WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevalent public health

  1. Prevalence of Obesity: A Public Health Problem Poorly Understood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A. Nicklas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA in support of a total diet approach to achieving diet and health goals, especially as they relate to the obesity epidemic. However, some scientists and organizations have identified one food, food group, or nutrient as the cause of the obesity epidemic and recommend that simply reducing that food/food group/nutrient will solve the problem. This is simplistic and unlikely to be effective in long term management of the obesity problem. This article also acknowledges discrepancies in the literature and the lack of consensus opinions from systematic reviews. Failure to consider the evidence as a whole can lead to inaccurate reports which may, in turn, adversely influence clinical practice, public policy, and future research. This article also considers where the line should be drawn between individual choice and responsibility and public regulation. Using sugar sweetened beverages as an example, the article considers the lack of a consistent association between added sugars and weight in the literature and calls for policy recommendations that are based on science and emphasizes the need for evidence-based policies rather than policy-based evidence.

  2. The Future Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Europe: A Claim for Public Health Action.

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    Ethgen, O; Beaudart, C; Buckinx, F; Bruyère, O; Reginster, J Y

    2017-03-01

    Sarcopenia is a major public health issue. To convince health policy makers of the emergency to invest in the sarcopenia field, it is of critical importance to produce reliable figures of the expected burden of sarcopenia in the coming years. Age- and gender-specific population projections were retrieved until 2045 from the Eurostat online database (28 European countries). Age- and gender-specific prevalences of sarcopenia were interpolated from a study that compared prevalence estimates according to the different diagnostic cutoffs of the EWGSOP proposed definition. The reported prevalence estimates were interpolated between 65 and 100 years. Interpolated age- and gender-specific estimates of sarcopenia prevalence were then applied to population projections until 2045. Using the definition providing the lowest prevalence estimates, the number of individuals with sarcopenia would rise in Europe from 10,869,527 in 2016 to 18,735,173 in 2045 (a 72.4% increase). This corresponds to an overall prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly rising from 11.1% in 2016 to 12.9% in 2045. With the definition providing the highest prevalence estimates, the number of individuals with sarcopenia would rise from 19,740,527 in 2016 to 32,338,990 in 2045 (a 63.8% increase), corresponding to overall prevalence rates in the elderly of 20.2% and 22.3% for 2016 and 2045, respectively. We showed that the number of sarcopenic patients will dramatically increase in the next 30 years, making consequences of muscle wasting a major public health issue.

  3. Prevalence of burnout among public health nurses in charge of mental health services and emergency care systems in Japan.

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    Imai, Hirohisa; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Nakagi, Yoshihiko; Niwata, Satoko; Sugioka, Yoshihiko; Itoh, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Takahiko

    2006-11-01

    The Community Health Act came into effect in 1997 in Japan. This act altered the work system for public health nurses (PHNs) in public health centers (PHCs) nationwide from region-specific to service-specific work. Such major changes to working environment in the new system seem to be exposing PHNs to various types of stress. The present study examined whether prevalence of burnout is higher among PHNs in charge of mental health services (psychiatric PHNs) than among PHNs in charge of other services (non-psychiatric PHNs), and whether attributes of emergency mental health care systems in communities are associated with increased prevalence of burnout. A questionnaire including the Pines burnout scale for measuring burnout was mailed to 525 psychiatric PHNs and 525 non-psychiatric PHNs. The 785 respondents included in the final analysis comprised 396 psychiatric PHNs and 389 non-psychiatric PHNs. Prevalence of burnout was significantly higher for psychiatric PHNs (59.2%) than for non-psychiatric PHNs (51.5%). When prevalence of burnout in each group was analyzed in relation to question responses regarding emergency service and patient referral systems, prevalence of burnout for psychiatric PHNs displayed significant correlations to frequency of cases requiring overtime emergency services, difficulties referring patients, and a feeling of "restriction". Prevalence of burnout is high among psychiatric PHNs, and inadequate emergency mental health service systems contribute to burnout among these nurses. Countermeasures for preventing such burnout should be taken as soon as possible.

  4. Prevalence and control of zoonotic diseases: collaboration between public health workers and veterinarians in Burkina Faso.

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    Coulibaly, N D; Yameogo, K R

    2000-07-21

    Zoonotic diseases constitute a public health problem throughout the world, particularly in the tropics, where their control is restricted by inadequate infrastructure and financial resources. Additionally, there is a lack of information on their significance and distribution. This study, conducted jointly by the Ministries of Health and Animal Resources, aimed to assess the prevalence of zoonotic diseases in Burkina Faso. The data were taken from internal reports of each ministry covering the period January 1-December 31 1996 for the Ministry of Health and for January 1-December 31 1997 for the Ministry of Animal Resources. Zoonotic diseases were divided into viral (rabies, yellow fever, HIV infection/AIDS, and measles), bacterial (tuberculosis, brucellosis, and anthrax) and parasitic (cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, and leishmaniasis). For the period under study, the following diseases were reported by the Ministry of Health, tuberculosis, 1314 cases; anthrax, 145 cases; leishmania, 271 cases; rabies, 110 cases; and measles, 46490 cases. The Ministry of Animal Resources reported 69% of rabies cases occurred in dogs; cysticercosis occurred in swine at a prevalence of 0.57%; the prevalence of tuberculosis in cattle, small ruminants and pigs was 0. 13, 0.013, and 0.029%, respectively; the prevalence of anthrax and echinococcosis was 0.012 and 0.007%, respectively; and finally, the prevalence of bovine brucellosis was 8% in the peri-urban areas. This study revealed that there was a lack of collaboration between the organisational structures and workers in both ministries involved in the control of zoonoses. Links between the two ministries in the field of public health need strengthening.

  5. Prevalence of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Chhana Based Indian Sweets in Relation to Public Health.

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    Maity, T K; Kumar, Rakesh; Misra, A K

    2010-10-01

    Chhana based milk products viz. rossogolla, kanchagolla,narampak sandesh and karapak sandesh are very popular in eastern part of India and gaining popularity in other parts of the country. A wide variation in manufacture method, microbial quality and shelf-life of these traditional milk products were observed by previous research. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of contamination of chhana based milk products available in Kolkata city with Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) serogroups. Random samples of different chhana based milk products were collected from different parts of Kolkata city in aseptic condition, cultured in selective media and examined for biochemical tests. Among 240 samples, E. coli was isolated from 67 (27.91%) of them. Potential EPEC was present in 52 samples (21.66%) and 55 of the isolates were EPEC. Eleven serogroups were identified viz. O26, O55, O111, O119, O114, O125, O142, O86, O126, O127, O128. Among all these serogroups, O55 (23.66%) was the most prevalent. Though recent studies on virulence factors indicate that not all strains serologically classified as EPEC are able to attaching/effacing lesion, it is believed that the isolation of EPEC serogroups from chhana based milk products represent a potential risk for public health particularly children, as well as an indicative of the presence of other enteropathogens. Considering the public health importance of sweetmeat consumers, the product should be prepared hygienically reducing the microbial load present in it. The result indicates that strict preventive measures should be adopted to ensure contamination free sweetmeats for the safety of the consumers.

  6. High prevalence of workplace violence among nurses working at public health facilities in Southern Ethiopia.

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    Fute, Mathewos; Mengesha, Zelalem Birhanu; Wakgari, Negash; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa

    2015-01-01

    The rising rate of workplace violence in health care facilities has become a major problem for health care providers including nurses. However, evidences are lacking in Ethiopia particularly in the study area. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and associated factors of workplace violence among nurses working at health care facilities in Hawassa City Administration, Southern Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 660 randomly selected nurses working at public health facilities in Hawassa City Administration in April 2014. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were entered using EPI-Info and exported to SPSS for further analysis. Descriptive statistics were done. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the association between different variables and the outcome variable. Odds ratios with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) were computed to determine the presence and strength of the association. In this study, the prevalence of workplace violence was 29.9% [95% CI: 26.5, 33.5)] of which physical violence accounted for 36 (18.22%), verbal abuse for 172 (89.58%) and sexual harassment for 25 (13.02%). Female sex [AOR=2.00, 95% CI: (1.28, 2.39)], short work experience [AOR=8.86, 95% CI: (3.47, 22.64)], age group of 22-25 [AOR=4.17, 95% CI: (2.46, 7.08)], age group of (26-35) [AOR=1.9, 95% CI (1.16, 3.1)], work in emergency [(AOR=4.28, 95% CI: (1.39, 4.34)] and work in the Inpatient Department [(AOR=2.11, 95% CI: (1.98, 2.64)] were the factors positively associated with workplace violence. A significant proportion of nurses faced violence while providing care at in public health facilities. Being female, younger age, short work experience, and assignment in emergency and inpatient departments were positively associated with workplace violence. Policy makers and stakeholders should focus on workplace violence prevention strategies.

  7. Prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms among captive green iguanas and potential public health implications.

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    Burnham, B R; Atchley, D H; DeFusco, R P; Ferris, K E; Zicarelli, J C; Lee, J H; Angulo, F J

    1998-07-01

    To determine prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms among captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Cohort study. 12 captive green iguanas. Iguanas were isolated in an environmental chamber, and fecal samples were collected weekly for 10 consecutive weeks. Samples were incubated aerobically in tetrathionate broth for 18 to 24 hours. Aliquots were then transferred to Hektoen and Salmonella-Shigella agar plates and incubated for an additional 18 to 24 hours. Isolated colonies were subcultured on nutrient agar slants, and Salmonella isolates were serogrouped and serotyped. All 12 iguanas were found to be shedding Salmonella organisms at least once during the study, and multiple serotypes were isolated from 7 of the 12. Salmonella organisms were isolated from 88 of 106 (83%) fecal samples; 21 samples contained multiple Salmonella serotypes. Overall, 11 Salmonella serotypes were identified. In 74 of 100 instances, when a particular Salmonella serotype was isolated from an individual iguana, the same serotype was also isolated from a subsequent fecal sample from that iguana. Results suggested that most iguanas have a stable mixture of Salmonella serotypes in their intestinal tracts and intermittently or continuously shed Salmonella organisms in their feces. Veterinarians should advise their clients on precautions for reducing the risk of acquiring these organisms from their pets. Public health officials trying to determine whether an iguana is the source of a specific Salmonella serotype that caused infection in human patients should submit at least 3 fecal samples collected from the iguana 1 week apart for bacterial culture.

  8. Overweight and Obesity: Prevalence, Consequences, and Causes of a Growing Public Health Problem.

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    Williams, Ellen P; Mesidor, Marie; Winters, Karen; Dubbert, Patricia M; Wyatt, Sharon B

    2015-09-01

    This review considers a variety of perspectives on overweight and obesity (OW/obesity), including measurement and classification; prevalence and changes in prevalence in recent years; genetic, biological, medical, individual, and social correlates of OW/obesity; and treatment approaches. Despite increased attention, OW/obesity is escalating in prevalence worldwide, and the causes are exceedingly complex. A range of innovative studies, including basic research on gut microflora, dietary composition, pharmacologic interventions, and surgical procedures, is generating findings with potential for future prevention and treatment of OW/obesity. Social system changes such as school programs and the awareness of the roles of personal, family, health provider, and cultural experiences related to OW/obesity have also gained traction for vital prevention and treatment efforts over the past decade.

  9. Linguatula serrata (Porocephalida: Linguatulidae) Infection among Client-Owned Dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria: Prevalence and Public Health Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwasina, Oseni Saheed; ThankGod, Onyiche Emmanuel; Augustine, Omonuwa Omojefe; Gimba, Fufa Ido

    2014-01-01

    Pentastomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis endemic to western and central Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and public health implications of Linguatulosis in client-owned dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria. Seven hundred and seventy seven (777) dogs brought for treatment at the hospital were subjected to buccal (sublingual) examination for pentastomiasis. Parameters such as age, sex, and breeds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consider...

  10. Linguatula serrata (Porocephalida: Linguatulidae Infection among Client-Owned Dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria: Prevalence and Public Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oseni Saheed Oluwasina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis endemic to western and central Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and public health implications of Linguatulosis in client-owned dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria. Seven hundred and seventy seven (777 dogs brought for treatment at the hospital were subjected to buccal (sublingual examination for pentastomiasis. Parameters such as age, sex, and breeds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consideration. An overall prevalence of 37.45% was recorded. Of the 477 dogs examined in 2010, 184 were positive representing prevalence of 38.57% and in 2011 107 were positive representing prevalence of 35.67%. The infection was higher in the male than in the female which does not differ significantly (P>0.05. There was no significant difference between sexes (P>0.05. However, significant difference (P<0.05 was observed between breeds and age of dogs examined. Season did not have much influence on the prevalence of Linguatulosis. The high prevalence of Linguatulosis in dogs and other animals found in this study highlights the need of improving preventative measures to reduce the rate of infection, which may pose a hazard to human health.

  11. Prevalence of Toxocara species eggs in soil samples of public health importance in and around Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    N. R. Sudhakar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the possible extent of soil contamination at different public places with Toxocara species eggs. Materials and Methods: A Total of 327 samples of soil were collected and examined from different locations which are of public health importance like public parks, playgrounds, door mat dusts, Sidewalks or road sides, in Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, to establish the prevalence of Toxocara eggs. Samples were also categorised in to sandy type (225 and clay type (102 which were examined by Dunsmore modified technique. Results: 42 samples out of 327 (12.84% were found to be contaminated with the Toxocara spp.eggs and public parks were more contaminated than the other sites we studied. Clay type soil samples were found to be more contaminated than sandy type with a prevalence of 17.64%. Conclusions: The prevalence of this zoonotic parasite in soil has implications for the spread of human disease in these areas. The authors believe that this may constitute a significant health risk, particularly to children. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 87-90

  12. Prevalence, awareness, and management of CKD and cardiovascular risk factors in publicly funded health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J.C.; Troyanov, S.; Mongeau, F.; Fradette, L.; Bouchard, J.; Awadalla, P.; Madore, F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is uncertain how many patients with CKD and cardiovascular risk factors in publicly funded universal health care systems are aware of their disease and how to achieve their treatment targets. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The CARTaGENE study evaluated

  13. Trends in the prevalence of low birth weight in Okinawa, Japan: a public health perspective.

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    Hokama, T; Binns, C

    2009-02-01

    To review the trends in low birth weight (LBW) in Japan and Okinawa and to discuss the public health implications of the trend. The statistical records of Japan and the Okinawa prefecture were reviewed to observe secular trends of LBW incidence rate and other health indicators. Literature researches were undertaken of English and Japanese language publications to complete the review. The LBW rate in Japan declined until the 1970s, reaching a low point for the whole country in 1978-1979 when it was 5.2% (7.2% in Okinawa). In Okinawa the proportion of LBW declined from 8.1% in 1973 to 7.2 in 1978. Since 1980 the LBW rate has steadily increased to its current level of 9.3% in Japan and 10.9% in Okinawa. During this period, the prematurity rate has not increased and other indicators of child health have continued to improve. Japan is unique among developed countries in that the LBW rate has almost doubled in the past three decades and the rate in Okinawa is 20% greater than the mainland. The health costs of this trend include the neonatal care of LBW infants and the increased risk of chronic disease in later life.

  14. Public health

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    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she

  15. Prevalence of depression among successful and unsuccessful students of Public Health and Nursing-Midwifery schools of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2008

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    M.H Baghiani Moghaddam

    2012-02-01

    Conclusion: Public Health and Nursing- Midwifery students in Yazd had a high prevalence of depression. Therefore planning is required to support advisory services to control and prevent depression among students.

  16. Prevalence of self-neglect in the caseloads of public health nurses.

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    Day, Mary Rose; Mulcahy, Helen; Leahy-Warren, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The extent of self-neglect on public health nurses' (PHNs) caseloads in Ireland is unknown. People who self-neglect may be vulnerable or hidden and, as a consequence, difficult to profile. PHNs in Ireland profile their areas to identify the nursing needs of their population. This paper aims to: collate caseloads on self-neglect on the basis of a review of community profile and health need assessments (CPHNA) and identify the geographical and demographic factors within which self-neglect cases were found. A retrospective review of the CPHNA of student PHNs (n=88) was undertaken from 2010 to 2014 in a university in Ireland. In all, 88 community profiles were manually reviewed. A total of 374 self-neglect cases were identified-79 cases were aged between 18-64 years and 295 were over 65 years. The range of self-neglect cases per profiled area was between 0 to 25. The geographic and demographic factors linked to self-neglect across profiles were higher rates of older people, deprivation, disadvantage, and cultural factors. This retrospective review illustrates that self-neglect is a prominent feature in PHN caseloads, which has not been identified previously. Early identification is important to promote the mental health and wellbeing of self-neglecting clients.

  17. High Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Kuwaiti Adults —A Wake-Up Call for Public Health Intervention

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    Sahar Zaghloul

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic development which followed the discovery of oil resources brought about considerable changes in the food habits and lifestyle of the Kuwaiti population. Excessive caloric intake and decreased energy expenditure due to a sedentary lifestyle have led to a rapid increase in obesity, diabetes and other non-communicable chronic diseases in the population. In this paper, we examine the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS among Kuwaiti adults (≥20 years using data from the first national nutrition survey conducted between July 2008 and November 2009. The prevalence of MetS was 37.7% in females and 34.2% in males by NCEP criteria, whereas the values were 40.1% in females and 41.7% in males according to IDF criteria. Prevalence of MetS increased with age and was higher in females than males. The high prevalence of the MetS in Kuwaiti adults warrants urgent public health measures to prevent morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular complications in the future.

  18. Eating disorders as a public health issue: prevalence and attributable impairment of quality of life in an Italian community sample.

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    Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Preti, Antonio; Moro, Maria Francesca; Aguglia, Eugenio; Balestrieri, Matteo; Caraci, Filippo; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Di Sciascio, Guido; Drago, Filippo; Faravelli, Carlo; Hardoy, Maria Carolina; D'Aloja, Ernesto; Cossu, Giulia; Calò, Salvatore; Palumbo, Gabriella; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2014-08-01

    The prevalence of eating disorders (ED) in the community is still under debate, as well as the measure of their impact on the well-being of individuals. It was decided to evaluate the prevalence of eating disorders in an Italian community sample as well as to measure the burden of the quality of life of people and to compare it to those attributable to other chronic illnesses. A community survey of 4,999 people using a questionnaire on health services utilization, the Advanced Neuropsychiatric Tools and Assessment Schedule (ANTAS), a semi-structured clinical interview derived from the non-patient version of the DSM-IV (SCID/NP) and Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) was conducted. A total of 3,398 individuals were interviewed (68% of those recruited). Lifetime prevalence for overall ED was 1.7%; for anorexia 0.7%; for bulimia 0.6% and for binge eating disorder 0.5%. ED was more frequent in women than in men. No cases of anorexia in men were identified. ED showed an attributable burden in impairing quality of life with no statistically significant differences with those due to major depressive disorder, bipolar spectrum disorders and Wilson's disease. Of the pathological conditions considered, only multiple sclerosis showed a worsening attributable burden. ED thus has a non-negligible frequency in Italy, with severe impact on quality of life comparable to that produced by severe chronic psychiatric and general medical conditions. These elements emphasize that ED is a serious public health issue.

  19. Latent tuberculosis in patients with diabetes mellitus: prevalence, progression and public health implications.

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    Leow, M K S; Dalan, R; Chee, C B E; Earnest, A; Chew, D E K; Tan, A W K; Kon, W Y C; Jong, M; Barkham, T; Wang, Y T

    2014-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) confers a higher risk for tuberculosis (TB). Yet, TB screening and chemoprophylaxis for latent TB infection (LTBI) in DM remains controversial. We conducted a cross-sectional study to elucidate LTBI prevalence and longitudinal follow-up to ascertain LTBI to active TB progression rate in DM. 220 DM patients without previous TB from the outpatient diabetes clinic of the hospital were enrolled. T-Spot TB, tuberculin-skin-test (TST) and chest radiography (CXR) were performed. LTBI was defined by negative CXR with reactive T-Spot TB. Progression to active TB was confirmed by cross-checking against the TB registry. The prevalence of LTBI was 28.2% (62/220) by reactive T-Spot. None progressed to active TB from 2007-2013. Multivariate analysis revealed that any co-morbidity (p=0.016) was positively associated while metformin (p=0.008) was negatively associated with LTBI. Over a quarter of DM patients harbor LTBI. While the lack of demonstrable progression to active TB within the follow-up time frame up to this point does not unequivocally support a routine TB screening policy or anti-TB chemoprophylaxis for LTBI in a diabetic population for now, this preliminary evidence needs re-evaluation with longer follow-up of this enrolled cohort over the next decade. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. [Prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner abuse in female users of public health services in Mexico: a comparative analyses].

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    Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Valdez-Santiagob, Rosario; Barroso-Quiab, Abigail; Híjar, Martha; Rojas, Rosalba; Del Río-Zolezzi, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the evolution of the prevalence in intimate partner violence during the years 2003 and 2006 in Mexico, identifying factors associated with its severity, comparing our results with findings from 2003. Data from the Encuesta Nacional de Violencia contra las Mujeres (ENVIM 2006) was used; it has urban-rural national representation of female users of Mexican public health services. A total of 22,318 women above 14 years of age were interviewed. A multinomial logistic regression model was adjusted. The dependent variable was the Index of Intimate Partner Abuse. Intimate partner abuse increased 17% in comparison to the year 2003. Women's personal history of childhood abuse (ORA= 5.12, 95% CI4.15-6.30) and rape (ORA = 3.5, 95% CI = 2.66-4.62) were the most important women's factors that were found associated with severe violence. Male partner's daily alcohol consumption increased eleven fold the possibility of severe violence; higher disagreement with traditional female gender roles and higher education of both partners were protective factors. Factors associated with violence and their severities were consistent with findings reported in 2003. Intimate partner violence is a highly prevalent social problem which requires comprehensive strategies supporting empowerment of women through higher education, early detection and care of those battered, as well as structured interventions to prevent violence in future generations.

  1. Canadian Digestive Health Foundation Public Impact Series 5: Pancreatitis in Canada. Incidence, prevalence, and direct and indirect economic impact.

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    Teshima, Christopher W; Bridges, Ronald J; Fedorak, Richard N

    2012-08-01

    The Canadian Digestive Health Foundation initiated a scientific program to assess the incidence, prevalence, mortality and economic impact of digestive disorders across Canada in 2009. The current article presents the updated findings from the study concerning pancreatitis.

  2. Canadian Digestive Health Foundation Public Impact Series 5: Pancreatitis in Canada. Incidence, Prevalence, and Direct and Indirect Economic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Teshima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Digestive Health Foundation initiated a scientific program to assess the incidence, prevalence, mortality and economic impact of digestive disorders across Canada in 2009. The current article presents the updated findings from the study concerning pancreatitis.

  3. Canadian Digestive Health Foundation Public Impact Series 4: celiac disease in Canada. Incidence, prevalence, and direct and indirect economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorak, Richard N; Switzer, Connie M; Bridges, Ron J

    2012-06-01

    The Canadian Digestive Health Foundation initiated a scientific program to assess the incidence, prevalence, mortality and economic impact of digestive disorders across Canada in 2009. The current article presents the updated findings from the study concerning celiac disease.

  4. Mycoplasma genitalium: prevalence in men presenting with urethritis to a South Australian public sexual health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzini, T M; Waddell, R G; Douglas, R J; Sadlon, T A

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium infection among male patients with dysuria and/or urethral discharge. An analysis of the clinical, demographic and microbiological factors associated with M. genitalium infection was also conducted. From May 2007 to June 2011, men presenting to the clinic with self-reported symptoms of dysuria and/or urethral discharge were identified and underwent urethral swab, which was microscopically assessed for objective non-gonococcal urethritis. A first-void urine sample was tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using the Aptima Combo-2 assay. A portion of the urine sample was sent for polymerase chain reaction analysis for M. genitalium. One thousand, one hundred and eighty-two men with dysuria and/or urethral discharge were tested for M. genitalium. Of those, 96 men (8.1%) were positive for M. genitalium. Men identifying as solely MSM (men who have sex with men) constituted 16.3% (n = 193) of the sample. Their infection rate was 3.1% (n = 6). The infection rate for heterosexual and bisexual men was 9.1%. For all men, the M. genitalium co-infection rate was 14.6% (n = 14) with C. trachomatis and 3.1% (n = 3) with N. gonorrhoeae. Factors associated with M. genitalium infection were analysed by univariate analysis. We determined that five investigated predictors were significantly associated with M. genitalium infection, urethral discharge, non-gonococcal urethritis on Gram stain of urethral smears, identification as heterosexual or bisexual, and absence of co-infection with C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae. In Adelaide, M. genitalium is an important sexually transmitted infection among men with dysuria and/or urethral discharge, and is primarily an infection of heterosexual and bisexual men. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in finishing pigs: Implications on public health.

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    Cha, Wonhee; Fratamico, Pina M; Ruth, Leah E; Bowman, Andrew S; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Manning, Shannon D; Funk, Julie A

    2018-01-02

    significance to public health and to develop mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Canadian Digestive Health Foundation Public Impact Series 4: Celiac Disease in Canada. Incidence, Prevalence, and Direct and Indirect Economic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard N Fedorak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Digestive Health Foundation initiated a scientific program to assess the incidence, prevalence, mortality and economic impact of digestive disorders across Canada in 2009. The current article presents the updated findings from the study concerning celiac disease.

  7. Canadian Digestive Health Foundation Public Impact Series: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Canada: Incidence, Prevalence, and Direct and Indirect Economic Impact

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    Richard N Fedorak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Digestive Health Foundation initiated a scientific program to assess the incidence, prevalence, mortality and economic impact of digestive disorders across Canada. The current article presents the updated findings from the study concerning gastroesophageal reflux disease – a condition that develops when the reflux of stomach contents causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications (Montreal definition.

  8. Canadian Digestive Health Foundation Public Impact Series: gastroesophageal reflux disease in Canada: incidence, prevalence, and direct and indirect economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorak, Richard N; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander; Bridges, Ron

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Digestive Health Foundation initiated a scientific program to assess the incidence, prevalence, mortality and economic impact of digestive disorders across Canada. The current article presents the updated findings from the study concerning gastroesophageal reflux disease - a condition that develops when the reflux of stomach contents causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications (Montreal definition).

  9. Canadian Digestive Health Foundation Public Impact Series. Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Canada: Incidence, Prevalence, and Direct and Indirect Economic Impact

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    Richard N Fedorak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Digestive Health Foundation initiated a scientific program to assess the incidence, prevalence, mortality and economic impact of digestive disorders across Canada in 2009. The current article presents the updated findings from the study concerning inflammatory bowel diseases – specifically, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

  10. Canadian Digestive Health Foundation Public Impact Series. Inflammatory bowel disease in Canada: Incidence, prevalence, and direct and indirect economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorak, Richard N; Wong, Karen; Bridges, Ron

    2010-11-01

    The Canadian Digestive Health Foundation initiated a scientific program to assess the incidence, prevalence, mortality and economic impact of digestive disorders across Canada in 2009. The current article presents the updated findings from the study concerning inflammatory bowel diseases - specifically, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

  11. Public Health Departments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — State and Local Public Health Departments in the United States Governmental public health departments are responsible for creating and maintaining conditions that...

  12. Major differences in prevalence of overweight according to nationality in preschool children living in Germany: determinants and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuepper-Nybelen, J; Lamerz, A; Bruning, N; Hebebrand, J; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Brenner, H

    2005-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of overweight according to nationality in preschool children living in Germany, and to establish the determinants responsible for differences in body mass index. The study was performed within the context of the 2001/2002 obligatory health examination before school entry in the city of Aachen, Germany. Of 2020 eligible children 1979 children were recruited (participation rate: 98%). Children's height and weight were measured using a standardised protocol. The parents completed a standardised questionnaire on sociodemographic factors and possible determinants of nutritional status. Being overweight was defined according to age and sex specific reference values for German children as well as according to international reference values. The study population included 452 (22.9%) children with other than German nationality. Among these children the prevalence of overweight was twice as high than among German children (14.8% v 7.2%). Prevalence of most known risk factors for overweight, such as low physical activity, high consumption of soft drinks, and frequent visits to fast-food restaurants was higher in the children with other nationalities than in the German children. Multivariate analyses revealed that most of the difference in prevalence of obesity by nationality is explained by known risk factors of overweight, especially education of mother and watching TV. The apparent ethnic differences could be explained by two non-ethnic but socioeconomic factors. In preventing overweight in children, there is the need to identify and deal with high risk environments rather than high risk ethnic groups.

  13. Modelling the public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in high prevalence areas in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.D. Nagelkerke (Nico); S. Moses (Stephen); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); R.C. Bailey (Robert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recent clinical trials in Africa, in combination with several observational epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that male circumcision can reduce HIV female-to-male transmission risk by 60% or more. However, the public health impact of large-scale male

  14. Whither public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, H S

    1980-03-01

    This paper examines the future of Schools of Public Health in the United States. The history of Schools of Public Health is developed by tracing the history of the philanthropies which supported scientific medicine and public health in the early decades of the twentieth century. The role of the theory of disease in shifting the focus of public health from the community to the laboratory is explored. This paper argues that Schools of Public Health have lost their legitimacy and no longer have any content area or discipline for which they alone are responsible. The declining public image of public health is explored in light of the recent swine flu and legionnaire disease episodes. The current tendencies of Schools of Public Health as miniature business schools or as departments of medical schools are explored and criticized and a revitalized curriculum for Schools of Public Health is posited.

  15. Genital herpes stigma: Toward the Measurement and Validation of a highly prevalent yet hidden public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; Merin, Abigail; Rendina, H Jonathon; Pachankis, John E

    2018-02-01

    Despite its highly prevalent and stigmatizing nature, genital herpes has received little attention from stigma researchers relative to other sexually transmitted infections. This limitation is of great relevance to researchers and practitioners in both clinical and healthcare settings, given that stigma can cause psychological distress and hinder disclosure to sexual partners, hence contributing to the spread of genital herpes. The present research developed and examined the psychometric properties of a quantitative measure of genital herpes stigma. Two hundred individuals diagnosed with genital herpes recruited through online genital herpes support groups completed a survey containing 37 items adapted from the HIV Stigma Scale, questions about demographic and herpes-related characteristics, and measures of relevant psychosocial variables. A confirmatory factor analysis yielded an 18-item scale with four factors: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes. All subscales demonstrated good internal consistency, with Cronbach alphas ranging from 0.74 to 0.87. Construct validity was supported by correlations with relevant psychosocial variables, including negative affect, rumination, and perceived social support. As a psychometrically sound assessment tool, the Genital Herpes Stigma Scale can be used in both clinical and research settings to facilitate future efforts to alleviate the negative psychological consequences of this incurable viral infection.

  16. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Listeria monocytogenes contamination of chicken flocks and meat in Oyo State, south-western Nigeria: Public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, O O; Mosugu, J I; Adesokan, H K

    2016-09-01

    Food contamination with Listeria monocytogenes is on the increase posing threats to public health with growing trends in food products recalls due to suspected Listeria contamination. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) among 71 randomly selected poultry farms in Oyo State, Nigeria. A total of 450 samples comprising cloacal swabs (426) and randomly selected dressed chicken meat (24) were cultured for Lm isolation using BrillianceTM Selective Listeria Agar with antibiotics and microbial load count with Nutrient Agar. Further identification was done using microscopic, biochemical characterization and antibiotic sensitivity tests. Data were analysed using bivariate analysis and student t-test. An overall prevalence of 91.8% Lm contamination was obtained comprising 91.5% (390/426) in cloacal swabs and 95.8% (23/24) in meat. The prevalence of Lm in cloacal samples was significantly associated with poultry type (p = 0.008) and breed (p = 0.000. In addition, all the flocks had at least one positive sample yielding 100% flock prevalence. Antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that most of the isolates were resistant to common antibiotics like Ampicillin-cloxacillin and cefuroxime. The results revealed a high level of contamination with Lm in the poultry flock and meat and the observed resistance to most common antibiotics has implications for future disease control as well as public health. There is need to step up routine screening of food animal products for Listeria contamination as well as measures towards reducing such contaminations.

  17. "Impact of and response to increased tuberculosis prevalence among Syrian refugees compared with Jordanian tuberculosis prevalence: case study of a tuberculosis public health strategy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Susan T; Abaza, Hiba; Clarke, Kevin R; Burton, Ann; Sabrah, Nadia A; Rumman, Khaled A; Odeh, Nedal; Naoum, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    By the summer of 2014, the Syrian crisis resulted in a regional humanitarian emergency with 2.9 million refugees, including 608,000 in Jordan. These refugees access United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-sponsored clinics or Jordan Ministry of Health clinics, including tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. Tuberculosis care in Syria has deteriorated with destroyed health infrastructure and drug supply chain. Syrian refugees may have undiagnosed tuberculosis; therefore, the UNHCR, the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Public Health Strategy for Tuberculosis among Syrian Refugees in Jordan. This case study presents that strategy, its impact, and recommendations for other neighboring countries. UNHCR determined that World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for implementing a tuberculosis program in an emergency were met for the Syrian refugees in Jordan. Jordan NTP assessed their tuberculosis program and found that access to Syrian refugees was the one component of their program missing. Therefore, a strategy for tuberculosis control among Syrian refugees was developed. Since that development through work with IOM, UNHCR, and NTP, tuberculosis case detection among Syrian refugees is almost 40 % greater (74 cases/12 months or 1.01/100,000 monthly through June 2014 vs. 56 cases/16 months or 0.73/100,000 monthly through June 2013) using estimated population figures; more than two fold the 2012 Jordan tuberculosis incidence. Additionally, the WHO objective of curing ≥85 % of newly identified infectious tuberculosis cases was met among Syrian refugees. Tuberculosis (TB) rates among displaced persons are high, but increased detection is possible. High TB rates were found among Syrian refugees through active screening and will probably persist as the Syrian crisis continues. Active screening can detect tuberculosis early and reduce risk

  18. A public health perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Public health is the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts of society” (1) (italics added). District health management personnel are government employees charged with overseeing public health at a scale of roughly 100,000 people. Countries can use other ...

  19. [Relevant public health enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.

  20. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made...... of public health, made me re-evaluate both what ‘public’ and what ‘health’ means in public health. In this commentary I provide a short personal account of that intellectual journey. I argue that entanglements between species make it urgent that public health scholars investigate the moral, socio......-economic, material, and bacterial passages between humans and animals that constitute the various publics of public health and profoundly shape the health of human and animal populations in a globalized world....

  1. Challenges to Public Health

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Challenges to Public Health. Tracing of the infection. Isolation of patients to stop spread. Laboratory diagnosis. Hospitalization &Treatment. Stock pile & supply of drugs. Planning & mitigation. Information to public. Support to SEARO countries.

  2. Lighting and public health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, J. van & Schreuder, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    The following topics; are discussed with respect to public health: - the effect of visible and ultraviolet radiation upon man. - vision with respect to lighting. interior lighting. - artificial lighting of work environments. - day light and windows. - recommendations for lighting. public lighting. -

  3. Health economics in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Alice S; Farrelly, Matthew A; Cavallo, David N; Ickes, Scott B; Hoerger, Thomas J

    2009-03-01

    Economic analysis is an important tool in deciding how to allocate scarce public health resources; however, there is currently a dearth of such analysis by public health researchers. Public health researchers and practitioners were surveyed to determine their current use of health economics and to identify barriers to use as well as potential strategies to decrease those barriers in order to allow them to more effectively incorporate economic analyses into their work. Data collected from five focus groups informed survey development. The survey included a demographic section and 14 multi-part questions. Participants were recruited in 2006 from three national public health organizations through e-mail; 294 academicians, practitioners, and community representatives answered the survey. Survey data were analyzed in 2007. Despite an expressed belief in the importance of health economics, more than half of the respondents reported very little or no current use of health economics in their work. Of those using health economics, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis and determination of public health costs were cited as the measures used most frequently. The most important barriers were lack of expertise, funding, time, tools, and data, as well as discomfort with economic theory. The resource deemed most important to using health economics was collaboration with economists or those with economic training. Respondents indicated a desire to learn more about health economics and tools for performing economic analysis. Given the importance of incorporating economic analysis into public health interventions, and the desire of survey respondents for more collaboration with health economists, opportunities for such collaborations should be increased.

  4. Child public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blair, Mitch

    2010-01-01

    "Despite children making up around a quarter of the population, the first edition of this book was the first to focus on a public health approach to the health and sickness of children and young people...

  5. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald

    2014-01-01

    There are significant shortages in the public health workforce and it's expected to worsen. Efforts to reduce this shortage are varied and include building the workforce by increasing exposure of students and young professionals in applied public health experiences. Providing these experiences increases productivity, and may help alleviate some of the workforce shortages in public health. This article seeks to highlight the work done at the Family Health Services Division (FHSD) in the Hawai‘i Department of Health over the past 6 and half years in working with students in epidemiology practicum and fellowship experiences. PMID:24660128

  6. ?Impact of and response to increased tuberculosis prevalence among Syrian refugees compared with Jordanian tuberculosis prevalence: case study of a tuberculosis public health strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Cookson, Susan T.; Abaza, Hiba; Clarke, Kevin R.; Burton, Ann; Sabrah, Nadia A.; Rumman, Khaled A.; Odeh, Nedal; Naoum, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction By the summer of 2014, the Syrian crisis resulted in a regional humanitarian emergency with 2.9 million refugees, including 608,000 in Jordan. These refugees access United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-sponsored clinics or Jordan Ministry of Health clinics, including tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. Tuberculosis care in Syria has deteriorated with destroyed health infrastructure and drug supply chain. Syrian refugees may have undiagnosed tuberculosis; theref...

  7. What Ails Public Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcabes, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Public health, once the gem of American social programs, has turned to dross. During the 20th century, the public-health sector wiped smallpox and polio off the U.S. map; virtually eliminated rickets, rubella, and goiter; stopped epidemic typhoid and yellow fever; and brought tuberculosis--once the leading cause of death in U.S. cities--under…

  8. Public health and Plowshare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrill, J.G. Jr.

    1969-01-01

    The protection of public health and safety is a principal area of concern in any application of nuclear energy. A health and safety analysis must be conducted and reviewed by appropriate agencies and the final results made available to interested agencies and groups, both public and private, prior to the application. This is especially important for the Plowshare Program - the peaceful uses of nuclear explosives - where the public is to be the ultimate beneficiary. Because public health must be a primary concern in the Plowshare Program, it is essential that the potential risk be weighed against the expected benefits to the public. Public health agencies must play an increasingly important role in the planning and operational stages of the peaceful applications of nuclear explosives and in the final stage of consumer use of Plowshare-generated products. There are many long term and long distance ramifications of the Plowshare Program, such a the potential radiological contamination of consumer products that may reach the consumer at long times after the event or at great distances from the site of the event. Criteria for evaluating public exposure to radiation from these products need to be developed based on sound scientific research. Standards for radioactivity in consumer products must be developed in relation to potential exposure of the public. Above all, a clear benefit to the public with a minimum of risk must be shown. The major purpose of this Symposium on the Public Health Aspects of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear-Explosives is to focus attention on the health and safety aspects, present the results of safety analyses accomplished to date and other information necessary to an understanding of the public health aspects, and to identify areas where additional research is required. A general overview of the total symposium content is presented with emphasis on the relationship of the topics to public health. (author)

  9. Binge drinking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Kuntsche, S.; Thrul, J.; Gmel, G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Binge drinking (also called heavy episodic drinking, risky single-occasion drinking etc.) is a major public health problem. This paper provides an overview of recently published evidence concerning the definition and measurement, prevalence rates, health impact, demographic and

  10. Canadian Digestive Health Foundation Public Impact Series 3: irritable bowel syndrome in Canada. Incidence, prevalence, and direct and indirect economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorak, Richard N; Vanner, Stephen J; Paterson, William G; Bridges, Ron J

    2012-05-01

    The Canadian Digestive Health Foundation initiated a scientific program to assess the incidence, prevalence, mortality and economic impact of digestive disorders across Canada in 2009. The current article presents the updated findings from the study concerning irritable bowel syndrome.

  11. Prevalence of Linguatula Serrata Infection in Domestic Ruminants in West Part of Iran: Risk Factors and Public Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal GHAREKHANI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Linguatulosis is one of the neglected parasitic zoonoses. Domestic ruminants are the important source for human infection. The main goal of the present investigation was to evaluate the prevalence of nymphal stages of L. serrata in domestic ruminant in Hamedan province, western Iran. The mesenteric and mediastinal lymph node of 1080 animals were taken randomly from different slaughterhouses of Hamedan province. All lymph nodes were examined for nymphal stage of L. serrata using parasitological methods (digestion technique. The nymph of L. serrata was found in 31.4% (69/220 of goats, 15% (60/400 of sheep, and 7.4% (34/460 of cattle (P=0.457. The infection rate in beef cattle, dairy cattle and native cattle was 1.3%, 6.4% and 12.6%, respectively (P=0.981. No evidence of correlation between gender, age groups, and L. serrata infection rate in sheep and cattle (P>0.05. In goats, the infection rate in >2yr old (48% was higher than .2yr old (8.6% (P<0.0001, OR=5.6; also the infection rate was 23.7% and 35.7% in male and female goats, respectively (P=0.065. This is the first report of linguatulosis in domestic animals from western Iran. The results indicate that linguatulosis may partly be responsible for economic losses in domestic ruminant husbandry in this region. Therefore, designing control strategies for a better management in animals farm to reduce the risk of zoonotic outbreaks is highly recommended

  12. Music and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Juel, Knud; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    /processes and that they consider music a health promoting factor. The study indirectly points at the public health potential of musicking. Conclusions: A clear association between daily playing/singing and health/quality of life was found. Results indicate awareness among Danes that musicking may play an important role......Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of music...... in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response rate...

  13. Public health and peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaser, Ulrich; Donev, Donco; Bjegović, Vesna; Sarolli, Ylli

    2002-04-01

    The modern concept of public health, the New Public Health, carries a great potential for healthy and therefore less aggressive societies. Its core disciplines are health promotion, environmental health, and health care management based on advanced epidemiological methodologies. The main principles of living together in healthy societies can be summarized as four ethical concepts of the New Public Health essential to violence reduction equity, participation, subsidiarity, and sustainability. The following issues are discussed as violence determinants: the process of urbanization; type of neighborhood and accommodation, and consequent stigmatization; level of education; employment status; socialization of the family; women's status; alcohol and drug consumption; availability of the firearms; religious, ethnic, and racial prejudices; and poverty. Development of the health systems has to contribute to peace, since aggression, violence, and warfare are among the greatest risks for health and the economic welfare. This contribution can be described as follows: 1) full and indiscriminate access to all necessary services, 2) monitoring of their quality, 3) providing special support to vulnerable groups, and 4) constant scientific and public accountability of the evaluation of the epidemiological outcome. Violence can also destroy solidarity and social cohesion of groups, such as family, team, neighborhood, or any other social organization. Durkheim coined the term anomie for a state in which social disruption of the community results in health risks for individuals. Health professionals can make a threefold contribution to peace by 1) analyzing the causal interrelationships of violence phenomena, 2) curbing the determinants of violence according to the professional standards, and 3) training professionals for this increasingly important task. Because tolerance is an essential part of an amended definition of health, monitoring of the early signs of public intolerance is

  14. The prevalence of harmful content on outdoor advertising in Los Angeles: land use, community characteristics, and the spatial inequality of a public health nuisance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Bryce C; Sloane, David C

    2014-04-01

    Our study sought to examine associations between the content of outdoor advertising and neighborhood ethnic/racial and socioeconomic composition to see whether particular communities disproportionately host harmful content. We constructed a spatial database of photographs taken from June 2012 until December 2012 in 7 identically zoned communities in Los Angeles, California, to compare outdoor advertising area and content. We selected communities to contrast by ethnicity/race, income, education, and youth population. At-risk communities and communities of color hosted more outdoor advertising depicting harmful content than other communities. Among included neighborhoods, harmful content and the proportion of outdoor advertising overall were most prevalent in communities of Asian Americans and Latino Americans. In all communities, harmful content represented at least 24% of outdoor advertising space. This study provides evidence of the potential for land-use decisions to result in spatially inequitable health impacts. Although dictating the placement of outdoor advertising through zoning may seem sensible, such a decision might have the unintended consequence of disadvantaging the well-being of local communities. Neighborhood factors require more contextually nuanced public health and land-use policy.

  15. Periodontal health and global public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul E; Baehni, Pierre C

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a growing burden to people, to health-care systems and to societies across the world. The rapid increase in the burden of chronic diseases is particularly prevalent in the developing countries. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing...... of periodontology in order to help the development of appropriate public health intervention and relevant surveillance programs. It also expects to stimulate health authorities and professional organizations to initiate and support actions to promote periodontal health in their respective countries....... to the global burden of chronic disease. In addition to social determinants, periodontal health status is related to several proximal factors. Modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet and nutrition, obesity, psychological stress and insufficient personal...

  16. Prevalence of herbal medicine use and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at public health facilities in Hossana Town, Southern Ethiopia: facility based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laelago, Tariku; Yohannes, Tadele; Lemango, Fiseha

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal medicine has been on increase in many developing and industrialized countries. More pregnant women use herbal remedies to treat pregnancy related problems due to cost-effectiveness of therapy and easy access of these products. We sought to assess the prevalence of herbal medicine use and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of public health facilities. Facility based cross sectional study was conducted among 363 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics from May to June 2015 at public health facilities in Hossana town, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia. Pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data from each study subject. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was used to see significance of association between the outcome and independent variables. Odds ratios at 95 % CI were computed to measure the strength of the association between the outcome and the independent variables. P-value herbal medicine during current pregnancy . The herbal medicines commonly taken during current pregnancy were ginger (55.8 %), garlic (69.8 %), eucalyptus (11.6 %), tenaadam (rutachalenssis) (26.4 %), damakesse (ocimumlamiifolium) (22.8 %), feto (3.5 %) and omore (3.1 %). Being students (AOR: (5.68, 95 % CI: (1.53, 21.13), second trimester of pregnancy (AOR: 0.22, 95 % CI: (0.08, 0.76), sufficient knowledge on herbal medicine (AOR: 0.37, 95 % CI: (0.19, 0.79), no formal education (AOR: 4.41, 95 % CI: (1.11, 17.56), primary education (AOR: 4.15, 95 % CI: (1.51, 11.45) and secondary education (AOR: 2.55, 95 % CI: (1.08,6.03) were significantly associated with herbal medicine use. The findings of this study showed that herbal medicine use during pregnancy is a common experience. Commonly used herbal medicines during current pregnancy were garlic, ginger, tenaadam, damakasse and eucalyptus. Educational status, occupation, knowledge on herbal medicine and second trimester of pregnancy were the major factors

  17. Discover: What Is Public Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certified in Public Health ASPPH Public Health Graduate School Viewbook Teach & Research Teach & Research Overview We support education in public health by providing a variety of comprehensive classroom and curriculum resources. Framing The Future Faculty Resources Educational Models ...

  18. Public mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija

    2017-10-01

    Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. Dental sealants: a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Robert

    2010-10-01

    This article discusses the oral health status of California children, including sealant prevalence, and reasons why sealants are underutilized, including current reimbursement levels. The article also explains similarities and differences between sealant use in private practice versus public health settings, as well as the effectiveness and economic aspects of school-based sealant programs. Finally, the article briefly discusses the advantages of combined topical fluoride and sealant programs in public health settings.

  20. Academic Stress and Prevalence of Stress-Related Self-Medication among Undergraduate Female Students of Health and Non-Health Cluster Colleges of a Public Sector University in Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rasheed, Fatima; Naqvi, Atta Abbas; Ahmad, Rizwan; Ahmad, Niyaz

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to report academic stress and prevalence of stress-related self-medication among undergraduate female students of health and nonhealth cluster colleges at a public sector university in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A 5-month cross-sectional survey was conducted in the university. The survey included the English version of 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) to report self-perceived stress. Student responses were analyzed by SPSS version 22 software. The majority of students (85%) perceived examinations as a stressor. Most of the students (64%) had perceived moderate stress that increased as students progressed from preparatory year to 4 th year. It declined in students of 5 th and 6 th year. The prevalence of stress related was reported at 39.58%. Highest prevalence of stress-induced self-medication was reported from College of Nursing (59.09%) and lowest (29.69%) from clinical pharmacy. Most common drug used to self-medicate during stress was caffeine (49.5%). The PSS score was significantly associated with colleges and study levels. Students studying in health cluster colleges reported high academic stress and self-medication practice. The major stressors identified were examination and course load. Student counseling sessions and counseling by pharmacists regarding self-care may help in the reduction of such stressors and may promote responsible self-medication. Self-evaluation and quality assurance process of curriculum may highlight areas for improvement in the courses. This may help in lowering academic stress among students.

  1. Canadian Digestive Health Foundation Public Impact Series 3: Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Canada. Incidence, Prevalence, and Direct and Indirect Economic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard N Fedorak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Digestive Health Foundation initiated a scientific program to assess the incidence, prevalence, mortality and economic impact of digestive disorders across Canada in 2009. The current article presents the updated findings from the study concerning irritable bowel syndrome.

  2. Gis and public health

    CERN Document Server

    Cromley, Ellen K

    2011-01-01

    Authoritative and comprehensive, this is the leading text and professional resource on using geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze and address public health problems. Basic GIS concepts and tools are explained, including ways to access and manage spatial databases. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy. Numerous maps, diagrams, and real-world applications are featured. The companion Web page provides lab exercises w

  3. Globalisation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettcher, D; Lee, K

    2002-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, globalisation is a word that has become a part of everyday communication in all corners of the world. It is a concept that for some holds the promise of a new and brighter future, while for others it represents a threat that needs to be confronted and counteracted. In the area of public health, a wide range of claims have been made about the various impacts, both positive and negative, that can be attributed to globalisation. In the ever expanding literature on globalisation and health, it has become apparent that considerable confusion is emerging in both the ways that terminology is applied and concepts are defined. The determinants of health are increasingly multisectoral, and in tackling these challenges it is necessary to take a multidisciplinary approach that includes policy analyses in such areas as trade, environment, defence/security, foreign policy, and international law. In assembling the terms for this glossary, we have attempted to demonstrate the richness of the globalisation and public health debate, and in so doing have selected some of the core terms that require definition. We hope that this glossary will help to clarify this interesting and challenging area, and will also serve as a useful entry point to this new debate in public health.

  4. Prevalence of fetal heart disease in high-risk pregnant women admitted in the public health service of Sorocaba/SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Carrel Silveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: several pregnancy disorders (both maternal and fetal that behave as risk factor for fetal heart diseases have been described. Objective: to study such relation among pregnant women admitted in the public health service of Sorocaba and presenting pregnancy related diseases considered as risk factors for fetal heart disease. Methods and casuistic: 104 fetal echocardiograms were performed in the 28.9th week of gestation (average in 102 pregnant women with gestational diseases considered as risk factors for fetal heart disease and were grouped as follows: diabetes, hypertension, diabetes and hypertension, diabetes, hypertension and maternal age greater than 35 years, multiple births, fetal abnormalities detected by ultrasound in obstetrics, maternal age less than 17 years, maternal age greater than 35 years and pregnant women suffering from other diseases (lupus erythematosus, congenital heart disease, complicated obstetric past and use of teratogenic drugs. A morphofunctional analysis of fetal hearts was performed using conventional cuts ultrasound Doppler spectral analysis and color flow mapping. Results: mean maternal age was 30.05 years (ranging from 14 to 46 years. The most common fetal heart disease identified was interventricular communication (23%, and among the groups of pregnancy pathologies, the group of pregnant women with twin pregnancy and fetal abnormalities in the highest incidence of fetal heart disease (35%, in spit of the group of diabetic women being the most frequent (48%. Conclusion: the prevalence of fetal heart disease in our study was 16.34%. The sum of risk factors during pregnancy was not related to a greater frequency of fetal heart disease.

  5. Nanotechnology and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudai, Masami; Hunt, Geoffrey

    2005-11-01

    Nanotechnology is developing very quickly, and Japan is in many respects leading the world in this convergence of nanoscale engineering techniques. The public health community in Japan must start to think about the public health impacts of nanotechnology over the next 20 years. The responsibility for the benefits and the harms of nanotechnology lies with government, with corporations and the business community, with scientists and specialists in all related fields, and with NPOs and the public. There are very many questions of public health which are not yet being asked about nanotechnology. If nanoparticles are to be used in cosmetics, food production and packaging, how will they react or interact with the human skin and organs? What chemical-toxic effects on life might there be from the nanoparticles in car tires and vehicle plastic mouldings when they are disposed of by incineration? Will they pass into the soil and groundwater and enter into the food-chain? It is now an urgent ethical demand, based on the precautionary principle, that Japan join the governments of the world to take an intergovernmental initiative to intervene in the further development, production and marketing of nanotechnological products with precautionary research and regulation.

  6. Facebook and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straton, Nadiya; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey about the perceptions and practices of social media managers and experts in the area of public health. We have collected Facebook data from 153 public health care organizations and conducted a survey on them. 12% of organizations responded to the questionnaire....... The survey results were combined with the findings from our previous work of applying clustering and supervised learning algorithms on big social data from the official Facebook walls of these organizations. In earlier research, we showed that the most successful strategy that leads to higher post engagement...... is visual content. In this paper, we investigated if organisations pursue this strategy or some other strategy that was successful and has not been uncovered by the machine learning algorithms. Performance of each organisation on Facebook is based on the number of posts (volume share) and the number...

  7. Doping and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    rad av världens främsta idrottsvetare och dopningsexperter hade mött upp för att presentera papers till en intresserad och engagerad publik. Temat för konferensen var "Doping and Public Health", och den aspekten behandlades också; dock tolkade flera presentatörer temat på sina egna vis, och hela...

  8. Geomatics and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, R; Jhonson, C P

    2006-01-01

    Geomatics technology has tremendous potential to address public health issues particularly under the present circumstances of global climate change and climate or technology induced human migration, which result in an increase in the geographical extent and re-emergence of vector-borne diseases. The authors present an overview of the science of geomatics, describe the potential impacts of climate change on vector-borne diseases and review the applications of remote sensing for disease vector surveillance.

  9. Nanotechnology and public health

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdi Tanır

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a new revolution in technology; being used in different parts of life such as self-cleaning paints, dirt repellent fabrics, the destruction of cancer cells without harming the person, biosensors that can detect even a single bacterium, odorless socks due to the destruction of bacteria, germ-free refrigerators, disinfection etc. In this article, we consider in the perspective of public health the possible risks of this new technology, which is starting to appear in all areas ...

  10. Training public health superheroes: five talents for public health leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Matthew; Shickle, Darren; Smith, Kevin; Zakariasen, Ken; Moskol, Jacob; Oliver, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Public health leaders have been criticized for their policy stances, relationships with governments and failure to train the next generation. New approaches to the identification and training of public health leaders may be required. To inform these, lessons can be drawn from public health 'superheroes'; public health leaders perceived to be the most admired and effective by their peers. Members and Fellows of the UK Faculty of Public Health were contacted via e-newsletter and magazine and asked to nominate their 'Public Health Superhero'. Twenty-six responses were received, nominating 40 different people. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis, based on 'grounded theory', was conducted. Five leadership 'talents' for public health were identified: mentoring-nurturing, shaping-organizing, networking-connecting, knowing-interpreting and advocating-impacting. Talent-based approaches have been effective for leadership development in other sectors. These talents are the first specific to the practice of public health and align with some aspects of existing frameworks. An increased focus on identifying and developing talents during public health training, as opposed to 'competency'-based approaches, may be effective in strengthening public health leadership. Further research to understand the combination and intensity of talents across a larger sample of public health leaders is required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Academic stress and prevalence of stress-related self-medication among undergraduate female students of health and non-health cluster colleges of a public sector University in Dammam, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Al Rasheed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to report academic stress and prevalence of stress-related self-medication among undergraduate female students of health and nonhealth cluster colleges at a public sector university in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A 5-month cross-sectional survey was conducted in the university. The survey included the English version of 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS to report self-perceived stress. Student responses were analyzed by SPSS version 22 software. Results: The majority of students (85% perceived examinations as a stressor. Most of the students (64% had perceived moderate stress that increased as students progressed from preparatory year to 4th year. It declined in students of 5th and 6th year. The prevalence of stress related was reported at 39.58%. Highest prevalence of stress-induced self-medication was reported from College of Nursing (59.09% and lowest (29.69% from clinical pharmacy. Most common drug used to self-medicate during stress was caffeine (49.5%. The PSS score was significantly associated with colleges and study levels. Conclusion: Students studying in health cluster colleges reported high academic stress and self-medication practice. The major stressors identified were examination and course load. Student counseling sessions and counseling by pharmacists regarding self-care may help in the reduction of such stressors and may promote responsible self-medication. Self-evaluation and quality assurance process of curriculum may highlight areas for improvement in the courses. This may help in lowering academic stress among students.

  12. Nanotechnology and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi Tanır

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a new revolution in technology; being used in different parts of life such as self-cleaning paints, dirt repellent fabrics, the destruction of cancer cells without harming the person, biosensors that can detect even a single bacterium, odorless socks due to the destruction of bacteria, germ-free refrigerators, disinfection etc. In this article, we consider in the perspective of public health the possible risks of this new technology, which is starting to appear in all areas of our daily lives. 

  13. Advances in dental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R D

    2001-07-01

    Dental public health has been defined as 'the science and art of preventing oral diseases, promoting oral health and improving the quality of life through the organised efforts of society'. Dental practitioners most often have the oral health of individual patients as their primary focus but the aim of public health is to benefit populations. Early developments in dental public health were concerned largely with demonstrating levels of disease and with treatment services. With greater appreciation of the nature of oral health and disease, and of their determinants has come recognition of the need for wider public health action if the effects of prevention and oral health promotion are to be maximized.

  14. Towards a public health profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Today, public health is characterized by an increasingly Babylonian number of kingdoms with each their language and indispensable self-identity and sets of concepts. The numbers of partial educational programmes and vocations are high.1 So, who are we—and to whom shall then decision makers turn...... Health policy, health economics, organizational theory, health legislation, and public health leadership and management; Health promotion—health education, health protection, disease prevention; public health ethics. This should form the central part of the basis for all public health professionals...... and disease prevention, health economics and leadership, health sociology, ethics, etc.—unified under the comprehensive public health umbrella. This approach will contribute to the prevention of silo thinking and isolated, particularistic action. Conversely, just thinking in and engaging specialists...

  15. Profile of Public Health Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Ruth Gaskins; Greer, Annette; Clay, Maria; McFadden, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Public health leaders play pivotal roles in ensuring the population health for our nation. Since 2000, the number of schools of public health has almost doubled. The scholarly credentials for leaders of public health in academic and practice are important, as they make decisions that shape the future public health workforce and important public health policies. This research brief describes the educational degrees of deans of schools of public health and state health directors, as well as their demographic profiles, providing important information for future public health leadership planning. Data were extracted from a database containing information obtained from multiple Web sites including academic institution Web sites and state government Web sites. Variables describe 2 sets of public health leaders: academic deans of schools of public health and state health directors. Deans of schools of public health were 73% males and 27% females; the PhD degree was held by 40% deans, and the MD degree by 33% deans. Seventy percent of deans obtained their terminal degree more than 35 years ago. State health directors were 60% males and 40% females. Sixty percent of state health directors had an MD degree, 4% a PhD degree, and 26% no terminal degree at all. Sixty-four percent of state health directors received their terminal degree more than 25 years ago. In addition to terminal degrees, 56% of deans and 40% of state health directors held MPH degrees. The findings call into question competencies needed by future public health professionals and leadership and the need to clarify further the level of public health training and degree type that should be required for leadership qualifications in public health.

  16. Critical perspectives in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Labonté, Ronald (Ron) N; Green, Judith

    2008-01-01

    ... the contemporary roles of 'critical voices' in public health research and practice from a range of disciplines and contexts. The book covers many of the pressing concerns for public health practitioners and researchers, including: * * * * * the implications of new genetic technologies for public health; the impact of globalisation on local practice...

  17. Regular and negative self-rated health in students from a public university fromNortheastern,Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ferreira de Sousa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-rated health is a major health indicator and has been widely used in epidemiologic surveys. Current study analyzes the factors associated to regular and negative self-rated health in Brazilian college students. Current investigation is a segment of the 2010 MONISA study carried out in a Brazilian public university with 5,461 students. Estimated sample comprised 1,232 university students and results showed self-rated regular and negative health. Multinomial logistic regression estimated Odds Ratio (OR. The factors associated to regular health self-evaluation negative assessment of relationship with professors (OR: 1.85; CI95%: 1.20-2.87; inactivity in leisure (OR: 2.34; CI95%: 1.73-3.16; insufficient consumption of vegetables; almost daily consumption of soft drinks; assessment of intermediate and negative stress (OR: 3.34; CI95%: 2.11-5.28. Students inactive in leisure (OR: 2.37; 95%CI: 1.09-5.13, students with self-evaluated negative stress (OR: 10.1; 95%CI: 3.23-31.8 and obese students (OR: 4.52; 95%CI: 1.36-15.0 were associated to the negative health self-assessment. It has been verified that health behavior is rather associated to the regular self-assessment of health, whereas perceptive and biological indicators were more associated to negative health self-assessment.

  18. Feminism and public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W A

    2006-06-01

    This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health.

  19. The public health impact of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, T.L.S.

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity (severe overweight) has been increasing in western societies during the last decades. Epidemiological studies to the public health impact of obesity are therefore warranted. This thesis aimed at describing the long-term and recent time trends of obesity in the

  20. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  1. Neuroeconomics and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    and cognition towards the Frontal Cortex (FC) in a reciprocal balance1. Chronic stress in L limiting C6 is indicated by baseline serum cortisol  2) Volition in the vmPFC (c) controls both cognitive prediction (dlPFC)2 and emotions (OrbitoFC)3 3) Semantic memories (R) based on Hippocampal memories...... are recollected from the Superior Temporal Sulcus4 4) An intuitive visuo-spatial sketchpad in the Parietal lobe (I) that spontaneously may integrate episodic memory  mismatches temporarily preserved in the Occipital lobe5 is a background variable depending on L.    L and c are reciprocal as indicated by a concave...... predicts that well-organized stress-management integrating LowTech-interventions as exercise (L↓ and c↑), in-depth-relaxation (c↓) and diet (integrating L, R and c) tailored to the individual would improve public health (national life expectancy) significantly...

  2. Chiropractic care and public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    to public health? What public health roles can chiropractic interns perform for underserved communities in a collaborative environment? Can the chiropractic profession contribute to community health? What opportunities do doctors of chiropractic have to be involved in health care reform in the areas...... of prevention and public health? What role do citizen-doctors of chiropractic have in organizing community action on health-related matters? How can our future chiropractic graduates become socially responsible agents of change?......The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues...

  3. Web GIS and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Pourhassan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Both government and private sector organizations are seeking ways to maintain and improve the health of the public in the world to control the costs at the same time. For this aim internet and use of georeferenced public health information for Geographic Information System application is an important and exciting development for the nation’s Department of Health and Human Services and other health agencies. Technological progress towards public health geospatial data integration, analysis, and visualization of space-time events using the Web portends eventual robust use of Geographic Information System by public health and other sectors of the economy. Increasing Web resources from distributed spatial data portals and global geospatial libraries, and a growing suite of Web integration tools, will provide new opportunities to advance disease surveillance, control and prevention, and insure public access and community empowerment in public health decision making.

  4. Epidemiology in public health practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman-Nies, A.; Jansen, M.; Oers, van J.A.M.; Veer, van 't P.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, epidemiology has made a relevant contribution to public health by identifying health problems and analysing their determinants. Recent developments call for new and applied methods to support the planning, implementation and evaluation of public health policies and programmes.

  5. Epidemiology in public health practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman-Nies, A.; Jansen, S.; Oers, van H.; Veer, van 't P.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decades, epidemiology has made a relevant contribution to public health by identifying health problems and analysing their determinants. However, recent developments call for new and applied methods to support the planning, implementation and evaluation of public health policies and

  6. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Awofeso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.

  7. Public health and health reform in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, C Raina

    2011-01-03

    The national health reform agenda appears to have omitted public health. In this article, I outline how public health is different from primary care, and why a holistic approach to reform should include public health. The current reform agenda is very much focused on addressing the problems in acute care and the hospital system, with the focus on primary care being a means to this end. Until the health system is addressed as a whole, with all its essential components integrated and interlinked, truly successful reform of the health system, with genuine long-term vision and sustainability, will not be possible.

  8. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms and associated factors in tuberculosis (TB), TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Naidoo, Pamela; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia; McHunu, Gugu; Tutshana, Bomkazi

    2013-01-01

    High rates of tuberculosis (TB) and TB/HIV co-infection is often linked with mental health issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which is further associated with poor health outcomes. In a country such as South Africa where rates of these infectious diseases are high, it is concerning that there is limited/no data on prevalence rates of mental disorders such as PTSD and its associated factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of PTSD symptoms and associated factors in TB, TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa. Brief screening self-report tools were used to measure: PTSD symptoms, psychological distress (anxiety and depression) and alcohol misuse. Other relevant measures, such as adherence to medication, stressful life events and sexual risk-taking behaviours, were obtained through structured questions. A total of 4900 public primary care adult patients from clinics in high TB burden districts from three provinces in South Africa participated. All the patients screened positive for TB (either new or retreatment cases). The prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 29.6%. Patients who screened positive for PTSD symptoms and psychological distress were more likely to be on antidepressant medication. Factors that predicted PTSD symptoms were poverty, residing in an urban area, psychological distress, suicide attempt, alcohol and/or drug use before sex, unprotected sex, TB-HIV co-infected and the number of other chronic conditions. Health-care systems should be strengthened to improve delivery of mental health care, by focusing on existing programmes and activities, such as those which address the prevention and treatment of TB and HIV.

  9. Social marketing in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Sonya; Bryant, Carol A

    2005-01-01

    Social marketing, the use of marketing to design and implement programs to promote socially beneficial behavior change, has grown in popularity and usage within the public health community. Despite this growth, many public health professionals have an incomplete understanding of the field. To advance current knowledge, we provide a practical definition and discuss the conceptual underpinnings of social marketing. We then describe several case studies to illustrate social marketing's application in public health and discuss challenges that inhibit the effective and efficient use of social marketing in public health. Finally, we reflect on future developments in the field. Our aim is practical: to enhance public health professionals' knowledge of the key elements of social marketing and how social marketing may be used to plan public health interventions.

  10. Conventional and ecological public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, G

    2009-09-01

    This paper suggests that current models of public health are no longer sufficient as a means for understanding the health challenges of the anthropogenic age, and argues for an alternative based upon an ecological model. The roots of this perspective originated within the Victorian era, although it found only limited expression at that time. Ecological thinking in public health has only been revived relatively recently. Derived from an analysis of obesity, this paper proposes the development of an approach to ecological public health based on four dimensions of existence: the material, the physiological, the social and the cultural-cognitive. The implications for public policy are considered.

  11. Climate Change and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Timothy

    2017-05-01

    It is clear that the public health community is concerned about the human health impacts of climate change, but are we inadvertently underestimating the scope of the problem and obfuscating potentially useful interventions by using a narrow intellectual frame in our discussions with policy makers? If we take a more holistic approach, we see that the public health impacts of climate change are only one subset of the enormous public health impacts of fossil fuel burning. This broader perspective can provide a more accurate and comprehensive assessment that is more useful for decision making in public policy settings.

  12. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Deborah; Sentell, Tetine; Albright, Cheryl; Lansidell, Doug; Nakagawa, Kazuma; Seto, Todd; Stevens, Joel Mark

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Blood pressure reduction and control are associated with reduced risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease. To achieve optimal reduction and control, reliable and valid methods for blood pressure measurement are needed. Office based measurements can result in ‘white coat’ hypertension, which is when a patient's blood pressure in a clinical setting is higher than in other settings, or ‘masked’ hypertension, which occurs when a patient's blood pressure is normal in a clinical setting, but elevated outside the clinical setting. In 2015, the US Preventative Services Task Force recommended Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) as the “best method” for measuring blood pressure, endorsing its use both for confirming the diagnosis of hypertension and for excluding ‘white coat’ hypertension. ABPM is a safe, painless and non-invasive test wherein patients wear a small digital blood pressure machine attached to a belt around their body and connected to a cuff around their upper arm that enables multiple automated blood pressure measurements at designated intervals (typically every 15 to 30 minutes) throughout the day and night for a specified period (eg, 24 hours). Patients can go about their typical daily activities wearing the device as much as possible, except when they are bathing, showering, or engaging in heavy exercise. Given the importance of blood pressure monitoring and control to population public health, this article provides details on the relevance and challenges of blood pressure measurement broadly then describes ABPM generally and specifically in the Hawai‘i context. PMID:29164016

  13. Liberalism and Public Health Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajczi, Alex

    2016-02-01

    Many public health dilemmas involve a tension between the promotion of health and the rights of individuals. This article suggests that we should resolve the tension using our familiar liberal principles of government. The article considers the common objections that (i) liberalism is incompatible with standard public health interventions such as anti-smoking measures or intervention in food markets; (2) there are special reasons for hard paternalism in public health; and (3) liberalism is incompatible with proper protection of the community good. The article argues that we should examine these critiques in a larger methodological framework by first acknowledging that the right theory of public health ethics is the one we arrive at in reflective equilibrium. Once we examine the arguments for and against liberalism in that light, we can see the weaknesses in the objections and the strength of the case for liberalism in public health. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Mental Health in Schools and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Adelman, Howard S; Taylor, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Health policy and practice call for health and mental health parity and for a greater focus on universal interventions to promote, prevent, and intervene as early after problem onset as is feasible. Those in the public health field are uniquely positioned to help promote the mental health of young people and to reshape how the nation thinks about and addresses mental health. And schools are essential partners for doing the work.

  15. [Terrorism, public health and health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.

  16. GIS and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cromley, Ellen K; McLafferty, Sara

    2012-01-01

    ...s. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy...

  17. [Health services research for the public health service (PHS) and the public health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollederer, A; Wildner, M

    2015-03-01

    There is a great need for health services research in the public health system and in the German public health service. However, the public health service is underrepresented in health services research in Germany. This has several structural, historical and disciplinary-related reasons. The public health service is characterised by a broad range of activities, high qualification requirements and changing framework conditions. The concept of health services research is similar to that of the public health service and public health system, because it includes the principles of multidisciplinarity, multiprofessionalism and daily routine orientation. This article focuses on a specified system theory based model of health services research for the public health system and public health service. The model is based on established models of the health services research and health system research, which are further developed according to specific requirements of the public health service. It provides a theoretical foundation for health services research on the macro-, meso- and microlevels in public health service and the public health system. Prospects for public health service are seen in the development from "old public health" to "new public health" as well as in the integration of health services research and health system research. There is a significant potential for development in a better linkage between university research and public health service as is the case for the "Pettenkofer School of Public Health Munich". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Ethnic differences in prevalence of general obesity and abdominal obesity among low-income rural Kazakh and Uyghur adults in far western China and implications in preventive public health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia He

    Full Text Available The global pandemic of obesity has become a disastrous public health issue that needs urgent attention. Previous studies have concentrated in high-income urban settings and few cover low-income rural settings especially nomadic residents in mountain areas. This study focused on low-income rural and nomadic minority people residing in China's far west and investigated their prevalence and ethnic differences of obesity.A questionnaire-based survey and physical examination of 8,036 individuals were conducted during 2009-2010, using stratified cluster random sampling method in nomadic Kazakhs and rural Uyghur residents (≥ 18 years old in 18 villages, Xinjiang, China, about 4,407 km away from capital Beijing. Obesity was defined by BMI and WC.The overall prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in Kazakh adults were 18.3% and 60.0%, respectively and in Uyghur, 7.6% and 54.5%, respectively. Female's prevalence of obesity was higher than male's for general obesity (45-54 age group in Uyghur, P = 0.041 and abdominal obesity (≥ 55 years in Kazakhs, P(55 ∼ = 0.010, P(65 ∼ = 0.001; and ≥ 18 years in Uyghurs, P<0.001. Kazakh's prevalence of obesity was higher than Uyghur's (general obesity: ≥ 35 years, P<0.001; abdominal obesity: ≥ 25 years in males and ≥ 65 years in females, P<0.01. The prevalence of obesity increased after 18 years old and subsequently decreased after 55 years old. Meat consumption, older age, and female gender had a higher risk of obesity in these two minorities.Both general and abdominal obesity were common in rural ethnic Kazakhs and Uyghurs. The prevalence rates were different in these two minorities depending on ethnicity, gender, and age. Kazakhs, females and elderly people may be prioritized in prevention of obesity in western China. Because of cost-effectiveness in measuring BMI and WC, we recommend that BMI and WC be integrated into local preventive policies in public health toward screening obesity and related

  19. Public Health Events and International Health Regulations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-21

    Dr. Katrin Kohl, a medical officer at the CDC, discusses the World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations for assessing and reporting on public health events across the world.  Created: 6/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/21/2012.

  20. [Mobile health for public health in Peru: lessons learned].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eloy F; Proaño, Álvaro; Ponce, Oscar J; Curioso, Walter H

    2015-01-01

    Mobile communication technologies have become more prevalent in developed and developing countries. These coun- tries -including Peru- are becoming an ideal setting where mobile health (mHealth) projects can provide better health services. The reviewed literature shows that the mHealth interventions have enormous potential to improve access and the quality of health services, increasing the effectiveness of public health programs and reducing healthcare costs. It is noticeable that these projects have a positive impact; however, despite the current information, more research is needed to understand mHealth in-depth. These projects are the foundation for future health policies that will help the Peruvian health system to be more inclusive and more effective.

  1. Child public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blair, Mitch

    2010-01-01

    .... It combined clinical and academic perspectives to explore the current state of health of our children, the historical roots of the speciality and the relationship between early infant and child...

  2. Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Other Staphylococcus Species in Raw Meat Samples Intended for Human Consumption in Benin City, Nigeria: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Beshiru, Abeni; Akporehe, Lucy U; Oviasogie, Faith E; Igbinosa, Owen O

    2016-09-24

    The present study was designed to characterize methicillin-resistant staphylococci from raw meat. A total of 126 meat samples were obtained from open markets between February and April, 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the disc diffusion method. Molecular profiling was conducted using 16S rRNA, mecA, nuc, and PVL gene signatures were detected by polymerase chain reaction assay. Fifty isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 26 (52%) pork, 14 (28%) beef and 10 (20%) chicken samples. The staphylococcal isolates were identified through partial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (16S rRNA) nucleotide sequencing, and BLAST analysis of the gene sequence revealed 98%-100% staphylococcal similarity. All isolates from beef and chicken samples amplified the mecA gene, while 100% of the MRSA isolates amplified the PVL gene. The multidrug resistance profile (resistant to ≥1 antimicrobial agent in ≥3 classes of antimicrobial agents) of the staphylococcal isolates showed that 7 isolates were resistant to methicillin, penicillin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, kanamycin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, erythromycin, vancomycin, and gentamycin. There was a significant regression effect from the multidrug-resistant profile on the number of isolates (p resistant strains within bacterial populations. The findings of the present study indicate that raw meats in the Benin metropolis were possibly contaminated with pathogenic and multi-drug resistant staphylococci strains and therefore could constitute a risk to public health communities.

  3. Assessment of health impacts of decreased smoking prevalence in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is among the leading risk factors for chronic disease and early death in developed countries, including Denmark, where smoking causes 14% of the disease burden. In Denmark, many public health interventions, including smoking prevention, are undertaken by the municipalities......, but models to estimate potential health effects of local interventions are lacking. The aim of the current study was to model the effects of decreased smoking prevalence in Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: The DYNAMO-HIA model was applied to the population of Copenhagen, by using health survey data and data......, and cessation and re-initiation rates among adults, which reduced the smoking prevalence to 4% by 2025, would have large beneficial effects on incidence and prevalence of smoking-related diseases and mortality. Health benefits could also be obtained through interventions targeting only cessation or re...

  4. Public Policy and Health Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Katherine

    2018-04-05

    To provide an overview of the history of electronic health policy and identify significant laws that influence health informatics. US Department of Health and Human Services. The development of health information technology has influenced the process for delivering health care. Public policy and regulations are an important part of health informatics and establish the structure of electronic health systems. Regulatory bodies of the government initiate policies to ease the execution of electronic health record implementation. These same bureaucratic entities regulate the system to protect the rights of the patients and providers. Nurses should have an overall understanding of the system behind health informatics and be able to advocate for change. Nurses can utilize this information to optimize the use of health informatics and campaign for safe, effective, and efficient health information technology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Personalism for public health ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.

  6. Personalism for public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo; Gainotti, Sabina; Requena, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.

  7. Genomics, medicine and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Trbovich

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health genomics unifies the scientific disciplines of genetics and public health. Public health genomics aims to facilitate the transfer of newly acquired knowledge in genetic and molecular biology into classical medicine, to evaluate the currently available genetic tests, and to educate both the medical community and the general population about advancements in molecular and cell biology of medical interest. Due to various factors, the application of new genetic discoveries in classical medicine and the evaluation of the current genetic clinical tests occur at relatively slow paste. The challenge of public health genomics is to create the most effective modus for coexistence of new molecular and cell biology discoveries and classical medical techniques in applied medicine. The ultimate goal is to accomplish a truly individualized medical therapy.

  8. Public Health Nutrition Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    ) and healthy aging. Unhealthy dietary patterns, high blood pressure and obesity are major risk factors for NCDs such as cancers, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. There exists enormous potential to promote health and prevent diseases through targeting unhealthy life style, and it is crucial...

  9. Statistical method use in public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karran, James C; Moodie, Erica E M; Wallace, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    The content of public health research is often statistically complex. This review seeks to assess the breadth of statistical literacy required to understand this material, with a view to informing practitioners' statistical training. We review the statistical content of original research articles published in 2011 in four major public health journals. Categories of statistical methodologies are identified and their frequency of use recorded. Methods' "usefulness" in terms of the extent to which their understanding increases accessibility to the literature is assessed. A total of 482 articles were reviewed and 30 categories of methods identified. Along with descriptive statistics (467 articles), regression analyses were also common, with logistic regression (206 articles) more than twice as prevalent as linear regression (95 articles). More complex regression models for use with clustered data were also commonly encountered, appearing in 96 articles. The public health literature features a wide variety of statistical methods, some of which are advanced. To ensure the literature remains accessible, training for public health practitioners should include statistical training that maximizes breadth as well as depth of understanding. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  10. Supplementing Public Health Inspection via Social Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Schomberg

    Full Text Available Foodborne illness is prevented by inspection and surveillance conducted by health departments across America. Appropriate restaurant behavior is enforced and monitored via public health inspections. However, surveillance coverage provided by state and local health departments is insufficient in preventing the rising number of foodborne illness outbreaks. To address this need for improved surveillance coverage we conducted a supplementary form of public health surveillance using social media data: Yelp.com restaurant reviews in the city of San Francisco. Yelp is a social media site where users post reviews and rate restaurants they have personally visited. Presence of keywords related to health code regulations and foodborne illness symptoms, number of restaurant reviews, number of Yelp stars, and restaurant price range were included in a model predicting a restaurant's likelihood of health code violation measured by the assigned San Francisco public health code rating. For a list of major health code violations see (S1 Table. We built the predictive model using 71,360 Yelp reviews of restaurants in the San Francisco Bay Area. The predictive model was able to predict health code violations in 78% of the restaurants receiving serious citations in our pilot study of 440 restaurants. Training and validation data sets each pulled data from 220 restaurants in San Francisco. Keyword analysis of free text within Yelp not only improved detection of high-risk restaurants, but it also served to identify specific risk factors related to health code violation. To further validate our model we applied the model generated in our pilot study to Yelp data from 1,542 restaurants in San Francisco. The model achieved 91% sensitivity 74% specificity, area under the receiver operator curve of 98%, and positive predictive value of 29% (given a substandard health code rating prevalence of 10%. When our model was applied to restaurant reviews in New York City we

  11. HCV prevalence and risk behaviours among injectors of new psychoactive substances in a risk environment in Hungary-An expanding public health burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarján, Anna; Dudás, Mária; Wiessing, Lucas; Horváth, Gergely; Rusvai, Erzsébet; Tresó, Bálint; Csohán, Ágnes

    2017-03-01

    In Hungary a large increase in injecting new psychoactive substances (NPS) coincided with decreasing harm reduction efforts and rising HCV infection. We describe these, and assess changes in HCV prevalence and risk behaviours, 2011-2014, among NPS injectors, using 2011-2015 syringe exchange programme (SEP) data as a key contextual ('risk environment') variable. We conducted repeated national sero-behavioural surveys in people who inject drugs (PWID) injecting in the last month and attending SEPs or drug treatment centres (n=399, 2011; 384, 2014), using face-to-face interviews and dried blood-spot samples. Prevalence of injected drugs and SEP coverage (2011-2015) were assessed through our national SEP monitoring system and using population size estimates. NPS injecting tripled among PWID attending SEPs in Hungary (2011: 26%; 2015: 80%). Among NPS injectors, HCV prevalence, sharing syringes and sharing any injecting equipment (last month), doubled (2011-2014: 37%-74%, 20%-48%, 42%-71%, respectively), significantly exceeding prevalence in other PWID groups. Among young NPS injectors (aged<25), HCV prevalence increased 7-fold (12%-76%), among new injectors (injecting<2years) 4-fold (13%-42%), coupled with high levels of equipment sharing (79% and 72% respectively). Not using a condom at last intercourse (79%), ever-imprisonment (65%) and last-year homelessness (57%) were highly prevalent among NPS injectors (2014). The number of syringes distributed per estimated PWID nationally fell from 114 to 81 (2011-2014) and dropped to 28 in 2015. NPS injectors in Hungary are at severe risk of blood-borne infections due to high levels of injecting and sexual risk behaviours within a high-risk environment, including continuously low SEP provision, imprisonment and homelessness. An HIV outbreak cannot be excluded. Stronger investment in evidence-based prevention measures, with special focus on young and new injectors, and expansion of hepatitis C treatment are urgently needed

  12. Keeping the "public" in schools of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation's public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation's largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities.

  13. Targeted marketing and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2010-01-01

    Targeted marketing techniques, which identify consumers who share common needs or characteristics and position products or services to appeal to and reach these consumers, are now the core of all marketing and facilitate its effectiveness. However, targeted marketing, particularly of products with proven or potential adverse effects (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, entertainment violence, or unhealthful foods) to consumer segments defined as vulnerable raises complex concerns for public health. It is critical that practitioners, academics, and policy makers in marketing, public health, and other fields recognize and understand targeted marketing as a specific contextual influence on the health of children and adolescents and, for different reasons, ethnic minority populations and other populations who may benefit from public health protections. For beneficial products, such understanding can foster more socially productive targeting. For potentially harmful products, understanding the nature and scope of targeted marketing influences will support identification and implementation of corrective policies.

  14. Ethnic Differences in Prevalence of General Obesity and Abdominal Obesity among Low-Income Rural Kazakh and Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Implications in Preventive Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Guo, Shuxia; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Mei; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Shugang; Xu, Shangzhi; Niu, Qiang; Guo, Heng; Ma, Rulin

    2014-01-01

    Background The global pandemic of obesity has become a disastrous public health issue that needs urgent attention. Previous studies have concentrated in high-income urban settings and few cover low-income rural settings especially nomadic residents in mountain areas. This study focused on low-income rural and nomadic minority people residing in China’s far west and investigated their prevalence and ethnic differences of obesity. Methods A questionnaire-based survey and physical examination of 8,036 individuals were conducted during 2009–2010, using stratified cluster random sampling method in nomadic Kazakhs and rural Uyghur residents (≥18 years old) in 18 villages, Xinjiang, China, about 4,407 km away from capital Beijing. Obesity was defined by BMI and WC. Results The overall prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in Kazakh adults were 18.3% and 60.0%, respectively and in Uyghur, 7.6% and 54.5%, respectively. Female’s prevalence of obesity was higher than male’s for general obesity (45–54 age group in Uyghur, P = 0.041) and abdominal obesity (≥55 years in Kazakhs, P55∼ = 0.010, P65∼ = 0.001; and ≥18 years in Uyghurs, Pobesity was higher than Uyghur’s (general obesity: ≥35 years, Pobesity: ≥25 years in males and ≥65 years in females, Pobesity increased after 18 years old and subsequently decreased after 55 years old. Meat consumption, older age, and female gender had a higher risk of obesity in these two minorities. Conclusions Both general and abdominal obesity were common in rural ethnic Kazakhs and Uyghurs. The prevalence rates were different in these two minorities depending on ethnicity, gender, and age. Kazakhs, females and elderly people may be prioritized in prevention of obesity in western China. Because of cost-effectiveness in measuring BMI and WC, we recommend that BMI and WC be integrated into local preventive policies in public health toward screening obesity and related diseases in low-income rural

  15. The right to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James

    2016-06-01

    Much work in public health ethics is shaped by an 'autonomy first' view, which takes it to be axiomatic that it is difficult to justify state interference in the lives of competent adults unless the behaviours interfered with are compromised in terms of their autonomy, or would wrongfully infringe on the autonomy of others. However, such an approach is difficult to square with much of traditional public heath practice. Recent years have seen running battles between those who assume that an 'autonomy first' approach is basically sound (and so much the worse for public health practice) and those who assume that public health practice is basically sound (and so much the worse for the 'autonomy first' approach). This paper aims to reconcile in a normatively satisfying way what is best about the 'autonomy first' approach with what is best about a standard public health approach. It develops a positive case for state action to promote and protect health as a duty that is owed to each individual. According to this view, the state violates individuals' rights if it fails to take cost-effective and proportionate measures to remove health threats from the environment. It is thus a mistake to approach public health in the way that 'autonomy first' accounts do, as primarily a matter of individual entitlements versus the common good. Too little state intervention in the cause of improving population health can violate individuals' rights, just as too much can. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Urinary infection in patients of public health care of Campo Mourão-PR, Brazil: bacterial prevalence and sensitivity profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane dos Santos Bitencourt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cases of bacterial resistance in urinary tract infections (UTIs have increased significantly, mainly due to indiscriminate use of antimicrobials. Objective: Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganisms isolated in urine cultures of patients of Consórcio Intermunicipal de Saúde da Comunidade dos Municípios da Região de Campo Mourão (CISCOMCAM clinical laboratory. Method: We performed a retrospective study of data from urine culture and sensitivity done between January 2012 and December 2013. Results: The most prevalent bacteria were Escherichia coli; women were the most affected gender and people 16-45 years, the most affected age group. The sensitivity profile showed that the antimicrobial combination trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole was not associated with the highest rate of bacterial resistance (59.7% and the combination of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid showed the lowest resistance rate (15.3%. For most antimicrobials, including ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, the rates of bacterial resistance have increased from 2012 to 2013 with statistical significance (p < 0.05 in some cases. Discussion: The prevalence of Gram-negative bacilli in urinary infections is due to the fact that intestinal flora is rich in enterobacteria, and women are most affected by anatomical factors. The development of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials probably arises from their indiscriminate use. Conclusion: The rate of microbial resistance has risen, showing the need for a more effective control of antimicrobial use.

  17. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Lehua B; Smith, Heidi Hansen; Espiritu, Justine; Higa, Earl; Lee, Thomas; Maddock, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2011, a small pilot bike share program was established in the town core of Kailua, Hawai‘i, with funding from the Hawai‘i State Department of Health. The Kailua system consisted of two stations with 12 bicycles, and the goal was to secure additional funding to expand the station network in the future. Community feedback consistently indicated support for the bike share program. However, system metrics showed low levels of usage, averaging 41.5 rides per month (2011–2014). From observational data, users were primarily tourists. With minimal local staff, the bike share program had limited resources for promotion and education, which may have hindered potential use by local residents. Management of station operations and bike maintenance were additional, ongoing barriers to success. Despite the challenges, the pilot bike share program was valuable in several ways. It introduced the bike share concept to Hawai‘i, thereby helping to build awareness and connect an initial network of stakeholders. Furthermore, the pilot bike share program informed the development of a larger bike share program for urban Honolulu. As limited information exists in the literature about the experiences of smaller bike share programs and their unique considerations, this article shares lessons learned for other communities interested in starting similar bike share programs. PMID:26535166

  18. Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiébaut, R; Thiessard, F

    2017-08-01

    Objectives: To summarize current research in the field of Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics. Methods : The complete 2016 literature concerning public health and epidemiology informatics has been searched in PubMed and Web of Science, and the returned references were reviewed by the two section editors to select 14 candidate best papers. These papers were then peer-reviewed by external reviewers to allow the editorial team an enlightened selection of the best papers. Results : Among the 829 references retrieved from PubMed and Web of Science, three were finally selected as best papers. The first one compares Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia as tools for Influenza surveillance. The second paper presents a Geographic Knowledge-Based Model for mapping suitable areas for Rift Valley fever transmission in Eastern Africa. The last paper evaluates the factors associated with the visit of Facebook pages devoted to Public Health Communication. Conclusions: Surveillance is still a productive topic in public health informatics but other very important topics in public health are appearing. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  19. Crowdsourcing applications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabham, Daren C; Ribisl, Kurt M; Kirchner, Thomas R; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2014-02-01

    Crowdsourcing is an online, distributed, problem-solving, and production model that uses the collective intelligence of networked communities for specific purposes. Although its use has benefited many sectors of society, it has yet to be fully realized as a method for improving public health. This paper defines the core components of crowdsourcing and proposes a framework for understanding the potential utility of crowdsourcing in the domain of public health. Four discrete crowdsourcing approaches are described (knowledge discovery and management; distributed human intelligence tasking; broadcast search; and peer-vetted creative production types) and a number of potential applications for crowdsourcing for public health science and practice are enumerated. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  20. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  1. VISUALIZATION OF PUBLIC HEALTH DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Kotova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health dynamics is one of the main methodological approaches to study spatiotemporal patterns of the population diseases spreading and to create nosogeographic maps. It is one of validity terms of geographic public health assessment and forecast. Dynamics maps usually show emergence, development, past stages, changes, and movement of analyzed phenomena. Analysis of medical-geographic maps showed that the choice of methods and techniques for elaborating dynamic aspects is limited. The results of comprehensive medical-geographic atlas mapping obtained in the Department of Biogeography and Laboratory of Integrated Mapping (Faculty of Geography, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia have significantly improved this situation and demonstrated the benefits of cartographic approaches and graphic methods of visualization of public health dynamics. However, these benefits as an integral problem has not been fully realized yet and research in this direction should continue. 

  2. Gambling and the Health of the Public: Adopting a Public Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, David A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    1999-01-01

    During the last decade there has been an unprecedented expansion of legalized gambling throughout North America. Three primary forces appear to be motivating this growth: (1) the desire of governments to identify new sources of revenue without invoking new or higher taxes; (2) tourism entrepreneurs developing new destinations for entertainment and leisure; and (3) the rise of new technologies and forms of gambling (e.g., video lottery terminals, powerball mega-lotteries, and computer offshore gambling). Associated with this phenomenon, there has been an increase in the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling among the general adult population, as well as a sustained high level of gambling-related problems among youth. To date there has been little dialogue within the public health sector in particular, or among health care practitioners in general, about the potential health impact of gambling or gambling-related problems. This article encourages the adoption of a public health perspective towards gambling. More specifically, this discussion has four primary objectives:1. Create awareness among health professionals about gambling, its rapid expansion and its relationship with the health care system;2. Place gambling within a public health framework by examining it from several perspectives, including population health, human ecology and addictive behaviors;3. Outline the major public health issues about how gambling can affect individuals, families and communities;4. Propose an agenda for strengthening policy, prevention and treatment practices through greater public health involvement, using the framework of The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion as a guide.By understanding gambling and its potential impacts on the public's health, policy makers and health practitioners can minimize gambling's negative impacts and appreciate its potential benefits.

  3. Violência na gestação entre usuárias de serviços públicos de saúde da Grande São Paulo: prevalência e fatores associados Violence during pregnancy among public health care users in the Greater São Paulo area: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Garcia Durand

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta investigação é estimar a prevalência da violência por parceiro íntimo na gestação entre usuárias de serviços públicos de saúde da Grande São Paulo e verificar sua associação com fatores sociodemográficos, de saúde reprodutiva, sexual e mental. A estratégia metodológica deste estudo consistiu na realização de entrevistas estruturadas (questionário com 1.922 usuárias, entre 15 e 49 anos, em 14 serviços públicos de saúde. A análise dos dados revelou que 20% das usuárias que já engravidaram (IC95% 18,2 a 21,8 referem algum episódio de violência por parceiro íntimo na gestação. Em análise multivariada, observou-se que 'ter sofrido violência psicológica e física perpetrada por familiar', 'início da vida sexual antes dos 19 anos', 'recusa de uso de camisinha pelo parceiro', 'Transtorno Mental Comum' e 'não coabitar com parceiro' são fatores associados à violência na gestação. Conclui-se que a alta prevalência da violência por parceiro íntimo na gestação, sua associação com diversos fatores de saúde sexual, reprodutiva e mental são resultados que indicam a relevância de se tomar a violência como questão de saúde.OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of IPV (intimate partner violence during pregnancy and its association with demographic and reproductive, sexual and mental health factors among public health care users in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: a interview with 1,922 health care users, ages 15 to 49, in 14 public healthcare services. RESULTS: 20% (CI95% 18.2 to 21.8 reported IPV during pregnancy. Multiple logistic regression indicated that frequent family violence, having more than 2 pregnancies, beginning sexual life before 19 years of age, partner's refusal to wear condom, mental health problems, and being single are factors associated with IPV during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence rate for IPV during pregnancy indicates that this issue should be regarded as a

  4. Tobacco: coopting our public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, M D

    1996-01-01

    Communication is a tool that can be used to promote public health. The case of tobacco illustrates, however, that behavior change can only be advocated, not ensured. The tobacco industry has focused on individual- and societal-level actions that effectively sabotage antismoking campaigns. Health communication researchers should pay special attention to how politics is subverted, the principle of freedom of speech is abused, message framing encourages the continued marketing of cigarettes, and tobacco advertising swamps public health messages in both quantity and style. The field of health communication should do two things to help counter this campaign. First, we should make a concerted effort to refute the arguments offered by the tobacco companies. Second, we should continue to take action on four levels--as individuals, as responsible citizens, in support of organizations, and to create societal changes that will reduce the use of tobacco.

  5. The prevalence and factors associated for anti-tuberculosis treatment non-adherence among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in public health care facilities in South Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadele Teshome Woimo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence exists pointing out how non-adherence to treatment remains a major hurdle to efficient tuberculosis control in developing countries. Many tuberculosis (Tb patients do not complete their six-month course of anti-tuberculosis medications and are not aware of the importance of sputum re-examinations, thereby putting themselves at risk of developing multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis and relapse. However, there is a dearth of publications about non-adherence towards anti-Tb medication in these settings. We assessed the prevalence of and associated factors for anti-Tb treatment non-adherence in public health care facilities of South Ethiopia. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative study was conducted among 261 Tb patients from 17 health centers and one general hospital. The qualitative aspect included an in-depth interview of 14 key informants. For quantitative data, the analysis of descriptive statistics, bivariate and multiple logistic regression was carried out, while thematic framework analysis was applied for the qualitative data. Results The prevalence of non-adherence towards anti-Tb treatment was 24.5%. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that poor knowledge towards tuberculosis and its treatment (AOR = 4.6, 95%CI: 1.4-15.6, cost of medication other than Tb (AOR = 4.7, 95%CI: 1.7-13.4, having of health information at every visit (AOR = 3, 95% CI: 1.1-8.4 and distance of DOTS center from individual home (AOR = 5.7, 95%CI: 1.9-16.8 showed statistically significant association with non-adherence towards anti- tuberculosis treatment. Qualitative study also revealed that distance, lack of awareness about importance of treatment completion and cost of transportation were the major barriers for adherence. Conclusions A quarter of Tb patients interrupted their treatment due to knowledge

  6. Nuclear power and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The nuclear power industry has always emphasized the health and safety aspects of the various stages of power production. Nevertheless, the question of public acceptance is becoming increasingly important in the expansion of nuclear power programmes. Objections may arise partly from the tendency to accept familiar hazards but to react violently to unfamiliar ones such as radiation, which is not obvious to the senses and may result in delayed adverse effects, sometimes manifested only in the descendants of the individuals subjected to the radiation. The public health authorities therefore have an important role in educating the public to overcome these fears. However, they also have the duty to reassure the public and convince it that proper care has been taken to protect man and his environment. This duty can be fulfilled by means of independent evaluation and control to ensure that safe nuclear facilities are built, care is taken with their siting, they are operated safely, and the effects of possible accidents are minimized. The selection and development of a nuclear power facility should be carried out with a sound understanding of the factors involved. WHO has collaborated with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the preparation of a booklet summarizing the available information on the subject. It deals with the role of atomic energy in meeting future power needs, radiation protection standards, the safe handling of radioactive materials, disturbances of the environment arising from plant construction and ancillary operations, and the public health implications

  7. Retracted Publications in Orthopaedics: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rahul; Sabharwal, Sanjeev

    2017-05-03

    Retracted publications are a crucial, yet overlooked, issue in the scientific community. The purpose of our study was to assess the prevalence, characteristics, and trends of retracted publications in the field of orthopaedics. Five databases were utilized to identify retracted publications in orthopaedics. The cited articles were assessed for various characteristics, including reason for retraction, based on the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines and trends over time. From 1984 to June 4, 2016, 59 of 229,502 orthopaedic publications were retracted (3 per 10,000 articles). There was a spike in the prevalence (22 of 59) of retracted articles in 2015. When compared with the total number of retracted publications identified through PubMed, the field of orthopaedics represented 1.4% of all retracted publications. The original version of 47 of these 59 retracted publications was still available on the respective journal's web site; 14 (30%) of these were not noted as having been retracted. The mean time from electronic publication to retraction was 19.4 ± 23.3 months. The mean number of citations of a retracted publication after the date of retraction was 9.3 ± 19.3. Reasons for retraction included plagiarism (32%), misconduct (27%), redundant publication (22%), miscalculation or experimental error (8%), and unethical research (0%); the reason for retraction was not stated for 10% of the publications. There was no correlation between a journal's impact factor and the mean number of months to retraction (p = 0.564). While uncommon, the retraction of publications within the field of orthopaedics may be increasing. The most often cited reasons for retraction were plagiarism, misconduct, and redundant publication. Retracted articles continue to be cited in the literature after retraction. Greater awareness of the COPE guidelines within the orthopaedic community and more efficient means to prevent the citation of retracted articles are needed.

  8. Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahault, A; Bar-Hen, A; Paragios, N

    2016-11-10

    The aim of this manuscript is to provide a brief overview of the scientific challenges that should be addressed in order to unlock the full potential of using data from a general point of view, as well as to present some ideas that could help answer specific needs for data understanding in the field of health sciences and epidemiology. A survey of uses and challenges of big data analyses for medicine and public health was conducted. The first part of the paper focuses on big data techniques, algorithms, and statistical approaches to identify patterns in data. The second part describes some cutting-edge applications of analyses and predictive modeling in public health. In recent years, we witnessed a revolution regarding the nature, collection, and availability of data in general. This was especially striking in the health sector and particularly in the field of epidemiology. Data derives from a large variety of sources, e.g. clinical settings, billing claims, care scheduling, drug usage, web based search queries, and Tweets. The exploitation of the information (data mining, artificial intelligence) relevant to these data has become one of the most promising as well challenging tasks from societal and scientific viewpoints in order to leverage the information available and making public health more efficient.

  9. Policy, politics and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Bekker, Marleen; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Wismar, Matthias; Helderman, Jan-Kees; Ribeiro, Sofia; Stuckler, David

    2017-10-01

    If public health is the field that diagnoses and strives to cure social ills, then understanding political causes and cures for health problems should be an intrinsic part of the field. In this article, we argue that there is no support for the simple and common, implicit model of politics in which scientific evidence plus political will produces healthy policies. Efforts to improve the translation of evidence into policy such as knowledge transfer work only under certain circumstances. These circumstances are frequently political, and to be understood through systematic inquiry into basic features of the political economy such as institutions, partisanship and the organization of labour markets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. [The ALANAM statement on public health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Alejando; Armas, Rodolfo

    2010-12-01

    The ALANAM (Association of Latin American National Academies of Medicine) statement on public health policy, issued following its 19th Congress, held October 28–30, 2010, in Santiago, Chile, declares that cardiovascular diseases, cancer, accidents and violence are the leading causes of death in the region, while in several of its member nations, emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases, malnutrition, and mother-child illnesses remain prevalent. The statement calls attention to the lack of functioning water supply and sewage systems in many villages and rural areas. After describing the social causes of the present state of public health in Latin America (poverty levels reaching upwards of 44% of the total population, or some 110 million people), it calls on governments, first, to spare no efforts in the task of eradicating extreme poverty in the short-term, and poverty in the long-term. Second, considering that about 15 million 3-to-6 year-olds have no access to education, it recommends extending educational services to these children, and to improve the quality of existing pre-school and primary education. Third, the statement calls for universal health care coverage and for equal access to good quality medical care for everyone, and for programs aimed at promoting healthy personal habits and self-care. In this regard, it also recommends that disease prevention programs be sustained over time, that national sanitary objectives be defined, and that its results be periodically reviewed. Fourth, it recommends that primary health care be extended to everyone, and that it be enhanced by improving coverage and coordination with secondary and tertiary level health care institutions. The statement lays special stress on the need for adopting public health policies aimed at lowering the cost of medicines; to this end, it calls for the creation of an official list of generic drugs. The statement ends by calling on governments to support public health research as a

  11. Public Health Ethics and Liberalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoilska, Lubomira

    2009-07-01

    This paper defends a distinctly liberal approach to public health ethics and replies to possible objections. In particular, I look at a set of recent proposals aiming to revise and expand liberalism in light of public health's rationale and epidemiological findings. I argue that they fail to provide a sociologically informed version of liberalism. Instead, they rest on an implicit normative premise about the value of health, which I show to be invalid. I then make explicit the unobvious, republican background of these proposals. Finally, I expand on the liberal understanding of freedom as non-interference and show its advantages over the republican alternative of freedom as non-domination within the context of public health. The views of freedom I discuss in the paper do not overlap with the classical distinction between negative and positive freedom. In addition, my account differentiates the concepts of freedom and autonomy and does not rule out substantive accounts of the latter. Nor does it confine political liberalism to an essentially procedural form.

  12. The Chief Public Health Officer's report on health inequalities: what are the implications for public health practitioners and researchers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; McIntyre, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The first annual report of the Chief Public Health Officer on the State of Public Health in Canada draws notable attention to health inequalities in Canada. This report provides a compelling presentation of our current health status and the uneven distribution of health across the population, noting persistent and sizeable gaps in life expectancy, infant mortality, self-reported health, prevalence of chronic diseases, and other health indicators between higher- and lower-income groups, as well as the extraordinary disadvantage experienced by Canada's Aboriginal peoples. However, the report falls short of offering a critical approach to addressing and reducing health inequalities. It fails to stimulate thinking about integrated strategies by profiling current responses that do little to address the underlying structural drivers of health inequalities and ignoring the population health framework's recognition of the complex interactions among the determinants of health. Despite its shortcomings, the report shines a light on major health inequalities in Canada, providing a foundation for further action. Public health workers in this country must build on this foundation, working together and with all sectors and levels of government to identify and implement integrated strategies to reduce health inequalities and inequities in Canada.

  13. [Social marketing and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as

  14. Surgery, public health, and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Syed Nabeel; McQueen, K A Kelly

    2011-12-01

    Surgical healthcare is rapidly gaining recognition as a major public health issue. Surgical disparities are large, with poorest populations receiving the least amount of emergency and essential surgical care. In light of recent evidence, developing countries, such as Pakistan, must acknowledge surgical disease as a major public health issue and prioritize research and intervention accordingly. We review information from various sources and describe the current situation of surgical health care in Pakistan and highlight areas of neglect. Pakistan suffers an annual deficit of 17 million surgeries. Surgical disease kills more people than infectious diseases inclusive of tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, diarrheal disease, and childhood infections. The incidence of trauma and maternal mortality ratio are staggeringly high. There is a severe dearth of surgical and anesthesia-related epidemiological data. Important information that would help to drive policy and planning is not available. Corruption and neglect have led to a dilapidated health care infrastructure. Surgical care is largely inaccessible to the poor, especially those living in rural areas. The country faces a dearth of healthcare professionals, especially paramedics, anesthetists, and surgeons. Unsafe surgery and anesthesia poses a significant risk to patients. There is no national policy on surgical illness and the preventive aspects of surgery are nonexistent. Consistent with other underdeveloped countries, surgical care in Pakistan is dismal. Neglecting surgery and safe anesthesia has led to countless deaths and disability. Physicians, researchers, policy makers, and the government health care system must engage and commit to provide access to emergency, essential, and safe surgical care.

  15. Ethics in Public Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Valerie A.; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public–Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646

  16. Strengthening public health research for improved health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gea-Izquierdo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Research in public health is a range that includes from fundamental research to research in clinical practice, including novel advances, evaluation of results and their spreading. Actually, public health research is considered multidisciplinary incorporating numerous factors in its development. Establishing as a mainstay the scientific method, deepens in basic research, clinical epidemiological research and health services. The premise of quality and relevance is reflected in international scientific research, and in the daily work and good biomedical practices that should be included in the research as a common task. Therefore, the research must take a proactive stance of inquiry, integrating a concern planned and ongoing development of knowledge. This requires improve international coordination, seeking a balance between basic and applied research as well as science and technology. Thus research cannot be considered without innovation, weighing up the people and society needs. Acting on knowledge of scientific production processes requires greater procedures thoroughness and the effective expression of the results. It is noted as essential to establish explicit principles in review and evaluation of the adjustments of actions, always within the standards of scientific conduct and fairness of the research process. In the biomedical scientific lines it have to be consider general assessments that occur related to the impact and quality of health research, mostly leading efforts to areas that require further attention. However, other subject areas that may be deficient or with lower incidence in the population should not be overlook. Health research as a source of new applications and development provides knowledge, improving well-being. However, it is understandable without considering the needs and social demands. Therefore, in public health research and to improve the health of the population, we must refine and optimize the prevention and

  17. Estimating Local Prevalence of Mental Health Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Stern

    2011-01-01

    Provision of mental health services is in a state of ?ux as the Patient Protection and A¤ordable Care Act a¤ects provision and cost of medical care and state policymakers grapple with di¢ cult tradeo¤s between budget balance and provi- sion of public medical care. Mental health care provision is actually a relatively small part of the total cost of medical care provision.

  18. Prevalence of systemic diseases among patients requesting dental consultation in the public and private systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Feijoo, Javier; Garea-Gorís, Rafael; Fernández-Varela, Marta; Tomás-Carmona, Inmaculada; Diniz-Freitas, Marcio; Limeres-Posse, Jacobo

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and aetiology of systemic disease among patients requesting dental treatment in public and private practice. Study Design: A retrospective analysis was performed of the medical histories of 2000 patients requesting dental treatment during the year 2009. One thousand patients came from the Fontiñas Primary Care Oral and Dental Health Unit of the Galician Health Service (SERGAS), Spain, and the other thousand from a private clinic; both clinics were situa...

  19. Public health interventions: evaluating the economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Forster

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed much progress in the incorporation of economic considerations into the evaluation of public health interventions. In England, the Centre for Public Health Excellence within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence works to develop guidance for preventing illness and assessing which public health interventions are most effective and provide best value for money...

  20. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, J.E.; Alajbeg, I.; Buchler, S.; Carrassi, A.; Hovius, M.; Jacobs, A.; Jenner, M.; Kinnunen, T.; Ulbricht, S.; Zoitopoulos, L.

    2010-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  1. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  2. [Pathological gambling and its consequences for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria Paula Magalhães Tavares de; Silveira, Dartiu Xavier da; Silva, Maria Teresa Araujo

    2008-06-01

    The article aimed to characterize pathological gambling, showing the main consequences of this disorder. Bibliographic survey on this theme was conducted, covering both national and international literature. Publications whose main findings emphasized related prevalence, social and economic costs, gambling legalization and resulting impact on public health, were selected. High suicide rate, comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, family and work problems, and illicit behavior were consequences reported. The prevalence of this disorder is higher in countries that have legalized gambling and in Brazil there is evidence of growth in the number of pathological gamblers. The development of national research is fundamental to define public policies that are adequate for the Brazilian context.

  3. Prevalence And Public Health Importance Of Microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tv.v24i3.4587 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  4. Public health and demographic statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, C.H.; Loebl, A.S.; Miller, F.L.; Ritchey, P.N. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to assess the methodology and available data sources appropriate for use in analytical studies and environmental impact statements concerning the health effects of nuclear power plants. The techniques developed should be applicable as well to evaluation of the known risks of high levels of radiation exposure and of conflicting evidence on low-level effects, such as those associated with the normal operations of nuclear power plants. To accomplish this purpose, a two-pronged approach has been developed. The first involves a determination of the public health and demographic data sources of local, state, and federal origin that are available for use in analyses of health effects and environmental impact statements. The second part involves assessment of the methods used by epidemiologists, biostatisticians, and other scientists as found in the literature on health effects. This two-pronged approach provides a means of assessing the strength and shortcomings of studies of the impact of nuclear facilities on the health of the general population in a given locality

  5. The Partnership of Public Health and Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenc, Marjetka

    2016-06-01

    Public health focuses on health of the population and it is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis. Anthropology covers most aspects that concern human beings. Both sciences converge on community and this fact represents a foundation for the partnership between public health and anthropology. Biological/medical anthropology is one of the highly developed fi elds of anthropology and the most important for public health.

  6. Prevalence of systemic diseases among patients requesting dental consultation in the public and private systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garea-Gorís, Rafael; Fernández-Varela, Marta; Tomás-Carmona, Inmaculada; Diniz-Freitas, Marcio; Limeres-Posse, Jacobo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and aetiology of systemic disease among patients requesting dental treatment in public and private practice. Study Design: A retrospective analysis was performed of the medical histories of 2000 patients requesting dental treatment during the year 2009. One thousand patients came from the Fontiñas Primary Care Oral and Dental Health Unit of the Galician Health Service (SERGAS), Spain, and the other thousand from a private clinic; both clinics were situated in Santiago de Compostela, La Coruña, Spain. The data collected were the following: demographic data (age and sex), presence or absence of systemic diseases and the nosologic categories, and drug history (type and number of drugs). Results: The prevalence of systemic disease was significantly higher among patients seen in the public system (35.2% in the public system versus 28.1% in the private system; p= 0.003). The differences between the two systems were more marked when considering patients aged under 65 years, particularly with respect to rheumatic and endocrine-metabolic (diabetes) disorders. The prevalence of patients receiving polypharmacy (>4 drugs/day) was significantly higher among patients seen in the public system (5.7% in the public system versus 2.7% in the private system; p= 0.009). Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of medical disorders and of patients receiving polypharmacy among individuals requesting dental care, particularly in the public health system. Dentists must have adequate training in medical disease and must be fully integrated into primary care health teams in order to prevent or adequately resolve complications. Key words: Dentistry, medical history, systemic disease, polypharmacy. PMID:22157672

  7. The public health system in England

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunter, David J; Marks, Linda; Smith, Katherine E

    2010-01-01

    .... The Public Health System in England offers a wide-ranging, provocative and accessible assessment of challenges confronting a public health system, exploring how its parameters have shifted over time...

  8. Does More Public Health Spending Buy Better Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, James; Sung, Jaesang; Honore, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to address a persistent question in the health policy literature: Does more public health spending buy better health? This is a difficult question to answer due to unobserved differences in public health across regions as well as the potential for an endogenous relationship between public health spending and public health outcomes. We take advantage of the unique way in which public health is funded in Georgia to avoid this endogeneity problem, using a twelve year panel dataset of Georgia county public health expenditures and outcomes in order to address the "unobservables" problem. We find that increases in public health spending lead to increases in mortality by several different causes, including early deaths and heart disease deaths. We also find that increases in such spending leads to increases in morbidity from heart disease. Our results suggest that more public health funding may not always lead to improvements in health outcomes at the county level.

  9. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…

  10. The pull of public health studies

    OpenAIRE

    Braine, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Public health has burgeoned over the past 100 years, from the study of tropical diseases in the 19th century to national public health systems after World War One and, more recently, to include international public health. Education has kept up with these trends, and today there are hundreds of schools around the world, many flourishing in developing countries.

  11. [Public health services between "new public health" and "new public management"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppen, M

    1996-04-01

    Today, a substantial reorientation of the Public Health services in the Federal Republic of Germany is broadly seen necessary. Patterns of functional and organisational restructuring of Public Health services on the regional and the communal level are closely linked with concepts of prevention and health promotion. Hence, a number of agencies have already adopted new tasks and functions like comprehensive and transorganizational planning, coordination and evaluation as well as the establishment of new reporting systems. Presently, the transformation process from the bureaucratic mode of administering matters of health to a new Public Health orientation receives new impacts from the international "New Public Management" movement. Comparatively late, with the beginning of the 1990s, a growing number of German municipalities has introduced new concepts of administration. Local government administrations, of which the Public Health services are a part, follow the model of modern service organizations producing services in a more efficient, professionalized and consumer-oriented way. Specific elements of economising modernisation programmes like re-distribution of tasks, de-centralisation, extension of managerial capacities, setting of stimulating working conditions that provide employees with greater independence of action as well as career opportunities, are at the same time prerequisites for innovative strategies of health protection and coordination policies of Public Health services.

  12. Global Disease Detection-Achievements in Applied Public Health Research, Capacity Building, and Public Health Diplomacy, 2001-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Carol Y; Goryoka, Grace W; Henao, Olga L; Clarke, Kevin R; Salyer, Stephanie J; Montgomery, Joel M

    2017-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has established 10 Global Disease Detection (GDD) Program regional centers around the world that serve as centers of excellence for public health research on emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. The core activities of the GDD Program focus on applied public health research, surveillance, laboratory, public health informatics, and technical capacity building. During 2015-2016, program staff conducted 205 discrete projects on a range of topics, including acute respiratory illnesses, health systems strengthening, infectious diseases at the human-animal interface, and emerging infectious diseases. Projects incorporated multiple core activities, with technical capacity building being most prevalent. Collaborating with host countries to implement such projects promotes public health diplomacy. The GDD Program continues to work with countries to strengthen core capacities so that emerging diseases can be detected and stopped faster and closer to the source, thereby enhancing global health security.

  13. Global Disease Detection—Achievements in Applied Public Health Research, Capacity Building, and Public Health Diplomacy, 2001–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryoka, Grace W.; Henao, Olga L.; Clarke, Kevin R.; Salyer, Stephanie J.; Montgomery, Joel M.

    2017-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has established 10 Global Disease Detection (GDD) Program regional centers around the world that serve as centers of excellence for public health research on emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. The core activities of the GDD Program focus on applied public health research, surveillance, laboratory, public health informatics, and technical capacity building. During 2015–2016, program staff conducted 205 discrete projects on a range of topics, including acute respiratory illnesses, health systems strengthening, infectious diseases at the human–animal interface, and emerging infectious diseases. Projects incorporated multiple core activities, with technical capacity building being most prevalent. Collaborating with host countries to implement such projects promotes public health diplomacy. The GDD Program continues to work with countries to strengthen core capacities so that emerging diseases can be detected and stopped faster and closer to the source, thereby enhancing global health security. PMID:29155662

  14. Prevalence and characterisation of non-cholerae Vibrio spp. in final effluents of wastewater treatment facilities in two districts of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Anthony I; Sibanda, Timothy; Nongogo, Vuyokazi; Adefisoye, Martins; Olayemi, Osuolale O; Nontongana, Nolonwabo

    2015-02-01

    Vibrios and other enteric pathogens can be found in wastewater effluents of a healthy population. We assessed the prevalence of three non-cholerae vibrios in wastewater effluents of 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chris Hani and Amathole district municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa for a period of 12 months. With the exception of WWTP10 where presumptive vibrios were not detected in summer and spring, presumptive vibrios were detected in all seasons in other WWTP effluents. When a sample of 1,000 presumptive Vibrio isolates taken from across all sampling sites were subjected to molecular confirmation for Vibrio, 668 were confirmed to belong to the genus Vibrio, giving a prevalence rate of 66.8 %. Further, molecular characterisation of 300 confirmed Vibrio isolates revealed that 11.6 % (35) were Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 28.6 % (86) were Vibrio fluvialis and 28 % (84) were Vibrio vulnificus while 31.8 % (95) belonged to other Vibrio spp. not assayed for in this study. Antibiogram profiling of the three Vibrio species showed that V. parahaemolyticus was ≥50 % susceptible to 8 of the test antibiotics and ≥50 % resistant to only 5 of the 13 test antibiotics, while V. vulnificus showed a susceptibility profile of ≥50 % to 7 of the test antibiotics and a resistance profile of ≥50 % to 6 of the 13 test antibiotics. V. fluvialis showed ≥50 % resistance to 8 of the 13 antibiotics used while showing ≥50 % susceptibility to only 4 antibiotics used. All three Vibrio species were susceptible to gentamycin, cefuroxime, meropenem and imipenem. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also evident especially against such antibiotics as tetracyclin, polymixin B, penicillin G, sulfamethazole and erythromycin against which all Vibrio species were resistant. These results indicate a significant threat to public health, more so in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa which is characterised by widespread poverty, with more than a

  15. Shaping and authorising a public health profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Czabanowska

    2015-12-01

    doctors, nurses, lawyers, and architects can enjoy the benefits of the 2005/36/EC Directive amended by 2013/55/EU Directive on the recognition of professional qualifications, public health professionals are left out from these influential (elite professions. Firstly, we use the profession traits theory as a framework in arguing whether public health can be a legitimate profession in itself; secondly, we explain who public health professionals are and what usually is required for shaping the public health profession; and thirdly, we attempt to sketch the road to the authorisation or licensing of public health professionals. Finally, we propose some recommendations.

  16. Publishing on policy: trends in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Amy A; Dreisinger, Mariah

    2011-01-01

    Our goal was to explore the number and topics of policy articles published in general public health journals. We conducted an audit of articles in 16 public health journals from 1998 through 2008. Results showed no trends for the decade studied; only 3.7% of all articles published in these journals were policy-related, and the topics most represented were smoking/tobacco, health care, and school policy. As policy research on public health issues continues to develop, researchers have an opportunity to increase dissemination through publication in general public health journals.

  17. Editorial: Ethics in public health: Bloomberg's battle and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.F.; Dawson, A.

    2013-01-01

    The growing prevalence of obesity and related conditions such as Type II diabetes is held by many to be a major public health problem in developed countries, and increasingly in developing countries as well (Popkin et al., 2012). If we wish to tackle this problem, it will be a major task.

  18. Risk factors analysis and implications for public health of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a neglected zoonosis of cattle that is prevalent but under-investigated in Cameroon. Based on epidemiological data of the disease, this study was designed to assess the risks and public health implications for zoonotic M. bovis infection in cattle and humans in the highlands of Cameroon.

  19. East African Journal of Public Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East African Journal of Public Health is a multi-disciplinary journal publishing scientific research work from a range of public health related disciplines including community medicine, epidemiology, nutrition, behavioural sciences, health promotion, health education, communicable and non-communicable disease.

  20. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of a...

  1. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises.

  2. [Nutrigenomics, obesity and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira Rodríguez, Manuela-Belén; Martínez-Piñeiro Muñoz, Lourdes; Carraro Casieri, Raffaele

    2007-01-01

    Functional genomics will change knowledge and practice in clinical nutrition in the forthcoming years. The possibility of performing an individual's genetic profile (genetic variations and epigenetic modifications) as well as the ability of its integration in a complex network of metabolic interactions represents a huge challenge in Human Nutrition. The influence of nutrigenomics in terms of prevention and treatment of chronic diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in a population level remains undetermined for the moment. The opportunity of nutritional intervention in critical stages of development and the chance of changing genetic susceptibility to diseases through diet in a Public Health basis should lead the future of nutrigenomics beyond the mere design of "personalized" functional food or diets.

  3. Qualitative and mixed methods in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padgett, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    "This text has a large emphasis on mixed methods, examples relating to health research, new exercises pertaining to health research, and an introduction on qualitative and mixed methods in public health...

  4. Health Insurance Marketplace Public Use Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A set of seven (7) public use files containing information on health insurance issuers participating in the Health Insurance Marketplace and certified qualified...

  5. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  6. Undergraduate Public Health Majors: Why They Choose Public Health or Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the relationship between the motivations for attending college of undergraduate students with a focus on students with a public health major, and their desire to pursue graduate training in public health and subsequently, public health careers. The study highlighted the current public health workforce shortage and…

  7. Making the case for laws that improve health: a framework for public health law research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Scott; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Swanson, Jeffrey; Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Wood, Jennifer; Mello, Michelle M

    2010-06-01

    Public health law has received considerable attention in recent years and has become an essential field in public health. Public health law research, however, has received less attention. Expert commentary. This article explores public health law research, defined as the scientific study of the relation of law and legal practices to population health. The article offers a logic model of public health law research and a typology of approaches to studying the effects of law on public health. Research on the content and prevalence of public health laws, processes of adopting and implementing laws, and the extent to which and mechanisms through which law affects health outcomes can use methods drawn from epidemiology, economics, sociology, and other disciplines. The maturation of public health law research as a field depends on methodological rigor, adequate research funding, access to appropriate data sources, and policymakers' use of research findings. Public health law research is a young field but holds great promise for supporting evidence-based policy making that will improve population health.

  8. Utility and justice in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Kathryn

    2017-12-11

    Many public health practitioners and organizations view themselves as engaged in the promotion or achievement of equity. However, discussions around public health frequently assume that practitioners and policy-makers take a utilitarian approach to this work. I argue that public health is better understood as a social justice endeavor. I begin by presenting the utility view of public health and then discuss the equity view. This is a theoretical argument, which should help public health to justify interventions for communicable and non-communicable diseases equally, and which contributes to breaking down the 'old/new' public health divide. This argument captures practitioners' views of the work they are engaged in and allows for the moral and policy justification of important interventions in communicable and non-communicable diseases. Systemic interventions are necessary to remedy high rates of disease among certain groups and, generally, to improve the health of entire populations. By viewing diseases as partly the result of failures of health protective systems in society, public health may justify interventions in communicable and non-communicable diseases equally. Public health holds a duty to improve the health of the worst-off in society; by prioritizing this group, the health of the whole community may improve. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Climate change and ecological public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Benny

    2015-02-17

    Climate change has been identified as a serious threat to human health, associated with the sustainability of current practices and lifestyles. Nurses should expand their health promotion role to address current and emerging threats to health from climate change and to address ecological public health. This article briefly outlines climate change and the concept of ecological public health, and discusses a 2012 review of the role of the nurse in health promotion.

  10. Conceptualizing ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH - Public health management and leadership perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Orvik, Arne

    2016-01-01

    The thesis introduces a new conceptual model of organizational health and discusses its implications for public health management and leadership. It is developed with reference to organizational theories and ideologies, including New Public Management, the use of which has coincided with increasing workplace health problems in health care organizations. The model is based on empirical research and theories in the fields of public health, health care organization and management, and institutio...

  11. Prevalence and costs of headaches for the public health system in a town in the interior of the state of São Paulo Prevalência e custos das cefaléias para o Sistema Público de Saúde de uma cidade do interior do Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Bigal

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high prevalence, impact and economic importance of headaches, studies on this subject are rare in Brazil. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of headaches in the public health system of a town in the interior of the State of São Paulo, as well as to estimate the costs resulting from its management. Data refer to the year of 1998 and were obtained according to the following steps: 1 territorial and demographic characterization of the municipality; 2 characterization of the financial indices and social well-being; 3 budget characteristics of the municipality; 4 evaluation of the structuring of the medical service; 5 determination of the prevalence of headaches at different patient care levels; and 6 calculation of the costs of headaches. Headaches represented 7.9% of all visits at basic health units, 9.7% in the emergency room and 1.1% of hospital admissions. The total costs were R$ 85,131.31 (US$ 70,942.76 corresponding to R$ 7.59 (US$ 6,32 per inhabitant/year. The present study shows the need for epidemiological and economic impact studies, which would provide the basis for the rational use of health funds.Apesar da grande prevalência, impacto e importância econômica das cefaléias, são incomuns os estudos referentes a esses aspectos em nosso meio. O presente estudo visa estimar a prevalência das cefaléias no sistema público de uma cidade do interior do Estado de São Paulo, bem como estimar os custos decorrentes de seu manejo. Os dados referem-se ao ano de 1998 e obedeceram às seguintes etapas: 1 -- caracterização territorial e demográfica do município; 2 -- caracterização de índices financeiros e de bem estar social; 3 -- características orçamentárias do município; 4 -- avaliação da estruturação do atendimento médico; 5 -- levantamento da prevalência das cefaléias nos diversos níveis de atendimento; 6 -- cálculo dos custos das cefaléias. Cefaléias foram responsáveis por 7

  12. PERCC Tools: Public Health Preparedness for Clinicians

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-29

    CDC’s Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response funds Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) to examine components of the public health system. This podcast is an overview of mental and behavioral health tools developed by the Johns Hopkins PERRC.  Created: 8/29/2011 by Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  13. Nuclear education in public health and nursing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winder, A.E.; Stanitis, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-three public health schools and 492 university schools of nursing were surveyed to gather specific information on educational programs related to nuclear war. Twenty public health schools and 240 nursing schools responded. Nuclear war-related content was most likely to appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Three schools of public health report that they currently offer elective courses on nuclear war. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention

  14. The Brown School of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra, Kris; Wetle, Terrie Fox

    2013-06-04

    The nation's newest school of public health boasts research excellence in aging, obesity, addictions, health care services and policy research, and more. The Brown School of Public Health is home to a variety of master's and doctoral programs, in addition to one of the oldest undergraduate concentrations in community health. The School plays a key role in the development of public policy at the state and national level and implements programs that benefits Rhode Island physicians and their patients.

  15. Assessing Entrepreneurship in Governmental Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Jeffrey; Wu, Helen W.; Lauer, Johanna R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the feasibility and desirability of public health entrepreneurship (PHE) in governmental public health. Methods. Using a qualitative case study approach with semistructured interview protocols, we conducted interviews between April 2010 and January 2011 at 32 local health departments (LHDs) in 18 states. Respondents included chief health officers and senior LHD staff, representatives from national public health organizations, health authorities, and public health institutes. Results. Respondents identified PHE through 3 overlapping practices: strategic planning, operational efficiency, and revenue generation. Clinical services offer the strongest revenue-generating potential, and traditional public health services offer only limited entrepreneurial opportunities. Barriers include civil service rules, a risk-averse culture, and concerns that PHE would compromise core public health values. Conclusions. Ongoing PHE activity has the potential to reduce LHDs’ reliance on unstable general public revenues. Yet under the best of circumstances, it is difficult to generate revenue from public health services. Although governmental public health contains pockets of entrepreneurial activity, its culture does not sustain significant entrepreneurial activity. The question remains as to whether LHDs’ current public revenue sources are sustainable and, if not, whether PHE is a feasible or desirable alternative. PMID:25689182

  16. Assessing entrepreneurship in governmental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peter D; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Wu, Helen W; Lauer, Johanna R

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the feasibility and desirability of public health entrepreneurship (PHE) in governmental public health. Using a qualitative case study approach with semistructured interview protocols, we conducted interviews between April 2010 and January 2011 at 32 local health departments (LHDs) in 18 states. Respondents included chief health officers and senior LHD staff, representatives from national public health organizations, health authorities, and public health institutes. Respondents identified PHE through 3 overlapping practices: strategic planning, operational efficiency, and revenue generation. Clinical services offer the strongest revenue-generating potential, and traditional public health services offer only limited entrepreneurial opportunities. Barriers include civil service rules, a risk-averse culture, and concerns that PHE would compromise core public health values. Ongoing PHE activity has the potential to reduce LHDs' reliance on unstable general public revenues. Yet under the best of circumstances, it is difficult to generate revenue from public health services. Although governmental public health contains pockets of entrepreneurial activity, its culture does not sustain significant entrepreneurial activity. The question remains as to whether LHDs' current public revenue sources are sustainable and, if not, whether PHE is a feasible or desirable alternative.

  17. Population mental health: evidence, policy, and public health practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    ... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well-­ being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...

  18. Public Health's Falling Share of US Health Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2016-01-01

    We examined trends in US public health expenditures by analyzing historical and projected National Health Expenditure Accounts data. Per-capita public health spending (inflation-adjusted) rose from $39 in 1960 to $281 in 2008, and has fallen by 9.3% since then. Public health's share of total health expenditures rose from 1.36% in 1960 to 3.18% in 2002, then fell to 2.65% in 2014; it is projected to fall to 2.40% in 2023. Public health spending has declined, potentially undermining prevention and weakening responses to health inequalities and new health threats.

  19. Feminism and public health nursing: partners for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipert, B D

    2001-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that nursing and feminism have enjoyed an uneasy alliance. In recent years, however, nursing has begun to recognize the importance of feminism. Nevertheless, the literature still rarely addresses the relevance of feminism for public health nursing. In this article, I articulate the relevance of feminism for public health nursing knowledge and practice. First, I define and describe feminism and public health nursing and then I discuss the importance of feminism for public health nursing practice. The importance of feminism for the metaparadigm concepts of public health nursing is then reviewed. Finally, I examine several existing challenges relating to feminism and public health nursing research, education, and practice. The thesis of this article is that feminism is vitally important for the development of public health nursing and for public health care.

  20. The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia in Brazilian public school system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Bastos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The goal of the study was to assess public school children at the end of the first stage of elementary school. We used a protocol applied concurrently with a writing test in the form of an unexpected activity in 28 public schools; 2,893 children assessed, 687 exhibited performance below 58 points, 184 were excluded due to change of address or lack of consent; 503 children subjected to a test of intellectual capacity and reading assessment and 71 considered intellectually disabled were excluded. 226 (7.8% children, who could read, write, and had normal intellectual level, met the criteria of developmental dyscalculia (DD, 98 female and 128 male. The most influential factors in the prevalence were socioeconomic levels of the schools neighborhood, education level of parents, and being male, as demonstrated by the odds ratio and multiple logistic regression analysis. Further studies should be done so that educational policies are taken.

  1. [Evolution of Asthma Prevalence and Sociodemographic and Health Factors Associated in Madrid Region (1996-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Pereira, Patricia; Gandarillas Grande, Ana María; Díez Gañán, Lucía; Ordobás Gavín, María

    2017-05-25

    Asthma is an important public health issue. The goal of this study is to analyse the trends in self-reported asthma prevalence in the Madrid Region and its association with socio-demographic and health factors. Data from the "Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Surveillance System" in adult population (SIVFRENT-A) 1996-2013 were used. Prevalences and 95% CI were estimated for: current asthma, cumulative prevalence of asthma and asthma attack in the last 12 months, in five periods. Changes in inter-period prevalence were estimated by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% CI by Poisson regression. The association between asthma prevalence socio-demographic and health variables was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Current prevalence of asthma and cumulative prevalence of asthma increased per study period an average of 14%. Asthma attack prevalence in the last 12 months increased an average of 19%. It was associated (statistically significant) to an increase of current prevalence of asthma, cumulative prevalence of asthma and asthma attack prevalence in the last 12 months: being a woman, ORa: 1.55; ORa: 1.35 and ORa: 1.46 respectively; have poor self-perceived health, ORa: 3.09; ORa: 2.63 and ORa: 2.89; and intense physical activity, ORa: 1.48; ORa: 1.32 and ORa: 1.49. In the case of current prevalence of asthma and cumulative prevalence of asthma also be studying, ORa: 1.34 and ORa: 1.46 respectively. Self-reported asthma prevalence increased in the last decades. The prevalence was higher in woman, persons with poor self-perceived health and adults with intense physical activity.

  2. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  3. The Economic Crisis and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sidel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis seriously threatens the health of the public. Challenges include increases in malnutrition; homelessness and inadequate housing; unemployment; substance abuse, depression, and other mental health problems; mortality; child health problems; violence; environmental and occupational health problems; and social injustice and violation of human rights; as well as decreased availability, accessibility, and affordability of quality medical and dental care. Health professionals can respond by promoting surveillance and documentation of human needs, reassessing public health priorities, educating the public and policymakers about health problems worsened by the economic crisis, advocating for sound policies and programs to address these problems, and directly providing necessary programs and services.

  4. The effective use of fluorides in public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sheila; Burt, Brian A; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    Dental caries remain a public health problem for many developing countries and for underprivileged populations in developed countries. This paper outlines the historical development of public health approaches to the use of fluoride and comments on their effectiveness. Early research and developm......Dental caries remain a public health problem for many developing countries and for underprivileged populations in developed countries. This paper outlines the historical development of public health approaches to the use of fluoride and comments on their effectiveness. Early research...... and their families, and the issue of cost. We recommend that a community should use no more than one systemic fluoride (i.e. water or salt or milk fluoridation) combined with the use of fluoride toothpastes, and that the prevalence of dental fluorosis should be monitored in order to detect increases in or higher...

  5. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dental Health Workers, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsiri Decharat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic situation of dental health work and work characteristics and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dental health workers. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 124 dental health workers and 124 persons in the reference group, matched to dental health workers by gender, were recruited from the workers who worked at the same 17 community hospitals in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand. Information was collected by using questionnaire. Data analysis comprised descriptive and analytical components. Results and Discussion. 75.8% were female and 24.2% were male dental health workers. 91.9% of subjects had worked >5 years. Most subjects worked for >8 hours per day and worked >6 days per week, at 63.7% and 53.2%, respectively. 100% of subjects worked in public institutions, and 68% also worked in both public and private institutions. Most subjects (52.4% did not exercise. Daily activity, gender, duration of work, hours worked per day, days worked per week, and physical activity were significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms at <0.001. Conclusion. The prevention and reduction of MSDs among dentists should include improving their education in dental ergonomics.

  6. Public Health Issues – Promise and Peril

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    governments and policy-makers. Prioritizing suicide prevention on the global public health and public policy agendas and to raise awareness of suicide as a public health issue is necessary. So what about potentially vulnerable populations? Transgender people often lack a support system and are more likely to face.

  7. What makes health public?: a critical evaluation of moral, legal, and political claims in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coggon, John

    2012-01-01

    .... Covering important works from legal, moral, and political theory, public health, public health law and ethics, and bioethics, this is a foundational text for scholars, practitioners and policy bodies interested in freedoms, rights and responsibilities relating to health"--

  8. Creating training opportunities for public health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, D; Healton, C; Hamburg, M; Rosenfield, A; Cagan, E; Van Wie, W; Haviland, M L

    1999-04-01

    In response to several reports issued by the federal government and private foundations on the under-training of public health practitioners, Joseph L. Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University (SPH) and the New York City Department of Health (NYC DOH) initiated the Public Health Scholars program (SPH-PHS) to make degree-level public health training available to NYC DOH employees. Public Health Scholars receive a 50% tuition scholarship and enroll part-time while working full-time at NYC DOH. Sixteen scholars have enrolled during the past three years. The SPH-PHS program is considered a success by both SPH and NYC DOH. This article details the history of the collaboration between the two agencies and the structure of the program and provides a critical analysis of the SPH-PHS program based on interviews with 16 scholars. It also examines the cost and benefit to other schools of public health of implementing such a program.

  9. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Public health genomics: origins and basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Zimmern

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and technologies arising from the Human Genome Project promise in time to offer new opportunities for the treatment and prevention of disease. The enterprise of public health genomics aims to bridge the gap between advances in basic research and their responsible and effective implementation in clinical services and public health programmes. Public health genomics stresses the importance of understanding how genes and environment act together to influence health; avoiding genetic exceptionalism; appreciating the social and political context of genomic advances; and encouraging critical evaluation of proposed new tests and interventions. New international networks and collaborations are being established to develop public health genomics and further its aims.

  11. Beijing Eye Public Health Care Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B; Cui, Tong Tong; You, Qi Sheng; Wang, Ya Xing; Yang, Hua; Li, Jian Jun; Wei, Wen Bin; Liang, Qing Feng; Wang, Shuang; Yang, Xiao Hui; Zhang, Li

    2012-06-01

    The Beijing Eye Public Health Care Project was designed to screen all elderly subjects (age 55-85 years) of the rural region of Greater Beijing. It was developed as a preparatory step for a telemedicine-based public health care system in ophthalmology in China. Population-based public health care project. Elderly subjects (age 55-85 years) of the rural region of Greater Beijing. Project participants were visited, interviewed, and examined by 2500 high school graduates trained as ophthalmic technicians. If visual acuity was telemedicine, the photographs were transmitted to a reading center and causes for visual impairment were diagnosed. Practicability of a mass screening system in ophthalmology; prevalence of visual impairment and causes for it. Out of 692 323 eligible inhabitants, 562 788 (81.3%) subjects participated. Visual impairment in ≥1 eye was detected in 54 155 (9.62%) subjects, and among them, 30 164 (5.36%) subjects had bilateral visual impairment. Ocular fundus photographs were taken for 37 281 subjects. Cause for visual impairment was cataract in 19 163 (3.41%) of all screened subjects, glaucoma in 1606 (0.29%) subjects, diabetic retinopathy in 905 (0.16%) subjects, other macular diseases in 2700 (0.48%) subjects, pterygium in 1381 (0.25%) subjects, and corneal leukoma in 283 (0.05%) subjects. For 5853 (1.04%) subjects, a diagnosis of premature or mature cataract was made showing the urgent need of cataract surgery. After cataract surgery, visual acuity was ≥0.30 in 1464 (91.7%) of 1596 postoperatively reexamined subjects. Using a telemedicine approach, the Beijing Eye Public Health Care Project developed, applied and tested an infrastructure for ophthalmic mass screening of >500 000 elderly inhabitants with a response rate of >80%. Beside cataract, retinal diseases including diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma were major causes for visual impairment. The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any of the materials discussed in this

  12. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lomazzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design: A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results: Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions: The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the

  13. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead

  14. Climate Change and Public Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason A; Vargo, Jason; Hoverter, Sara Pollock

    2017-03-01

    Climate change poses real and immediate impacts to the public health of populations around the globe. Adverse impacts are expected to continue throughout the century. Emphasizing co-benefits of climate action for health, combining adaptation and mitigation efforts, and increasing interagency coordination can effectively address both public health and climate change challenges.

  15. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  16. The new genetics and the public's health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunton, Robin; Petersen, Alan R., Ph. D

    2002-01-01

    ...; discusses the role of the media in framing debate about genetics, health and medicine. The New Genetics and the Public's Health addresses the emerging social and political consequences of the new genetics and provides a stimulating critique of current research and practice in public health. Alan Petersen is Professor in Sociolo...

  17. Injuries: a continuous challenge for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.F. van Beeck (Ed)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis deals with injuries, a public health problem often neglected by health policy makers and the medical profession. It will focus on trends in the societal burden of this impol1ant "disease". In fact, injuries reflect one of the most persistent public health problems of all

  18. The Economic Crisis and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Sidel; Barry S Levy

    2009-01-01

    The current global economic crisis seriously threatens the health of the public. Challenges include increases in malnutrition; homelessness and inadequate housing; unemployment; substance abuse, depression, and other mental health problems; mortality; child health problems; violence; environmental and occupational health problems; and social injustice and violation of human rights; as well as decreased availability, accessibility, and affordability of quality medical and dental care. Health p...

  19. Prevalence of mental health risk factors among students in lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Pranckevičiūtė, Lina

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of Mental Health Risk Factors among Students in Lithuania There are a numberof studiesin Lithuania and whole world about depression among young people. However, the prevalence of several risk factors (mental health literacy, sense of coherence, depressiveness, suicidal thoughts, social support) among universities, colleges, vocational studentsin Lithuania has not been studied. Aim of the study – to assess mental health risk factors prevalence among Lithuanian students. Objectives: ...

  20. [Professionalization of public health officers in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yoko

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I describe how public health officers in Japan in the period of the late Taisho and early Showa eras claimed their position as professionals in the sanitary administrations of central and local governments. In the background of this push for recognition, there were related international and national movements. Internationally, public health ministries were established in developed countries and the League of Nations Health Organization (LNHO) was created. LNHO wanted to improve the level of public health officials world-wide, so the organization sponsored international exchanges of officials. These activities made a strong impression on Japanese public health officials, who realized that they belonged to an internationally recognized profession and that they needed to work hard to improve the substandard Japanese public health situation. Meanwhile, at the level of domestic politics, there were several movements of technical experts in different fields of government administration that worked to fight the unfair treatment of administrative officials, a situation that had existed since Meiji Period. The public health officers collaborated with the other technical experts to improve their positions and to play key roles in society. But while the other technical experts actively pursued social leadership, public health officials wanted to remain scientists. This is because the sanitary departments in the local governments were organized within police departments. In this environment, the law was dominant and science was secondary. But public health officials insisted that the basis of public health should be science, so they emphasized their scientific expertise.

  1. Public health reform and health promotion in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Megan; Tomm-Bonde, Laura; Schreiber, Rita

    2014-06-01

    More than 25 years have passed since the release of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This document represented a substantial contribution to public health in its emphasis on the economic, legal, political and cultural factors that influence health. With public health renewal underway across Canada, and despite overwhelming support in the public health community for the Ottawa Charter, how much its principles will be included in the renewal process remains unclear. In this paper, we present the historical understanding of health promotion in Canada, namely highlighting the contributions from the Lalonde Report, Alma Ata Declaration, the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the more recent population health movement. We discuss public health renewal, using the province of British Columbia in Canada as an example. We identify the potential threats to health promotion in public health renewal as it unfolds.

  2. [Public health ethics and reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S

    2014-01-01

    Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy.

  3. Public health aspects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcombe, H.B.

    1977-01-01

    The sources and levels of natural and manmade radiation are discussed in this report, and the resulting risks of radiation-induced cancer and hereditary diseases are estimated. The medical uses of X-rays currently increase the average population exposure by something like 35 per cent above natural background radiation. At a future time when nuclear generators will produce one kilowatt of electricity per person it is expected that the additional exposure from this source will not exceed 6 per cent of that from natural background. Acceptability of the risks that these exposures represent must depend upon the benefits with which they are associated, and upon the risks associated with other options open to society including alternative ways of obtaining similar benefits. The public health impact of the radiation from nuclear power generation, for example, is believed to be considerably less than that from the combustion products associated with the production of an equivalent amount of electrical power by conventional coal-fired stations. (author)

  4. Public health aspects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcombe, H.B.

    1978-12-01

    The sources and levels of natural and manmade radiation are discussed in this report, and the resulting risks of radiation-induced cancer and hereditary diseases are estimated. The medical uses of X-rays currently increase the average population exposure by something like 35 per cent above natural background radiation. At a future time when nuclear generators will produce one kilowatt of electricity per person it is expected that the additional exposure from this source will not exceed 6 per cent of that from natural background. Acceptability of the risks that these exposures represent must depend upon the benefits with which they are associated, and upon the risks associated with other options open to society including alternative ways of obtaining similar benefits. The public health impact of the radiation from nuclear power generation, for example, is believed to be considerably less than that from the combustion products associated with the production of an equivalent amount of electrical power by conventional coal-fired stations. (author)

  5. Athletic Training and Public Health Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Mark; Bovbjerg, Viktor; Hannigan, Kim; Hootman, Jennifer M; Johnson, Sam T; Kucera, Kristen L; Norcross, Marc F

    2016-07-01

    To introduce athletic trainers to the benefits of using a population-based approach to injury and illness prevention and to explore opportunities for partnering with public health professionals on these initiatives. Athletic trainers play leading roles in individual injury and illness prevention but are less familiar with policy development, evaluation, and implementation from a population-level standpoint. The Athletic Training and Public Health Summit was convened to understand, explore, and develop the intersection of athletic training and public health. To further the integration of athletic training within the public health arena, athletic trainers must expand their professional focus beyond the individual to the population level.

  6. Genetics, health care, and public policy: an introduction to public health genetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, Alison

    2007-01-01

    ... initiative About this book Further reading and resources Principles of public health The emergence of public health genetics The human genome project and 'genomic medicine' Community genetics Current developments in public health genetics Genomics and global health 2 Genetic science and technology Basic molecular genetics Genes and the geno...

  7. Collective Impact through Public Health and Academic Partnerships: A Kentucky Public Health Accreditation Readiness Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Angela L

    2015-01-01

    In the ever-changing, resource-limited public health environment, the use of partners found in the faculty and students of Colleges of Public Health can provide training, consultation, and technical assistance needed to increase local health department (LHD) workforce capacity to meet new public health demands including national public heath accreditation. This manuscript describes the provision of the backbone support activities of facilitation, data management, and project management by University of Kentucky's College of Public Health to Kentucky's LHDs seeking national public health accreditation.

  8. Burnout and work environments of public health nurses involved in mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, H; Nakao, H; Tsuchiya, M; Kuroda, Y; Katoh, T

    2004-09-01

    (1) To examine whether prevalence of burnout is higher among community psychiatric nurses working under recently introduced job specific work systems than among public health nurses (PHNs) engaged in other public health services. (2) To identify work environment factors potentially contributing to burnout. Two groups were examined. The psychiatric group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in public mental health services at public health centres (PHCs) that had adopted the job specific work system. The control group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in other health services. Pines' Burnout Scale was used to measure burnout. Respondents were classified by burnout score into three groups: A (mentally stable, no burnout); B (positive signs, risk of burnout); and C (burnout present, action required). Groups B and C were considered representative of "burnout". A questionnaire was also prepared to investigate systems for supporting PHNs working at PHCs and to define emergency mental health service factors contributing to burnout. Final respondents comprised 785 PHNs. Prevalence of burnout was significantly higher in the psychiatric group (59.2%) than in the control group (51.5%). Responses indicating lack of job control and increased annual frequency of emergency overtime services were significantly correlated with prevalence of burnout in the psychiatric group, but not in the control group. Prevalence of burnout is significantly higher for community psychiatric nurses than for PHNs engaged in other services. Overwork in emergency services and lack of job control appear to represent work environment factors contributing to burnout.

  9. Systematic review of public health branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-12-01

    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.

  10. The built environment and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, Russ

    2012-01-01

    ... human health and well-being. The author covers a wealth of topics including foundations, the joint history of public health and urban planning, transportation and land use, infrastructure and natural disasters, assessment tools...

  11. The built environment and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, Russ

    2012-01-01

    "This text combines an examination of how the physical environment affects our health with a description of how public health and urban planning can work together to create environments that improve...

  12. International public health strategies in dermatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbase, A.C.; Roman, G.; Zemouri, C.; Rangel Bonamigo, R.; Torres Dornelles, S.I.

    2018-01-01

    Structured strategies to tackle skin diseases and related infections provide a framework and direct actions against their burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) develops, updates, advocates, and disseminates international public health strategies and implementation tools including guidelines.

  13. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON...

  14. Economic evaluation enhances public health decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Rabarison

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary public health professionals must address the health needs of a diverse population with constrained budgets and shrinking funds. Economic evaluation contributes to evidence-based decision making by helping the public health community identify, measure, and compare activities with the necessary impact, scalability, and sustainability to optimize population health. Asking how do investments in public health strategies influence or offset the need for downstream spending on medical care and /or social services? is important when making decisions about resource allocation and scaling of interventions.

  15. Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaal, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the role of the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic in radiation protection in the Slovak Republic. Public Health Authority is budgetary organization, which depends on the funding of the Ministry of Health. As the state administration authority performs execution of state regulatory activities in the field of health protection in Slovak republic and radiation protection as well. Radiation Protection Supervision is performed according to the act on public health protection. Organization scheme of radiation protection in the Slovak Republic is presented

  16. The Public Health Practitioner of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-08-01

    The requisite capacities and capabilities of the public health practitioner of the future are being driven by multiple forces of change, including public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, globalized travel, and the repercussions of the Affordable Care Act. We describe five critical capacities and capabilities that public health practitioners can build on to successfully prepare for and respond to these forces of change: systems thinking and systems methods, communication capacities, an entrepreneurial orientation, transformational ethics, and policy analysis and response. Equipping the public health practitioner with the requisite capabilities and capacities will require new content and methods for those in public health academia, as well as a recommitment to lifelong learning on the part of the practitioner, within an increasingly uncertain and polarized political environment.

  17. Public Health Autonomy: A Critical Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2017-11-01

    The ethical principle of autonomy is among the most fundamental in ethics, and it is particularly salient for those in public health, who must constantly balance the desire to improve health outcomes by changing behavior with respect for individual freedom. Although there are some areas in which there is a genuine tension between public health and autonomy-childhood vaccine mandates, for example-there are many more areas where not only is there no tension, but public health and autonomy come down to the same thing. These areas of overlap are often rendered invisible by a thin understanding of autonomy. Better integrating newer theoretical insights about autonomy into applied ethics can make discussions of public health ethics more rigorous, incisive, and effective. Even more importantly, bringing modern concepts of autonomy into public health ethics can showcase the many areas in which public health and autonomy have the same goals, face the same threats, and can be mutually advanced by the same kinds of solutions. This article provides a schema for relational autonomy in a public health context and gives concrete examples of how autonomy can be served through public-health interventions. It marshals insights from sociology, psychology, and philosophy to advance a theory of autonomy and coercion that recognizes three potential threats to autonomy: threats to choice sets, threats to knowledge, and threats to preferences. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  18. Public health medicine: the constant dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, Frada

    2002-03-01

    There is a well-known quotation by the nineteenth-century sociologist Virchow (quoted in Ref. 1) that aptly captures the dilemma that has confronted public health medicine since the specialty was created as a discrete entity in 1848. Virchow said: 'Medicine is politics and social medicine is politics writ large!' What does this mean in relation to effective public health medicine practice and how is it likely to affect its future? There is increasingly limited freedom of expression within the current context of political correctness, central control and a rapidly burgeoning litigious climate. The purpose of this paper is to explore these issues and to propose a means of maintaining public health medicine integrity within a working environment where action is becoming rapidly constrained by political rigidity. An additional factor to be included in the dialogue is the current context within which public health physicians work. Because the majority of public health doctors are employed within the National Health Service (NHS), they are finding themselves being expected to take on tasks and responsibilities marginal to their essential purpose and function. For example, public health physicians spend a great deal of time involved in detailed deliberations about health service provision. Although there is a great deal of evidence to show that good quality health care provision positively affects the health of the individual, there is no evidence to show that this activity has any effect on the population's health status. The essence of public health medicine practice is the prevention of ill-health and the promotion of the health of the population and, consequently, attention needs to be focused on the root causes of disease. However, as these are outside the aegis of the NHS, public health medicine involvement in such issues as education, nutrition, housing, transport and poverty is regarded as marginal to the NHS corporate agenda.

  19. Contributions of Public Health to nursing practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Káren Mendes Jorge de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Analyze the perceptions of undergraduate nursing students about the contributions of public health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System. Method: Qualitative Descriptive Study. Data collection was carried out through semi-directed interviews with 15 students. The language material was analyzed according to content and thematic analysis. Results: Thematic categories were established, namely: "Perceptions about Public Health" and "Contribution of Public Health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System". Final considerations: Perceptions about Public Health are diversified, but converge to the recognition of this field as the basis for training nurses qualified to work in the SUS with technical competence, autonomy and focusing on the integrality in health care.

  20. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R

    2014-01-01

    Increased information availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness through health information exchange (HIE) can support public health practice. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served as an important justification for the US' investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature. However, no single department realized all the potential benefits of HIE identified. These findings suggest ways to improve HIE usage in public health.

  1. Trade policy and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  2. Migration: a core public health ethics issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, V; Dawson, A

    2018-03-29

    In this article, we outline the link between migration, public health and ethics. Discussing relevant arguments about migration from the perspective of public health and public health ethics. Critical review of theories and frameworks, case-based analysis and systematic identification and discussion of challenges. Migration is a core issue of public health ethics and must take a case-based approach: seeking to identify the specific ethical dimensions and vulnerabilities in each particular context. Public health as a practice, built upon the core value of justice, requires the protection and promotion of migrants' well-being (even if this produces tension with immigration services). Ethical analysis should take all phases of migration into account: before, during and after transit. We argue that migration policies, at least as they relate to migrants' well-being, should be founded upon a shared humanity, respect for human rights and on the idea that effective public health cannot and should not be confined within the borders and to the citizens of any host country. We make the case for migration to be seen as a core issue of public health ethics. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Routledge handbook of global public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, Richard G; Sommer, Marni

    2011-01-01

    ... processes such as the growth of inequalities between the rich and the poor in countries around the world, the globalisation of trade and commerce, new patterns of travel and migration, as well as a reduction in resources for the development and sustainability of public health infrastructures. The Routledge Handbook of Global Public Health explores ...

  4. Bullying Prevention for Public Health Practitioners

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses bullying as a public health problem, and provides information and resources for public health practitioners.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  5. Public health nursing legacy. Historical practical wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerwekh, J V

    1992-02-01

    The author uses an anecdotal style to convey the practical knowledge shown by public health nurses since the days of Lillian Wald on New York City's Henry Street in the 1890s. Public health nurses have had to work with high-risk families--a fact that often requires a common-sense approach.

  6. Careers in Infectious Diseases: Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Arjun

    2017-09-15

    Public health offers infectious disease physicians a variety of rewarding career options. Our training and skills make us well suited to a variety of roles in public health. This article summarizes some of the options for careers in public health and describes why ID physicians are so well suited to them. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Partners in Public Health: Public Health Collaborations With Schools of Pharmacy, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro Mager, Natalie A; Ochs, Leslie; Ranelli, Paul L; Kahaleh, Abby A; Lahoz, Monina R; Patel, Radha V; Garza, Oscar W; Isaacs, Diana; Clark, Suzanne

    To collect data on public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy, we sent a short electronic survey to accredited and preaccredited pharmacy programs in 2015. We categorized public health collaborations as working or partnering with local and/or state public health departments, local and/or state public health organizations, academic schools or programs of public health, and other public health collaborations. Of 134 schools, 65 responded (49% response rate). Forty-six (71%) responding institutions indicated collaborations with local and/or state public health departments, 34 (52%) with schools or programs of public health, and 24 (37%) with local and/or state public health organizations. Common themes of collaborations included educational programs, community outreach, research, and teaching in areas such as tobacco control, emergency preparedness, chronic disease, drug abuse, immunizations, and medication therapy management. Interdisciplinary public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy provide additional resources for ensuring the health of communities and expose student pharmacists to opportunities to use their training and abilities to affect public health. Examples of these partnerships may stimulate additional ideas for possible collaborations between public health organizations and schools of pharmacy.

  8. Mobile Technologies and Public Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-05

    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Eric Holman, President of SmartReply, discuss why mobile technologies are an important communications tool for disseminating health messages.  Created: 9/5/2008 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 1/12/2009.

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Low Health Literacy: A Community-Based Study in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Wang, Lu; Cai, Zhongyuan; Bao, Luqi; Ai, Pu; Ai, Zisheng

    2017-06-12

    Background: Health literacy is an increasingly important public health concern. However, little is known about the health literacy of general public in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of low health literacy and demographic associations in Shanghai, China. Methods: This study was a community-based cross-sectional health survey utilizing a multi-stage random sampling design. The sample consisted of 1360 individuals aged 15-69 years with the total community-dwelling Chinese as the sample frame. Health literacy was measured by a questionnaire developed on the basis of a national health literacy manual released by the Chinese Ministry of Health. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify whether common socio-demographic features were associated with health literacy level. Results: The prevalence of low health literacy was 84.49% (95% CI, 82.56% to 86.41%). The prevalence of low health literacy was negatively associated with the level of education, occupation, and annual household income, but was not associated with gender, age, or the presence of non-communicable chronic disease. Conclusions: Simplifying health services, enhancing health education, and promoting interventions to improve health literacy in high-risk populations should be considered as part of the strategies in the making of health policy in China.

  10. Personalizing public health: your health avatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Chrystian; McNamara, Anusha; Sorge, Lindsay; Arya, Vibhuti

    2013-01-01

    To describe the creation of a health avatar, with the goals of providing patients with complete health information from various sources, establishing an interactive and customizable platform, empowering users to determine how the health information best fits or speaks to their personal needs, and providing perspective by comparing the health status of the individual with that of the individual's community. The Internet is rapidly becoming integrated into Americans' daily lives. According to the 2007 Health Information National Trends Study, 69% of U.S. adults had access to the Internet and 23% reported using a social networking site. The impact of social media has further grown, and an estimated 50% of adults in America have a profile on social media. The potential for using cyber communities to improve health messaging is great. Several health care organizations have implemented the use of social media in a variety of ways to varying degrees of success. We propose a platform that automatically gathers information and reflects the health status of an individual back to the user. An avatar, which is a representation of a user, could be created and assigned characteristics that allow users to appreciate their health status. The health avatar platform also would allow users to compare their personal status with that of their community. The overall goal is to engage and then motivate users to improve their overall health status. Medicine must acknowledge the evolving relationships that the next generation of patients will have with technology. The health avatar is a platform that incorporates a connection with the health system through electronic medical records and connects individuals to the greater community.

  11. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  12. Moving from Intersection to Integration: Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Scott; Mays, Glen P; Douglas Scutchfield, F; Ibrahim, Jennifer K

    2012-01-01

    Context For three decades, experts have been stressing the importance of law to the effective operation of public health systems. Most recently, in a 2011 report, the Institute of Medicine recommended a review of state and local public health laws to ensure appropriate authority for public health agencies; adequate access to legal counsel for public health agencies; evaluations of the health effects and costs associated with legislation, regulations, and policies; and enhancement of research methods to assess the strength of evidence regarding the health effects of public policies. These recommendations, and the continued interest in law as a determinant of health system performance, speak to the need for integrating the emerging fields of Public Health Law Research (PHLR) and Public Health Systems and Services Research (PHSSR). Methods Expert commentary. Findings This article sets out a unified framework for the two fields and a shared research agenda built around three broad inquiries: (1) the structural role of law in shaping the organization, powers, prerogatives, duties, and limitations of public health agencies and thereby their functioning and ultimately their impact on public health (“infrastructure”); (2) the mechanisms through which public health system characteristics influence the implementation of interventional public health laws (“implementation”); and (3) the individual and system characteristics that influence the ability of public health systems and their community partners to develop and secure enactment of legal initiatives to advance public health (“innovation”). Research to date has laid a foundation of evidence, but progress requires better and more accessible data, a new generation of researchers comfortable in both law and health research, and more rigorous methods. Conclusions The routine integration of law as a salient factor in broader PHSSR studies of public health system functioning and health outcomes will enhance the

  13. Ethics in public health research: privacy and public health at risk: public health confidentiality in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Julie; Frieden, Thomas R; Bherwani, Kamal M; Henning, Kelly J

    2008-05-01

    Public health agencies increasingly use electronic means to acquire, use, maintain, and store personal health information. Electronic data formats can improve performance of core public health functions, but potentially threaten privacy because they can be easily duplicated and transmitted to unauthorized people. Although such security breaches do occur, electronic data can be better secured than paper records, because authentication, authorization, auditing, and accountability can be facilitated. Public health professionals should collaborate with law and information technology colleagues to assess possible threats, implement updated policies, train staff, and develop preventive engineering measures to protect information. Tightened physical and electronic controls can prevent misuse of data, minimize the risk of security breaches, and help maintain the reputation and integrity of public health agencies.

  14. One Health Perspectives on Emerging Public Health Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhyun Ryu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance and emerging infectious diseases, including avian influenza, Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus disease have significantly affected humankind in recent years. In the premodern era, no distinction was made between animal and human medicine. However, as medical science developed, the gap between human and animal science grew deeper. Cooperation among human, animal, and environmental sciences to combat emerging public health threats has become an important issue under the One Health Initiative. Herein, we presented the history of One Health, reviewed current public health threats, and suggested opportunities for the field of public health through better understanding of the One Health paradigm.

  15. Public Health in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Duncan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In this special issue the four articles focus on population health in terms of primary care and preventive medicine. This critical area of health often receives less attention than health care issues (more so in the popular press but also in academic analyses.Upon reviewing these very interesting and illuminating articles it was striking that despite significant cultural, economic, geographic and historical differences there are many commonalities which exist throughout the Americas.

  16. Role of the Public Health Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.T.

    1969-01-01

    The Public Health Service must assume the role of the overall Public Health Coordinator, seeking to afford the highest level of health protection both to the nearby population as well as to the more distant groups. Data will be given relative to the limited experience the PHS has had in the removal of populations from areas of suspected hazards. Problems inherent in the evacuation of civilians of all ages will be discussed. (author)

  17. The effective use of fluorides in public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sheila; Burt, Brian A; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    and development was concerned with waterborne fluorides, both naturally occurring and added, and their effects on the prevalence and incidence of dental caries and dental fluorosis. In the latter half of the 20th century, the focus of research was on fluoride toothpastes and mouth rinses. More recently...... and their families, and the issue of cost. We recommend that a community should use no more than one systemic fluoride (i.e. water or salt or milk fluoridation) combined with the use of fluoride toothpastes, and that the prevalence of dental fluorosis should be monitored in order to detect increases in or higher......Dental caries remain a public health problem for many developing countries and for underprivileged populations in developed countries. This paper outlines the historical development of public health approaches to the use of fluoride and comments on their effectiveness. Early research...

  18. Public engagement on global health challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emma R M; Masum, Hassan; Berndtson, Kathryn; Saunders, Vicki; Hadfield, Tom; Panjwani, Dilzayn; Persad, Deepa L; Minhas, Gunjeet S; Daar, Abdallah S; Singh, Jerome A; Singer, Peter A

    2008-05-20

    Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T) is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues.

  19. Prevalence, Awareness and Correlates of Hypertension Among Urban Public Workers in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Aladeniyi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the asymptomatic nature of hypertension, its diagnosis is often delayed, thus, leading to increasing morbidity and mortality. This study examines the prevalence, awareness and correlates of hypertension among apparently healthy adults working in an urban area of Ondo State, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of 4844 public service workers drawn across the 47 ministries, departments and agencies in Akure, the state capital of Ondo State, Nigeria. The WHO STEPwise questionnaire was used for data collection. Blood pressure (BP, blood sugar, weight and height measurements followed standard procedures. Hypertension was defined as BP of ≥140/90 mmHg or a history of hypertension while self-reported prior diagnosis was defined as hypertension awareness. Bivariate and logistic analysis were performed to determine the prevalence, awareness and correlates of hypertension and a p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The prevalence of hypertension was 35% while an additional 36.4% had pre-hypertension. Males had a slightly higher prevalence of hypertension (39.1% compared to females (21.3%. Of all the hypertensive participants (n=1692, only 28% were aware of their hypertension status with a higher awareness rate among females (10.8% compared to males (8.7%. After adjusting for confounders in a logistic regression model analysis, only male sex, age above 40 years, primary or no education, marriage, obesity and diabetes were independent and significant predictors of hypertension among the study participants. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of hypertension among the study participants with a high hypertension unawareness. There is a need to implement effective workplace health policy and regularly organise health screening for public civil servants in the setting to reduce the burden of undiagnosed hypertension and its accompanying complications.

  20. [Serologic prevalence of HCV antibodies in health personnel in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colichon Yerosh, Alejandro; Figueroa, Rolando; Moreno, Armando; Zumaeta, Eduardo; Ferrandíz, Jorge; Busalleu, Alejandro; Prado, William; Candella, Ricardo; Colichón, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Wilson; Espinoza, Julio; Kianman, Wilfredo; Amaya, Nelly; García Pérez, Segundo A; Tello Rodriguez, José; Valdez, Jesús; Paucar Sotomayor, Héctor; Sanchez, César

    2004-01-01

    In Peru, new cases of asymptomatic HCV infection are reported with certain frequency in patients with or without antecedents of blood transfusion. Although serologic screening has improved notoriously in the last years, there is still a population of polytransfused patients with high HCV risk (e.g. hemodialyzed patients), making up a major reservoir. Based on this premise, we decided to study the risk of the health worker population in Peru as another major HCV risk group. A total of 2,769 health workers from 7 Public Hospitals and 2 Private Hospitals in the City of Lima and from 7 Public Hospitals in 4 major/main cities of Peru (Chiclayo, Trujillo, Arequipa, and Cusco) were studied. All those workers, who due to their area of work had higher contact with blood and/or blood derivatives (Surgery, ICU, Traumatology, Gynecology, Gastroenterology, Hemodialysis and Laboratories-Blood Banks) were studied. The studied population accounts for 30% of the total health worker population in these services. All serums underwent the EIA-3 test (HCV-Cobas-Core, Lab. Roche, USA). The positive results were confirmed by RT-HCV (Ampiclor, Roche). The positive serums were confirmed by PCR and the positive results with high viral load underwent HCV genotyping (AMPICLOR-Roche Diagnostic, IGEN Diagnostic USA). Of the 2,769 health workers studied in Peru, 32 were positive for HCV antibodies (1.16% of the total number). Lima showed a prevalence slightly higher than the provinces: 26 out of 2,112 vs. 6 out of 657, or 1.23% vs. 0.91%, respectively. The higher risk is assumed by professional with higher level of contact with blood: 2 physicians (Hemodialysis), 5 nurses (HD) and Lab-Blood Bank technicians. The physicians and nurses share the same risk. If we segregate Lima from provinces, it can be seen that the highest risk is in Lima (1.34% compared to 1.07% in provinces). There is a major risk in health workers and the figures are slightly above those that were suspected for Peru (between 0

  1. The University-Public Health Partnership for Public Health Research Training in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Gilles; Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Malowany, Maureen; Levy, Joseph; Rossignol, Michel; Bergeron, Pierre; Kishchuk, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing effective preventive interventions to address contemporary public health problems requires improved capacity for applied public health research. A particular need has been recognized for capacity development in population health intervention research to address the complex multidisciplinary challenges of developing, implementing, and evaluating public health practices, intervention programs, and policies. Research training programs need to adapt to these new realities. We have presented an example of a 2003 to 2015 training program in transdisciplinary research on public health interventions that embedded doctoral and postdoctoral trainees in public health organizations in Quebec, Canada. This university-public health partnership for research training is an example of how to link science and practice to meet emerging needs in public health.

  2. Is globalization really good for public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, Arno

    2016-10-01

    In the light of recent very prominent studies, especially that of Mukherjee and Krieckhaus (), one should be initially tempted to assume that nowadays globalization is a driver of a good public health performance in the entire world system. Most of these studies use time series analyses based on the KOF Index of Globalization. We attempt to re-analyze the entire question, using a variety of methodological approaches and data. Our re-analysis shows that neoliberal globalization has resulted in very important implosions of public health development in various regions of the world and in increasing inequality in the countries of the world system, which in turn negatively affect health performance. We use standard ibm/spss ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions, time series and cross-correlation analyses based on aggregate, freely available data. Different components of the KOF Index, most notably actual capital inflows, affect public health negatively. The "decomposition" of the available data suggests that for most of the time period of the last four decades, globalization inflows even implied an aggregate deterioration of public health, quite in line with globalization critical studies. We introduce the effects of inequality on public health, widely debated in global public health research. Our annual time series for 99 countries show that globalization indeed leads to increased inequality, and this, in turn, leads to a deteriorating public health performance. In only 19 of the surveyed 99 nations with complete data (i.e., 19.1%), globalization actually preceded an improvement in the public health performance. Far from falsifying globalization critical research, our analyses show the basic weaknesses of the new "pro-globalization" literature in the public health profession. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Health, nutrition, and public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, J.; Coutre, le J.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Blum, S.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between health and the economy is complex and hardly a matter of unidirectional cause and consequence. With health increasingly being understood as a stimulus for the economy, nutrition directly assumes the status of an economic identifier. This paper discusses the growing

  4. Prevalência de fatores de risco cardiovascular em idosos usuários do Sistema Único de Saúde de Goiânia Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in elderly individuals treated in the Brazilian Public Health System in Goiânia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina da Conceição Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    question is still unknown by the elderly treated in the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of CVRF among the elderly treated by SUS in the city of Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using a multiple-stage sampling method, carried out through a home-based interview with 418 elderly individuals aged > 60 years treated by SUS in the city of Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil. Socioeconomic and demographic data, as well as data on lifestyle, weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and medications used were collected. The studied CVRF were: arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, total obesity, central obesity, dyslipidemias, smoking, sedentary lifestyle and alcohol consumption. The Chi-square test was used for the analyses of the associations, with significance being set at 5%. RESULTS: The prevalences of the CVRF were: 80.4% of arterial hypertension; 83.3% of central obesity; 59.8% of sedentary lifestyle; 32.2% of total obesity; 23.4% of dyslipidemias; 19.1% of diabetes mellitus; 10.0% of smoking and 5.9% of alcohol consumption. As for the simultaneity, 2.4% of the elderly did not present CVRF. The simultaneity of two or more CVRF occurred in 87.3% of the elderly and was more frequent among women. CONCLUSION: The CVRF occur simultaneously in more than half of the elderly individuals, and the most prevalent ones were: arterial hypertension, central obesity and sedentary lifestyle. It is necessary to foster the strategies of health promotion and prevention of cardiovascular injury in elderly individuals treated by SUS in the city of Goiânia, especially among those with simultaneous CVRF.

  5. Where is the future in public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Hilary

    2010-06-01

    Today's societies have far-reaching impacts on future conditions for health. Against this backdrop, this article explores how the future is represented in contemporary public health, examining both its conceptual base and influential approaches through which evidence is generated for policy. Mission statements and official reviews provide insight into how the future is represented in public health's conceptual and ethical foundations. For its research practices, the article takes examples from epidemiological, intervention, and economic research, selecting risk-factor epidemiology, randomized controlled trials, and economic evaluation as exemplars. Concepts and ethics suggest that public health research and policy will be concerned with protecting both today's and tomorrow's populations from conditions that threaten their health. But rather than facilitating sustained engagement with future conditions and future health, exemplary approaches to gathering evidence focus on today's population. Thus, risk-factor epidemiology pinpoints risks in temporal proximity to the individual; controlled trials track short-term effects of interventions on the participants' health; and economic evaluations weigh policies according to their value to the current population. While their orientation to the present and near future aligns well with the compressed timescales for policy delivery on which democratic governments tend to work, it makes it difficult for the public health community to direct attention to conditions for future health. This article points to the need for research perspectives and practices that, consistent with public health's conceptual and ethical foundations, represent the interests of both tomorrow's and today's populations.

  6. Blogging, Mobile Phones, and Public Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-15

    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Craig Lefebvre, George Washington University discuss social media, blogs, and mobile technologies and how they can be used for public health.  Created: 5/15/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  7. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  8. Public health policies to encourage healthy eating habits: recent perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorski MT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mary T Gorski,1 Christina A Roberto2,3 1Interfaculty Initiative in Health Policy, Harvard University, Cambridge, 2Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 3Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: There is an urgent need to address unhealthy dietary patterns at the population level. Poor diet and physical inactivity are key drivers of the obesity pandemic, and they are among the leading causes of preventable death and disability in nearly every country in the world. As countries grapple with the growing obesity prevalence, many innovative policy options to reduce overeating and improve diet quality remain largely unexplored. We describe recent trends in eating habits and consequences for public health, vulnerabilities to unhealthy eating, and the role for public health policies. We reviewed recent public health policies to promote healthier diet patterns, including mandates, restrictions, economic incentives, marketing limits, information provision, and environmental defaults. Keywords: food policy, diet, obesity, public health

  9. PUBLIC HEALTH Health problems flow freely across borders ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 oct. 2010 ... For four decades, IDRC has supported research across the developing world that has saved lives and reduced illness by tackling threats to public health such as infections diseases, tobacco, dilapidated health systems, and degraded environments.

  10. Petroleum Scarcity and Public Health: Considerations for Local Health Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Caine, Virginia A.; McKee, Mary; Shirley, Lillian M.; Links, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of petroleum as a finite global resource has spurred increasing interest in the intersection between petroleum scarcity and public health. Local health departments represent a critical yet highly vulnerable component of the public health infrastructure. These frontline agencies currently face daunting resource constraints and rely heavily on petroleum for vital population-based health services. Against this backdrop, petroleum scarcity may necessitate reconfiguring local public health service approaches. We describe the anticipated impacts of petroleum scarcity on local health departments, recommend the use of the 10 Essential Public Health Services as a framework for examining attendant operational challenges and potential responses to them, and describe approaches that local health departments and their stakeholders could consider as part of timely planning efforts. PMID:21778471

  11. PUBLIC HEALTH Health problems flow freely across borders ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... For four decades, IDRC has supported research across the developing world that has saved lives and reduced illness by tackling threats to public health such as infections diseases, tobacco, dilapidated health systems, and degraded environments.

  12. Health Impact Assessment: Linking Public Health to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this presentation is to explore how HIA can help inform hazardous waste permitting regulations and incorporate community vulnerability and cumulative impacts to their potential health risks into permitting decision making by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. Presented the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) at the State of California Cumulative Impacts and Community Vulnerability Symposium on July 27 in Diamond Bar, CA.

  13. Public health preparedness evaluation and measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Savoia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Dear Sir;
    Public health preparedness refers to the ability of different local, state, and federal entities to carry out a prompt,effective response to any public health threat.[1] Indeed,it is clear that the term “threat”could embrace
    a myriad of elements. Recently, the main focus has been on bioterrorism, defined as the terrorist use of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive weapons of mass destruction.

    However, preparedness also involves other threats such as seasonal influenza epidemics, earthquakes or electricity failures. Programs aimed at improving the level of preparedness of different types of agencies (such as law enforcement, public health agencies, fire services, emergency medical services etc. in case of terrorist attacks could largely improve the overall ability of the public health system in addressing any threat to health, in particular those related to infectious diseases.[2]

  14. Innovative statistical methods for public health data

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together experts working in public health and multi-disciplinary areas to present recent issues in statistical methodological development and their applications. This timely book will impact model development and data analyses of public health research across a wide spectrum of analysis. Data and software used in the studies are available for the reader to replicate the models and outcomes. The fifteen chapters range in focus from techniques for dealing with missing data with Bayesian estimation, health surveillance and population definition and implications in applied latent class analysis, to multiple comparison and meta-analysis in public health data. Researchers in biomedical and public health research will find this book to be a useful reference, and it can be used in graduate level classes.

  15. Poverty and Health Disparities: What Can Public Health Professionals Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Webb, Fern J

    2018-03-01

    More than a tenth of the U.S. population (13% = 41 million people) is currently living in poverty. In this population, the socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental conditions have detrimental health effects such as higher rates of chronic diseases, communicable illnesses, health risk behaviors, and premature mortality. People living in poverty are also deprived of social, psychological, and political power, leading to continuation of worsening health and chronic deprivation over generations. The health of individuals living in poverty poses greater challenges from policy, practice, and research standpoints. Public health professionals are poised uniquely to be advocates for the marginalized, be the resource persons for health education, implement health promotion programs, and conduct research to understand health effects of poverty and design tailored and targeted public health interventions. In this article, we summarize the opportunities for public health practice with individuals living in poverty.

  16. Education Improves Public Health and Promotes Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A; Truman, Benedict I

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health - an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Risk tradeoffs and public health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnley, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: over the last 25 years, the traditional command-and-control, chemical-by-chemical environmental medium-by-environmental medium, risk-by-risk approach to protecting public health from environmental risks has worked well to greatly improve the quality of our food, air, water, and workplaces, but we are now left with the more complex problems, like urban air pollution or personal dietary behavior, that a chemical-by-chemical approach is not going to solve. Because current environmental regulatory programs have curbed the 'low-hanging fruit' and because of today's emphasis on achieving risk reductions cost-effectively, new and creative public health-based approaches to risk management are needed. Since public concern about pollution-related disease become serious in the 1960's and 1970's and regulatory agencies and laws began to proliferate, the public health goals of environmental protection have been obscured. As a society, we have made a tradeoff between environmental health and public health. The public health foundation of environmental health protection has been obscured by legalistic, technical, centralized decision-making processes that have often mistaken hazard for risk. A greater focus on public health would help us to assess aggregate risks and to target risk management resources by focusing on a problem and then identifying what is causing the problem as a guide to determining how best to solve it. Most of our current approaches start with a cause and then try to eliminate it without determining the extent to which it actually may contribute to a problem, making it difficult to set priorities among risks or to evaluate the impact of risk management actions on public health. (author)

  18. Public Health Colloquium Conference Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    channels. Having the proper context is critical. Is this a terrorist event? What needs to be passed on to federal authorities? To others...Homeland Security Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CIP-Consulting.com Colorado Amateur Weightlifting Colorado Department of Public

  19. The future of public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine Staff; Division of Health Care Services; Institute of Medicine

    1988-01-01

    ... NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this and of recomposed styles, version heading print the breaks, use been Please has inserted. lengths, word ...

  20. Jurisdiction size and local public health spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santerre, Rexford E

    2009-12-01

    To examine if a minimum efficient scale (MES) holds with respect to the population serviced by a local health department (LHD) given the congestability, externality, and scale/scope economy effects potentially associated with public health services. A nationally representative sample of LHDs in 2005. Multiple regression analysis is used to isolate the relation between population and spending while controlling for other factors known to influence local public health costs. Data were obtained from the 2005 National Profile of Local Public Health Agencies, a project supported through a cooperative agreement between the National Association of County and City Health Officials and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The MES of a local public health department is approximately 100,000 people. After that size, additional population has little impact on public health spending per capita. Seventy-seven percent of LHDs in the sample fall below the 100,000 MES. Higher levels of government may want to provide financial inducements so that smaller LHDs consolidate or enter into agreements with larger public health organizations to provide services.

  1. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE) can support several aspects of public health practice by increasing the availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness individual-level patient information. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served...... as an important justification for the US’ investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using...... qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...

  2. Reuniting public health and medicine: the University of New Mexico School of Medicine Public Health Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Cynthia M A; Arndell, Cynthia L; Clithero, Amy; Dow-Velarde, Lily A; Eldredge, Jonathan D; Eldredge, Jonathan P; Kalishman, Summers; Kaufman, Arthur; McGrew, Martha C; Snyder, Tiffany M; Solan, Brian G; Timm, Craig T; Tollestrup, Kristine; Wagner, Lana K; Wiese, William H; Wiggins, Charles L; Cosgrove, Ellen M

    2011-10-01

    The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNMSOM) sought to train medical students in public health concepts, knowledge, and skills as a means of improving the health of communities statewide. Faculty members from every UNMSOM department collaborated to create and integrate a public health focus into all years of the medical school curriculum. They identified key competencies and developed new courses that would synchronize students' learning public health subjects with the mainstream medical school content. New courses include: Health Equity: Principles of Public Health; Epidemiology and Biostatistics; Evidence-Based Practice; Community-Based Service Learning; and Ethics in Public Health. Students experiencing the new courses, first in pilot and then final forms, gave high quantitative ratings to all courses. Some students' qualitative comments suggest that the Public Health Certificate has had a profound transformative effect. Instituting the integrated Public Health Certificate at UNMSOM places it among the first medical schools to require all its medical students to complete medical school with public health training. The new UNMSOM Public Health Certificate courses reunite medicine and public health in a unified curriculum. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of overweight preschool children in public day care centers: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Gabriela Nascimento

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Brazil is undergoing a period of epidemiological transition associated with demographic and nutritional changes. The prevalence of obesity is also increasing in children and is causing numerous health problems that are becoming public health issues. The aim here was to evaluate the prevalence of overweight among children of two and three years of age. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in municipal day care centers in Taubaté, state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Weight and height measurements were made on 447 preschool children forming a probabilistic randomized sample. Their body mass index (BMI was calculated. Their nutritional status was classified using the World Health Organization reference cutoff points (2006. Their mean weight, height and BMI were compared according to their age and sex. RESULTS: The mean values for the final sample (n = 447 were as follows: mean age: 38.6 months (± 3.5 and Z scores for: weight/height (W/H: 0.50 (± 1.22; height/age: -0.03 (± 1.07; weight/age (W/A: 0.51 (± 1.23; and BMI: 0.51(± 1.23. The prevalence of overweight children (BMI > 1 z was 28.86%, while the prevalence of underweight children (BMI < -2 z was 0.89%. There were no differences in mean BMI among the two and three-year age groups (P = 0.66. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of overweight was observed in the sample of two and three-year-old children, with practically no malnutrition, thus showing that a significant nutritional transition may already be occurring, even in medium-sized cities of developing countries.

  4. Chemical Risk Assessment: Traditional vs Public Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. When done efficiently and properly, chemical risk assessment enables risk management actions that minimize the incidence and impacts of environmentally-induced diseases related to chemical exposure. However, traditional chemical risk assessment is faced with multiple challenges with respect to predicting and preventing disease in human populations, and epidemiological studies increasingly report observations of adverse health effects at exposure levels predicted from animal studies to be safe for humans. This discordance reinforces concerns about the adequacy of contemporary risk assessment practices (Birnbaum, Burke, & Jones, 2016) for protecting public health. It is becoming clear that to protect public health more effectively, future risk assessments will need to use the full range of available data, draw on innovative methods to integrate diverse data streams, and consider health endpoints that also reflect the range of subtle effects and morbidities observed in human populations. Given these factors, there is a need to reframe chemical risk assessment to be more clearly aligned with the public health goal of minimizing environmental exposures associated with disease. Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. Chemical risk assessments

  5. Innovation and technology for global public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Recent decades have been marked by the explosive development of innovative scientific, technological and business products and processes. Despite their immense impact on health globally, little has been accomplished in the field of global public health to incorporate, address and harness such innovations in practice. In order to meet the world's growing health needs, it is essential that global public health accepts and adapts to these innovations. Moreover, such innovations must be implemented equitably in ways that will best serve their intended recipients, without deepening health- and access-related disparities. This article will briefly discuss the wide array of technologies in the pipeline that will affect global public health practice, their impact on the field and on populations and the issues facing the field in adopting these innovations.

  6. Qualitative research and dental public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslind Preethi George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Qualitative Research (QR methods are now getting common in various aspects of health and healthcare research and they can be used to interpret, explore, or obtain a deeper understanding of certain aspects of human beliefs, attitudes, or behavior through personal experiences and perspectives. The potential scope of QR in the field of dental public health is immense, but unfortunately, it has remained underutilized. However, there are a number of studies which have used this type of research to probe into some unanswered questions in the field of public health dentistry ranging from workforce issues to attitudes of patients. In recent health research, evidence gathered through QR methods provide understanding to the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting the health status and healthcare of an individual and the population as a whole. This study will provide an overview of what QR is and discuss its contributions to dental public health research.

  7. Developing primary health care and public health competencies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stephen E Knight

    aSchool of Nursing and Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. *Corresponding author .... during Selectives. Appreciate professional diversity. Work and learn from the interprofes- sional PHC team. Conduct a prescription review. Health advocacy. Selectives health ...

  8. Homelessness: a hidden public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, S; Anand, K

    2008-01-01

    Homelessness is a problem, which affects not only the people who are homeless but the whole society. This problem is not well recognized among the public health professionals. This paper attempts to discuss the issues in the context of homelessness starting from the definition used to methodology of estimation of their numbers as well as their health problems and health care needs. There is lack of data on the health problems of homelessness from India. There is no special health or social programmes or services for this subsection of the society. The existing number of shelters is inadequate and as there are multiple barriers, which prevent them to have proper access to the existing health care system. With the changing social and economic scenario, homelessness is likely to increase. We need to recognize homelessness as a public health problem and attempt to target this group for special care in order to promote equity in health system.

  9. Public health communications and alert fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseman, Janet G; Revere, Debra; Painter, Ian; Toyoji, Mariko; Thiede, Hanne; Duchin, Jeffrey

    2013-08-05

    Health care providers play a significant role in large scale health emergency planning, detection, response, recovery and communication with the public. The effectiveness of health care providers in emergency preparedness and response roles depends, in part, on public health agencies communicating information in a way that maximizes the likelihood that the message is delivered, received, deemed credible and, when appropriate, acted on. However, during an emergency, health care providers can become inundated with alerts and advisories through numerous national, state, local and professional communication channels. We conducted an alert fatigue study as a sub-study of a larger randomized controlled trial which aimed to identify the most effective methods of communicating public health messages between public health agencies and providers. We report an analysis of the effects of public health message volume/frequency on recall of specific message content and effect of rate of message communications on health care provider alert fatigue. Health care providers enrolled in the larger study (n=528) were randomized to receive public health messages via email, fax, short message service (SMS or cell phone text messaging) or to a control group that did not receive messages. For 12 months, study messages based on real events of public health significance were sent quarterly with follow-up telephone interviews regarding message receipt and topic recall conducted 5-10 days after the message delivery date. During a pandemic when numerous messages are sent, alert fatigue may impact ability to recall whether a specific message has been received due to the "noise" created by the higher number of messages. To determine the impact of "noise" when study messages were sent, we compared health care provider recall of the study message topic to the number of local public health messages sent to health care providers. We calculated the mean number of messages that each provider received

  10. [Brazilian bibliographical output on public oral health in public health and dentistry journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Warmling, Cristine Maria

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this paper is to describe characteristics of the scientific output in the area of public oral health in journals on public health and dentistry nationwide. The Scopus database of abstracts and quotations was used and eight journals in public health, as well as ten in dentistry, dating from 1947 to 2011 were selected. A research strategy using key words regarding oral health in public health and key words about public health in dentistry was used to locate articles. The themes selected were based on the frequency of key words. Of the total number of articles, 4.7% (n = 642) were found in oral health journals and 6.8% (n = 245) in public health journals. Among the authors who published most, only 12% published in both fields. There was a percentile growth of public oral health publications in dentistry journals, though not in public health journals. In dentistry, only studies indexed as being on the topic of epidemiology showed an increase. In the area of public health, planning was predominant in all the phases studied. Research to evaluate the impact of research and postgraduate policies in scientific production is required.

  11. Health Informatics in the Public Health 3.0 Era: Intelligence for the Chief Health Strategists

    OpenAIRE

    DeSalvo, Karen; Wang, Y. Claire

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses health informatics in the Public Health 3.0 era and the role of chief health strategists to leverage data and partnerships to address the inputs to the public's health, including the broader social determinants.

  12. Prevalence of health risk factors among fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    AND fisherman OR fishing and only those with precise prevalence estimation were included. Results One Turkish, Scottish, Spanish, Greek and a Danish study were found. The prevalence rate for current smoking varied from 40 % - 82 % in the countries. Daily alcohol use also varied with 80%, 78% and 68 % among...... and accompanied by moderate–high alcohol consumption. On many vessels, food was limited to coffee, sandwiches and occasionally fruit on board. 66% of the Greek fishing workers did not perform any kind of exercise outside work. Obesity (Body mass index > 30.0) was found for 33 % of the Greek fishermen...

  13. Advancing Public Health through Continuing Education of Health Care Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Addleton, Robert L.; Vitale, Frank M.; Christiansen, Bruce A.; Mejicano, George C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how the CS2day (Cease Smoking Today) initiative positioned continuing education (CE) in the intersection between medicine and public health. The authors suggest that most CE activities address the medical challenges that clinicians confront, often to the neglect of the public health issues that are key risk factors for the…

  14. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-01-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall. PMID:26066925

  15. VT - Environmental Public Health Tracking Data Explorer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — What is Environmental Public Health Tracking?Tracking is an ongoing national effort to better understand how environmental hazards can contribute to certain...

  16. Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine Friends of the ... a Distinguished Medical Science Award for his global leadership in cancer research and the development of combination ...

  17. Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Electromagnetic fields and public health: mobile phones Fact sheet N° ... Electromagnetic fields: base stations and wireless technologies Electromagnetic fields: electromagnetic ... research agenda for electromagnetic fields You ...

  18. Public health informatics and information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Magnuson, J A

    2013-01-01

    In a revised edition, this book covers all aspects of public health informatics, and discusses the creation and management of an information technology infrastructure that is essential in linking state and local organizations in their efforts to gather data.

  19. Advancing Public Health in Cancer - Annual Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer is the leading cause of death from disease among Americans under 85. Learn how NCI advances public health by conducting research to improve the delivery of quality cancer prevention, screening, and treatment to all Americans.

  20. Corporate philanthropy, lobbying, and public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Laura E; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-12-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators' pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders.

  1. Corporate Philanthropy, Lobbying, and Public Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators’ pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders. PMID:18923118

  2. Defining and Developing Global Public Health Course for Public Health Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra eKarkee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global Public Health is increasingly being seen as a speciality field within the university education of Public Health. However, the exact meaning of Global Public Health is still unclear resulting in varied curricula and teaching units among universities. The contextual differences between high and low and middle income countries, and the process of globalisation need to be taken into account while developing any global public health course.Global Public Health and Public Health are not separable and Global Public Health often appears as an extension of Public Health in the era of globalisation and interdependence. Though Global Public Health is readily understood as health of global population, it is mainly practised as health problems and their solutions set within low and middle income countries. Additional specialist competencies relevant to the context of low and middle income countries are needed to work in this field. Although there can be a long list of competencies relevant to this broad topic, available literature suggests that knowledge and skills related with ethics and vulnerable groups/issues; globalisation and its impact on health; disease burden; culture, society and politics; and management are important.

  3. A global public health imperative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MESKE

    far from and unlikely to achieve the HFA goals by the target year. This necessitated further re- examining global health policies and strategies and in 2000 the 189 UN member states that met in New York, adopted the Millennium. Declaration. The Declaration asserts that every individual has the right to dignity, freedom,.

  4. Political Economy of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith W. Leavitt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Launching Global Health: The Caribbean Odyssey of the Rockefeller Foundation. Steven Palmer. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2010. xi + 301 pp. (Cloth US$ 70.00 Partner to the Poor: A Paul Farmer Reader. Paul Farmer, edited by Haun Saussy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010. xii + 660 pp. (Paper US$ 27.50

  5. Social injustice and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2006-01-01

    ... their counterparts in almost every health indicator. Poor children are at least twice as likely as are nonpoor children to suffer stunted growth or lead poisoning. Black children and children from poor families are more likely to have disabling asthma. Infants born to black mothers are more than twice as likely as infants born to white mothers to die before their fi...

  6. Noise exposure and public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier-Vermeer, W.; Passchier, W.F.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to noise constitutes a health risk. There is sufficient scientific evidence that noise exposure can induce hearing impairment, hypertension and ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. For other effects such as changes in the immune system and

  7. The application of HIV molecular epidemiology to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevis, D; Nikolopoulos, G K; Magiorkinis, G; Hodges-Mameletzis, I; Hatzakis, A

    2016-12-01

    HIV is responsible for one of the largest viral pandemics in human history. Despite a concerted global response for prevention and treatment, the virus persists. Thus, urgent public health action, utilizing novel interventions, is needed to prevent future transmission events, critical to eliminating HIV. For public health planning to prove effective and successful, we need to understand the dynamics of regional epidemics and to intervene appropriately. HIV molecular epidemiology tools as implemented in phylogenetic, phylodynamic and phylogeographic analyses have proven to be powerful tools in public health planning across many studies. Numerous applications with HIV suggest that molecular methods alone or in combination with mathematical modelling can provide inferences about the transmission dynamics, critical epidemiological parameters (prevalence, incidence, effective number of infections, Re, generation times, time between infection and diagnosis), or the spatiotemporal characteristics of epidemics. Molecular tools have been used to assess the impact of an intervention and outbreak investigation which are of great public health relevance. In some settings, molecular sequence data may be more readily available than HIV surveillance data, and can therefore allow for molecular analyses to be conducted more easily. Nonetheless, classic methods have an integral role in monitoring and evaluation of public health programmes, and should supplement emerging techniques from the field of molecular epidemiology. Importantly, molecular epidemiology remains a promising approach in responding to viral diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Science and social responsibility in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Douglas L; McKeown, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end. Epidemiologists are committed to the scientific study of health and disease in human populations and to the application of scientific knowledge to improve the public's health. Responsibility is also closely linked to reliability. Responsible professionals reliably perform the tasks they set for themselves as well as the tasks society expects them to undertake. The defining axiom for our approach is that the health of the public is a social good we commit ourselves to pursue, thus assuming an obligation to contribute to its achievement. Epidemiologists cannot claim to be committed to public health as a social good and not accept the responsibility of ensuring that the knowledge gained in their roles as scientists is used to achieve that good. The social responsibilities of environmental health researchers are conspicuous in the environmental justice movement, for example, in community-based participatory research. Responsibility is an ethical concept particularly well suited to frame many key aspects of the ethics of our profession. PMID:14602514

  9. Public health communications for safe motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, E

    1994-03-30

    Public health communication aims to influence health practices of large populations, including maternal health care providers (traditional birth attendants, (TBAs), nurse-midwives, other indigenous practitioners, and physicians). A quality assurance process is needed to give public sector health providers feedback. Computerized record keeping is needing for quality assurance of maternal health programs. The Indian Rural Medical Association has trained more than 20,000 rural indigenous practitioners in West Bengal. Training of TBAs is expensive and rarely successful. However, trained health professional leading group discussions of TBAs is successful at teaching them about correct maternity care. Health education messages integrated into popular songs and drama is a way to reach large illiterate audiences. Even though a few donor agencies and governments provide time and technical assistance to take advantage of the mass media as a means to communicate health messages, the private sector has most of the potential. Commercial advertisements pay for Video on Wheels, which, with 100 medium-sized trucks each fitted with a 100-inch screen, plays movies for rural citizens of India. They are exposed to public and family planning messages. Jain Satellite Television (JST) broadcasts 24 hours a day and plans to broadcast programs on development, health and family planning, women's issues, and continuing education for all health care providers (physicians, nurses, TBAs, community workers, and indigenous practitioners). JST and the International Federation for Family Health plan to telecast courses as part of an Open University of Health Sciences.

  10. The impact of globalization on public health: implications for the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K

    2000-09-01

    There has been substantial discussion of globalization in the scholarly and popular press yet limited attention so far among public health professionals. This is so despite the many potential impacts of globalization on public health. Defining public health broadly, as focused on the collective health of populations requiring a range of intersectoral activities, globalization can be seen to have particular relevance. Globalization, in turn, can be defined as a process that is changing the nature of human interaction across a wide range of spheres and along at least three dimensions. Understanding public health and globalization in these ways suggests the urgent need for research to better understand the linkages between the two, and effective policy responses by a range of public health institutions, including the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine. The paper is based on a review of secondary literature on globalization that led to the development of a conceptual framework for understanding potential impacts on the determinants of health and public health. The paper then discusses major areas of public health in relation to these potential impacts. It concludes with recommendations on how the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine might contribute to addressing these impacts through its various activities. Although there is growing attention to the importance of globalization to public health, there has been limited research and policy development in the United Kingdom. The UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine needs to play an active role in bringing relevant issues to the attention of policy makers, and encourage its members to take up research, teaching and policy initiatives. The potential impacts of globalization support a broader understanding and practice of public health that embraces a wide range of health determinants.

  11. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview...

  12. Music and Public Health - An introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Theorell, Töres

    2018-01-01

    Introduction to Music and Public Health as a new research field. The history of the field in the Nordic countries is presented, and the 13 contributions to the book are briefly reviewed.......Introduction to Music and Public Health as a new research field. The history of the field in the Nordic countries is presented, and the 13 contributions to the book are briefly reviewed....

  13. [Public health genetics. Fundamental rights aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozza, C

    2009-07-01

    The fundamental right of "informational self-determination" (protection of personal data) protects the individual against collection, storage, use and disclosure of her/his personal data - including genetic data - without her/his informed consent. However, in cases of overriding public interest, limitations of this right are deemed legitimate. Public health, expressly guaranteed in some German state constitutions, may constitute such overriding public interest and justify corresponding state measures as long as they respect the principle of proportionality.

  14. Big social data analytics for public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straton, Nadiya; Hansen, Kjeld; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, social media has offered new opportunities for interaction and distribution of public health information within and across organisations. In this paper, we analysed data from Facebook walls of 153 public organisations using unsupervised machine learning techniques to understand...

  15. Eugenics and public health in American history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernick, M S

    1997-01-01

    Supporters of eugenics, the powerful early 20th-century movement for improving human heredity, often attacked that era's dramatic improvements in public health and medicine for preserving the lives of people they considered hereditarily unfit. Eugenics and public health also battled over whether heredity played a significant role in infectious diseases. However, American public health and eugenics had much in common as well. Eugenic methods often were modeled on the infection control techniques of public health. The goals, values, and concepts of disease of these two movements also often overlapped. This paper sketches some of the key similarities and differences between eugenics and public health in the United States, and it examines how their relationship was shaped by the interaction of science and culture. The results demonstrate that eugenics was not an isolated movement whose significance is confined to the histories of genetics and pseudoscience, but was instead an important and cautionary part of past public health and a general medical history as well. PMID:9366633

  16. Why Do People Work in Public Health? Exploring Recruitment and Retention Among Public Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Valerie A; Wisniewski, Janna M; Amos, Kathleen; Bialek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The public health workforce is critical to the functioning of the public health system and protection of the population's health. Ensuring a sufficient workforce depends on effectively recruiting and retaining workers. This study examines factors influencing decisions to take and remain in jobs within public health, particularly for workers employed in governmental public health. This cross-sectional study employed a secondary data set from a 2010 national survey of US public health workers. Survey respondents were included in this study if they responded to at least 1 survey item related to recruitment and retention. A total of 10 859 survey responses fit this criterion. Data examined demographics of public health workers and factors that influenced decisions to take jobs in and remain in public health. Job security (β = 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.56) and competitive benefits (β = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.28-0.70) were significantly and positively associated with governmental employees' decisions to take positions with their current employers compared with public health workers employed by other types of organizations. The same finding held with regard to retention: job security (β = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.23-0.57) and competitive benefits (β = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.24-0.83). Two personal factors, personal commitment to public service (β = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.17-0.42) and wanted a job in the public health field (β = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.18-0.69), were significantly and positively related to governmental employees deciding to remain with their current employers. It is important to recognize the value of competitive benefits for both current and potential employees. Public health agencies should maintain these if possible and make the value of these benefits known to policy makers or other agencies setting these benefit policies. Job security associated with governmental public health jobs also appears to offer public health an advantage in recruiting and retaining employees.

  17. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotey, Pascale A; Diniz, Simone; Dejong, Jocelyn; Delvaux, Thérèse; Gruskin, Sofia; Fonn, Sharon

    2011-11-01

    This paper addresses the challenges faced in mainstreaming the teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights into public health education. For this paper, we define sexual and reproductive health and rights education as including not only its biomedical aspects but also an understanding of its history, values and politics, grounded in gender politics and social justice, addressing sexuality, and placed within a broader context of health systems and global health. Using a case study approach with an opportunistically selected sample of schools of public health within our regional contexts, we examine the status of sexual and reproductive health and rights education and some of the drivers and obstacles to the development and delivery of sexual and reproductive health and rights curricula. Despite diverse national and institutional contexts, there are many commonalities. Teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights is not fully integrated into core curricula. Existing initiatives rely on personal faculty interest or short-term courses, neither of which are truly sustainable or replicable. We call for a multidisciplinary and more comprehensive integration of sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education. The education of tomorrow's public health leaders is critical, and a strategy is needed to ensure that they understand and are prepared to engage with the range of sexual and reproductive health and rights issues within their historical and political contexts. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Labor unions: a public health institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Beth; Minkler, Meredith; Stock, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Using a social-ecological framework, we drew on a targeted literature review and historical and contemporary cases from the US labor movement to illustrate how unions address physical and psychosocial conditions of work and the underlying inequalities and social determinants of health. We reviewed labor involvement in tobacco cessation, hypertension control, and asthma, limiting articles to those in English published in peer-reviewed public health or medical journals from 1970 to 2013. More rigorous research is needed on potential pathways from union membership to health outcomes and the facilitators of and barriers to union-public health collaboration. Despite occasional challenges, public health professionals should increase their efforts to engage with unions as critical partners.

  19. Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.; Sexton, K.

    1983-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  20. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  1. Protecting labor rights: roles for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Gaydos, Megan; Yu, Karen; Weintraub, June

    2013-11-01

    Federal, state, and local labor laws establish minimum standards for working conditions, including wages, work hours, occupational safety, and collective bargaining. The adoption and enforcement of labor laws protect and promote social, economic, and physical determinants of health, while incomplete compliance undermines these laws and contributes to health inequalities. Using existing legal authorities, some public health agencies may be able to contribute to the adoption, monitoring, and enforcement of labor laws. We describe how routine public health functions have been adapted in San Francisco, California, to support compliance with minimum wage and workers' compensation insurance standards. Based on these experiences, we consider the opportunities and obstacles for health agencies to defend and advance labor standards. Increasing coordinated action between health and labor agencies may be a promising approach to reducing health inequities and efficiently enforcing labor standards.

  2. Prevalence of depression among health workers in Enugu, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: Determination of the prevalence and distribution of depression among health workers at tertiary level of health care delivery in Enugu South East Nigeria. Settings and Design: A cross‑sectional descriptive survey of depression in health workers at tertiary level. Subjects and Methods: By proportional quota sampling, ...

  3. HIV/AIDS prevalence among South African health workers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    expected that HIV prevalence among health workers will ... HIV I AIDS. In Malawi,' researchers reported that in 1999 2% of health care workers died of AIDS (60 deaths out of 2 979). Among female health care workers, the highest death rates were among ..... Ministry needs to conduct an in-depth investigation into the·.

  4. Prevalence and predictors of suicidality among medical students in a public university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S T; Sherina, M S; Rampal, L; Normala, I

    2015-02-01

    Undergraduate medical students have been the most distressed group among the student population. Depression and anxiety have been found to be more prevalent in this group of students compared to others. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and predictors of suicidality among undergraduate medical students in a public university. This was an analytical cross-sectional study, conducted in a public university in Selangor, Malaysia. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires from January to February 2013, and analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Software (version 21). Out of 625 undergraduate medical students, 537 (85.9%) participated in the study. The prevalence of the suicidality among undergraduate medical students was 7.0%. The significant predictors of suicidality based on multiple logistic regression were the respondent's lifetime suicide attempts (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR 10.4, 95% CI 2.7 to 40.9); depression (AOR 5.9, 95% CI 1.5 to 23.0); breaking off a steady love relationship (AOR 5.4, 95% CI 1.3 to 22.4); hopelessness (AOR 4.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 21.6); and something valued being lost or stolen (AOR 4.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 15.9). These findings indicate that mental health care services should be strengthened at university level. The results show a need for an intervention programme to reduce suicidality among the undergraduate medical students.

  5. Globalization of public health law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Myongsei

    2012-09-01

    The Constitution of the World Health Organization (1946) states that the "enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social position." The international legal framework for this right was laid by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and reaffirmed in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966) and the Declaration of Alma-Ata (1978). In recent years, the framework has been developed on 10 key elements: national and international human rights, laws, norms, and standards; resource constraints and progressive realization; obligations of immediate effect; freedoms and entitlements; available, accessible, acceptable, and good quality; respect, protect, and fulfill; non-discrimination, equality, and vulnerability; active and informed participation; international assistance and cooperation; and monitoring and accountability. Whereas public health law plays an essential role in the protection and promotion of the right to health, the emergence of SARS (2003) highlighted the urgent need to reform national public health laws and international obligations relating to public health in order to meet the new realities of a globalized world, leading to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2003) and the revision of the WHO International Health Regulations (2005). The Asian Institute for Bioethics and Health Law, in conjunction with the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare and the WHO International Digest of Health Legislation, conducted a comparative legal analysis of national public health laws in various countries through a project entitled Domestic Profiles of Public/Population Health Legislation (2006), which underscored the importance of recognizing the political and social contexts of distinct legal cultures, including Western, Asian, Islamic, and African.

  6. Public expenditures and health care in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbu, O; Gallagher, M

    1992-03-01

    Unfavorable economic conditions in most of Africa (in this paper Africa refers to Sub-Saharan Africa only) have meant public austerity and a deceleration in government health spending. Given the dominant role of government in providing health services in Africa there is a need to investigate the links between public spending and the provision of health care. Analyzing information from five Sub-Saharan African countries, namely Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia and Senegal, we investigate the impacts of shifting expenditure patterns and levels on the process of providing health services as well as on delivery of health care. The country analyses indicate that in addition to the level of public spending, the expenditure mix (i.e. salaries, drugs, supplies etc.), the composition of the health infrastructure (hospitals, clinics, health posts etc.), community efforts, and the availability of private health care all influence health care delivery. Consequently, per capita public expenditure (the most important indicator in a number of related studies) alone as a measure of the availability of health care and especially for cross-country comparisons is inadequate. Reductions in government resources for health care often result in less efficient mixing of resources and hence less health care delivery, in quality and quantity terms. With the recent trends in health care spending in Africa there should be greater effort to increase the efficient use of these increasingly scarce resources, yet the trend in resource mix has been in the opposite direction. Given the input to public health care of local communities, as well as the provision of private health care, it would seem that government spending on health care should be counter-cyclical, i.e. government health spending should accelerate during periods of economic down turns. Such counter-cyclical spending would tend to offset the difficulties facing local communities and the declining ability of individuals to

  7. Public perceptions of substance abuse and how problems are resolved: implications for medical and public health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jalie A; Foushee, H Russell; Simpson, Cathy A

    2008-08-01

    Increasing utilization and appeal of substance abuse services requires understanding public perceptions of substance abuse and problem resolution. A statewide survey (N = 439) assessed public views of the prevalence of problems, service utilization, and outcomes using random digit dialing sampling. Compared with population data, the sample overestimated the prevalence of alcohol and drug problems, accurately gauged rates of help-seeking for substance-related problems, and underestimated rates of recovery, particularly natural resolutions without treatment. Perceived influences on help-seeking included extrinsic pressures like legal problems and wanting help with problems of living related to substance misuse. Substance abuse is less prevalent and less intractable than the public perceives, and natural resolutions are common, but appear to be largely hidden from the public view. Implications for reducing barriers and expanding services in healthcare and public health settings are discussed.

  8. Development of Systematic Knowledge Management for Public Health: A Public Health Law Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has stated that legal structures and the authority vested in health agencies and other partners within the public health system are essential to improving the public's health. Variation between the laws of different jurisdictions within the United States allows for natural experimentation and research into their…

  9. Prevalence of HIV infection and median CD4 counts among health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of HIV infection and the extent of disease progression based on CD4 count in a public health system workforce in southern Africa. Design. Cross-sectional voluntary, anonymous, unlinked survey including an oral fluid or blood sample and a brief demographic questionnaire. Setting.

  10. Integrating child health information systems in public health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Debra; McPhillips-Tangum, Carol; Wild, Ellen L; Mann, Marie Y

    2009-01-01

    Public health agencies at state and local levels are integrating information systems to improve health outcomes for children. An assessment was conducted to describe the extent to which public health agencies are currently integrating child health information systems (CHIS). Using online technology information was collected, to assess completed and planned activities related to integration of CHIS, maturity of these systems, and factors that influence decisions by public health agencies to pursue integration activities. Of the 39 public health agencies that participated, 18 (46%) reported already integrating some or all of their CHIS, and 13 (33%) reported to be planning to integrate during the next 3 years. Information systems most commonly integrated include Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), immunization, vital records, and Newborn Dried Bloodspot Screening (NDBS). Given the high priority that has been placed on using technology to improve health status in the United States, the emphasis on expanding the capability for the electronic exchange of health information, and federal support for electronic health records by 2014, public health agencies should be encouraged and supported in their efforts to develop, implement, and maintain integrated CHIS to facilitate the electronic exchange of health information with the clinical healthcare sector.

  11. Mapping the future of public health: action on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona

    2006-01-01

    We are challenged to develop a public health approach that responds to the globalized world. The present global health crisis is not primarily one of disease, but of governance: its key characteristic is a weakening of public policy and interstate mechanisms as a consequence of global restructuring. The response needs to focus on the political determinants of health, in particular on mechanisms that help ensure the global public goods that are required for a more equitable and secure development. A first step in this direction would be to take up the proposal from the recent 6th Global Conference on Health Promotion to explore the possibility of a new type of global health treaty which would help to establish the new parameters of global health governance. National public health associations should take the lead to establish health as a global public good and organize "National Global Health Summits" to discuss the possible mechanisms for the necessary political process. This means putting global health governance issues onto the agenda of other sectors such as foreign policy, as health is critical not only for poverty reduction but for human security as a whole.

  12. Public Health Service Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, J.R.

    1969-01-01

    Off-Site Radiological Safety Programs conducted on past Plowshare experimental projects by the Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory for the AEC will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on the evaluation of the potential radiation hazard to off-site residents, the development of an appropriate safety plan, pre- and post-shot surveillance activities, and the necessity for a comprehensive and continuing community relations program. In consideration of the possible wide use of nuclear explosives in industrial applications, a new approach to off-site radiological safety will be discussed. (author)

  13. Radiological protection and public health: crossbreeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeesters, Patrick; Pinak, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper summarizes the scope of activities, ongoing experience and current results of the Expert Group on the Public Health Perspective in Radiological Protection (EGPH) of the Committee of Radiological Protection and Public Health, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. While the prime and general task of the EGPH group is looking at how the public health and radiation protection can better take an advantage of their respective perspectives, the following four areas have been explored in detail: a) Exposure to radon; b) Justification of medical exposures; c) Public health judgement and decision making based on new scientific evidence; and d) Management of individual differences. In most of these areas, a targeted telephone survey on public policies in selected countries was used for collecting information from stake holders (public, consumers groups, public health and radiation protection regulators, governmental bodies, medical practitioners, patients, scientific communities, NGOs, etc.). The presented paper also highlights key issues of collected information and summarises existing approaches and policies. The case study on exposure to radon collects national information on approaches to the management of domestic radon risks, focusing on the integration of radiation protection and public health aspects (quality of dwellings, overall quality of indoor air, perception of radon levels, position of radon risk in the pool of other risks). In the case of justification of medical exposures, the Group studies the applications of the justification principle in opportunistic screenings (responsibilities, management of the situation, risk assessment). The precautionary principle and its impact on policy judgement in the light of significant scientific uncertainties can have a large influence on radiological-protection decision making. The case study on public health judgement and decision making based on new scientific evidence is exploring how these uncertainties and

  14. World Health Organization and disease surveillance: Jeopardizing global public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin Genest, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Health issues now evolve in a global context. Real-time global surveillance, global disease mapping and global risk management characterize what have been termed 'global public health'. It has generated many programmes and policies, notably through the work of the World Health Organization. This globalized form of public health raises, however, some important issues left unchallenged, including its effectiveness, objectivity and legitimacy. The general objective of this article is to underline the impacts of WHO disease surveillance on the practice and theorization of global public health. By using the surveillance structure established by the World Health Organization and reinforced by the 2005 International Health Regulations as a case study, we argue that the policing of 'circulating risks' emerged as a dramatic paradox for global public health policy. This situation severely affects the rationale of health interventions as well as the lives of millions around the world, while travestying the meaning of health, disease and risks. To do so, we use health surveillance data collected by the WHO Disease Outbreak News System in order to map the impacts of global health surveillance on health policy rationale and theory. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Public engagement on global health challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhas Gunjeet S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. Methods This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. Results The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Conclusion Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues.

  16. Cities and the health of the public

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2006-01-01

    ... and urban renewal on health, and the challenges facing cities in the developing world. It also examines conditions such as infectious diseases, violence and disasters, and mental illness. Nicholas Freudenberg is Distinguished Professor of Public Health and Social Psychology, Hunter College and the Graduate Center, City University of New York. Sandro G...

  17. Career Guidance and Public Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…

  18. The ascent of public health science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the recent history of public health, we see that evolution of concepts has led to new investigative methods, and .... Investigations of the social causes of ill health are rooted in nine- teenth century approaches, but was much stronger in Europe, especially UK. The origins of this line .... The emergence of HIV/AIDS in the clos-.

  19. Conceptualizing ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH - Public health management and leadership perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orvik, Arne

    is able to cope with the tensions associated with diverse values and competing institutional logics. This definition calls for an understanding of the tensions between values associated with quality, efficiency and integrity, and a dialectical perspective when attempting to assess the integration as well......The thesis introduces a new conceptual model of organizational health and discusses its implications for public health management and leadership. It is developed with reference to organizational theories and ideologies, including New Public Management, the use of which has coincided with increasing...... workplace health problems in health care organizations. The model is based on empirical research and theories in the fields of public health, health care organization and management, and institutional theory. It includes five dimensions and defines organizational health in terms of how an organization...

  20. Vaccination competence of public health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikula, Anne; Nohynek, Hanna; Puukka, Pauli; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the vaccination competence of Finnish public health nurses. A survey design was used. Participants (n=405) were public health nurses working in health centers in Finland. The data were collected using a structured instrument and were analyzed by SAS. The mean of self-assessment was 8.3 and the proportion percentage of correct answers in the knowledge test was 83 %. According to the self-assessment, public health nurses felt they were most competent in achieving the desired outcomes of vaccination implementation and poorest in their qualities as vaccinators. In the knowledge test, the public health nurses were familiar with vaccination recommendations and common contraindications, but showed room for improvement in managing an anaphylactic reaction, aseptic practices, and knowing the names of vaccines. There was a statistically significant link between the results on the self-assessment and the knowledge test. Further training should be organized in the areas where knowledge was lacking. It would be useful to further investigate differences in competence between public health nurses working different sectors. These results could be utilized in education, clinical nursing practice, administration and research. This study demonstrated that vaccination competence can be measured by means of the structured instrument. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Big Data's Role in Precision Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, Shawn

    2018-01-01

    Precision public health is an emerging practice to more granularly predict and understand public health risks and customize treatments for more specific and homogeneous subpopulations, often using new data, technologies, and methods. Big data is one element that has consistently helped to achieve these goals, through its ability to deliver to practitioners a volume and variety of structured or unstructured data not previously possible. Big data has enabled more widespread and specific research and trials of stratifying and segmenting populations at risk for a variety of health problems. Examples of success using big data are surveyed in surveillance and signal detection, predicting future risk, targeted interventions, and understanding disease. Using novel big data or big data approaches has risks that remain to be resolved. The continued growth in volume and variety of available data, decreased costs of data capture, and emerging computational methods mean big data success will likely be a required pillar of precision public health into the future. This review article aims to identify the precision public health use cases where big data has added value, identify classes of value that big data may bring, and outline the risks inherent in using big data in precision public health efforts.

  2. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevc, Christine A.; Retrum, Jessica H.; Varda, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships. PMID:26445053

  3. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Bevc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162, to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships.

  4. [Scientific information activity in practical public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarenko, A R

    1990-01-01

    The article examined the need for improving scientific information activity in the system of applied public health. Barriers were revealed which constrained the optimization of information supply for physicians. The findings of the study were provided which confirmed the low level of scientific information culture of professionals in the applied public health. Possible ways of improving scientific information activity were presented. Emphasis was made on the need for introducing the course of "The fundamentals of scientific health information" into the curricula of state institutes of advanced training for physicians. The data on the information needs of physicians and their information culture were given.

  5. The public health impact of tsunami disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Tsunamis have the potential to cause an enormous impact on the health of millions of people. During the last half of the twentieth century, more people were killed by tsunamis than by earthquakes. Most recently, a major emergency response operation has been underway in northeast Japan following a devastating tsunami triggered by the biggest earthquake on record in Japan. This natural disaster has been described as the most expensive in world history. There are few resources in the public health literature that describe the characteristics and epidemiology of tsunami-related disasters, as a whole. This article reviews the phenomenology and impact of tsunamis as a significant public health hazard.

  6. Electronic health record case studies to advance environmental public health tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namulanda, Gonza; Qualters, Judith; Vaidyanathan, Ambarish; Roberts, Eric; Richardson, Max; Fraser, Alicia; McVeigh, Katharine H; Patterson, Scott

    2018-03-01

    Data from traditional public health surveillance systems can have some limitations, e.g., timeliness, geographic level, and amount of data accessible. Electronic health records (EHRs) could present an opportunity to supplement current sources of routinely collected surveillance data. The National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) sought to explore the use of EHRs for advancing environmental public health surveillance practices. The Tracking Program funded four state/local health departments to obtain and pilot the use of EHR data to address several issues including the challenges and technical requirements for accessing EHR data, and the core data elements required to integrate EHR data within their departments' Tracking Programs. The results of these pilot projects highlighted the potential of EHR data for public health surveillance of rare diseases that may lack comprehensive registries, and surveillance of prevalent health conditions or risk factors for health outcomes at a finer geographic level. EHRs therefore, may have potential to supplement traditional sources of public health surveillance data. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Prevalence of HIV infection and median CD4 counts among health care workers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Daniela; Veriava, Youssef; Roberts, Sue; Tsotetsi, Josephine; Jordan, Annie; DeSilva, Eliot; Rosen, Sydney; DeSilva, Mary Bachman

    2007-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of HIV infection and the extent of disease progression based on CD4 count in a public health system workforce in southern Africa. Cross-sectional voluntary, anonymous, unlinked survey including an oral fluid or blood sample and a brief demographic questionnaire. Two public hospitals in Gauteng, South Africa. All 2 032 professional and support staff employed by the two hospitals. HIV prevalence and CD4 cell count distribution. Overall prevalence of HIV was 11.5%. By occupation, prevalence was highest among student nurses (13.8%) and nurses (13.7%). The highest prevalence by age was in the 25 - 34-year group (15.9%). Nineteen per cent of HIV-positive participants who provided blood samples had CD4 counts less than or equal to 200 cells/ microl 28% had counts 201 - 350 cells/ microl, 18% had counts 351 - 500 cells/ microl, and 35% had counts above 500 cells/ microl. One out of 7 nurses and nursing students in this public sector workforce was HIV-positive. A high proportion of health care workers had CD4 counts below 350 cells/ microl, and many were already eligible for antiretroviral therapy under South African treatment guidelines. Given the short supply of nurses in South Africa, knowledge of prevalence in this workforce and provision of effective AIDS treatment are crucial for meeting future staffing needs.

  8. Public Health 101 Nanocourse: A Condensed Educational Tool for Non–Public Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdos, Zofia K. Z.; Kreatsoulas, Catherine; Afeiche, Myriam C.; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Nelson, Candace C.; Kanjee, Usheer; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.

    2015-01-01

    Graduate students and postdoctoral fellows—including those at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH)—have somewhat limited opportunities outside of traditional coursework to learn holistically about public health. Because this lack of familiarity could be a barrier to fruitful collaboration across disciplines, HSPH postdocs sought to address this challenge. In response, the Public Health 101 Nanocourse was developed to provide an overview of five core areas of public health (biostatistics, environmental health sciences, epidemiology, health policy and management, and social and behavioral sciences) in a two half-day course format. We present our experiences with developing and launching this novel approach to acquainting wider multidisciplinary audiences with the field of public health. PMID:25706019

  9. Binge drinking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuntsche, Sandra; Thrul, Johannes; Gmel, Gerhard

    2017-08-01

    Binge drinking (also called heavy episodic drinking, risky single-occasion drinking etc.) is a major public health problem. This paper provides an overview of recently published evidence concerning the definition and measurement, prevalence rates, health impact, demographic and psychosocial correlates of, and interventions for, binge drinking. Narrative review. Mostly occurring among young people at weekends, binge drinking increases the risk of both acute (e.g. injuries) and long-term negative consequences (e.g. alcohol disorders). Binge drinkers tend to be extrovert, impulsive and sensation-seeking. Stress, anxiety, traumatic events and depression are also related to binge drinking. Both alcohol-related behaviour of parents and general parenting (e.g. parenting styles, monitoring) are also important. Other major risk factors for binge drinking are frequently spending time with friends who drink, and the drinking norms observed in the wider social environment (e.g. school, community, culture). Emergency departments, birthday parties, fraternities and the workplace serve as settings for interventions; these are increasingly delivered via digital and mobile technology. There is evidence of small-sized effects across approaches (brief interventions, personalised normative feedback, protective behavioural strategies etc.) and populations. A more consistent terminology, investigating multi-level influences and identifying the most effective intervention components are challenges for future research.

  10. PREVALENCE OF CONGENITAL MALFORMATION IN NEWBORNS OF THE PUBLIC HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritana Pereira Ramos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimmed to estimate the predominance of congenital malformations in newborns of the Public Hospital in the Jequié city, Brazil. It was utilized spring of secondary facts, from the factgathering of available manuals in the Service of Medical Files of the hospital, in the period of January of 2005 to December of 2006. It was utilized instrument of collection standardized where information about characteristics they were collected of the mother, general characteristics of the newborn and bad-congenital formation. The results show predominance of 3.1% of born infants been with evil congenital formation. Among these, it prevailed the of the male sex (64,0%, premature (56,7% of normal birth (56,7%, with adequate weight (70,0%, classified in the majority of isolated form (76,7%, of smaller clinical importance (63,0% and evolving for high hospital with 60.0% of the cases; 71.0% of the deaths occurred between the newborns were due to specific malformations of the nervous system, however this pathology next to of the osteomuscular system. The majority of the mothers had between 17 and 24 years (46,7%, carried out more of seven consults prenatal (30,0% and live in the urban zone of the town (60,0%; 71.0% of the deaths occurred between the newborns were due to specific malformations of the nervous system. Those finds are compatible with others finds described in the Brazilian scientific literature, what is going to reflect about the implementation of public politics with infrastructure qualified service implementation in the perspective of prevention, detection and cares of those individuals in all of the levels of the net of health.

  11. Prevalence of congenital malformation in newborns of the public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritana Pereira Ramos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimmed to estimate the predominance of congenital malformations in newborns of the Public Hospital in the Jequié city, Brazil. It was utilized spring of secondary facts, from the fact-gathering of available manuals in the Service of Medical Files of the hospital, in the period of January of 2005 to December of 2006. It was utilized instrument of collection standardized where information about characteristics they were collected of the mother, general characteristics of the newborn and bad-congenital formation. The results show predominance of 3.1% of born infants been with evil-congenital formation. Among these, it prevailed the of the male sex (64,0%, premature (56,7% of normal birth (56,7%, with adequate weight (70,0%, classified in the majority of isolated form (76,7%, of smaller clinical importance (63,0% and evolving for high hospital with 60.0% of the cases; 71.0% of the deaths occurred between the newborns were due to specific malformations of the nervous system, however this pathology next to of the osteomuscular system. The majority of the mothers had between 17 and 24 years (46,7%, carried out more of seven consults prenatal (30,0% and live in the urban zone of the town (60,0%; 71.0% of the deaths occurred between the newborns were due to specific malformations of the nervous system. Those finds are compatible with others finds described in the Brazilian scientific literature, what is going to reflect about the implementation of public politics with infrastructure qualified service implementation in the perspective of prevention, detection and cares of those individuals in all of the levels of the net of health.

  12. The National Institute of Public Health: Shaping Public Policy to Advance Population Health in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Magaña-Valladares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican School of Public Health was founded in 1922 by the Mexican government and was the first school of public health in Latin America. It has become one of the largest public health institutions in the developing world and is the leading institution for teaching, research and service to improve public health in Mexico and Latin America. The Institute is an important player in shaping public policy in Mexico through its mission-oriented research. Through its research initiatives, the Institute has influenced policies regarding tobacco, obesity, milk and flour fortification, malaria, cancer, environmental health, and other public health priority areas. The Institute responds to changing health workforce training needs. It currently offers 28 competency-based graduate degree programs and trains annually more than 10,000 in-service public health workers through continuing education courses. The Institute offers multiple educational formats to accomplish its mission, including face-to-face, virtual, and blended learning. It has been accredited by both national and international agencies and collaborates closely with international institutions. The Institute contributes to global health by promoting health equity, strengthening health systems, and generating evidence-based strategies to improve population health in Mexico, the Americas, and around the world.

  13. Academic dental public health diplomates: their distribution and recommendations concerning the predoctoral dental public health faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaste, L M; Sadler, Z E; Hayes, K L; Narendran, S; Niessen, L C; Weintraub, J A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the representation of academically based diplomates of the American Board of Dental Public Health (ABDPH) and to identify their perceptions on the training of dental public health predoctoral faculty. Data were collected by a mailed, self-administered, 13-item questionnaire. The population was the 48 diplomates of the ABDPH as of March 1997 associated with academic institutions. Twenty of the 55 US dental schools had a diplomate of the ABDPH with a mean of 1.8 diplomates per school with a diplomate. An average of 4.5 full-time faculty members per school were associated with teaching dental public health. A master's degree in public health (MPH) was the most frequently suggested educational requirement for dental public health faculty. Continuing education courses were training needs perceived for dental public health faculty. The lack of time, money, and incentives, along with perceived rigidity of requirements for board certification, were reported as major barriers for faculty becoming dental public health board certified. Numerous challenges confront the development of a strong dental public health presence in US dental schools. These challenges include, among others, insufficient numbers of academic dental public health specialists and insufficient motivations to encourage promising candidates to pursue specialty status.

  14. Hypertension – a public health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is considered an important public health problem in Brazil,which is aggravated by its high prevalence and late detection. In addition, it is oneof the major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.Hypertension, considered a “silent murder”, is the largest social problem indeveloped countries and in a large number of developing countries. Despite of knownefficacy and affectivity of various preventive and control measures, including thepharmacological ones, hypertension will continue, for decades, representing oneof the largest health challenges and high cost disease for individuals and society. Ifcontrol of existed cases, as well as control and prevention of risks factors for thisdisease are not implemented, this problematic will affect a large proportion of thepopulation in our country, which, in 2020, will have had increase significantly over60 years of age.Hypertension is a multifactor, multisystem syndrome. It can be cause bymultiple causes, being related to inadequate life style, constitutional factors, suchas: sex, age, race/color and family history; as well as environmental issues, suchas: sedentary lifestyle, stress, smoking, alcoholism, inadequate diet and obesity.Due to its silent course, a person can be surprised by its complications, beingnecessary learn to live with its chronic nature on an every day basis. Nevertheless,this type of problem is influenced by a series of determinants, including personalitycharacteristics, forms to face the disease, self-concept, self-image, experience withthe disease and health care professionals attitudes.One of the difficulties found in the treatment of persons with hypertensionis the lack of adhesion to the treatment, as 50% of the known patients withhypertension don’t treat themselves, and among those who do, few have controlledblood pressure. Between 30 and 50% of persons with hypertension stop treatmentwithin the first year of treatment, and 75% after five

  15. [Drugs legalization and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this article is to: (1) evaluate the rationality and opportunity of this debate; (2) try to establish links with legal drugs; (3) evaluate the available data on the effect of legalization of a drug; and (4) propose an alternative drug police based on clear objectives to be reached; (5) describe how Sweden is dealing with the theme of drugs restriction as a social care. Methodologically the text constitutes in a summary of readings and elaborations of the author, placed to incite a discussion. It is concluded that four aspects need to be taken into consideration when a drug police of a country is analyzed, they are: (1) external factors influence the police: international agreements, health and social assistance police, individual rights, authority and autonomy of physicians and other professionals; (2) the objective established influence formal polices and its implementation; (3) the symbolic influence that excels the implementation. Influent people make declarations that strongly reach the legitimacy and adhesion to actions; (4) formal polices and their implementation receive direct influence to socially perceived damages by the drugs use, which could be independent of the real level of its use in a determined society.

  16. Poor housing quality: Prevalence and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emma; Lester, Laurence H; Bentley, Rebecca; Beer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Housing is a central component of productive, healthy, and meaningful lives, and a principle social determinant of health and well-being. Surprisingly, though, evidence on the ways that housing influences health in Australia is poorly developed. This stems largely from the fact that the majority of the population are accommodated in good quality housing. The dominance of a "good housing paradigm" means that households living in poor quality and unhealthy housing are doubly disadvantaged-by the quality of their housing and because policy makers in Australia do not acknowledge the health effects of housing. In this article, we examine the relationship between health outcomes and quality of housing. We base our analysis on data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, a panel dataset that is representative across Australia. We find a sizeable, policy-important, and to date under-acknowledged cohort of Australians whose health is influenced by poor-condition dwellings.

  17. Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certified in Public Health ASPPH Public Health Graduate School Viewbook Teach & Research Teach & Research Overview We support education in public health by providing a variety of comprehensive classroom and curriculum resources. Framing The Future Faculty Resources Educational Models ...

  18. Soils and public health: the vital nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Soils sustain life. They affect human health via quantity, quality, and safety of available food and water, and via direct exposure of individuals to soils. Throughout the history of civilization, soil-health relationships have inspired spiritual movements, philosophical systems, cultural exchanges, and interdisciplinary interactions, and provided medicinal substances of paramount impact. Given the climate, resource, and population pressures, understanding and managing the soil-health interactions becomes a modern imperative. We are witnessing a paradigm shift from recognizing and yet disregarding the 'soil-health' nexus complexity to parameterizing this complexity and identifying reliable controls. This becomes possible with the advent of modern research tools as a source of 'big data' on multivariate nonlinear soil systems and the multiplicity of health metrics. The phenomenon of suppression of human pathogens in soils and plants presents a recent example of these developments. Evidence is growing about the dependence of pathogen suppression on the soil microbial community structure which, in turn, is affected by the soil-plant system management. Soil eutrophication appears to create favorable conditions for pathogen survival. Another example of promising information-rich research considers links and feedbacks between the soil microbial community structure and structure of soil physical pore space. The two structures are intertwined and involved in the intricate self-organization that controls soil services to public health. This, in particular, affects functioning of soils as a powerful water filter and the capacity of this filter with respect to emerging contaminants in both 'green' and 'blue' waters. To evaluate effects of soil services to public health, upscaling procedures are needed for relating the fine-scale mechanistic knowledge to available coarse-scale information on soil properties and management. More needs to be learned about health effects of soils

  19. Prevalence of health promotion programs in primary health care units in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Gomes, Grace Angélica de Oliveira; Bracco, Mário M; Florindo, Alex Antonio; Mielke, Gregore Iven; Parra, Diana C; Lobelo, Felipe; Simoes, Eduardo J; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2014-10-01

    Assessment of prevalence of health promotion programs in primary health care units within Brazil's health system. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study based on telephone interviews with managers of primary care units. Of a total 42,486 primary health care units listed in the Brazilian Unified Health System directory, 1,600 were randomly selected. Care units from all five Brazilian macroregions were selected proportionally to the number of units in each region. We examined whether any of the following five different types of health promotion programs was available: physical activity; smoking cessation; cessation of alcohol and illicit drug use; healthy eating; and healthy environment. Information was collected on the kinds of activities offered and the status of implementation of the Family Health Strategy at the units. Most units (62.0%) reported having in place three health promotion programs or more and only 3.0% reported having none. Healthy environment (77.0%) and healthy eating (72.0%) programs were the most widely available; smoking and alcohol use cessation were reported in 54.0% and 42.0% of the units. Physical activity programs were offered in less than 40.0% of the units and their availability varied greatly nationwide, from 51.0% in the Southeast to as low as 21.0% in the North. The Family Health Strategy was implemented in most units (61.0%); however, they did not offer more health promotion programs than others did. Our study showed that most primary care units have in place health promotion programs. Public policies are needed to strengthen primary care services and improve training of health providers to meet the goals of the agenda for health promotion in Brazil.

  20. Considering virtue: public health and clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Karen M

    2011-10-01

    As bioethicists increasingly turn their attention to the profession of public health, many candidate frameworks have been proposed, often with an eye toward articulating the values and foundational concepts that distinguish this practice from curative clinical medicine. First, I will argue that while these suggestions for a distinct ethics of public health are promising, they arise from problems within contemporary bioethics that must be taken into account. Without such cognizance of the impetus for public health ethics, we risk developing a set of ethical resources meant exclusively for public health professionals, thereby neglecting implications for curative medical ethics and the practice of bioethics more broadly. Second, I will present reasons for thinking some of the critiques of dominant contemporary bioethics can be met by a virtue ethics approach. I present a virtue ethics response to criticisms that concern (1) increased rigor in bioethics discourse; (2) the ability of normative theory to accommodate context; and (3) explicit attention to the nature of ethical conflict. I conclude that a virtue ethics approach is a viable avenue for further inquiry, one that leads us away from developing ethics of public health in a vacuum and has the potential for overcoming certain pitfalls of contemporary bioethics discourse. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Carrying guns in public: legal and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S

    2013-03-01

    In District of Columbia v. Heller, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to own handguns in the home for protection, invalidating a Washington, D.C. law banning most handgun possession. The Heller decision, however, provided lower courts with little guidance regarding how to judge the constitutionality of gun laws other than handgun bans. Nevertheless, lower courts have upheld the vast majority of federal, state, and local gun laws challenged since Heller. One area in which some lower courts have disagreed has been the constitutionality of laws regulating the ability to carry firearms in public. This issue may be the next to be addressed by the Supreme Court under its evolving Second Amendment jurisprudence. Courts should carefully consider the negative public health and safety implications of gun carrying in public as they weigh the constitutionality of these laws. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  2. Successful Academic-Public Health Practice Collaboration: What Works From the Public Health Workforce's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, J Mac

    2015-01-01

    Public health departments and academic institutions engage in a range of cooperative activities that can greatly benefit a public health department and can often be mutually beneficial. Yet, little is known regarding practitioners' views of successful academic collaborations. The purpose of this study was to explore predictors and correlates of beneficial academic collaboration from the perspective of those on the front lines--the practitioners constituting the public health workforce. Analysis of the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS), a cross-sectional survey of state health department practitioners, conducted in 2014. PH WINS is a nationally representative survey of state health department practitioners. Data were available for a total of 8718 respondents in 37 states. Two main outcome measures were used--(a) whether a respondent reported collaborating with an academic entity (including faculty/staff/students) in the past year, and (b) when collaboration did occur, the success of the collaboration insofar as the respondent perceived the engagement as very helpful. Health department practitioners (27.2%) reported participating in an academic-practice collaboration. Factors associated with partnering included respondents' supervisory status, positional duties, and public health background. Of these respondents, 46.6% reported a successful collaboration. Factors associated with a successful collaboration included respondents' self-reported job skills and public health background. While characteristics related to a public health practitioner's position are most significant in predicting whether a collaboration will occur, characteristics of the individual him- or herself are more relevant in predicting whether a collaboration will be successful. Public health managers interested in fostering an environment that promotes a successful academic-practice collaboration may benefit from ensuring that the public health practitioners involved in

  3. Blurring personal health and public priorities: an analysis of celebrity health narratives in the public sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christina S; Aubuchon, Stellina M; McKenna, Timothy P; Ruhl, Stephanie; Simmons, Nathaniel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the functions of personal celebrity health narratives in the public sphere. This study examines data about 157 celebrities, including athletes, actors, musicians, and politicians, who have shared private information regarding a personal health situation (or that of a loved one) with others in the public domain. Part of a larger project on celebrity health narratives, this article highlights three key functions that celebrity health narratives perform--education, inspiration, and activism--and discusses the implications for celebrities and for public conversations about health-related issues.

  4. Public Spending on Health as Political Instrument?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fielding, David; Freytag, Andreas; Münch, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The paper argues that the type of the political regime does not only drive public spending on health, but that dependent on the type of regime inequality in health status within its population is fostered by applying selective strategies. An empirical analysis is conducted for 132 low- and middle...... income states for the years 1995-2010. A simple political economic framework is implemented in order to analyse the rational of policy makers in implementing effective health care provision.......The paper argues that the type of the political regime does not only drive public spending on health, but that dependent on the type of regime inequality in health status within its population is fostered by applying selective strategies. An empirical analysis is conducted for 132 low- and middle...

  5. Prevalence of dengue viral and malaria parasitic co-infections in an epidemic district, Angul of Odisha, India: An eco-epidemiological and cross-sectional study for the prospective aspects of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M Rajesh Kumar; Padhy, Rabindra N; Das, Manoj K

    2016-01-01

    The co-existence of dengue and malaria infection in an individual and the primary and secondary dengue infection during co-infection were assessed. Over 1 year, 1980 blood samples were collected from suspected cases of dengue fever and analyzed by rapid diagnostic test (RDT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods to detect dengue infection. RDT and microscopic methods were used to detect malaria. Of the 1980 samples, only 22 (3.0%) cases were identified as dengue-malaria co-infection cases, out of which 13 were male and 9 were female. The highest number of confirmed cases were found during the hot and humid months of September and October (7 cases, 31.8%) and within the over 15 years age group. Of the cases of co-infection, dengue primary infection (21 cases, 95.5%) was significantly more common than dengue secondary infection (1 case, 4.5%) among all of the age groups. There were 12 cases of Plasmodium falciparum and 10 cases of Plasmodium vivax infection among malarial cases. A high prevalence of concurrence of dengue and malaria infection was recorded in this ecosystem. In light of the severity of co-infection and overlapping symptoms, a multidimensional diagnostic approach is suggested. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of an online tool for public health: the European Public Health Law Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, P

    2011-09-01

    The European Public Health Law Network was established in 2007 as part of the European Union (EU) co-funded Public Health Law Flu project. The aims of the website consisted of designing an interactive network of specialist information and encouraging an exchange of expertise amongst members. The website sought to appeal to academics, public health professionals and lawyers. The Public Health Law Flu project team designed and managed the website. Registered network members were recruited through publicity, advertising and word of mouth. Details of the network were sent to health organizations and universities throughout Europe. Corresponding website links attracted many new visitors. Publications, news, events and a pandemic glossary became popular features on the site. Although the website initially focused only on pandemic diseases it has grown into a multidisciplinary website covering a range of public health law topics. The network contains over 700 publications divided into 28 public health law categories. News, events, front page content, legislation and the francophone section are updated on a regular basis. Since 2007 the website has received over 15,000 views from 156 countries. Newsletter subscribers have risen to 304. There are now 723 followers on the associated Twitter site. The European Public Health Law Network has been a successful and innovative site in the area of public health law. Interest in the site continues to grow. Future funding can contribute to a bigger site with interactive features and pages in a wider variety of languages to attract a wider global audience. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Realising social justice in public health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Marie; Thomson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Law has played an important, but largely constitutive, role in the development of the public health enterprise. Thus, law has been central to setting up the institutions and offices of public health. The moral agenda has, however, been shaped to a much greater extent by bioethics. While social justice has been placed at the heart of this agenda, we argue that there has been little place within dominant conceptions of social justice for gender equity and women's interests which we see as crucial to a fully realised vision of social justice. We argue that, aside from particular interventions in the field of reproduction, public health practice tends to marginalise women-a claim we support by critically examining strategies to combat the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. To counter the marginalisation of women's interests, this article argues that Amartya Sen's capabilities approach has much to contribute to the framing of public health law and policy. Sen's approach provides an evaluative and normative framework which recognises the importance of both gender and health equity to achieving social justice. We suggest that domestic law and international human rights provisions, in particular the emerging human right to health, offer mechanisms to promote capabilities, and foster a robust and inclusive conception of social justice.

  8. Prevalência dos atendimentos por crises de asma nos serviços públicos do Município de Juiz de Fora (MG Prevalence of asthma attacks treated in public health facilities in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscarina da Silva Ezequiel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência dos atendimentos por crises de asma nos serviços públicos de Juiz de Fora (MG, no período de 01/02/2002 a 31/01/2003. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo seccional, mensalmente, avaliando-se os atendimentos por crises de asma. As variáveis analisadas foram sexo, idade, local de residência dos pacientes, diferenças no perfil dos atendimentos segundo a faixa etária e o local de atendimento, além da correlação das crises asmáticas com temperatura e umidade relativa do ar. RESULTADOS:Foram atendidos 25.243 pacientes com crises asmáticas, representando 11,1% do total de consultas da clínica pediátrica e 2,7% do total de consultas da clínica médica. A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 11,6 anos e a mediana de quatro anos. Eram do sexo masculino 52,9% dos pacientes. A análise da distribuição anual evidenciou um aumento do número de atendimentos por crises asmáticas nos meses de maio (11,5%, junho (10,8% e julho (10,9%, com correlação inversa e forte para temperatura (-0,86 e inversa e fraca para umidade relativa (-0,27. Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as médias de idade e sexo, quando se compararam os serviços de urgência e as unidades básicas de saúde. A avaliação segundo a faixa etária demonstrou predomínio do sexo masculino nos pacientes menores de doze anos e do feminino nos maiores ou com doze anos. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se a importância da asma como problema de saúde pública no município, o qual necessita de estratégias locais urgentes que permitam aumentar os investimentos em tratamentos profiláticos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of asthma attacks treated in public health facilities in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil from February 1, 2002 to January 31, 2003. METHODS:This was a cross-sectional study involving monthly analyses performed in order to evaluate the asthma attacks treated. The variables analyzed were patient gender, age, and place of

  9. Social marketing: its place in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, J C; Franklin, B A; Lindsteadt, J F; Gearon, S A

    1992-01-01

    This review of the public health role of social marketing begins by tracing the history of social marketing and noting that social marketing adopts the traditional marketing framework of product, price, place, and promotion and embraces several methods of commercial marketing as well as consumer research. However, no universally acknowledged definition exists. A review of the literature is divided into three time periods representing early theoretical development, the evaluation of experiences, and increasing acceptance. Concerns about social marketing are discussed in terms of ethics, disempowerment, and the commercialization of health information. Examples of social marketing are then provided from developing countries and are analyzed in groupings defined as tangible products, sustained health practices, and service utilization. Practitioners' views and concerns are also reviewed. The strengths of social marketing include knowledge of the audience, systematic use of qualitative methods, use of incentives, closer monitoring, strategic use of the mass media, realistic expectations, aspiring to high standards, and recognition of price. Weaknesses of social marketing include its time, money, and human requirements; the fact that marketing elements are missing (public health lacks the flexibility to adjust products and services to clients' interests and preferences); and the potential serious impact on the future of Public Service Announcements, which may die out because social marketers pay for air time. After placing social marketing in context with other practices designed to achieve social change, the review ends with the prediction that the public health role of social marketing is likely to increase. The World Health Organization's recent call for health promotion and the UN Children's Fund's social mobilization actions are provided as examples of this increased role. It is noted, however, that social marketing alone cannot solve public health problems.

  10. Adolescents’ psychological health during the economic recession: does public spending buffer health inequalities among young people?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Rathmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many OECD countries have replied to economic recessions with an adaption in public spending on social benefits for families and young people in need. So far, no study has examined the impact of public social spending during the recent economic recession on health, and social inequalities in health among young people. This study investigates whether an increase in public spending relates to a lower prevalence in health complaints and buffers health inequalities among adolescents. Methods Data were obtained from the 2009/2010 “Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC” study comprising 11 – 15-year-old adolescents from 27 European countries (N = 144,754. Socioeconomic position was measured by the Family Affluence Scale (FAS. Logistic multilevel models were conducted for the association between the absolute rate of public spending on family benefits per capita in 2010 and the relative change rate in family benefits (2006–2010 in relation to adolescent psychological health complaints in 2009/2010. Results The absolute rate of public spending on family benefits in 2010 did not show a significant association with adolescents’ psychological health complaints. Relative change rates of public spending on family benefits (2006–2010 were related to better health. Greater socioeconomic inequalities in psychological health complaints were found for countries with higher change rates in public spending on family benefits (2006–2010. Conclusions The results partially support our hypothesis and highlight that policy initiatives in terms of an increase in family benefits might partially benefit adolescent health, but tend to widen social inequalities in adolescent health during the recent recession.

  11. Racism & Health: A public health perspective on racial discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbinah, Stefania Sarsah; Lewis, Jan

    2018-03-06

    Racial discrimination has been increasingly reported to have a causal link with morbidity and mortality of Black Americans, yet this issue is rarely addressed in a public health perspective. Racism affects health at different levels: institutional racism is a structural and legalized system that results in differential access to health services; cultural racism refers to the negative racial stereotypes, often reinforced by media, that results in poorer psychological and physiological wellbeing of the minorities. Lastly, interpersonal racism refers to the persistence of racial prejudice that seriously undermines the doctor-patient relationship. After analysing these concepts with examples and relevant studies, this paper explores current literature. Racism as a Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (Paradies et al, 2015) is the most recent and comprehensive research on the issue, yet it cannot be used to base public health interventions as it contains several limitations. Forward Through Ferguson: A Path Toward Racial Equity (Ferguson Commission, 2015) is a report that identifies 4 priority areas for framing public health interventions: Racial Equity, Justice for All, Youth at the Centre and Opportunity to Thrive. This study represents an important milestone in the application of public health on racial injustices, yet racism must be tackled with a sustained, multilevel, and interdisciplinary approach. In conclusion, this paper addresses how public health interventions can empower Black minorities and bring forward long-term policies. Racism is a structural and long-standing system that can be eliminated only with the collective effort. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. [Domestic violence--public health perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Hideo; Ui, Shiori; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2004-05-01

    Domestic violence (DV) implies violence against women by intimate male partners. DV is a serious health issue for women, as well as a violation of human rights. It is a challenge to develop effective public health interventions, as they have to take into account complicated social and psychological background factors. In this paper we present an overview of various interventions in Japan and elsewhere in the world up to now, and propose a strategy for developing effective public health interventions. Governments and NGOs have been involved in various interventions to eliminate DV, e.g., establishing legal frameworks, providing emergency shelters for abused women, and educating male abusers. Health sector interventions include: systematic DV education to health professionals in Europe and the United States; and development of DV victim support networks, in which health facilities play core roles, in Asia and Latin America. The major expected roles of health professionals are identification and treatment of abused women, and prevention of recurrent violence. However, achievement of those goals is insufficient, because of the lack of systematic education, different views on DV between health professionals and abused women, misunderstanding of background factors, and lack of coordination between relevant agencies. The health sector, including clinical and public health services, is expected to play important roles in identifying and supporting abused women in Japan. A possible strategy is to integrate DV interventions into existing maternal and child health service systems. All the front-line health professionals should be provided with systematic training and practical manuals to treat abused women. Further research and evaluation of past interventions are needed to develop effective interventions.

  13. The public health evaluation of vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado De Vito

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines represent some of the most important tools available for the prevention of diseases. In addition to protecting the vaccinated individual from developing a potentially serious disease, they help protect the community by reducing the spread of infectious agents. Therefore, there are not only benefits for the single individual, but also advantages for the entire community and the society. This very simple consideration makes unique the public health evaluation of vaccines, with substantial differences with other public health interventions and a need to adopt different criteria to develop recommendations for use. The public health evaluation of vaccines is challenged by several factors. Vaccine randomized trials often lack adequate sample size, fail to provide critical study details, exclude important populations, and rely on proxies for important outcomes.

  14. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurengo, A.

    2003-01-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  15. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  16. Prevalence and seasonality of common health problems in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence and seasonality of animal health problems encountered in Sokoto Gudali cattle over a 10 year period (1988- 1998) is reported. ... This study gins an indication of some of the common animal health problems usually encountered under a semi-intensive cattle production system and the need for effective ...

  17. Prevalence of Occupational Accidents/Injuries among Health Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) are prone to occupational accidents and injuries such as needle pricks in the course of their day to day activities in the health care setting. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of needle sticks and other occupational exposures among HCWs in a Nigerian tertiary hospital.

  18. Prevalence of depression among health workers in Enugu, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-11

    Nov 11, 2014 ... Abstract. Aims: Determination of the prevalence and distribution of depression among health workers at tertiary level of health ... Departments of Community Medicine and 1Psychological Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Enugu .... conditions[1,3] and workplace bullying among hospital.

  19. Multisectoral studies in Public Health in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    The second issue of the TCPHEE contains materials presented at the conference ‘Economics, sociology, theory and practice of public health’ conducted in Kiev on April 12-15, 2011. Conference participants were the faculty, doctoral and master students of the School of Public Health (SPH) at the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (NaUKMA). Reports were first discussed during the conference and then submitted as conference abstracts for the editorial review. The revised versions were then...

  20. Monitoring environmental hazards and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Saying that no national system exists to monitor public health problems linked to environmental hazards, former U.S. Senator Lowell Weicker, Jr., announced on May 11 the launch of a Pew Charitable Trusts blue ribbon panel to focus on this issue.The panel, which includes representatives from academia and health care organizations, will focus on how the United States tracks diseases and recommend ways to fill data gaps; review what tools are needed to improve disease tracking; and focus on children's health issues, such as asthma, childhood cancer, and birth defects that may be linked to the environment, according to Pew Environmental Health Commission Executive Director Shelley Hearne.

  1. disasters: implications for public health and health care system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    natural or human generated. Among the natural disasters affecting our environment include earthquake, volcanic eruption, flood ... populations using knowledge from nursing, social and public health sciences (American Public .... 100 in 1530; North Vietnam, Death toll – 100,000 in 1971; Thailand, Death toll – 185 in 2010.

  2. The changing global context of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, A J; Beaglehole, R

    2000-08-05

    Future health prospects depend increasingly on globalisation processes and on the impact of global environmental change. Economic globalisation--entailng deregulated trade and investment--is a mixed blessing for health. Economic growth and the dissemination of technologies have widely enhanced life expectancy. However, aspects of globalisation are jeopardising health by eroding social and environmental conditions, exacerbating the rich-poor gap, and disseminating consumerism. Global environmental changes reflect the growth of populations and the intensity of economic activity. These changes include altered composition of the atmosphere, land degradation, depletion of terrestrial aquifers and ocean fisheries, and loss of biodiversity. This weakening of life-supporting systems poses health risks. Contemporary public health must therefore encompass the interrelated tasks of reducing social and health inequalities and achieving health-sustaining environments.

  3. Tests to evaluate public health disease reporting systems in local public health agencies (electronic resource)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricci, Karen; Lurie, Nicole; Stoto, Michael A; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Dausey, David J; Meade, Barbara; Diamond, Alexis; Molander, Roger C

    2005-01-01

    ... to evaluate the ability to receive and respond to case reports 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. We refined these tests by beta-testing them at 20 metropolitan area local public health agencies across the country over the course of 10 months. The contents of this manual will be of interest to public health professionals at the state and local l...

  4. Tests to evaluate public health disease reporting systems in local public health agencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dausey, David J

    2005-01-01

    ... to evaluate the ability to receive and respond to case reports 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. We refined these tests by beta-testing them at 20 metropolitan area local public health agencies across the country over the course of 10 months. The contents of this manual will be of interest to public health professionals at the state and local l...

  5. The dancing plague: a public health conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, L J; Cavanagh, J; Rankin, J

    1997-07-01

    The phenomenon of mass, frenzied dancing affected large populations in various parts of Europe from the thirteenth century and lasted, on and off, for three centuries. The exact aetiology of the Dancing Plague (or Dancing Mania) is still unclear. Retrospective historical review of this public health problem reveals claims for causative factors including demonic possession, epilepsy, the bite of a tarantula, ergot poisoning and social adversity. It seems unlikely that Dancing Mania resulted from a single cause but rather resulted from multiple factors combining with a predisposing cultural background and triggered by adverse social circumstances. Dancing Mania remains one of the unresolved mysteries of public health.

  6. Surgical care in the public health agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Mário; Saluja, Saurabh; Alonso, Nivaldo

    2017-10-26

    The current article examines surgical care as a public health issue and a challenge for health systems organization. When surgery fails to take place in timely fashion, treatable clinical conditions can evolve to disability and death. The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery defined indicators for monitoring sustainable universal access to surgical care. Applied to Brazil, the global indicators are satisfactory, but the supply of surgeries in the country is marked by regional and socioeconomic inequalities, as well as between the public and private healthcare sectors.

  7. Surgical care in the public health agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Scheffer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The current article examines surgical care as a public health issue and a challenge for health systems organization. When surgery fails to take place in timely fashion, treatable clinical conditions can evolve to disability and death. The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery defined indicators for monitoring sustainable universal access to surgical care. Applied to Brazil, the global indicators are satisfactory, but the supply of surgeries in the country is marked by regional and socioeconomic inequalities, as well as between the public and private healthcare sectors.

  8. Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, Janet

    2017-04-01

    With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles.

  9. Engaging students in community health: a public health advocacy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Nell; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2014-03-01

    Individual risk assessment and behavior change dominate the content of high school health education instruction whereas broader social, political, and economic factors that influence health-known as upstream causes-are less commonly considered. With input from instructors and students, we developed a 10-lesson experiential Public Health Advocacy Curriculum that uses classroom-based activities to teach high school students about the upstream causes of health and engages them in community-based health advocacy. The Curriculum, most suitable for health- or advocacy-related elective classes or after-school programs, may be taught in its entirety or as single lessons integrated into existing coursework. Although students at many schools are using the Curriculum, it has been formally evaluated with 110 predominantly Latino students at one urban and one semirural public high school in Northern California (six classes). In pre-post surveys, students showed highly significant and positive changes in the nine questions that covered the three main Curriculum domains (Upstream Causes, Community Exploration, and Public Health Advocacy), p values .02 to Curriculum is being widely disseminated without charge to local, national, and international audiences, with the objective of grooming a generation of youth who are committed to the public health perspective to health.

  10. A reader on applying statistics in public health and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijckevorsel, J.L.A. van; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Contributions to this volume discuss the application of statistics in public health and prevention, dealing with subjects in the field of working conditions and occupational health, sexually transmissible disease, dental health, public health tables, the geographical distribution of diseases,

  11. Academic health sciences librarians' publication patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mularski, C A; Bradigan, P S

    1991-04-01

    This study examines the publication patterns of U.S. academic health sciences librarians. A survey was sent to a random sample of Medical Library Association (MLA) members who work in academic settings. Some survey results are consistent with other research while others vary from the findings of previous studies. Faculty status requiring publication may be an incentive to publish; however, a large percentage of librarians in this study published despite the lack of a requirement. Academic health sciences librarians without advanced degrees other than a master's in library science produced about three quarters of the publications, whereas their colleagues with advanced degrees published slightly more than 25% of the publications. Results concerning professional maturity, position, and geographic location reflect findings of earlier studies of academic librarians' publication patterns. Publication productivity generally increased with professional maturity, most authors held administrative or supervisory positions, and many lived in the Northeast and Midwest regions of the United States. The differences in rates of publication between males and females was not statistically significant after controlling for respondents' professional maturity and position. Recommendations for future research are discussed.

  12. NC CATCH: Advancing Public Health Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, James; Fisher, John W; Eichelberger, Christopher; Bridger, Colleen; Angelon-Gaetz, Kim; Nelson, Debi

    2010-01-01

    The North Carolina Comprehensive Assessment for Tracking Community Health (NC CATCH) is a Web-based analytical system deployed to local public health units and their community partners. The system has the following characteristics: flexible, powerful online analytic processing (OLAP) interface; multiple sources of multidimensional, event-level data fully conformed to common definitions in a data warehouse structure; enabled utilization of available decision support software tools; analytic capabilities distributed and optimized locally with centralized technical infrastructure; two levels of access differentiated by the user (anonymous versus registered) and by the analytical flexibility (Community Profile versus Design Phase); and, an emphasis on user training and feedback. The ability of local public health units to engage in outcomes-based performance measurement will be influenced by continuing access to event-level data, developments in evidence-based practice for improving population health, and the application of information technology-based analytic tools and methods.

  13. Obesity, stigma and public health planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Lynne; Edwards, Nancy; Garrard, Michael; Sims-Jones, Nicki; Clinton, Kathryn; Ashley, Lisa

    2009-03-01

    Given the rise in obesity rates in North America, concerns about obesity-related costs to the health care system are being stressed in both the popular media and the scientific literature. With such constant calls to action, care must be taken not to increase stigmatization of obese people, particularly of children. While there is much written about stigma and how it is exacerbated, there are few guidelines for public health managers and practitioners who are attempting to design and implement obesity prevention programs that minimize stigma. We examine stigmatization of obese people and the consequences of this social process, and discuss how stigma is manifest in health service provision. We give suggestions for designing non-stigmatizing obesity prevention public health programs. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  14. How does retiree health insurance influence public sector employee saving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert L; Mitchell, Olivia S

    2014-12-01

    Economic theory predicts that employer-provided retiree health insurance (RHI) benefits have a crowd-out effect on household wealth accumulation, not dissimilar to the effects reported elsewhere for employer pensions, Social Security, and Medicare. Nevertheless, we are unaware of any similar research on the impacts of retiree health insurance per se. Accordingly, the present paper utilizes a unique data file on respondents to the Health and Retirement Study, to explore how employer-provided retiree health insurance may influence net household wealth among public sector employees, where retiree healthcare benefits are still quite prevalent. Key findings include the following: Most full-time public sector employees anticipate having employer-provided health insurance coverage in retirement, unlike most private sector workers.Public sector employees covered by RHI had substantially less wealth than similar private sector employees without RHI. In our data, Federal workers had about $82,000 (18%) less net wealth than private sector employees lacking RHI; state/local workers with RHI accumulated about $69,000 (or 15%) less net wealth than their uninsured private sector counterparts.After controlling on socioeconomic status and differences in pension coverage, net household wealth for Federal employees was $116,000 less than workers without RHI and the result is statistically significant; the state/local difference was not. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Osipova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the role of sociology in the scientific management of society — namely — the social construction aimed at the prevention of adverse events and the creation of social realities desirable for the individual and society. One of the areas of social reality, as well as the most important sphere of social life which are subject to social construction is public health. Public health is considered as an integrated expression of the dynamics of individual levels of the health of all members of society. The author emphasizes that the public health of the people is formed by the interaction of two groups of factors — endogenous (sex, biological age, race, body type, heredity and type of the human nervous system and exogenous (natural and social factors. The last are created by people themselves in the course of their ability to live and are operated, that is socially designed. The author analyzes the negative processes related to public health, the most important of which is a complex situation in the health system, lack of faith in the possibility of human medicine. An equally important role belongs to the deterioration of environmental significant share of people’s living conditions and social stress. If earlier scientists did not specify, in what degree of threat of infringement of global ecosystems are connected with a state of health and features of diseases of the population now it is established that various forms of irreversible change of environment are directly dangerous to public health. From an antiquity the effect of discrepancy of the wished (abstractly and actually arising future wished (abstractly — effect of human activity is known: people wish one, however actually all terminates differently, practically, on the contrary. And these characteristics of a public sincere, mental condition can be extremely inconsistent in relation to knowledge. They are the basis of so-called “involuntary behaviors

  16. One Health and paradigms of public biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Benjamin; Lederman, Zohar

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the authors consider the idea of the public biobank governance framework with respect to the innovative paradigm of One Health. The One Health initiative has been defined as an integrative and interdisciplinary effort to improve the lives and well-being of human beings and non-human animals, as well as to preserve the environment. Here, we use this approach as a starting presumption with respect to institutional design. We examine the theoretical and legal framework underlying the concept of biobanking that, being public orientated, is for the public good. We suggest that this account of research practice does not ethically correlate with One Health principles. Instead, we argue that One Health requires a model of biobanking that is based on universal goods, that is, goods that serve human beings as well as non-human animals and the environment, and which we define in detail. Our purpose is to begin a discussion on how One Health principles might be implemented in health initiatives. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Pathways for scaling up public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indig, Devon; Lee, Karen; Grunseit, Anne; Milat, Andrew; Bauman, Adrian

    2017-08-01

    To achieve population-wide health improvement, public health interventions found effective in selected samples need to be 'scaled up' and implemented more widely. The pathways through which interventions are scaled up are not well characterised. The aim of this paper is to identify examples of public health interventions which have been scaled up and to develop a conceptual framework which quantifies and describes this process. A multi-stage international literature search was undertaken to identify examples of public health interventions in high income countries that have been scaled up or implemented at scale. Initial abstract review identified articles which met all the criteria of being a: 1) public health intervention; 2) chronic disease prevention focus; 3) program delivered at a wide geographical scale (state, national or international). Interventions were reviewed and coded into a conceptual framework pathway to document their scaling up process. For each program, an in-depth review of the identified articles was undertaken along with a broad internet based search to determine the outcomes of the dissemination process. A conceptual framework of scaling up pathways was developed that involved four stages (development, efficacy testing, real world trial and dissemination) to which the 40 programs were mapped. The search identified 40 public health interventions that showed evidence of being scaled up. Four pathways were identified to capture the different scaling up trajectories taken which included: 'Type I - Comprehensive' (55%) which passed through all four stages, 'Type II - Efficacy omitters' (5%) which did not conduct efficacy testing, 'Type III - Trial omitters' (25%) which did not conduct a real world trial, and 'Type IV - At scale dissemination' (15%) which skipped both efficacy testing and a real world trial. This is the first study to classify and quantify the potential pathways through which public health interventions in high income countries are

  18. One Health concept for strengthening public health surveillance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It hosted the first USAID–supported workshop in West Africa to further integrate and strengthen collaboration of the animal and human health sectors in the FETP model. GFELTP has also taken the lead in hosting the first AFENET Center for Training in Public Health Leadership and Management, through which the short ...

  19. disasters: implications for public health and health care system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES VOL 9, NO. 1&2 ... disasters on public health and the health care system within the fundamental principles that guide the ..... Preparedness. • Assure capacity to respond effectively to disasters and emergencies. • Assess the populations at risk for special needs during a disaster.

  20. 77 FR 28883 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ...-2012-0004] Draft Public Health Action Plan--A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice of availability and request for public comment..., Division of Reproductive Health, Attn: National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention...

  1. Health needs and public health functions addressed in scientific publications in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benie-Bi, J; Cambon, L; Grimaud, O; Kivits, J; Alla, F

    2013-09-01

    To describe the reporting of public health research in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa (FSA). A bibliometric research study of scientific public health publications in FSA, which includes 24 countries and approximately 260 million people. Two researchers analysed original articles published in 2007 in the medical or social sciences fields and indexed in Scopus. At least one co-author of articles had to be based in FSA. The analysis focused on research field, public health function (WHO classification), FSA country author's affiliation, language, journal type and global burden of disease (WHO classification). Of 1047 articles retrieved by the search, 212 were from the public health field. The number of articles per country varied from 0 to 36. Public health functions examined were health service research (24.5%), health monitoring (27.4%), prevention (15%) and legislation (0.5%). The distribution of health needs described in the articles was close to that of the WHO data for Africa for 2004: infectious and parasitic diseases (70% vs 54%), maternal and perinatal conditions (15% vs 17%), non-communicable diseases (15.6% vs 21%), and injuries (0.5% vs 8%). The areas reported in published articles from sub-Saharan Africa reflect the health needs distribution in Africa; however, the number of publications is low, particularly for prevention. In light of the current focus on evidence-based public health, this study questions whether the international scientific community adequately considers the expertise and perspectives of African researchers and professionals. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prison health and public health responses at a regional prison in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Marisa; Swingler, Elysia; Craven, Corryn; Larson, Ann

    2008-12-01

    To describe the health of inmates in a Western Australian regional prison and evaluate the coverage of public health interventions. Cross-sectional audit of all paper-based and electronic medical notes of inmates at one regional prison in Western Australia. A mixed medium-security prison in regional Western Australia. 185 prisoners, 170 men and 15 women. The prisoners were mainly young (70% prisoners had at least one chronic health condition. There was a significantly higher prevalence of diabetes to that found in the general Indigenous population (15% vs 6% p=0.001), and a significantly lower prevalence hepatitis C (4.5%) compared with both national (29-61%) and State (20%) data. Screening for sexually transmitted infections and blood borne viruses within the first month of incarceration was achieved for 43% of inmates. Vaccination coverage for influenza (36%) and pneumococcal disease (12%) was low. This study makes visible the burden of disease and reach of public health interventions within a largely Indigenous regional prisoner population. Our study demonstrates that the additional risks associated with being Indigenous remain in a regional Australian prison but also shows that interventions can be delivered equitably to Indigenous and non-Indigenous inmates. Ongoing monitoring of prisoner health is critical to take advantage of opportunities to improve public health interventions with timely STI and BBV screening and increased vaccinations rates.

  3. Climate Services to Improve Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Jancloes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A high level expert panel discussed how climate and health services could best collaborate to improve public health. This was on the agenda of the recent Third International Climate Services Conference, held in Montego Bay, Jamaica, 4–6 December 2013. Issues and challenges concerning a demand led approach to serve the health sector needs, were identified and analysed. Important recommendations emerged to ensure that innovative collaboration between climate and health services assist decision-making processes and the management of climate-sensitive health risk. Key recommendations included: a move from risk assessment towards risk management; the engagement of the public health community with both the climate sector and development sectors, whose decisions impact on health, particularly the most vulnerable; to increase operational research on the use of policy-relevant climate information to manage climate- sensitive health risks; and to develop in-country capacities to improve local knowledge (including collection of epidemiological, climate and socio-economic data, along with institutional interaction with policy makers.

  4. Climate Services to Improve Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancloes, Michel; Thomson, Madeleine; Costa, María Máñez; Hewitt, Chris; Corvalan, Carlos; Dinku, Tufa; Lowe, Rachel; Hayden, Mary

    2014-01-01

    A high level expert panel discussed how climate and health services could best collaborate to improve public health. This was on the agenda of the recent Third International Climate Services Conference, held in Montego Bay, Jamaica, 4–6 December 2013. Issues and challenges concerning a demand led approach to serve the health sector needs, were identified and analysed. Important recommendations emerged to ensure that innovative collaboration between climate and health services assist decision-making processes and the management of climate-sensitive health risk. Key recommendations included: a move from risk assessment towards risk management; the engagement of the public health community with both the climate sector and development sectors, whose decisions impact on health, particularly the most vulnerable; to increase operational research on the use of policy-relevant climate information to manage climate- sensitive health risks; and to develop in-country capacities to improve local knowledge (including collection of epidemiological, climate and socio-economic data), along with institutional interaction with policy makers. PMID:24776719

  5. Albinism in Africa as a public health issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Esther S; Zeeb, Hajo; Repacholi, Michael H

    2006-01-01

    Background Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetically inherited autosomal recessive condition and OCA2, tyrosine-positive albinism, is the most prevalent type found throughout Africa. Due to the lack of melanin, people with albinism are more susceptible to the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation exposure. This population must deal with issues such as photophobia, decreased visual acuity, extreme sun sensitivity and skin cancer. People with albinism also face social discrimination as a result of their difference in appearance. The World Health Organization is currently investigating the issues concerning this vulnerable population. Methods Systematic electronic search of articles in PubMed concerning albinism in Africa. Furthermore, a World Health Organization (WHO) pilot survey of albinism was drafted in English, French and Portuguese, and distributed to African countries through WHO African Regional Offices (AFRO) in an attempt to gather further information on albinism. Results Epidemiologic data on albinism, such as prevalence, were available for South Africa, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Nigeria. Prevalences as high as 1 in 1,000 were reported for selected populations in Zimbabwe and other specific ethnic groups in Southern Africa. An overall estimate of albinism prevalences ranges from 1/5,000 – 1/15,000. In addition, both the literature review and the survey underscored the medical and social issues facing people with albinism. Conclusion The estimated prevalence of albinism suggests the existence of tens of thousands of people living with albinism in Africa. This finding reiterates the need for increased awareness of and public health interventions for albinism in order to better address the medical, psychological and social needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:16916463

  6. Albinism in Africa as a public health issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Esther S

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA is a genetically inherited autosomal recessive condition and OCA2, tyrosine-positive albinism, is the most prevalent type found throughout Africa. Due to the lack of melanin, people with albinism are more susceptible to the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation exposure. This population must deal with issues such as photophobia, decreased visual acuity, extreme sun sensitivity and skin cancer. People with albinism also face social discrimination as a result of their difference in appearance. The World Health Organization is currently investigating the issues concerning this vulnerable population. Methods Systematic electronic search of articles in PubMed concerning albinism in Africa. Furthermore, a World Health Organization (WHO pilot survey of albinism was drafted in English, French and Portuguese, and distributed to African countries through WHO African Regional Offices (AFRO in an attempt to gather further information on albinism. Results Epidemiologic data on albinism, such as prevalence, were available for South Africa, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Nigeria. Prevalences as high as 1 in 1,000 were reported for selected populations in Zimbabwe and other specific ethnic groups in Southern Africa. An overall estimate of albinism prevalences ranges from 1/5,000 – 1/15,000. In addition, both the literature review and the survey underscored the medical and social issues facing people with albinism. Conclusion The estimated prevalence of albinism suggests the existence of tens of thousands of people living with albinism in Africa. This finding reiterates the need for increased awareness of and public health interventions for albinism in order to better address the medical, psychological and social needs of this vulnerable population.

  7. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Cameron; Payne, Hannah; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Davis, Siena F; Manwaring, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM) as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  8. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Lister

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  9. Prevalence of parasites in soil samples in Tehran public places ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of our findings provide evidence that soil may play an important role in transmission of zoonotic parasite diseases to human. In addition, control of high population of animals such as stray dogs and cats is necessary to reduce the distribution of parasites. Key words: Prevalence, parasites, flotation method, Tehran.

  10. A Public Health Approach to Address the Mental Health Burden of Youth in Situations of Political Violence and Humanitarian Emergencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.T.V.M.; Berckmoes, L.H.; Kohrt, B.A.; Song, S.J.; Tol, W.A.; Reis, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes how socio-ecological theory and a syndemic health systems and public health approach may help address the plight of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies. We describe the treatment gap caused by discrepancies in epidemiological prevalence rates,

  11. Public health - threats, concerns and key actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Public health is discussed departing from priorities related to the precautionary principle with special reference to air pollution from wood burning in individual stoves and the susceptibility of vulnerable groups, i.a. people with genetic predispositions for a lack of detoxifying capacity....

  12. Public Health Pest Control Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)

  13. Geometric Abstract Art and Public Health Data

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-18

    Dr. Salaam Semaan, a CDC behavioral scientist, discusses the similarities between geometric abstract art and public health data analysis.  Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/18/2016.

  14. Discrete Choice Experiments in Public Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldwijk, J.

    2015-01-01

    One approach to improve public health is to implement preventive programs that have been proven effective and cost-effective. For any preventive program to be successful, it is of paramount importance that a large majority of the target population participates. Unfortunately, it is not self-evident

  15. Getting public health ethics into practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maeckelberghe, Els

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethics is the philosophical discipline that advises on decision making criteria when difficult choices are to be made. Research has shown over the last years that public health researchers and practitioners ‘must confront numerous ethical choices' but they ‘often feel ill-prepared to make

  16. Mycobacterial Species Identification and Public Health Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycobacterial Species Identification and Public Health Implications of Tuberculosis Among Nomadic Pastoralists in Three Local Governments of Plateau State, North ... Bovine and human tuberculosis is endemic in Nigeria, and apart from meat inspection at the abattoir, which is not very effective, no control measures are ...

  17. Five Critical Challenges for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents comments and observations given by Dr. Shiriki K. Kumanyika as the Lautenberg Award Lecture at the commencement of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Rutgers School of Public Health, May 20, 2013. The award is named after Senator Frank Lautenberg, who served as a U.S. Senator from New Jersey during 1982 to…

  18. ONCHOCERCIASIS – A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic disease with a wide range of cutaneous and ocular manifestations. It is caused by the tissue nematode, Onchocerca volvulus, and it is transmitted by the bite of a female black fly, Simulium damnosum. Onchocerciasis is a serious public health and socio-economic problem with 95% of all ...

  19. Soil and public health: invisible bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public health institutions, as ancient as civilizations itself, are intrinsically connected with soils. The massive body of the empirical knowledge about this connection has been accumulated. Recently unraveling the underlying mechanisms of this link has begun, and many of them appear to have the m...

  20. Review Human Oesophagostomiasis: A Serious Public Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Human Oesophagostomiasis: A Serious Public Health Problem in Tropical Africa. ... Information on morphology of aetiological agents focused mainly on features of diagnostic value mostly in the cephalic region, and bursa copulatrix and spicules in males of adults, tails and sheath in infective larvae, and number of ...

  1. Public-Private Partnerships In Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khalid BOUTI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Extract:The current importance of public debt requires governments to increasingly shift towards Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs. They are long-term contracts of private financing method providing or contributing to public service. The payment is made by the public partner and/or users of the service.The World Health Organization (WHO defines this type of partnership as ‘‘a means to bring together a set of actors for the common goal of improving the health of populations based on mutually agreed roles and principles.’’Historically, the principle of PPP was established by the Private Finance Initiative (PFI, launched by the conservative government of John Major in 1992. It was from this moment that this model quickly spread to the rest of the world. In the mid-90s and from Australia, PPP agreement began to become part of the language of governments. In 1997, Labour with Tony Blair leading, strongly developed this management method, first and particularly in hospitals and then, in the entire public sector and spreading to the Royal Navy. Today, 10-15% of British public investments are made using PFI method....

  2. Public health spending and population health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simone R

    2014-11-01

    This systematic review synthesizes what is known about the relationship between public health spending and population health outcomes, as well as the pathways that may explain how outcomes vary with spending. It also discusses the limitations of the existing literature and identifies areas in need of future research. Studies included in this review were retrieved through an iterative process, primarily through key word searches in two literature databases (PubMed and JSTOR) conducted in 2013. All retrieved studies underwent initial and secondary screening. Articles were included if they (1) examined the link between spending and outcomes or (2) explored pathways that mediate the relationship between spending and outcomes. Seventeen empirical studies and five literature reviews published between 1985 and 2012 were included in this review. Existing evidence suggests that increases in public health spending are associated with improved population health, at least for some outcomes. However, there is little evidence to suggest that increased spending contributes to meaningful reductions in health disparities. Moreover, the pathways through which greater spending translates into better outcomes are not well understood. Although the complexity of the public health delivery system makes it difficult to demonstrate definitive associations between spending and outcomes, financial investments in public health have the potential to improve community health. Additional research is needed to explore the pathways that mediate this relationship. This research would benefit public health practitioners who need evidence on how to best spend financial resources to achieve better health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of cardiovascular conditions and health services utilization in Puerto Rico, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palmieri, Mario R; Pérez-Perdomo, Rosa; Colón, Samira Rosa

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the prevalence of cardiovascular conditions and health services utilization in Puerto Rico, 2001. METHODS All medical claims for coronary heart disease (ICD-9 410-414), hypertension (ICD-9 401-405), congestive heart failure (ICD-9 428) and cerebrovascular accidents and transient ischemia (ICD-9:430-438.9) submitted for reimbursement purposes to an insurance company (private and public sector) in Puerto Rico in 2001 were identified. Prevalence and medical care utilization concerning cardiovascular conditions was estimated with 95% confidence. RESULTS Overall prevalence of cardiovascular conditions was 13.5% (95% CI: 11.68%-15.44%), being larger in the private sector (16.0%; 95% CI: 15.98%-16.08% vs. 11.7%; 95% CI: 11.62%-11.77%). Although in both sectors prevalence increased with age, at same age groups was two times higher in the private sector. Hypertension was the most prevalent condition (9.7; 95% CI: 8.14%-11.41%) being higher in females (10.4; 95% CI: 10.37%-10.51%) than in males (8.9; 95% CI: 8.81%-8.96%). The health service utilization (physician's office visits, emergency room visits, and hospital admissions) was higher in males. However, it varies by sectors. CONCLUSIONS Significant difference exists in the prevalence of cardiovascular conditions and health services utilization among private and public sectors in Puerto Rico. The observed differences among the private and public populations imply that there are factors such as socioeconomic status, education, lifestyles, environmental hazards in neighborhoods, and health habits that could be involved in the differences.

  4. Health security as a public health concept: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldis, William

    2008-11-01

    There is growing acceptance of the concept of health security. However, there are various and incompatible definitions, incomplete elaboration of the concept of health security in public health operational terms, and insufficient reconciliation of the health security concept with community-based primary health care. More important, there are major differences in understanding and use of the concept in different settings. Policymakers in industrialized countries emphasize protection of their populations especially against external threats, for example terrorism and pandemics; while health workers and policymakers in developing countries and within the United Nations system understand the term in a broader public health context. Indeed, the concept is used inconsistently within the UN agencies themselves, for example the World Health Organization's restrictive use of the term 'global health security'. Divergent understandings of 'health security' by WHO's member states, coupled with fears of hidden national security agendas, are leading to a breakdown of mechanisms for global cooperation such as the International Health Regulations. Some developing countries are beginning to doubt that internationally shared health surveillance data is used in their best interests. Resolution of these incompatible understandings is a global priority.

  5. Intercultural Competency in Public Health: A Call for Action to Incorporate Training into Public Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckman, Julia M; Dal Corso, Mark; Ramirez, Shokufeh; Begalieva, Maya; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Although these programs share common goals for improving clinical care for patients and reducing health disparities, there is little standardization across programs. Furthermore, little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventative programming, and epidemiological and behavioral research. The need for culturally relevant public health programming and culturally sensitive public health research is more critical than ever. Awareness of differing cultures needs to be included in all processes of planning, implementation and evaluation. By focusing on community-based health program planning and research, cultural competence implies that it is possible for public health professionals to completely know another culture, whereas intercultural competence implies it is a dual-sided process. Public health professionals need a commitment toward intercultural competence and skills that demonstrate flexibility, openness, and self-reflection so that cultural learning is possible. In this article, the authors recommend a number of elements to develop, adapt, and strengthen intercultural competence education in public health educational institutions.

  6. Public health educational comprehensiveness: The strategic rationale in establishing networks among schools of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otok, Robert; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Foldspang, Anders

    2017-11-01

    The establishment and continuing development of a sufficient and competent public health workforce is fundamental for the planning, implementation, evaluation, effect and ethical validity of public health strategies and policies and, thus, for the development of the population's health and the cost-effectiveness of health and public health systems and interventions. Professional public health strategy-making demands a background of a comprehensive multi-disciplinary curriculum including mutually, dynamically coherent competences - not least, competences in sociology and other behavioural sciences and their interaction with, for example, epidemiology, biostatistics, qualitative methods and health promotion and disease prevention. The size of schools and university departments of public health varies, and smaller entities may run into problems if seeking to meet the comprehensive curriculum challenge entirely by use of in-house resources. This commentary discusses the relevance and strength of establishing comprehensive curriculum development networks between schools and university departments of public health, as one means to meet the comprehensiveness challenge. This commentary attempts to consider a two-stage strategy to develop complete curricula at the bachelor and master's as well as PhD levels.

  7. Building the national health information infrastructure for personal health, health care services, public health, and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detmer Don E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health in our nation requires strengthening four major domains of the health care system: personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and health-related research. Many avoidable shortcomings in the health sector that result in poor quality are due to inaccessible data, information, and knowledge. A national health information infrastructure (NHII offers the connectivity and knowledge management essential to correct these shortcomings. Better health and a better health system are within our reach. Discussion A national health information infrastructure for the United States should address the needs of personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and research. It should also address relevant global dimensions (e.g., standards for sharing data and knowledge across national boundaries. The public and private sectors will need to collaborate to build a robust national health information infrastructure, essentially a 'paperless' health care system, for the United States. The federal government should assume leadership for assuring a national health information infrastructure as recommended by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. Progress is needed in the areas of funding, incentives, standards, and continued refinement of a privacy (i.e., confidentiality and security framework to facilitate personal identification for health purposes. Particular attention should be paid to NHII leadership and change management challenges. Summary A national health information infrastructure is a necessary step for improved health in the U.S. It will require a concerted, collaborative effort by both public and private sectors. If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it. Lord Kelvin

  8. Response to Martinez-Novack et al. Comments on Hynes et al. Prevalence of Marijuana Use among University Students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2015, 12, 5233-5240

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Hynes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have read with great interest the Comments related to the article entitled “Prevalence of marijuana use among university 20 students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru” and appreciate the readers’ feedback [1]. [...

  9. Assessment of the Physicochemical Qualities and Prevalence of Escherichia coli and Vibrios in the Final Effluents of Two Wastewater Treatment Plants in South Africa: Ecological and Public Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka Osuolale

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The final effluents of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were evaluated for their physicochemical and microbiological qualities over a period of 12 months. The physicochemical parameters assessed ranged as follows both plants. The ranges of values for the physicochemical are: pH (3.9–8.6, total dissolved solids (86.50–336.3 mg/L, electrical conductivity (13.57–52.50 mS/m, temperature (13–28 °C, nitrate (0–21.73 mg/L, nitrite (0.01–0.60 mg/L, orthophosphate (1.29–20.57 mg/L, turbidity (4.02–43.20 NTU, free chlorine (0.05–7.18 mg/L, dissolve oxygen (3.91–9.60 mg/L, biochemical oxygen demand (0.1–9.0 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand (4.67–211 mg/L. The microbiological assessment for both WWTPs revealed the presence of E. coli in counts ranging between 0 and 1.86 × 104 CFU/100 mL and Vibrio counts ranging between 0 and 9.93 × 103 CFU/100 mL. We conclude that these WWTPs are important point sources of pollution in surface water with potential public health and ecological risks.

  10. Assessment of the Physicochemical Qualities and Prevalence of Escherichia coli and Vibrios in the Final Effluents of Two Wastewater Treatment Plants in South Africa: Ecological and Public Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuolale, Olayinka; Okoh, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The final effluents of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were evaluated for their physicochemical and microbiological qualities over a period of 12 months. The physicochemical parameters assessed ranged as follows both plants. The ranges of values for the physicochemical are: pH (3.9–8.6), total dissolved solids (86.50–336.3 mg/L), electrical conductivity (13.57–52.50 mS/m), temperature (13–28 °C), nitrate (0–21.73 mg/L), nitrite (0.01–0.60 mg/L), orthophosphate (1.29–20.57 mg/L), turbidity (4.02–43.20 NTU), free chlorine (0.05–7.18 mg/L), dissolve oxygen (3.91–9.60 mg/L), biochemical oxygen demand (0.1–9.0 mg/L) and chemical oxygen demand (4.67–211 mg/L). The microbiological assessment for both WWTPs revealed the presence of E. coli in counts ranging between 0 and 1.86 × 104 CFU/100 mL and Vibrio counts ranging between 0 and 9.93 × 103 CFU/100 mL. We conclude that these WWTPs are important point sources of pollution in surface water with potential public health and ecological risks. PMID:26512686

  11. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH) in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  12. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castillo-Salgado

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  13. Public health aspects of mental health: the last 75 years of the American Journal of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C L; Westermeyer, J

    1985-01-01

    The American Journal of Public Health has reflected the relationship of public health to the field of mental health over its 75-year history. The earliest volumes of the Journal addressed movements and concerns within public mental health. Quantitative analysis of mental health articles shows wide fluctuations over the last 75 years, probably due to variations in federal funding for mental health research. Topical emphases in the Journal have included social issues and improved mental health, the contributions of epidemiological studies, and technological advances in prevention and treatment. PMID:3890568

  14. Vaccinations: A public health triumph and a public relations tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2012-08-01

    Routine vaccination has been hailed as one of the top public health achievements of the last century. However, despite the reduced number of cases of and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases such as pertussis and measles, outbreaks continue to occur as more parents fail to adequately vaccinate their children because of misinformation about immunizations. This article describes the challenges of making sure all children in the United States are fully immunized and what physicians need to know to effectively work with parents who may be hesitant to vaccinate their children.

  15. Assessing the public health impact of using poison center data for public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Lyons, Rebecca; Choudhary, Ekta; Wolkin, Amy; Schier, Joshua

    2017-12-13

    The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a database and surveillance system for US poison centers (PCs) call data. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) use NPDS to identify incidents of potential public health significance. State health departments are notified by CDC of incidents identified by NPDS to be of potential public health significance. Our objective was to describe the public health impact of CDC's notifications and the use of NPDS data for surveillance. We described how NPDS data informed three public health responses: the Deepwater Horizon incident, national exposures to laundry detergent pods, and national exposures to e-cigarettes. Additionally, we extracted survey results of state epidemiologists regarding NPDS incident notification follow-up from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2016 to assess current public health application of NPDS data using Epi Info 7.2 and analyzed data using SAS 9.3. We assessed whether state health departments were aware of incidents before notification, what actions were taken, and whether CDC notifications contributed to actions. NPDS data provided evidence for industry changes to improve laundry detergent pod containers safety and highlighted the need to regulate e-cigarette sale and manufacturing. NPDS data were used to improve situational awareness during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Of 59 health departments and PCs who responded to CDC notifications about anomalies (response rate = 49.2%), 27 (46%) reported no previous awareness of the incident, and 20 (34%) said that notifications contributed to public health action. Monitoring NPDS data for anomalies can identify emerging public health threats and provide evidence-based science to support public health action and policy changes.

  16. Big Social Data in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kjeld S.; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hussain, Abid

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the notion of "Socially Shared Health Information" (SSHI) referring to the phenomena of users and health organizations explicitly sharing health related information on social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. In order to investigate the phenomena of SSHI, in this paper, we...... present a multi-method case study of the organizational strategies for and user engagement with the Facebook page of the official portal for the public Danish Healthcare Services (Sundheds.dk). We analysed qualitative data in the form of a semi-structured interview with the social media editor of Sundhed.......dk and netnographic observations, and quantitative data from the full historic fetch of the official Facebook wall. Our results show a good alignment between the organizational and social media strategies of the public Danish Healthcare Services but point out the lack of domain-specific metrics to measure its...

  17. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Lynn M; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels.

  18. Should public health be exempt from ethical regulations? Intricacies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Literature review of published papers regarding ethical regulations in public health practice. Results: There is a current criticism of public health ethics as hindering rather than facilitating public health research. There is also an existing dilemma as to which Public health activities constitute research and are ...

  19. 41 CFR 101-5.307 - Public Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Public Health Service... AND COMPLEXES 5.3-Federal Employee Health Services § 101-5.307 Public Health Service. (a) The only authorized contact point for assistance of and consultation with the Public Health Service is the Federal...

  20. Antenatal and postnatal depression: A public health perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh R Shrivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is widely prevalent among women in the child-bearing age, especially during the antenatal and postnatal period. Globally, post-partum depression has been reported in almost 10% to 20% of mothers, and it can start from the moment of birth, or may result from depression evolving continuously since pregnancy. The presence of depression among women has gained a lot of attention not only because of the rising incidence or worldwide distribution, but also because of the serious negative impact on personal, family and child developmental outcomes. Realizing the importance of maternal depression on different aspects-personal, child, and familial life, there is a crucial need to design a comprehensive public health policy (including a mental health strategy, to ensure that universal psychosocial assessment in perinatal women is undertaken within the primary health care system. To conclude, depression during pregnancy and in the postnatal period is a serious public health issue, which essentially requires continuous health sector support to eventually benefit not only the woman, but also the family, the community, and health care professionals.

  1. Chiropractic and public health: current state and future vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Claire; Baird, Rand; Dougherty, Paul E; Globe, Gary; Green, Bart N; Haneline, Michael; Hawk, Cheryl; Injeyan, H Stephen; Killinger, Lisa; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah; Lisi, Anthony J; Mior, Silvano A; Smith, Monica

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of primary chiropractic issues as they relate to public health. This collaborative summary documents the chiropractic profession's current involvement in public health, reflects on past barriers that may have prevented full participation within the public health movement, and summarizes the relationship of current chiropractic and public health topics. Topics discussed include how the chiropractic profession participates in preventive health services, health promotion, immunization, geriatrics, health care in a military environment, and interdisciplinary care.

  2. [Blind alleys and misconceptions in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H E

    1995-07-01

    The concept of hygiene was created in the 19th century although Hippocrates had already conceived an influence of atmosphere, soil and water on human health. The concept of a public health organisation, however, is a fairly recent one. Environmental and social hygiene were the two poles of the new discipline that focussed on public health. However, the ideologies of capitalism, communism and socialism as well as of social darwinism and "survival of the elite" discredited social hygiene. The decline of totalitarianism was associated with a "loss of face" of state-controlled medicine, including social hygiene. Both the post-World War II German constitution and the previous German statutory health insurance ordinance had blocked it, and hence, no Federal bill on public health was carried. The consequences of this disregard of public health are poor protection by vaccination, a gap in compulsory notification and in epidemics control and high rates of nosocomial infections. Absolutely no development of the science of epidemiology was possible whereas that of medical microbiology is choked by the system now in existence. There is a great misconception within individual hygiene by identifying it merely with cleanliness. Hygiene became a synonym for cleanliness, although that had evolved during a long cultural sociological process centuries before hygiene was established. The modern evolution of the science of hygiene shows the danger that emphasis on healthy lifestyles or on environmental protection may result in regulations and finally in a tyranny that may threaten the liberty of human rights. The so-called "principle of concern" is an example of such irrationality because there is no sensible proportion between risk and expense.

  3. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  4. Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome and Associated Factors Among Rural Health Workers (Behvarzes) in South Khorasan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijari, Bita; Abassi, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Essential primary health care is delivered through the public health center PHC network by public health workers (Behvarzs). Health workers are exposed to different types of stresses while working. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of burnout and associated factors among rural health workers in the health centers of Birjand University of Medical Sciences. All rural health workers of health centers under the coverage of the Birjand University of Medical Sciences selected through census sampling participated in this cross-sectional study. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, GHQ-12 questionnaire, and demographic questionnaire were completed by the participants. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15 using descriptive statistics, chi-square (χ 2 ), t-test, and ANOVA test. A total of 423 health workers participated in this study, and their mean age was 39 ± 8.4 years. Among the participants, 34.5% had moderate to severe levels of burnout. About 31.4% of the subjects had abnormal scores in emotional exhaustion, 16.8% in depersonalization, and 47% in the personal accomplishment subscales. The rate of abnormal mental health among the participants was 36.68%. The prevalence of mental disorders was 24.5% in subjects with low burnout or without burnout against 60.4% of subjects with moderate or severe burnout (P = 0.001). Age, education level, number of children, and years of employment were found to have a significant association with the burnout level of the participants (P Burnout was prevalent among health workers. Based on the high level of burnout among health workers, reducing job ambiguity/conflict, participating in planning new programs, and improving interaction with health authorities may help them to overcome their job-related pressure and to give a more desirable performance.

  5. Twitter and Public Health (Part 1): How Individual Public Health Professionals Use Twitter for Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Mark; Stetten, Nichole E; Islam, Sabrina; Pizarro, Katherine

    2017-09-20

    The use of social networking sites is increasingly being adopted in public health, in part, because of the barriers to funding and reduced resources. Public health professionals are using social media platforms, specifically Twitter, as a way to facilitate professional development. The objective of this study was to identify public health professionals using Twitter and to analyze how they use this platform to enhance their formal and informal professional development within the context of public health. Keyword searches were conducted to identify and invite potential participants to complete a survey related to their use of Twitter for public health and professional experiences. Data regarding demographic attributes, Twitter usage, and qualitative information were obtained through an anonymous Web-based survey. Open-response survey questions were analyzed using the constant comparison method. "Using Twitter makes it easier to expand my networking opportunities" and "I find Twitter useful for professional development" scored highest, with a mean score of 4.57 (standard deviation [SD] 0.74) and 4.43 (SD 0.76) on a 5-point Likert scale. Analysis of the qualitative data shows the emergence of the following themes for why public health professionals mostly use Twitter: (1) geography, (2) continuing education, (3) professional gain, and (4) communication. For public health professionals in this study, Twitter is a platform best used for their networking and professional development. Furthermore, the use of Twitter allows public health professionals to overcome a series of barriers and enhances opportunities for growth. ©Mark Hart, Nichole E Stetten, Sabrina Islam, Katherine Pizarro. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 20.09.2017.

  6. Keeping the “Public” in Schools of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation’s public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation’s largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities. PMID:25706006

  7. Marijuana Legalization: Impact on Physicians and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samuel T.; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A.; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health. PMID:26515984

  8. Marijuana Legalization: Impact on Physicians and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samuel T; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health.

  9. Intercultural competency in public health: a call for action to incorporate training into public health education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eFleckman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventative programming, and epidemiological and behavioral research. The need for culturally relevant public health programming and culturally sensitive public health research is more critical than ever. Awareness of differing cultural roles needs to be included in all processes of planning, implementation and evaluation. In focusing on community-based health program planning and research, cultural competence implies that it is possible for public health professionals to completely know another culture, whereas intercultural competence implies it is a dual-sided process. Public health professionals need a commitment toward intercultural competence and skills that demonstrate flexibility, openness and self-reflection so that cultural learning is possible. In this article, the authors recommend a number of elements to develop, adapt and strengthen intercultural competence education in public health educational institutions.

  10. Prevalence of obesity and overweight among the college students of the campus of health sciences of the university of Pernambuco

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Tannuri Ferreira Lima Falcão; Marcelino Leite de Miranda; Roseane Maria Cavalcanti Silva

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of overweight and obesity is presented, currently, as one of the most important problems of public health. Objective: first to calculate the prevalence of obesity and overweight in the adolescent college students of the campus of health and sciences of the University of PE; to identify them according to: sex, age, monthly familiar income and life style. Methods: epidemiologic study and description, quantitative transversal line with characteristics. The population who took...

  11. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD CROPS AND PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. However, genetically modified (GM crops have become a subject of intense debate in which opponents argue that GM crops represent a threat to individual freedom, the environment, public health and traditional economies. Despite the advances in food crop agriculture, the current world situation is still characterised by massive hunger and chronic malnutrition, representing a major public health problem. Biofortified GM crops have been considered an important and complementary strategy for delivering naturally-fortified staple foods to malnourished populations. Expert advice and public concern have led to designing strategies for assessing the potential risks involved in cultivating and consuming GM crops. The present critical review was aimed at expressing some conflicting points of view about the potential risks of GM crops for public health. It was concluded that GM food crops are no more risky than those genetically modified by conventional methods and that these GM crops might contribute towards reducing the amount of malnourished people around the world. However, all this needs to be complemented by effective political action aimed at increasing the income of people living below the poverty-line.

  12. Public Health in Europe : 10 years EUPHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kirch

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    What is Public Health (PH? What are the links between Public Health research and policy in Europe? Where is PH coming from in the 20th century and where is it directed to?

    These are some of the questions addressed by Public Health in Europe – 10 years EUPHA, the volume, edited by Prof.W. Kirch and published by Springer in 2004, that presents a selection of the manuscripts from the 10th Annual Congress of EUPHA, held in Dresden in 2002.

    Gunnar Tellness, the President of EUPHA, reminds us what PH is, or what it should be: the science devoted to reduce in the population the amount of disease, premature death and disease-related discomfort, sickness and disability.

    In addressing these themes,Tellness suggests to improve PH by employing healthpromoting and cultural activities, in order to establish strong collaborations between public agencies, private business, organisations and pioneers.

  13. The public health leadership certificate: a public health and primary care interprofessional training opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Christine C; Lake, Jeffrey L; Bradshaw, R Dana; Matson, David O

    2014-03-01

    This article describes a public health leadership certificate curriculum developed by the Commonwealth Public Health Training Center for employees in public health and medical trainees in primary care to share didactic and experiential learning. As part of the program, trainees are involved in improving the health of their communities and thus gain a blended perspective on the effectiveness of interprofessional teams in improving population health. The certificate curriculum includes eight one-credit-hour didactic courses offered through an MPH program and a two-credit-hour, community-based participatory research project conducted by teams of trainees under the mentorship of health district directors. Fiscal sustainability is achieved by sharing didactic courses with MPH degree students, thereby enabling trainees to take advantage of a reduced, continuing education tuition rate. Public health employee and primary care trainees jointly learn knowledge and skills required for community health improvement in interprofessional teams and gain an integrated perspective through opportunities to question assumptions and broaden disciplinary approaches. At the same time, the required community projects have benefited public health in Virginia.

  14. The Public Health Responsibility Deal: brokering a deal for public health, but on whose terms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Clare; Caraher, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Coalitions of multinational food and drink businesses have pledged to reformulate their products and to market them responsibly. Largely business-led and self-regulated, the integrity of these voluntary initiatives has been questioned. The Public Health Responsibility Deal in England is an example of a voluntary initiative that is government-led. Does this approach provide evidence that with public leadership there is potential for voluntary actions to deliver meaningful results for public health? The subject of the research is the calorie reduction initiative of the Responsibility Deal. Source material was obtained primarily through a series of UK Freedom of Information requests and comprises previously unpublished Department of Health documentation relating to relevant meetings held during 2011 and 2012. The Responsibility Deal approach to calorie reduction deliberately involves the food industry in the specification of the measures it is to implement (reformulation and portion control). Finding the common ground between private and public interests has resulted in the deflection of public health objectives and the preclusion of adequate monitoring and evaluation. The Responsibility Deal approach is fundamentally flawed in its expectation that industry will take voluntary actions that prioritise public health interests above its own. Being government-led counts for little in the absence of sanctions to drive compliance. Instead the initiative affords private interests the opportunity to influence in their favour the public health policies and strategies that affect their products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tracking Master of Public Health graduates: Linking higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Master of Public Health (MPH) students come from a wide range of health professional backgrounds. Graduate programmes in public health should equip alumni with knowledge and skills to analyse and integrate health research findings, and have a practical approach to current public health issues. In South ...

  16. (FPH), FFPH, FRIPH Consultant in Public Health and A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angel_D

    Water and Sanitation: proposals for a legislative framework. Public health: definition, and vision for health in South Sudan. Public health is defined as: "The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through organised efforts of society."iii. Therefore, public health approach is population ...

  17. Prevalence of low back pain among health sciences students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShayhan, Fahad Abdullah; Saadeddin, Munir

    2018-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among health sciences students and to identify the associated factors. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 1163 students from five health sciences colleges during the academic year 2016-2017. Self-administered questionnaire was conducted and included 4 sections: demographic characteristics, risk factors, Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire and Oswestry disability questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Mean age was 20.74 ± (1.59 years). 70.9% of students were female. Lifetime prevalence of LBP was 56.6%, 12-month prevalence 48.8%, and point prevalence 21.2%. Dentistry students had highest lifetime prevalence of LBP (67.6%) with significant p value (Spending more than 10 h on computer or tablet was significantly associated with LBP (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.30-3.70; p = 0.003). Feeling discomfort on bed was associated with LBP (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.38-2.38; p ≤ 0.001). Uncomfortable college furniture was associated with LBP (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.09-1.79; p = 0.008). Using heavy backpack was found to be associated with LBP (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.01-2.03; p = 0.011). Most of students LBP (90.3%) found to cause minimal disability on Oswestry scale. This study has shown high prevalence of LBP among future healthcare provider. These risk factors should be well established to minimize the prevalence of LBP among future health sciences students. Dentistry students at higher risk of developing LBP compared to other students.

  18. Imprisonment and women's health: concerns about gender sensitivity, human rights and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Brenda J; Gatherer, Alex; Fraser, Andrew; Moller, Lars

    2011-09-01

    The health of prisoners is among the poorest of any population group and the apparent inequalities pose both a challenge and an opportunity for country health systems. The high rates of imprisonment in many countries, the resulting overcrowding, characteristics of prison populations and the disproportionate prevalence of health problems in prison should make prison health a matter of public health importance.Women prisoners constitute a minority within all prison systems and their special health needs are frequently neglected. The urgent need to review current services is clear from research, expert opinion and experience from countries worldwide. Current provision of health care to imprisoned women fails to meet their needs and is, in too many cases, far short of what is required by human rights and international recommendations. The evidence includes a lack of gender sensitivity in policies and practices in prisons, violations of women's human rights and failure to accept that imprisoned women have more and different health-care needs compared with male prisoners, often related to reproductive health issues, mental health problems, drug dependencies and histories of violence and abuse. Additional needs stem from their frequent status as a mother and usually the primary carer for her children.National governments, policy-makers and prison management need to address gender insensitivity and social injustice in prisons. There are immediate steps which could be taken to deal with public health neglect, abuses of human rights and failures in gender sensitivity.

  19. Prevalence of covert duplicate publications in Budd-Chiari syndrome articles in China: a systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xingshun; Ren, Weirong; Liu, Lei; Yang, Zhiping; Yang, Man; Fan, Daiming; Han, Guohong

    2013-07-01

    Covert duplicate publication is unquestionably unethical and problematic. Approximately 3000 articles describing Budd-Chiari syndrome in China have been published. However, no study has yet explored the prevalence of covert duplicate publications among these articles. We retrieved original articles regarding Budd-Chiari syndrome in China via the PubMed, Chinese Scientific and Technological Journal (VIP), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. The prevalence of covert duplicate publications was evaluated across publication dates, institutional grades, and academic levels of the journals. Overall, 1914 articles were included in our analysis. These articles were produced by 632 institutions and published in 463 journals. Overall, 10% (184/1914) of the articles, 10% (62/632) of the institutions, and 26% (119/463) of the journals were involved in covert duplicate publications. A decreasing trend in the prevalence of covert duplicate publications over time was observed. The prevalence of covert duplicate publications was significantly higher in tertiary hospitals than in primary hospitals or unclassified institutions (10.0% vs 3.8%, P = .038), but the prevalence was similar between tertiary and secondary hospitals (10.0% vs 9.3%, P = .72). The prevalence of covert duplicate publications was significantly higher in Science Citation Index journals than in Chinese Academic Core journals (23.9% vs 10.3%, P = .001) and other journals (23.9% vs 8.3%, P articles on Budd-Chiari syndrome in China. The high prevalence of covert duplicate publication in Science Citation Index journals should remind English-language journal editors to verify whether the articles submitted by Chinese researchers have been published in Chinese-language journals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 77 FR 38296 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ...-2012-0004] Draft Public Health Action Plan--A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Extension of public comment period. SUMMARY: On May 16... National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention, and Management of Infertility (77 FR...

  1. Periodontal health through public health - the case for oral health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Richard G; Petersen, Poul E

    2012-01-01

    inequalities in periodontal status. Public health measures need to focus on the underlying determinants of periodontal diseases. Poor hygiene, tobacco use, psychosocial factors and related systemic diseases are the main risk factors for periodontal diseases. Public health interventions need to tackle...... health policies acting at local, regional, national and international levels need to be implemented to achieve sustainable improvements in oral health. To be effective these policies need to link across the broader public health agenda and require public engagement and support. Clinicians, public health...

  2. ?Globalized public health.? A transdisciplinary comprehensive framework for analyzing contemporary globalization?s influences on the field of public health

    OpenAIRE

    Lapaige, V?ronique

    2009-01-01

    The current phase of globalization represents a ?double-edged sword? challenge facing public health practitioners and health policy makers. The first ?edge? throws light on two constructs in the field of public health: global health (formerly international health) and globalized public health. The second ?edge? is that of global governance, and raises the question, ?how can we construct public health regulations that adequately respond to both global and local complexities related to the two ...

  3. Legal Protections in Public Accommodations Settings: A Critical Public Health Issue for Transgender and Gender-Nonconforming People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn M White; Dunham, Emilia E; Heflin, Katherine J; Begenyi, Jesse Blue Glass; Coffey-Esquivel, Julia; Cahill, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Context Gender minority people who are transgender or gender nonconforming experience widespread discrimination and health inequities. Since 2012, Massachusetts law has provided protections against discrimination on the basis of gender identity in employment, housing, credit, public education, and hate crimes. The law does not, however, protect against discrimination in public accommodations (eg, hospitals, health centers, transportation, nursing homes, supermarkets, retail establishments). For this article, we examined the frequency and health correlates of public accommodations discrimination among gender minority adults in Massachusetts, with attention to discrimination in health care settings. Methods In 2013, we recruited a community-based sample (n = 452) both online and in person. The respondents completed a 1-time, electronic survey assessing demographics, health, health care utilization, and discrimination in public accommodations venues in the past 12 months. Using adjusted multivariable logistic regression models, we examined whether experiencing public accommodations discrimination in health care was independently associated with adverse self-reported health, adjusting for discrimination in other public accommodations settings. Findings Overall, 65% of respondents reported public accommodations discrimination in the past 12 months. The 5 most prevalent discrimination settings were transportation (36%), retail (28%), restaurants (26%), public gatherings (25%), and health care (24%). Public accommodations discrimination in the past 12 months in health care settings was independently associated with a 31% to 81% increased risk of adverse emotional and physical symptoms and a 2-fold to 3-fold increased risk of postponement of needed care when sick or injured and of preventive or routine health care, adjusting for discrimination in other public accommodations settings (which also conferred an additional 20% to 77% risk per discrimination setting endorsed

  4. LINKING PUBLIC HEALTH AND AIR QUALITY DATA FOR ACCOUNTABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program Area: Environmental HealthTopic Area: Linking Public Health Data into ActionTitle of Presentation: Linking Public Health and Air Quality Data for AccountabilityBackground and Significance Tracking environmental exposures to air pollutan...

  5. Prevalence and Health Care–Seeking Behavior for Childhood Diarrheal Disease in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Razzaque Sarker MHE, MSS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, the burden of diarrheal diseases is significant among children <5 years old. The objective of this study is to capture the prevalence of and health care–seeking behavior for childhood diarrheal diseases (CDDs and to identify the factors associated with CDDs at a population level in Bangladesh. We use a logistic regression approach to model careseeking based on individual characteristics. The overall diarrhea prevalence among children <5 years old was found to be 5.71%. Some factors found to significantly influence the health care–seeking pattern were age and sex of the children, nutritional score, age and education of mothers, wealth index, and access to electronic media. The health care service could be improved through working in partnership with public facilities, private health care practitioners, and community-based organizations, so that all strata of the population get equitable access in cases of childhood diarrhoea.

  6. Prevalence of Anaemia in Pregnancy at Uthungulu Health district of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal anaemia is a risk factor for infant iron deficiency anaemia and, if left uncorrected, can be associated with adverse behavioural and cognitive development in children. The prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy is estimated at between 35% and 75% in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the area-specific health problems ...

  7. Healthy diet : Health impact, prevalence, correlates, and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ridder, Denise; Kroese, Floor; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke; Gillebaart, Marleen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To discuss healthy diet from a psychological perspective by considering definitions of healthy diet in terms of consumer understanding; the health effects of specific dietary elements in terms of overweight and (chronic) illness; the prevalence of healthy diet; the psychological and

  8. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Several studies have reported a negative relationship between smoking and military performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health implications among Nigerian Army personnel. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of 853 soldiers ...

  9. seasonal variation and prevalence of tuberculosis among health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damary

    2006-11-11

    Nov 11, 2006 ... Hippocrates once said. “Whoever wishes to investigate medicine properly should proceed thus: in the first place to consider the seasons of the year, and what effects each of them produces” (10). With this in mind, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of TB in the Fako Health District of the ...

  10. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and the knowledge of its health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Several studies have reported a negative relationship between smoking and military performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health implications among Nigerian Army personnel. Materials and Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of ...

  11. Childhood constipation as an emerging public health problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajindrajith, Shaman; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Crispus Perera, Bonaventure Jayasiri; Benninga, Marc Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Functional constipation (FC) is a significant health problem in children and contrary to common belief, has serious ramifications on the lives of children and their families. It is defined by the Rome criteria which encourage the use of multiple clinical features for diagnosis. FC in children has a high prevalence (0.7%-29%) worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. Biopsychosocial risk factors such as psychological stress, poor dietary habits, obesity and child maltreatment are commonly identified predisposing factors for FC. FC poses a significant healthcare burden on the already overstretched health budgets of many countries in terms of out-patient care, in-patient care, expenditure for investigations and prescriptions. Complications are common and range from minor psychological disturbances, to lower health-related quality of life. FC in children also has a significant impact on families. Many paediatric clinical trials have poor methodological quality, and drugs proved to be useful in adults, are not effective in relieving symptoms in children. A significant proportion of inadequately treated children have similar symptoms as adults. These factors show that constipation is an increasing public health problem across the world with a significant medical, social and economic impact. This article highlights the potential public health impact of FC and the possibility of overcoming this problem by concentrating on modifiable risk factors rather than expending resources on high cost investigations and therapeutic modalities. PMID:27570423

  12. Urban planning and public health at CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochtitzky, Chris S; Frumkin, H; Rodriguez, R; Dannenberg, A L; Rayman, J; Rose, K; Gillig, R; Kanter, T

    2006-12-22

    Urban planning, also called city and regional planning, is a multidisciplinary field in which professionals work to improve the welfare of persons and communities by creating more convenient, equitable, healthful, efficient, and attractive places now and for the future. The centerpiece of urban planning activities is a "master plan," which can take many forms, including comprehensive plans, neighborhood plans, community action plans, regulatory and incentive strategies, economic development plans, and disaster preparedness plans. Traditionally, these plans include assessing and planning for community needs in some or all of the following areas: transportation, housing, commercial/office buildings, natural resource utilization, environmental protection, and health-care infrastructure. Urban planning and public health share common missions and perspectives. Both aim to improve human well-being, emphasize needs assessment and service delivery, manage complex social systems, focus at the population level, and rely on community-based participatory methods. Both fields focus on the needs of vulnerable populations. Throughout their development, both fields have broadened their perspectives. Initially, public health most often used a biomedical model (examining normal/abnormal functioning of the human organism), and urban planning often relied on a geographic model (analysis of human needs or interactions in a spatial context). However, both fields have expanded their tools and perspectives, in part because of the influence of the other. Urban planning and public health have been intertwined for most of their histories. In 1854, British physician John Snow used geographic mapping of an outbreak of cholera in London to identify a public water pump as the outbreak's source. Geographic analysis is a key planning tool shared by urban planning and public health. In the mid-1800s, planners such as Frederick Law Olmsted bridged the gap between the fields by advancing the concept

  13. The invisibilization of health promotion in Australian public health initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Lily; Taylor, Jane; Barnes, Margaret

    2018-02-01

    The field of health promotion has arguably shifted over the past thirty years from being socially proactive to biomedically defensive. In many countries this has been accompanied by a gradual decline, or in some cases the almost complete removal of health promotion designated positions within Government health departments. The language or discourse used to describe the practice and discipline of health promotion is reflective of such changes. In this study, critical discourse analysis was used to determine the representation of health promotion as a practice and a discipline within 10 Australian Government weight-related public health initiatives. The analysis revealed the invisibilization of critical health promotion in favour of an agenda described as 'preventive health'. This was achieved primarily through the textual practices of overlexicalization and lexical suppression. Excluding document titles, there were 437 uses of the terms health promotion, illness prevention, disease prevention, preventive health, preventative health in the documents analysed. The term 'health promotion' was used sparingly (16% of total terms), and in many instances was coupled with the term 'illness prevention'. Conversely, the terms 'preventive health' and 'preventative health' were used extensively, and primarily used alone. The progressive invisibilization of critical health promotion has implications for the perceptions and practice of those identifying as health promotion professionals and for people with whom we work to address the social and structural determinants of health and wellbeing. Language matters, and the language and intent of critical health promotion will struggle to survive if its speakers are professionally unidentifiable or invisible. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Public health surveillance and infectious disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stephen S

    2012-03-01

    Emerging infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and pandemic influenza, and the anthrax attacks of 2001, have demonstrated that we remain vulnerable to health threats caused by infectious diseases. The importance of strengthening global public health surveillance to provide early warning has been the primary recommendation of expert groups for at least the past 2 decades. However, despite improvements in the past decade, public health surveillance capabilities remain limited and fragmented, with uneven global coverage. Recent initiatives provide hope of addressing this issue, and new technological and conceptual advances could, for the first time, place capability for global surveillance within reach. Such advances include the revised International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) and the use of new data sources and methods to improve global coverage, sensitivity, and timeliness, which show promise for providing capabilities to extend and complement the existing infrastructure. One example is syndromic surveillance, using nontraditional and often automated data sources. Over the past 20 years, other initiatives, including ProMED-mail, GPHIN, and HealthMap, have demonstrated new mechanisms for acquiring surveillance data. In 2009 the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) began the Emerging Pandemic Threats (EPT) program, which includes the PREDICT project, to build global capacity for surveillance of novel infections that have pandemic potential (originating in wildlife and at the animal-human interface) and to develop a framework for risk assessment. Improved understanding of factors driving infectious disease emergence and new technological capabilities in modeling, diagnostics and pathogen identification, and communications, such as using the increasing global coverage of cellphones for public health surveillance, can further enhance global surveillance.

  15. Globalisation and global health governance: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Margaret E

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation is a defining economic and social trend of the past several decades. Globalisation affects health directly and indirectly and creates economic and health disparities within and across countries. The political response to address these disparities, exemplified by the Millennium Development Goals, has put pressure on the global community to redress massive inequities in health and other determinants of human capability across countries. This, in turn, has accelerated a transformation in the architecture of global health governance. The entrance of new actors, such as private foundations and multi-stakeholder initiatives, contributed to a doubling of funds for global health between 2000 and 2010. Today the governance of public health is in flux, with diminished leadership from multilateral institutions, such as the WHO, and poor coherence in policy and programming that undermines the potential for sustainable health gains. These trends pose new challenges and opportunities for global public health, which is centrally concerned with identifying and addressing threats to the health of vulnerable populations worldwide.

  16. Prevalence of Escherichia coli some public water sources in Gusau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the presence of Escherichia coli from some public water sources in Gusau municipal, north- western Nigeria. This was done by determining the total coliform counts and the presence of Escherichia coli and its antibiotic susceptibility profile. A total of 180 well 60 tap and 60 packaged water samples ...

  17. The Implications of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease on Public Health Policy and Health Promotion in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sasiragha Priscilla; Mbewu, Anthony David

    2016-11-09

    The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis states that environmental influences in utero and in early life can determine health and disease in later life through the programming of genes and/or altered gene expression. The DOHaD is likely to have had an effect in South Africa during the fifty years of apartheid; and during the twenty years since the dawn of democracy in 1994. This has profound implications for public health and health promotion policies in South Africa, a country experiencing increased prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and risk factors and behaviours for NCDs due to rapid social and economic transition, and because of the DOHaD. Public health policy and health promotion interventions, such as those introduced by the South African Government over the past 20 years, were designed to improve the health of pregnant women (and their unborn children). They could in addition, through the DOHaD mechanism, reduce NCDs and their risk factors in their offspring in later life. The quality of public health data over the past 40 years in South Africa precludes the possibility of proving the DOHaD hypothesis in that context. Nevertheless, public health and health promotion policies need to be strengthened, if South Africa and other low and middle income countries (LMICs) are to avoid the very high prevalence of NCDs seen in Europe and North America in the 50 years following the Second World War, as a result of socio economic transition and the DOHaD.

  18. Suicide: Incidence or Prevalence? Comments on Hernández-Alvarado et al. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 552.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    I recently reviewed the paper published in this journal by Hernández-Alvarado et al., titled "Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012" [1], and I noticed that the epidemiological concept "prevalence" is not correctly used.[...].

  19. Social media in public health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony; Henriksen, Helle Zinner

    2012-01-01

    : social media transform the access to health-related information for patients and general practitioners, the uptake of social media can be a cost driver rather than a cost saver, social media provide empowerment to patients, and the uptake of social media is hindered by legal and privacy concerns......This paper investigates the impacts of social media use in Danish public health care with respect to capabilities, interactions, orientations, and value distribution. Taking an exploratory approach, the paper draws on an array of quantitative and qualitative data, and puts forward four propositions...

  20. Benefits of radiation processing to public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampelmacher, E. H.

    The problem of foodborne diseases, in which especially food of animals origin and the infected animal is involved, is reviewed. Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of meat and poultry may today, together with parasites in meat and fish be considered as an increasing public health problem. Control and prevention measures, especially including radiation processing is summarized and with regard to specific micro-organisms and parasites and to various food commodities suitable for irradiation purposes. The possibilities of this new processing technique for reduction and probably elimination of pathogens and parasites are discussed and recommendations are given for practical application of radiation in order to eliminate health risks eliminating from contaminated food.

  1. Mentoring in epidemiology and public health training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Faith G

    2013-08-01

    In the past, mentoring was the job of one senior researcher in which the mentor molded the mentee in his/her own image. With public health being a very multidisciplinary field, mentoring may need to evolve to facilitate the needs of emerging scientists-including epidemiologists. The mentoring relationship can begin at many education stages, including high school. Involving students at all education levels acts as a way to recruit and nurture interest in public health. On the basis of the experience in the medical sciences, mentoring programs also can be used to recruit and retain high-quality professionals in our discipline. Mentoring functions nurture a young mentee with the bonus of greater workplace satisfaction for the mentor. Nevertheless, more understanding of what constitutes successful mentoring and how to develop programs that create great mentors is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Massive open online courses in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Ira; Klaas, Brian; Yager, James D; Kanchanaraksa, Sukon

    2013-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) represent a new and potentially transformative model for providing educational opportunities to learners not enrolled in a formal educational program. The authors describe the experience of developing and offering eight MOOCs on a variety of public health topics. Existing institutional infrastructure and experience with both for-credit online education and open educational resources mitigated the institutional risk and resource requirements. Although learners are able to enroll easily and freely and do so in large numbers, there is considerable variety in the level of participation and engagement among enrollees. As a result, comprehensive and accurate assessment of meaningful learning progress remains a major challenge for evaluating the effectiveness of MOOCs for providing public health education.

  3. Peak Oil, Food Systems, and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Kirschenmann, Frederick L.; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all. PMID:21778492

  4. The public health implications of resource wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klare, Michael T; Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2011-09-01

    Competition for resources between or within nations is likely to become an increasingly common cause of armed conflict. Competition for petroleum is especially likely to trigger armed conflict because petroleum is a highly valuable resource whose supply is destined to contract. Wars fought over petroleum and other resources can create public health concerns by causing morbidity and mortality, damaging societal infrastructure, diverting resources, uprooting people, and violating human rights. Public health workers and the organizations with which they are affiliated can help prevent resource wars and minimize their consequences by (1) promoting renewable energy and conservation, (2) documenting the impact of past and potential future resource wars, (3) protecting the human rights of affected noncombatant civilian populations during armed conflict, and (4) developing and advocating for policies that promote peaceful dispute resolution.

  5. High Turnover Among State Health Officials/Public Health Directors: Implications for the Public's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Paul K; Lumpkin, John R; Yeager, Valerie A; Castrucci, Brian C; Moffatt, Sharon; Tilson, Hugh

    State health officials (SHOs) serve a critical role as the leaders of state public health systems. Despite their many responsibilities, there is no formal process for preparation to become an SHO, and few requirements influence the selection of an SHO. Furthermore, to date, no studies have examined SHO tenure or their experiences. This study examines SHO tenure over time and the relationship between SHO tenure and organizational and state attributes. This longitudinal study employed primary data on SHOs and secondary data from the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials on organizational attributes of state public health agencies. This study examines SHOs within the United States. SHOs who served in years 1980-2017. Annual average SHO tenure; average SHO tenure by state. In the 38 years of this study, 508 individuals served as SHOs in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The average tenure over this period was 4.1 years, with a median tenure of 2.9 years. During the study period, almost 20% of SHOs served terms of 1 year or less. A total of 32 SHOs (32/508 or 6.3%) served for 10 years or longer. Excluding SHOs who served 10 years or longer (n = 32 SHOs who had a collective 478 years of tenure) reduces the average term in office to 3.5 years. The average number of new SHOs per year is 12.3. SHOs appointed by a board of health averaged more than 8 years in office compared with averages just under 4 years for those appointed by governors or secretaries of state agencies. There are notable differences in SHO tenure across states. Future research is needed to further examine SHO tenure, effectiveness, job satisfaction, transitions, and the relationship between SHOs and state health. It may be valuable to expand on opportunities for new SHOs to learn from peers who have moderate to long tenures as well as SHO alumni. Given that average SHO tenure is approximately 4 years and that an SHO could be thrust into the national spotlight at a moment's notice

  6. Public school teachers’ perceptions about mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Amanda Gonçalves Simões; Estanislau, Gustavo; Brietzke, Elisa; Lefèvre, Fernando; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6%) showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools. PMID:26039397

  7. Security planning for public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author identifies the security sensitive areas of a hospital during a public health emergency event, and the need to have processes and plans in place to mitigate the security and traffic related problems that accompany such events. He describes a number of specialized security and safety guidelines and tools that have been designed by and provided to healthcare security professionals free of charge.

  8. Food Safety Informatics: A Public Health Imperative

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Cynthia A.; Larkin, Stephanie N.; Akers, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    To date, little has been written about the implementation of utilizing food safety informatics as a technological tool to protect consumers, in real-time, against foodborne illnesses. Food safety outbreaks have become a major public health problem, causing an estimated 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3,000 deaths in the U.S. each year. Yet, government inspectors/regulators that monitor foodservice operations struggle with how to collect, organize, and analyze data; impleme...

  9. Pursuing a career in veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovic, Milorad

    2015-11-14

    Milorad Radakovic is a teaching fellow in veterinary public health (VPH) at the University of Cambridge. Here, he explains why he believes the challenges in this field of veterinary medicine make for an exciting career path. In a second article to be published in Vet Record Careers next week, he will share some of his own experiences of working in this field. British Veterinary Association.

  10. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampelmacher, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    The author debates public health aspects of food irradiation. The effect of food irradiation as a convenience to the consumer is discussed, i.e. the prevention of food deterioration and also the prevention of disease that could be passed on to the consumer by ingestion. On the other hand, the effects that could possibly be created by the application of radiation are also evaluated using toxicological and microbiological considerations. (Auth.)

  11. Detecting cardiometabolic syndrome using World Health Organization public health action points for Asians and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandinetti, Andrew; Kaholokula, Joseph K; Mau, Marjorie K; Chow, Dominic C

    2010-01-01

    To assess the screening characteristics of World Health Organization (WHO) body mass index action points for cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) in Native Hawaiians and people of Asian ancestry (ie, Filipino and Japanese). Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,452 residents of a rural community of Hawai'i between 1997 and 2000, of which 1,198 were analyzed in this study. Ethnic ancestry was determined by self-report. Metabolic status was assessed using National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. Screening characteristics of WHO criteria for overweight and obesity were compared to WHO public health action points or to WHO West Pacific Regional Office (WPRO) cut-points. Among Asian-ancestry participants, WHO public health action points improved both sensitivity and specificity for detecting CMS. However, similar improvements were not observed for WPRO criteria for Native Hawaiians. Moreover, predictive values were high regardless of which criteria were utilized due to high CMS prevalence. WHO public health actions points for Asians provide a significant improvement in sensitivity in detection of CMS. However, predictive value, which varies greatly with disease prevalence, should be considered when deciding which criteria to apply.

  12. Multidimensional point transform for public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelMalik, P; Kamel Boulos, M N

    2012-01-01

    With increases in spatial information and enabling technologies, location-privacy concerns have been on the rise. A commonly proposed solution in public health involves random perturbation, however consideration for individual dimensions (attributes) has been weak. The current study proposes a multidimensional point transform (MPT) that integrates the spatial dimension with other dimensions of interest to comprehensively anonymise data. The MPT relies on the availability of a base population, a subset patient dataset, and shared dimensions of interest. Perturbation distance and anonymity thresholds are defined, as are allowable dimensional perturbations. A preliminary implementation is presented using sex, age and location as the three dimensions of interest, with a maximum perturbation distance of 1 kilometre and an anonymity threshold of 20%. A synthesised New York county population is used for testing with 1000 iterations for each of 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 patient dataset sizes. The MPT consistently yielded a mean perturbation distance of 46 metres with no sex or age perturbation required. Displacement of the spatial mean decreased with patient dataset size and averaged 5.6 metres overall. The MPT presents a flexible, customisable and adaptive algorithm for perturbing datasets for public health, allowing tweaking and optimisation of the trade-offs for different datasets and purposes. It is not, however, a substitute for secure and ethical conduct, and a public health framework for the appropriate disclosure, use and dissemination of data containing personal identifiable information is required. The MPT presents an important component of such a framework.

  13. Situational awareness in public health preparedness settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Michea, Yanko F.; Zhang, Jiajie; Casscells, Samuel W.

    2005-05-01

    September 11 2001 attacks and following Anthrax mailings introduced emergent need for developing technologies that can distinguish between man made and natural incidents in the public health level. With this objective in mind, government agencies started a funding effort to foster the design, development and implementation of such systems on a wide scale. But the outcomes have not met the expectations set by the resources invested. Multiple elements explain this phenomenon: As it has been frequent with technology, introduction of new surveillance systems to the workflow equation has occurred without taking into consideration the need for understanding and inclusion of deeper personal, psychosocial, organizational and methodological concepts. The environment, in which these systems are operating, is complex, highly dynamic, uncertain, risky, and subject to intense time pressures. Such 'difficult' environments are very challenging to the human as a decision maker. In this paper we will challenge these systems from the perspective of human factors design. We will propose employment of systematic situational awareness research for design and implementation of the next generation public health preparedness infrastructures. We believe that systems designed based on results of such analytical definition of the domain enable public health practitioners to effectively collect the most important cues from the environment, process, interpret and understand the information in the context of organizational objectives and immediate tasks at hand, and use that understanding to forecast the short term and long term impact of the events in the safety and well being of the community.

  14. A public health physician named Walter Leser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Bonfim, José Ruben de Alcântara

    2015-09-01

    A brief review of the career of the public health physician Walter Sidney Pereira Leser, who died in 2004 aged 94. Self-taught, from his 1933 doctoral thesis he became a country reference in the field of statistics and epidemiology, with dozens of studies and supervisions. In the clinical field he is one of the founders of Fleury Laboratory, and participates in the creation of CREMESP. As an academic, Leser was a professor at the Escola de Sociologia e Política de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina e Faculdade de Farmácia e Odontologia da USP. Also, Leser introduced objective tests in the college entrance examination, and led the creation of CESCEM and Carlos Chagas Foundation. In the Escola Paulista de Medicina he created the first Preventive Medicine Department of the country. As a public official, he was secretary of the State Department of Health of São Paulo between 1967 and 1971 and between 1975 and 1979, responsible for extensive reforms and innovations. Among the most remembered, the creation of sanitary medical career. Throughout this legacy, he lent his name to the "Medal of Honor and Merit Public Health Management" of the State of São Paulo.

  15. Narrative intervention in behavior and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraglia, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Public health interventions using narratives, or stories, as a means for encouraging behavior change are common, especially in the developing world. Entertainment-education (EE) is perhaps the most widely researched form of such "narrative intervention," but many other kinds of interventions, or parts of interventions, rely on stories to convey information about behavior risk and to model risk avoidance. Although narrative interventions are often grounded in social-cognitive theory and in commonsense assumptions about the power of storytelling, they are generally undertaken without much regard for the philosophical and cognitive bases for narrative about which much has been written. Many aspects of narrative intervention in behavior and public health could be better understood in light this literature. These include the 1) challenges inherent in creating and building on a discourse around behavior change in non-Western contexts; 2) current emphasis in public health on production rather than reception and the fundamental problem of interpretation; 3) differences between messaging versus providing an alternative worldview, and finally; 4) issues surrounding the appropriate approach to the evaluation of a narrative intervention.

  16. Impact of leishmaniasis on public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania transmitted by insects known as phlebotomines, which are found in wild or urban environments. It affects domestic and wild animals and transmission to man happens by accident. The disease occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areas, mainly in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. There are two forms that affect man: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The latter is caused by three species of Leishmania: Leishmania (Leishmania donovani, Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, which are grouped in the Leishmania (Leishmania donovani complex. Wild reservoir hosts of L. chagasi known so far are foxes and marsupials. In domestic environment, dogs are the most important reservoir hosts and sources of infection to the vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis. Leishmaniasis is difficult to control, causing epidemic outbreaks, thus being an important public health problem. Due to lesions caused by the mucocutaneous type and the severity of those caused by the visceral type in humans, visceral leishmaniasis is one of the main public health concerns. This paper is part of the monograph presented at the end of the residency program in the field of Zoonosis and Public Health at the School of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2005.

  17. Public health capacity in the provision of health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdmanis, Vivian; DeNicola, Arianna; Bernet, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we assess the capacity of Florida's public health departments. We achieve this by using bootstrapped data envelopment analysis (DEA) applied to Johansen's definition of capacity utilization. Our purpose in this paper is to measure if there is, theoretically, enough excess capacity available to handle a possible surge in the demand for primary care services especially after the implementation of the Affordable Care Act that includes provisions for expanded public health services. We measure subunit service availability using a comprehensive data source available for all 67 county health departments in the provision of diagnostic care and primary health care. In this research we aim to address two related research questions. First, we structure our analysis so as to fix budgets. This is based on the assumption that State spending on social and health services could be limited, but patient needs are not. Our second research question is that, given the dearth of primary care providers in Florida if budgets are allowed to vary is there enough medical labor to provide care to clients. Using a non-parametric approach, we also apply bootstrapping to the concept of plant capacity which adds to the productivity research. To preview our findings, we report that there exists excess plant capacity for patient treatment and care, but question whether resources may be better suited for more traditional types of public health services.

  18. Prevalence of congenital malformation in newborns of the public hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Aritana Pereira Ramos; Maria Nice Dutra de Oliveira; Jefferson Paixão Cardoso

    2008-01-01

    The study aimmed to estimate the predominance of congenital malformations in newborns of the Public Hospital in the Jequié city, Brazil. It was utilized spring of secondary facts, from the fact-gathering of available manuals in the Service of Medical Files of the hospital, in the period of January of 2005 to December of 2006. It was utilized instrument of collection standardized where information about characteristics they were collected of the mother, general characteristics of the newborn...

  19. Is housing a public health issue? A survey of directors of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, P; Victor, C; Connelly, J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the views of directors of public health on the importance of housing for public health and their departments' and health authorities' participation in housing issues. DESIGN--Postal self administered questionnaire survey. SETTING--All district health authorities in England and health boards in Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. SUBJECTS--All 221 district directors of public health in England and chief administrative medical officers in Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Response to questionnaire consisting of fixed and open ended questions on housing issues. RESULTS--The response rate was 89% (196/221). Housing was perceived as a major health problem by 33% (65/196) of directors. Positive responses were most likely from inner city districts. In 47% (93/196) of departments there was a formal time commitment to housing issues with a median time of one session/week (range one per month to 10 per week). The main function was allocation of medical priority for public sector rehousing. Overall, 73% (144/196) reported some participation in this process. Reported participation in joint care planning and links with non-statutory housing organisations were uncommon. 53% (104/196) of directors had included housing issues in their annual health report. In 16% (32/196) of districts specific services for the homeless had been set up. CONCLUSIONS--Although concern about the impact of current housing policy on public health was shown by a substantial number of directors, the main activity was still allocation of medical priority despite a background of increasing housing need and homelessness. The underlying need is for greater advocacy to produce a healthy housing policy for all, and the annual public health report could be used to promote this objective. PMID:1995137

  20. Translating science into action: periodontal health through public health approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgensen, Nanna; Petersen, Poul E; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Sayaka

    2012-10-01

    Clinical and public health research data have shown that a number of individual, professional and community health measures may be valuable in preventing the major oral diseases. The fundamental gap in knowledge, however, is not confined to 'what to do' but rather 'how' to translate the scientific findings into effective and sustainable programs for groups and populations. The advances in oral health science have not yet benefitted the poor and disadvantaged population groups around the world to the fullest extent possible and this has led to inequalities in periodontal health as well as in other chronic diseases. Research on the causative role of tobacco use in periodontal disease is strong because of the fact that tobacco-induced disease ultimately may lead to the loss of teeth. Studies also indicate that wound healing may be negatively affected by the use of tobacco. Likewise, research has shown that extreme use of alcohol, poor diet and nutrition, and psychological stress all have negative effects on periodontal health. Research on sociobehavioral risk factors has great implication to prevent periodontal disease. The case for tobacco is illustrated in this report. The global exposure to tobacco use in adults and adolescents is outlined. Because of the global Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (2003), the solid research on the harmful effect of tobacco is now being widely used for public health. The importance of tobacco prevention within the context of health-promoting schools is emphasized. Research on other population-directed strategies and their implications on public health would be instrumental to integrated prevention of chronic disease and periodontal disease. Community interventions and delivery of preventive oral care by oral health services may have positive outcomes for periodontal health but periodontal research needs to be further strengthened by the provision of sound evidence. It is somewhat remarkable that research on true population

  1. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hasoon Saad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.

  2. CHAMP: a novel collaboration between public health and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Melissa A; Chapman, Simon; Moynihan, Ray N; Green, Jonathan H

    2009-02-16

    Crikey is a daily electronic bulletin aimed at providing independent news. It was established in 2000. In 2007, journalists and public health advocates collaborated with Crikey to initiate an innovative health reporting project, the Crikey Health and Medical Panel (CHAMP). CHAMP members contribute articles and news tips to Crikey, broadening Crikey's scope of public health coverage. CHAMP continues to evolve, and has expanded to include a freely accessible online health forum, Croakey. CHAMP was established to enhance public debate about health, to encourage public health advocates to engage in debate, and to help the media to identify public health advocates and issues as sources for articles.

  3. Public health system - current status and world experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreyeva І.А.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the review, the evolution of Public Health and global development tendencies of Public Health system have been discussed. Stages of formation of the updated concept, principles of Public Health organization and the role of various organizations have been shown in the connection with development of the global concept of "Health for All". A well-functioning public health system is primarily the result of multisectoral cooperation. The aim of modern Public Health is to provide conditions of access to appropriate and cost-effective health care for all population groups, including health promotion and disease prevention.

  4. Voice disorders (dysphonia) in public school female teachers working in Belo Horizonte: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Assunção, Ada Avila

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study is to establish the prevalence of dysphonia and associated factors in public school female teachers working in Belo Horizonte. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of schools between May 2004 and July 2005. There were 2103 elementary education daytime teachers from 83 schools included in the study. Self-applied questionnaires were used for data collection. These included questions on social and demographic matters, general health and mental health (General Health Questionnaire-12 [GHQ-12]), the environment and organization of work, and voice-related aspects. The variable dysphonia was classified as absent, possible, or probable based on the association between frequency of fatigue when speaking and worsened voice quality during the past 15 days. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze factors independently associated with dysphonia in each response subgroup and in total. One third of the female teachers did not report voice symptoms during the past 15 days (33%). The prevalence of probable dysphonia was 15%, and the prevalence for possible dysphonia was 52%. Factors associated with probable dysphonia were presence of recent upper airway problems (odds ratio [OR]=5.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]=4.06-8.71), problems at work because of voice (OR=65.30, 95% CI=19.33-220.59), other activities with intense voice use (OR=1.71, 95% CI=1.08-2.71), high noise levels (OR=2.55, 95% CI=1.72-3.76), poor ventilation in the classroom (OR=2.00, 95% CI=1.24-3.22), current mental disorder (OR=3.20, 95% CI=2.18-4.70), sedentary life style (OR=1.94, 95% CI=1.21-3.09), and marriage (OR=1.70, 95% CI=1.16-2.47). Associations between probable dysphonia, poor working conditions, health-related aspects, and professional jeopardy indicate the complexity of dysphonia in female teachers and the need for collective intervention strategies.

  5. Ethical issues in public health promotion | Gardner | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health promotion is a key element of public health practice. Among strategies aiming to deal with public health problems, health promotion purports to help people achieve better health. Health promotion can significantly alter people's lifestyles, and three main ethical issues relate to it: (i) what are the ultimate goals for ...

  6. Engineering and public health at CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, G Scott; Reed, Laurence D; Conover, D; Estill, C; Gjessing, C; Gressel, M; Hall, R; Hudock, S; Hudson, H; Kardous, C; Sheehy, J; Topmiller, J; Trout, D; Woebkenberg, M; Amendola, A; Hsiao, H; Keane, P; Weissman, D; Finfinger, G; Tadolini, S; Thimons, E; Cullen, E; Jenkins, M; McKibbin, R; Conway, G; Husberg, B; Lincoln, J; Rodenbeck, S; Lantagne, D; Cardarelli, J

    2006-12-22

    Engineering is the application of scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. Using imagination, judgment, and reasoning to apply science, technology, mathematics, and practical experience, engineers develop the design, production, and operation of useful objects or processes. During the 1940s, engineers dominated the ranks of CDC scientists. In fact, the first CDC director, Assistant Surgeon General Mark Hollis, was an engineer. CDC engineers were involved in malaria control through the elimination of standing water. Eventually the CDC mission expanded to include prevention and control of dengue, typhus, and other communicable diseases. The development of chlorination, water filtration, and sewage treatment were crucial to preventing waterborne illness. Beginning in the 1950s, CDC engineers began their work to improve public health while developing the fields of environmental health, industrial hygiene, and control of air pollution. Engineering disciplines represented at CDC today include biomedical, civil, chemical, electrical, industrial, mechanical, mining, and safety engineering. Most CDC engineers are located in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Engineering research at CDC has a broad stakeholder base. With the cooperation of industry, labor, trade associations, and other stakeholders and partners, current work includes studies of air contaminants, mining, safety, physical agents, ergonomics, and environmental hazards. Engineering solutions remain a cornerstone of the traditional "hierarchy of controls" approach to reducing public health hazards.

  7. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaferstein, F. [Director, Programme of Food Safety and Food Aid, WHO, CH-1211, Geneva 27, (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Post-harvest losses due to sprouting, insect infestation and spoilage by microorganisms is a serious problem in many countries and commonly aggravates the problem of food shortages. In addition, many developing countries also depend largely on agricultural produce, such as grain, tuber and tropical fruit, as major export crops to earn foreign exchange. The use of ionizing radiation as an effective means of disinfecting and/or prolonging the self-life of several food products has been well documented in a number of developing countries. The World health organization (WHO) encourages its Member States to consider all measures to eliminate or reduce food borne pathogens in food and improve their supplies of safe and nutritious food. In regard to its contribution to food safety, food irradiation may be one of the most significant contributions to public health to be made by food science and technology since the introduction of pasteurization. Because the promotion of a safe, nutritious and adequate food supply is an essential component of its primary health care strategy, WHO is concerned that the unwarranted rejection or limitation of this process may endanger public health and deprive consumers of the choice of foods processed for safety. (Author)

  8. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaferstein, F.

    1997-01-01

    Post-harvest losses due to sprouting, insect infestation and spoilage by microorganisms is a serious problem in many countries and commonly aggravates the problem of food shortages. In addition, many developing countries also depend largely on agricultural produce, such as grain, tuber and tropical fruit, as major export crops to earn foreign exchange. The use of ionizing radiation as an effective means of disinfecting and/or prolonging the self-life of several food products has been well documented in a number of developing countries. The World health organization (WHO) encourages its Member States to consider all measures to eliminate or reduce food borne pathogens in food and improve their supplies of safe and nutritious food. In regard to its contribution to food safety, food irradiation may be one of the most significant contributions to public health to be made by food science and technology since the introduction of pasteurization. Because the promotion of a safe, nutritious and adequate food supply is an essential component of its primary health care strategy, WHO is concerned that the unwarranted rejection or limitation of this process may endanger public health and deprive consumers of the choice of foods processed for safety. (Author)

  9. Stigmatized ethnicity, public health, and globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S Harris

    2008-01-01

    The prejudicial linking of infection with ethnic minority status has a long-established history, but in some ways this association may have intensified under the contemporary circumstances of the "new public health" and globalization. This study analyzes this conflation of ethnicity and disease victimization by considering the stigmatization process that occurred during the 2003 outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Toronto. The attribution of stigma during the SARS outbreak occurred in multiple and overlapping ways informed by: (i) the depiction of images of individuals donning respiratory masks; (ii) employment status in the health sector; and (iii) Asian-Canadian and Chinese-Canadian ethnicity. In turn, stigmatization during the SARS crisis facilitated a moral panic of sorts in which racism at a cultural level was expressed and rationalized on the basis of a rhetoric of the new public health and anti-globalization sentiments. With the former, an emphasis on individualized self-protection, in the health sense, justified the generalized avoidance of those stigmatized. In relation to the latter, in the post-9/11 era, avoidance of the stigmatized other was legitimized on the basis of perceiving the SARS threat as a consequence of the mixing of different people predicated by economic and cultural globalization.

  10. Health-related behaviour among managers of Slovenian hospitals and institutes of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Farkas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Behavioural risk factors have a significant impact on health. We aimed to assess health-related behaviour, health status, and use of healthcare services among managers of Slovenian hospitals and institutes of public health. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which included management (directors, scientific directors, directors’ deputies of Slovenian hospitals and institutes of public health (63 respondents; 57% women; overall mean age: 51±7 years; response rate: 74%. Data were obtained using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Results: About 35% of respondents were directors. More than half of the respondents were overweight or obese (52%, the majority were not sufficiently physically active (59% and overloaded with stress (87%. Hypercholesterolemia (36%, spinal disease (17%, and arterial hypertension (16% were most common chronic diseases. Whilst only few participants visited their general practitioner due their health complaints, blood pressure (76%, cholesterol (51%, and glucose (54% were measured within last year in most of the respondents. Conclusion: Our findings point to a high prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as workplace-related stress among Slovenian public health managers. Therefore, effective preventive strategies should be focused on stress management along with promotion of healthy behavioural patterns.

  11. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ratanasiripong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation.

  12. Prevention of overweight and obesity: how effective is the current public health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ruth S M; Woo, Jean

    2010-03-01

    Obesity is a public health problem that has become epidemic worldwide. Substantial literature has emerged to show that overweight and obesity are major causes of co-morbidities, including type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, various cancers and other health problems, which can lead to further morbidity and mortality. The related health care costs are also substantial. Therefore, a public health approach to develop population-based strategies for the prevention of excess weight gain is of great importance. However, public health intervention programs have had limited success in tackling the rising prevalence of obesity. This paper reviews the definition of overweight and obesity and the variations with age and ethnicity; health consequences and factors contributing to the development of obesity; and critically reviews the effectiveness of current public health strategies for risk factor reduction and obesity prevention.

  13. Prevention of Overweight and Obesity: How Effective is the Current Public Health Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Woo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a public health problem that has become epidemic worldwide. Substantial literature has emerged to show that overweight and obesity are major causes of co-morbidities, including type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, various cancers and other health problems, which can lead to further morbidity and mortality. The related health care costs are also substantial. Therefore, a public health approach to develop population-based strategies for the prevention of excess weight gain is of great importance. However, public health intervention programs have had limited success in tackling the rising prevalence of obesity. This paper reviews the definition of overweight and obesity and the variations with age and ethnicity; health consequences and factors contributing to the development of obesity; and critically reviews the effectiveness of current public health strategies for risk factor reduction and obesity prevention.

  14. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portugal: Results from the First Portuguese Health Examination Survey (INSEF 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaio, Vânia; Antunes, Liliana; Namorado, Sónia; Barreto, Marta; Gil, Ana; Kyslaya, Irina; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana; Bøhler, Linn; Castilho, Emília; Vargas, Patrícia; do Carmo, Isabel; Nunes, Baltazar; Dias, Carlos Matias

    Obesity is recognised as a serious public health issue, due to its associated morbidity and mortality. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Portuguese population through direct measurements obtained by the 1st National Health Examination Survey (INSEF 2015) and to identify its associated sociodemographic factors. INSEF was a nationally representative cross-sectional prevalence study conducted on 4911 Portuguese adults aged 25-74 years, in 2015. Height and weight were measured according to the European Health Examination Survey procedures. Poisson regression was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios of overweight and obesity according to age, marital status, occupational activity, education, urbanization of living area and smoking status. Overall prevalences of overweight and obesity were 39.1% and 28.6%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight was higher among men (45.5% vs 33.2%) while the prevalence of obesity was higher among women (32% vs 25%). The sociodemographic factors associated with overweight and obesity were age, marital status and education. Smoking status was associated with overweight and obesity but only in women. INSEF suggests that a high prevalences of overweight and obesity are found in older individuals, married, with lower education levels and non-smoking women. Public health interventions are urgently required for obesity prevention, namely throughout health literacy strategies. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Protecting Health and Saving Lives: The Part-Time/Internet-Based Master of Public Health Program at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Linda; Gresh, Kathy; Vanchiswaran, Rohini; Werapitiya, Deepthi

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the part-time/Internet-based Master of Public Health (MPH) program at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH). The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health was the first school of public health in the United States to offer a Master of Public Health program via the Internet. The JHSPH MPH Program…

  16. Good governance competencies in public health to train public health physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoncello, Chiara; Buja, Alessandra; Silenzi, Andrea; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Franchino, Giuseppe; Lazzari, Agnese; Baldo, Vincenzo; Ricciardi, Walter; Damiani, Gianfranco

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed at assessing public health residents' perceived health system governance (HSG) training needs and to define a competency framework for "good governance" to improve Public Health physicians' curricula. A questionnaire was administered to all Italian medical residents on postgraduate courses in Hygiene and Preventive medicine. Twenty-five (78.1%) of the 32 Italian Schools of Public Health and 299/535 residents (55.9%) took part in this survey. The public health governance competency framework was developed from roles and responsibility at different levels of governance in the Italian Health System context. The questionnaire revealed that residents felt the need for more training on all the proposed HSG-related topics. Different governance functions, strategic planning, operational planning, and operational programming were considered when defining roles and responsibilities. More efforts should be made to provide organic training plans tailored to the needs of local and national health system. The competencies framework for good governance could be useful for planning professional training in both the academic and the health system settings.

  17. Hidden prevalence of chronic kidney disease in hypertensive patients: the strategic role of primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, L S; Cotta, R M M; Moreira, T R; da Silva, R G; Rosa, C de O B; Machado, J C; da Silva, L S; Bastos, M A P

    2016-11-01

    To identify the hidden prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in hypertensive patients. Cross-sectional study of individuals with systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) who were registered for primary health care (PHC). In total, 293 individuals participated. Data were collected through interviews, as well as biochemical and anthropometric assessments. The CKD-EPI formula was used to identify the occurrence of CKD. Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test were used to compare proportions. Prevalence ratios were estimated with a confidence interval of 95% for associations between the explanatory variables and CKD. Most of the individuals assessed were female (74%), elderly (69%), with a low income (90%), low education levels (84%) and overweight (66.9%). A CKD prevalence of 38.6% (95% CI: 33.0-44.2) was found and approximately 14% were at an advanced stage of the disease. Upon comparison of the variables in the different stages of CKD, statistically significant association could be suggested between CKD and age, education, alcohol intake, overweight individuals, cardiovascular risk, abnormal creatinine and abnormal microalbuminuria. When the prevalence ratio was assessed, association could be suggested between CKD and age, and CKD and creatinine. The high hidden prevalence of CKD confirms the need to train health professionals involved in the treatment of SAH through PHC, enabling the prevention and diagnosis of CKD in its early stages. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Public health and Web 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardey, Michael

    2008-07-01

    This article examines the nature and role of Web 2.0 resources and their impact on health information made available though the Internet. The transition of the Web from version one to Web 2.0 is described and the main features of the new Web examined. Two characteristic Web 2.0 resources are explored and the implications for the public and practitioners examined. First, what are known as 'user reviews' or 'user testimonials', which allow people to comment on the health services delivered to them, are described. Second, new mapping applications that take advantage of the interactive potential of Web 2.0 and provide tools to visualize complex data are examined. Following a discussion of the potential of Web 2.0, it is concluded that it offers considerable opportunities for disseminating health information and creating new sources of data, as well as generating new questions and dilemmas.

  19. Birth Defects in India: Magnitude, Public Health Impact and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Birth defects refer to a group of diverse congenital conditions, which are responsible for stillbirths, neonatal deaths, chronic medical conditions and disability. Due to their low prevalence and high mortality, birth defects are not considered to be a significant health problem in India. Various data however identify that India may harbour a significant burden of birth defects, and that these conditions may be responsible for a considerable proportion of neonatal deaths in India. Although it is widely assumed that survival of patients with birth defects is low, data suggests that in 2002, there were nearly six million Indians living with impairments arising at birth. These data urge the need for implementation of a national birth defects programme in India, with a strong component of prevention. The need for significant research investments to understand the epidemiology and public health impact of birth defects in India is identified. Translation research, transcending the disciplines of medicine, public health and genetics is required to develop a low cost birth defects service as a component of the existing maternal and child health programme.

  20. The public health workforce: An assessment in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jambroes, M.

    2015-01-01

    The public health workforce is a key resource of population health. How many people work in public health in the Netherlands, what are their characteristics and who does what? Remarkably, such information about the size and composition of the public health workforce in the Netherlands is lacking. A