prenatal mortality and morbidities. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for preterm delivery in Tehran, Iran. Methods:In this cross-sectional study performed in eight random hospitals from five different regions of Tehran (North, South, West, East, and center, the prevalence of preterm delivery was evaluated and the most frequent risk factors were identified. Samples were divided into preterm delivery (n=140 and term delivery (n=100 groups. Questionnaires were completed through interviews with mothers and using patient records. To analyze the data, Chi-square test was run, using SPSS version 16. Results: About 13,281 deliveries were included in the study. The highest and lowest prevalence of preterm delivery were 6.30% and 0.77% in the North and East regions of Tehran, respectively.  The overall prevalence of preterm delivery was 1.52% in Tehran. In the preterm group, age ≥35 years, pre-mature rupture of membranes, bleeding, gestational hypertension, history of preterm delivery and abortion, multiple pregnancy, and preeclampsia were significantly more frequent than the term delivery group. Conclusion: Spontaneous preterm birth was one of the major causes of maternal and neonatal morbidity; therefore, identification of its risk factors would be beneficial.

  6. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Tile and Ceramic Workers in Yazd, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Bahaloo, Maryam; Heydari, Mohammad; Samimi, Ehsan; Zohal, Mahnaz; Davari, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs) are among the most important diseases in the world and determination of their risk factors is essential for primary and secondary prevention. This study aimed to evaluate these risk factors in workers of tile and ceramic industry, a main industry in Yazd. Materials and Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 1075 tile and ceramic workers were selected by simple sampling method. BMI, blood pressure, FBS, and lipid profile were measured and compared to international standards. Results. 731 individuals (68%) had at least one risk factor, and 52%, 12%, 3%, and 0.7% had one, two, three, and four risk factors, respectively. The most common risk factor was abnormal BMI (49.6%); low HDL (48.4%) and high TG (14.1%) were in the second and third orders. Conclusion. This study showed a relatively high prevalence for CVD risk factors among tile and ceramic workers. Low HDL, high TG, and overweight were the most frequent risk factors in this population.

  7. High prevalence and risk factors for kidney dysfunction in patients with atherosclerotic cardio-cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Y-S; Jia, X-B; Ji, Y; Yang, J; Zhao, S-L; Na, S-P

    2014-06-01

    Patients with atherosclerotic cardio-cerebrovascular disease are at high risk of kidney dysfunction because of the overlap of several risk factors. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence and characteristics and risk factors for kidney dysfunction in the cardio-cerebrovascular disease population. Renal functions of 1012 patients with the cardio-cerebrovascular disease were evaluated with the purpose of evaluating characteristics of the incidence, risk factors for kidney dysfunction in the cardio-cerebrovascular disease population. In the univariate analysis, the major risk factors for kidney dysfunction in the patients with the cardio-cerebrovascular disease were age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and serum uric acid. In the patients with both hypertension and diabetes mellitus the percentages of significantly decreased eGFR were 25.6%. Results of multivariable analysis showed that diabetes mellitus (odds ratio (OR) 1.609, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.08-2.398, P = 0.019), hypertension (OR 1.547, 95% CI 1.049-2.281, P = 0.028) and serum uric acid (OR 1.009, 95% CI 1.007-1.010, P cerebrovascular disease kidney dysfunction is common and has a high prevalence. Patients with both cardio-cerebrovascular disease and kidney dysfunction at any stage should be recognized as high-risk population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. [Aortic valve calcification prevalence and association with coronary risk factors and atherosclerosis in Mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Valerio, Jorge; Rodas-Díaz, Marco A; Macias-Garrido, Enrico; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Juárez-Rojas, Juan G; Medina-Urrutia, Aida X; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo C; Joge-Galarza, Esteban; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Posadas-Romero, Carlos

    The prevalence of aortic valve calcification (AVC), strongly influenced by ethnicity, is unknown in Mexican population. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of AVC and its associations with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery calcification (CAC), in Mexican subjects. In 1,267 subjects (53% women) without known coronary heart disease, aged 35 to 75 years, AVC and CAC were assessed by multidetector-computed tomography using the Agatston score. Cardiovascular risk factors were documented in all participants. The associations of AVC with CAC and risk factors were assessed by multivariable logistic regression analyses. The overall prevalence of AVC and CAC was 19.89% and 26.5%, respectively. AVC and CAC increased with age and were found more frequently in men (25.5% and 37.1%, respectively) than in women (14.9% and 13.0%, respectively). AVC was observed in only 8.5% of subjects without CAC, while those with CAC 1-99, 100-399, and >400 Agatston units had AVC prevalences of 36.8%, 56.8%, and 84.0%, respectively. The multivariable logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, gender, obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and high insulin levels, showed that the presence of CAC (OR [CI95%]: 3.23 [2.26-4.60]), obesity (1.94 [1.35-2.79]), male gender (1.44 [1.01-2.05]) and age (1.08 [1.03-1.10]), were significant independent predictors of AVC. Prevalence of AVC is high and significantly associated with atherosclerotic risk factors and CAC in this Mexican population. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Elderly Population in Amirshahr (2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Hosseini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study has been carried out to assess the prevalenceof cardiovascular risk factors in the elderly people in Amirshahr city. Methods & Materials: In this descriptive cross- sectional study, 1019 people over 60 years old in Amirshahr city were assessed. Amirshahr has 2000 elder people over 60 (53.5% male and 46.5% female .Data were collected using standard questionnaire included questions about demographic characteristics and risk factors of CVD. Questionnaires were filled in by trained questionerers during the interviews with elderly people or with informed person. Results: In this study, 604(59.3% were male and 415(40.7% female. Mean age of the elderly population was 70±7 years old (range 60-97 year. Most of them (55% were in the age group (65-74. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors were overweight andobesity (44.1%, hypertension (HTN (23.9%, Diabetes Mellitus (DM (23.5%, and smoking (18%. Frequency of HTN (P=0.07, DM and obesity (P=0.000 in female population were more than male and smoking (P=0.000 in male population was more than female population. Of total subjects, 71.1% had 2 or 3 cardiovascular risk factors contemporaneous. Twenty five percent of geriatric population don’t have any insurance. Conclusion: With respect to findings of this study and high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, screening programs and preventive measures are necessary in elderly population.

  10. Increasing Prevalence, Changes in Diagnostic Criteria, and Nutritional Risk Factors for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, Yasmin H.

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) diagnoses has been increasing for decades, but researchers cannot agree on whether the trend is a result of increased awareness, improved detection, expanding definition, or an actual increase in incidence or a combination of these factors. Though both genetic and multiple environmental risk factors have been studied extensively, many potentially modifiable risk factors including nutritional and immune function related risk factors such as vitamin D, folic acid, and metabolic syndrome have not received sufficient attention. Several recent studies have put forward hypotheses to explain the mechanism of association between both folic acid and vitamin D and autism. A continuous rise in the prevalence of autism in the USA has coincided with a significant enhancement of maternal folate status with FDA mandated folic acid fortification of certain foods starting in 1998. There is also a growing body of research that suggests that vitamin D status either in utero or early in life may be a risk for autism. In this communication, controversies regarding increase in estimate of prevalence, implications of changes in definition, and possible association between some modifiable nutritional risk factors such as folic acid and vitamin D and ASD will be discussed. PMID:24967269

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Prehypertension and Hypertension in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lihua; Huang, Xiao; You, Chunjiao; Li, Juxiang; Hong, Kui; Li, Ping; Wu, Yanqing; Wu, Qinhua; Bao, Huihui; Cheng, Xiaoshu

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the prevalence and risk factors of prehypertension and hypertension in Jiangxi Province, China. Individuals with prehypertension frequently progress into hypertension and are at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and stroke. A cross-sectional survey of 15,296 participants (15 years or older) was conducted in Jiangxi Province, China, in 2013, using questionnaire forms and physical measurements. The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 32.3% (39.2% in men and 27.6% in women) and 29.0% (30.1% in men and 28.2% in women), respectively. The awareness, treatment, and control rates among all hypertensive participants were 64.8%, 27.1%, and 12.6%, respectively. The prevalence of prehypertension in males declined with age, but the prevalence of hypertension increased in different genders. The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension increased with increasing body mass index (BMI). The prevalence of prehypertension decreased, in parallel to an increase in the prevalence of hypertension, with increasing waist circumference (WC). A combination of WC and BMI was superior to individual indices in identifying hypertension. A multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that increasing age, high BMI, high visceral adipose index, and high heart rate were risk factors for prehypertension and hypertension. The high body fat percentage was significantly associated with prehypertension. Living in an urban area, male sex, abdominal obesity, and menopause were correlated with hypertension. Prehypertension and hypertension are epidemic in southern China. Further studies are needed to explore an indicator that can represent the visceral fat accurately and has a close relationship with cardiovascular disease.

  12. Risk factors and prevalence of osteoporosis in premenopausal women from poor economic backgrounds in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Londono J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available John Londono,1 Paula Valencia,1 Ana María Santos,1 Luisa F Gutiérrez,2 Roberto Baquero,1 Rafael Valle-Oñate1,3 1Rheumatology Department, Universidad de La Sabana, Chía, Cundinamarca, Colombia; 2Preventive Care Ltd, Research Unit, Chía, Cundinamarca, Colombia, 3Rheumatology Department, Hospital Militar Central, Bogotá, DC, Colombia Introduction: The prevalence of osteoporosis in premenopausal women along with associated risk factors has not been well elucidated. Recent studies have shown that poverty is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and its risk factors in a group of premenopausal women of poor economic background in Colombia. Materials and methods: The study comprised 1483 women between 35 and 53 years of age with at least one risk factor for osteoporosis. Demographic characteristics, reproductive factors, comorbidities, and risk factors for osteoporosis were evaluated. Lumbar vertebrae (L2–L4 and the femur neck were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Of the 1483 patients, 1443 (97.3% had at least one risk factor for osteoporosis and 40 (2.7% had no risk factors. Patients with one risk factor were referred to have a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, which 795 women completed. Osteopenia was found in 30.5% and osteoporosis in 4.8% of these women. The majority of these women were homemakers, and 18.5% of the patients with osteoporosis were also illiterate (P < 0.001. The risk factors identified in this population were: hypothyroidism (odds ratio [OR] = 5.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.6–16, age over 45 years old (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.0–1.2, a history of malnutrition or low birth weight (OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.0–5.2, or early-onset menopause (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6–7.2. Conclusion: Premenopausal Colombian women from impoverished areas showed increased rates of osteopenia and osteoporosis compared with the data described in the current literature

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of low birth weight in the Southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Momeni

    2017-01-01

    Results: The prevalence of LBW was 9.4% in the present study. Preterm labor (odds ratio [OR]: 22.06; P 35 years (OR: 1.21; P = 0.001, delivery by cesarean section (OR: 1.17; P = 0.002, pregnancy risk factors (OR: 1.67; P 35 years old, and maternal medical risk factors are some critical interventions to reduce its burden. Increasing the access to high-quality health-care services in rural and deprived areas is another effective strategy for the prevention of LBW.

  14. Radiation effects-prevalence of contributory risk factors a pilot study in Visakhapthnam steel plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshman rao, K. V.

    2004-01-01

    Integrated Steel Plants contribute significant air pollution, water pollution and solid waste generation. Diverse occupational health hazards present is steel industry pose ill effects to the industrial workers. Occupational health services and research center (OHS and RC) of this plant established in the year 1992 to protect the health and well-being of all the employees working in different occupations. the primary role OHS and RC is to conduct periodical medical examinations, monitoring of the working environments, suggest the suitable personal protective equipment to the workers, evaluate risk factors, work practices, risk management and industrial toxicological studies. Dissemination of information related to occupational health and safety to the working population through regular educational sessions at the workplaces as at training and development center (T and DC) is also part of our services. The proneness for effects of exposure to ionizing radiation is enhanced by various factors related to the family history of chronic diseases, nutritional status of the individuals, the lifestyle factors apart from psycho-social factors like illiteracy, ignorance, negligence and inadequate utilization of personal protective equipment (PPE) at workplace. To evaluate the prevalence of such contributory risk factors, a pilot study has been conducted in Visakhapatnam Steel Plant. The data is obtained through routine periodical medical examination of workers at the Occupational Health Services Center through standard format. The study revealed statistically high prevalence of the risk factors and indicated the necessity of intensifying primary prevention methods in addition to environmental control and usage of PPE. (Author)

  15. Radiation effects-prevalence of contributory risk factors a pilot study in Visakhapthnam steel plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshman rao, K. V.

    2004-07-01

    Integrated Steel Plants contribute significant air pollution, water pollution and solid waste generation. Diverse occupational health hazards present is steel industry pose ill effects to the industrial workers. Occupational health services and research center (OHS and RC) of this plant established in the year 1992 to protect the health and well-being of all the employees working in different occupations. the primary role OHS and RC is to conduct periodical medical examinations, monitoring of the working environments, suggest the suitable personal protective equipment to the workers, evaluate risk factors, work practices, risk management and industrial toxicological studies. Dissemination of information related to occupational health and safety to the working population through regular educational sessions at the workplaces as at training and development center (T and DC) is also part of our services. The proneness for effects of exposure to ionizing radiation is enhanced by various factors related to the family history of chronic diseases, nutritional status of the individuals, the lifestyle factors apart from psycho-social factors like illiteracy, ignorance, negligence and inadequate utilization of personal protective equipment (PPE) at workplace. To evaluate the prevalence of such contributory risk factors, a pilot study has been conducted in Visakhapatnam Steel Plant. The data is obtained through routine periodical medical examination of workers at the Occupational Health Services Center through standard format. The study revealed statistically high prevalence of the risk factors and indicated the necessity of intensifying primary prevention methods in addition to environmental control and usage of PPE. (Author)

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of ecstasy use among college students in Astara, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Z Mohtasham; Shakib, A Jafari; Moosavi, A Khalili

    2009-01-01

    We determined the prevalence and risk factors for 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") use among college students in Astara, a northern border city of Iran. In a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 1226 students, the lifetime prevalence of ecstasy use was 5.6%. The lifetime prevalence of use of other drugs, mostly cannabis and opium, was 4.6%. A fifth of students (21.8%) were current cigarette smokers and 24.8% had ever used alcohol. After logistic regression, the factors influencing ever use of ecstasy were ever use of other drugs, ever use of alcohol, current cigarette smoking and living alone or with friends. Targeted prevention programmes should be conducted in all colleges.

  17. Prevalence of Suicide Risk Factors and Suicide-Related Outcomes in the National Mental Health Study, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Villa, Jose; Camacho, Juan Camilo; Valenzuela, Jose Ignacio; Arguello, Arturo; Cendales, Juan Gabriel; Fajardo, Roosevelt

    2009-01-01

    A community survey in 4,426 adults was undertaken as part of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative reporting the prevalence and risk factors for suicide-related outcomes in Colombia. Lifetime prevalence estimates of suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and risk factors for suicide-related outcomes were assessed. Retrospective reports of…

  18. Epidemiology of stroke in the elderly in the Nordic countries. Incidence, survival, prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgeir Engstad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review what is known at present with respect to incidence, survival, risk factors and prevalence among the elderly stroke patients in the Nordic countries.Method: This article is based mainly on literature identified through search engines (Mc Master Plus, Cochrane Library, Medline and PubMed, restricted to first-ever stroke in Nordic population-based studies and having applied to the standard WHO definition, a prospective study design and no upper age limit.Results: Data from the Nordic countries show an incidence rate of 1250 to 1796/100 000 in the age group 75-84, and 1628 to 2234 in those above 85 years. The incidence rates are higher among men, but women are expected to contribute more to incident cases due to their higher life expectancy. If the age-specific incidence of stroke remains stable, the proportion of stroke patients aged 80 years and older may reach 50% in a few decades. The elderly stroke patients have a higher 30-days case fatality, and a higher risk of dependency. Better treatment of stroke patients has improved the survival over the last two decades. The prevalence is expected to increase due to the decrease in lethality, a slower fall in incidence and a higher proportion of elderly. Cardiovascular risk factors increase with age. Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke mortality in the elderly. Cardioembolic stroke due to atrial fibrillation is the most common stroke subtype in the elderly. Lifestyle risk factors are less prevalent in the older stroke patients.Conclusion: The growing proportion of elderly stroke patients is a major challenge for future stroke care. The elderly stroke patients have a different risk factor profile compared to younger stroke patients. Treatment should focus on regaining independency. The age-specific epidemiology of stroke needs to be studied further in large studies in order to plan for future health care.

  19. Antenatal depression in coastal South India: Prevalence and risk factors in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christina; Lalitha, Anoop R N; Antony, Abish; Kumar, Arun V; Jacob, K S

    2016-03-01

    Antenatal depression is a highly prevalent disorder with serious implications on maternal and child outcomes. There are few studies examining this in low-middle-income community settings. To determine the prevalence of antenatal depression in women from a coastal rural background in Kerala and Tamil Nadu and to determine its associated factors. In this cross-sectional community-based study, in 202 antenatal women, standard interview and diagnostic criteria (Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R)) were employed for identifying depression and examining a wide range of putative clinical and sociocultural risk factors including domestic violence. There was a 16.3% prevalence of depression among the 202 women sampled. The possible risk factors after stepwise backward regression were pressure to have a male child, 11.48 (2.36-55.78); financial difficulties, 8.23 (2.49-27.22); non-arranged marriage, 6.05 (1.72-21.23); history of miscarriage-still birth, 5.77 (1.55-21.43) and marital conflict, 9.55 (2.34-38.98). There is a need to develop strategies for recognition and appropriate intervention for antenatal depression, in the context of locally relevant risk factors, so as to improve both maternal and child outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Malaria prevalence, risk factors and spatial distribution in a hilly forest area of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubydul Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health concern in Bangladesh and it is highly endemic in the Chittagong Hill Tracts where prevalence was 11.7% in 2007. One sub-district, Rajasthali, had a prevalence of 36%. Several interventions were introduced in early 2007 to control malaria. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impacts of these intensive early stage interventions on malaria in Bangladesh. This prevalence study assesses whether or not high malaria prevalence remains, and if so, which areas and individuals remain at high risk of infection. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A 2-stage cluster sampling technique was used to sample 1,400 of 5,322 (26.3% households in Rajasthali, and screened using a rapid diagnostic test (Falci-vax. Overall malaria prevalence was 11.5%. The proportions of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and infection with both species were 93.2%, 1.9% and 5.0%, respectively. Univariate, multivariate logistic regression, and spatial cluster analyses were performed separately. Sex, age, number of bed nets, forest cover, altitude and household density were potential risk factors. A statistically significant malaria cluster was identified. Significant differences among risk factors were observed between cluster and non-cluster areas. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Malaria has significantly decreased within 2 years after onset of intervention program. Both aspects of the physical and social environment, as well as demographic characteristics are associated with spatial heterogeneity of risk. The ability to identify and locate these areas provides a strategy for targeting interventions during initial stages of intervention programs. However, in high risk clusters of transmission, even extensive coverage by current programs leaves transmission ongoing at reduced levels. This indicates the need for continued development of new strategies for identification and treatment as well as improved understanding of the patterns and

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of periodontitis among adults with or without diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mihee; Kim, Hee Yeon; Seok, Hannah; Yeo, Chang Dong; Kim, Young Soo; Song, Jae Yen; Lee, Young Bok; Lee, Dong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Im; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Ahn, Hyo-Suk; Ko, Yoon Ho; Jeong, Seong Cheol; Chae, Hiun Suk; Sohn, Tae Seo

    2016-09-01

    This study examined prevalence and risk factors of periodontitis in representative samples of Korean adults, with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 4,477 adults (≥ 30 years old) were selected from 8,057 individuals who completed a nutrition survey, a self-reported general health behavior questionnaire, an oral examination, an oral hygiene behaviors survey, and laboratory tests. DM was defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, or self-reported diagnosed diabetes, or current use of oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin. The community periodontal index was used to assess periodontitis status and comparisons between the periodontitis and the non-periodontitis group, were performed, according to the presence of DM. Risk factors for periodontitis in adults with DM and without DM were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in adults with DM (43.7%) than in those without DM (25%, p periodontitis were older age, male, urban habitation, waist circumference, smoking, oral pain, and less frequent tooth brushing. Significant risk factors for periodontitis in adults with DM were the smoking, oral pain, and not-using an oral hygiene product. Adults with DM have an increased risk of periodontitis than those without DM. Current smoking and oral pain increase this risk. Using an oral hygiene product can reduce risk of periodontal disease in adults with DM.

  2. Overweight and obesity in Indonesia: prevalence and risk factors-a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmi, C N; Li, M; Alison Baur, L

    2017-06-01

    Overweight/obesity is a problem faced by both high- and low- and middle-income countries. This review aimed to report published data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Indonesian children, adolescents, and adults, along with the associated risk factors. Literature review. We conducted a literature search for articles published in English (through Medline via OvidSP, Scopus, Global Health via OvidSP and Web of Science electronic databases) and Indonesian languages (several websites, direct contact with Indonesian public health researchers, practitioners and Ministry of Health staff) from earliest to March 2016. We screened the results and ensured the quality of included studies with Loney's tools for critically appraising prevalence or incidence studies. We included 17 papers on the topic which were available in full text and passed the critical appraisal process. The prevalence of overweight/obesity has increased over the past two decades in Indonesian children, adolescents and adults. Prevalence rates are higher in boys than girls among children, but higher in females in the adolescent and adult age groups. The prevalence of overweight/obesity is also higher in those living in urban areas and with higher income or education. Overweight/obesity is a serious public health problem in Indonesia with a continuing increase in its prevalence. Interventions at the household level and beyond are needed to successfully lower the prevalence of overweight/obesity in the country. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in two districts of lower Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Kasib

    2009-12-01

    Bovine tick infestation is still a serious nuisance to livestock and the dairy industry of Pakistan. The current paper reports the prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in the districts Layyah and Muzaffargarh of lower Punjab, Pakistan. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to identify and to quantify variation in the prevalence of bovine tick infestation with respect to host (age, species, sex, and breed) and environmental (geographical area and climate) determinants. Multiple stage cluster random sampling was used and 3500 cattle and buffaloes from the two districts were selected. Prevalence of bovine tick infestation was significantly higher (OR=1.95; p2025; 47.3%). Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the major tick species (33.5%; 1173/3500), followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (13%; 456/3500). The highest monthly prevalence in both the districts was found in July. Ticks were not found in Layyah from November to March and in Muzaffargarh from December to March. The average number of ticks was proportional to the prevalence of infestation. Also, tick infestation in a 7cmx7cm dewlap of the animal was proportional to that of the rest of body. Prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with district, host species and breed. In cattle, prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with age and sex of host. The results of this study provide better understanding of disease epidemiology in the study districts, which will help for planning of control strategies.

  4. Prevalence of behavioral and physiological risk factors of hypertension in African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covelli, Maureen McCormick

    2007-01-01

    African American (AA) adolescents are twice as likely to develop high blood pressure in early adulthood as other groups. Continuous existence of risk factors in adolescents may be precursors to adult cardiovascular changes. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a sample of AA adolescents. A secondary analysis was conducted on data obtained from a sample of AA adolescents (N = 48; 32 males and 16 females) ages 14-17 years from a larger study. Factors included family history of hypertension (FHH), diet, exercise, blood pressure, and cortisol levels before and after physiologic stress. Thirty-one participants (65%) had positive FHH, 35 (73%) had three or less serving of fruits/vegetables per day, 41 (85%) reported exercising less than three times per week. Of the participants, 14 (29%) had elevated blood pressure, 30 (63%) had cardiovascular reactivity, 32 (67%) had elevated cortisol, and 23 (48%) had cortisol hyper-responsivity. Ninety-four percent had four or more risk factors and 44% had six or more. This study demonstrates the increased prevalence of physiological and behavioral risk factors in this adolescent population.

  5. Eating disorders in athletes: overview of prevalence, risk factors and recommendations for prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of disordered eating and eating disorders vary from 0-19% in male athletes and 6-45% in female athletes. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of eating disorders in adolescent and adult athletes including: (1) prevalence data; (2) suggested sport- and gender-specific risk factors and (3) importance of early detection, management and prevention of eating disorders. Additionally, this paper presents suggestions for future research which includes: (1) the need for knowledge regarding possible gender-specific risk factors and sport- and gender-specific prevention programmes for eating disorders in sports; (2) suggestions for long-term follow-up for female and male athletes with eating disorders and (3) exploration of a possible male athlete triad.

  6. A Review of Adult Obesity Prevalence, Trends, Risk Factors, and Epidemiologic Methods in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalo Karageorgi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Kuwait is among the countries with the highest obesity rates worldwide; however, little is known about the state of obesity epidemiology research in Kuwait. In this paper, we therefore review the findings and methodology of studies on the prevalence, trends and risk factors of obesity in Kuwait. Methods. The PubMed database was searched using the keyword combination: obesity and adults and Kuwait. Out of 111 articles, 39 remained after abstract review, and 18 were selected after full-text review. Results. The studies were all cross-sectional and published in the last fifteen years (1997–2012. The sample size ranged from 177 to 38,611 individuals. Only 30% of studies used random sampling. The prevalence (BMI ≥ 30 in studies with a nationally representative sample ranged from 24% to 48% overall and in adults >50 years was greater than 52%. Rates were significantly higher in women than those in men. Studies that examined trends showed an increase in obesity prevalence between 1980 and 2009. Multiple risk factors including sociocultural factors were investigated in the studies; however, factors were only crudely assessed. Conclusion. There is a need for future studies, particularly surveillance surveys and prospective cohort studies utilizing advanced methods, to monitor trends and to comprehensively assess the factors contributing to the obesity epidemic in Kuwait.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of the gallbladder polyps diagnosed by ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi Hwa; Cho, Pyong Kon [Dept. of Radiological science, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Duck Moon [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gallstones in the last three years and evaluate the associated risk factors in the population who underwent health screening. Although there are many studies reporting the prevalence and risk factors of GB polyp, the results varied among each report. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence rate and risk factors of GB polyp, colon polyp and fatty liver in the population who underwent health screening. The study population consisted of 4,877 visited the health promotion center in Dalseogu, Daegu in Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Each participant in the study had their biliary system gallbladder examined using ultrasonography. The prevalence of GB polyp was evaluated along with age, gender, metabolic syndrom, body mass index (BMI), Fatty liver, Colon polyp. A showed of total 383 (7.9%) people were found to have GB polyps. The prevalence of sex among 256 (9.8%) patients men and 127 (5.6%) women which showed significantly higher in male than in female subjects(p=0.001). The mean size of the GB polyps 4.92 mm (1.6-17 mm). The sizes of most GB polyps (73.6%) were less than 10 mm in diameter. 122 subjects (31.28%) had multiple GB polyps which 2 or more polyps and 261 subjects (68.2%) had single polyp. Independent risk factors related with GB polyp were male gender (OR 0.551, p<0.001), overweight that BMI above 23 kg/m{sup 2} (OR 0.713, p=0.002) triglyceride (OR 0.571, p<0.001), metabolic syndrome (OR 0.049, p=0.033) and colon polyp (OR 1.409, p=0.002). In spite of the conclusion, the prevalence GB polyp was higher than previous Korea and other country reports. The GB polyp in a healthy population was results as 7.9%. The risk factors of GB polyps were found to be male, being overweight, triglyceride, metabolic syndrome and colon polyp. Not only the subject of a health examination is needed but, a further study of the general public when possible.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of the gallbladder polyps diagnosed by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi Hwa; Cho, Pyong Kon; Kwon, Duck Moon

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gallstones in the last three years and evaluate the associated risk factors in the population who underwent health screening. Although there are many studies reporting the prevalence and risk factors of GB polyp, the results varied among each report. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence rate and risk factors of GB polyp, colon polyp and fatty liver in the population who underwent health screening. The study population consisted of 4,877 visited the health promotion center in Dalseogu, Daegu in Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Each participant in the study had their biliary system gallbladder examined using ultrasonography. The prevalence of GB polyp was evaluated along with age, gender, metabolic syndrom, body mass index (BMI), Fatty liver, Colon polyp. A showed of total 383 (7.9%) people were found to have GB polyps. The prevalence of sex among 256 (9.8%) patients men and 127 (5.6%) women which showed significantly higher in male than in female subjects(p=0.001). The mean size of the GB polyps 4.92 mm (1.6-17 mm). The sizes of most GB polyps (73.6%) were less than 10 mm in diameter. 122 subjects (31.28%) had multiple GB polyps which 2 or more polyps and 261 subjects (68.2%) had single polyp. Independent risk factors related with GB polyp were male gender (OR 0.551, p<0.001), overweight that BMI above 23 kg/m 2 (OR 0.713, p=0.002) triglyceride (OR 0.571, p<0.001), metabolic syndrome (OR 0.049, p=0.033) and colon polyp (OR 1.409, p=0.002). In spite of the conclusion, the prevalence GB polyp was higher than previous Korea and other country reports. The GB polyp in a healthy population was results as 7.9%. The risk factors of GB polyps were found to be male, being overweight, triglyceride, metabolic syndrome and colon polyp. Not only the subject of a health examination is needed but, a further study of the general public when possible

  9. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of infections with liver flukes in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Frankena, K.; Olsen, A.

    in space as this could help understand whether or not the infection was driven by local environmental factors. Both global and local spatial autocorrelation techniques were used. Herd level and environmental risk factors were evaluated for their association with prevalence of F. hepatica infection using...... and the factors related to its occurrence and distribution are scarce in Denmark. A retrospective study was performed using liver inspection data of approximately 1.5 million cattle for the period 2011 to 2013. Spatial analysis was carried out to explore whether the data on F. hepatica infection was clustered...

  10. Subclinical ketosis in dairy cows: prevalence and risk factors in grazing production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garro, C J; Mian, L; Cobos Roldán, M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Subclinical ketosis (SCK) between 4 and 19 days in milk (DIM) in a grazing production system and investigate the importance of potential risk factors for SCK. This cross-sectional study was conducted in dairy cows (n = 107), which had more of two parities. The concentration of β-hydroxybutyric (BHB) in blood was quantified through a hand-held meter. Potential risk factors evaluated were calving interval (CI), milk yield in previous lactation, metritis, dystocia, calf sex (male), parity (≤3 vs. ≥4) and pre-partum body condition score (BCS ≤ 3.5 vs. ≥3.75). Prevalence of SCK was 10.3% (95% CI 4.7-15) between 4 and 19 DIM. Risk factors identified were the occurrence of both metritis and pre-partum BCS ≥ 3.75. Cows with metritis had 4.9 (95% CI 1.17-20.98) times more risk of developing SCK than cows without metritis. And the cows with pre-partum BCS ≥ 3.75 had 5.25 (95% CI 1.32-21.11) times more risk of developing SCK than cows with pre-partum BCS ≤ 3.5. Metritis could induce a lower feed intake and promote the development of SCK. High pre-partum BCS could induce a greater mobilization of body reserves altering liver function and aggravating post-partum NEB. The results are indicative of the expected prevalence of SCK in grazing production system. Factors associated could help to identify cattle at risk of SCK and improve the management of strategies to limit the effects. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Hindu-Muslim differences in the prevalence of coronary heart disease and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, V P; Prakash, H; Sarna, Mukesh; Sharma, A K

    2002-04-01

    Differences in coronary risk factors and coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence between the Hindus and the Muslims have not been adequately studied. This study aims to determine the prevalence of certain socio-economic and biological coronary risk factors in urban communities and to compare the findings found in the Hindus and the Muslims. The study employed a cross-sectional survey design and stratified random sampling technique consisting of 1,415 males and 797 females. Among males there were 1,092 Hindus (77.2%) and 272 Muslims (19.2%) while in females there were 685 Hindus (85.9%) and 91 Muslims (11.4%). Prevalence of illiteracy and sedentary lifestyle were significantly more in Muslims (pHindu males and in 1.2% Hindu females. No Muslim reported diabetes. Hindu males were significantly taller than Muslims (163.9 +/- 8.3 versus 160.9 +/- 8.9 cm; p Hindu males the diastolic BP was significantly greater than in Muslims (81.2 +/- 9.2 versus 79.0 +/- 8.6 mm Hg; p Hindu females the mean systolic BP was significantly more and there was also difference in hypertension prevalence (35.2% versus 25.3%). CHD prevalence was significantly greater in Hindu males as compared to the Muslims when determined by the presence of either ECG changes alone (4.3% versus 0.7%; p = 0.008) or ECG changes combined with clinical history (7.1% versus 1.8%; p = 0.002). A similar, though not significant, trend was seen in females (ECG changes: 8.9% versus 6.6%, clinical and ECG changes: 10.4% versus 6.6%). The prevalence of CHD is significantly more in Hindu males as compared to the Muslims and is associated with a greater prevalence of diabetes and hypertension.

  12. Urinary incontinence in the Netherlands: Prevalence and associated risk factors in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, J Marleen; Nijman, Rien J M; Trzpis, Monika; Broens, Paul M A

    2017-08-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with urinary incontinence (UI) among adults in the Netherlands. In this cross-sectional study, we included 1257 respondents aged ≥ 18 years, who completed the validated Groningen Defecation and Fecal Continence Checklist. UI was defined as any involuntary leakage of urine during the past 6 months. The prevalence of UI in the total group was 36.8%. Women experienced UI significantly more often than men (49.0% versus 22.6%, respectively, P < 0.001). We found that in both men and women, the prevalence of UI increased with aging (P = 0.003 and P < 0.001, respectively). Remarkably, multivariate analysis revealed that age did not influence UI in men. Men and women aged 18-39 also experienced UI (17.0% and 36.1%, respectively). We established that diabetes mellitus, fecal incontinence, and constipation were risk factors for UI. In women, obesity, vaginal hysterectomies, and vaginal parturition were also risk factors for UI, as was prostate surgery in men. The prevalence of UI in the Netherlands is high. Medical practitioners should therefore not underestimate this problem, especially among young people. Because the multivariate analysis revealed that in men age did not correlate significantly with UI, we believe that the risk of experiencing UI increases with age because of diseases that are known to lead to UI and not because of aging as a single factor itself. Finally, this study can be used as a reference for patients living in Western-Europe. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Epidemiology of glaucoma in sub-saharan Africa: prevalence, incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyari, Fatima; Abdull, Mohammed M; Bastawrous, Andrew; Gilbert, Clare E; Faal, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the epidemiology of different types of glaucoma relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to discuss the evidence regarding the risk factors for onset and progression of glaucoma, including risk factors for glaucoma blindness. Electronic databases (PubMed, MedLine, African Journals Online- AJOL) were searched using the full text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, author(s) and title to identify publications since 1982 in the following areas: population-based glaucoma prevalence and incidence studies in SSA and in African-derived black populations outside Africa; population-based prevalence and incidence of blindness and visual impairment studies in SSA including rapid assessment methods, which elucidate the glaucoma-specific blindness prevalence; studies of risk factors for glaucoma; and publications that discussed public health approaches for the control of glaucoma in Africa. Studies highlighted that glaucoma in SSA is a public health problem and predominantly open-angle glaucoma. It is the second-leading cause of blindness, has a high prevalence, an early onset and progresses more rapidly than in Caucasians. These factors are further compounded by poor awareness and low knowledge about glaucoma even by persons affected by the condition. Glaucoma care needs to be given high priority in Vision 2020 programs in Africa. Many questions remain unanswered and there is a need for further research in glaucoma in SSA in all aspects especially epidemiology and clinical care and outcomes involving randomized controlled trials. Genetic and genome-wide association studies may aid identification of high-risk groups. Social sciences and qualitative studies, health economics and health systems research will also enhance public health approaches for the prevention of blindness due to glaucoma.

  14. Epidemiology of Glaucoma in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prevalence, Incidence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyari, Fatima; Abdull, Mohammed M.; Bastawrous, Andrew; Gilbert, Clare E.; Faal, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review the epidemiology of different types of glaucoma relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to discuss the evidence regarding the risk factors for onset and progression of glaucoma, including risk factors for glaucoma blindness. Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, MedLine, African Journals Online- AJOL) were searched using the full text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, author(s) and title to identify publications since 1982 in the following areas: population-based glaucoma prevalence and incidence studies in SSA and in African-derived black populations outside Africa; population-based prevalence and incidence of blindness and visual impairment studies in SSA including rapid assessment methods, which elucidate the glaucoma-specific blindness prevalence; studies of risk factors for glaucoma; and publications that discussed public health approaches for the control of glaucoma in Africa. Results: Studies highlighted that glaucoma in SSA is a public health problem and predominantly open-angle glaucoma. It is the second-leading cause of blindness, has a high prevalence, an early onset and progresses more rapidly than in Caucasians. These factors are further compounded by poor awareness and low knowledge about glaucoma even by persons affected by the condition. Conclusion: Glaucoma care needs to be given high priority in Vision 2020 programs in Africa. Many questions remain unanswered and there is a need for further research in glaucoma in SSA in all aspects especially epidemiology and clinical care and outcomes involving randomized controlled trials. Genetic and genome-wide association studies may aid identification of high-risk groups. Social sciences and qualitative studies, health economics and health systems research will also enhance public health approaches for the prevention of blindness due to glaucoma. PMID:23741130

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for urinary incontinence in pregnant women during late third trimester

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Nigam; Ayesha Ahmad; Diksha Gaur; Arifa A. Elahi; Swaraj Batra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as any involuntary urinary leakage by the International continence society (ICS). The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in pregnant women in late third trimester. Methods: A questionnaire based survey done on 400 pregnant women in third trimester beyond 34 weeks of gestation. A pretested, semi structured questionnaire was used to enquire about demographic and personal information r...

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats of Batna area (Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Nabil Alloui,; Jaroslaw Kaba; Nadir Alloui

    2011-01-01

    An epidemiologic investigation of caseous lymphadenitis of the small ruminants (23 herds) was carried out in the Batna area (Algeria). The disease prevalence at the sheep and the goat was 8.9 and 1.6% respectively. This disease was more frequent in the adults. Clinically, the disease did not affect the animal’s general state. The internal disease form was not observed in 38 carcasses. The risk factors in the appearance of the disease were: bad hygiene, the precar...

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for depression in women with multiple sclerosis: a study from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Khadijeh; Rahnama, Parvin; Montazeri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis is increasingly becoming a major health problem among women worldwide. The aim of the present study was to estimate prevalence of depression in women with multiple sclerosis and also to identify risk factors contributing to its development. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of depression in a sample of 226 women with multiple sclerosis. The sample was recruited from an outpatient clinic in Tehran, Iran. Depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inv...

  18. Voice problems among Slovenian physicians compared to the teachers: Prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šereh Bahar

    2012-09-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of voice disorders among outpatients’ physicians in Slovenia is high and is comparable to the incidence of voice problems in Slovenian teachers. URI is the most common cause of these voice problems. GERD, allergies and an age over 40 years were stated as the risk factors for voice disorders. In order to reduce the extent of voice problems, lessons on vocal hygiene, and additional information about diseases causing voice disorders should be included in their postgraduate education.

  19. THE PREVALENCE OF DEPRESSION AND ITS RISK FACTORS AMONG MALAY ELDERLY IN RESIDENTIAL CARE

    OpenAIRE

    R. Normala; C. Azlini; M. J. Nurul Jannah; Z. M. Lukman

    2014-01-01

    The motivation for the study is to improve the quality of life for elderly in residential care particularly the mental health aspect. Hence, the aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of depression and to identify risk factors related to depression among Malay elderly in residential care. Changes in social structure and economic status have shifted the direction of care for elderly people, as the value of filial piety has gradually declined among the modern Malays. The researchers hyp...

  20. Prevalence of Low Back Pain and its Risk Factors among School Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul I.A. Samad; Haslinda Abdullah; Saidi Moin; Shamsul B.M. Tamrin; Zailina Hashim

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of low back pain and the associated risk factors among primary school teachers in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Approach: A cross sectional study was conducted in nine primary schools in the Klang Valley. The schools were selected randomly from a list obtained from the Ministry of Education. Two hundred and seventy two respondents who fulfilled the study criteria volunteered to participate in the study. A questionnai...

  1. The prevalence of NIDDM and associated risk factors in native Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S B; Gittelsohn, J; Hanley, A; Barnie, A; Wolever, T M; Gao, J; Logan, A; Zinman, B

    1997-02-01

    To determine the true prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), NIDDM, and associated risk factors by age and sex in an isolated native community. A community-wide prevalence survey using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was undertaken in the remote native reserve of Sandy Lake, Ontario, Canada. Measurements for obesity included waist-to-hip circumference, BMI, and percentage body fat. A total of 728 individuals were enrolled, representing a community participation rate of 72%. The overall crude prevalence of NIDDM was 17.2% (18.1% females and 16.0% males) and increased to 26.1% overall (28.0% females and 24.2% males) when age-standardized. The prevalence of IGT was higher in females compared with males (age-standardized prevalence of 19.8 vs. 7.1%, respectively). Females had a higher prevalence of obesity, IGT, and NIDDM occurring at younger ages. Measures of obesity and fasting insulin levels were significantly associated with NIDDM in the 18-49 age-group. The prevalence rates of NIDDM in this study population are the highest reported to date in a Canadian native population and among the highest reported in the world. Females appear to be at much higher risk of developing obesity, IGT, and NIDDM and at a younger age. Due to the high prevalence rates of IGT and NIDDM in this young population, there is urgent need to develop culturally appropriate community-based public health intervention programs before the long-term complications of diabetes have a devastating effect on the residents.

  2. Prevalence of risk factors for ischaemic stroke and their treatment among a cohort of stroke patients in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    2000-10-01

    The majority of strokes are due to ischaemia. Risk factors include atrial fibrillation, hypertension and smoking. The incidence can be reduced by addressing these risk factors. This study examines the prevalence of risk factors and their treatment in a cohort of patients with ischaemic stroke registered on a Dublin stroke database.

  3. PREVALENCE OF RISK FACTORS FOR HEPATITIS C AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS: a population-based study in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Timm KVITKO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Context The hepatitis C is a severe public health problem worldwide because its consequences. Studies which aim at determining the prevalence of risk factors are really important to understand the problem. Objective To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with some risk factors for the disease in a community, called Restinga, located in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Method This paper is based on a population-based cross-sectional study, with systematic sampling and proportional to the size of census tracts in which 3,391 adults answered a standardized questionnaire. Results The prevalence of blood transfusion among the people who were interviewed was 14.98%, 60.83% of those had it before 1993. A total of 16.16% of the people had a tattoo, 7.23% wore a piercing, 1.09% said they had already injected illicit drugs and 12.39% reported previous hospitalization. Prevalence ratios showed that tattoos were more common among young people, piercings among women and illicit drugs among men. Conclusions To summarize, the recognition of risk factors for hepatitis C enables proper screening of possible carriers of the hepatitis C virus, thus enabling a reduction in virus shedding. However, being only possible if health services are prepared to deal with hepatitis C virus, through education and public awareness.

  4. Toxocara canis in household dogs: prevalence, risk factors and owners' attitude towards deworming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijsse, R; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A; Mughini-Gras, L

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and risk factors for shedding of Toxocara eggs were determined for 916 Dutch household dogs older than 6 months. Additionally, the owners answered a questionnaire about their dogs and their attitude towards routine deworming was assessed. Faecal samples were examined using the centrifugal sedimentation flotation method. The overall prevalence of dogs shedding Toxocara eggs was 4.6 %. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk for 1-7-year-old dogs to shed Toxocara eggs was significantly lower (OR 0.38) than that of 6-12-month-old dogs. Compared to dogs walking ≤20 % of the time off-leash, those ranging freely 50-80 % and 80-100 % of the time had a significantly higher risk (OR 10.49 and 13.52, respectively) of shedding Toxocara eggs. Other risk factors were coprophagy (OR 2.44) and recently being kenneled (OR 2.76). Although the applied deworming frequency was not significantly associated with shedding Toxocara eggs, there was a trend towards no shedding in dogs under strict supervision that were dewormed 3-4 times a year. Most dog owners (68 %) recognized 'dog's health' as the main reason for deworming. Only 16 % of dogs were dewormed four times a year. It was concluded that the prevalence of Toxocara egg-shedding household dogs is almost unchanged over recent years and that the knowledge of owners is insufficient to expect sound decisions on routine deworming.

  5. Social anxiety disorder in Saudi adolescent boys: Prevalence, subtypes, and parenting style as a risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazwani, Jaafar Y; Khalil, Shamsun N; Ahmed, Razia A

    2016-01-01

    Available information on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents in Saudi Arabia is limited. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, severity, and subtypes of SAD, and parenting style risk factors associated with SAD in the adolescent. This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools for boys in Abha, Saudi Arabia during the Academic year 2013. To collect the data, a questionnaire eliciting information on background characteristics and parenting style as well as the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Test (LSAS), for the evaluation of SAD, were used. A total of 454 students participated in the study. The age of the participants ranged between 15 and 20 years with a mean of 17.4 years. The prevalence of SAD was 11.7%. Around 36% and 11.4% of the students respectively had severe and more severe forms of SAD. Parenting style such as parental anger, criticism particularly in front of others, exaggerated protection, maltreatment and family provocation emerged as a significant risk factor for SAD. The independent predictors of SAD were a parental provocation and physical or emotional maltreatment by the parent (odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90-8.31 and OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 3.17-5.19, respectively). The prevalence of SAD in secondary school students at Abha is high. Parenting style risk factors for SAD are modifiable. In this context, a national program to improve mental health in this age group is crucial.

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Obesity and Overweight among Primary School Children in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sadr-Bafghi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity and overweight are one of the health problems in developed and developing countries that are increasing every day. The purpose of this study was to asses the prevalence of obesity and overweight and their risk factors among preschool children in Yazd . .Methods: In a descriptive cross sectional study 400 preschool aged 6 years, including 200 boys and 200 girls were selected via random sampling method from among health assessment clinics and evaluated for obesity and overweight and their risk factors in 2005-2006. BMI for age and sex was based on standardized percentile curves for BMI ( NHNESIII accepted by WHO . Obesity was defined as BMI >95th and overweigh as BMI in 85-95th percentile. The data of the research was collected through complied questionnaire by interviewing parents and then analyzed and evaluated using SPSS: 11.5 software. Results: The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 3.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Frequency of obesity and overweight was approximately 5.5% and 5% in boys and 2%, 3.5% in girls, respectively. Obesity and overweight had a significant statistical relationship with physical activity, amount of television viewing and consumption of fast food and soda, but no statistically significant relationships were seen with sex, birth order and parental educational levels. Conclusion: In this study, prevalence of obesity and overweight was lower than other similar studies, but obesity risk factors should be considered during decision making on preventive measures.

  7. A Nation-Wide Study of Prevalence and Risk Factors for Fecal Impaction in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Enrique; Barcelo, Marta; Jiménez Cebrián, Maria Jose; Alvarez-Sanchez, Angel; Diaz-Rubio, Manuel; Rocha, Alberto Lopez

    2014-01-01

    Background There are no existing studies that provide data regarding the epidemiology of, and risk factors for, fecal impaction, either in the general population or in any sub-group of people. Objective Estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with fecal impaction on a representative sample of the institutionalized elderly population. Design Two-phase study. Phase 1: pilot study validating the methodology in which all residents of a single nursing home participated. Phase 2: national multi-center cross-sectional study. Setting 34 randomly selected nursing homes. Measurements The presence of fecal impaction and associated factors were evaluated using three different tools: data collected from medical records; a self-completion questionnaire filled out by the subjects or a proxy; and a rectal examination. Subjects Older subjects living in nursing homes. Results The prevalence of chronic constipation was 70.7% (95%CI: 67.3–74.1%), of which 95.9% of patients were properly diagnosed and 43.1% were properly controlled. The prevalence of FI according to patient history was 47.3% (43.6–51.0%) and 6.6% (4.7–8.5%) according to rectal examination. Controlled constipation (OR: 9.8 [5.2–18.4]) and uncontrolled constipation (OR: 37.21 [19.7–70.1]), the number of medications (OR: 1.2 [1.1–1.3]), reduced functional capacity (OR: 0.98 [0.97–0.99]) and the occasional use of NSAIDs were independent risk factors for fecal impaction. Conclusions Constipation affects more than 70% of people living in nursing homes. Although it is properly diagnosed in more than 95% of cases, the disease is only controlled in less than 50%. Constipation, especially when not controlled, is the most significant risk factor leading to fecal impaction, which is prevalent in almost 50% of this population. PMID:25148393

  8. The Prevalence, Risk Factors and Consequences of Neck Pain in Office Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ehsani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Office workers, especially computer users are at risk of developing neck pain (NP, while limited studies have been conducted on this issue. Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence, risk factors, and consequences of NP in office employees, and its effect on their quality of life and work. Methods This research was a cross sectional study conducted during years 2014 and 2015. Among all employees, 220 people were randomly selected from 10 welfare organization offices of Semnan city of Iran. Data regarding the individual characteristics, occurrence of NP and its intensity, health status, risk factors and consequences of NP including functional disability and quality of life and work, as well as work-related factors were collected. Results Immediate, last month, last six months, last year, and lifetime prevalence of NP were 38.1%, 39.7%, 41.1%, 45.8% and, 62.1%, respectively. The point prevalence of NP was significantly related to age, gender, health status, job satisfaction, and length of employment (P < 0.05. Elongated working hours on the computer, taking a prolonged sitting position, and static postures were the most irritating factors, respectively (P < 0.001. Taking medications and physiotherapy were the most effective intervention strategies that participants chose for the treatment of NP (60.2%. Conclusions The findings provide evidence that the prevalence of NP in office employees was high. The modifiable individual and work-related factors were as follows, improving health status, job satisfaction, reduction of working hours on the computer, avoiding prolonged sitting and static postures, having a rest time during working hours, and performing regular daily exercises.

  9. A nation-wide study of prevalence and risk factors for fecal impaction in nursing homes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are no existing studies that provide data regarding the epidemiology of, and risk factors for, fecal impaction, either in the general population or in any sub-group of people. OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with fecal impaction on a representative sample of the institutionalized elderly population. DESIGN: Two-phase study. Phase 1: pilot study validating the methodology in which all residents of a single nursing home participated. Phase 2: national multi-center cross-sectional study. SETTING: 34 randomly selected nursing homes. MEASUREMENTS: The presence of fecal impaction and associated factors were evaluated using three different tools: data collected from medical records; a self-completion questionnaire filled out by the subjects or a proxy; and a rectal examination. SUBJECTS: Older subjects living in nursing homes. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic constipation was 70.7% (95%CI: 67.3-74.1%, of which 95.9% of patients were properly diagnosed and 43.1% were properly controlled. The prevalence of FI according to patient history was 47.3% (43.6-51.0% and 6.6% (4.7-8.5% according to rectal examination. Controlled constipation (OR: 9.8 [5.2-18.4] and uncontrolled constipation (OR: 37.21 [19.7-70.1], the number of medications (OR: 1.2 [1.1-1.3], reduced functional capacity (OR: 0.98 [0.97-0.99] and the occasional use of NSAIDs were independent risk factors for fecal impaction. CONCLUSIONS: Constipation affects more than 70% of people living in nursing homes. Although it is properly diagnosed in more than 95% of cases, the disease is only controlled in less than 50%. Constipation, especially when not controlled, is the most significant risk factor leading to fecal impaction, which is prevalent in almost 50% of this population.

  10. [Threatened homelessness and mental disorders. Prevalence and influencing factors in populations at risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salize, H J; Dillmann-Lange, C; Kentner-Figura, B; Reinhard, I

    2006-11-01

    This study aims to assess the psychiatric morbidity of persons at risk of homelessness and to analyze correlations and risk factors between homelessness and mental disorders. The sample included 101 citizens of Mannheim, Germany, who were immediately threatened by eviction. Mental disorders were diagnosed using a standardized test, and other factors were also assessed. Data from August 2000 to June 2002 were collected. Acute mental disorders requiring treatment were determined in 79.3% of the study sample. Addiction disorders (alcoholism) played a major role. Personality, anxiety, and affective disorders were even more frequent than in a control group of homeless people in the same region, whereas schizophrenia and other mental disorders were similarly prevalent. Regression analyses confirmed unemployment, alcoholism, and male gender as the most important risk factors for homelessness among people threatened by eviction. The results suggest that prevention strategies should be multidimensional and interdisciplinary.

  11. Decreasing prevalence of no known major risk factors for cardiovascular disease among Mississippi adults, Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2001 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent L. Mendy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in Mississippi. However, the prevalence of no known CVD risk factors among Mississippi adults and the change of prevalence in the past 9 years have not been described. We assess changes in prevalence of no known CVD risk factors during 2001 and 2009. Methods Prevalence of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, physical inactivity, smoking, and obesity were investigated. Survey respondents who reported having none of these factors were defined as having no known CVD risk factors. Differences in prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were determined using t-test analysis. Results Overall, age-standardized prevalence of having no known CVD risk factors significantly decreased from 17.3% in 2001 to 14.5% in 2009 (p = 0.0091. The age-standardized prevalence of no known CVD risk factors were significantly lower in 2009 than in 2001 among blacks (8.9% vs. 13.2%, p = 0.008; males (13.5% vs. 17.9%, p = 0.0073; individuals with a college degree (25.2%, vs. 30.8%, p = 0.0483; and those with an annual household income of $20,000–$34,999 (11.6% vs. 16.9%, p = 0.0147; and $35,000–$49,999 (15.2% vs. 23.3%, p = 0.0135. Conclusion The prevalence of no known CVD risk factors among Mississippi adults significantly decreased from 2001 to 2009 with observed differences by race, age group, sex, and annual household income.

  12. Urinary schistosomiasis among schoolchildren in Yemen: prevalence, risk factors, and the effect of a chemotherapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waleedi, Ali A; El-Nimr, Nessrin A; Hasab, Ali A; Bassiouny, Hassan K; Al-Shibani, Latifa A

    2013-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important public health problems in Yemen. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis varies considerably across different parts of Yemen and was estimated to be 10% among schoolchildren in Sana'a. Praziquantel (PZQ) is highly effective against all five major human species of schistosomes. The aim of the present work was to estimate the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis, describe the risk factors associated with its endemicity, and implement and assess a chemotherapeutic intervention using PZQ in a village in Yemen. The sample included 696 schoolchildren from a village in Abyan Governorate. During the baseline school survey, personal, sociodemographic, and environmental data, and data on practices in relation to water contact were collected from each study participant using a predesigned structured questionnaire. Urine samples from each participant were examined for macrohematuria and the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs. The chemotherapeutic intervention was assessed 3 and 6 months after the treatment and certain indicators were calculated. The prevalence of S. haematobium was 18.1%. The main significant risk factors were male sex; proximity of houses to water ponds; and using pond water for swimming, agricultural activities, and for bathing in houses. PZQ treatment reduced the prevalence of infection and decreased the prevalence of high-intensity infection. Survival analysis showed that the probability of residual infection also dropped after the treatment intervention. Male sex and using pond water for various activities were the main significant risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis. PZQ is still a cornerstone drug in reducing or eliminating morbidity associated with schistosomiasis infection. Health education programs tailored for the community are required for the control and prevention of urinary schistosomiasis. To address schoolchildren, school curricula should include lessons about urinary

  13. Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome in obese Kuwaiti adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boodai SA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shurooq A Boodai,1 Lynne M Cherry,2 Naveed A Sattar,2 John J Reilly3 1University of Glasgow School of Medicine, Yorkhill Hospitals, Glasgow, Scotland; 2Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland; 3University of Strathclyde Physical Activity for Health Group, School of Psychological Sciences and Health, Glasgow, Scotland Background: Childhood and adolescent obesity is associated with insulin resistance, abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation, liver disease, and compromised vascular function. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MetS in a sample of obese Kuwaiti adolescents, as prevalence data might be helpful in improving engagement with obesity treatment in future. Methods: Eighty obese Kuwaiti adolescents (40 males with a mean (standard deviation age of 12.3 years (1.1 years participated in the present study. All participants had a detailed clinical examination and anthropometry, blood pressure taken, and assessment of fasting levels of C-reactive protein, intracellular adhesion molecule, interleukin-6, fasting blood glucose, insulin, liver function tests (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lipid profile (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment, and adiponectin. MetS was assessed using two recognized criteria modified for use in younger individuals. Results: The cardiometabolic risk factors with highest prevalence of abnormal values included aspartate aminotransferase (88.7% of the sample and insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (67.5%, intracellular adhesion molecule (66.5%, fasting insulin (43.5%, C-reactive protein (42.5%, low

  14. Prevalence, risk awareness and health beliefs of behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular disease among university students in nine ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2018-02-13

    Understanding behavioural risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is of great importance for CVD prevention and control. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence, risk awareness and health beliefs of behavioural risk factors of cardiovascular disease among university students in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states. In a cross-sectional survey 8806 (37.5% male and 62.5% female) university students (Mean age 20.6, SD = 2.0) from nine ASEAN countries responded to an anonymous questionnaire. Results indicate that across all nine countries, among men and women, 27.5% and 16.9%, respectively, were overweight or obese, 39.0% and 53.0% engaged in low physical activity, 6.9% and 2.5% were current tobacco users, 10.1% and 4.2% had engaged in binge drinking in the past month and 62.7% and 58.2%, respectively, did not avoid eating fat and cholesterol. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, health status and health benefits, poor risk awareness was associated with tobacco use and binge drinking, and after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, health status and risk awareness, poorer health benefits beliefs predicted overweight, low physical activity, tobacco use, binge drinking and non-avoidance of fat and cholesterol. The study found a high prevalence of behavioural risk factors of CVD. Results may inform health promotion strategies among university students in ASEAN.

  15. Prevalence of Isolated Diastolic Hypertension and Associated Risk Factors among Different Ethnicity Groups in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fen; Adi, Dilare; Xie, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Shan, Chun-Fang; Huang, Ying; Chen, Bang-Dang; Gai, Min-Tao; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) among different ethnicity groups. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for IDH among the major ethnicity population i.e. Han, Uygur and Kazakh in Xinjiang, northwestern part of China. In total, 14,618 adult participants (7,799 males, 6,819 females) were recruited from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey conducted during 2007 and 2010. Blood pressure, body mass index and standard lipid profile and fasting glucose level from plasma were measured. The overall prevalence of IDH was 10.8% in the Han, 4.5% in the Uygur and 8.7% in the Kazakh populations. When stratified by gender, IDH prevalence was 9.8% in men and 6.8% in women (P<0.001). The prevalence of IDH also varied significantly with age and it was highest in those aged 35-44 yrs old (9.7%) and lowest in those over 75 yrs old (4.1%, P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that overweight (OR = 1.179, 95%CI: 1.015-1.369) or obesity (OR = 1.202, 95%CI: 1.015-1.424), smoking (OR = 1.362, 95%CI: 1.156-1.604) and high total cholesterol (TC) hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.237, 95%CI: 1.074-1.423) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of IDH. Identified risk factors for IDH differed among ethnicity groups with male gender, young age (35-44 yrs old), more coffee or tea consumption and high TC hyperlipidemia in the Han; smoking and often coffee or tea consumption in the Uygur and male gender and overweight or obesity in the Kazakh populations. IDH prevalence in the Han population is higher than that in the Uygur and Kazak populations in Xinjiang, northwestern part of China. Male gender, middle age, overweight or obesity, smoking and high TC hyperlipidemia appear to be relevant risk factors of IDH in adults. Different ethnicity background had different sets of risk factors for IDH.

  16. Prevalence of Isolated Diastolic Hypertension and Associated Risk Factors among Different Ethnicity Groups in Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Liu

    Full Text Available Little is known about isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH among different ethnicity groups. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for IDH among the major ethnicity population i.e. Han, Uygur and Kazakh in Xinjiang, northwestern part of China.In total, 14,618 adult participants (7,799 males, 6,819 females were recruited from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey conducted during 2007 and 2010. Blood pressure, body mass index and standard lipid profile and fasting glucose level from plasma were measured.The overall prevalence of IDH was 10.8% in the Han, 4.5% in the Uygur and 8.7% in the Kazakh populations. When stratified by gender, IDH prevalence was 9.8% in men and 6.8% in women (P<0.001. The prevalence of IDH also varied significantly with age and it was highest in those aged 35-44 yrs old (9.7% and lowest in those over 75 yrs old (4.1%, P<0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that overweight (OR = 1.179, 95%CI: 1.015-1.369 or obesity (OR = 1.202, 95%CI: 1.015-1.424, smoking (OR = 1.362, 95%CI: 1.156-1.604 and high total cholesterol (TC hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.237, 95%CI: 1.074-1.423 were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of IDH. Identified risk factors for IDH differed among ethnicity groups with male gender, young age (35-44 yrs old, more coffee or tea consumption and high TC hyperlipidemia in the Han; smoking and often coffee or tea consumption in the Uygur and male gender and overweight or obesity in the Kazakh populations.IDH prevalence in the Han population is higher than that in the Uygur and Kazak populations in Xinjiang, northwestern part of China. Male gender, middle age, overweight or obesity, smoking and high TC hyperlipidemia appear to be relevant risk factors of IDH in adults. Different ethnicity background had different sets of risk factors for IDH.

  17. High prevalence of primary multidrug resistant tuberculosis in persons with no known risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Otero

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In high multidrug resistant (MDR tuberculosis (TB prevalence areas, drug susceptibility testing (DST at diagnosis is recommended for patients with risk factors for MDR. However, this approach might miss a substantial proportion of MDR-TB in the general population. We studied primary MDR in patients considered to be at low risk of MDR-TB in Lima, Peru. METHODS: We enrolled new sputum smear-positive TB patients who did not report any MDR-TB risk factor: known exposure to a TB patient whose treatment failed or who died or who was known to have MDR-TB; immunosuppressive co-morbidities, ex prison inmates; prison and health care workers; and alcohol or drug abuse. A structured questionnaire was applied to all enrolled participants to confirm the absence of these factors and thus minimize underreporting. Sputum from all participants was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen media and DST for first line drugs was performed using the 7H10 agar method. RESULTS: Of 875 participants with complete data, 23.2% (203 had risk factors for MDR-TB elicited after enrolment. Among the group with no reported risk factors who had a positive culture, we found a 6.3% (95%CI 4.4-8.3 (37/584 rate of MDR-TB. In this group no epidemiological characteristics were associated with MDR-TB. Thus, in this group, multidrug resistance occurred in patients with no identifiable risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high rate of primary MDR-TB in a general population with no identifiable risk factors for MDR-TB. This suggests that in a high endemic area targeting patients for MDR-TB based on the presence of risk factors is an insufficient intervention.

  18. Prevalence of risk factors for the occurrence of strokes in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Souza Pinho Costa

    Full Text Available Introduction Stroke (CVA is a multifactorial disease, where the combination of risk factors may be associated with and contribute to its development. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of risk factors for stroke in the physically independent elderly in the city of Londrina, Brazil. Materials and methods This study was composed of the elderly individuals participating in the EELO project (Age and Ageing Study, Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil. In order to identify the risk factors for stroke, one used a structured questionnaire with information about socio-demographic and anthropometric data as well as lifestyle variables, such as physical inactivity and smoking, presence of comorbidities, and laboratory tests for diagnosis of diabetes and dyslipidemia. Results The study included 454 elderly with mean age of 69.7 years. There was a significant relationship between the number of risk factors and gender (p = 0.01, with higher prevalence among women. In separate analysis, the elderly between 60 and 69 years had a higher incidence of obesity (p = 0.03 and dyslipidemia (p = 0.04. Regarding gender, obesity (p = 0.01, smoking (p = 0.0001, vascular disease (p = 0.0001 and heart disease in the family (p = 0.01 higher incidence was shown in females, according toChi Square’s test. Conclusions It is concluded that elderly people aged less than 70 years and older women were those with the highest number of risk factors for CVA. Therefore, it may be suggested the development of primary care programs in order to promote information on the prevention of these risk factors and thus reduce the occurrence of stroke.

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Refractive Error in Adult Chinese Americans: The Chinese American Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Rohit; Torres, Mina; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Rong, Fen; Hsu, Chunyi; Jiang, Xuejuan

    2017-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of refractive errors in adult Chinese Americans, and to evaluate factors associated with myopia and high myopia. A population-based, cross-sectional study. Chinese Americans 50 years and older residing in Monterey Park, California, were recruited. Noncycloplegic automated refraction with supplemental subjective refraction was performed. Myopia, high myopia, hyperopia, and high hyperopia were defined as a spherical equivalent of +0.5 D, and ≥+3.0 D, respectively. Astigmatism and high astigmatism were defined as a cylinder of >0.5 D and >2.25 D, respectively. Risk factor assessment was guided by a conceptual model. Data from 4144 participants were analyzed. The overall prevalence of myopia, high myopia, hyperopia, high hyperopia, astigmatism, and high astigmatism in the right eye was 35.1% (95% confidence interval, 33.6%-36.6%), 7.4% (6.6%-8.3%), 40.2% (38.7%-41.8%), 2.7% (2.2%-3.3%), 45.6% (44.1%-47.2%), and 3.7% (3.1%-4.3%), respectively. The prevalence of myopia and high myopia was lower among older individuals (P refractive errors (P prevalence of refractive errors, except for a higher prevalence of hyperopia among female subjects (P = .010). Age, acculturation, education, income, marital status, birth country, history of ocular disease, nonocular comorbidities, and recent eye examination were associated with prevalence of myopia. All of these factors, except for acculturation, were also associated with high myopia. Our data present the first population-based estimates of the prevalence of refractive errors among adult Chinese Americans. Compared with whites, Hispanics, and blacks, Chinese Americans have a higher burden of myopia, high myopia, and astigmatism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Low back pain among school teachers in Botswana, prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erick, Patience N; Smith, Derek R

    2014-10-30

    Although low back pain (LBP) represents a common occupational problem, few epidemiological studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors for LBP among school teachers, particularly in Africa. School teachers are known to represent an occupational group among which there appears to be a high prevalence of LBP. The objective of this study was, therefore, to conduct one of the first epidemiological investigations of LBP among teachers in Botswana. A cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers in Botswana using self-administered questionnaires which were distributed to 3100 randomly selected school teachers and collected over a five-month period between July and November 2012. The questionnaire included low back pain information, demographic data, lifestyle, work-related characteristics and psychosocial factors. Data were analysed using Chi-squared and logistic regression models. The 12 month prevalence and LBP disability and associated risk factors were also analysed. A total of 1747 teachers returned completed questionnaires, yielding a response rate of 56.3%. The 12-month prevalence of LBP was 55.7%, with 67.1% of them reporting minimal disability. The results of logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender [OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.14-2.00] and previous back injury [OR: 9.67, 95% CI: 4.94-18.93] were positively correlated to LBP. Awkward arm position [OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.24-2.62] and high psychological job demands [OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.02-1.93] were also significantly associated with LBP. Regular physical exercise was negatively associated with LBP [OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.43-0.93]. Female gender [OR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.52-3.99] and previous back injury [OR: 3.01, 95% CI: 1.92-4.74] were also positively associated with LBP disability. The prevalence of LBP appears to be high among school teachers in Botswana. A wide variety of LBP risk factors were identified in this study. Female gender and previous injury were both associated with LBP presence

  1. The prevalence and risk factors of stunting among primary school children in North Sumatera, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, S.; Fujiati, I. I.; Keumalasari, D.; Daulay, M.

    2018-03-01

    Stunting in primary school-aged children is a kind of health and nutrition problem in Indonesia which has an impact on the human quality resources degradation. This research aimed to determine the stunting prevalence and the risk factors associated with stunting in primary school children in North Sumatra Province. This research is an analysis of cross-sectional approach. The total sampleis 400 children aged 8-13 years old were in the study from the Medan city and Langkat regency in July - October 2017. Data collected by using questionnaire and anthropometric assessment. Stunting (World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were used toassess the association between risk factors and stunting. The prevalence of stunting in primary school children was 38.87%. The factors associated with stunting school children were theeducation of mother (OR=1.53), income (OR=2.27), work of mother (OR=1.39), energy intake (OR=2.66) and protein intake (OR=2.02). The dominant factor that influences stunting in school children was energy intake. The conclusion of this study is stunting prevalence in school children in NorthSumatra higher.

  2. Assessing the Prevalence of Risk Factors for Neglected Tropical Diseases in Brazos County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer; Goldberg, Daniel; Hammond, Tracy; Stone, Kahler; Smitherman, Seth

    2017-10-04

    Although more than one billion people live at risk of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in areas of Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America, the degree to which they burden countries like the U.S. is unclear. Even though many NTDs such as dengue, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease are typically not endemic to the U.S., the possibility of their emergence is noteworthy, especially in states like Texas with high levels of poverty, large immigrant populations, geographic proximity to endemic areas, and a climate amenable to the vectors for these diseases. Despite the health threat that emerging NTDs may pose, little is known about the prevalence of risk factors for NTDs in the U.S. We tested the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) method to assess the prevalence of risk factors for NTDs in Brazos County, Texas.Results: We found relatively low prevalence of risk factors related to travel (5.2% of respondents visited an endemic area in the previous 3 months); however, few respondents reported adherence to mosquito prevention, such as wearing long sleeves and long pants (14.1%, 95% CI: 13.9,14.4) and repellant containing DEET (13.5%, 95% CI: 13.2,13.7). Between 5.4% and 35.8% of respondents had a visible container (e.g., pet water dishes, flower pots, bird baths) that could support mosquito breeding. CASPER findings present public health authorities with potential avenues for implementing health education and other interventions aimed at reducing exposure to risk factors for NTDs among Texas residents.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of depressive episodes among student population in Wroclaw - epidemiological study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagdańska, Marta; Kiejna, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors and estimate prevalence of depressive episodes among Wroclaw's universities students. Polish adaptation of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was implemented to gather epidemiological data from 370 students of public universities in Wroclaw. Proportional stratified sampling was performed to obtain distinct, independent strata representing sex, year of study and educational profiles. Randomisation was ensured by recruitment procedures. Prevalence of depressive episodes among students in Wroclaw is high - 14.7% throughout life, 9.8% within 12 months prior to the interview. High prevalence of severe and moderate depressive episodes seems to be worrisome (respectively 5.1% and 6.6% throughout life, 3.8% and 3.9% within 12 months prior to the study). Year of study, profile and lack of partner relationship remain risk factor for depression. High prevalence of depressive episodes indicates the need for prevention and therapy based on epidemiological data and tailored to the students' needs. Depression among students requires further epidemiological studies.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for Equine Infectious Anemia in Poconé municipality, northern Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alice M C M; Silva, Lucas G; Nogueira, Márcia F; Oliveira, Anderson C S; Segri, Neuber J; Ferreira, Fernando; Witter, Rute; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2013-08-01

    Serum samples collected from 547 equids in the Pantanal region of Brazil were evaluated for antibodies to Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) by the agar gel immunodiffusion test. Risk factors associated with EIAV seropositivity were evaluated and spatial dependence investigated using a Spatial Lag Model. EIAV prevalence on farms in the Pantanal was 52.0% (13/25) with adjusted prevalence between equids of 31.5% (17.4-48.8% 95% CI). Intra-herd prevalence ranged from 5.0 to 77.0%. Statistical analysis demonstrated that farms and animals in regularly flooded areas had respectively 60 and 146 fold higher chance to be sero-positive than farms and animals located in non-flooded areas. Spatial Lag Model results were generally consistent with this conclusion although there was a negative spatial correlation between farms located within in regularly inundated regions, suggesting that other factors, such as management practices, probably play a significant role in transmission of EIAV. Equids with clinical signs were 3.74-fold more likely to be sero-positive than those without clinical signs. The results of this work reveal a high prevalence of EIAV in the Pantanal area of Brazil demonstrating that equids reared in this region are at great risk of infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychotic Symptoms in Kenya – Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Relationship with Common Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kiima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been few epidemiological surveys to establish prevalence and associated risk factors of psychosis in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports a population- based epidemiological survey in rural Kenya of the prevalence of psychotic symptoms and their relationship with demographic, socio-economic and other risk factors. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza province, Kenya (50,000 population were studied, aiming for a sample size of 1,000 people. The psychosis screening questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the preceding twelve months. The response rate was 87.6%. The prevalence of single psychotic symptoms in rural Kenya was 8% of the adult population, but only 0.6% had two symptoms and none had three or more psychotic symptoms in this sample size. Psychotic symptoms were evenly distributed across this relatively poor rural population and were significantly associated with presence of common mental disorders, and to a lesser extent with poor physical health and housing type. We conclude that single psychotic symptoms are relatively common in rural Kenya and rates are elevated in those with CMD, poor physical health and poor housing.

  6. Psychotic symptoms in Kenya--prevalence, risk factors, and relationship with common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rachel; Njenga, Frank; Okonji, Marx; Kigamwa, Pius; Baraza, Makheti; Ayuyo, James; Singleton, Nicola; McManus, Sally; Kiima, David

    2012-05-01

    There have been few epidemiological surveys to establish prevalence and associated risk factors of psychosis in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports a population-based epidemiological survey in rural Kenya of the prevalence of psychotic symptoms and their relationship with demographic, socio-economic and other risk factors. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza province, Kenya (50,000 population) were studied, aiming for a sample size of 1,000 people. The psychosis screening questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the preceding twelve months. The response rate was 87.6%. The prevalence of single psychotic symptoms in rural Kenya was 8% of the adult population, but only 0.6% had two symptoms and none had three or more psychotic symptoms in this sample size. Psychotic symptoms were evenly distributed across this relatively poor rural population and were significantly associated with presence of common mental disorders, and to a lesser extent with poor physical health and housing type. We conclude that single psychotic symptoms are relatively common in rural Kenya and rates are elevated in those with CMD, poor physical health and poor housing.

  7. [Prevalence and risk factors of social anxiety disorder in high schools and universities in Chengdu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Wu, Wel-li; Hu, Jun-mei; Qiu, Chang-jian; Wang, Qiang; Wei, Geng; Sun, Jin-hua; Yang, Chuang; Song, Ping; Ye, An-hong; Zhang, Wei

    2006-07-01

    To explore the prevalence and risk factors of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in high schools and universities in Chengdu. 2279 students in Chengdu sampled by optimum distributing delaminating grouping method were interviewed one-to-one by the trained psychiatrists according to SCID. Both the cooperated SAD patients (n=156) and the normal counterparts (NC, n=156) in the 2279 students completed Egma Minnen av Bardndosnauppforstran (EMBU), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Form Y), Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ). There were 179 SAD patients, 88 female ones and 91 male ones, in the 2279 students of the high schools and universities in Chengdu. Statistical analysis reveals that the SAD patients differ from the NC in seven aspects, i.e. growing circumstances (P = 0.049), family economical status(P = 0.000), family history of psychiatric disorder, scales of EMBU,STAI, FNE and DSQ. The total prevalence of SAD in the students of high schools and universities in Chengdu was 8.15%, the female prevalence 8.35%, and the male prevalence 7.62%. The possible risk factors were: growing up in the countryside, low family economic state, parental rearing pattern being deficient in emotional warmth, understanding, trust and encouragement but excessive in refuse, denial and overprotection, having anxiety trait, feeling fear of negative evaluation, more likely to use neurotic and immature defense mechanism while less likely to use mature defense mechanism, having positive family mental disorder history.

  8. Analyse of the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism in the patients with dyspnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yanxia; Su Jian; Wang Bingsheng; Wu Songhong; Dai Ruiting; Cao Caixia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with dyspnea and to explore the predisposing causes and its early clinical manifestations. Methods: Retrospective analysis was done in 461 patients with dyspnea performed 99 Tc m -macroaggregated albumin (MAA) lung perfusion imaging and 99 Tc m -DTPA ventilation imaging or 99 Tc m -MAA perfusion imaging and chest X-ray examination. Among them, 48 cases without apparent disease were considered as control group, whereas the remaining patients with other underlying illnesses as patients group. PEMS statistics software package was used for estimation of prevalence rate, χ 2 test and PE risk factor analysis. Results: There were 251 PE patients among 461 patients, the prevalence rate [ (π)=95% confidence interval (CI) ] was: lower extremity thrombosis and varicosity (80.79-95.47 ), post cesarean section (55.64-87.12), lower extremity bone surgery or fracture (52.76-87.27 ), cancer operation (52.19-78.19), atrial fibrillation or heart failure (53.30-74.88), obesity (23.14-50.20), post abdominal surgery (20.23-59.43), diabetes (19.12-63.95), chronic bronchitis (1.80-23.06), normal control group (3.47-22.66). Except chronic bronchitis, PE prevalence rate between patients group and control group had significant difference (P 99 Tc m -MAA and DTPA lung imaging should be done as early as possible. (authors)

  9. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Abbey; Frankena, Klaas; Bødker, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite (liver fluke), infects a wide range of host species causing fasciolosis. The disease is prevalent world-wide and causes considerable economic losses to the livestock industry. Fasciolosis is regarded as an emerging food-borne zoonosis. To promote...... awareness among farmers and to implement strategies to control the infection, this study examined the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish cattle herds. Methods: A retrospective population based study was performed using meat inspection data...... of approximately 1.5 million cattle slaughtered in the period 2011 to 2013. Annual cumulative prevalence of recorded liver fluke findings was calculated for each year. Global and local spatial cluster analysis was used to identify and map spatial patterns of Fasciola hepatica positive and negative herds to explore...

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of abuse among community dwelling elderly of Guwahati City, Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anku Moni Saikia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spite of tremendous impact on health, elder abuse is still an underreported and unrecognized issue. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of abuse among community dwelling elderly and to identify the various risk factors. Materials and Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 randomly selected wards of Guwahati city. A total of 331 elderly (60 years and above were interviewed. Abuse was screened by Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S EAST. Results: The study revealed 9.31% prevalence. Neglect was the most common type of abuse reported. Age, sex, socioeconomic status, living status, and functional status were found to be significantly associated with abuse. Conclusion: Abuse is prevalent among elderly population.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in patients with COPD in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Shian; Hsu, Kun-Yen; Chen, Yi-Jen; Chen, Cheng-Ren; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and the associated risk factors for patients with COPD. This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 427 COPD patients (mean age: 70.0 years) without PAD symptoms consecutively. Demographic data, lung function and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) was used to detect PAD (ABI<0.90). The overall prevalence of asymptomatic PAD in the COPD patients was 8% (2.5% in the younger participants (<65 years of age, n = 118) and 10% in the elderly participants (≥65 years of age, n = 309). The COPD patients with asymptomatic PAD had a significantly higher rate of hyperlipidemia (47.1% vs. 10.4%) and hypertension (79.4% vs. 45.8%) than those without asymptomatic PAD (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in lung function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second) between the two groups. In multivariate logistic regression, hyperlipidemia was the strongest independent factor for PAD (odds ratio (OR): 6.89, p<0.005), followed by old age (OR: 4.80), hypertension (OR: 3.39) and smoking burden (pack-years, OR: 1.02). The prevalence of asymptomatic PAD among COPD patients in Taiwan is lower than in Western countries. Hyperlipidemia, old age, hypertension, and smoking burden were the associated cardiovascular risk factors. However, there was no association between lung function and PAD in the COPD patients.

  12. Bovine mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors in dairy cows in Nyagatare District, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraguha, Blaise; Hamudikuwanda, Humphrey; Mushonga, Borden

    2015-07-14

    In response to farmer requests after milk from their herds was rejected by processors due to poor quality, a study was carried out from April to October 2011 to determine the prevalence of sub clinical mastitis, associated risk factors and causative micro-organisms. Samples were collected from 195 dairy cows on 23 randomly selected dairy farms delivering milk to Isangano, Kirebe and Nyagatare milk collection centres in Nyagatare District, Rwanda. The Draminski Mastitis Detector was used to detect sub clinical mastitis in individual cows based on milk electrical conductivity changes. Risk factors for mastitis that were evaluated included teat-end condition, cow dirtiness, breed, parity, age and stage of lactation. Relationships of these factors with mastitis status were determined using Chi-square analysis, and relative importance as causes of mastitis was assessed using logistic regression. Samples from 16 sub clinical mastitis positive dairy cows were analysed to identify causative micro-organisms using Dairy Quality Control Inspection analytical kits. Sub clinical mastitis prevalence was 52% across the farms. It was higher with increases in, amongst other risk factors, teat-end damage severity, cow dirtiness, and level of pure dairy breed genetics. The risk factors considered accounted for 62% of mastitis prevalence; teat-end condition alone accounted for 30%. Most of the mastitis cases (87.5%) were caused by coliform bacteria. Considering that farmers are upgrading their local Ankole cows to cross-breed dairy cows that are more susceptible to mastitis, results from this study indicate the need to dip the teats of cows in sanitisers, improve cow hygiene, and introduce mastitis prevention and control programmes.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in patients with COPD in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shian Lin

    Full Text Available AIM: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD and the associated risk factors for patients with COPD. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 427 COPD patients (mean age: 70.0 years without PAD symptoms consecutively. Demographic data, lung function and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. The ankle-brachial index (ABI was used to detect PAD (ABI<0.90. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of asymptomatic PAD in the COPD patients was 8% (2.5% in the younger participants (<65 years of age, n = 118 and 10% in the elderly participants (≥65 years of age, n = 309. The COPD patients with asymptomatic PAD had a significantly higher rate of hyperlipidemia (47.1% vs. 10.4% and hypertension (79.4% vs. 45.8% than those without asymptomatic PAD (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in lung function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second between the two groups. In multivariate logistic regression, hyperlipidemia was the strongest independent factor for PAD (odds ratio (OR: 6.89, p<0.005, followed by old age (OR: 4.80, hypertension (OR: 3.39 and smoking burden (pack-years, OR: 1.02. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of asymptomatic PAD among COPD patients in Taiwan is lower than in Western countries. Hyperlipidemia, old age, hypertension, and smoking burden were the associated cardiovascular risk factors. However, there was no association between lung function and PAD in the COPD patients.

  14. The Prevalence of High-Risk HPV Types and Factors Determining Infection in Female Colombian Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Del Río-Ospina

    Full Text Available This study reports six HR-HPV types' infection prevalence discriminated by species and multiple infection in unvaccinated Colombian female adolescents, as well as some factors modulating the risk of infection. HPV DNA for six high-risk viral types was identified in cervical samples taken from 2,134 12-19 year-old females using conventional generic and type-specific PCR. Binomial logistical regression analysis was used for modelling HR-HPV infection and multiple infection risk. The interaction between variables in a stepwise model was also included in such analysis. Viral DNA was detected in 48.97% of the females; 28.52% of them had multiple infections, HPV-16 being the most frequently occurring type (37.44%. Cytological abnormality prevalence was 15.61%. Being over 16 years-old (1.66: 1.01-2.71 95%CI, white ethnicity (4.40: 1.16-16.73 95%CI, having had 3 or more sexual partners (1.77: 1.11-2.81 95%CI and prior sexually-transmitted infections (STI (1.65: 1.17-2.32 95%CI were associated with a greater risk of HPV infection. Having given birth was related to a higher risk of infection by A7 species and antecedent of abortion to less risk of coinfection. Where the females in this study came from also influenced the risk of infection by A7 species as female adolescents from the Andean region had a lower risk of infection (0.42: 0.18-0.99 95%CI. The presence of factors related to risky sexual behaviour in the study population indicated that public health services should pay special attention to female adolescents to modify the risk of infection by high-risk HPV types and decrease their impact on this age group.

  15. The prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among Polish surgical patients over 65 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołtuniuk A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aleksandra Kołtuniuk, Joanna Rosińczuk Department of Nervous System Diseases, Faculty of Health Science, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of mortality among adults in Poland. A number of risk factors have significant influence on CVD incidence. Early identification of risk factors related to our lifestyle facilitates taking proper actions aiming at the reduction of their negative impact on health.Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of CVD risk factors between patients aged over 65 years and patients of other age groups in surgical wards.Material and methods: The study was conducted for assessment and finding the distribution of major risk factors of CVD among 420 patients aged 18–84 years who were hospitalized in surgical wards. Interview, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were conducted in all subjects. Statistical analysis of the material was performed using Student’s t-test, chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and analysis of variance.Results: While abdominal obesity (83.3%, overweight and obesity (68%, hypertension (65.1%, hypercholesterolemia (33.3%, and low level of physical activity (29.1% were the most common CVD risk factors among patients over 65 years old, abdominal obesity (36.2%, overweight and obesity (36.1%, and current smoking were the most common CVD risk factors among patients up to the age of 35. In the age group over 65, the least prevalent risk factors for CVD were diabetes mellitus (14.8%, depressive episodes (13.6%, abuse of alcohol (11.4%, and smoking (7.8%. In the group under 35 years, we have not reported any cases of hypercholesterolemia and a lesser number of patients suffered from diabetes and HTN.Conclusion: Distribution of the major risk factors for CVD is quite high in the adult population, especially in the age group over 65

  16. PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC CO-RELATES OF ADOLESCENT HYPERTENSION IN DISTRICT GHAZIABAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendra Kumar Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a chronic condition of concern due to its role in the causation of coronary heart disease, stroke and other  complications. It is one of the major risk factors for cardio-vascular mortality accounting for 20-50% of all deaths. Children with higher blood pressure tend to maintain those levels during adulthood also. Objectives:  Assess the prevalence of hypertension in adolescents (11-18 years, its risk factors and their socio-demographic co-relates. Material and Method:  Prevalence of adolescent hypertension in previous studies was 7% and the sample size accordingly came to be 1314 with a relative precision of 20%. Multistage sampling technique was used. Half each of the sample size was covered in urban and rural areas . Households in the selected colonies in the urban areas and villages were randomly selected and the adolescents interviewed and examined. Their responses were recorded on a pretested questionnaire and results drawn. Data were analysed using Epi-info and SPSS and chi-square test applied. Results:   Prevalence of adolescent hypertension was found to be 5.3% (72 out of 1340; significantly associated with type of family (P<0.001, educational status (P<0.001, occupation (P<0.001, BMI (P<0.01, and smoking habit (P<0.05. However, no relationship of hypertension was found with salt intake, type of diet, exercise, alcohol consumption, stress and family history of hypertension. Conclusion: Socio-demographic factors certainly influence the prevalence and probability of occurrence of adolescent hypertension but the effect of established risk factors (for adult hypertension needs to be further evaluated for adolescent hypertension and more studies are required in this area.

  17. Prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors in people with long-term spinal cord injury living in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaansen, Jacinthe J E; Douma-Haan, Yvonne; van Asbeck, Floris W A; van Koppenhagen, Casper F; de Groot, Sonja; Smit, Christof A; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Post, Marcel W M

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors in people with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI) and to compare the prevalence of high blood pressure and/or the use of antihypertensive drugs with the prevalence in the Dutch general population. METHOD: Multicentre

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of anxiety in a clinical Dutch sample of children with an autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, L.A.M.W.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Vermulst, A.A.; Granic, I.

    2018-01-01

    Anxiety is highly prevalent in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is inconsistency in studies investigating prevalence and risk factors of anxiety in children with ASD. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to give an overview of the prevalence of anxiety

  19. Prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors in people with long-term spinal cord injury living in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaansen, Jacinthe J E; Douma-Haan, Yvonne; van Asbeck, Floris W A; van Koppenhagen, Casper F; de Groot, Sonja; Smit, Christof A; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Post, Marcel W M

    PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors in people with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI) and to compare the prevalence of high blood pressure and/or the use of antihypertensive drugs with the prevalence in the Dutch general population. METHOD: Multicentre

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for viral hepatitis in the Kosovarian population: implications for health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglio, Gianluca; Ramadani, Naser; Pattaro, Cristian; Cami, Arben; Dentico, Pietro; Volpe, Anna; Pellizzer, Giampiero; Berisha, Ali; Smacchia, Camillo; Figliomeni, Mario; Schinaia, Nicola; Rezza, Giovanni; Putoto, Giovanni

    2008-05-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis infection among the Kosovarian population is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis A, B, C, and D (HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV) infection among the general population and in a group of health care workers in the Kosovo region. Overall, 1,287 participants were recruited, 460 males (36%) and 827 females (64%). Health care workers accounted for 253 individuals (20%), 301 were blood donor candidates (23%), 334 were pregnant women (26%), and 399 (31%) were subjects who had been examined in two clinics for routine laboratory testing. The prevalence of total anti-HAV was 88.6% (95% CI: 86.69-90.25). Prevalence of anti-HAV among children up to 10 years was 40.5% (95% CI: 29.6-53.15), reaching 70% (95% CI: 62.25-77.10) in the 11-20 age group. Age, living in rural areas and unemployment were factors associated with higher risk of HAV infection. HBsAg was detected in 2.4% (95% CI: 1.57-3.38%) of the study sample, with a significant age trend (P-value:0.0110). Positivity for total anti-HBc was detected in 18.4% (95% CI = 16.27-20.59) of the subjects. Ninety-three subjects (7.2%) were positive for anti-HBs alone. An association between age, HSV-2 positivity, working nurses and HBV infection has been observed. One patient was HDV positive. The prevalence for HCV was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.22-1.12%). HAV infection seems to be high-intermediate, while HBV shows an intermediate endemicity. It is necessary to highlight the importance of an immunization strategy against HAV and HBV in reducing the incidence of the infection. The prevalence for HCV was very low.

  1. Scabies and impetigo prevalence and risk factors in Fiji: a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Romani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scabies is recognised as a major public health problem in many countries, and is responsible for significant morbidity due to secondary bacterial infection of the skin causing impetigo, abscesses and cellulitis, that can in turn lead to serious systemic complications such as septicaemia, kidney disease and, potentially, rheumatic heart disease. Despite the apparent burden of disease in many countries, there have been few large-scale surveys of scabies prevalence or risk factors. We undertook a population-based survey in Fiji of scabies and impetigo to evaluate the magnitude of the problem and inform public health strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 75 communities, including villages and settlements in both urban and rural areas, were randomly selected from 305 communities across the four administrative divisions, and all residents in each location were invited to participate in skin examination by trained personnel. The study enrolled 10,887 participants. The prevalence of scabies was 23.6%, and when adjusted for age structure and geographic location based on census data, the estimated national prevalence was 18.5%. The prevalence was highest in children aged five to nine years (43.7%, followed by children aged less than five (36.5%, and there was also an indication of prevalence increasing again in older age. The prevalence of scabies was twice as high in iTaukei (indigenous Fijians compared to Indo-Fijians. The prevalence of impetigo was 19.6%, with a peak in children aged five to nine years (34.2%. Scabies was very strongly associated with impetigo, with an estimated 93% population attributable risk. CONCLUSIONS: As far as we are aware, this is the first national survey of scabies and impetigo ever conducted. We found that scabies occurs at high levels across all age groups, ethnicities, and geographical locations. Improved strategies are urgently needed to achieve control of scabies and its complications in

  2. Scabies and impetigo prevalence and risk factors in Fiji: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Lucia; Koroivueta, Josefa; Steer, Andrew C; Kama, Mike; Kaldor, John M; Wand, Handan; Hamid, Mohammed; Whitfeld, Margot J

    2015-03-01

    Scabies is recognised as a major public health problem in many countries, and is responsible for significant morbidity due to secondary bacterial infection of the skin causing impetigo, abscesses and cellulitis, that can in turn lead to serious systemic complications such as septicaemia, kidney disease and, potentially, rheumatic heart disease. Despite the apparent burden of disease in many countries, there have been few large-scale surveys of scabies prevalence or risk factors. We undertook a population-based survey in Fiji of scabies and impetigo to evaluate the magnitude of the problem and inform public health strategies. A total of 75 communities, including villages and settlements in both urban and rural areas, were randomly selected from 305 communities across the four administrative divisions, and all residents in each location were invited to participate in skin examination by trained personnel. The study enrolled 10,887 participants. The prevalence of scabies was 23.6%, and when adjusted for age structure and geographic location based on census data, the estimated national prevalence was 18.5%. The prevalence was highest in children aged five to nine years (43.7%), followed by children aged less than five (36.5%), and there was also an indication of prevalence increasing again in older age. The prevalence of scabies was twice as high in iTaukei (indigenous) Fijians compared to Indo-Fijians. The prevalence of impetigo was 19.6%, with a peak in children aged five to nine years (34.2%). Scabies was very strongly associated with impetigo, with an estimated 93% population attributable risk. As far as we are aware, this is the first national survey of scabies and impetigo ever conducted. We found that scabies occurs at high levels across all age groups, ethnicities, and geographical locations. Improved strategies are urgently needed to achieve control of scabies and its complications in endemic communities.

  3. National prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension and prehypertension among Vietnamese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ha T P; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Le, Mai B; Kok, Frans J; Feskens, Edith J M

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension has recently been identified as the leading risk factor for global mortality. This study aims to present the national prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension and, their determinants in Vietnamese adults. Nationally representative data were obtained from the National Adult Overweight Survey 2005. This one visit survey included 17,199 subjects aged 25-64 years, with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 20.7 kg/m(2). The overall census-weighted JNC7 (the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure) defined prevalence of hypertension was 20.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 19.4-22.1); the prevalence of prehypertension was 41.8% (95% CI = 40.4-43.1). Hypertension and prehypertension were more prevalent in men. Higher age, overweight, alcohol use (among men), and living in rural areas (among women) were independently associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension, whereas higher physical activity and education level were inversely associated. Age, BMI, and living in rural areas were independently associated with an increased prevalence of prehypertension. Among the hypertensives, 25.9% were aware of their hypertension, 12.2% were being treated, and 2.8% had their blood pressure under control; among the treated hypertensives, 32.4% had their blood pressure controlled. Hypertension and prehypertension are prevalent in Vietnam, but awareness, treatment, and control are low. The findings suggest that lifestyle modifications, including the prevention of overweight, the promotion of physical activity particularly in urban areas, and the reduction of high alcohol consumption, may help to prevent hypertension in Vietnam. Furthermore, increased efforts regarding education, detection, and treatment could be important in management of hypertension and cardiovascular disease risk prevention. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of type 2 diabetes in older Vietnam-born Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duong Thuy; Jorm, Louisa R; Johnson, Maree; Bambrick, Hilary; Lujic, Sanja

    2014-02-01

    Vietnamese immigrants in Australia represent the second largest Vietnamese community in developed countries, following the United States. However, limited information is available about prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the relative roles of socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and Vietnamese ethnicity per se in this population. This study investigated the prevalence of T2D and its risk factors in older Vietnam-born Australians, in comparison to native-born Australians. The study used baseline questionnaire data from 787 Vietnam- and 196,866 Australia-born individuals (≥45 years), who participated in the 45 and Up Study, which is Australia's largest population-based cohort study. Country of birth specific prevalence of T2D and its risk factors were age-standardised to the 2006 Australian population (≥45 years). Multivariable logistic regression models were built for each group to assess the relationship between T2D and socio-demographic characteristics, family history of diabetes, lifestyle factors and health status. Compared to Australia-born counterparts, Vietnam-born individuals had significantly (p Vietnam-born people [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 7.14, 95 % CI 4.15-12.28] was almost double that for Australia-born people (OR 3.77, 95 % CI 3.63-3.90). The patterns of association between T2D and other factors were similar between the two groups. The findings suggest a genetic predisposition to T2D in people of Vietnamese ethnicity. Reducing lifestyle risk factors for diabetes and better management of diabetes are priorities for Vietnam-born populations.

  5. Prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors among bank employees of Sullia Taluk, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imaad Mohammed Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a leading cause of mortality in the world and is ranked third as a cause of disability-adjusted life years. Epidemiological studies have shown that sedentary life-style and stress are important risk factors for hypertension. The job of bank employees is both sedentary and stressful. Studies on hypertension among bank employees are sparse in India; hence, this study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and identify its risk factors in bank employees of Sullia. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted among employees of 13 banks located in Sullia. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured following Joint National Committee-7 criteria. Analysis of data was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17. P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: A total of 117 bank employees including 18 managers/assistant managers, 33 officers and 66 clerks participated in the study. The prevalence of hypertension was 39.3%. Increasing age, family history of hypertension, body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m 2 and abnormal waist-hip ratio were significantly more frequent among the hypertensive than normotensive population. Conclusion: The bank employees had a high prevalence of hypertension and they must be considered an occupational risk group. We recommend periodic screening for early detection of hypertension in them.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of child maltreatment among migrant families in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunjiao; Atkinson-Sheppard, Sally; Liu, Xing

    2017-03-01

    Although cases of child abuse among migrant families are often reported by social media, the issue of child maltreatment among migrant families in China has received little empirical attention. This study investigated both the prevalence of child maltreatment by parents among migrant families, and the individual, family and community-level risk factors associated with child abuse in this context. A survey was conducted with 667 migrant and 496 local adolescents in Shenzhen, South China, with a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to compare the prevalence of maltreatment between migrant and local adolescents, and also to explore risk factors associated with the psychological and physical maltreatment in both groups. The results showed that parent-to-child abuse was more prevalent among migrant than local adolescents, with migrant adolescents 1.490 and 1.425 times more likely to be psychologically and physically abused by their parents than their local counterparts. Low academic performance, delinquent behavior, family economic adversity and low parent attachment put migrant adolescents at increased risk of both psychological and physical maltreatment, and neighborhood disorganization was significantly related to psychological aggression among migrant adolescents. The findings confirm that child abuse perpetuated by parents is a serious problem in Mainland China, especially among migrant families, and implications for policy and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for MRSA nasal colonization among persons experiencing homelessness in Boston, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibler, Jessica H; León, Casey; Cardoso, Lena J P; Morris, Jennifer C; Miller, Nancy S; Nguyen, Daniel D; Gaeta, Jessie M

    2017-08-04

    Homeless individuals face an elevated risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. Identifying the prevalence and risk factors for MRSA nasal colonization may reduce infection risk. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a health clinic for homeless persons in Boston, MA, USA (n=194). In-person interviews and nasal swab specimens were collected. MRSA isolates were genotyped using pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and assessed for antibiotic susceptibility. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization was 8.3 %. Seventy-five percent of isolates reflected clonal similarity to USA300. USA100 (18.8 %) and USA500 (6.3 %) were also recovered. Resistance to erythromycin (81.3 %), levofloxacin (31.3 %) and clindamycin (23.1 %) was identified. Recent inpatient status, endocarditis, haemodialysis, heavy drinking, not showering daily and transience were positively associated with MRSA nasal colonization. Carriage of community-acquired MRSA strains predominated in this population, although nosocomial strains co-circulate. Attention to behavioural and hygiene-related risk factors, not typically included in MRSA prevention efforts, may reduce risk.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of low back pain among school age children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Dianat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most available data on the prevalence and characteristics of back pain in schoolchildren is related to industrialised and developed countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of low back pain (LBP and potential risk factors among schoolchildren and adolescents in a developing country, Iran.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1611 Iranian schoolchildren aged11–14 years. A self-complete questionnaire was used to assess LBP prevalence, physical leisure activities, school-related and psychosocial factors.Results: The prevalence of LBP was 34.3%. Female gender (odds ratio [OR] = 1.57, 95% CI:1.28–1.94, family member with back pain (OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.40–2.36, difficulty in viewing the (blackboard (OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.13–1.99, too much homework (OR = 1.47, 95% CI:1.09–1.99, time spend carrying a schoolbag (min/d (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.01–1.85, and psychosocial factors (emotional symptoms (OR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.54–3.39 were independently associated with LBP. Physical activity, having a job, watching television, using a computer, playing games and schoolbag weight had no effect.Conclusion: It can be concluded that both physical and psychosocial factors influenced the risk for LBP, but emotional symptoms had a stronger association with LBP than physical factors.Knowledge about LBP in school children and adolescents could be important in assessment and treatment of such symptoms in this population.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in Nili Ravi buffaloes in the Punjab, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was executed to determine the magnitude of bovine tuberculosis (BTB in buffaloes in native type of husbandry practices and impact of certain factors in the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in buffaloes in the Punjab, Pakistan. Three year cross sectional study was carried out on female population of Nili Ravi buffaloes (n = 2526 maintained at 10 Government Livestock Experimental Stations, and peri urban areas of the three major cites i.e., Lahore, Faisalabad and Okara. These animals were screened with comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT by using two types of tuberculins i.e., mammalian and avian. The reaction of tuberculins injected was interpreted after 72 hours post injection. The data were analyzed by Chi-square test and Pearson correlation. Relative risk and other associated factors were calculated to describe the association with prevalence of tuberculosis in buffaloes. The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis on the basis of CIDT was 12.72%. The BTB among different livestock farms varied significantly (P8 years old age, body weight >550 kg, 3-6 parity, pregnant animals, and animals with >7 liters milk yield. The husbandry factors which greatly influence the prevalence was poor feeding (RR=2.615, high fly density (RR= 1.3474, poor management (RR=1.315, contact with wildlife (RR=1.4507, poor farm conditions (RR=1.4708, quarantine measures (RR=1.1557 and poor sanitation of farm (RR= 1.3701.

  10. The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, and Metabolic Syndrome among Iranian Military Parachutists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khoshdel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD is rapidly increasing worldwide. Occupation-related stress such as military parachuting has been considered to be a potentially important cardiovascular risk factor. The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome among military parachutists which provides a guideline to prevent catastrophic cardiovascular events. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study among 96 military parachutists in southern IR Iran; who were evaluated in the military clinic in Shiraz, Southern IR Iran. Information regarding demographic and life style were obtained from each subject. Arterial blood pressure, weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and hip circumference (HC, fasting blood glucose, lipid profile consisting of total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride were measured by standard methods. Results: The mean age of participants was 37.4±6.4 years. There were 5 (5.2% cases under treatment for cardiovascular diseases, 4 (4.2% participants were pre-diabetics and 5 (5.2% suffered from diabetes mellitus. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were seen in 23 (24% and 46 (47% military parachutists respectively. Conclusions: Although war-related stressors and high intensity physical activities are associated with both acute cardiac events and cardiac risk factors, our data is in favor of lower frequency of cardiovascular risk factors among military parachutists. However, routine monitoring of military parachutists is necessary to find the cardiovascular risk factors.

  11. Prevalence, risk factors and clinical signs predictive for equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction in aged horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, T W; Pinchbeck, G P; McGowan, C M

    2013-01-01

    Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is an ageing-related neurodegenerative disorder. The prevalence and risk factors for PPID using seasonally adjusted basal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations in aged horses have not been previously reported. To determine the prevalence, risk factors and clinical signs predictive for PPID in a population of horses aged ≥ 15 years in Queensland, Australia. Owner-reported data was obtained using a postal questionnaire distributed to an equestrian group. A subgroup of surveyed owners were visited and a veterinary physical examination performed on all horses aged ≥ 15 years. Blood samples were analysed for basal plasma alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and ACTH concentrations, routine haematology and selected biochemistry. Aged horses with elevations above seasonally adjusted cut-off values for basal plasma ACTH were considered positive for PPID. Positive horses were compared with their aged counterparts to determine risk factors and clinical signs associated with PPID. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction was prevalent in aged horses (21.2%) despite owners infrequently reporting it as a known or diagnosed disease or disorder. Numerous clinical or historical signs were associated with an increased risk of PPID in the univariable model, but only age (odds ratio (OR) 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.25, P<0.001) and owner-reported history of hirsutism (OR 7.80; 95% CI 3.67-16.57, P<0.001) remained in the final multivariable model. There were no routine haematological or biochemical variables supportive of a diagnosis of PPID. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction occurs commonly in aged horses despite under-recognition by owners. The increased risk of PPID with age supports that this is an ageing associated condition. Aged horses with clinical or historical signs consistent with PPID, especially owner-reported hirsutism (delayed shedding and/or long hair coat), should be tested and

  12. Primary headache disorders in the Republic of Georgia: prevalence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsarava, Z; Dzagnidze, A; Kukava, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the 1-year prevalences of migraine and tension-type headache (TTH), and identify their principal risk factors, in the general population of the Republic of Georgia. METHODS: In a community-based door-to-door survey, 4 medical residents interviewed all biologically unrelated......, a remarkably high percentage of the population of Georgia have headache on >/=15 days/month. This study demonstrates the importance of socioeconomic factors in a developing country and unmasks the unmet needs of people with headache disorders....

  13. Depression in Mongolian women over the first 2 months after childbirth: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, J I; Manaseki-Holland, S; Patel, V

    2009-07-01

    Social, political and economic changes in Mongolia have followed post-Soviet style government policies and contributed to both increased liberalisation and reduced security in employment and family finances. This is the first study to attempt to assess the prevalence of depression in a population of Mongolian women in the post-partum period and assess risk factors, including financial position, associated with the condition. A total of 1044 women who had delivered healthy babies in Ulaanbaatar between October and December 2002 were screened for depression using the WHO Self Reporting Questionnaire between 5 and 9 weeks post-partum. Further details on the mother, her family and social and economic circumstances were simultaneously collected. Analysis of risk factors for probable depression was undertaken using multiple logistic regression techniques. The prevalence of depression was 9.1% (95% CLs 7.5%-11.1%). Variables significantly and independently associated with risk of probable maternal depression included economic factors, mother being subject to physical abuse, dissatisfied with the pregnancy, concerned about her baby's behaviour, and her own health problems. The sample was drawn from a population of mothers all of whom had healthy, full-term babies of normal birth weight. Clinical confirmation of diagnosis was not established. Mongolian women with young infants in Ulaanbaatar probably experience depression at rates comparable with other cultures. Factors associated with probable depression were dominated by health, relationships and financial position.

  14. Prevalence and associated risk factors of undercorrected refractive errors among people with diabetes in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengjun; Tong, Xiaowei; Zhao, Rong; He, Xiangui; Zhao, Huijuan; Zhu, Jianfeng

    2017-11-28

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of undercorrected refractive error (URE) among people with diabetes in the Baoshan District of Shanghai, where data for undercorrected refractive error are limited. The study was a population-based survey of 649 persons (aged 60 years or older) with diabetes in Baoshan, Shanghai in 2009. One copy of the questionnaire was completed for each subject. Examinations included a standardized refraction and measurement of presenting and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), tonometry, slit lamp biomicroscopy, and fundus photography. The calculated age-standardized prevalence rate of URE was 16.63% (95% confidence interval [CI] 13.76-19.49). For visual impairment subjects (presenting vision worse than 20/40 in the better eye), the prevalence of URE was up to 61.11%, and 75.93% of subjects could achieve visual acuity improvement by at least one line using appropriate spectacles. Under multiple logistic regression analysis, older age, female gender, non-farmer, increasing degree of myopia, lens opacities status, diabetic retinopathy (DR), body mass index (BMI) index lower than normal, and poor glycaemic control were associated with higher URE levels. Wearing distance eyeglasses was a protective factor for URE. The undercorrected refractive error in diabetic adults was high in Shanghai. Health education and regular refractive assessment are needed for diabetic adults. Persons with diabetes should be more aware that poor vision is often correctable, especially for those with risk factors.

  15. Silicosis prevalence and risk factors in semi-precious stone mining in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Tamires P; Watte, Guilherme; Gusso, Alaíde M; Souza, Rafaela; Moreira, José da S; Knorst, Marli M

    2017-06-01

    Underground mining generates large amounts of dust and exposes workers to silica. This study aims to determine the prevalence and predictor factors for the development of silicosis among semi-precious-stone mineworkers in southern Brazil working in a self-administered cooperative. In a cross-sectional study of 348 current workers and retirees, demographic data, medical, and occupational history were collected through an interview performed by a nurse and medical record review. Risk factor associations were studied by Poisson multivariate regression. The overall prevalence of silicosis was 37%, while in current miners it was 28%. Several risk factors for silicosis were identified in the univariate analysis. Inadequate ventilation in the underground galleries combined with dry drilling, duration of silica exposure, and (inversely) education remained significant in the multivariate analysis (P cooperative with limited resources. The prevalence of silicosis was very high. A number of recommendations are made-including technical support for worker cooperatives, surveillance of silica exposure and silicosis, exposure reduction measures, and benefits allowing impaired miners to leave the industry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for chronic kidney disease in a rural region of Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Felix; Sannon, Herriot; Mayr, Michael; Dickenmann, Michael; Ernst, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In the Caribbean region chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing challenge. High rates of non-communicable and infectious diseases and the rise in people suffering from diabetes and hypertension explain the observed and further expected increase of CKD. However, data about the magnitude of the problem are rare and in some countries such as Haiti completely lacking. The aim of our study was to generate data about the prevalence and risk factors for CKD in a rural region in Haiti. In this prospective cross-sectional study, adult patients visiting the medical outpatient clinic of the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer (HAS) in Deschapelles Haiti were included. CKD was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and measurement of proteinuria by dipstick test. Risk factors for CKD were assessed by clinical examinations and questionnaires. Overall 608 patients were screened for CKD, of whom 27% had CKD. CKD stages 1 to 2 were found in 15.3% and stages 3 to 5 in 11.7%. The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 49.2% and 36.3%, respectively. Risk factors independently associated with CKD were hypertension (p = 0.0002) and HIV infection (p = 0.019) and age >60 years (p = 0.0052), whereas diabetes mellitus was not independently associated (p = 0.72). Our data show a high prevalence of CKD and traditional risk factors, and their association with CKD in Haiti. These findings have now to be confirmed in other regions in longitudinal analyses as a basic step to build up screening and prevention programmes for CKD.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of complicated grief among Sichuan earthquake survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Chow, Amy Y M; Shi, Zhanbiao; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2015-04-01

    Disasters usually involves massive casualties, yet few post-disaster studies explore the prevalence of complicated grief (CG) among survivors. Complicated grief is a distinct psychological disorder, and is associated with impaired physical and psychological functions. Given such gap in the literature and the significance of this topic, this study is hoped to offer more information of complicated grief among survivors who lost their loved ones in disaster. Adopting a large scale survey, the prevalence and risk factors of CG among bereaved survivors one year after the Sichuan earthquake in China were explored. In total 803 bereaved survivors participated the study by filling a questionnaire on measuring CG symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, intrapersonal factors, earthquake related factors, bereavement related factors, and an interpersonal factor. There were 71.1% of the participants scored higher than the cutoff point of CG symptoms. Close relationship with the deceased, PTSD symptoms, losing means of livelihood, physical injury, and terrifying experience in the earthquake, were identified to be risk factors for CG. The study was cross-sectional and the data was collected through a self-reported questionnaire. The sample was recruited from one of the most severely affected counties, thus the generalizability of the results should be interpreted with caution. A large portion of bereaved earthquake survivors suffered from CG symptoms one year after the disaster. Risk factors found in this study can be used to identify high risk groups, who need special care, support, and bereavement interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Amblyopia and strabismus: trends in prevalence and risk factors among young adults in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Yinon; Machluf, Yossy; Mimouni, Michael; Chaiter, Yoram; Mezer, Eedy

    2017-08-16

    To estimate the prevalence of amblyopia, present strabismus and amblyopia risk factors (ARFs) among young adults in Israel and to analyse trends over time of prevalence rates. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 107 608 pre-enlistees aged 17.4±0.6 years born between 1971 and 1994. Across the birth years, the following trends of prevalence rates among young adults were analysed: prevalence of amblyopia, prevalence of strabismus, severity of amblyopia and prevalence of ARFs (strabismsus, anisometropia and isoametropia). Unilateral amblyopia was defined as best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of amblyopia was defined as BCVA of amblyopia was classified as mild (BCVA ≥0.5 [6/12]), moderate (BCVA prevalence of young adulthood amblyopia declined by 33%, from 1.2% to 0.8% (R 2 =0.87, pamblyopia from 1% to 0.6% (R 2 =0.93, pprevalence of bilateral amblyopia remained stable (0.2%, p=0.12). The decline in amblyopia was apparent in mild and moderate amblyopia, but not in severe amblyopia. Strabismus and anisometropia were detected in 6-12% and 11-20% of subjects with unilateral amblyopia, respectively, without significant trends. Strabismic amblyopia remained constant in the entire population across years. Isoametropia was detected in 46-59% of subjects with bilateral amblyopia without a significant trend across birth years. Prevalence of strabismus in the study population decreased by 50%, from 1.2% to 0.6% (R 2 =0.75, pprevalence of mild unilateral amblyopia increased, while moderate or severe unilateral amblyopia remained relatively stable. Among young adults, the prevalence of unilateral amblyopia, as well as the prevalence of present strabismus, decreased significantly over a period of a generation. The prevalence of strabismic, bilateral or severe (both unilateral and bilateral) amblyopia remained stable. The establishment of the national screening programme for children and the improved utility of treatment for amblyopia and strabismus coincide with

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension among Bank Employees in Urban Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ganesh Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of information on the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors among bank employees at global level. Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among bank employees in Puducherry, India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 192 (128 male and 64 female bank employees from 12 nationalized banks in urban Puducherry, India. Blood pressure was measured and classified according to the Joint National Committee (JNC VII criteria. Data on risk factors of hypertension, including consumption of extra salt while dining, eating high-salt food, junk food, servings of fruits and vegetables, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and body mass index, were obtained for each participant using a standard questionnaire. Stress level was assessed by Cohen's Perceived Stress scale. Data was analyzed by Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean±SD age of the participants was 39.5±10.6 years. The prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension was 44.3% (95% CI: 37.2%–51.3% and 41.1% (95% CI: 34.1%–48.1%, respectively. Of 85 participants with hypertension, 47 (55% was known case and 38 (45% were newly diagnosed. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that living in the 4th (OR: 3.13 or 6th (OR: 3.11 decade of life, consumption of extra salt (OR: 2.49, and physical activity ≥2 hours per day (OR: 0.21 were associated with hypertension among bank employees. Conclusion: Prevalence of hypertension is high among bank employees. There is a need for strengthening adoption of certain interventional measures in lifestyle such as reducing salt intake and promoting physical activity among this vulnerable group.

  20. The prevalence and risk factors for gallstone disease in taiwanese vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chun; Chiou, Chia; Lin, Ming-Nan; Lin, Chin-Lon

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone disease (GSD) and its complications are major public health issues globally. Although many community-based studies had addressed the risk factors for GSD, little is known about GSD prevalence and risk factors among Taiwanese vegetarians. This study included 1721 vegetarians who completed a questionnaire detailing their demographics, medical history, and life-styles. GSD was ascertained by ultrasonography or surgical history of cholecystectomy for GSD. The predictive probability of GSD for male and female vegetarians was estimated from the fitted model. The prevalence of GSD was 8.2% for both male and female vegetarians. The risk of GSD is similar in men and women across all age groups, and increases steadily with increasing age. For male vegetarians, age (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00-1.08) and serum total bilirubin level (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.31-4.22) predict risk for GSD. For female vegetarians, age (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05), BMI (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13), and alcohol consumption (OR: 7.85; 95% CI: 1.83-33.73) are associated with GSD. GSD is not associated with type of vegetarian diet, duration of vegetarianism, low education level, physical inactivity, diabetes, coronary artery disease, cerebral vascular accident, chronic renal failure, hepatitis C virus infection, and lipid abnormalities. GSD is also not associated with age at menarche, postmenopausal status, and multiparity in female vegetarians. Risk factors useful for predicting GSD in vegetarians are (1) age and total bilirubin level in men, and (2) age, BMI, and alcohol consumption in women. Many previously identified risk factors for general population does not seem to apply to Taiwanese vegetarians.

  1. The prevalence and risk factors for gallstone disease in taiwanese vegetarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available Gallstone disease (GSD and its complications are major public health issues globally. Although many community-based studies had addressed the risk factors for GSD, little is known about GSD prevalence and risk factors among Taiwanese vegetarians.This study included 1721 vegetarians who completed a questionnaire detailing their demographics, medical history, and life-styles. GSD was ascertained by ultrasonography or surgical history of cholecystectomy for GSD. The predictive probability of GSD for male and female vegetarians was estimated from the fitted model.The prevalence of GSD was 8.2% for both male and female vegetarians. The risk of GSD is similar in men and women across all age groups, and increases steadily with increasing age. For male vegetarians, age (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00-1.08 and serum total bilirubin level (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.31-4.22 predict risk for GSD. For female vegetarians, age (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, BMI (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13, and alcohol consumption (OR: 7.85; 95% CI: 1.83-33.73 are associated with GSD. GSD is not associated with type of vegetarian diet, duration of vegetarianism, low education level, physical inactivity, diabetes, coronary artery disease, cerebral vascular accident, chronic renal failure, hepatitis C virus infection, and lipid abnormalities. GSD is also not associated with age at menarche, postmenopausal status, and multiparity in female vegetarians.Risk factors useful for predicting GSD in vegetarians are (1 age and total bilirubin level in men, and (2 age, BMI, and alcohol consumption in women. Many previously identified risk factors for general population does not seem to apply to Taiwanese vegetarians.

  2. Prevalence, risk factors, and problems associated with dating violence: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Armando Rey Anacona

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The physical, psychological and sexual violence among the couples of adolescents and young adults that are not married neither cohabiting (well-known generally as “dating violence”, has been object of a vast number of investigations in the last two decades that show a high prevalence inside the adolescent and juvenile population. The objective of this work was to carry out an analysis of the literature in connection with the prevalence, risk factors and difficulties associated with this partner violence type. This analysis allowed to elaborate an outline of the factors that could favor the acts of violence, including the previous experiences of victimization inside and outside the family, the acceptance of the violence toward the couple, and the relationship with pairs that have exercised this form of violence.

  3. Brucellosis in a high risk occupational group: sero prevalence and analysis of risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate Brucella sero positivity among slaughterhouse workers of Lahore district and to elucidate risk factors associated with sero positivity to Brucella. Method: During the year 2008, a cross-sectional study was conducted in four slaughterhouses of Lahore district. A sample of 360 workers was selected from these slaughterhouses through stratified random sampling on proportional basis. Workers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to obtain risk factor information and their blood samples were collected to be screened for the presence of anti-Brucella IgG using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. Data management and analysis were performed using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences) version 16. Risk factors associated with sero positivity to anti-Brucella IgG were identified by constructing a logistic regression model. Results: Of the 360 serum samples tested, 21.7% (95% CI 17.44% - 25.96%) were positive by ELISA test. The logistic regression model identified age (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99), assistance in parturition of animal (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23-0.96), consuming raw milk (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.04-4.87) and handling sheep (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09- 0.92) as risk factors for Brucella sero positivity among slaughterhouse workers of Lahore district. Conclusion: To reduce the burden of brucellosis, a national brucellosis control programme should be initiated with special emphasis on the high risk population of slaughterhouse workers. (author)

  4. Determination of the obesity prevalence and affecting risk factors, of eating habits among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Aktas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and the affecting risk factors of obesity and the eating habits among adolescents. Methods: The study is a descriptive in design. The research was carried out between December 2013 and February 2014 at a private university in Ankara. This study was conducted with 260 students. The data were presented as frequencies, mean, standard deviations and were analyzed by test of chi-square, Pearson correlation analysis and logistic regression analysis. Data were collected using an Interview Questionnaire, the Eating Habits Index and anthropometric measurements were performed. Results: The mean age of students was 20.87+/-2.29. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among students were 23.1% and 6.5% respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was related with male gender (p<0.05, family history of obesity (95% CI: 2.22-2.43, fast eating habit (p<0.05, and healthy dietary habits (95% CI: 1.02-2.85. The percents of moderate grade and high grade risk groups of students according to Eating Habits Index were 56.5 and 30.8 respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in this study was determined to be high. The prevention and control of obesity is urgently needed. In this content, comprehensive strategies of intervention propose periodical monitoring, education on pattern of nutrition, and healthy dietary behaviors. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 406-412

  5. Mental disorder prevalence and associated risk factors in three prisons of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala-Baños, M C; Segura, A; Maestre-Miquel, C; Martínez-Lorca, M; Rodríguez-Martín, B; Romero, D; Rodríguez, M

    2016-01-01

    To determine the lifetime and monthly prevalence of people with mental disorders and its association with sociodemographic factors and criminal risk in three Spanish prisons (Ocaña, Madrid I, II and VI). Cross-sectional epidemiological study of a sample of 184 inmates. Socio-demographic and criminal data were collected by an ad hoc interview. Mental disorders were assessed with the clinical version of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Life prevalence of mental disorders was 90.2%. The most common mental disorders and substance abuse or dependence was 72.3%, followed by mood disorder (38.5%) and psychotic disorders (34.2%). Moreover, the prevalence of any mental disorder in the last month was 52.2%. The main psychotic disorder (20.7%) was followed by substance abuse or dependence (18.5%), and mood disorder state (13%). A socio-demographic profile as a risk for each disorder was found. The prevalence of people with mental disorders is very high in Spanish prisons, and is associated with a distinct demographic profile. It is essential to continue researching this reality, translating the results into therapeutic and preventive action adapted to the status of inmates to reduce social inequalities in this high priority public health situation.

  6. Tuberculosis prevalence and risk factors for water buffalo in Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, José D; da Silva, Jenevaldo B; Rangel, Charles P; da Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Silva, Natália S; Bomjardim, Henrique A; Freitas, Nayra F Q R

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of and possible risk factors for tuberculosis were studied in water buffalo from Pará, Brazil. In this study, 3,917 pregnant and nonpregnant female Murrah and Mediterranean buffaloes were studied; 2,089 originated from Marajó Island, and 1,108 were from the mainland. The comparative cervical tuberculin test was used as a diagnostic test for tuberculosis in these animals. The prevalence of positive buffaloes was 3.5 % (100/2,809) on Marajó Island and 7.2 % (80/1,108) on the mainland. The municipalities with the highest tuberculosis prevalence rates in animals were Ipixuna do Pará (10.1 %), Marapanim (9.8 %), Chaves (9.4 %), Paragominas (8.6 %), and Cachoeira do Arari (6.7 %). The tuberculosis prevalence was not significantly different between the Murrah (4.3 %) and Mediterranean (4.8 %) breeds or between pregnant (5 %) and nonpregnant (4.3 %) buffaloes. Tuberculosis was detected in water buffaloes from Pará, Brazil; the mainland buffalo exhibited the highest tuberculosis prevalence. These results indicate that this disease is dangerous to public health and buffalo farming in Pará.

  7. Work-related traumatic dental injuries: Prevalence, characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Alessandro; Parodi, Giovanni Battista; Casali, Claudia; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Giacinti, Flavio

    2018-02-01

    The prevalence of work-related oral trauma is underestimated because minor dental injuries are often not reported in patients with several injuries in different parts of the body. In addition, little data are available regarding their characteristics. The aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the prevalence, types, and characteristics of occupational traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) in a large working community. Work-related TDIs that occurred during the period between 2011 and 2013 in the District of Genoa (Northwest of Italy, 0.86 million inhabitants) were analyzed. Patients' data were obtained from the National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work database. During the 2 year period, 112 TDIs (345 traumatized teeth) were recorded. The prevalence was 5.6‰ of the total amount of occupational trauma. The highest prevalence was found in the fourth and fifth decades of life (OR=3.6, P workers represented 52% of the sample, and construction/farm/factory workers and craftsmen were 48%. TDIs involved only teeth and surrounding tissue in 66% of cases, or in combination with another maxillofacial injury in 34%. They were statistically associated with construction/farm/factory workers group (Chi squared P Work-related TDIs had a low overall prevalence, and fractures were the most frequent dental injury. Age, gender, and preexisting dental treatments represented risk factors for work-related TDIs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Primary dysmenorrhea: prevalence in adolescent population of Tbilisi, Georgia and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagua, Tinatin; Tkeshelashvili, Besarion; Gagua, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea in female adolescents living in Tbilisi, Georgia; find possible risk factors and establish an association, if any, with nutrition and sleep hygiene. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was used. A retrospective case control study was used to identify risk factors. Participants: A total of 2561 women consented to participate in the research. 431 participants were included in the case-control study. Interventions: Detailed questionnaire included: reproductive history, demographic features, menstrual pattern, severity of dysmenorrhea and associated symptoms; information about nutrition and sleep hygiene. Results The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 52.07%. Due to pain, 69.78% reported frequent school absenteeism. The risk of dysmenorrhea in students who had a family history of dysmenorrhea was approximately 6 times higher than in students with no prior history. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was significantly higher among smokers compared with non-smokers 3.99% vs. 0.68% (p=.0.05 OR:6.102). Those women reporting an increased intake of sugar reported a marked increase of dysmenorrhea compared to women reporting no daily sugar intake (55.61% vs. 44.39%, p=.0023 LR:0.0002). However, alcohol, family atmosphere and nationality showed no correlation with dysmenorrhea. Our study revealed two most important risk factors of dysmenorrhea: meal skipping 59.78% vs. 27.03%, p=.00000 LR: 0.00000 OR:4.014 and sleep hygiene-receiving less sleep 38.77% vs. 19.59%, p=0.000055 LR: 0.000036 OR:2.598. Conclusion Primary dysmenorrhea is a common problem in the adolescent population of Tbilisi Geogia. It adversely affects their educational performance. Meal skipping and sleep quantity are associated with dysmenorrhea and may cause other reproductive dysfunctions. PMID:24592031

  9. Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and its Related Metabolic Risk Factors in Isfahan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Atoosa; Maleki, Shahab; Adibi, Peyman; Etminani, Reza; Hovsepian, Silva

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its related risk factors among the general population of Isfahan city located in the central part of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of NAFLD among 483 general adult populations was determined using ultrasonography. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were compared in groups with and without NAFLD and their predictive value for occurrence of NAFLD was investigated also. Results: Prevalence of NAFLD was 39.3%. Frequency of focal fatty infiltration (FFI), Grade I, Grade II, and Grade III of NAFLD was 9.5%, 21.1%, 7.2%, 1.4%, respectively. Prevalence of different types of NAFLD and FFI, was not different between female and male participants (P = 0.238). Ordinal regression was determined that all of the studied variables have significant predictive value for NAFLD (P < 0.001, γ = 0.615). Spearman correlation indicated that there was a significant relationship between NAFLD and BMI (r = 0.37, P < 0.001), age (r = 0.15, P = 0.001), FBS (r = 0.20, P < 0.001), cholesterol (r = 0.19, P < 0.001), triglyceride (r = 0.20, P < 0.001), LDL (r = 0.16, P < 0.001), AST (r = 0.17, P < 0.001), and ALT (r = 0.31, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Considering the high prevalence of NAFLD specially its lower grades among Isfahani adult general population and their association with studied variables, it seems that interventional studies which target-related mentioned risk factors could reduce the overall occurrence of NAFLD. PMID:28503502

  10. Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and its Related Metabolic Risk Factors in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Adibi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and its related risk factors among the general population of Isfahan city located in the central part of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of NAFLD among 483 general adult populations was determined using ultrasonography. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were compared in groups with and without NAFLD and their predictive value for occurrence of NAFLD was investigated also. Results: Prevalence of NAFLD was 39.3%. Frequency of focal fatty infiltration (FFI, Grade I, Grade II, and Grade III of NAFLD was 9.5%, 21.1%, 7.2%, 1.4%, respectively. Prevalence of different types of NAFLD and FFI, was not different between female and male participants (P = 0.238. Ordinal regression was determined that all of the studied variables have significant predictive value for NAFLD (P < 0.001, γ = 0.615. Spearman correlation indicated that there was a significant relationship between NAFLD and BMI (r = 0.37, P< 0.001, age (r = 0.15, P = 0.001, FBS (r = 0.20, P< 0.001, cholesterol (r = 0.19, P< 0.001, triglyceride (r = 0.20, P< 0.001, LDL (r = 0.16, P< 0.001, AST (r = 0.17, P< 0.001, and ALT (r = 0.31, P< 0.001. Conclusions: Considering the high prevalence of NAFLD specially its lower grades among Isfahani adult general population and their association with studied variables, it seems that interventional studies which target-related mentioned risk factors could reduce the overall occurrence of NAFLD.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for gastrointestinal parasitism in traditionally maintained goat flocks of South Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorathiya, L M; Fulsoundar, A B; Rao, T K S; Kumar, Niranjan

    2017-03-01

    A total of 360 faecal samples of goat belonging to Ahir community were collected randomly from eight villages on monthly basis. On same day, collected samples were subjected to qualitative faecal examination and positive samples were categorized into mild, moderate and heavy infected groups. The risk factors considered for study were age, pregnancy, lactation, seasons, wet land grazing and hygiene in housing. Overall 41.11 % animals were found positive for helminth eggs and among them 24.17, 10.56 and 6.39 % of goats were mildly, moderately and heavily infected, respectively. The helminths recorded were strongyles (26.9 %), amphistomes (18.1 %), Trichuris spp. (8.1 %) and Nematoidirus spp. (3.9 %). Similarly, 72 (20 %) animals were found positive for presence of coccidia oocysts in which 13.06, 4.17 and 2.78 % were having mild, moderate and heavy infection. The Chi square test revealed that the housing quality, seasons and body condition scores (BCS) were having significant effects on helminths prevalence. The Chi square values indicated that age, hygiene of houses, seasons and BCS have significantly associated with prevalence of coccidiosis. The helminths prevalence was having significant positive correlation with lactation status and housing quality whereas it was significantly negatively correlated with prevalence of coccidia. Kendall's Correlation coefficients among various risk factors reveals that age and housing quality has significant negative correlations with coccidia infection. The gastro-intestinal (GI) parasites incidence was significantly high during the monsoon than the summer/winter season. The correlation of GI- parasitic prevalence with pregnancy status and age was not found.

  12. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Dixit, Uma B; Nayakar, Ramesh P; Ashwin, Devasya; Ramagoni, Naveen K; Kamavaram Ellore, Vijaya P

    2016-01-01

    An earlier epidemiological study by these authors revealed fluorosis at very low levels of fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The objective of present study was to investigate risk factors of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth in the villages of northern Karnataka, India. The present survey was carried out in three villages of Hungund Taluk, Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India, with the fluoride concentration of 0.136, 0.381, and 1.36 ppm. Children aged between 9 and 15, with permanent teeth, were examined for dental fluorosis using Dean's index, as per WHO criteria. Required relevant information regarding risk factors was obtained through a questionnaire. Data entry and analysis were performed using SPSS for Windows 16.0. Comparison of means of different indices by the three groups was performed using ANOVA and t-test (p dental fluorosis. Those variables showing a statistically significant association (p fluorosis. From multiple logistic regression analysis, only fluoride concentration in drinking water was found significant with prevalence of fluorosis and only nutritional status showed significant association with severity of fluorosis. Presence or absence of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth was significantly associated with fluoride concentration in drinking water. Once present, its severity was determined by nutritional status of the children - malnourished children exhibiting severe form of fluorosis. Mahantesha T, Dixit UB, Nayakar RP, Ashwin D Ramagoni NK, Ellore VPK. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):256-263.

  13. The prevalence and environmental risk factors for moderate and severe trachoma in southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlu, T; Larson, C

    1992-02-01

    Inflammatory eye disease is a leading cause of reported morbidity throughout rural Ethiopia. The purpose of this investigation was to document the prevalence of trachoma at all stages and to identify environmental risk factors for moderate to severe cases among rural inhabitants of Sidamo Region in southern Ethiopia. An ophthalmic examination followed by a blind household interview were completed on 1222 randomly selected subjects. Those with moderate or severe trachoma were compared with normal subjects for rates of exposure to potential environmental risk factors. The results of the eye examinations are as follows; normal 59.5%, trivial 8.4%, mild 10.3%, moderate 8.5%, severe 8.0%, cicatricial 3.0%, and other eye diseases without trachoma 2.3%. Highest prevalence rates for moderate to severe trachoma were found in those under 10 and over 45 years of age. Increased adjusted odds ratios were found for exposure to garbage disposal near home, crowded sleeping arrangements, animals inside the home, cooking in a separate room, and living at lower altitudes. The identification of several modifiable environmental risk factors for trachoma will be of use in the further development of preventive programmes.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Chartuni Pereira Teixeira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence and the risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN among HIV-infected women. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 494 HIV-infected women in Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Gynecologic exam was performed, and samples were collected for cervical cytology and for HPV DNA detection. Cervical biopsy was carried out when indicated. HPV infection, CD4 T-lymphocyte count and HIV viral load were compared with cervical histopathology. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the statistical association of several risk factors. RESULTS: CIN prevalence detected by histopathology was 23.4% (6% of CIN2/3 and 17.4% cases of CIN1. Multivariate analysis confirmed an independent association of CIN with CD4 T-lymphocyte count below 200 cells/mm³ (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.5-10.1, with a positive detection of HPV DNA (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.5, and with age < 34 years old (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.4. HIV viral load and antiretroviral use were not independent risk factors for CIN. CONCLUSIONS: Severity of immunosupression, presence of HPV infection and younger age are strong predictors of CIN among HIV-infected women.

  15. Prevalência e fatores de risco para tabagismo em adolescentes Prevalence and risk factors for smoking among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura C Malcon

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O tabagismo é uma das principais causas de enfermidades evitáveis e incapacidades prematuras. Nesse sentido, realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de medir a prevalência e estudar fatores de risco associados ao tabagismo nos adolescentes. MÉTODOS: A partir de um delineamento transversal de base populacional, estudou-se uma amostra representativa de 1.187 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos, da zona urbana de Pelotas, sul do Brasil. Todos os adolescentes da amostra, de cada domicílio, foram entrevistados por meio de questionário pré-codificado, individual e confidencial. Utilizou-se o teste de Kaplan-Meier para análise da curva de sobrevida. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de tabagismo na amostra foi de 12,1% (IC95% 10,3%-14%. As prevalências foram similares para os sexos femininos e masculinos. Os fatores de risco para tabagismo na análise multivariada, por regressão logística, foram: maior idade, odds ratio (OR de 28,7 (11,5-71,4, irmãos mais velhos fumantes, OR de 2,4 (1,5-3,8, três ou mais amigos fumantes, OR de 17,5 (8,8-34,8 e baixa escolaridade OR de 3,5 (1,5-8,0. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de tabagismo na adolescência mostrou-se alta, na cidade de Pelotas. Campanhas antitabágicas devem ser direcionadas à comunidade e à família tendo o adolescente como alvo. Medidas legais adotadas pelo governo são importantes para impedir o acesso dos adolescentes ao cigarro.OBJECTIVE: Tobacco smoking is one of the main causes of preventable disease and premature disability. Th estudy was aimed at measuring smoking prevalence and related risk factors among adolescents. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative sample of 1,187 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years living in the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. All adolescents were interviewed separately using a confidential coded questionnaire. Kaplan-Meier test was performed for survival curve analysis. RESULTS: The overall smoking prevalence

  16. [Psycho-pathological risk factor of arterial disease (prevalence, superposition or vinculation with other factors)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoery, R J; Luquez, H A; De Loredo, L; Carri, D J; Roiter, H; Bauducco, G; Bilbao, L; Brousset, P; Dávila, A; Fissone, M E; Herreros, S; Luchino, O; Nuciforo, F

    2007-01-01

    Alexitimia and depression may or not coexist with others risk factors (comportment o physical). Frecuently they have relation with socio-echonomic status and with ethnia. Sometimes are determinants of the atherosclerotic process by increasing the vascular reactivity by the alteration of the evolution. There is no information in our country about this problem in general population. The present study result of the investigation of these aspects and the comportamental and physical factors of arterial disease, in a population of Cordoba province (Argentina Republic).

  17. Atherosclerotic Heart Disease: Prevalence and Risk Factors in Hospitalized Men with Hemophilia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, Margaret V.; Moore, Charity G.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Atherosclerotic heart disease (ASHD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society. Few studies have determined prevalence and predictors of ASHD in hemophilia (HA), a population whose survival is improving with safer blood products and effective treatments for AIDS and hepatitis C. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and factors associated with ASHD in hemophilia A patients in Pennsylvania. Methods The prevalence of ASHD (myocardial infarction, angina, coronary disease), cardiac catheterization, coronary angiography, co-morbidities, and in-hospital mortality were assessed on statewide ASHD discharge data, 2001–2006, from the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council (PHC4). Results The prevalence of hemophilia ASHD admissions fluctuated between 6.5% and 10.5% for 2001 to 2006, p=0.62. Compared to HA without ASHD, HA with ASHD were older and more likely to be hypertensive, hyperlipidemic, and diabetic, all pHemophilia patients with ASHD have similar cardiovascular risk factors, admitting diagnoses, severity of illness, and in-hospital mortality as the general population. These findings suggest cardiovascular prevention measures should be promoted in hemophilia. PMID:21371197

  18. The prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and its associated risk factors in North Sumatera, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, S.; Fujiati, I. I.; Keumalasari, D.; Daulay, M.; Martina, S. J.; Syarifah, S.

    2018-03-01

    The gestation period is the period that determines the quality of human resources in the future because the development of the child is determined from the time of the fetus in utero. The most common nutrition problems suffered by pregnant women in Indonesia is Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED) and anemia. The aim of this research to determine the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and the risk factors associated with anemia in urban and rural areas of North Sumatera Province. This research is as descriptive analyticwith cross-sectional approach. Total sample 140 pregnant women from the Medan City, Langkat District and South Labuhan Batu District, and was from June to October 2016. Data collected by using interviews, hemoglobinometer tool and analyzed with Chi-square test. Anemia was in 40.7% of pregnant women, and the incidence of anemia is more common in pregnant women in urban areas than in rural areas. The factors associated with anemia in pregnant women is parity, knowledge of nutrition, diet and the risk of chronic energy deficiency (p <0.05). This study concludes that the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women in North Sumatra was higher than the national prevalence.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of Blastocystis infection among underprivileged communities in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Nabilah Amelia; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Moktar, Norhayati; Anuar, Tengku Shahrul

    2017-05-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors of Blastocystis among underprivileged communities living in rural Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 253 participants aged between 1 and 85 years. Stool samples were examined using Wheatley's trichrome stain after in-vitro cultivation in Jones' medium to detect the presence of Blastocystis. Information pertaining to the demography, socioeconomic and environment were collected using pre-validated questionnaires. The total prevalence of Blastocystis infection was 40.7%. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age ≥15 years (OR = 2.72; 95% CI = 1.47-5.04) and presence of infected family members (OR = 8.56; 95% CI = 4.47-16.38) were the significant risk factors associated with blastocystosis in these communities. Blastocystosis is revealed through this study to be still prevalent among Orang Asli communities in rural Malaysia. The two main approaches that should be implemented by the public health authority in battling this infection would be the screening of other family members and giving treatment to the infected individuals. Moreover, it is imperative for health education on good personal and food hygiene practices are provided in order to reduce the morbidity and transmission of Blastocystis infection among the Orang Asli in their communities meaningfully. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk factors and prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in school children of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaka, Kavita; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Mor, Suman; Gauba, Krishan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis, dental caries, and associated risk factors in the school children of district Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India, using a cross-sectional study design. Oral health status of children aged between 8 and 15 years was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) 2013 criteria. Dental fluorosis was assessed using Dean's index, and dental caries were recorded using decayed, missing, filled/decayed, extracted, filled (DMF/def) indices. Four hundred school children were examined, of which 207 were in the 8-11-year-old group and 193 were in the 12-15-year-old group. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was 4.1%, which might be linked to a high concentration of fluoride in drinking water at certain locations of rural Punjab. The prevalence of dental caries was 36.5% with a mean DMF score of 0.3 and def score of 0.6. Risk factors for dental caries include oral hygiene behavior and sugar consumption patterns. The study highlights the need to increase awareness about the oral health and hygiene among the school children in India.

  1. Prevalence, Risk Factors, Awareness, and Treatment and Control of Hypertension in Mafia Island, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamedhussein, M S; Nagri, Z I; Manji, K P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The prevalence of hypertension in Africa ranges from 29.7% in Cameroon to 47% in South Africa. Only 10% receive treatment in Cameroon while 32% are on medications in Ghana. Control rates vary from 0.4% to 16.8%. This study was done to assess prevalence, risk factors, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Mafia Island, Tanzania, which has never been documented before, so that necessary interventions can be undertaken accordingly. Methodology. Data was collected through questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were taken. Descriptive statistics were done and potential correlations were analyzed. Results. Out of 570 adults who were included in the study, 154 (27%) were aged 41-50 and the male-to-female ratio was 1 : 1.05. Almost half (49.5%) of the participants fit into the criteria of hypertension. Out of the 118 participants who were aware of having hypertension, 68 (57.6%) were currently taking medication. From those taking medication, only 14 (20.6%) had controlled hypertension. Conclusion. This study tried to show the extent of hypertension and find out risk factors which could explain the high prevalence of hypertension. This is very alarming and a dire need to raise awareness through health education, availability of screening, and treating and follow-up should be given priority.

  2. Prevalence, Risk Factors, Awareness, and Treatment and Control of Hypertension in Mafia Island, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Muhamedhussein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The prevalence of hypertension in Africa ranges from 29.7% in Cameroon to 47% in South Africa. Only 10% receive treatment in Cameroon while 32% are on medications in Ghana. Control rates vary from 0.4% to 16.8%. This study was done to assess prevalence, risk factors, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Mafia Island, Tanzania, which has never been documented before, so that necessary interventions can be undertaken accordingly. Methodology. Data was collected through questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were taken. Descriptive statistics were done and potential correlations were analyzed. Results. Out of 570 adults who were included in the study, 154 (27% were aged 41–50 and the male-to-female ratio was 1 : 1.05. Almost half (49.5% of the participants fit into the criteria of hypertension. Out of the 118 participants who were aware of having hypertension, 68 (57.6% were currently taking medication. From those taking medication, only 14 (20.6% had controlled hypertension. Conclusion. This study tried to show the extent of hypertension and find out risk factors which could explain the high prevalence of hypertension. This is very alarming and a dire need to raise awareness through health education, availability of screening, and treating and follow-up should be given priority.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for mast cell tumours in dogs in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, Stephanie Jw; Marlow, Stephanie; Church, David B; English, Kate; McGreevy, Paul D; Stell, Anneliese J; Thomson, Peter C; O'Neill, Dan G; Brodbelt, David C

    2015-01-01

    Mast cell tumour (MCT) appears to be a frequent tumour type in dogs, though there is little published in relation to its frequency in dogs in the UK. The current study aimed to investigate prevalence and risk factors for MCTs in dogs attending English primary-care veterinary practices. Electronic patient records from practices participating in the VetCompass animal surveillance project between July 2007 and June 2013 were searched for MCT diagnosis. Various search terms and standard diagnostic terms (VeNom codes) identified records containing MCT diagnoses, which were evaluated against clinical criteria for inclusion to the study. MCT prevalence for the entire dataset and specific breed types were calculated. Descriptive statistics characterised MCT cases and multivariable logistic regression methods evaluated risk factors for association with MCT (P Border Collie, West Highland White Terrier, Springer Spaniel and Cocker Spaniel had reduced odds of MCT diagnosis compared with crossbred dogs. No association was found between MCT diagnosis and sex. This study highlights a clinically significant prevalence of MCT and identifies specific breed types with predisposition to MCT, potentially aiding veterinarian awareness and facilitating diagnosis.

  4. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Giardia Infection among Indigenous Communities in Rural Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Seow Huey; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Nasr, Nabil N.; Sulaiman, Maria; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Surin, Johari

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous people in rural Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 1,330 participants from seven states of Malaysia and examined by wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation methods while demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.6% and was significantly higher among those aged ≤ 12 years compared to their older counterparts. Multivariate logistic regression identified age of ≤12 years, lacking of toilet at household, not washing hands before eating, not washing hands after playing with animals, not boiling water before consumption, bathing in the river, and not wearing shoes when outside as the significant risk factors of Giardia infection among these communities. Based on a multilocus genotyping approach (including tpi, gdh and bg gene sequences), 69 isolates were identified as assemblage A, and 69 as assemblage B. No association between the assemblages and presence of symptoms was found. Providing proper sanitation, as well as provision of clean drinking water and proper health education regarding good personal hygiene practices will help significantly in reducing the prevalence and burden of Giardia infection in these communities. PMID:25366301

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Chagas Disease in Pregnant Women in Casanare, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Flórez, Astrid C.; Cárdenas, Ángela; Pavía, Paula; Montilla, Marleny; Aldana, Rodrigo; Villamizar, Katherine; Ríos, Lyda C.; Nicholls, Rubén S.; Puerta, Concepción J.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the prevalence and risk factors associated with maternal infection is the first step to develop a surveillance system for congenital transmission of Chagas disease. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Casanare, a disease-endemic area in Colombia. A total of 982 patients were enrolled in the study. A global prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection of 4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8–5.3%) was found. Multivariate analysis showed that the most important risk-associated factors were age > 29 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.4, 95% CI = 0.9–12.4), rural residency (aOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0–4.6), low education level (aOR = 10.2, 95% CI = 1.6–82.7), and previous knowledge of the vector (aOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0–4.9). Relatives and siblings of infected mothers showed a prevalence of 9.3%. These findings may help physicians to investigate congenital cases, screen Chagas disease in siblings and relatives, and provide early treatment to prevent the chronic complications of Chagas disease. PMID:23033397

  6. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous communities in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Seow Huey; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Nasr, Nabil N; Sulaiman, Maria; Lim, Yvonne A L; Surin, Johari

    2014-11-04

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous people in rural Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 1,330 participants from seven states of Malaysia and examined by wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation methods while demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.6% and was significantly higher among those aged ≤ 12 years compared to their older counterparts. Multivariate logistic regression identified age of ≤ 12 years, lacking of toilet at household, not washing hands before eating, not washing hands after playing with animals, not boiling water before consumption, bathing in the river, and not wearing shoes when outside as the significant risk factors of Giardia infection among these communities. Based on a multilocus genotyping approach (including tpi, gdh and bg gene sequences), 69 isolates were identified as assemblage A, and 69 as assemblage B. No association between the assemblages and presence of symptoms was found. Providing proper sanitation, as well as provision of clean drinking water and proper health education regarding good personal hygiene practices will help significantly in reducing the prevalence and burden of Giardia infection in these communities.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for significant liver fibrosis among HIV-monoinfected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Localio Russell

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-monoinfected patients may be at risk for significant liver fibrosis, but its prevalence and determinants in these patients are unknown. Since HIV-monoinfected patients do not routinely undergo liver biopsy, we evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of significant hepatic fibrosis in this group using the aspartate aminotransferase (AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among HIV-infected patients negative for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibody in the Penn Center for AIDS Research Adult/Adolescent Database. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from the database at enrollment. Hypothesized determinants of significant fibrosis were modifiable risk factors associated with liver disease progression, hepatic fibrosis, or hepatotoxicity, including immune dysfunction (i.e., CD4 T lymphocyte count 3, HIV viremia, diseases associated with hepatic steatosis (e.g., obesity, diabetes mellitus, and use of antiretroviral therapy. The primary outcome was an APRI score >1.5, which suggests significant hepatic fibrosis. Multivariable logistic regression identified independent risk factors for significant fibrosis by APRI. Results Among 432 HIV-monoinfected patients enrolled in the CFAR Database between November 1999 and May 2008, significant fibrosis by APRI was identified in 36 (8.3%; 95% CI, 5.9 - 11.4% patients. After controlling for all other hypothesized risk factors as well as active alcohol use and site, detectable HIV viremia (adjusted OR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.02 - 8.87 and diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.12 - 10.10 remained associated with significant fibrosis by APRI. Conclusions Significant fibrosis by APRI score was found in 8% of HIV-monoinfected patients. Detectable HIV viremia and diabetes mellitus were associated with significant fibrosis. Future studies should explore mechanisms for fibrosis in HIV-monoinfected patients.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for Listeria monocytogenes in broiler flocks in Shiraz, southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Shekarforoush, Seyed Shahram; Ansari-Lari, Maryam; EsalatPanah-Fard Jahromi, Mehdi; Berizi, Enayat; Abdollahi, Mostafa

    2012-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been identified as an important foodborne pathogen in recent years. In humans, it most commonly affects pregnant women, neonates, children, elderly people, and persons with a suppressed immune system. It could contaminate both raw and cooked meat and poultry products. Studies regarding prevalence and risk factors of L. monocytogenes in broilers flocks are limited. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for L. monocytogenes in poultry flocks in Shiraz, southern Iran. During August to September 2009, in total, 100 broiler flocks were selected at slaughter, and 21 specimens were collected from cloacal samples from each flock. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on the samples enriched in buffered Listeria enrichment broth (BLEB), using specific primers. Furthermore, enriched samples in BLEB and/or BLEB treated with 5% KOH were subcultured on Palcam medium. Data about farm and flocks were collected using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes was 7% (95% CI, 2-12%) and 1% using PCR and culture, respectively. Results showed that using antibiotics during rearing period was dramatically reduced the rate of isolation (odds ratio [OR]=0.07, p=0.03), whereas house capacity of more than 10,000 birds (OR=24.03, p=0.04) and number of houses (OR=2, p=0.02) significantly increased the prevalence. The correlation between poor management of large poultry flocks and increasing the risk of contamination was more likely due to the recontamination of cooked poultry/undercooking or cross-contamination of other ready-to-eat foods.

  9. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Prevalence, severity and risk factors for depressive symptoms and insomnia in college undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress-Smith, Jenna L; Roubinov, Danielle S; Andreotti, Charissa; Compas, Bruce E; Luecken, Linda J

    2015-02-01

    Although the college years represent a high-risk period for depressive symptoms and insomnia, little research has explored their prevalence, comorbidities and risk factors within this developmental period. Two studies were conducted; the first evaluated the prevalence and comorbidity of depressive symptoms and insomnia in 1338 students (ages 18-23 years) from a large Southwestern University. Mild depressive symptoms were endorsed by 19% of students and 14.5% reported moderate to severe symptoms. Forty-seven percent of students reported mild insomnia and 22.5% endorsed moderate to severe insomnia severity. A second study investigated perceived stress as a potential mediator of the relation between self-reported childhood adversity and concurrent depressive symptoms and insomnia. Undergraduates (N = 447) from a Southwestern and Southeastern University reported prior childhood adversity, current perceived stress, insomnia and depressive symptoms. Self-reported childhood adversity predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms and insomnia severity, partially mediated by perceived stress. Results support the high prevalence of depressive symptoms and insomnia among undergraduates. The risk for depressive and insomnia symptoms may be increased among students who experienced greater levels of childhood adversity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Angina pectoris in patients with HIV/AIDS: prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Cláudia Zirpoli

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The incidence of ischemic heart disease is higher in patients with HIV/AIDS. However, the frequency of angina pectoris in these patients is still not known. Literature about this subject is still scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of angina pectoris and risk factors for coronary disease and to examine the association between traditional risk factors and HIV-related risk factors and angina pectoris. METHOD: An epidemiological cross-sectional study, analyzed as case-control study, involving 584 patients with HIV/AIDS. Angina pectoris was identified by Rose questionnaire, classified as definite or possible. Information regarding risk factors was obtained through a questionnaire, biochemical laboratory tests, medical records and anthropometric measures taken during consultations at AIDS treatment clinics in Pernambuco, Brazil, from June 2007 to February 2008. To adjust the effect of each factor in relation to others, multiple logistic regression was used. RESULTS: There was a preponderance of men (63.2%; mean ages were 39.8 years for men, 36.8 years for women. The prevalence of definite and possible angina were 11% and 9.4%, respectively, totaling 20.4%, with independent associations between angina and smoking (OR = 2.88; 95% CI: 1.69-4.90, obesity (OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 0.97-2.70, family history of heart attack (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.00-2.88, low schooling (OR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.24-3.59, and low monthly income (OR = 2.93; 95% CI: 1.18-7.22, even after adjustment for age. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that angina pectoris is underdiagnosed, even in patients with medical monitoring, revealing lost opportunities in identification and prevention of cardiovascular morbidity.

  12. Prevalence rates and epidemiological risk factors for astigmatism in Singapore school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Louis; Saw, Seang-Mei; Carkeet, Andrew; Chan, Wai-Ying; Wu, Hui-Min; Tan, Donald

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence rate of astigmatism and its epidemiological risk factors in Singapore school children. In a study of school children aged 7 to 9 years old in two schools in Singapore in 1999, a detailed questionnaire was administered to parents regarding reading or close-work habits, past history of close-work, family history, and socioeconomic factors. Cycloplegic refraction was performed five times in each eye. Defining astigmatism as worse than or equal to 0.5, 0.75, and 1 D cylinder in the right eye, the prevalence of astigmatism was calculated. The study population consisted of 1028 children. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (worse than or equal to 1 D cylinder) was 19.2% (95% confidence interval, 16.8 to 21.6). This was not different between genders, ethnic groups, or age (p > 0.05). With-the-rule astigmatism was more common than against-the-rule astigmatism. The prevalence of astigmatism and myopia was 9.8% (95% confidence interval, 8.0 to 11.6). A high AC/A ratio was associated (p = 0.003) with astigmatism, even after exclusion of myopic children. On vectorial analysis, J0 and J45 were associated with the number of hours of playing video games, whereas J45 was also associated with computer use. Only J45 was associated to male gender, a high AC/A ratio, and a family history of myopia. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was 19%. Playing video games and computer use may be associated with astigmatism severity, although the presence of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was not associated with any nearwork factors. A family history of myopia was associated with oblique astigmatism severity. A high AC/A ratio is associated with astigmatism, and this requires further investigation.

  13. [Prevalence and risk factors of bronchial asthma among Li nationality in Hainan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi-peng; Yao, Hong-xia; Tang, Xiao-lan; He, Hai-wu; Shi, Hui-fang; Lin, Li; Li, Min; Chen, Shan; Chen, Jing; Wang, Hai-jiao

    2011-02-01

    To study the risk factors of bronchial asthma of Li nationality in Hainan. A total of 13 050 subjects of Li nationality were selected by random unequal ratio stratified cluster sampling method from southern, central and western part of Hainan and investigated with Hainan Epidemiological Asthma Survey Questionnaire of Li Nationality. There were 441 cases of bronchial asthma, and 1296 cases of control that were sampled by random number table method. The logistic regression method was used to analyze risk factors. The asthma prevalence of Li nationality in Hainan was 3.38%(441/13 050). The main risk factors of asthma were family asthma (OR = 4.323, 95%CI = 3.259 - 5.735), hypersensitiveness (OR = 7.775, 95%CI = 5.686 - 10.632), smoking (OR = 1.494, 95%CI = 1.174 - 1.902), cooking fuels and living environment. Cold air change (OR = 1.604, 95%CI = 1.286 - 2.001) and respirable dust or irritant gas (OR = 2.123, 95%CI = 1.702 - 2.648) were the important incentives. The main risk factors of asthma among Li nationality were family asthma, hypersensitiveness, smoking, cooking fuels by means of fuel oil, hay or wood, living environment by means of couch grass room and human-livestock mix live, cold air change, respirable dust or irritant gas.

  14. Prevalence of coronary artery disease risk factors in Iran: a population based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafarzadeh Motlag A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery disease (CAD is a leading cause of mortality, morbidity, and disability with high health care cost in Iran. It accounts for nearly 50 percent of all deaths per year. Yet little is known about CAD and CAD risk factors in the Iranian population. We aimed to assess the prevalence of different CAD risk factors in an Iranian population. Methods A descriptive cross sectional survey was conducted involving 3000 healthy adults at 18 years of age or above who were recruited with cluster random sampling. Demographic data and risk factors were determined by taking history, physical examination and laboratory tests. Results The average age was 36.23 ± 15.26. There was 1381 female (46% and 1619 male (54% out of which 6.3% were diabetic, 21.6% were smoker, and 15% had positive familial heart disease history. 61% had total cholesterol level > 200 mg/dL, 32% triglyceride > 200 mg/dl, 47.5% LDL-c > 130 mg/dl, 5.4% HDL-c 140 mmHg, 9.1% diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg and 87% of them were physically inactive. Conclusion Clinical and Para-clinical data indicated that Iranian adult population are of a high level of CAD risk factors, which may require urgent decision making to address national control measures regarding CAD.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for subclinical coccidiosis in broiler chicken farms in Mazandaran province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Mohammad Reza; Seifi, Saeed; Gheisari, Hamid Reza; Hachesoo, Bahman Abdi; Habibi, Hasan; Bujmehrani, Hossein

    2011-12-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease of almost universal importance in Poultry production. The subclinical form of coccidiosis has most significant economic impact due to impaired growth rate and feed conversion. Some factors such as: age, size of flock, season, etc., may effect on severity of this disease. In this study, the relationships between some major risk factors and prevalence of subclinical coccidiosis were investigated. This study was done in 120 broiler farms in five different cities of Mazandaran province, north of Iran. Five chicks (3-8 weeks of ages) were taken randomly from every 120 farms and post-mortem and parasitological examinations were performed. Five Eimeria spp. were recognized: Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, and Eimeria necatrix. The prevalence rate of subclinical coccidiosis among them is 75% (90 farms out of 120). E. acervulina was the most prevalent species (65.5%) followed by E. maxima (17.7%), E. tenella (15.5%), E. brunetti (10%), and E. necatrix (5.5%). According to what the results approve, the occurrence of subclinical coccidiosis is significantly related to the age and size of flock, whereas the other factors such as the season of year, industrial strains, chicken's keeping system, and anticoccidial drugs do not affect this phenomenon remarkably.

  16. Prevalence of anxiety and depression and their risk factors in Chinese cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin Sheng; Tian, Jun

    2014-02-01

    This paper aimed to obtain information on the levels of anxiety and depression among cancer patients in China. The factors influencing these psychological problems were also analyzed. A total of 1,217 cancer patients were interviewed, and each participant was asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The anxiety status, depression status, disease stage, tumor site, pain status, and performance status of the patients during the week prior to the interview were assessed. The anxiety and depression prevalence rates were 6.49 and 66.72 %, respectively. The prevalence rates of depression were 60.62 % for head and neck cancer, 77.19 % for lung cancer, 57.9 % for breast cancer, 75.81 % for esophagus cancer, 63.40 % for stomach cancer, 68.42 % for liver cancer, 54.37 % for colorectal cancer, and 71.13 % for cervix cancer. The factors influencing depression of patients were performance status (P anxiety were performance status (P = 0.0007), age (P anxiety in cancer patients. Compared with 3.8 % of the prevalence of depression in normal population, depression level was high among Chinese cancer patients. Patients with lung, esophagus, and cervix cancers were the high-risk groups for depression. Poor performance status, pain, old age, and low-level education were the predicting factors for depression.

  17. Social anxiety disorder in Saudi adolescent boys: Prevalence, subtypes, and parenting style as a risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Y Ghazwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Available information on social anxiety disorder (SAD in adolescents in Saudi Arabia is limited. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, severity, and subtypes of SAD, and parenting style risk factors associated with SAD in the adolescent. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools for boys in Abha, Saudi Arabia during the Academic year 2013. To collect the data, a questionnaire eliciting information on background characteristics and parenting style as well as the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Test (LSAS, for the evaluation of SAD, were used. Results: A total of 454 students participated in the study. The age of the participants ranged between 15 and 20 years with a mean of 17.4 years. The prevalence of SAD was 11.7%. Around 36% and 11.4% of the students respectively had severe and more severe forms of SAD. Parenting style such as parental anger, criticism particularly in front of others, exaggerated protection, maltreatment and family provocation emerged as a significant risk factor for SAD. The independent predictors of SAD were a parental provocation and physical or emotional maltreatment by the parent (odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90-8.31 and OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 3.17-5.19, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of SAD in secondary school students at Abha is high. Parenting style risk factors for SAD are modifiable. In this context, a national program to improve mental health in this age group is crucial.

  18. Regional differences in self-reported screening, prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In Switzerland, health policies are decided at the local level, but little is known regarding their impact on the screening and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). We thus aimed at assessing geographical levels of CVRFs in Switzerland. Methods Swiss Health Survey for 2007 (N = 17,879). Seven administrative regions were defined: West (Leman), West-Central (Mittelland), Zurich, South (Ticino), North-West, East and Central Switzerland. Obesity, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes prevalence, treatment and screening within the last 12 months were assessed by interview. Results After multivariate adjustment for age, gender, educational level, marital status and Swiss citizenship, no significant differences were found between regions regarding prevalence of obesity or current smoking. Similarly, no differences were found regarding hypertension screening and prevalence. Two thirds of subjects who had been told they had high blood pressure were treated, the lowest treatment rates being found in East Switzerland: odds-ratio and [95% confidence interval] 0.65 [0.50-0.85]. Screening for hypercholesterolemia was more frequently reported in French (Leman) and Italian (Ticino) speaking regions. Four out of ten participants who had been told they had high cholesterol levels were treated and the lowest treatment rates were found in German-speaking regions. Screening for diabetes was higher in Ticino (1.24 [1.09 - 1.42]). Six out of ten participants who had been told they had diabetes were treated, the lowest treatment rates were found for German-speaking regions. Conclusions In Switzerland, cardiovascular risk factor screening and management differ between regions and these differences cannot be accounted for by differences in populations' characteristics. Management of most cardiovascular risk factors could be improved. PMID:22452881

  19. Assessment of cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease: prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Q

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Qiumei Wang,1 Zhenxin Zhang,2 Ling Li,2 Hongbo Wen,2 Qun Xu3,4 1Department of Geriatrics, 2Department of Neurology, 3School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 4Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China Background: Although Parkinson's disease (PD is clinically characterized by motor symptoms, cognitive impairment is one of the most disabling non-motor symptoms. Despite it attracting increasing attention worldwide, less is known about its prevalence in the Chinese population. The objective of this study was to assess cognitive impairment and related risk factors in Chinese PD patients. Methods: We collected the demographic, diagnostic, and treatment information of 901 PD patients from 42 centers throughout the People's Republic of China, then administered a battery of neuropsychological tests, to assess motor, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Results: Overall, 193 of 901 (21.4% PD patients met the criteria for dementia (PD-D, and 206 (22.8% met the criteria for mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI. Visuospatial dysfunction and attention/executive impairment predominated. Increased severity of cognitive impairment was associated with greater motor impairment. Patients with psychiatric symptoms, such as depression and hallucinations, were more likely to have dementia. Potentially, the younger-aged and more educated are shown less cognitive impairment, but age at onset, and levodopa equivalent dose, were not associated with the presence of cognitive dysfunction. Conclusion: The prevalence and profile of cognitive impairment in Chinese PD patients, as well as the risk factors, are similar as those reported for other races, but the frequency of nonamnestic cognitive domains differs. Keywords: cognitive impairment, risk factor, prevalence, Parkinson's disease

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic peptic ulcer disease in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Wei; Tu, Ming-Shium; Mar, Guang-Yuan; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Yu, Hsien-Chung; Cheng, Lung-Chih; Hsu, Ping-I

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in a general Taiwanese population. METHODS: From January to August 2008, consecutive asymptomatic subjects undergoing a routine health check-up were evaluated by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastroduodenal mucosal breaks were carefully assessed, and a complete medical history and demographic data were obtained from each patient. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify independent risk factors for asymptomatic PUD. RESULTS: Of the 572 asymptomatic subjects, 54 (9.4%) were diagnosed as having PUD. The prevalence of gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and both gastric and duodenal ulcers were 4.7%, 3.9%, and 0.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that prior history of PUD [odds ratio (OR), 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9], high body mass index [body mass index (BMI) 25-30: OR, 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.2; BMI > 30 kg/m2: OR, 3.6, 95% CI: 1.5-8.7] and current smoker (OR, 2.6, 95% CI: 1.6-4.4) were independent predictors of asymptomatic PUD. In contrast, high education level was a negative predictor of PUD (years of education 10-12: OR, 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8; years of education > 12: OR, 0.6, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PUD in asymptomatic subjects is 9.4% in Taiwan. Prior history of PUD, low education level, a high BMI and current smoker are independent risk factors for developing asymptomatic PUD. PMID:21448426

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for active convulsive epilepsy in rural northeast South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ryan G; Ngugi, Anthony K; Twine, Rhian; Bottomley, Christian; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Connor, Myles D; Collinson, Mark A; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Newton, Charles R

    2014-05-01

    Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders worldwide. However, there are few large, population-based studies of the prevalence and risk factors for epilepsy in southern Africa. From August 2008 to February 2009, as part of a multi-site study, we undertook a three-stage, population-based study, embedded within the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system, to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors of active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) in a rural South African population. The crude prevalence of ACE, after adjusting for non-response and the sensitivity of the screening method, was 7.0/1,000 individuals (95% CI 6.4-7.6) with significant geographic heterogeneity across the study area. Being male (OR=2.3; 95% CI 1.6-3.2), family history of seizures (OR=4.0; 95% CI 2.0-8.1), a sibling with seizures (OR=7.0; 95% CI 1.6-31.7), problems after delivery (OR=5.9; 95% CI 1.2-24.6), and history of snoring (OR=6.5; 95% CI 4.5-9.5) were significantly associated with ACE. For children, their mother's exposure to some formal schooling was protective (OR=0.30; 95% CI 0.11-0.84) after controlling for age and sex. Human immunodeficiency virus was not found to be associated with ACE. ACE is less frequent in this part of rural South Africa than other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Improving obstetric services could prevent epilepsy. The relationship between snoring and ACE requires further investigation, as does the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to examine the increased risk in those with a family history of epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for active convulsive epilepsy in rural northeast South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ryan G.; Ngugi, Anthony K.; Twine, Rhian; Bottomley, Christian; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Connor, Myles D.; Collinson, Mark A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Newton, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Rationale Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders worldwide. However, there are few large, population-based studies of the prevalence and risk factors for epilepsy in southern Africa. Methods From August 2008 to February 2009, as part of a multi-site study, we undertook a three-stage, population-based study, embedded within the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system, to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors of active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) in a rural South African population. Results The crude prevalence of ACE, after adjusting for non-response and the sensitivity of the screening method, was 7.0/1,000 individuals (95%CI 6.4–7.6) with significant geographic heterogeneity across the study area. Being male (OR = 2.3; 95%CI 1.6–3.2), family history of seizures (OR = 4.0; 95%CI 2.0–8.1), a sibling with seizures (OR = 7.0; 95%CI 1.6–31.7), problems after delivery (OR = 5.9; 95%CI 1.2–24.6), and history of snoring (OR = 6.5; 95%CI 4.5–9.5) were significantly associated with ACE. For children, their mother's exposure to some formal schooling was protective (OR = 0.30; 95%CI 0.11–0.84) after controlling for age and sex. Human immunodeficiency virus was not found to be associated with ACE. Conclusions ACE is less frequent in this part of rural South Africa than other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Improving obstetric services could prevent epilepsy. The relationship between snoring and ACE requires further investigation, as does the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to examine the increased risk in those with a family history of epilepsy. PMID:24582322

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence among Chinese women in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Lei; Huang, Sheng-Song; Wu, Qiang; Wu, Deng-Long

    2014-01-01

    A group of healthy females were randomly sampled in Shanghai for the purpose of evaluating the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) among Chinese women and its associated risk factors. 5,467 registered female residents aged from 20 years were randomly sampled from four communities in Shanghai, and the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Questionnaire (the International Consultation Incontinence Questionnaire) was adopted. Detailed information regarding pregnancy, menstruation, and several demographic variables was also collected. Data were subsequently analyzed using McNemar's test, univariate analysis, multinomial logistic regression models, and binary logistic regression models. The prevalence rate of UI was estimated to be 23.3%. The rate of stress UI (SUI) was 14.0% (761/5433), which was more prevalent than the rate of urgency UI (UUI) and mixed UI (MUI), which were 3.0% (164/5433) and 6.3% (341/5433), respectively. The risk factors associated with developing UI included aging, lack of education, poor living environment (specifically in the rural area), intense manual labor, the absence of physical exercise, hyperlipemia, diabetes, nocturia, consumption of greasy food, divorce or widowing, chronic pelvic pain (CPP), pelvic organ prolapse (POP), frequent urinary tract infection, and vaginal delivery without episiotomy. We also observed that most Chinese women were not aware of UI, which prevented them from seeking early treatment. Urinary incontinence is a common disorder among Chinese women in Shanghai, and many risk factors contribute to the development of UI. Most Chinese women were not aware of UI, which prevented them from seeking early treatment.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy in persons without diabetes: the Singapore Indian Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Mayuri; Cheung, Carol Yim-lui; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Huang, Lei; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Wang, Jie Jin; Tai, E-S; Heng, C-K; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin

    2014-12-01

    To describe prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy in an Asian Indian population without diabetes. A population-based cross-sectional study of 3400 Indians aged 40-80 years residing in Singapore was conducted. Retinopathy was assessed from retinal photographs by trained graders using modified Airlie House Classification System. Risk factors were assessed from standardized interviews, clinical examinations and laboratory investigations. Diabetes mellitus was defined as glycosylated haemoglobin ≥6.5%, use of diabetic medication or physician diagnosis of diabetes. Among the 1900 individuals without diabetes, mean HbA1c was 5.7% and mean systolic blood pressure was 132.4 mmHg. Age-standardized prevalence of retinopathy was 5.05% (n = 98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.07-6.21), with no significant difference in retinopathy prevalence between males (6.15%) and females (4.13%). Among non-diabetic persons with retinopathy, 96.9% (n = 95) had signs of minimal-to-mild retinopathy while 3.06% (n = 3) had moderate-to-severe retinopathy. After adjusting for multiple covariables, retinopathy signs were associated with higher levels of HbA1c (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.5; per% increase), systolic blood pressure (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03; per mmHg increase) and serum creatinine (OR, 1.005; 95% CI, 1.002-1.009; per mm increase), but not C-reactive protein, cigarette smoking or lipid levels. One in 20 Asian Indian persons without diabetes had retinopathy signs. Risk factors for these signs include higher glycosylated haemoglobin, systolic blood pressure and serum creatinine. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells from patients with risk factors for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lízia Maria Franco dos Reis Campos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Pap smears are the most common and inexpensive screening method for cervical cancer. We analyzed micronucleus prevalence in exfoliated cervical mucosa cells, to investigate associations between increased numbers of micronuclei and risk factors for cervical cancer. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study, at Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia (IPON. METHODS: Exfoliated cervical cells were obtained from 101 patients between September 2004 and November 2005. Patients' ages, habits (passive or active smoking, alcoholism and numbers of sexual partners, age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive methods used, histories of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormone replacement therapy, numbers of pregnancies and abortions, inflammatory cytology and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN were obtained. Cells were collected using Ayre spatulas, transferred to vials containing 0.9% saline solution for micronucleus tests and analyzed at 1000x magnification. The number of micronuclei in 1,000 epithelial cells per patient sample was counted. RESULTS: Comparisons between groups with active (7.9 ± 7.8 and passive (7.2 ± 10.6 smoking versus no smoking (3.7 ± 5.1; with/without alcoholism (7.8 ± 1.4 and 6.9 ± 10.1; with/without inflammatory cytology (10.7 ± 10.5 and 1.3 ± 1.7; and with CIN I, II and III and no CIN (respectively 4.3 ± 4.3, 10.6 ± 5.3, 22.7 ± 11.9 and 1.3 ± 1.4 found elevated micronucleus prevalence (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells was greater in patients with one or more risk factors for uterine cervical cancer than in patients without risk factors.

  6. Sero-prevalence, risk factors and distribution of foot and mouth disease in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdela, Nejash

    2017-05-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD), world's most important highly infectious and contagious trans-boundary animal diseases, is responsible for huge global losses of livestock production as well as severe impacts on international trade. This vesicular disease is caused by foot and mouth disease virus of the genus Aphthovirus, family Picornaviridae. Currently FMD is major global animal health problem and endemic in Africa including Ethiopia. This paper systematically reviewed the sero-prevalence reports, associated risk factors and distribution of FMD in Ethiopia with the main aim of making compressive document on prevalence, risk factor and distribution of the disease thus helping as a basis for designing effective control strategies. FMD is widely distributed in Ethiopia and its prevalence varies from place to place with seropositivity that ranges from 5.6% to 42.7% in cattle and from 4% to 11% in small ruminant and in 30% in ungulate wildlife. In Ethiopia endemic distributions of five of seven serotypes, namely serotypes O, A, C, SAT1 and SAT2 have been documented. The dominant serotype being reported recently is serotype O and serotype C has not been reported in the country since 1983. However, serotype C specific antibody was detected in cattle indicating that circulation of serotype C viruses in the country may have gone unnoticed. The most common risk factor associated with FMD infection in Ethiopia includes production system, geographic location, species, age of animals, contact with wildlife and season of the year, mixed animal species and Breed. Conclusively, this paper revealed as FMD is posing a major threat in different area of the country thereby causing substantial economic losses through morbidity, mortality and restriction of international trade. Thus, demanding for great attention as its occurrence is may affect the export earnings of the country thereby threaten the livelihood of farmers and economy of the country at large. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  7. The prevalence, risk factors and clinical correlates of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiongzhen; Du, Xiangdong; Zhang, Yingyang; Yin, Guangzhong; Zhang, Guangya; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Quevedo, João; Soares, Jair C; Xia, Haishen; Li, Xiaosi; Zheng, Yingjun; Ning, Yuping; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a common comorbidity in schizophrenia. Few studies have addressed obesity in Chinese schizophrenia patients. The aims of this current study were to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and clinical correlates of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. A total of 206 patients were recruited from a hospital in Beijing. Their clinical and anthropometric data together with plasma glucose and lipid parameters were collected. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was rated for all patients. Overall, 43 (20.9%) patients were obese and 67 (32.5%) were overweight. The obese patients had significantly higher glucose levels, triglyceride levels than non-obese patients. Females and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus had increased risk for obesity. Correlation analysis showed that BMI was associated with sex, education levels, negative symptoms, total PANSS score, triglyceride levels and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further stepwise regression analysis showed that sex, type 2 diabetes, education level, triglyceride and amount of smoking/day were significant predictors for obesity. Our study showed that the prevalence of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia is higher than that in the general population. Some demographic and clinical variables are risk factors for obesity in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hepatitis B virus infection profile in hemodialysis patients in Central Brazil: prevalence, risk factors, and genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C Ferreira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis patients are at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. A survey was conducted in the hemodialysis population of the state of Goiás, Central Brazil, aiming to assess the prevalence of HBV infection, to analyse associated risk factors, and also to investigate HBV genotypes distribution. A total of 1095 patients were interviewed in 15 dialysis units. Serum samples were screened for HBV serological markers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg positive samples were tested for HBV DNA by polymerase chain reaction and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Global HBV infection prevalence was 29.8% (95% CI: 27.1-32.5. Multivariate analysis of risk factors showed that male gender, length of time on hemodialysis, and blood transfusion before 1993 were associated with HBV positivity. HBV DNA was detected in 65.4% (17/26 of the HBsAg-positive samples. Thirteen of 17 HBV DNA positive samples were genotyped. Genotype D (61.5% was predominant, followed by A (30.8%, while genotype F was detected in only one (7.7% sample.

  9. Prevalence of and risk factors for low back pain among healthcare workers in Denizli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Şule; Yağcı, Nesrin; Şenol, Hande

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine personal, occupational, and psychosocial risk factors affecting prevalence of low back pain in healthcare workers. Study included total of 1682 participants (1010 female, 672 male) working at Denizli State Hospital. Low back pain section of Standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (SNMA) was used to evaluate recent occurrence, pain experienced within previous year, and over lifetime. Perceived Stress Scale and Job Satisfaction Scale were also administered. Prevalence of lifetime low back pain in healthcare workers was determined to be 53% based on SNMA. It was observed that low back pain was most common among medical secretaries (56.9%). Advanced age, female gender, high body mass index (p=0.002), being married (p=0.0001), lack of regular exercise (p=0.009), working for more than 4 hours while standing (p=0.012) or sitting at desk (p=0.021), using computer for more than 4 hours (p=0.0001), greater number of years of service (p=0.001), and low job satisfaction (p=0.001) were found to be factors increasing low back pain risk. Our study demonstrated that healthcare workers are among group with high risk of low back pain.

  10. [Chronic kidney disease in Primary Health Care: prevalence and associated risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador González, Betlem; Rodríguez Pascual, Mercedes; Ruipérez Guijarro, Laura; Ferré González, Antonia; Cunillera Puertolas, Oriol; Rodríguez Latre, Luisa M

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and associated risk factors in subjects over 60 years of age, as well as its staging by determining the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Cross-sectional observational study. Primary Health Care. Patients≥60 years of age who were seen in 40 Primary Health Care centres with serum creatinine measured in a central laboratory between January 1 and December 31, 2010. kidney transplant, home care. Social-demographic and anthropometric data, cardiovascular risk factors, and diseases established according to electronic clinical records. Serum creatinine was measured using standardised Jaffe kinetic method, and GFR estimated with MDRD-4-IDMS and CKD-EPI. A total of 97,665 subjects (57.3% women, median age 70.0 years [Q1: 65.0, Q3: 77.0]). GFR-MDRD prevalencedisease (OR=1.40; 95% CI 1.30 to 1.50), peripheral arterial disease (OR=1.31; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.57), dyslipidaemia (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.33), diabetes (OR=1.26; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.34), and stroke (OR=1.17; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.25). The GFR-CKD-EPI model showed an increase in OR with age and male sex, that became significant as a chronic kidney disease risk factor. Chronic kidney disease has considerable prevalence in subjects≥60 years seen in Primary Health Care, more in women, and increasing with age. Hypertension, more than diabetes, was the main associated cardiovascular risk factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic Syndrome in South African Patients with Severe Mental Illness: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamima Saloojee

    Full Text Available There is a surge of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Africa. CVD is the leading cause of mortality among patients with severe mental illness (SMI in developed countries, with little evidence from the African context.To determine the prevalence and risk factors for MetS among South African patients with SMI.In a cross sectional study, individuals with SMI treated with antipsychotics and a control group without a mental illness, matched for age, gender and ethnicity were evaluated for MetS using the 2009 Joint Interim statement (JIS criteria.Of the 276 study group subjects, 65.9% were male, 84.1% black African, 9.1% white, 5.4% of Indian descent and 1.5% coloured (mixed race with a mean age of 34.7 years (±12.5. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis (73.2% and 40% were taking first generation antipsychotics. The prevalence of MetS was 23.2% (M: 15.4%, F: 38.3% in the study group and 19.9% (M: 11.9%, F: 36.3% in the control group (p = 0.4. MetS prevalence was significantly higher in study subjects over 55 years compared to controls (p = 0.03. Increased waist circumference (p< 0.001 and low high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (p = 0.003 were significantly more prevalent in study subjects compared to controls. In study subjects, risk factors associated with MetS included age (OR: 1.09, 95% CI 1.06-1.12, p < 0.001, female gender (OR: 2.19, 95% CI 1.06-4.55, p = 0.035 and Indian descent (OR: 5.84, 95% CI 1.66-20.52, p = 0.006 but not class of antipsychotic (p = 0.26.The overall MetS prevalence was not increased in patients with SMI compared to controls; however, the higher prevalence of the individual components (HDL cholesterol and waist circumference suggests an increased risk for CVD, especially in patients over 55 years.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for foot and ankle musculoskeletal disorders experienced by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Lloyd F; Battistutta, Diana; Young, Jeanine; Newman, Beth

    2014-06-05

    Nurses are at high risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Although the prevalence of MSDs of the lower back, upper limbs, neck and shoulders have been reported previously in nursing, few studies have evaluated MSDs of the foot and ankle. This study evaluated the prevalence of foot and ankle MSDs in nurses and their relation to individual and workplace risk factors. A self-administered survey incorporating the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was distributed, over a nine-week period, to all eligible nurses (n = 416) working in a paediatric hospital in Brisbane, Australia. The prevalence of MSDs for each of the NMQ body regions was determined. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between activity-limiting foot/ankle MSDs and risk factors related to the individual (age, body mass index, number of existing foot conditions, smoking history, general physical health [SF36 Physical Component Scale], footwear features) or the workplace (level of nursing position, work location, average hours worked, hours worked in previous week, time since last break from work). A 73% response rate was achieved with 304 nurses completing surveys, of whom 276 were females (91%). Mean age of the nurses was 37 years (±10), younger than the state average of 43 years. Foot/ankle MSDs were the most prevalent conditions experienced by nurses during the preceding seven days (43.8%, 95% CI 38.2-49.4%), the second most prevalent MSDs to impair physical activity (16.7%, 95% CI 13.0-21.3%), and the third most prevalent MSD, after lower-back and neck problems, during the preceding 12 months (55.3%, 95% CI 49.6-60.7%). Of the nurse and work characteristics investigated, obesity, poor general physical health, existing foot conditions and working in the intensive care unit emerged as statistically significant (p MSDs. Foot/ankle MSDs are common in paediatric hospital nurses and resulted in physical activity limitations in one

  13. PREVALENCE OF GDM AND THEIR RISK FACTORS IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL- A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ishwarya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Detecting the evidence of gestational diabetes mellitus is a major challenge as the condition is associated with diverse range of adverse maternal and neonatal outcome. Also, women detected with gestational diabetes mellitus have an increased incidence of diabetes especially type 2 diabetes mellitus in the later life and future development of obesity and diabetes in the offspring. Studies conducted in different populations and with different methodologies consistently reported an increase in GDM prevalence. A true increase in the prevalence of GDM aside from its adverse consequences for the infant and newborn period might reflect or contribute to the ongoing pattern of increasing diabetes and obesity. 1&2 The aim of the study is to1. Validate the Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group of India (DIPSI recommended 75 grams glucose test for the diagnosis of gestational mellitus by comparing with the WHO criteria and ADA criteria. 2. Study the prevalence of gestational diabetes in antenatal population attending Government Kilpauk Medical College Hospital. 3. Study the prevalence of following risk factors in GDM. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective study was conducted in 350 antenatal women of 24-28 weeks gestational age who attended antenatal clinic in Government Kilpauk Medical College Hospital, Chennai. This study was done after getting clearance from ethical committee of Government Kilpauk Medical College Hospital. RESULTS Incidence of GDM was 4%. DIPSI criteria had a diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 98.86%, 100% and 98.82%. WHO criteria had a diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 99.43%, 100% and 99.41%. In both, the negative predictive value was 100%. From binary logistic regression, the associated risk factors were previous history of GDM, polyhydramnios and recurrent pregnancy loss evolved as significant risk factors. Polyhydramnios has an odds ratio of 13, previous history of GDM has an odds ratio of

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among adults in Jaffna District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, S; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2015-09-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among adults in Jaffna District. Multistage stratified cluster sampling technique was employed to select 544 participants. An interviewer administrated questionnaire was used. Anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) measurements were recorded and biochemical parameters were analysed. Response rate was 95.3%. Of them, 224 (43.8%) were male. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 16.4% (95% CI: 13.3- 19.9); in males 19.6% (95% CI: 14.6-25.4) and in females 13.9% (95% CI: 10.1-18.5). Of the diabetics, 27.4% were previously undiagnosed. In the final multivariable model, participants with family history of diabetes were 3.5 times (pdiabetes mellitus.

  15. Prevalence of frailty-related risk factors in older adults seen by community nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Julianne; Mooney, Mary; Dempsey, Orla

    2013-03-01

    To describe the frequency of four frailty-related risk factors in a cohort of older adults visited by community nurses in Dublin, Ireland. The Irish public health nursing service allows for both professional and self referral. Risk factors examined were suspected cognitive impairment, nutritional and fall risk, and activities of daily living dependence. Retrospective cross-sectional clinical audit. The study incorporated a retrospective clinical audit of files (N = 120) obtained from community nursing visits over 9 months in 2009-2010. A chi-square analysis tested for association between each risk factor and oldest age, living alone, professional referral to the nursing service, and presence of formal home support. Findings revealed a cohort prevalence of suspected cognitive impairment at 16·4%. Risk of malnutrition and risk of a fall were 20·2% and 30·8%, respectively. The cohort was dependent in activities of daily living at a rate of 23·5%. Participants dependent in activities of daily living were less likely to live alone and were more likely to have referred themselves to community nursing. Associations between the four frailty-related risk factors and receiving formal home support were not significant. This study results suggest that dependency in activities of daily living (an outcome of frailty) is strongly associated with a decreased likelihood of living alone and increased likelihood of referring oneself to community nursing services. Further research is necessary to examine how frailty screening in the referral process may enhance identification of older adults' community nursing needs in Dublin, Ireland. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for urinary and fecal incontinence in brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao L. Amaro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate prevalence and risk factors of fecal and urinary incontinence (UI in Brazilian women. Material and Methods: 685 women older than 20 years of age answered a questionnaire about urinary and fecal symptoms, clinical and obstetric antecedents. They were grouped according to presence or absence of UI. Results: Urinary and fecal incontinence was reported in 27% and 2% of cases, respectively. Mean age of incontinent women was significantly higher than continent ones. Incontinent women had a mean number of micturitions significantly higher than the continent ones. On average, incontinent women had higher rate of pregnancies and vaginal delivery when compared to the continent ones. Body mass index (BMI was significantly higher in incontinent participants and in women with no UI complaints (27.35 vs. 24.95, p < 0.05. Fecal incontinence prevalence was 2% and occurred exclusively in patients with UI. Conclusions: Vaginal delivery and high BMI have been identified as risk factors for UI development while aging and number of pregnancies may be correlated factors.

  17. Pre-hospital Delay after Acute Ischemic Stroke in Central Urban China: Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanfeng; Yang, Tingting; Gong, Yanhong; Li, Wenzhen; Chen, Yawen; Li, Jing; Wang, Mengdie; Yin, Xiaoxv; Hu, Bo; Lu, Zuxun

    2017-05-01

    Timely thrombolytic treatment is paramount after acute ischemic stroke (AIS); however, a large proportion of patients experience substantial delays in presentation to hospital. This study evaluates the prevalence and risk factors in pre-hospital delays after AIS in central urban China. AIS patients from 66 hospitals in 13 major cities across Hubei Province, between October 1, 2014 and January 31, 2015 were interviewed and their medical records were reviewed to identify those who suffered pre-hospital delays. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were undertaken to determine the prevalence rates and the risk factors associated with pre-hospital delays. A total of 1835 patients were included in the analysis, with 69.3 % patients reportedly arrived at hospital 3 or more hours after onset and 55.3 % patients arrived 6 or more hours after onset. Factors associated with increased pre-hospital delays for 3 or more hours were as follows: patient had a history of stroke (odds ratio (OR), 1.319, P = 0.028), onset location was at home (OR, 1.573, P = 0.002), and patients rather than someone else noticed the symptom onset first (OR, 1.711; P pre-hospital delays. These findings indicate that pre-hospital delays after AIS are common in urban central China, and future intervention programs should be focused on public awareness of stroke and appropriate response.

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Head Louse (Pediculus humanus capitis in Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedin Saghafipour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background  Recognition of head lice prevalence and related risk factors contributing in spreading the disease is a step forward to the control of this important health problem. This survey was done to determine prevalence and risk factors associated with head louse (Pediculus Humanus Capitis in Central Iran. Materials and Methods In this descriptive–analytic study, a total of 38,237 suspected cases of head lice infestation that were referred to public health centers in Qom province during 2016 were studied. Data collection was done using standard check list that was conducted and approved by the Health Ministry of the Islamic Republic of Iran and physical examination of the hairsby visual inspections of scalp and hair for the presence of adult lice, nymphs, and eggs (nits in all of suspected cases. For data analysis, Chi-square and Multiple Logistic Regression Tests were utilized. Results A total of 11,223 (29.35% out of 38,237 suspected cases of all ages were found to have pediculosis. According to the multivariable logistic regression analysis, a significant relationship was observed between Pediculus capitis infestation and each of these factors: educational grade, family size, family income, having previous history of P. capitis infestation, number of combing per day(P

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Domestic Violence Against Women by Their Husbands in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar Jahromi, Marzieh; Jamali, Safieh; Rahmanian Koshkaki, Afifeh; Javadpour, Shohreh

    2015-09-28

    Domestic violence against women is a health problem. Research on domestic violence in order to clarify the relationship between the different forms of violence and health outcomes is needed. This study aimed to determine the frequency and risk factors of domestic violence in women. It also assessed the association between risk factors and psychological, physical, and sexual violence against women by their intimate partners. This cross-sectional study was done on married women 16-80 years of age living in jahrom south of Iran between August 2013 and December 2014. This research was implemented through questionnaires including the demographic characteristic. The form of partner violence including emotional abuse, physical violence and sexual violence was assessed with a validated questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to measure the association between violence and factors. The prevalence of physical, sexual and emotional domestic violence was respectively 16.4%, 18.6% and 44.4%.and was associated with Age (p=0.002), Husband's Age (p=0.001), Length of marriage (p=0.002), Woman's low educational level women's education (OR=4.67 95%.CI=1.97-11.07), husband's low education (OR=9.22 95%. CI=0.69-12.16), were the most important risk factors for violence. Prevalence of physical, emotional or sexual violence was very high. Men's violence against women in intimate relationships is commonly occurring in Iran. Considering the factors contributing to violence against women, raising the level of education of men and women is one of the ways to prevent violence.

  20. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Hu

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China.A cross-sectional survey of 15,364 participants aged 15 years and older was conducted from November 2013 to August 2014 in Jiangxi Province, China, using questionnaire forms and physical measurements. The physical measurements included body height, weight, waist circumference (WC, body fat percentage (BFP and visceral adipose index (VAI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors for overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity.The prevalence of overweight was 25.8% (25.9% in males and 25.7% in females, while that of obesity was 7.9% (8.4% in males and 7.6% in females. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 10.2% (8.6% in males and 11.3% in females. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 37.1% in urban residents and 30.2% in rural residents, and this difference was significant (P < 0.001. Urban residents had a significantly higher prevalence of abdominal obesity than rural residents (11.6% vs 8.7%, P < 0.001. Among the participants with an underweight/normal body mass index (BMI, 1.3% still had abdominal obesity, 16.1% had a high BFP and 1.0% had a high VAI. Moreover, among obese participants, 9.7% had a low /normal WC, 0.8% had a normal BFP and 15.9% had a normal VAI. Meanwhile, the partial correlation analysis indicated that the correlation coefficients between VAI and BMI, VAI and WC, and BMI and WC were 0.700, 0.666, and 0.721, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that being female and having a high BFP and a high VAI were significantly associated with an increased risk of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. In addition, living in an urban area and older age correlated with overweight/obesity.This study revealed that obesity and abdominal obesity, which differed by gender and age, are epidemic in southern China. Moreover

  1. Survey of risk factors for the prevalence of leptospiral infection in horses of Gonbad area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    omid jaheddashliboroun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a world-wide zoonotic infection occurring in animals and humans. Rodents and wild animals are a major source of infection. Clinical signs in animals include fever, heamoglubinuria, jaundice, abortion, mastitis, reduced milk production, reproductive failure and death with periodic ophthalmia, abortion and stillbirths being among its important signs in horses. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors for the prevalence of leptospiral infection in horses of Gonbad area. This study was conducted on 200 horses in Gonbad area in Iran in order to determine seroprevalence of leptospiral infection. Sera were initially screened at dilution of 1:100 against 7 live serovars of Leptospira interrogans: Pomona, Canicola, Hardjo, Ballom, Icterohaemorrhagiae, AutomenalisandGrippotyphosausing themicroscopic agglutination test. The prevalence of leptospiral infection was 12% in horses. The majority of these infections were seen in horses that live in marsh and semi-marsh conditions and they accounted for 89% of positive samples. The highest number of reactors in horses (58.34% wasdue toserovarCanicola and 33.34% of positive samples were seen in horses with many rodents living in their environment.66.67% of positive samples were seen in horses that were kept In moist and semi moist stables. The highest number of positive samples were seen in 3 to 6 years old animals, in other words prevalence of this disease is raised with increase of age. So according to the results, increasing age, living in marsh environment, moist stable presence of infected dogs and rodents, in environment are some of risks factors for prevalence of leptospiral infection

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ouk Ha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundGastrointestinal symptoms are common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in Korea appears to be increasing. Some studies have shown that T2DM is a risk factor for symptomatic GERD. However, this possibility is still debated, and the pathogenesis of GERD in T2DM is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and risk factors (including autonomic neuropathy of GERD in patients with T2DM.MethodsThis cross-sectional case-control study enrolled T2DM patients (n=258 and healthy controls (n=184. All participants underwent physical examinations and laboratory tests. We evaluated medical records and long-term diabetes complications, including peripheral and autonomic neuropathy in patients with T2DM. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed in all patients. The Los Angeles (LA classification was used to grade GERD. GERD was defined as LA grade A (or higher or minimal change with GERD symptoms. GERD symptoms were examined using a frequency scale. Data were expressed as mean±standard error. Independent t-tests or chi-square tests were used to make comparisons between groups.ResultsThe prevalence of GERD (32.6% vs. 35.9%, P=0.266 and GERD symptoms (58.8% vs. 59.2%, P=0.503 was not significantly different between T2DM patients and controls. We found no significant differences between T2DM patients with GERD and T2DM patients without GERD with respect to diabetic complications, including autonomic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, duration of DM, and glucose control.ConclusionThe prevalence of GERD in patients with T2DM showed no difference from that of controls. GERD was also not associated with peripheral and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, age, or duration of DM in patients with T2DM.

  3. Prevalence of- and risk factors for work disability in Dutch patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spekhorst, Lieke M; Oldenburg, Bas; van Bodegraven, Ad A; de Jong, Dirk J; Imhann, Floris; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Pierik, Marieke J; van der Woude, Janneke C; Dijkstra, Gerard; D'Haens, Geert; Löwenberg, Mark; Weersma, Rinse K; Festen, Eleonora A M

    2017-12-14

    To determine the prevalence of work disability in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and to assess risk factors associated with work disability. For this retrospective cohort study, we retrieved clinical data from the Dutch IBD Biobank on July 2014, containing electronic patient records of 3388 IBD patients treated in the eight University Medical Centers in the Netherlands. Prevalence of work disability was assessed in 2794 IBD patients and compared with the general Dutch population. Multivariate analyses were performed for work disability (sick leave, partial and full disability) and long-term full work disability (> 80% work disability for > 2 years). Prevalence of work disability was higher in Crohn's disease (CD) (29%) and ulcerative colitis (UC) (19%) patients compared to the general Dutch population (7%). In all IBD patients, female sex, a lower education level, and extra-intestinal manifestations, were associated with work disability. In CD patients, an age > 40 years at diagnosis, disease duration > 15 years, smoking, surgical interventions, and anti-TNFα use were associated with work disability. In UC patients, an age > 55 years, and immunomodulator use were associated with work disability. In CD patients, a lower education level (OR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.02-2.58), and in UC patients, disease complications (OR = 3.39, 95%CI: 1.09-10.58) were associated with long-term full work disability. The prevalence of work disability in IBD patients is higher than in the general Dutch population. Early assessment of risk factors for work disability is necessary, as work disability is substantial among IBD patients.

  4. The prevalence and risk factor control associated with noncommunicable diseases in China, Japan, and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Defu; Sakai, Hiromichi; Wakabayashi, Chihiro; Kwon, Jong-Sook; Lee, Yoonna; Liu, Shuo; Wan, Qiaoqin; Sasao, Kumiko; Ito, Kanade; Nishihara, Ken; Wang, Peiyu

    2017-12-01

    Noncommunicable disease (NCD) has become the leading cause of mortality and disease burden worldwide. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of NCDs and risk factor control on dietary behaviors and dietary intake in China, Japan, and Korea. There were significant differences among the three countries on the prevalence of hypertension (24.5% in China, 17.6% in Korea, and 15.2% in Japan), diabetes (8.9% in China, 5.7% in Korea, and 4.8% in Japan), hyperlipidemia (13.1% in China, 9.2% in Korea, and 6.9% in Japan), and angina pectoris (3.6% in China, 1.7% in Korea, and 1.5% in Japan). The prevalence rate of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and angina pectoris was highest in China and lowest in Japan. However, 82.2%, 48.4%, and 64.4% of Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese presented good dietary behavior, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that sex, age, and marital status were predictors of good dietary behavior. In addition, in comparison with subjects without hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia, subjects with hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia significantly improved their dietary behaviors and controlled their intake of salt, sugar, and oil. The prevalence of NCDs and trends in major modifiable risk factor control in China, Korea, and Japan remain troubling. Public efforts to introduce healthy lifestyle changes and systematic NCDs prevention programs are necessary to reduce the epidemic of NCDs in these three Asian countries. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors associated with nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaiger AO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa21Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Bahrain, and Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Science, College of Education, and Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs and the risk factors associated with these diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. A systematic literature review of studies and reports published between January 1, 1990 and September 15, 2011 was conducted using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, and osteoporosis have become the main causes of morbidity and mortality, especially with progressive aging of the population. The estimated mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes ranged from 179.8 to 765.2 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates in poor countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was very high, ranging from 19% to 45%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 has reached an alarming level in most countries of the region, ranging from 25% to 82%, with a higher prevalence among women. The estimated mortality rate for cancer ranged from 61.9 to 151 per 100,000 population. Osteoporosis has become a critical problem, particularly among women. Several risk factors may be contributing to the high prevalence of N-NCDs in EMR, including nutrition transition, low intake of fruit and vegetables, demographic transition, urbanization, physical inactivity, hypertension, tobacco smoking, stunting of growth of preschool children, and lack of nutrition and health awareness. Intervention programs to prevent and control N-NCDs are urgently needed, with special focus

  6. The prevalence and risk factor control associated with noncommunicable diseases in China, Japan, and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defu Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noncommunicable disease (NCD has become the leading cause of mortality and disease burden worldwide. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of NCDs and risk factor control on dietary behaviors and dietary intake in China, Japan, and Korea. Results: There were significant differences among the three countries on the prevalence of hypertension (24.5% in China, 17.6% in Korea, and 15.2% in Japan, diabetes (8.9% in China, 5.7% in Korea, and 4.8% in Japan, hyperlipidemia (13.1% in China, 9.2% in Korea, and 6.9% in Japan, and angina pectoris (3.6% in China, 1.7% in Korea, and 1.5% in Japan. The prevalence rate of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and angina pectoris was highest in China and lowest in Japan. However, 82.2%, 48.4%, and 64.4% of Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese presented good dietary behavior, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that sex, age, and marital status were predictors of good dietary behavior. In addition, in comparison with subjects without hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia, subjects with hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia significantly improved their dietary behaviors and controlled their intake of salt, sugar, and oil. Conclusions: The prevalence of NCDs and trends in major modifiable risk factor control in China, Korea, and Japan remain troubling. Public efforts to introduce healthy lifestyle changes and systematic NCDs prevention programs are necessary to reduce the epidemic of NCDs in these three Asian countries.

  7. Prevalence of and risk factors associated with ovine progressive pneumonia in Wyoming sheep flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstner, Shelley; Adamovicz, Jeffrey J; Duncan, John V; Laegreid, William W; Marshall, Katherine L; Logan, James R; Schumaker, Brant A

    2015-10-15

    To determine the prevalence of antibodies against small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV), the causative agent of ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP), and to identify risk factors associated with OPP in Wyoming sheep flocks. Cross-sectional study. 1,415 sheep from 54 flocks in Wyoming. Flocks were surveyed as part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) 2011 sheep study. Serum samples obtained from sheep in Wyoming were analyzed for anti-SRLV antibodies by use of a competitive-inhibition ELISA. The prevalence of seropositive animals overall and within each flock was calculated. Respective associations between flock OPP status and various demographic and management variables were assessed. The estimated prevalence of sheep seropositive for anti-SRLV antibodies and OPP-infected flocks in Wyoming was 18.0% and 47.5%, respectively. Within OPP-infected flocks, the prevalence of seropositive sheep ranged from 3.9% to 96%. Flocks maintained on nonfenced range were more likely to be infected with OPP than were flocks maintained on fenced range (OR, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 10.7). The estimated prevalence of OPP-infected flocks in Wyoming did not vary substantially from that at the regional or national level reported in the NAHMS 2001 sheep study. Compared with results of the NAHMS 2011 sheep study, Wyoming producers were more familiar with OPP than were other US sheep producers, but only 61% of Wyoming producers surveyed reported being very or somewhat familiar with the disease. Results indicated that OPP is prevalent in many Wyoming sheep flocks, which suggested that continued efforts are necessary to increase producer knowledge about the disease and investigate practices to minimize economic losses associated with OPP.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of contact dermatitis among clothing manufacturing employees in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Xin; Cheng, Hai-Yan; Li, Lin-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the epidemiology of contact dermatitis (CD) in the Chinese clothing industry. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and some risk factors of contact dermatitis among clothing manufacturing employees in Beijing. This cross-sectional study was conducted by interview using self-administered questionnaires and skin examination between May and August in 2016. Five-hundred twenty-nine employees who had worked at sewing, ironing, and as managers at 12 clothing manufacturing factories were studied. The overall 1-year prevalence of CD among the clothing employees was 28.5% (151/529 employees), with significantly higher prevalence among ironing workers (50%) and sewers (31.7%) compared with managers (12.7%; P garment materials (leather and feather), dry skin, allergic rhinitis, age, and smoking. Among employees in Chinese clothing industry, sewers and ironing workers had a higher 1-year prevalence of CD than managers. It is noteworthy that exposure to leather and feather materials and the types of manual work are associated with CD, as well as dry skin and allergic rhinitis. PMID:28328819

  9. Population prevalence and risk factors for iron deficiency in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Cameron C; Wall, Clare R; Brunt, Deborah; Crengle, Sue; Scragg, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Previous prevalence estimates of iron deficiency (ID) in young New Zealand children are inaccurate because of sampling bias and imprecise definition of ID. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ID in children aged 6-23 months and the factors associated with ID. An ethnically stratified sample identified from random residential address start points. Children resident in Auckland, New Zealand were enrolled from 1999 to 2002. Children with elevated C-reactive protein (>4 mg/L) were excluded. Iron status was determined in 324 (78%) of 416 enrolled children. Analyses adjusted for clustering and weighted for ethnic stratification. ID defined as abnormal values for two or more of serum ferritin (or= 18.5 kg/m(2) (RR = 4.34, 95% CI 1.08-10.67), and with receiving no infant or follow on formula (RR = 3.60, 95% CI 1.56-6.49). ID is prevalent in young New Zealand children. Variance in ID prevalence with ethnicity but not social deprivation implies that cultural practices influence iron status. Young children with more rapid growth are at increased risk of ID as are those receiving milk other than that specifically modified for them.

  10. [Prevalence and risk factors of dyslipidemia in a rural population of Henan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J M; Luo, X P; Wang, S; Yin, L; Pang, C; Wang, G A; Shen, Y X; Wu, D T; Zhang, L; Ren, Y C; Wang, B Y; Yang, X Y; Zhang, H Y; Han, C Y; Zhao, Y; Li, L L; Wang, C J; Feng, T P; Zhao, J Z; Hu, D S; Zhang, M

    2016-09-06

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of dyslipidemia in a rural population of Henan Province, China. Methods: A total of 20 194 participants aged ≥18 years were selected randomly by cluster sampling from two townships(towns)in Henan Province from July to August 2007 and July to August 2008. Investigations included questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profile examination at baseline. A total of 16 155 participants were followed up from July to August 2013 and July to October 2014. Overall, 13 869 participants were included in the study, after excluding 2 286 participants with incomplete dyslipidemia follow-up data. Distributions of the characteristics of dyslipidemia were determined, and prevalence was standardized by age according to data of the 2010 Sixth National Population Census. Risk factors for dyslipidemia were analyzed using a logistic regression model after adjusting for sex, age, education level, marital status, and income status. Results: The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 53.72%(7 450/13 869)for residents aged ≥22 years living in rural areas of Henan Province(59.32%(3 069/5 174)for men and 50.39%(4 381/8 695)for women). The adjusted prevalence of dyslipidemia was 50.50%(59.27% for men and 45.53% for women). The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C, and high LDL-C was 4.34%(602/13 868), 20.42%(2 826/13 837), 42.75%(5 927/13 865), and 3.14%(420/13 375), respectively, and the adjusted prevalence was 2.44%, 18.84%, 41.42%, and 1.86%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses showed that alcohol consumption( OR =1.27, 95% CI : 1.05-1.53), family history of hyperlipidemia( OR =1.29, 95% CI : 1.17-1.43), overweight( OR =1.40, 95% CI : 1.22-1.61), obesity( OR = 1.65, 95% CI : 1.39- 1.96), abnormal waist circumference( OR =1.22, 95% CI : 1.04- 1.43), and abnormal waist-height ratio( OR =1.21, 95% CI : 1.01-1.45)were significant

  11. Lifetime of Prevalence and Risk Factors of Problem and Pathologic Gambling in North Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakıcı, Mehmet; Çakıcı, Ebru; Karaaziz, Meryem

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the results of the national survey of adult gambling behavior in North Cyprus (NC) in 2012 are presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of adults' participation in gambling, and to determine the prevalence of 'problem and pathological gambling' in NC. The population of this study was formed from all the people living permanently in NC, speaking Turkish, and within the age group 18-65. Household interviews were conducted with 966 people. To obtain data, a 30 item questionnaire prepared by the researchers and a Turkish version of the Revised South Oaks Gambling Screen were used. Prevalence rates are compared with the results of the study conducted in 2007 using the same methodology and survey form. The lifetime prevalence of participating at least once in any of the 17 gambling activities investigated in the survey was 66.4 %. 3.5 % of the respondents scored as lifetime probable pathological gamblers and 9.2 % as probable problem gamblers. Risk factors for becoming probable problem and pathological gamblers include being male, being in the 19-28 age group, having a high education level, having a job and being born in Cyprus. This study shows that the prevalence of problem gambling is high in NC and increasing gradually. NC has socio-cultural features such as a history of colonization, socioeconomic problems and high unemployment, similar to other high prevalence gambling regions, which is suggestive of the importance of socio-cultural factors on gambling behavior.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for foot and mouth disease infection in cattle in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnekave, Ehud; van Maanen, Kees; Shilo, Hila; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Abed El Khaliq, Mohamad; Sharir, Beni; Berke, Olaf; Klement, Eyal

    2016-08-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease with major economic consequences. In Israel, FMD epidemics recur almost every year and mostly affect cattle. The highest number of outbreaks occurs among beef cattle farms, followed by feedlot farms and dairy farms. We performed several cross-sectional serological studies in Israel during 2006-2014, aimed to reveal if the virus is endemic among cattle and to determine the sero-prevalence of antibodies directed against non-structural proteins (NSP) of FMD virus. Additionally we aimed to determine the risk factors for such sero-positivity. A risk based sampling was performed and the presence of anti-NSP antibodies was estimated using the PrioCHECK(®) ELISA kit. Beef cattle showed the highest sero-prevalence (13.2%, CI95%=10.8-15.8%). Higher FMD sero-prevalence in beef cattle sampled in 2014 was associated with previous FMD outbreaks in the farm and with age (adult cows versus calves (pvaccination and stringent control measures that were applied during outbreaks such as emergency vaccination and strict quarantine. Early detection of FMD outbreaks among grazing beef herds as well as the implementation of control measures among these farms are therefore the methods of choice to prevent future outbreaks in Israel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of and risk factors for the metabolic syndrome in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultink, I E M; Turkstra, F; Diamant, M; Dijkmans, B A C; Voskuyl, A E

    2008-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and the relationship between metabolic syndrome score (MetS score) and disease characteristics and cardiovascular events (CVEs) in women with SLE. Demographic and clinical data were collected in 141 female SLE patients. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was defined by a modified National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP/ATP III) definition. Metabolic syndrome was defined as MetS score >or= 3. Twenty-three (16%) of the 141 SLE patients (mean age 39+/-12 years, mean disease duration 6.2+/-6.6 years) fulfilled the criteria of the metabolic syndrome. The mean MetS score was significantly higher in patients with SLE and a history of cardiovascular events (CVEs) than in those without a previous CVE. In linear multiple regression analysis, a high MetS score was significantly associated with previous intravenous methylprednisolone use, older age, higher ESR, higher C3 levels and higher serum creatinine levels. In our female SLE patients, a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was found as compared to healthy women in the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Independent risk factors for high MetS score in patients with SLE are previous treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, renal insufficiency, older age, higher ESR and higher C3 levels. These results suggest that assessment of the metabolic syndrome in patients with SLE might be important to identify subgroups of patients that are at disproportional high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder following myocardial infarction: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Marie-Anne; Dupuis, Gilles; Marchand, André

    2010-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with negative impacts on physical health. Victims of a myocardial infarction (MI) who develop PTSD may be particularly affected by these impacts due to their cardiovascular vulnerability. Post-traumatic reactions in this population are not well known. To examine the prevalence of PTSD after MI and its risk factors, and to validate a prediction model for PTSD symptoms. Patients hospitalized for MI (n=477) were recruited in three hospitals. The Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and questionnaires concerning PTSD symptoms and general measures were administered to patients during hospitalization and at one-month follow-up. Four per cent of the patients had PTSD and 12% had partial PTSD. The perception of a threat to life, the intensity of acute stress disorder and depression symptoms several days after the MI, a history of referral to a psychologist or psychiatrist, and female sex were risk factors for the intensity of PTSD symptoms in a sequential multiple regression analysis (R=0.634). The prediction model was validated by applying the regression equation to 48 participants who were not included in the initial regression (R=0.633). The risk factors for development of PTSD symptoms identified in the present study could be used to facilitate the detection of patients at risk for developing PTSD symptoms so they can later be offered psychological interventions as needed.

  15. Corioamnionite: prevalência, fatores de risco e mortalidade neonatal = Chorioamnionitis: prevalence, risk factors and neonatal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Shozo Uchimura

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A corioamnionite é a inflamação aguda das membranas placentáriasdeterminada por agentes bacterianos que causam aumento da morbimortalidade materna e perinatal. Objetivou-se determinar a prevalência, os fatores de risco e a mortalidade neonatalpara corioamnionite em gestantes atendidas no Hospital Universitário de Maringá no ano de 1997. Foi um estudo transversal com os dados coletados do prontuário das pacientes. Utilizou-se o teste exato de Fisher e risco relativo para verificar a diferença das médias.Foram observados nove casos de corioamnionite (1,8% entre as 504 gestantes atendidas. Os fatores de risco associados foram a média de idade de 24,6 anos, raça branca e a baixa escolaridade. A presença de dinâmica uterina foi um importante sinal de infecção, além dataquicardia materna e febre. A corioamninite está associada à ocorrência de apresentação fetal pélvica/córmica, presença de líquido amniótico meconial/sanguinolento, baixo peso ao nascer e Apgar Chorioamnionitis is the acute inflammation of fetal membranes caused by a bacterial infection, leading to premature births and the increase of maternal and neonatal morbimortality. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence, risk factors andneonatal mortality rates from chorioamnionitis in expectant mothers who were admitted to Maringá University Hospital in 1997. This cross-sectional study was performed using data collected medical records. Fisher’s exact risk test and relative risk were utilized to verify thedifferences in the averages. Nine cases of chorioamnionitis (1.8% were observed among 504 pregnants. The risk factors associated were a mean age of 24.6 years, Caucasian ethnicity and low level of schooling. The presence of uterine activity was an important signof infection, in addition to tachycardia and fever in the mother. Chorioamnionitis was associated to pelvic/transversal fetal presentation, meconial/sanguinous amniotic fluid, low birth

  16. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Hemodialysis Patients - The CORDIAL Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmeister, Jayme Eduardo, E-mail: jb.nefro@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre - Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Luterana do Brasil - Curso de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Mosmann, Camila Borges [Universidade Luterana do Brasil - Curso de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Costa, Veridiana Borges [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre - Faculdade de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Saraiva, Ramiro Tubino; Grandi, Renata Rech; Bastos, Juliano Peixoto [Universidade Luterana do Brasil - Curso de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gonçalves, Luiz Felipe [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Faculdade de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Hospital Mãe de Deus - Departamento de Nefrologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rosito, Guido Aranha [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre - Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Luterana do Brasil - Curso de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    There are scarce epidemiological data on cardiovascular risk profile of chronic hemodialysis patients in Brazil. The CORDIAL study was designed to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors and follow up a hemodialysis population in a Brazilian metropolitan city. All patients undergoing regular hemodialysis for chronic renal failure in all fifteen nephrology centers of Porto Alegre were considered for inclusion in the baseline phase of the CORDIAL study. Clinical, laboratory and demographic data were obtained in medical records and in structured individual interviews performed in all patients by trained researchers. A total of 1215 patients were included (97.3% of all hemodialysis patients in the city of Porto Alegre). Their average age was 58.3 years old, 59.5% were male and 62.8% were white. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors observed was 87.5% for hypertension, 84.7% for dyslipidemia, 73.1% for sedentary lifestyle, 53.7% for tobacco use, and 35.8% for diabetes. In a multivariate adjusted analysis, we found that sedentary lifestyle (p = 0.032, PR 1.08 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.15), dyslipidemia (p = 0.019, PR 1.08 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.14), and obesity (p < 0.001, PR 1.96 - 95%CI: 1.45-2.63) were more frequent in women; and hypertension (p = 0.018, PR 1.06 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.11) and tobacco use (p = 0.006, PR 2.7 - 95%CI: 1.79-4.17) were more often found among patients under 65 years old. Sedentary lifestyle was independently associated with time in dialysis less than 12 months (p < 0.001, PR 1.23 - 95% CI: 1.14-1.33). Hemodialysis patients in this southern metropolitan Brazilian city have a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors resembling many northern countries.

  17. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Hemodialysis Patients - The CORDIAL Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, Jayme Eduardo; Mosmann, Camila Borges; Costa, Veridiana Borges; Saraiva, Ramiro Tubino; Grandi, Renata Rech; Bastos, Juliano Peixoto; Gonçalves, Luiz Felipe; Rosito, Guido Aranha

    2014-01-01

    There are scarce epidemiological data on cardiovascular risk profile of chronic hemodialysis patients in Brazil. The CORDIAL study was designed to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors and follow up a hemodialysis population in a Brazilian metropolitan city. All patients undergoing regular hemodialysis for chronic renal failure in all fifteen nephrology centers of Porto Alegre were considered for inclusion in the baseline phase of the CORDIAL study. Clinical, laboratory and demographic data were obtained in medical records and in structured individual interviews performed in all patients by trained researchers. A total of 1215 patients were included (97.3% of all hemodialysis patients in the city of Porto Alegre). Their average age was 58.3 years old, 59.5% were male and 62.8% were white. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors observed was 87.5% for hypertension, 84.7% for dyslipidemia, 73.1% for sedentary lifestyle, 53.7% for tobacco use, and 35.8% for diabetes. In a multivariate adjusted analysis, we found that sedentary lifestyle (p = 0.032, PR 1.08 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.15), dyslipidemia (p = 0.019, PR 1.08 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.14), and obesity (p < 0.001, PR 1.96 - 95%CI: 1.45-2.63) were more frequent in women; and hypertension (p = 0.018, PR 1.06 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.11) and tobacco use (p = 0.006, PR 2.7 - 95%CI: 1.79-4.17) were more often found among patients under 65 years old. Sedentary lifestyle was independently associated with time in dialysis less than 12 months (p < 0.001, PR 1.23 - 95% CI: 1.14-1.33). Hemodialysis patients in this southern metropolitan Brazilian city have a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors resembling many northern countries

  18. Prevalence of and risk factors for MRSA colonization in HIV-positive outpatients in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Win

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst there have been studies on the risks and outcomes of MRSA colonization and infections in HIV-positive patients, local data is limited on the risk factors for MRSA colonization among these patients. We undertook this study in a tertiary HIV care centre to document the risk factors for colonization and to determine the prevalence of MRSA colonization among HIV-positive outpatients in Singapore. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which factors associated with MRSA positivity among patients with HIV infection were evaluated. A set of standardized questionnaire and data collection forms were available to interview all recruited patients. Following the interview, trained nurses collected swabs from the anterior nares/axilla/groin (NAG, throat and peri-anal regions. Information on demographics, clinical history, laboratory results and hospitalization history were retrieved from medical records. Results MRSA was detected in swab cultures from at least 1 site in 15 patients (5.1%. Inclusion of throat and/or peri-anal swabs increased the sensitivity of NAG screening by 20%. Predictors for MRSA colonization among HIV-positive patients were age, history of pneumonia, lymphoma, presence of a percutaneous device within the past 12 months, history of household members hospitalized more than two times within the past 12 months, and a most recent CD4 count less than 200. Conclusions This study highlights that a proportion of MRSA carriers would have been undetected without multiple-site screening cultures. This study could shed insight into identifying patients at risk of MRSA colonization upon hospital visit and this may suggest that a risk factor-based approach for MRSA surveillance focusing on high risk populations could be considered.

  19. [Post-partum depressive symptoms: Prevalence, risk factors and relationship with quality of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, R; Feki, I; Gassara, H; Baati, I; Sellami, R; Feki, H; Chaabene, K; Masmoudi, J

    2017-10-01

    The objective of our study was to estimate the prevalence of the post-partum depressive symptomatology in a sample of Tunisian women, to study associated factors and to assess its relationship to quality of life. This is a prospective study carried out in two stages: during the first week (T1), then between sixth and eighth week post-partum (T2). Depressive symptomatology and quality of life were assessed respectively by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the World Health Organization Quality of Life scale. In the first stage, the prevalence of depressive symptomatology in the total sample (150 women) was 14.7% and was related to age above 35 years, low school level, personal psychiatric history, multiparity, caesarean delivery or forceps in the previous pregnancy and unplanned pregnancy. This prevalence was 19.8% among the 126 women reviewed in T2 and was correlated with the exaggerated sympathetic signs during pregnancy, namely perversion of taste and fatigue. Quality of life was strongly correlated with depressive symptoms in T1 and T2. Post-partum depressive symptoms were common in our sample and were correlated with quality of life. Therapeutic measures should be proposed for women with post-partum depressive symptoms and particularly with several risk factors in order to improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Intimate partner violence in urban Pakistan: prevalence, frequency, and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazeen S Ali

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tazeen S Ali1,2, Nargis Asad3, Ingrid Mogren4, Gunilla Krantz51School of Nursing, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan; 2Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Global Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Psychiatry, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan; 4Department of Clinical Science, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 5Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Social Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, SwedenBackground: Intimate partner violence (IPV is an important public health issue with severe adverse consequences. Population-based data on IPV from Muslim societies are scarce, and Pakistan is no exception. This study was conducted among women residing in urban Karachi, to estimate the prevalence and frequency of different forms of IPV and their associations with sociodemographic factors.Methods: This cross-sectional community-based study was conducted using a structured questionnaire developed by the World Health Organisation for research on violence. Community midwives conducted face-to-face interviews with 759 married women aged 25–60 years.Results: Self-reported past-year and lifetime prevalence of physical violence was 56.3 and 57.6%, respectively; the corresponding figures for sexual violence were 53.4% and 54.5%, and for psychological abuse were 81.8% and 83.6%. Violent incidents were mostly reported to have occurred on more than three occasions during the lifetime. Risk factors for physical violence related mainly to the husband, his low educational attainment, unskilled worker status, and five or more family members living in one household. For sexual violence, the risk factors were the respondent’s low educational attainment, low socioeconomic status of the family, and five or more family members in one household. For psychological violence, the risk factors were the husband being an unskilled worker and low

  1. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Núñez, Camilo; Mendoza Martínez, Germán David; Yañez Arteaga, Selene; Ponce Macotela, Martha; Bustamante Montes, Patricia; Ramírez Durán, Ninfa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection. A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and body mass index were used to assess the risk factors associated with human toxocariasis in 108 children with an age range of 2-16 years. Antibodies against Toxocara canis were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and odds ratio (OR) were used to identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis seropositivity. The prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara canis was greater (P = 0.02) in males than females (28.84% and 16.07%, resp.). Chi-square analysis and odds ratio revealed just one variable with P 1.0 was associated with seropositivity: the possession of dogs under one year old (OR = 1.78). Although not significant, the OR values suggest that other factors may be epidemiologically important for Toxocara presence such as not washing hands before meals, malnutrition, obesity, and use of public parks. Children in the age group >12 and Toxocara canis (17.59%) than the >2 and <11 years old age group (4.62%). Toxocariosis infection needs to be prevented by pet deworming and hygienic measures after contact with dogs.

  2. Prevalence of macrosomia and relation of maternal risk factors with macrosomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz - Mardani*

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Macrosomia is a term applied to newborns with a birth weight of 4000 gr or above. Perinatal mortality and morbidity is increased in fetal macrosomia. Clavicular fracture, injury to brachial plexus, and hypoglycemia are important side effects. Mother’s age, body mass index of mother, weight gain in pregnancy, mother’s height, diabetes, history of macrocosmic delivery, gestational age, parity, and fetal sex are factors causing macrosomia. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the frequency and risk factors of macrosomia in Asalian hospital of Khorramabad in the summer of 2010. Methods: The data collection instrument was a questionnaire containing 10 variables as the risk factors of macrosomia. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software. Results: 59 cases of macrosomia were found in 500 living births. The results showed that the frequency of macrosomia was 11.8%. 69.5% of the neonates were male and 30.5% were female. Maternal risk factors were mother's age at pregnancy, mother's obesity (BMI>=30, weight gain more than 18 kg during pregnancy, history of diabetes mellitus, history of macrosomia, prolonged gestational age, and multiparity (parity>=5. There was no significant relationship between mother's job and macrosomia. Conclusion: The prevalence of macrosomia in Khorramabad was high (11.8%. Preventing pregnancy in mothers over 35 years of age by contraception ways, preventing maternal obesity before pregnancy, and control of blood glucose during pregnancy by suitable diet and insulin therapy are recommended to prevent macrosomia.

  3. Systematic Review of Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated With Depression and Its Treatment in Iranian Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homeira Sajadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Depression is the most common mood and psychiatric disorder. The aim of this study was to provide a clear picture of the prevalence, risk factors and interventions of depression in Iranian elderly. Methods & Materials: This study is a systematic review. Statistic population included Farsi and English studies with various aspects of depression in elderly. Keywords "Depression, Dysthymia, Melancholia, mood disorder, Iran and elderly" in Medline, SID, Iran doc, Iran medex, Mag iran and Iran psych database were searched. Then, repeated articles and articles outside the study period (1997 to 2011 were excluded. In the first stage of screening, titles and in the second stage, abstracts were reviewed by two experts. Afterwards papers were evaluated qualitatively based on Critical Appraisal Skills Program site. Results: After searching, screening and qualitative evaluation studies, the final synthesis was performed on 26 articles. Synthesis papers related to aging showed that the prevalence of depressive disorder in elderly residents at home with the back is 95.64% and with the GDS 81.85%. The prevalence of depression in the elderly living at home with the GDS was 57.58%. The most important factors associated with depression in Iranian studies were, female gender, marring status, living in a nursing home, education level, age and socio-economic status. Also, the most interventions in this age group were respectively psychotherapy, medication and exercise. Conclusions: The high prevalence of depression in elderly in Iranian studies, the need for further Investigation and intervention, regard to factors associated with depression in this period.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors associated with wheezing in the first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia A. A. Costa Bessa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with wheezing in infants in the first year of life. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study, in which a validated questionnaire (Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes - International Study of Wheezing in Infants - EISL was applied to parents of infants aged between 12 and 15 months treated in 26 of 85 primary health care units in the period between 2006 and 2007. The dependent variable, wheezing, was defined using the following standards: occasional (up to two episodes of wheezing and recurrent (three or more episodes of wheezing. The independent variables were shown using frequency distribution to compare the groups. Measures of association were based on odds ratio (OR with a confidence interval of 95% (95% CI, using bivariate analysis, followed by multivariate analysis (adjusted OR [aOR]. RESULTS: a total of 1,029 (37.7% infants had wheezing episodes in the first 12 months of life; of these, 16.2% had recurrent wheezing. Risk factors for wheezing were family history of asthma (OR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.76-2.54 and six or more episodes of colds (OR = 2.38; 95% CI: 1.91-2.97 and pneumonia (OR = 3.02; 95% CI: 2.43-3.76. For recurrent wheezing, risk factors were: familial asthma (aOR = 1.73; 95% CI: 1.22-2.46; early onset wheezing (aOR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.75-3.75; nocturnal symptoms (aOR = 2.56; 95% CI: 1.75-3.75, and more than six colds (aOR = 2.07; 95% CI 1.43- .00. CONCLUSION: the main risk factors associated with wheezing in Fortaleza were respiratory infections and family history of asthma. Knowing the risk factors for this disease should be a priority for public health, in order to develop control and treatment strategies.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of being overweight or obese among children and adolescents in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofan; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Shasha; Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Xingang; Sun, Zhaoqing; Sun, Yingxian

    2013-10-01

    We determined the prevalence and risk profiles of being overweight or obese among children and adolescents in rural northeast China. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisting of 4,094 children and adolescents aged 5-18 y. Anthropometric measurements and information on health-related variables were collected by well-trained personnel. Odds ratios (ORs) are presented with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The overall prevalence of subjects who were overweight or obese was 21.8% (15.4% overweight and 6.4% obese). Among boys, getting more sleep was found to be a protective factor against being overweight or obese, and a higher monthly family income (2,000-5,000 Chinese yuan (CNY); 1 CNY = 0.163 US dollar) was associated with an increased risk as compared with lower incomes. For girls, not having breakfast every day conferred higher odds of being overweight or obese (OR, 1.45 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.91)). When both parents were overweight, this increased the risk of a child being overweight or obese in both boy (overweight father: OR, 1.54 (95% CI, 1.26-1.89); overweight mother: OR, 1.73 (95% CI, 1.35-2.22)) and girl participants (overweight father: OR, 2.01 (95% CI, 1.57-2.57); overweight mother: OR, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.07-1.96)). The prevalence of pediatric obesity in rural China was relatively high. Risk profiles should be fully considered when planning prevention and treatment programs for pediatric obesity.

  6. Assessment of prevalence and risk factors of peripheral arterial disease in diabetic foot ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasikumar G

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic foot ulcer(DFU is very common yet challenging complication of diabetes worldwide. These ulcers are biologically compromised majorly by ischemia and neuropathy. Ischemia has gained recognition as a significant cause of DFU. The association of peripheral arterial disease(PAD largely impacts the treatment outcomes of DFU in terms of ulcer healing, lower limb amputations and mortality. The burden of PAD in DFU in South Indian population has not been assessed adequately in the recent years. A multidisciplinary approach to DFU and prompt diagnosis of ischemia will decrease the loss of limb and life. The objective of the study was to assess the peripheral arterial disease and associated risk factors in patients with diabetic foot ulcer. A total of 100 patients were evaluated in this study. The patients were subjected to detailed history and clinical examination which included distal pulse assessment, ankle-brachial index(ABI and duplex scan to evaluate PAD. The data was subjected to statistical analysis to find out association between parameters of interest. The prevalence of PAD in DFU was found to be 36%. It was more prevalent in males and in age>40 years and higher with increasing age. PAD was associated almost equally with plantar and dorsal ulcers, more often whole of foot was involved. There is significant association of PAD with longer diabetic duration(p<0.0001 with mean disease duration of 10 years. Previous studies aimed to study prevalence of PAD in diabetes irrespective of foot ulcer. The present study analyzed various factors coexisting with DFU and PAD. The results conclude that peripheral arterial disease is a potential risk factor for major limb amputations.

  7. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among workers at a private tertiary center in Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paquissi FC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Feliciano Chanana Paquissi,1 Valdano Manuel,2 Ana Manuel,2 Guiomar Lote Mateus,1 Bruna David,2 Gertrudes Béu,3 Anselmo Castela3 1Department of Medicine, 2Cardio-Thoracic Center, 3Service of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Clínica Girassol, Luanda, Angola Background: The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD is increasing in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa. However, as there is a scarcity of data, little is known about CVD in Angola. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of prehypertension, hypertension, prediabetes, diabetes, overweight, and obesity among workers at a private tertiary center in Angola. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 781 workers of Clínica Girassol, a tertiary health care center in Angola, during the month of November 2013. Demographic, anthropometric, and clinical variables were analyzed. Results: Of the 781 participants studied, 50.44% were males and 78.11% were under 40 years old. The prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension was 17.93% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.24%–20.74% and 54.03% (95% CI: 50.58%–57.62%, respectively. Among hypertensive subjects, 83.57% (117 were unaware of the diagnosis. Hypertension was associated with age (≥40 years (odds ratio [OR]: 6.21; 95% CI: 4.18–9.24; P<0.001 and with overweight and obesity (OR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.56–3.44; P<0.001. The prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes was 2.69% (95% CI: 1.54%–3.97% and 7.94% (95% CI: 6.02%–9.99%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight was 34.44% (95% CI: 31.11%–37.90% and 19.85% (95% CI: 17.03%–22.79% for obesity. There was an association between overweight and obesity and the female sex (OR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.29–2.28; P<0.001. The prevalence of family history of CVD, smoking, and alcoholism was 52.24%, 4.87%, and 45.33%, respectively. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy workers at the private tertiary center in Angola

  8. Child sex tourism - prevalence of and risk factors for its use in a German community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Thula; Turner, Daniel; Neutze, Janina; Briken, Peer

    2017-04-20

    To investigate the prevalence of child sex tourism (CST) in a large German community sample, and to compare those who made use of CST with other child sexual abusers regarding established characteristics and risk factors for child sexual abuse. Adult German men were recruited through a German market research panel and questioned by means of an anonymous online survey. Group assignment was accomplished based on information on previous sexual contacts with children and previous use of CST. Characteristics and risk factors were compared between the groups using t- and Chi-square tests. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to predict CST. Data collection was conducted in 2013, data analysis in January 2015. Out of 8718 men, 36 (0.4%) reported CST use. The CST group differed from the nonCST group (n = 96; 1.1%) with regard to pedophilic sexual and antisocial behaviors as well as own experiences of sexual abuse. Social difficulties, pedophilic sexual interests, and hypersexuality were not distinct features in the CST group. Own experiences of sexual abuse, child prostitution use, and previous conviction for a violent offense predicted CST in a logistic regression model. This study is a first step to gain insight into the prevalence and characteristics of men using CST. Findings could help to augment prevention strategies against commercial forms of sexual abuse in developed as well as in developing countries by fostering the knowledge about the characteristics of perpetrators.

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasites in Cats from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China was largely unknown prior to this study. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of intestinal parasites in cats from central China and also identify risk factors for parasitism. Fecal samples from 360 cats were examined using sugar flotation procedure and fecal smear test by microscope. Cats had mixed two or three kinds of parasites infections. Of the 360 cats feces, intestinal parasites positive feces were 149 (41.39%. 64 (17.78% were infected with Toxocara cati, 61 (16.94% with Isospora felis, 41 (11.39% with Isospora rivolta, 33 (9.17% with Paragonimus, 23 (6.39% with hookworms, 11 (3.06% with Toxoplasma-like oocysts, 10 (2.78% with Trichuris, 4 (1.11% with lungworm, 2 (0.56% with Sarcocystis, and 1 (0.28% with Trematode. The cats’ living outdoor was identified as risk factor by statistical analysis. These results provide relevant basic data for assessing the infection of intestinal parasites in cats from central region of China. In conclusion, there was high prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China.

  10. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah BAHMANI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasites are still a serious public health problem in the world, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren was carried out in 2015. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify possible risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration method.Results: Five species of intestinal protozoa were identified with an overall prevalence of 42.3%. No cases of helminthes infection were detected. The predominant protozoa were Blastocys hominis (21.3% and Entamoeba coli (4.5%. Overall, 143 (35.9% had single infections and 26 (6.4% were infected with more than one intestinal protozoa, in which 23 (5.9% had double intestinal protozoa infections and 3 (0.5% had triple infections. A significant relationship was observed between intestinal protozoa infection with economic status, water resources for drinking uses, and the methods of washing vegetables (P<0.05. Conclusion: Education programs on students and their families should be implemented for the prevention and control of protozoa infections in the study area. 

  11. Post-partum thyroiditis in South Brazil presenting as thyrotoxicosis: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, T W; Premaor, M O; Caramori, M L; Frantz, B C; Patta, G Z; Tatto, E; Vaz, A G

    2000-09-01

    The prevalence of post-partum thyroiditis (PPT) has been reported in several countries (1.9 to 16.7%) but is not known in Brazil. Several factors have been associated to its development, such as a female sex of the newborn, PPT in a previous pregnancy, a family history of thyroid disease and cigarette smoking. To investigate the prevalence of PPT and its risk factors in a southern Brazilian city, a three-cross-sectional observation study was performed. PPT was diagnosed in 14/284 subjects (5.3%) and all cases had thyrotoxicosis (13 sub-clinical and one clinical). Serum total T4 and free T4 were higher and serum TSH was lower in PPT subjects. Anti-thyroid antibodies were positive in 16.7% of PPT subjects and in 4.5% of those with no thyroid dysfunction. Goiter was identified in 14.3% of PPT subjects and in 15% of no PPT subjects. Thyroid was hardened more frequently in PPT subjects (21.4%) than in others (5.2%). Male sex of the newborn was associated to PPT, increasing 11 times the risk of PPT. Cigarette smoking was associated to PPT in group II subjects. There was no clinical sign or symptom able to contribute to this diagnosis, except the presence of hardened thyroid. Based on these findings, PPT, manifesting itself as mild thyrotoxicosis, is a common problem in southern Brazil and is associated to male sex of the newborn.

  12. Prevalence of depression & assessment of risk factors among school going adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Vashisht

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents comprise nearly one-fifth of the total population of India. Undiagnosed adolescent depression can have potentially long term serious consequences along with increased risk of suicide. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of depression among school going adolescents and the socio environmental risk factors associated with it. Materials and Methods:  A cross sectional study was carried out among 1632 school going adolescents (13-19yrs in the rural and urban areas of district Ambala. Two pretested questionnaires were used. Depression subscale of Symptom Check List 80 (SCL 80 was used for ascertaining the prevalence of depression and a self-report questionnaire to assess effect of socio-environmental factors. Results: 29.9% adolescents had evidence of depression having cut off score > 13 in depression subscale of SCL 80. Most of the students in depression syndrome group were found to be suffering from mild category 22.9% followed by moderate category 7%. Depression was found to be associated with increasing age, low socio economic status and urban students. Conclusion: Regular screening of adolescents for depression and strengthening of school health services could provide the impetus for detection, prevention & management of adolescent depression.

  13. Strongyloidiasis: prevalence, risk factors, clinical and laboratory features among diarrhea patients in Ibadan Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada-Adegbola, H O; Oluwatoba, O A; Bakare, R A

    2010-12-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic infection caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. The infection is usually mild or asymptomatic in normal immunocompetent individuals, but could be very severe or even fatal due to hyper infection in individuals who are immunosuppressed. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors and features of strongyloidiasis among diarrhea patients in Ibadan. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of diarrhea patients from a teaching hospital, three major government hospitals and one mission hospital in Ibadan. Self administered questionnaire, clinical assessment and laboratory investigations were used to confirm health status and presence of S. stercoralis. Diagnosis was made by microscopic examination of stool in saline preparation and formol-ether concentration. One thousand and ninety patients, (562 (51.6%) males and 528 (48.4%) females) consisting 380 (34.9%) children and 710 (65.1%) adults who had diarrhea were studied. The prevalence rate for the parasite among diarrhea patients was 3.0%. While the risk factor for infection remains contact with contaminated soil, malnutrition, steroid therapy, HIV/AIDS, lymphomas, tuberculosis, and chronic renal failure. Others are maleness, institutionalism and alcoholism. Predominant clinical presentations are abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea, and bloating and weight loss, Strongyloides stercoralis should be considered in diarrhea patients who are either malnourished or immunosuppressed.

  14. High prevalence of hypertension and its selected risk factors among adult tribal population in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakma, Tapas; Kavishwar, Arvind; Sharma, Ravendra K; Rao, P Vinay

    2017-10-01

    A community based cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors like salt intake, 24-h urinary sodium excretion and body mass index (BMI) among tribal population of Mandla District, Central India. A total of 3090 individuals, from 1258 house hold drawn from 33 sampled villages and 12 urban wards were studied for blood pressure measurements and clinical examination, while 414 urine samples were collected for estimation of 24-h sodium excretion. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess the associations of BMI, urinary sodium output and other risk factors with hypertension. Across the sample, 28.2% of males and 23.6% of females had either stage-I or stage-II hypertension. More than 8% of subjects  25 were considerably more to have high blood pressure. Salt intake is directly related to the hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was significantly greater among those whose salt intake was more than 10 g per day. A positive association between urine sodium excretion and blood pressure was observed. The results of the present study show that the tribal population is also affected by the life style diseases at par with the non-tribal population.

  15. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Pegah; Maleki, Afshin; Sadeghi, Shahram; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Ghahremani, Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are still a serious public health problem in the world, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran. This cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren was carried out in 2015. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify possible risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration method. Five species of intestinal protozoa were identified with an overall prevalence of 42.3%. No cases of helminthes infection were detected. The predominant protozoa were Blastocys hominis (21.3%) and Entamoeba coli (4.5%). Overall, 143 (35.9%) had single infections and 26 (6.4%) were infected with more than one intestinal protozoa, in which 23 (5.9%) had double intestinal protozoa infections and 3 (0.5%) had triple infections. A significant relationship was observed between intestinal protozoa infection with economic status, water resources for drinking uses, and the methods of washing vegetables ( P protozoa infections in the study area.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for unrecognized obstructive lung disease among urban drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bradley Drummond

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available M Bradley Drummond1, Gregory D Kirk1,2, Jacquie Astemborski2, Meredith C McCormack1, Mariah M Marshall2, Shruti H Mehta2, Robert A Wise1, Christian A Merlo11Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, 2Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USABackground: Obstructive lung disease (OLD is frequently unrecognized and undertreated. Urban drug users are at higher risk for OLD due to race, behavioral, and socioeconomic characteristics, yet little data exist on prevalence and risk factors associated with unrecognized OLD in this population.Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of unrecognized OLD in an urban population and identify the characteristics associated with lack of physician-diagnosed OLD.Design: Cross-sectional analysis from the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Linked to the Intravenous Experience (ALIVE study, an observational study of current and former injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland, USA.Participants: All participants with spirometry-defined airflow obstruction were stratified by the presence or absence of physician diagnosis of OLD.Main measures: Using cross-sectional demographic, clinical, and spirometric measurements, multivariable regression models were generated to identify factors independently associated with unrecognized OLD.Key results: Of the 1083 participants evaluated in the ALIVE lung substudy, 176 (16.3% met spirometric criteria for OLD. Of those, only 88 (50% had a physician diagnosis of OLD. The prevalence of unrecognized OLD decreased as severity of airflow obstruction increased. Factors independently associated with unrecognized OLD were absence of respiratory symptoms (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29–2.23; P < 0.01 and less severe dyspnea (PR, 0.83; 95% CI: 0.72–0.96, per point increase in dyspnea scale; P = 0.01. In the subset of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hearing Loss Using the Korean Working Conditions Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Jun

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives The hearing loss of workers can occur when they are affected by age, otologic disease, and work-related risks such as noise and chemicals. Based on the Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) in 2010, this research aimed to estimate the prevalence rate of hearing loss and to identify the risk factors affecting its occurrence. Subjects and Methods The subjects were 10019 employees who completed an interview conducted as part of KWCS in 2010. The prevalence rate of hearing loss according to sex, age, education, income, smoking, drinking, hypertension, industrial type, occupations, employment status, working period, and hazards at the workplace were assessed. The factors that could affect the occurrence of hearing loss were investigated based on a logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence rate of hearing loss was 2.7%. In a logistic multivariate analysis, sex, age, occupations, working period, noise, and exposure to chemicals showed statistically significant correlations to the occurrence of hearing loss. The adjusted odd ratios were as follows: 1.74 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-2.96] for males, 2.11 (95% CI, 1.14-3.89) for those in their 40s, 2.24 (95% CI, 1.19-4.20) for those in their 50s, 2.21 (95% CI, 1.18-4.15) for manage/professional works, 2.73 (95% CI, 1.69-4.41) for manufacturing, 2.07 (95% CI, 1.36-3.15) for those who have worked for more than 20 years, 1.72 (95% CI, 1.14-2.58) for noise exposure, 1.53 (95% CI, 1.02-2.30) for vibration exposure and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.11-2.24) for chemical exposure. Conclusions The overall occupational and non-occupational risk factors related to employees' hearing loss were reviewed. In addition to the exposure to noise, occupational risks of hearing loss, such as isolated exposure to vibration and chemicals, and combined exposure to noise and these hazards, were identified. Multiple exposure to hazards, along with prolonged noise exposure increased the risk of hearing loss. PMID

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in Dutch dairy cattle herds based on bulk tank milk testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, E. van; Schotten, N.; Schimmer, B.; Hautvast, J.L.; Schaik, G. van; Duijnhoven, Y.T. van

    2014-01-01

    Despite cattle herds can harbor Coxiella burnetii, risk factors for C. burnetii presence in dairy cattle herds are largely unknown. Therefore, C. burnetii herd prevalence and risk factors for bulk tank milk (BTM) positivity were investigated. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was filled

  19. Occupational Therapy Practitioners with Occupational Musculoskeletal Injuries: Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaser, Musaed Z

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of occupational musculoskeletal injuries (OMIs) among occupational therapy practitioners over a 12-month period. A self-administered questionnaire mailed to 500 randomly selected practicing occupational therapists (OTs) and occupational therapy assistants (OTAs) living in the state of Texas. A response rate of 38 % was attained with 192 questionnaires returned. In a 12-months working period, 23 % of occupational therapy practitioners experienced musculoskeletal injuries. Muscle strain (52 %) was most reported injury and lower back (32 %) was most injured body part. Years of practicing experience (t = 2.83, p = 0.01), and age x(2)(2, N = 192) = 8.28, p = 0.02 were found as significant factors associated with injuries among OTAs. No factors were significantly associated with injuries among OTs. Patient handling was the primary factor associated with injuries. Also, minimal experience and older age were concluded as risk factors that might contribute to OMIs.

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Intraoperative Hypotension during Craniotomy for Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Brown, Michelle J; Curry, Parichat; Noda, Sakura; Chesnut, Randall M.; Vavilala, Monica S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypotension after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with poor outcomes. However, data on intraoperative hypotension (IH) are scarce and the effect of anesthetic agents on IH is unknown. We examined the prevalence and risk factors for IH, including the effect of anesthetic agents during emergent craniotomy for isolated TBI. Methods A retrospective cohort study of patients ≥ 18 years who underwent emergent craniotomy for TBI at Harborview Medical Center (level-1 trauma center) between October 2007 and January 2010. Demographic, clinical and radiographic characteristics, hemodynamic and anesthetic data were abstracted from medical and electronic anesthesia records. Hypotension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) craniotomy. The presence of multiple CT lesions, subdural hematoma, maximum thickness of CT lesion and longer duration of anesthesia increase the risk for IH. PMID:22504924

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of Plasmodium falciparum infections in pregnant women of Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Bianor; Campos, Paulo A; do Rosário, Virgílio E; Varandas, Luis; Silveira, Henrique

    2011-10-01

    Pregnant women are at increased risk of malaria, but in Angola, epidemiologic data from this group is almost inexistent. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Plasmodium falciparum infections in 567 pregnant Angolan women living in Luanda province. One in five women had P. falciparum at delivery, diagnosed by PCR assay. Age, residence and history of malaria during pregnancy were significantly associated with P. falciparum infection, but gravidity and use of anti-malarial drugs were not. Placental infections were significantly more common in women ≤18 years old and in primigravidae, but we could not correlate placental infections with poor pregnancy outcomes. These findings are relevant to malaria control policies in Luanda, Angola. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Erectile Dysfunction in Young Men-A Review of the Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang Minh Tue; Gabrielson, Andrew T; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2017-10-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is an important health concern that can significantly affect a man's psychosocial well-being. ED has traditionally been considered a disease of old age; however, contemporary evidence suggests a growing incidence of ED in men younger than 40 years. The process of achieving an erection is multifaceted; there are many potential mechanisms that can be disrupted. It is critical to identify the specific causes of ED before proceeding with potentially costly and invasive therapeutic options. Advances in diagnostic and treatment modalities offer opportunities to identify and manage young men with ED. To provide an update on the prevalence and risk factors of ED in young men and to provide a framework to guide clinicians in identifying and managing the affected young man. Comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to ED in young men. ED in young men was assessed by outlining the prevalence according to recent epidemiologic studies. The pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, risk factors, and etiologies were reviewed. Large multinational studies have estimated the prevalence of ED in young men to be as high as 30%. Several studies have stratified the etiologies of ED into psychogenic and organic causes. Psychogenic etiologies of ED include depression, anxiety, and partner-related difficulties. These patients tend to experience sudden onset of symptoms, with decreased libido and good quality of spontaneous or self-stimulated erections. Organic etiologies include vasculogenic, endocrinologic, neurogenic, iatrogenic, and structural components. These patients usually experience gradual onset of symptoms and a low to normal libido. Conservative treatments such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors continue to be the mainstay treatment. ED in young men is an increasingly common condition. A careful diagnostic evaluation should focus on the identification of any underlying etiology to ensure appropriate management of patients. Nguyen HMT

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of gallstones in adult health screening population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi Hwa; Cho, Pyong Kon; Kwon, Duck Moon

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone is the most common disease of the biliary system. Korean has experienced an increase in the percentage of cholesterol gallstones. The major risk factors associated with cholesterol gallstones are age, gender as well as obesity. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gallstones in the last three years and evaluate the associated risk factors in the population who underwent health screening. The study population consisted of 2,484 males and 2,212 females who visited the health promotion center in Dalseogu, Daegu in Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Each participant in the study had their biliary system gallbladder examined using ultrasonography. Classified as underweight, normal weight or overweight using the population of obese according to the body mass index, and classified according to mood diagnosis of diabetes presented by the American Diabetes Association. Fasting blood glucose and number of liver function, the divided the control group by referring to the normal liver function values used herein. The geological map, I was classified as NCEP APT Ⅲ. A showed of total 148 people were found to have gallstones. The prevalence of sex among 148 patients (3.15%) 84 men (1.79%) and 64 women (1.36%) which shows significantly there is little difference. 1.84% 40 years and below, 3.38% 40's showed age prevalence was 4.66% in 50's and above. In addition, Total-cholesterol was at the most in 52 people, LDL-cholesterol in 398 people, Triglyceride in 36 people, HDL-cholesterol in 19 people. The abnormal group, was created from the total-cholesterol categories from a physical examination of a subject that has been found to be gallstones in the gallbladder. A result of conducting the univariate analysis shows the prevalence of gallstones, a correlation that is meaningful. The logistic regression analysis of multiple ages was chosen to show risk factors age independent cholelithiasis. In spite of the conclusion, gallstones are not

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of gallstones in adult health screening population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi Hwa; Cho, Pyong Kon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Duck Moon [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Gallstone is the most common disease of the biliary system. Korean has experienced an increase in the percentage of cholesterol gallstones. The major risk factors associated with cholesterol gallstones are age, gender as well as obesity. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gallstones in the last three years and evaluate the associated risk factors in the population who underwent health screening. The study population consisted of 2,484 males and 2,212 females who visited the health promotion center in Dalseogu, Daegu in Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Each participant in the study had their biliary system gallbladder examined using ultrasonography. Classified as underweight, normal weight or overweight using the population of obese according to the body mass index, and classified according to mood diagnosis of diabetes presented by the American Diabetes Association. Fasting blood glucose and number of liver function, the divided the control group by referring to the normal liver function values used herein. The geological map, I was classified as NCEP APT Ⅲ. A showed of total 148 people were found to have gallstones. The prevalence of sex among 148 patients (3.15%) 84 men (1.79%) and 64 women (1.36%) which shows significantly there is little difference. 1.84% 40 years and below, 3.38% 40's showed age prevalence was 4.66% in 50's and above. In addition, Total-cholesterol was at the most in 52 people, LDL-cholesterol in 398 people, Triglyceride in 36 people, HDL-cholesterol in 19 people. The abnormal group, was created from the total-cholesterol categories from a physical examination of a subject that has been found to be gallstones in the gallbladder. A result of conducting the univariate analysis shows the prevalence of gallstones, a correlation that is meaningful. The logistic regression analysis of multiple ages was chosen to show risk factors age independent cholelithiasis. In spite of the conclusion, gallstones are not

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for proteinuria: the National Kidney Foundation of Malaysia Lifecheck Health Screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Loke Meng; Punithavathi, Narayanan; Thurairatnam, Dharminy; Zainal, Hadzlinda; Beh, Mei Li; Morad, Zaki; Lee, Sharleen Ys; Bavanandan, Sunita; Kok, Lai Sun

    2013-08-01

    Treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) poses a huge burden to the healthcare system. To address the problem, the National Kidney Foundation of Malaysia embarked on a programme to screen for proteinuria and educate the public on CKD. The public was invited for health screening and the data collected over a 21 month period was analyzed. In total, 40400 adults from all the states in Malaysia were screened. The screening population had a mean age of 41 years, 30.1% had hypertension and 10.6% had diabetes. Proteinuria was detected in 1.4% and haematuria in 8.9% of the participants. Factors associated with the highest risk for proteinuria were the presence of diabetes (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.16-3.21)), hypertension (OR 2.49 (95% CI 2.03-3.07)) and cardiac disease (OR 2.05 (95% CI 1.50-2.81)). Other risk factors identified were lower educational level, family history of kidney disease, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity and lack of regular exercise. Chinese had the lowest risk for proteinuria among the races (OR 0.71 (95% CI 0.57-0.87) compared with Malays). The combination of high blood glucose and high blood pressure (BP) substantially increased the risk for proteinuria (OR 38.1 for glucose ≥ 10 mmol/L and systolic BP ≥ 180 mm Hg and OR 47.9 for glucose ≥ 10 mmol/L and diastolic BP ≥ 110 mm Hg). The prevalence of proteinuria in Malaysia is similar to other countries. The major risk factors for proteinuria were diabetes, hypertension and cardiac disease. The presence of both high blood pressure and high blood glucose exert a synergistic effect in substantially increasing the risk for proteinuria. © 2013 The Authors. Nephrology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seoyon; Park, Dae Hwan; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Kim, Jisun; Lee, Jong Won; Han, Jun Young; Kim, Dong Kyu; Jeon, Jae Yong; Choi, Kyoung Hyo; Kim, Won

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder in breast cancer patients between 13 and 18 months after surgery. This study included 271 women who underwent surgery for breast cancer with a postoperative period of 13-18 months. Current adhesive capsulitis was defined as restriction of external rotation and one or more additional directional restrictions with history of shoulder pain. Cumulative adhesive capsulitis was defined as current adhesive capsulitis or a previous history of adhesive capsulitis after breast cancer surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine associations between current or cumulative adhesive capsulitis and potential risk factors. Among the 271 study patients, 28 (10.3%) and 21 (7.7%) had cumulative or current adhesive capsulitis, respectively. The incidences of cumulative and current adhesive capsulitis were higher in those aged 50-59 years (odds ratio [OR], 9.912; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.790-54.880; and OR, 12.395; 95% CI, 1.187-129.444, respectively) and those who underwent mastectomy (OR, 6.805; 95% CI, 1.800-25.733; and OR, 9.645; 95% CI, 2.075-44.829, respectively) or mastectomy with reconstruction (OR, 13.122; 95% CI, 2.488-69.218; and OR, 20.075; 95% CI, 2.873-140.261, respectively). Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a common problem after breast cancer treatment. An age of 50-59 years and mastectomy are major risk factors for adhesive capsulitis, and breast reconstruction additionally increases the risk. Patients with these risk factors require greater attention for early diagnosis and proper treatment.

  7. The prevalence and impact of risk factors for ethnic differences in loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Marlies A; El Fakiri, Fatima

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that loneliness is more frequently present in citizens of ethnic minority groups than in natives. The current study investigates whether ethnic differences in emotional and social loneliness between Moroccan, Turkish, Surinamese and Dutch adults living in the Netherlands are due to ethnic differences in the presence and/or impact of an array of possible risk factors, such as partnership, health and socioeconomic status. The data were collected in 2012 as a part of a general health questionnaire of the Public Health Services in the four major cities of the Netherlands, containing 20.047 Dutch, 1.043 Moroccan, 1.197 Turkish and 1.900 Surinamese respondents. Structural equation models showed that ethnic differences in emotional and social loneliness can be ascribed to ethnic differences in the prevalence and impact of several risk factors. Main findings were that all three ethnic minority groups reported feeling less healthy and more discriminated against than the Dutch group, which was related to increased loneliness. Perceived financial difficulties and people in the neighbourhood not getting along had more impact on feelings of loneliness for the Turkish group than loneliness for the other ethnic groups. Furthermore, members of the Turkish group were found more at risk to feel anxious or depressed, which was in turn related to increased loneliness. Policy makers are encouraged to develop multifaceted prevention strategies concerning those risk factors that are most changeable, thereby focusing per risk factor on those ethnic groups for which it is an important contribution to loneliness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among hill tribe schoolchildren, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawatchai Apidechkul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among hill tribe schoolchildren who attended 10 border patrol police schools in 2012, Chiang Rai, Thailand. Methods: A total of 339 subjects were recruited into the study from 2 194 children. Questionnaire was tested for validity and reliability before use. About 5 g stool specimens were collected and investigated for intestinal parasite infections by using cellophane-covered thick smear technique. Logistic regression at α = 0.05 was used to test the associations between variables to find risk factors. Results: There were 339 subjects of whom 51.9% were males and 66.1% were Buddhist; racially 31.2% were Akha and 30.4% were Kmong; mean age was 10.3 years old (minimum = 6, maximum = 16. The prevalence of parasitic infection was 9.7%. After controlling for age, sex, religion, parents’ education levels and parents’ occupations, the only factor that showed a statistically significant association with intestinal parasitic infection was the source of drinking water. The group of drinking mountain piped water had a greater risk of 8.22 times (adjusted odds ratio = 8.22, 95%; confidence interval: 1.07–63.18 compared to the drinking commercially bottled water group, while the group of drinking underground water had a greater risk of 9.83 times (adjusted odds ratio = 9.83, 95%; confidence interval: 0.93–104.12 compared to the drinking commercially bottled water group. Conclusions: Drinking water contaminated by soil was shown to be an important risk factor for intestinal parasitic infection in hill tribe schoolchildren living in mountainous border areas in the northern part of Thailand. Safer alternative drinking water source should be provided along with health education for schools and villagers to be aware of the risk of intestinal parasites from drinking water sources such as mountain piped or underground wells. Such sources are likely to contain higher soil

  9. Prevalence and Social Risk Factors for Hearing Impairment in Chinese Children-A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Chunfeng; Wang, Zhenjie; Gao, Jiamin; He, Ping; Guo, Chao; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2017-01-18

    Hearing impairment may affect children's communication skills, social development, and educational achievement. Little is known about the prevalence of hearing impairment among Chinese children. Data were taken from the 2006 second China National Survey on Disability (CNSD). Hearing impairment was defined as moderate (41-60 dB HL), severe (61-80 dB HL), profound (81-90 dB HL), or complete (>91 dB HL). Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). A weighted number of 567,915 hearing impairment children were identified, yielding a prevalence of 17.49 per 10,000 people (95% CI: 16.90-18.08), with prevention or treatment options possible for 64.6% of hearing impairment children. The main causes of hearing impairment were hereditary, tympanitis, and drug intoxication. Illiteracy in one or both parents (mother: OR = 1.388, 95% CI: 1.125-1.714, p family income lower than national average (OR = 1.323, 95% CI: 1.044-1.675, p = 0.0203, relative to higher than national average), household size larger than three people (OR = 1.432, 95% CI: 1.164-1.762, p = 0.0007, relative to smaller than three people) and single-mother family (OR = 2.056, 95% CI: 1.390-3.042, p = 0.0176, relative to intact family) were the independence risk factors for hearing impairment among Chinese children. Lower annual family income, male children, larger household size, single-mother family, and lower levels of maternal and paternal education were independent risk factors for hearing impairment for Chinese children. Further studies on hearing impairment prevention and the relationship between parental social factors and the risk of hearing impairment are needed.

  10. Prevalence and Social Risk Factors for Hearing Impairment in Chinese Children—A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Chunfeng; Wang, Zhenjie; Gao, Jiamin; He, Ping; Guo, Chao; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    Hearing impairment may affect children’s communication skills, social development, and educational achievement. Little is known about the prevalence of hearing impairment among Chinese children. Data were taken from the 2006 second China National Survey on Disability (CNSD). Hearing impairment was defined as moderate (41–60 dB HL), severe (61–80 dB HL), profound (81–90 dB HL), or complete (>91 dB HL). Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). A weighted number of 567,915 hearing impairment children were identified, yielding a prevalence of 17.49 per 10,000 people (95% CI: 16.90–18.08), with prevention or treatment options possible for 64.6% of hearing impairment children. The main causes of hearing impairment were hereditary, tympanitis, and drug intoxication. Illiteracy in one or both parents (mother: OR = 1.388, 95% CI: 1.125–1.714, p family income lower than national average (OR = 1.323, 95% CI: 1.044–1.675, p = 0.0203, relative to higher than national average), household size larger than three people (OR = 1.432, 95% CI: 1.164–1.762, p = 0.0007, relative to smaller than three people) and single-mother family (OR = 2.056, 95% CI: 1.390–3.042, p = 0.0176, relative to intact family) were the independence risk factors for hearing impairment among Chinese children. Lower annual family income, male children, larger household size, single-mother family, and lower levels of maternal and paternal education were independent risk factors for hearing impairment for Chinese children. Further studies on hearing impairment prevention and the relationship between parental social factors and the risk of hearing impairment are needed. PMID:28106811

  11. Urinary Incontinence of Women in a Nationwide Study in Sri Lanka: Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiraja, Ramya; Prathapan, Shamini; Goonawardena, Sampatha

    2017-05-23

    Urinary incontinence, be stress incontinence or urge incontinence or a mixed type incontinence affects women of all ages. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in Sri Lanka. A community based cross-sectional study was performed in Sri Lanka. The age group of the women in Sri Lanka was categorized into 3 age groups: Less than or equal to 35 years, 36 to 50 years of age and more than or equal to 51 years of age. A sample size of 675 women was obtained from each age category obtaining a total sample of 2025 from Sri Lanka. An interviewer-administered questionnaire consisting of two parts; Socio demographic factors, Medical and Obstetric History, and the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), was used for data collection. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed. The Prevalence of women with only stress incontinence was 10%, with urge incontinence was 15.6% and with stress and urge incontinence was 29.9%. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that the age groups of 36 - 50 years (OR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.56 - 2.63) and 51 years and above (OR = 2.61; 95% CI= 1.95 - 3.48), Living in one of the districts in Sri Lanka (OR = 4.58; 95% CI = 3.35 - 6.27) and having given birth to multiple children (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 1.02 - 1.21), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.19 - 3.23), and respiratory diseases (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.48 - 3.19 ) showed a significant risk in the regression analysis. The risk factor, mostly modifiable, if prevented early, could help to reduce the symptoms of urinary incontinence.

  12. Prevalence, risk factors and consequences of cerebral small vessel diseases: data from three Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Saima; Mok, Vincent; Youn, Young Chul; Wong, Adrian; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian

    2017-08-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) has been suggested to be more common in Asians compared with Caucasians. However, data from population-based studies in Asia are lacking. We report on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of SVD from contemporary studies in three Asian countries using 3-Tesla MRI for the evaluation of SVD. Clinical, cognitive and 3-Tesla brain MRI assessments were performed among participants of three studies from Singapore, Hong Kong and Korea. SVD markers include white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) using the modified Fazekas scale, lacunes and microbleeds. Cognition was assessed using the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Adjustments were made for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 1797 subjects were available for analysis (mean age: 70.1±6.3 years and 57% women). The prevalence of confluent WMH was 36.6%, lacunes, 24.6% and microbleeds, 26.9%. Presence of all three SVD markers showed a steeper increase with increasing age rising from 1.9% in the lowest to 46.2% in the highest 5-year age strata. The major risk factors for the increased severity of SVD markers were advancing age and hypertension. Moreover, increasing severity of SVD markers was independently associated with worse performance on MMSE and MoCA. Elderly Asians have a high burden of SVD which was associated with cognitive dysfunction. This suggests that SVD markers should be a potential target for treatment in clinical trials so as to delay progression of cerebrovascular disease and potentially cognitive decline. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Homelessness among problem drug users: prevalence, risk factors and trigger events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Peter A; Neale, Joanne; Robertson, Michele

    2006-07-01

    The present paper uses data from a prospective cohort study of 877 problem drug users entering treatment in Scotland to extend knowledge of homelessness and drug misuse in three important respects: First, the prevalence of homelessness among problem drug users is investigated; secondly, key risk factors for homelessness among problem drug users are identified; and thirdly, trigger events associated with movements into or out of homelessness by problem drug users over time are explored. Data were collected during two waves of interviewing which were conducted 8 months apart. Thirty-six per cent of problem drug users entering treatment were homeless at either or both interviews, a prevalence rate that is at least seven times greater than among the general population. Whilst many of the risk factors found to be associated with homelessness are common to homeless people in general, at least one homelessness risk factor - recent drug injection [OR = 1.40; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.96]- is clearly specific to those who take drugs. Movements into homelessness among problem drug users were associated with recently losing residency of children (OR = 2.28; 95% CI = 1.27-4.08), other recent family problems (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.21-2.94) and worsening general health (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.15-4.09). Movements out of homelessness were associated with not having recent family problems (OR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.24-0.79). The findings provide empirical support for the good practice guidelines now being published by various UK Government departments, but also suggest that the relatives of problem drug users should be offered increased assistance to help them deal with the many stresses that having a drug-dependent family member can bring.

  14. HIV-1 prevalence and risk factors among sexually transmitted disease clinic attenders in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleghorn, F R; Jack, N; Murphy, J R; Edwards, J; Mahabir, B; Paul, R; White, F; Bartholomew, C; Blattner, W A

    1995-04-01

    To study trends in prevalence and to ascertain risk factors for HIV-1 among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic attenders in Trinidad. Serial cross-sectional studies were conducted in 1987-1988 and 1990-1991 at a centralized STD clinic in Port of Spain. A case-control study was carried out to examine in greater detail the demographic and behavioral risk factors for HIV-1 among self-declared heterosexuals in this population. HIV-1 prevalence increased from 3.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.3-3.9] in 1987-1988 to 13.6% (95% CI, 11.8-15.6) in 1990-1991. Age > or = 40 years [odds ratio (OR), 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8], urban residence (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-3.0), and human T-lymphotropic virus-I seropositivity (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.6-6.0) were significant risk factors for HIV-1 in 1990-1991. In the case-control analysis, significant independent risk factors for men included current genital ulcer disease (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.2-12.5), current genital warts (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-12.0), having ever had syphilis (OR, 3.2; 95% CI 1.6-6.1), and use of crack cocaine in the preceding 6 months (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 2.7-14.2). Corresponding risk factors for women were commercial sex work (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 1.3-25.7), initiation of sexual activity before age 14 years (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.5-16.0), and past non-gonococcal cervicitis (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.3-13.1). HIV-1 in this setting is primarily heterosexually transmitted in a milieu of unprotected sexual activity fuelled by a crack cocaine epidemic. Targeted interventions to prevent, detect and treat STD and crack cocaine addiction, as well as disrupt their adverse synergism, may substantially reduce HIV-1 transmission in this population.

  15. The prevalence and risk factors for cholelithiasis and asymptomatic gallstones in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Yumi; Toyoda, Tomohiko; Kawasoe, Yasutaka; Tateno, Shigeru; Shirai, Takeaki; Matsuo, Kozo; Mizuno, Yoshiko; Ai, Toshiji; Niwa, Koichiro

    2011-10-20

    Cyanosis is considered to be a risk factor for cholelithiasis which is an important complication of cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) in adults. In this study, the prevalence of cholelithiasis and asymptomatic calcium bilirubinate gallstones was evaluated in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Furthermore, risk factors for this potentially high risk complication were assessed. Subjects were derived from 114 consecutive congenital patients who visited our center from May 2008 to January 2009. For analyses of risk factors, we divided them into 4 groups: group A, 15 CCHD patients without reparative surgery (7 men, 31.8 ± 7.0 years old); group B, 41 CCHD patients rendered acyanotic by reparative surgery (21 men, 32.5 ± 11.8 years old); group C, 23 unoperated acyanotic CHD patients (11 men, 42.4 ± 16.4 years old); and group D, 35 patients who were acyanotic before and after operation (18 men, 36.3 ± 14.8 years old). Gallstones were identified by abdominal ultrasound and risk factors were analyzed by a multivariate logistic regression model. Cholecystectomy was performed in 5/114 (4.3%), asymptomatic gallstones were seen in 16/114 (14%), and symptomatic gallstones except for patients after cholecystectomy were seen in 7/114 (6.1%). In group A, 4 (27%) with gallstones underwent cholecystectomy (pnobody in group C, and 3 patients (8.6%) in group D. By a multivariate logistic regression model, CCHD by nature regardless of repair, prolonged cyanosis periods, higher frequency of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and lower platelet counts were significant factors predicting gallstones (odds ratio 4.48, 1.08, 3.96, and 0.87, 95% CI, 1.14-17.5, 1.00-1.18, 1.65-9.54, and 0.75-0.99, respectively). The prevalence of cholelithiasis and asymptomatic gallstones is significantly high in CCHD patients regardless of cardiac repairs. CCHD by nature, prolonged cyanosis durations, high frequency of CPB and low platelet counts have influences on gallstone formation in adults

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of psychotic symptoms in cocaine-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero, Carlos; Ros-Cucurull, Elena; Daigre, Constanza; Casas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine consumption can induce transient psychotic symptoms expressed as paranoia or hallucinations. This work reviews that evidence and tries to obtain data regarding frequency of psychotic symptoms or cocaine induced psychosis (CIP), risks or associated factors. Systematic review of studies found in PubMed database published until January 2011 where cocaine induced paranoia was present. Cocaine induced paranoia has a particular clinical presentation. It needs to be clearly identified due to its harmful consequences. The prevalence is between 12% in clinical studies and 100% in experimental studies. The following are considered potential risk factors: age of first use and length, amount of substance, route of administration, body mass index, genetic factors, personal vulnerability and comorbidity with AXIS I (psychosis, ADHD) and AXIS II disorders (antisocial personality disorder). It is needed to research with larger samples of cocaine users of different countries and contexts, in order to identify and detail what variables are closely related in the development of cocaine induced paranoia, so the population at risk can be treated earlier.

  17. Prevalence of Hypertension and Determination of Its Risk Factors in Rural Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugal Kishore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hypertension is an important public health challenge in both economically developing and developed countries. It is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Data is available on hypertension in urban population but few studies are reported in rural areas. Materials and Methods. It was a community based cross-sectional study conducted in two rural areas in Delhi among 1005 subjects selected using systematic random sampling method. WHO STEPS approach was used to collect data. Blood pressure, body mass index, and blood sugar were measured. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Odds of hypertension among subjects with risk factors were calculated. p value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results. The prevalence of hypertension was 14.1% among study subjects. Hypertension was significantly higher in individuals more than 35 years than those less than 35 years. Hypertension was significantly higher in those who take alcohol and in subjects with raised total cholesterol level but in multivariate analysis only age, education, and cholesterol levels were independently associated with hypertension. Conclusion. There is significant burden of hypertension in rural areas in Delhi. Age, education, and cholesterol levels were independent risk factors of hypertension.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of attempted suicide in adult war-affected population of eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyanda, Eugene; Weiss, Helen A; Mungherera, Margaret; Onyango-Mangen, Patrick; Ngabirano, Emmanuel; Kajungu, Rehema; Kagugube, Johnson; Muhwezi, Winston; Muron, Julius; Patel, Vikram

    2013-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the relationship between war trauma and suicidal behavior. Some studies point to an increased risk of suicidal behavior while others do not, with a paucity of such data from sub-Saharan Africa. To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of attempted suicide in war-affected Eastern Uganda. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two districts of Eastern Uganda where 1,560 respondents (15 years and older) were interviewed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess risk factors of attempted suicide in this population. Lifetime attempted suicide was 9.2% (n = 142; 95% CI, 7.8%-10.8%), and 12-month attempted suicide was 2.6% (n = 41; 95% CI, 1.9-3.5%). Lifetime attempted suicide was significantly higher among females 101 (11.1%) than among males 43 (6.5%; OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.21-2.65). Factors independently associated with lifetime rate of attempted suicide among females were subcounty, being a victim of intimate partner violence, having reproductive health complaints, and having major depressive disorder. Among males these were belonging to a war-vulnerable group, having a surgical complaint, and having a major depressive disorder. In both sexes, the lifetime rate of attempted suicide was not independently directly related to experiences of war trauma. It was, however, indirectly related to war trauma through its association with psychological, somatic, and psychosocial sequelae of war.

  19. Prevalence of asthenopia and its risk factors in Chinese college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Cheng Han

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To determine the prevalence of asthenopia and identify any associated risk factors in the college students in Xi’an, China.METHODS:From April to September 2012, 1 500 students from five universities in Xi’an were selected according to a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Data on demographic features, lifestyle or dietary habits, health status, living environment conditions, sleep and mental status, and asthenopia symptoms were collected through a self-administered validated questionnaire. Univariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression analysis modified by the factor analysis were performed to evaluate risk factors for asthenopia.RESULTS:Fifty-seven percent of the college students complained of asthenopia. Statistically significant risk factors for asthenopia in the univariate analysis included 13 variables. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant relationship between the use of computer and asthenopia (OR 1.21, 95%CI:1.09 to 1.35. Good sleep and mental status (OR 0.86, 95%CI:0.76 to 0.97, good living environment conditions (OR 0.67, 95%CI:0.60 to 0.76, and high intake of green leafy vegetables (OR 0.89, 95%CI:0.80 to 0.98 were found to be strong predictors of decreasing the occurrence of asthenopia complaints.CONCLUSION:Asthenopia symptom appears to be common among college students; and it is strongly associated with computer use, psychosocial state, environment conditions and dietary habits, suggesting that additional studies are warranted to verify these risk factors and establish prevention guidelines, especially for college students.

  20. Prevalence of asthenopia and its risk factors in Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, Rong; Liu, Ru-Ru; Zhu, Zhong-Hai; Yu, Rong-Bin; Ma, Le

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of asthenopia and identify any associated risk factors in the college students in Xi'an, China. From April to September 2012, 1 500 students from five universities in Xi'an were selected according to a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Data on demographic features, lifestyle or dietary habits, health status, living environment conditions, sleep and mental status, and asthenopia symptoms were collected through a self-administered validated questionnaire. Univariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression analysis modified by the factor analysis were performed to evaluate risk factors for asthenopia. Fifty-seven percent of the college students complained of asthenopia. Statistically significant risk factors for asthenopia in the univariate analysis included 13 variables. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant relationship between the use of computer and asthenopia (OR 1.21, 95%CI: 1.09 to 1.35). Good sleep and mental status (OR 0.86, 95%CI: 0.76 to 0.97), good living environment conditions (OR 0.67, 95%CI: 0.60 to 0.76), and high intake of green leafy vegetables (OR 0.89, 95%CI: 0.80 to 0.98) were found to be strong predictors of decreasing the occurrence of asthenopia complaints. Asthenopia symptom appears to be common among college students; and it is strongly associated with computer use, psychosocial state, environment conditions and dietary habits, suggesting that additional studies are warranted to verify these risk factors and establish prevention guidelines, especially for college students.

  1. Seasonal prevalence, body condition score and risk factors of bovine fasciolosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishmael Festus Jaja

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is an important zoonotic disease that is responsible for a significant loss in food resource and animal productivity. The objectives of this study were to determine the seasonal prevalence and risk factors associated with Fasciola infection in cattle. The results were obtained by coprology, antemortem and post-mortem survey of three abattoirs (HTPA1, n = 500, HTPA2, n = 400, and LTPA, n = 220. The seasonal prevalence of Fasciola infection was 10.4%, 12.8% and 10.9%, during summer, 11.2%, 10.8% and 8.6%, during autumn, 9.8%, 6.5% and 5.9% during winter and 8.2%, 7.8% and 5.9%, during spring in the three abattoirs HTPA1, HTPA and LTPA respectively. There was a significant association (p < 0.05 between the intensity of infection and body condition score (BCS of cattle at each abattoir. Factors such as age [HTPA1 (OR = 3.6, CI = 1.2, 10.2, and LTPA (OR = 3.8, CI= 2.4, 6.1], sex [LTPA (OR = 4.2, CI= 2.5, 7.0], breed [HTPA2 (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.3, 4.1 and LTPA (OR = 2.5, CI= 1.3, 5.0] and BCS had significant (p < 0.01–0.001 influence on the prevalence of fasciolosis. In conclusion, the infection with Fasciola spp was higher in the summer than in the winter; a positive association was established between the prevalence of fasciolosis and poor body condition in study animals. This study, therefore, suggests that fasciolosis could be causing substantial production losses, mainly due to cattle weight loss and liver condemnation.

  2. Cross-sectional study of the prevalence of and risk factors for hoof disorders in horses in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhauer, M; Bremer, R; Santman-Berends, I; Smink, O; Janssens, I; Back, W

    2017-01-01

    Information is scarce on the prevalence of hoof disorders in horses. In this study, we examined the prevalence of and risk factors for hoof disorders in a population of horses in The Netherlands. In a group of 942 randomly selected horses, hoof health was scored during regular foot trimming (one

  3. Prevalence, incidence and risk factors for overuse injuries of the wrist in young athletes: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, Laura S.; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Maas, Mario; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Overuse wrist injuries can cause long-term symptoms in young athletes performing wrist-loading sports. Information on the prevalence, incidence and associated risk factors is required. We aimed to review the prevalence and incidence of overuse wrist injuries in young athletes and to identify

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Syphilis Infections Among Military Personnel in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    2017 Bentham Science Publishers Prevalence and Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( HIV ) and Syphilis Infections Among Military Personnel...immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) and syphilis, potentially im- pact the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF) by reducing their effectiveness and...Mosala T. Divergent spatial patterns in the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) and syphilis in South African pregnant women. Geospat

  5. Hepatitis A virus age-specific sero-prevalence and risk factors among Jordanian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayajneh, Wail A; Balbeesi, Adel; Faouri, Samir

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) has been a significant cause of infections among the children and adolescents of Jordan. Availability of safe vaccines made it necessary to identify the ill-defined temporal immunity trends for HAV and possible age-specific prevalence transitions. This community-based cross sectional study was conducted during the period July-August 2008 on 3,066 recruited subjects from the 12 governorates of Jordan, with pre-defined criteria. Several households were chosen at random within each selected block to enroll the subjects. They were interviewed and data were collected. Their sera were tested for total antibodies against HAV. A multivariate model was then performed to identify the possible risk factors. The HAV sero-prevalence rates among the age categories-second year, 2-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, 15-19 years, and those above 20 years were 26%, 32%, 44%, 63%, 78%, and 94%, respectively. The model revealed the association of several risk factors for higher HAV sero-prevalence rates: (i) older age groups; (ii) lower maternal education levels; (iii) residing in certain governorates; (iv) using public net drinking water; and (v) avoiding use of public net sewage system. This study provided strong evidence for continuous transition of HAV epidemiology towards intermediate endemicity in Jordan, with more susceptible adolescents and adults. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for countries with intermediate endemicity, large-scale hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for children in Jordan. This is strengthened by the availability of effective and safe HAV vaccines, improving the socio-economic status of the Jordanians, and increasing life expectancy among Jordanians. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Caregiver Dependence among Older Adults in a Southeast Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi A; Pang, Shirlene; Shafie, Saleha; Sambasivam, Rajeswari; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-11-01

    Currently very little is known about the prevalence or magnitude of caregiver dependence in Singapore and thus, there is a need to fill this gap in this multiethnic ageing population. This study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors of caregiver dependence among older adults in Singapore. Data were used from the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly (WiSE) study, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey among Singapore residents aged 60 years and above. Caregiver dependence was ascertained by asking the informant (the person who knows the older person best) a series of open-ended questions about the older person's care needs. The older adult sample comprised 57.1% females and the majority were aged 60 to 74 years (74.8%), while 19.5% were 75 to 84 years, and 5.7% were 85 years and above. The prevalence of caregiver dependence was 17.2% among older adults. Significant sociodemographic risk factors of caregiver dependence included older age (75 to 84 years, and 85 years and above, P dementia ( P cough ( P = 0.016), paralysis ( P <0.001), asthma ( P = 0.016) and cancer ( P = 0.026) were significantly associated with caregiver dependence. Various sociodemographic and health-related conditions were significantly associated with caregiver dependence. Dependent older adults will put greater demands on health and social services, resulting in greater healthcare expenditures. Hence, effective planning, services and support are crucial to meet the needs of dependent older adults and their caregivers.

  7. Cognitive impairment and risk factor prevalence in a population over 60 in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizaga, Raul L; Gogorza, Roxana E; Allegri, Ricardo F; Baumann, Patricia D; Morales, María C; Harris, Paula; Pallo, Vicente; Cegarra, María M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data on dementia and cognitive impairment are scarce in South America. In Argentina, no dementia/cognitive impairment population-based epidemiological studies are available. The Ceibo Study is a population-based epidemiological study of dementia and cognitive impairment in individuals over 60 to be conducted. The present paper reports the results of the pilot phase (survey of cognitive impairment) conducted in Cañuelas (province of Buenos Aires). Methods In a door-to-door survey, trained high school students evaluated 1453 individuals aged 60 years and over in one day using a demographic data and risk factors questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results Mean age of the individuals was 70.9 (±7.5) years, 61.4% were women, mean schooling was 5.5 (±3.5) years. Mean MMSE score was 24.5 (±4.7) and mean GDS 3.1 (±2.7). Risk factors of higher prevalence in the population under study were: hypertension (40.6%), smoking (35.1%), alcohol consumption (32.8%), high cholesterol (16.1%), diabetes (12.5%), cranial trauma with loss of consciousness (12.5%), 7 points or more on the GDS (11.7%). Prevalence of cognitive impairment for the whole sample was 23%, and 16.9% in subjects aged 60-69, 23.3% in 70-79 and 42.5% in subjects aged 80 or over . A significant correlation of cognitive impairment with age, functional illiteracy, cranial trauma, high blood pressure, inactivity and depression was found. Conclusion In this pilot study, the prevalence of cognitive impairment was comparable with previous international studies. PMID:29213927

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for bovine brucellosis in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Diniz Baumgarten

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to verify that the State of Santa Catarina has maintained a low prevalence of bovine brucellosis, which would allow the state to move forward with implementing strategies for disease eradication. The state was divided into five regions. In each region, a predetermined number of randomly selected properties was sampled. In each property, blood samples were collected from randomly selected cows with ages equal to or greater than 24 months. Sera from the animals were submitted to a serial testing protocol, with screening by the buffered acidified antigen test and confirmation by the 2-mercaptoethanol test. In each property, a questionnaire was used to identify the risk factors associated with the disease. In the state, the prevalence rate of infected herds was 0.912% [0.297 - 2.11] and infected animals was 1.21% [0.09 - 4.97]. Relative to the earlier study in 2002, there was no difference. The risk factors associated with the condition of a herd infected with brucellosis were as follows: herd size ? 12 cows (OR = 7.47 [2.14 - 34.34] and the presence of flooded areas (OR = 5.68 [1.62 - 26.13]. In view of the low prevalence, it is recommended that the state proceed with the implementation of eradication strategies that are based on a surveillance system structured to detect and eliminate infected herds, and supported by an effective compensation fund for the replacement of seropositive animals. Additionally, the State should make a significant effort to educate and supervise producers to ensure the testing of breeding animals for brucellosis before introducing them into their properties.

  9. Hepatitis B virus in Pakistan: A systematic review of prevalence, risk factors, awareness status and genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Samia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Pakistan, there are estimated 7-9 million carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV with a carrier rate of 3-5%. This article reviews the available literature about the prevalence, risk factors, awareness status and genotypes of the HBV in Pakistan by using key words; HBV prevalence, risk factors, awareness status and genotypes in Pakistani population in PubMed, PakMediNet, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ and Google Scholar. One hundred and six different studies published from 1998 to 2010 were included in this study. Weighted mean and standard deviation were determined for each population group. The percentage of hepatitis B virus infection in general population was 4.3318% ± 1.644%, healthy blood donors (3.93% ± 1.58%, military recruits (4.276% ± 1.646%, healthcare persons (3.25% ± 1.202%, pregnant women (5.872% ± 4.984, prisoners (5.75% ± 0.212%, surgical patients (7.397% ± 2.012%, patients with cirrhosis (28.87% ± 11.90%, patients with HCC (22% ± 2.645%, patients with hepatitis (15.896% ± 14.824%, patients with liver diseases (27.54% ± 6.385%, multiple transfused patients (6.223% ± 2.121%, opthalmic patients (3.89% ± 1.004% and users of injectable drugs (14.95% ± 10.536%. Genotype D (63.71% is the most prevalent genotype in Pakistani population. Mass vaccination and awareness programs should be initiated on urgent basis especially in populations with HBV infection rates of more than 5%.

  10. Prevalence of Smoking and Risk Factors Among Students at a University in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulken Babaoglu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate smoking prevalence and related risk factors among students at the Health School and Physical Education & Sports School of a university in central Turkey. Material and Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 1082 students continuing their education at the school from October to December 2015. A multiple-item questionnaire was administered to students using the %u201Canswering-under-supervision%u201D technique during lessons. Results: A total of 675 responders were female (62.4% and 407 responders were male (37.6% out of 1082 participants. Of the 1082 students, 256 (23.7% were current smokers and the average age for starting smoking was 16.61 ± 2.72. Most participants graduated from public (96.0% school, while 4.0% graduated from private high schools. In this study, we found that the smoking prevalence was associated with some variables such as sex, classroom grade, age, place of residence, cigarette or tobacco use in the living place, and knowledge status of students about their teacher%u2019s smoking habits (p %u2264 0.05. Discussion: Our study results revealed that smoking prevalence was high among the students. These results also indicate that health school and sports school students who will be role models for reduced smoking and healthy living behaviors in public should be trained to improve their knowledge and awareness about health risks of smoking. Providing education on the health risks of smoking to students who have not receive an education before can prevent smoking initiation and increase the quitting rate.

  11. Increased prevalence of fall risk factors in older people following hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrington, C; Lord, S R

    1998-01-01

    Many people who suffer a hip fracture do not achieve full functional recovery. Simple tests of physical function such as quadriceps strength and postural sway may provide insight into why this population is at increased risk of experiencing further falls and fractures and assist in developing rehabilitation strategies for preventing falls. To determine whether impairments in a range of physiological measures and specific medical conditions are more prevalent in people who have suffered a fall-related hip fracture than in a matched sample of community-dwelling people without a history of falls. This case-control study involved 88 older people. The hip fracture group comprised 44 persons aged 64-94 years, assessed on average 7 months following a fall-related hip fracture. An age- and sex-matched control group (older persons who had not fallen in a 12-month period before recruitment) was drawn randomly from community samples. Compared with the control group, the hip fracture group had markedly reduced quadriceps strength and increased body sway when tested on firm and compliant (foam rubber) surfaces. Patients in the hip fracture group also had higher prevalence rates of poor vision, arthritis and stroke, were taking more medications, were less physically active and perceived themselves to be at greater risk of falling than the control group. No significant differences were apparent for cardiovascular conditions, subjective health status and psychoactive medication use between the groups. Multivariate analyses identified quadriceps strength and body sway on the compliant surface as the most important variables for distinguishing between the hip fracture and no hip fracture groups. These two variables correctly classified 92% of the cases, with equal sensitivity and specificity. The findings identify an increased prevalence of certain physical fall risk factors among older persons who have suffered a hip fracture. Decreased quadriceps strength and increased postural

  12. A Prospective Study on the Prevalence and Risk Factors of Poststroke Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Ryck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Poststroke depression (PSD is common. Early detection of depressive symptoms and identification of patients at risk for PSD are important as PSD negatively affects stroke outcome and costs of medical care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine incidence and risk factors for PSD at 3 months after stroke. Methods: We conducted a prospective, longitudinal epidemiological study aiming to determine incidence and risk factors for PSD at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months poststroke. The present data analysis covers the convalescent phase of 3 months poststroke. Participants in this study were inpatients, admitted to a stroke unit with first or recurrent stroke. Demographic data and vascular risk factors were collected and patients were evaluated at baseline and 3 months poststroke for functional and cognitive deficits, stroke characteristics, stroke severity and stroke outcome. Signs and symptoms of depression were quantified by means of the Cornell Scale for Depression (CSD and Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. Significantly associated variables from univariate analysis were analyzed by using multiple linear and logistic regression methods. Results: Data analysis was performed in 135 patients who completed follow-up assessments at 3 months poststroke. Depression (CSD score ≥8 was diagnosed in 28.1% of the patients. Patients with PSD were significantly more dependent with regard to activities of daily living (ADL and displayed more severe physical and cognitive impairment than patients without PSD. A higher prevalence of speech and language dysfunction and apraxia were observed in patients with PSD (36.8 and 34.3%, respectively compared to non-depressed stroke patients (19.6 and 12.4%; p = 0.036 and p = 0.004, respectively. Applying multiple linear regressions, cognitive impairment and reduced mobility as part of the Stroke Impact Scale were independently associated with PSD, as scored using CSD and

  13. Cognitive Decline and Its Risk Factors in Prevalent Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, David A; Weiner, Daniel E; Tighiouart, Hocine; Duncan, Sarah; Gupta, Aditi; Scott, Tammy; Sarnak, Mark J

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in patients treated with hemodialysis. The trajectory of cognitive function and risk factors for cognitive decline remain uncertain in this population. Longitudinal cohort. 314 prevalent hemodialysis patients. Age, sex, race, education level, hemodialysis vintage, cause of end-stage renal disease, and baseline history of cardiovascular disease. Cognitive function as determined by a comprehensive neurocognitive battery, administered at baseline and yearly when possible. Individual cognitive test results were reduced into 2 domain scores using principal components analysis, representing memory and executive function, which were used as our coprimary outcomes and by definition have a mean of zero and SD of 1. Mean age was 63 years; 54% were men, 22% were black, and 90% had at least a high school education. During a median follow-up of 2.1 (IQR, 0.9-4.2) years, 196 had at least 1 follow-up test, 156 died, and 43 received a kidney transplant. Linear mixed models and joint models, which accounted for competing risks from death, dropout, or kidney transplantation, showed nearly identical results. The joint model demonstrated a decline in executive function (-0.09 [95% CI, -0.13 to -0.05] SD per year), whereas memory improved slightly (0.05 [95% CI, 0.02 to 0.08] SD per year). A significant yearly decline was also seen in the Mini-Mental State Examination score (median change, -0.41; 95% CI, -0.57 to -0.25). Older age was the only significant risk factor for steeper executive function decline (-0.04 [95% CI, -0.06 to -0.02] SD steeper annual decline for each 10 years of age). Prevalent hemodialysis patients only, limited follow-up testing due to high mortality rate, and exclusion of participants with severe cognitive deficits or dementia. Prevalent hemodialysis patients demonstrate significant cognitive decline, particularly within tests of executive function. Older age was the only statistically significant risk factor for steeper

  14. Co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in adolescents: Prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Silva Dias de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To examine the prevalence of the behavioral risk factors – both isolated and clustered – for chronic diseases, among adolescents. Additionally, its association with various social and demographic variables was estimated. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 1,039 high school students, from public and private schools, elected for convenience, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, as well as crude and adjusted ordinal logistic regression were used to assess the association between the variables. Results The most frequently observed risk factors were sedentary behavior (68.8%, alcohol consumption (36.8%, and overweight (26.8%. The clustering of risk factors was observed in 67.5% of the students. Being a girl (OR=1.28; 95%CI=1.01–1.63, Caucasian (OR=1.35; 95%CI=1.06–1.72 or private school student (OR=1.46; 95%CI=1.12–1.88 increased the chance of the clustering of risk factors. The co-occurrence of risk factors was predominantly observed in the case of smoking (OR=4.94; 95%CI=1.46–16.75, alcohol consumption (OR=1.43; 95%CI=1.09–1.88, high consumption of ultra-processed foods (OR=1.57; 95%CI=1.19–2.07, and sedentary behavior (OR=1.40; 95%CI=1.07–1.82. Conclusion The co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors was observed to be higher among girls, Caucasian adolescents, and private school students, as well as, among smokers, alcohol users and adolescents with sedentary habits and a high consumption of ultra-processed foods.

  15. Self-reported prevalence and risk factors associated with food hypersensitivity in Mexican young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente-Fernández, Cecilia; Maya-Hernández, Rosalba L; Flores-Merino, Miriam V; Romero-Figueroa, María Del Socorro; Bedolla-Barajas, Martín; Domínguez García, Ma Victoria

    2016-06-01

    Food hypersensitivity (FH) is defined as any unfavorable reaction after the ingestion, contact, or inhalation of a food. Few FH prevalence studies have been performed in the Mexican adult population. To determine the prevalence of self-reported FH and probable food allergy (FA) among a sample of Mexican young adults and to determine the most commonly involved foods, associated symptoms, and risk factors. We designed an observational, cross-sectional study in which 1,253 young adults (aged 18-25 years) born in the State of Mexico answered a questionnaire concerning FH. We obtained information on personal and familial histories of allergic diseases, the involved foods, and the subsequent adverse reactions to their consumption. The prevalence of FH was 30.1% and was significantly higher in women than in men (P vegetables (10.0%), and fruits (8.0%). The food groups most associated with FA were fruits (3.0%) and seafood (1.8%). Female sex, personal history of allergic diseases, maternal history of atopic dermatitis, and parental history of urticaria were significantly associated (P < .05) with the presence of FH. FH in young adults might be more common than previously thought, especially in women. However, further studies are needed to confirm this situation in the Mexican population. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Intestinal Parasites in Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Nasrin; Razmjou, Elham; Hashemi-Hafshejani, Saeideh; Motevalian, Abbas; Akhlaghi, Lameh; Meamar, Ahmad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections and health problems worldwide. Due to the lack of epidemiologic information of such infections, the prevalence of, and the risk factors for, enteric parasites were investigated in residents of Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 561 triple fecal samples were collected through a two-stage cluster-sampling protocol from Jun to Dec 2014. The samples were examined by formalin-ether concentration, culture, and with molecular methods. The prevalence of enteric parasites was 32.7% (95% CI 27.3-38). Blastocystis sp. was the most common intestinal protozoan (28.4%; 95% CI 23.7-33.0). The formalin-ether concentration and culture methods detected Blastocystis sp., Entamoeba coli , Giardia intestinalis , Dientamoeba fragilis , Iodamoeba butschlii , Entamoeba complex cysts or trophozoite , Chilomastix mesnilii , and Enterobius vermicularis . Single-round PCR assay for Entamoeba complex were identified Entamoeba dispar and E. moshkovskii . E. histolytica was not observed in any specimen. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association of parasites with water source and close animal contact. There was no correlation between infections and gender, age, occupation, education, or travel history. Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections. This study revealed a high prevalence of enteric protozoan parasite infection among citizens of Rodehen. As most of the species detected are transmitted through a water-resistant cyst, public and individual education on personal hygiene should be considered to reduce transmission of intestinal parasites in the population.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of food insecurity among a cohort of older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J; Flood, V; Yeatman, H; Mitchell, P

    2014-01-01

    With ongoing national concern about food security, the aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of food insecurity and to identify associated characteristics in a cohort of older Australians. The Blue Mountains Eye Study is a cohort study of community living participants aged 49 + years. The 12-item food security survey was completed by 3068 participants in the cross sectional study which comprised 2335 survivors from baseline and the recruitment of an additional 1174 eligible residents. Prevalence of self reported food insecurity was calculated and multivariate logistic regression provided odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals to determine risk factors. Overall prevalence of food insecurity was 13%. Women (15.7%) compared with men (9.4%) and younger participants, aged food insecure. Characteristics for reporting food insecurity included participants living in rented accommodation (OR 4.10, 95% CI: 2.83, 5.89) and those living on a pension only (OR 1.90, 95%CI: 1.30, 2.78). A relatively high level of food insecurity among this representative population of older Australians should be an issue of concern for policy makers and health and welfare service providers. Addressing food insecurity should be a priority of integrated national food and nutrition policies and this should in turn inform health and welfare service provision to this vulnerable population.

  18. Population prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors: what electronic medical records tell us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Ramos, Arantxa; Verdú, Jose M; Grau, María; Iglesias-Rodal, Manuel; del Val García, José L; Consola, Alicia; Comin, Eva

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence, control, and management of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Cross-sectional analysis of all individuals attended in the Catalan primary care centers between 2006 and 2009. History of cardiovascular diseases, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, DM2, lipid profile, glycemia and blood pressure data were extracted from electronic medical records. Age-standardized prevalence and levels of management and control were estimated. Individuals aged 35-74 years using primary care databases. A total of 2,174,515 individuals were included (mean age 52 years [SD 11], 47% men). Hypertension was the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factor (39% in women, 41% in men) followed by hypercholesterolemia (38% and 40%) and DM2 (12% and 16%), respectively. Diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were most often prescribed for hypertension control (women treated). Hypercholesterolemia was controlled (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol women with no history of cardiovascular disease, despite lipid-lowering treatment, primarily (90%) with statins. The percentage of women and men with DM2 and with glycated hemoglobin DM2 were adequately controlled; hypercholesterolemia control was particularly low. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of borderline personality disorder and its risk factors in female prison inmates in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Min; Zhou, Jian-Song; Chen, Chen; Peng, Wang-Lian; Li, Wen; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-04-01

    High prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been found in Western prisons but no such data exists in China. The objective of this study was to determine the lifetime prevalence of BPD in Chinese female prison inmates and its associated risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Hunan Provincial Female Prison. Data on consenting inmates' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were collected and the diagnosis of lifetime BPD was established using the Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. The prevalence of BPD was 10.6% in the cohort of 2709 participating inmates. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that younger age, unmarried marital status, higher education level, fewer major medical conditions, more frequent personal and family members' drug use, more frequent comorbid psychiatric disorders and family history of psychiatric disorders were positively and independently associated with BPD. BPD is common in Chinese female prison inmates. Considering its adverse social consequences and impact on physical and mental well-being, serious attempts should be made to diagnose BPD early and improve access to treatment in women prisons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of Helicobacter pylori infection in Chinese maritime workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongmei; Shao, Jing; Wang, Ligang; Zheng, Huichun; Xu, Yan; Song, Guirong; Liu, Qigui

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is very common worldwide. To evaluate the prevalence and identify the risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection in Chinese maritime workers. Between March 2010 and October 2010, 3995 subjects were selected in the Hospital of Dalian Port. The presence of Helicobacter pylori infection was confirmed using laboratory tests (serum IgG anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies) and background information, family history, lifestyle and eating habits were collected using questionnaires. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was 44.9% in these Chinese maritime workers. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was associated with family income, living space, family history of gastrointestinal diseases, smoking, drinking tea, raw vegetables consumption, spicy food, pickle food, dining outside, no regular meal and dish sharing. Further analysis with multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that raw vegetables consumption, pickle food consumption, family income and family history of gastrointestinal diseases were independent predictors for Helicobacter pylori infection. No association was found between infection and gender, marital status, education, alcohol consumption and tap water consumption. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with raw vegetables consumption, pickle food consumption, family income and family history of gastrointestinal disease among Chinese maritime workers.

  1. Urban-Rural Differences in the Prevalence of Self-Reported Diabetes and its Risk Factors: The WHO STEPS Iranian Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factor Surveillance in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khorrami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of diabetes in Iran and other developing countries is chiefly attributed to urbanization. The objectives of the present study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported diabetes and to determine its associated risk factors. This study is a part of the national noncommunicable disease risk factor surveillance, conducted in 31 provinces of Iran in 2011. First, 10069 individuals, between 20 and 70 years old (3036 individuals from rural and 7033 from urban areas, were recruited. The major risk factors were studied using a modified WHO STEPS approach. Diabetes was considered based on self-reported diabetes. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was 10% overall. The prevalence in the rural and urban settings was 7.4% and 11.1%, respectively. Moderate physical activity (OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.29–0.71 and family history of diabetesOR=6.53, 95% CI=4.29–9.93 were the most important risk factors among the rural residents and systolic blood pressure (OR=1.01, 95% CI=1–1.02, waist circumference (OR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01–1.03, and overweight (OR=1.36, 95% CI= 1–1.84 were significantly associated with self-reported diabetes in the urban residents. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes in the urban setting was higher than that in the rural setting. Physical inactivity, abdominal obesity, and high blood pressure were the most important risk factors associated with self-reported diabetes in Iran.

  2. Prevalence of health risk behaviors and their associated factors among university students in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M

    2014-01-01

    With the advancements in knowledge about health promotion, public health professionals have been seeking determinants of personal health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of health risk behaviors and its associated factors in a sample of Kyrgyz university students. In a cross-sectional survey, health risk behaviors among a sample of randomly selected university students were assessed. The sample included 837 university students from health sciences undergraduate courses of the State Medical Academy in Kyrgyzstan. The students were 358 (42.8%) males and 479 (57.2%) females in the age range of 18-29 years (Median age=21.3 years, SD=1.5). On average, students engaged in 9.4 (SD=2.3) out of 23 health risk behavior practices (range, 3-18). Generally, there was a high rate of insufficient fruit and vegetable intake (86.4%), eating red meat at least once a day (62%), usually adding salt to meals (78.3%), skipping breakfast (50.5%), current tobacco use (49.7%) and two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months (46.1%) among men, and never using a condom with a primary partner in the past 3 months (90.9%) among women. Furthermore, 60.8% of the women were physically inactive. In bivariate analysis among men, the lack of perceived benefits was associated with health risk behavior. In multivariate analysis among women, poorer family background, being Russian, high personal constraints or stress, and better subjective health were associated with the health risk behavior index. Students had a high proportion of health risk behavior practices. Several high health risk practices were identified, including poor dietary behavior, physical inactivity, sexual risk behavior, and tobacco use. Gender specific predictors identified included sociodemographic characteristics and social and health variables, which can be utilized in health promotion programs.

  3. Urinary tract infections in Romanian patients with diabetes: prevalence, etiology, and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiţă T

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teodora Chiţă,1,2 Bogdan Timar,1,2 Delia Muntean,1,2 Luminiţa Bădiţoiu,1,3 Florin Horhat,1,2 Elena Hogea,1 Roxana Moldovan,1,3 Romulus Timar,1,2 Monica Licker1,2 1Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara, 2Pius Brinzeu Emergency Hospital, 3Regional Centre of Public Health, Timisoara, Romania Aim: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM have an increased risk of infections, especially urinary tract infections (UTIs. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and etiology of UTIs and identify the risk factors for their development in patients with DM. Patients and methods: In this retrospective, noninterventional study, the medical records of 2,465 adult patients with DM who were hospitalized in a Diabetes Clinic were reviewed. Data regarding the presence of UTI and possible associated risk factors were collected and their possible relation was analyzed. The study protocol and procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee of Timişoara Emergency Hospital. All data were collected and analyzed using SPSS v.17 statistical software. Results: The prevalence of UTIs in patients with DM was 12.0% (297 cases, being higher in females than in males and higher in patients with type 2 DM compared with patients with type 1 DM. In univariate logistic regression analysis, risk factors associated with UTIs were female gender, age, type 2 DM, longer duration of DM, and the presence of chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease. Multivariate analysis identified age, duration of DM, and metabolic control (hemoglobin A1c levels as independent risk factors for UTIs. The gram-negative bacilli from the Enterobacteriaceae family were predominant, with Escherichia coli being the most frequent of them (70.4%. Conclusion: UTIs are a frequent condition associated with DM. It is necessary to improve the care and the screening of UTIs in patients with DM to prevent the occurrence of possible associated severe renal complications

  4. Prevalência de obesidade em adultos e seus fatores de risco Prevalence and risk factors of obesity in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise P. Gigante

    1997-06-01

    was defined as a Body Mass Index - BMI - equal to or over 30 Kg/square meter. The multivariate analyses took into account the hierarchical model of the variables associated with obesity for both men and women. RESULTS: The prevalence for the overall population was of 21% (CI 18 - 23. It was higher among women - 25% (CI 22 - 29 than for men - 15% (CI 12 - 18. Socioeconomic status was positively associated with obesity among men, whereas the opposite situation was reported for women, with those belonging to the poorest social strata presenting increased BMI. Reported obesity in their parents was associated with increased BMI in the subjects, and this association remained statistically significant even after compensating for the effect of possible confounding variables. Self-reported diabetes and arterial hypertension doubled the risk of obesity, whereas non-smoking was associated with obesity only among women. Variables which were not associated with obesity after adjusting for confounders were alcohol consumption, marital status and parity. Women having more daily meals were less prone to obesity, even after controlling for confounders, and this association was not quite significant for men (p = 0.07. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of obesity was higher among women, and important differences in risk factors were noticed when the population was considered by sex.

  5. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF OBESITY IN PRIMARY SCHOOL IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ratna Dewi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Obesity has become a continous increasing global health problem. Obesity can happen in adult population and also on children as well as teenagers. There are several factors that influence the occurrence of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors for obesity in primary school children in urban and rural areas. A cross sectional study was conducted with a total sample of 241 pupils in several elementary schools. Anthropometric status determine using body mass index for age and obesity stated if measurement exceed ?95th percentile based on CDC 2000. Analysis data perform with the Pearson Chi-square, Fisher's Exact Test, and logistic regression. A P value of <0.05 was considered significant. This study showed the prevalence of obesity was 15%. The prevalence of obesity in urban areas was 21% and rural areas was 5%. The result showed risk of obesity multiplied by 3.8 times in urban children as they had a habit of "snacking" had risk of suffering obesity by 3.4 times (95% CI 1.2 to 9.0. Children who had habit of having fast food more than 2 times per week had the more risk of obesity by 5 times (95% CI 1.9 to 13.5. Mothers education in urban areas as a protective factor. Conclusion of this study show that the prevalence of obesity in urban areas is 21% and 5% in rural areas. “Snacking” habit and eating fast food more than 2 times per week increase the risk of obesity in urban areas, while in rural areas no risk factors consider significant for obesity. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of violence among elementary school children in Cairo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ez-Elarab, Hanan S; Sabbour, Sahar M; Gadallah, Mohsen A; Asaad, Tarek A

    2007-01-01

    School violence is a growing problem that has received widespread attention. Violent behavior for elementary school children is primarily expressed as physical or verbal aggression. Various factors contribute to violent and aggression by children at homes, schools or individual risk factors. The aim of the present study is to measure the prevalence of violence, risk factors, and different forms among elementary school children, to identify consequence of violent exposure and children with abnormal behavior score. A cross-sectional study was done enrolling a total of 500 elementary students from two mixed schools (private and public) 250 from each in North Cairo Educational Zone. Data collected from students, parents and teachers were: violence behavior, home and family atmosphere, peer relation, exposure to violence at school; being victimized, witness, or initiator, and other risk factors. Standardized questionnaires were used as Achenback Child Behavior checklist, parent and teacher forms of Strength and Difficulty questionnaires (SDQ), and developmental history of child. Monthly grades of students, IQ assessment, physical examination of students were recorded. Prevalence of different forms of violence was higher in public school than private; physical violence 76%, 62% respectively. All forms of violence were higher among boys. Living with a single parent (OR = 2.3), absence of an attachment figure (OR = 13.6), instrumental delivery or cesarean section (OR = 1.9), corporal punishment (OR = 3), violent video games preference (OR = 2.5), exposure to verbal aggression (OR = 3), relations with aggressive peers (OR = 3) were risk factors for violence. Teacher's report of SDQ revealed abnormal score of student's behavior in (32.4%) and (22%) students of public and private schools respectively. The most frequent problems revealed by SDQ among victimized students of both schools was conduct problems (64.7%) in teacher's report and peer relation problems 93.6% in parent

  7. The prevalence and risk factors for occupational voice disorders in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinska-Kowalska, M; Niebudek-Bogusz, E; Fiszer, M; Los-Spychalska, T; Kotylo, P; Sznurowska-Przygocka, B; Modrzewska, M

    2006-01-01

    Occupational voice disorders in Poland account for over 25% of all occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of voice problems in the general population of Polish teachers, and identify risk factors for developing voice pathology. The study group comprised 425 female full-time teachers (most of them primary and secondary school, age ranging from 23 to 61 years) and 83 non-teacher women (control) whose jobs did not involve vocal effort, matched for age to the study group. All participants were subjected to a survey using an extensive questionnaire, and to laryngological, phoniatric and videostroboscopic examinations. The overall lifetime vocal symptoms were more frequent in the teachers than in the non-teachers (69 vs. 36%), and in particular it related to permanent and recurrent hoarseness, and dryness in the throat. Mean number of the voice symptoms was 3.21 in teachers and 1.98 in controls (p teachers. Mean maximum phonation time was shorter in teachers than in the controls (14.3 vs. 15.9 s, p dysphonia (that is thought to predispose to such pathology) were found in 32.7% of teachers and 9.6% of control subjects. The probability of developing incomplete glottal closure (odds ratio 13.2x; 95% CI: 1.8-96.8) and hyperfunctional dysphonia (odds ratio 2.7; 95% CI: 1.14-6.44) were significantly higher in the teacher group versus non-teachers. A significant positive relationship was found in teachers between the prevalence of hyperfunctional dysphonia and strained phonation, neck muscle hypertension, instability of voice, self-assessed hyper-arousal, and lifetime vocal effort index (years of employment as a teacher x hours of professional activity/week). The prevalence of vocal nodules and incomplete glottal closure were correlated with incorrect phonation technique parameters, but not with psychological factors. No correlation was found with environmental variables, such as classroom temperature, humidity, airborne dust. The prevalence of

  8. Urinary incontinence in bitches under primary veterinary care in England: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D G; Riddell, A; Church, D B; Owen, L; Brodbelt, D C; Hall, J L

    2017-12-01

    To estimate prevalence and demographic risk factors for urinary incontinence in bitches under primary veterinary care in England. The study population included all bitches within the VetCompass database from September 1, 2009 to July 7, 2013. Electronic patient records were searched for urinary incontinence cases and additional demographic and clinical information was extracted. Of 100,397 bitches attending 119 clinics in England, an estimated 3108 were diagnosed with urinary incontinence. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 3·14% (95% confidence intervals: 2·97 to 3·33). Medical therapy was prescribed to 45·6% cases. Predisposed breeds included the Irish setter (odds ratio: 8·09; 95% confidence intervals: 3·15 to 20·80; Prisk breeds including the Irish setter, Dobermann, bearded collie, rough collie and Dalmatian. These results provide an evidence base for clinicians to enhance clinical recommendations on neutering and weight control, especially in high-risk breeds. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  9. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lazou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece. Faecal specimens were collected from 181 dogs and 132 cats. Culture methods were applied to detect Campylobacter spp. and a multiplex PCR assay to identify the isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 3.8% in dogs and 12.1% in cats. The most frequently identified Campylobacter species in dogs was C. jejuni (57.1% followed by C. coli (42.9%. All feline isolates were identified as C. jejuni apart from one isolate that was characterised as Campylobacter-like organism. Gender, age, breed, life style, diarrhoea and type of diet of dogs and cats did not significantly correlate (P>0.05 with Campylobacter isolation. Possible predictors regarding Campylobacter presence in dogs and cats were assessed by binary logistic regression. A tendency towards higher risk for Campylobacter contamination was observed in dogs consuming a homemade diet and in outdoor cats. Disk diffusion method revealed that all Campylobacter isolates exhibited susceptibility to erythromycin, gentamicin and streptomycin. Contrariwise, 66.7% of canine isolates were resistant concurrently to tetracycline and quinolones and 59.0%, 13.6% and 4.5% of feline isolates were resistant to quinolones, quinolones along with tetracycline and tetracycline alone, respectively

  10. Sexual assault incidents among college undergraduates: Prevalence and factors associated with risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude A Mellins

    Full Text Available Sexual assault on college campuses is a public health issue. However varying research methodologies (e.g., different sexual assault definitions, measures, assessment timeframes and low response rates hamper efforts to define the scope of the problem. To illuminate the complexity of campus sexual assault, we collected survey data from a large population-based random sample of undergraduate students from Columbia University and Barnard College in New York City, using evidence based methods to maximize response rates and sample representativeness, and behaviorally specific measures of sexual assault to accurately capture victimization rates. This paper focuses on student experiences of different types of sexual assault victimization, as well as sociodemographic, social, and risk environment correlates. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and logistic regression were used to estimate prevalences and test associations. Since college entry, 22% of students reported experiencing at least one incident of sexual assault (defined as sexualized touching, attempted penetration [oral, anal, vaginal, other], or completed penetration. Women and gender nonconforming students reported the highest rates (28% and 38%, respectively, although men also reported sexual assault (12.5%. Across types of assault and gender groups, incapacitation due to alcohol and drug use and/or other factors was the perpetration method reported most frequently (> 50%; physical force (particularly for completed penetration in women and verbal coercion were also commonly reported. Factors associated with increased risk for sexual assault included non-heterosexual identity, difficulty paying for basic necessities, fraternity/sorority membership, participation in more casual sexual encounters ("hook ups" vs. exclusive/monogamous or no sexual relationships, binge drinking, and experiencing sexual assault before college. High rates of re-victimization during college were reported across

  11. The prevalence of fatigue and associated health and safety risk factors among taxi drivers in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, See Ming; Chia, Sin Eng

    2015-02-01

    Driver fatigue is one of the biggest health and safety concerns within the road transport sector. This study aimed to find out the prevalence of fatigue among taxi drivers in Singapore, to better understand the general working and health conditions of this group of people and to determine the risk factors associated with fatigued driving. A total of 340 taxi drivers were randomly selected for participation in this self-administered questionnaire survey, with height and weight measurements. The response rate was 68.2%. The survey consisted of four main categories: personal particulars; social habits; work patterns and sleep profile; and Epworth Sleepiness Scale, which was used to estimate the level of daytime sleepiness and fatigue. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with the risk factors related to fatigue among the taxi drivers. A high proportion of the taxi drivers were obese and had self-reported hypertension, diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol. Driver fatigue was associated with very poor/poor self-rating of the quality of sleep, having an additional part-time job, drinking three or more caffeinated drinks daily, and driving more than 10 hours a day. We hope that the findings of the present study will improve the awareness regarding the work and health conditions of taxi drivers, and contribute toward the effort to achieve a healthier workforce. A lower prevalence of fatigued driving will lead to lower risks of road traffic accidents, decreased economic loss, increased productivity, and safer roads for all.

  12. Epidemiology of eating disorders in Europe: prevalence, incidence, comorbidity, course, consequences, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Mustelin, Linda

    2016-11-01

    Eating disorders - anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder - affect numerous Europeans. This narrative review summarizes European studies on their prevalence, incidence, comorbidity, course, consequences, and risk factors published in 2015 and the first half of 2016. Anorexia nervosa is reported by eating disorder eating disorders by 2-3% of women in Europe. Of men, 0.3-0.7% report eating disorders. Incidences of anorexia appear stable, whereas bulimia may be declining. Although the numbers of individuals receiving treatment have increased, only about one-third is detected by healthcare. Over 70% of individuals with eating disorders report comorbid disorders: anxiety disorders (>50%), mood disorders (>40%), self-harm (>20%), and substance use (>10%) are common. The long-term course of anorexia nervosa is favorable for most, but a substantial minority of eating disorder patients experience longstanding symptoms and somatic problems. The risk of suicide is elevated. Parental psychiatric disorders, prenatal maternal stress, various family factors, childhood overweight, and body dissatisfaction in adolescence increase the risk of eating disorders. Eating disorders are relatively common disorders that are often overlooked, although they are associated with high comorbidity and serious health consequences.

  13. Malaria in Hadhramout, a southeast province of Yemen: prevalence, risk factors, knowledge, attitude and practices (KAPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaga, Omar A A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Mahmud, Rohela; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2014-07-29

    Yemen is a Mediterranean country where 65% of its population is at risk of malaria, with 43% at high risk. Yemen is still in the control phase without sustainable reduction in the proportion of malaria cases. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out in different districts in the southeast of the country to determine malaria prevalence and identify factors that impede progress of the elimination phase. Blood specimens were collected from 735 individuals aged 1-66 years. Plasmodium species were detected and identified by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears. A household-based questionnaire was used to collect demographic, socioeconomic and environmental data. The overall prevalence of malaria was 18.8% with Plasmodium falciparum as the predominant species (99.3%), with a low rate of Plasmodium vivax detected (0.7%). The infection rate was higher in Al-Raydah and Qusyer districts (21.8%) compared to Hajer district (11.8%). Fifty-two percent of the persons positive for Plasmodium were asymptomatic with low parasite density. The adults had a higher infection rate as compared to children. Univariate analysis identified those whose household's head are fishermen (OR = 11.3, 95% CI: 3.13-40.5) and farmers (OR = 4.84, 95% CI: 1.73-13.6) as high-risk groups. A higher number of positive smears were observed in people living in houses with uncemented brick walls (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.32-3.30), without access to toilets (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.05-2.32), without a fridge (OR = 1. 6, 95% CI: 1.05-2.30), or without TV (OR = 1. 6, (95% CI: 1.05-2.30). People living in houses with water collection points located less than 200 meters away were also at higher risk of acquiring malaria (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.05-2.30). Knowledge about the importance of using insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) for prevention of malaria was 7% and 2%, respectively. Several environmental, socioeconomic

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of coronary heart disease in a rural population of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abu Sayeed

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is a major global health problem with the majority of burden observed increasingly in the developing countries. There has been no estimate of CHD in Bangladesh. This study addresses the prevalence of CHD in a Bangladeshi rural population which also aimed to determine the risk factors related to CHD. Ten villages of Nandail sub-district under Mymensingh were selected purposively. All subjects of age ³20y were considered eligible and were interviewed about family income, family history of T2DM, CHD and HTN. The investigations included height, weight, waist-girth, hip-girth, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP & DBP, fasting blood glucose (FBG, triglycerides (TG, cholesterol (Chol and high density lipoprotein (HDL. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR were also estimated. Finally, electrocardiography (ECG was undertaken in all participants who had family history of diabetes or hypertension or CHD. Diagnosis of CHD was based on history of angina or changes in ECG or diagnosed by a cardiologist. A total of 6235 subjects were enlisted as eligible (age ³20y participants. Of them, 4141 (m / f: 1749 / 2392 subjects volunteered for the study. The age-adjusted (20-69y prevalence of CHD was 1.85 with 95% CI, 1.42 – 2.28. There was no significant difference between men and women. The mean (SD values of age (p<0.001, SBP (p<0.01, DBP (p<0.05, HbA1c (p<0.05 and ACR (p<0.01 were significantly higher among subjects with CHD than those without; whereas, there were no significant differences in BMI and WHR, TG, Chol and HDL. Logistic regression analysis showed that adjusted for age, sex, social class and obesity, the subjects with higher age (³45y, higher 2hBG (³7.0mmol/l, higher ACR (³17.2 and family history of CHD had significant risk for CHD. The prevalence of CHD is comparable with other Asian population. Family history of CHD and age over 45 years, and who had hyperglycemia and higher ACR were

  15. Translation of risk factor estimates into on-farm interventions and their effect on Campylobacter broiler flock prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Nauta, Maarten; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Before deciding upon interventions to control Campylobacter in broiler flocks, it would be useful to estimate the potential effects of different interventions. Certain previously identified risk factors for colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter may seem to have large impact...... on the broiler flock prevalence. Nevertheless, interventions related to these risk factors may have only limited effect on the overall prevalence estimate, since in practice only a relatively small fraction of farms are actually amenable for an intervention related to a given risk factor.We present a novel...... had shown to have significant impact on Campylobacter flock prevalence, were translated into practical on-farm interventions. Given the implementation of these interventions the population prevalence was predicted by developing and using a statistical method anchored in the ideas behind standardized...

  16. Identification of medication discrepancies during hospital admission in Jordan: Prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Salameh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Medication errors are considered among the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Among these errors are discrepancies identified during transfer of patients from one care unit to another, from one physician care to another, or upon patient discharge. Thus, the aims of this study were to identify the prevalence and types of medication discrepancies at the time of hospital admission to a tertiary care teaching hospital in Jordan and to identify risk factors affecting the occurrence of these discrepancies. Methods: A three months prospective observational study was conducted at the department of internal medicine at Jordan university hospital. During the study period, 200 patients were selected using convenience sampling, and a pre-prepared data collection form was u