Polo Martín, P; Abellan, J J; Nájar Godoy, M I; Álvarez de Laviada Mulero, T
The references used to assess child growth in Spain are the graphs of the Orbegozo Foundation and the charts of the World Health Organization (WHO). The objective of this study is to analyze the differences between the two charts for weight, height and body mass index, and assess their relevance to identify growth or nutritional problems. The values of the extreme percentiles of height, weight and body mass index for each sex from 0 to 10 years in both charts are compared. For each value Absolute differences and Z scores are calculated for each value. To evaluate the impact on the prevalence of the various nutritional or growth disorders the location of the value of the respective percentiles of in each of the charts were assessed. Significant differences were observed between the 3th percentile of height and weight, 97th of weight, and 85th and 97th of body mass index. Marked differences were observed for the extreme values of body mass index. During the first years, the Orbegozo charts overestimate the prevalence of malnutrition (between 2% and 19% depending on age and sex) compared to the WHO charts. In subsequent ages Orbegozo underestimates WHO between 0.7% and 2.89%. Orbegozo underestimates the prevalence of overweight (between 2.5% and 14.8%) compared to the WHO charts. The 97th percentile of Body mass index in the Orbegozo charts corresponds in most cases with WHO percentiles above 99.99%. The two charts analyzed have significant differences from a clinical and the public health point of view, in the estimation of overweight/obesity and malnutrition. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Rocks, Tetyana; Pelly, Fiona; Slater, Gary; Martin, Lisa Anne
Previous research has reported the existence of disordered eating in students studying nutrition and dietetics. However, the occurrence of exercise addiction, previously linked to disordered eating, is poorly understood in this group. The main objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of exercise addiction and the association with disordered eating in a sample of students studying nutrition and dietetics. A secondary objective was to compare the prevalence of exercise addiction to students enrolled in another health-related degree. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 165 undergraduate students. Participants were students of both sexes enrolled in nutrition and dietetics and occupational therapy degree programs at an Australian university in August 2013. Participants completed four validated questionnaires for assessment of exercise- and eating-related attitudes and behaviors measuring scores for exercise addiction, weekly volume of physical activity (PA), eating disorder symptoms, and cognitive restraint. Stretch stature and body mass were measured and body composition was assessed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Independent t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and χ 2 test were completed to compare groups of students based on sex, degree, or eating attitudes. Spearman's correlation was performed to explore associations between continuous variables (exercise addiction scores, PA volume, and scores for eating attitudes and cognitive restraint). Approximately 23% of nutrition and dietetics students were found to be at risk of exercise addiction (20% females and 35% males; P=0.205), while the majority demonstrated some symptoms of exercise addiction. A similar proportion of at risk individuals was found in the female occupational therapy group (19%; P=1.000). In females (nutrition and dietetics and occupational therapy combined), the exercise addiction scores were associated with three other outcome measures: PA volume (r s
Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Dahl, Miriam; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Kuong, Khov; Sophonneary, Prak; Sinuon, Muth; Greuffeille, Valerie; Hong, Rathavuth; Berger, Jacques; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Laillou, Arnaud
Background: Anemia is highly prevalent in Cambodian women and children, but data on causes of anemia are scarce. We performed a national micronutrient survey in children and women that was linked to the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey 2014 (CDHS-2014) to assess the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency, hemoglobin disorders and intestinal parasite infection. Methods: One-sixth of households from the CDHS-2014 were selected for a follow-up visit for the micronutrient survey. Households were visited from two weeks to two months after the CDHS-2014 visit. Data on micronutrient status were available for 1512 subjects (792 children and 720 women). Results: Anemia was found in 43% of the women and 53% of the children. Hemoglobin disorders affected >50% of the population, with Hemoglobin-E the most prevalent disorder. Deficiencies of iron (ferritin children, the prevalence of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency was anemia in children, whereas in the women none of the factors was significantly associated with anemia. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was more prevalent in children children and women, the prevalence of IDA was anemia were hookworm infection and zinc and folic acid deficiency. Over 40% of the anemia was not caused by nutritional factors. Conclusion: The very high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian women and children cannot be explained solely by micronutrient deficiencies and hemoglobin disorders. Micronutrient interventions to improve anemia prevalence are likely to have limited impact in the Cambodian setting. The focus of current interventions to reduce the high prevalence of anemia in children and women should be broadened to include zinc and folic acid as well as effective anti-hookworm measures. PMID:27338454
Shmaya, Yael; Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Leitner, Yael; Reif, Shimon; Gabis, Lidia
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk of developing nutritional deviations. Three to six year old children with ASD were compared to their typically developing siblings and to a typically developing age and gender matched control group, in order to evaluate their intake and body mass index. Nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake using three-day diet diaries completed by the parents. The sum percentage of nutritional deficiencies in the ASD group compared to the typical development group was 342.5% (±122.9%) vs. 275.9% (±106.8%), respectively (P=0.026). A trend toward higher deficiency in the ASD group was observed as compared to the sibling group 363% (±122.9%) vs. 283.2% (±94.7%) (P=0.071). A higher body mass index was found in the ASD group compared to their counterparts, despite their nutritional deficiencies. In conclusion, children with ASD are more likely to suffer from nutritional deficiencies despite higher body mass index. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Nutritional disorders pose a huge health problem worldwide. In Poland, symptoms of malnutrition are found on admission to hospital in approximately 30% of patients. Among neurological disorders that predispose to malnutrition, brain injuries are the most frequent. The disease leads to difficulties with self-care, disorientation, reduced intellectual capacity, and dysphagia. Acute spinal pain syndromes affect weight loss because of persistent severe pain, and frequent dizziness and headaches accompanying cervical discopathy. Aim of the research: To assess the degree of malnutrition in patients with stroke and discopathy hospitalised in the neurology ward. Material and methods : The study group consisted of 141 patients, including 90 with stroke and 51 with discopathy, hospitalised in the neurology ward. Research material was collected based on medical records and a proprietary questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI was calculated and assessed for each patient on admission and after hospitalisation. Results and conclusions: The study sample consisted of a similar group of women (49% and men (51% aged from 30 to over 70 years. Ischaemic stroke was diagnosed more often in women (66.2%, whereas discopathy was more common in men (43.4%. The differences in BMI present on admission and after hospitalisation in men and women indicated a falling tendency. A slightly greater drop in BMI was found in women after hospital stay (from 24.1 to 23.3 kg/m 2 . The lowest BMI on admission was observed in students and pensioners. Long-term hospitalisation significantly affected weight reduction – the longer the patients were hospitalised, the lower their BMI was. Preliminary assessment of the nutrition status on admission to a hospital ward and customising individual diets may help reduce the effects of malnutrition.
This study investigated the prevalence of perceived dysphonia and its correlation with the prevalence of clinically diagnosed laryngeal disorders. Subjects were 8713 non-institutionalized civilian adults over the age of 19 (3810 men and 4912 women) who completed the laryngeal examination of the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A Poisson regression was used to examine the association between perceived dysphonia and laryngeal disorders. Adjusting for covariates (age, sex, education level, income, occupation, alcohol drinking, and self-reported health status), those with perceived voice problems were 4.8 times (OR=4.75, 95% CI, 3.77-5.99) more likely to have laryngeal disorders than those without voice problems. In particular, the vocal fold pathology correlated with perceived dysphonia was: vocal fold nodules (OR=5.32, 95% CI, 3.43-8.26), vocal polyps (OR=3.73, 95% CI, 1.57-8.86), vocal cysts (OR=11.97, 95% CI, 1.97-72.72), Reinke's edema (OR=9.27, 95% CI, 4.77-18.00), laryngeal paralysis (OR=3.58, 95% CI, 1.56-8.26), laryngeal granulomas (OR=4.31, 95% CI, 1.01-18.80), epiglottic cyst (OR=2.94, 95% CI, 1.21-7.13), and laryngitis (OR=4.07, 95% CI, 2.91-5.69). People with self-perceived dysphonia had a high risk of laryngeal disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.
Adriana Toledo de Paffer
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Compromised maternal mental health (MMH is considered to be a risk factor for child malnutrition in low income areas. Psychosocial variables associated with MMH are potentially different between urban and rural environments. The aim here was to investigate whether associations existed between MMH and selected sociodemographic risk factors and whether specific to urban or rural settings. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study on a representative population sample of mothers from the semiarid region of Alagoas. METHODS: Multistage sampling was used. The subjects were mothers of children aged up to 60 months. MMH was evaluated through the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20. Mothers' nutritional status was assessed using the body mass index and waist circumference. Univariate analysis used odds ratios (OR and chi-square. Logistic regression was performed separately for urban and rural subsamples using MMH as the dependent variable. RESULTS: The sample comprised 288 mothers. The prevalences of common mental disorders (CMD in rural and urban areas were 56.2% and 43.8%, respectively (OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.64-1.63. In univariate analysis and logistic regression, the variable of education remained associated with MMH (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.03-4.6 in urban areas. In rural areas, the variable of lack of partner remained associated (OR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.01-6.7. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of CMD is high among mothers of children aged up to two years in the semiarid region of Alagoas. This seems to be associated with lower educational level in urban settings and lack of partner in rural settings.
Roorda van Eysinga, J.P.N.L.; Smilde, K.W.
This book is a guide to diagnosing nutritional disorders in chrysanthemums. Deficiencies and toxicities are included, fifteen in all. Colour plates and descriptions are given for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sulphur, boron, copper, manganese, iron and zinc deficiency and for
Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Dahl, Miriam; Chamnan, Chhoun
BACKGROUND: Anemia is highly prevalent in Cambodian women and children, but data on causes of anemia are scarce. We performed a national micronutrient survey in children and women that was linked to the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey 2014 (CDHS-2014) to assess the prevalence of micronutrient...... for 1512 subjects (792 children and 720 women). RESULTS: Anemia was found in 43% of the women and 53% of the children. Hemoglobin disorders affected >50% of the population, with Hemoglobin-E the most prevalent disorder. Deficiencies of iron (ferritin ... and hemoglobinopathy were significantly associated with anemia in children, whereas in the women none of the factors was significantly associated with anemia. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was more prevalent in children
Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Alberdi-Páramo, Iñigo; Niell-Galmés, Lluis
Eating disorders (EDs) are a series of differentiated nosological entities sharing the common link of a continuous alteration in food intake or in food intake-related behavior. Within this classification, the following disorders are noteworthy: anorexia nerviosa (AN) and bulimia nerviosa (BN). Anorexia nervosa is a chronic disorder characterized mainly by negative or decreased food intake accompanied by a distortion of body image and intense accompanying fear of weight gain. The estimated vital prevalence of this disorder in adolescence is approximately 0.5%-1%.1 The primary feature of BN is the presence of binge eating accompanied by compensatory behavior (in the form of intense exercise and the use of laxatives and diuretics, etc.). The prevalence of BN is estimated to be between 2% and 4% in young women, and it generally starts at somewhat later stages than AN. It is believed that biological, psychological, and environmental factors, as well as genetic vulnerability, influence the pathogenesis of EDs. A variety of therapies exist, both biological and psychological, whose effectiveness is supported by the scientific literature. Nonetheless, we find these therapies only partially effective and new targets as well as new treatments should be sought. Although the etiopathogenesis of EDs is unclear, some of the neurobiological dysfunction found suggests that diet and nutrient supplementation could be relevant in their treatment. We review in this article new treatments focusing on nutritional deficits.
Vieira Karen F
Full Text Available Abstract According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD, addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such
This thesis deals with nutritional therapy for eating disorders. It explores whether nutritional therapy has an irreplaceable role in treatment of these disorders or whether nutritional therapy has a marginal effect. I describe general issues of eating disorders in a theoretical part of my thesis such as etiology, epidemiology, therapy and nutrition therapy. I composed educational handout about eating in a practical part of my thesis containing fundamental dietary recommendations, menu for un...
Harrison, Glenn W.; Jessen, Lasse J.; Lau, Morten
to all subjects and estimate prospective risk for disordered gambling. We find that 87.6% of the population is indicated for no detectable risk, 5.4% is indicated for early risk, 1.7% is indicated for intermediate risk, 2.6% is indicated for advanced risk, and 2.6% is indicated for disordered gambling...
María Victorina Aguilar Vilas
Full Text Available Gender dysphoria is a condition that involves a failure to adapt and a body dissatisfaction that makes these individuals especially susceptible to eating disorders. The aim of this paper was to ascertain the nutritional status, dietary behaviour and lifestyle and their effect on overweight/obesity prevalence of the people with gender dysphoria.Methods: A longitudinal study on 157 individuals from the Gender Disorder Unit at the Ramón y Cajal Hospital (Madrid who are undergoing hormonal treatment has been carried out. Usual dietary intake, physical activity habits and socioeconomic parameters were evaluated. The anthropometric parameters determined were weight, height, body-mass index (BMI, waist and hip circumference and body fat content. Results: The mean of the population eats a large number of servings of food, which leads to high levels of energy intake: 3,614.32 ± 1,314 kcal/day. These intakes are related to the physical activity performed. The average diet among this population is unbalanced, with a high consumption of fats, especially saturated fats and cholesterol. The breakfast is skipped by 16% of the population. Together with cross-hormone treatment, this dietary habitsand lifestylelead to an increase in body fat, especially in the female to male group whose overweight andobesity prevalence increase (22.72% vs 34.85%. Conclusion: This population suffers a change of their nutritional status due to a variation in their eating behaviour and lifestyle. This increase in the obesity prevalencemake it susceptible to chronic diseases and cardiovascular disorders. It is therefore necessary to include nutrition education courses in the comprehensive treatment programme (anatomical, psychological, etc. for these individuals.
Vilas, María Victorina Aguilar; Rubalcava, Gabriela; Becerra, Antonio; Para, María Carmen Martínez
Gender dysphoria is a condition that involves a failure to adapt and a body dissatisfaction that makes these individuals especially susceptible to eating disorders. The aim of this paper was to ascertain the nutritional status, dietary behaviour and lifestyle and their effect on overweight/obesity prevalence of the people with gender dysphoria. Methods A longitudinal study on 157 individuals from the Gender Disorder Unit at the Ramón y Cajal Hospital (Madrid) who are undergoing hormonal treatment has been carried out. Usual dietary intake, physical activity habits and socioeconomic parameters were evaluated. The anthropometric parameters determined were weight, height, body-mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference and body fat content. Results The mean of the population eats a large number of servings of food, which leads to high levels of energy intake: 3,614.32 ± 1,314 kcal/day. These intakes are related to the physical activity performed. The average diet among this population is unbalanced, with a high consumption of fats, especially saturated fats and cholesterol. The breakfast is skipped by 16% of the population. Together with cross-hormone treatment, this dietary habitsand lifestylelead to an increase in body fat, especially in the female to male group whose overweight andobesity prevalence increase (22.72% vs 34.85%). Conclusion This population suffers a change of their nutritional status due to a variation in their eating behaviour and lifestyle. This increase in the obesity prevalencemake it susceptible to chronic diseases and cardiovascular disorders. It is therefore necessary to include nutrition education courses in the comprehensive treatment programme (anatomical, psychological, etc.) for these individuals. PMID:29546082
Nucci Luciana Bertoldi
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is well recognized as a current public health problem, its prevalence and impact among pregnant women have been less investigated in Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of pre-obesity and obesity among pregnant women, describing its prevalence and risk factors, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 5,564 pregnant women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled at aproximately 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, seen in prenatal public clinics of six state capitals in Brazil were followed up, between 1991 and 1995. Prepregnancy weight, age, educational level and parity were obtained from a standard questionnaire. Height was measured in duplicate and the interviewer assigned the skin color. Nutritional status was defined using body mass index (BMI, according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalences (and 95% CI based on prepregnancy weight were: underweight 5.7% (5.1%-6.3%, overweight 19.2% (18.1%-20.3%, and obesity 5.5% (4.9%-6.2%. Obesity was more frequently observed in older black women, with a lower educational level and multiparous. Obese women had higher frequencies of gestational diabetes, macrosomia, hypertensive disorders, and lower risk of microsomia. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight nutritional status (obesity and pre-obesity was seen in 25% of adult pregnant women and it was associated with increased risk for several adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia.
Scale up 'we are what we eat' and nutrition is revealed as an aspect of world governance. The quality and nature of food systems has always tended to determine not only the health and welfare but also the fate of nations. The independence of nations depends on their development of their own human and natural resources, including food systems, which, if resilient, are indigenous, traditional, or evolved over time to climate, terrain and culture. Rapid adoption of untested or foreign food systems is hazardous not only to health, but also to security and sovereignty. Immediate gain may cause permanent loss. Dietary guidelines that recommend strange foods are liable to disrupt previous established food cultures. Since the 1960s the 'green revolution' has increased crop yield, and has also accelerated the exodus of hundreds of millions of farmers and their families from the land into lives of misery in mega-cities. This is a root cause of increased global inequity, instability and violence. 'Free trade' of food, in which value is determined by price, is imposed by dominant governments in alliance with industry when they believe they can thereby control the markets. The World Trade Organization and other agencies coordinate the work of transnational corporations that are the modern equivalents of the East India companies. Scientists should consider the wider dimensions of their work, nutrition scientists not least, because of the key place of food systems in all societies.
Noor Safiza Mohamad Nor; Nur Shahida Abdul Aziz; Cheong Siew Man; Rashidah Ambak; Mohd Azahadi Omar
Introduction: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Down Syndrome (DS) and Cerebral Palsy (CP) are the most common disabilities among children. Nutritional status assessment is important as these children are at risk of underweight, overweight or obesity. Therefore, the objectives of this review were to identify evidence on the prevalence of nutritional status of children with DS, CP and ASD, and to determine tools and indicators to measure the nutritional status of these children. Methods: This s...
Journal Home > Vol 9, No 5S (2017) > ... Method used in this study is standard Nordic questionnaire (SNQ) Malay version for 150 garage workers ... Keywords: vehicle maintenance; musculoskeletal disorder; ache, pain, discomfort; prevalence ...
Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders among Residents of a ... mental healthcare resources, availability of data on mental health needs of children ... gender-matched school going adolescents were evaluated for the presence of ...
Peppard, Paul E.; Young, Terry; Barnet, Jodi H.; Palta, Mari; Hagen, Erika W.; Hla, Khin Mae
Sleep-disordered breathing is a common disorder with a range of harmful sequelae. Obesity is a strong causal factor for sleep-disordered breathing, and because of the ongoing obesity epidemic, previous estimates of sleep-disordered breathing prevalence require updating. We estimated the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in the United States for the periods of 1988–1994 and 2007–2010 using data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study, an ongoing community-based study that was established in 1988 with participants randomly selected from an employed population of Wisconsin adults. A total of 1,520 participants who were 30–70 years of age had baseline polysomnography studies to assess the presence of sleep-disordered breathing. Participants were invited for repeat studies at 4-year intervals. The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was modeled as a function of age, sex, and body mass index, and estimates were extrapolated to US body mass index distributions estimated using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The current prevalence estimates of moderate to severe sleep-disordered breathing (apnea-hypopnea index, measured as events/hour, ≥15) are 10% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7, 12) among 30–49-year-old men; 17% (95% CI: 15, 21) among 50–70-year-old men; 3% (95% CI: 2, 4) among 30–49-year-old women; and 9% (95% CI: 7, 11) among 50–70 year-old women. These estimated prevalence rates represent substantial increases over the last 2 decades (relative increases of between 14% and 55% depending on the subgroup). PMID:23589584
Hamid Reza Pouretemad
Full Text Available Objective:To study the prevalence and demographic characteristics of mood disorders among Iranian adults. Method: In this cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study (age > 18 in Iran, 25180 individuals were selected through a randomized cluster sampling method for a diagnosis using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS. They were then interviewed at home by 250 trained clinical psychologists. Results: The estimated lifetime prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and Minor Depressive Disorder (mDD were 3.1% and 0.3% respectively. Also, the estimated lifetime prevalence of Bipolar Mood disorder (BMD type I and type II were 0.1% and 0.7% respectively. The current prevalence of MDD, mDD, BMD-I, and BMD-II were 1.8%, 0.2%, 0.04%, and 0.3% respectively. Mood disorders were associated with female gender, lower education, being married, being middle-aged, living in cities, and not being a homemaker. Conclusion: The prevalence of mood disorders was lower among Iranian adults than reported in Western studies, and a number of demographic associations differed from those reported in Western studies. Important cultural differences in the nature or manifestation of depression are implied by these results.
Objective. Multisomatoform disorder (MSD) is characterised by ≥3 medically inexplicable, troublesome physical symptoms, together with a ≥2-year history of somatisation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in a South African sample MSD, and to compare demographic ...
Seidenfeld, Marjorie E Kaplan; Sosin, Elyse; Rickert, Vaughn I
Adequate nutrition is essential during adolescence, since growth and development during this period play key roles in achieving normal adult size and reproductive capacity. This article briefly reviews recommended caloric intake; the healthy balance of carbohydrates, fat and protein; and the appropriate dietary intake of iron, folic acid and calcium for the adolescent. A major potential obstacle to good nutrition for an adolescent is the development of an eating disorder such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. Anorexia nervosa, characterized by severe underweight, fear of gaining weight, and low self-esteem and amenorrhea, is associated with many physiological and psychological complications with which the provider must be familiar. Similarly, bulimia nervosa, which presents with eating binges followed by compensatory behaviors such as vomiting, diet pill abuse and overexercise, may be harder to detect, but can also have devastating consequences, both physically and emotionally, for a young person. Both of these disorders are best treated by a multidisciplinary team of specialists to address the medical, psychological, and nutritional components of these illnesses.
Mans, Christoph; Braun, Jana
Nutritional disorders of captive reptiles remain very common despite the increasing knowledge about reptile husbandry and nutrition. Many nutritional disorders are diagnosed late in the disease process; often secondary complications, such as pathologic fractures in reptiles suffering from nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism have occurred. Therefore, every attempt should be made to educate reptile owners and keepers about the proper care and dietary needs of reptiles under their care because all nutritional disorders seen in captive reptiles are preventable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sakai, Reiko; Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Nolido, Nyryan V; Barsky, Arthur J
Although Axis I hypochondriasis is closely related to certain personality characteristics, the nature and extent of personality dysfunction in these patients still needs clarification. This study assessed the prevalence of personality disorders observed in hypochondriacal patients, described the types and comorbidity of personality disorders, and compared the psychological distress of patients with and without the most common comorbid personality disorder. One hundred fifteen patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for hypochondriasis completed self-administered assessments, including the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+), the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Whiteley Index, and the Somatic Symptom Inventory. These data were taken from a study conducted between September 1997 and November 2001. Eighty-eight patients (76.5%) had 1 or more personality disorders, whereas 27 patients (23.5%) had no personality disorders. Fifty-one patients (44.3%) had more than 3 personality disorders. The most common personality disorder in the hypochondriacal patients was obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD; 55.7%), followed by avoidant personality disorder (40.9%). The comorbidity of OCPD and avoidant personality disorder was 53.1% (34 of 64 patients with OCPD). The total PDQ-4+ score of the 64 patients with OCPD was significantly higher than that of the 51 patients without OCPD. On the SCL-90-R, the 64 patients with OCPD showed significantly higher scores on all of 3 global indices and 7 of 10 primary symptom dimensions (paranoid ideation, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, and psychoticism) on the SCL-90-R compared to the 51 patients without OCPD. The high prevalence of personality disorders, particularly OCPD, among patients with hypochondriasis suggests that consideration of personality features is important in assessment and
Silvana Gomes Nunes Piva
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of nutritional deficiency among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using data obtained from the Brazilian Case Registry Database and from the medical records of patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (15-59 years of age residing in one of the municipalities that make up the 16th Regional Health District of the state of Bahia. We calculated the incidence, lethality, and mortality rates, as well as the prevalence of nutritional deficiency, as evaluated by body mass index. Demographic, social, clinical, and epidemiological data were collected. RESULTS: Of the 72 confirmed cases of tuberculosis, 59 (81.9% were in males, and 21 (29.2% of the patients were in the 40-49 year age bracket. The majority (85.3% described themselves as Mulatto or Black; 55.2% reported using alcohol; and approximately 90% were treated as outpatients. In the district and age bracket studied, the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 30.6/100,000 population. Among the 72 patients, data regarding nutritional status was available for 34. Of those, 50% and 25%, respectively, presented nutritional deficiency at the beginning and at the end of treatment. No statistically significant differences were found between normal-weight and malnourished patients regarding the characteristics studied. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of nutritional deficiency was high among our sample of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. This underscores the importance of nutritional follow-up for the assessment of tuberculosis treatment in the decision-making process regarding therapeutic interventions.
Full Text Available Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.
Francisco ALCANTUD MARÍN
Full Text Available Published data on the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders point to a significant increase in this indicator. This increase is being studied in numerous publications of analysis, meta-analysis and systematic reviews. The prevalence indicates the proportion of people who suffer at a given time or are diagnosed with a disease. The consequences of the increasing prevalence are relevant from the point of health, social and educational, but especially relevant when as is the case, the cause of the disorder is unknown. It is in this sense that the prevalence study gains importance in order to delimit various circumstances that may give clues to the possible cause or causes that generate disorder. This article reviews studies, summarizes the last data, and reflects on them and possible causes that justify the increased reporting. It looks like these epidemiological indicators can or are influenced by possible methodological flaws behind, which can explain the variations between studies and others. It concludes by stating the need population studies and monitoring that allows us to know the reality of the evolution of these disorders in order to provide reliable information to those responsible for the institutions involved in the detection and treatment of ASD.
Obsessive compulsive disorder- prevalence in Xhosaspeaking schizophrenia patients. ... No concordance for OCD was noted in the sibship group. Our findings differ from those in other parts of the world, and if replicated, might suggest unique protective environmental or genetic factors for OCD in certain ethnic groups.
Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population.
Full Text Available Background Musculoskeletal disorders are among common occupational diseases in the world, which have high prevalence not only among hard and hurtful jobs, but also in office works. Objectives The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs among office workers of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods This study carried out intermittently among 392 individuals of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences office workers by Nordic questionnaire from October 2013 to December 2013. Study population included office workers of different departments as well as central organization and library. We use descriptive statistic, t test and chi-square test for data analysis. Results The mean and standard deviation of participants’ age was 35.4 ± 6.7 years and their work experience was 9.7 ± 6.65 years, respectively. Most signs (51% were in back region, which forced 18.9% of individuals to withdraw from daily activities. Statistical analysis also showed 36.7% neck disorders in office workers, which demonstrated significant association with age and work experience (P < 0.001. Conclusions Significant association of work experience and age with musculoskeletal disorders shows that individual’s education and knowledge improvements with regard to ergonomics risk factors and correction of work postures are very important and ought to follow management and technical practices in the organization.
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike
The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse nutrition behaviour, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking) among retired professional Rugby Union players. The secondary aim was to
López-Villalobos, José Antonio; Andrés-De Llano, Jesús María; Rodríguez-Molinero, Luis; Garrido-Redondo, Mercedes; Sacristán-Martín, Ana María; Martínez-Rivera, María Teresa; Alberola-López, Susana; Sánchez-Azón, María Isabel
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, defiant, disobedient and hostile behavior toward authority figures. ODD is one of the most frequent reasons for clinical consultation on mental health during childhood and adolescence. ODD has a high morbidity and dysfunction, and has important implications for the future if not treated early. To determine the prevalence of ODD in schoolchildren aged 6-16 years in Castile and Leon (Spain). Population study with a stratified multistage sample, and a proportional cluster design. Sample analyzed: 1,049. Cases were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. An overall prevalence rate of 5.6% was found (95% CI: 4.2%-7%). Male gender prevalence=6.8%; female=4.3%. Prevalence in secondary education=6.2%; primary education=5.3%. No significant differences by gender, age, grade, type of school, or demographic area were found. ODD prevalence without considering functional impairment, such as is performed in some research, would increase the prevalence to 7.4%. ODD cases have significantly worse academic outcomes (overall academic performance, reading, maths and writing), and worse classroom behavior (relationship with peers, respect for rules, organizational skills, academic tasks, and disruption of the class). Castile and Leon has a prevalence rate of ODD slightly higher to that observed in international publications. Depending on the distribution by age, morbidity and clinical dysfunctional impact, an early diagnosis and a preventive intervention are required for health planning. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The rapid increase of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD suggests that exposure to chemicals may impact the development of ASD. Therefore, we reviewed literature on the following chemicals, nutrient to investigate their association with ASD: 1 smoke/tobacco, 2 alcohol, 3 air pollution, 4 pesticides, 5 endocrine-disrupting chemicals, 6 heavy metals, 7 micronutrients, 8 fatty acid, and 9 parental obesity as a proxy of accumulation of specific chemicals or nutritional status. Several chemical exposures such as air pollution (e.g., particular matter 2.5, pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, mercury, and nutrition deficiency such as folic acid, vitamin D, or fatty acid may possibly be associated with an increased risk of ASD, whereas other traditional risk factors such as smoking/tobacco, alcohol, or polychlorinated biphenyls are less likely to be associated with ASD. Further research is needed to accumulate evidence on the association between chemical exposure and nutrient deficiencies and ASD in various doses and populations.
Erickson, Joan Good
This bibliography on nutritional disorders and child development is directed towards early childhood professionals outside the field of nutrition. The main topic covered pertains to malnutrition and undernutrition as it relates to mental/intellectual/cognitive development of children from the fetal stage through the early childhood years. Included…
Gregersen, N; Andresen, B S; Bross, P
UNLABELLED: The mutational spectrum in a given disease-associated gene is often comprised of a large number of different mutations, of which a single or a few are present in a large proportion of diseased individuals. Such prevalent mutations are known in four genes of the fatty acid oxidation...... of the disease in question and determination of the carrier frequency in the general population may help in elucidating the penetrance of the genotype. This is exemplified in disorders of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation....
Comfort Nora Ntim
Full Text Available Body image and eating disorders have emerged as an essential facet of bio-psychosocial well-being. Although considered less prevalent in Ghana than in the West, body image and eating disorders are issues of global concern. One hundred (100 female participants with a mean age of approximately 21 years were recruited after informed consent for this pilot study. Results showed a positive correlation between body image and eating disorders. In addition, there was no significant difference between the levels of university education on female body image and eating distortions in Ghana. These findings underscore the importance for more future studies in nutritional psychology and related clinical management.
Full Text Available The problem of diagnosing nutritional status disorders in septic patients remains unresolved. This is associated with the necessity of the introduction of newer and newer methods of assessing nutritional status, often requiring precise and expensive equipment as well as employment of professionals in this field in hospital wards, primarily including intensive care units (ICU. Methods that have been applied thus far for assessing nutritional status, also used in severely ill septic patients, have little impact on improving treatment results. This is due to the high dynamics of changes in nutritional status in these patients, healing process variability in individual patients, and the “mismatch” of methods for assessing nutritional status in relation to the patient’s clinical status. The diagnostic value of the traditional methods of assessing nutritional status, i.e. anthropometric analysis and selected laboratory tests, as markers of nutritional status disorders in septic patients, is still debatable. There is still no precise method that could become the “gold standard” allowing for early identification of malnutrition in these group of patients. Phase angle, bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA, and the “illness marker”, obtained directly from the resistance, reactance, and impedance, can be used as prognostic or nutritional indices in severely ill septic patients, but the intensity of research on this subject needs to be increased. Detailed assessment of nutritional status should include tests of selected inflammation markers (including TLC, HMGB1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra, sTNFRI.
Korinth, Anne; Schiess, Sonja; Westenhoefer, Joachim
Sometimes the suspicion is put forward that nutrition students show more disordered eating patterns, which may be among the motivating factors to study nutrition. At the same time, it is not clear whether the students' increasing knowledge about diet and nutrition is associated with a more healthy eating behaviour or with an unhealthy obsession with food choices. Cross-sectional comparison of nutrition students from German universities during the first year of their studies (n 123) and during higher semesters (n 96), with a control group from other study programmes (n 68 and n 46, respectively). Dietary restraint, disinhibition, the tendency towards orthorexia nervosa and healthy food choices were assessed using a questionnaire. Nutrition students showed higher levels of dietary restraint than the control group. Disinhibition and orthorexia nervosa did not differ between nutrition students and controls. Orthorexic tendencies were lower in the more advanced nutrition students. Healthy food choices did not differ among students in the first year. More advanced nutrition students showed healthier food choices, whereas the corresponding controls showed slightly more unhealthy food choices. Nutrition students, more than other students, tend to restrict their food intake in order to control their weight, but they do not have more disturbed or disordered eating patterns than other students. Moreover, during the course of their studies, they adopt slightly more healthy food choices and decrease their tendency to be obsessive in their eating behaviour.
Full Text Available The treatment of eating disorders demands a comprehensive medical approach, where a dietitian has an important role, primarily due to numerous instances of malnutrition. The objective of this paper was to recapitulate the research findings and clinical evidence which show the importance of medical nutrition therapy in the treatment of eating disorders; furthermore, they present significant guidelines for clinical practice. The research methods have entailed a thorough exploration of literature available at research data bases. The results of the research studies published so far have unambiguously pointed out that, when eating disorders are concerned, there is an urgent need for a diet therapy in order for the patient to restore the appropriate body weight as well as normal eating habits. On the one hand, certain authors suggest returning to normal nutritional habits immediately, whereas, on the other hand, certain others advocate a diet therapy program, that is, a gradual process of recovery. Patients incapable of oral food intake receive enteral nutrition. Parenteral nutrition is applied for recovering the lost electrolytes and fluids, but it should be applied rarely, primarily in states of urgency. For patients suffering from eating disorders the increase in weight indicates good chances of recovery; therefore, the patient’s nutritional status should be carefully and continuously noted. Finally, it is important that our country, too, should adopt a carefully prescribed and conducted diet therapy as an obligatory step in the treatment of patients with eating disorders.
The statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was used for the analysis. ... and mania) and anxiety disorders (General anxiety, agoraphobia, social phobia, ... Keywords: Prevalence, Psychiatric disorder, HIV infection, Mental challenges ...
Soyka, Michael; Schmidt, Peggy
Delusional jealousy is a known risk factor for violence and homicide, but little is known about its prevalence in psychiatric disorders. We therefore reviewed retrospectively the psychopathological symptoms at admission and discharge, assessed with the AMDP system, of all patients admitted to the Psychiatric Hospital, University of Munich, Germany, from January 2000 through December 2008 (n=14,309). We identified 72 cases of delusional jealousy (0.5% of the whole sample). The prevalence was highest in schizophrenia and other psychoses (1.3%), and more of the patients with delusional jealousy were men (43 of 72, 59.7%). One-fifth (15 of 72, 20.8%) of the patients with delusional jealousy were aggressive at admission (vs. 6.2% of the total sample). We conclude that delusional jealousy is a comparatively rare phenomenon that is most frequent in schizophrenia and related psychoses. Quite a number of affected patients are aggressive, which may indicate a risk of future violence. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Background: Iodine deficiency disorders are serious public health problems in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Metekel Zone. Methods: A cross-sectional school based descriptive study was conducted between February 2011 ...
Brock, Felipe; Bettinelli, Luiz Antonio; Dobner, Taise; Stobbe, Júlio César; Pomatti, Gabriela; Telles, Cristina Trevizan
to estimate the prevalence of hypoalbuminemia in hospitalized elders, related to socio-demographic variables, nutritional status and length of stay. crosscutting study with 200 patients hospitalized in a large hospital in the South of Brazil during three months. Evaluations, lab tests and interviews through questionnaires were performed. the average albuminemia was 2,9 ± 0,5g/dL. Hypoalbuminemia was diagnosed in 173 subjects (87%) and was absent in 27 (13%) that have normal albuminemia (p=0,000). After six days of hospitalization, the prevalence of low levels grew significantly to 90% (p=0,002), average 2,7 ± 0,5g/dL. Using the Mini Nutritional Assessment, it was observed that 41 patients were malnourished and from those, 40 had hypoalbuminemia. the prevalence of hypoalbuminemia proved to be high, in approx. nine in ten elders, and the nutritional status and the length of stay proved to be related to the decrease of serum albumin levels. Thus, it is suggested that monitoring albumin levels should be done to evaluate the risk that the patient has to develop malnutrition and other complications during hospital stays. estimar a prevalência de hipoalbuminemia em idosos hospitalizados, em relação às variáveis sociodemográficas, estado nutricional e tempo de internação. estudo transversal, com 200 pacientes internados em hospital de grande porte do sul do Brasil, durante o período de três meses. Foram realizadas avaliações, análise de exames laboratoriais e entrevista através de questionário. a média de albuminemia foi 2,9 ± 0,5g/dL. O diagnóstico de hipoalbuminemia, foi encontrado em 173 sujeitos (87%), e não revelado em 27 (13%), que apresentaram albuminemia normal (p=0,000). Constatou-se que após seis dias de internação a prevalência de níveis baixos aumentou significativamente para 90% (p=0,002), com média de 2,7 ± 0,5g/dL. Utilizando-se a Mini Avaliação Nutricional, observou-se que 41 pacientes estavam desnutridos, e que destes, 40
Barajas Galindo, David E; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Hernández-Moreno, Ana; Pintor de la Maza, Begoña; Pedraza-Lorenzo, Manuela; Rodríguez-García, María Asunción; Ávila-Turcios, Dalia María; Alejo-Ramos, Miran; Villar-Taibo, Rocío; Urioste-Fondo, Ana; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D
Cancer patients are at high risk of malnutrition due to several symptoms such as lack of appetite. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different appetite disorders in cancer patients and their influence on dietary intake, nutritional status, and quality of life. We conducted a cross-sectional study of cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional status was studied using Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometry, and grip strength. Dietary intake was evaluated with a 24-h recall, and patients were questioned about the presence of changes in appetite (none, anorexia, early satiety, or both). Quality of life was measured using EORTC-QLQ-C30. Multivariate analysis was performed using linear regression. 128 patients were evaluated. 61.7% experienced changes in appetite: 31% anorexia, 13.3% early satiety, and 17.2% both. Appetite disorders were more common in women and with the presence of cachexia. The combination of anorexia and satiety resulted in a lower weight and BMI. However, there were no significant effects on energy or macronutrient intake among different appetite alterations. Patients with a combination of anorexia and early satiety had worse overall health perception, role function, and fatigue. Appetite disorders are highly prevalent among cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. They have a significant impact on nutritional status and quality of life, especially when anorexia and early satiety are combined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a severe pervasive developmental disorder with prevalence as high as one in sixty-eight children. Children diagnosed with ASD may have food intake problem and might affect their nutritional status in the future. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation between total calorie intake and nutritional status of ASD children. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Indigrow Child Development and Autism Center involving 16 patients from October to November 2015. Total calorie intake was assessed by 24-hour food recall and nutritional status was measured by Z-score. Correlation was analyzed using Spearman’s Rho. Results: Overweight and obesity were found in 10 out of 16 ASD children assessed. Total calorie intake was not significantly correlated with nutritional status of ASD children (r=0.021, p=0.940. Conclusions: There is no significant relevance between total calorie intake and nutritional status in ASD children at Indigrow Child Development and Autism Center.
Gaete, Beatriz; Mellado, Cecilia; Hernández, Marta
Neurological disturbances are common problems in children with Down Syndrome (DS). To determine the prevalence of neurological disorders affecting children with Down Syndrome. Review of medical records of 253 children aged from 1 day to 23 years affected with DS, attended at a public hospital and a University clinic. The overall prevalence of neurological disorders was 38.7%. The most common problems were ocular motor disorders in 26% of cases and epilepsy in 12%. Neurological disorders are more common in children with DS than in the general population. Motor ocular disorders and epilepsy are the predominant disturbances detected.
Background: Sleep disorders significantly affect the quality of live and may impair cognitive development. Sleep disorders are reported to be common in children with neurological diseases. However no report has evaluated the prevalence of sleep disorders among children chronic neurological diseases in Nigeria.
Haag, H P; Simoes, J W; de Oliveira, G D; Sarruge, J R; Poggiani, F
Eucalyptus spp., especially E. citriodora, when grown on the poor soils characteristic of cerrado areas in Brazil, sometimes show signs of an unusual disorder. The youngest leaves in the crown (and later most of the older leaves) wither but remain attached to the shoots, and the bark splits and exudes gum. Samples of leaves from a 4-year-old E. citriodora plantation in Sao Paulo that showed these symptoms were collected and analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. The disorder is attributed to general malnutrition, and especially to a lack of S, Ca and P.
Tsai, Alan C; Chou, Yuan-Ti; Chang, Tsui-Lan
The study was to evaluate the ability of the Mini Nutritional Assessment in predicting malnutrition in people with three subtypes of mental disorder (schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder) in Taiwan. The study involved a convenience sample of 120 residents of psychiatric wards managed by a hospital in central Taiwan (52 with schizophrenia, 36 with major depression and 32 with bipolar disorder) classified according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. A structured questionnaire elicited subjects' personal data, disease history and answers to questions in the Mini Nutritional Assessment. Serum and anthropometrical parameters were measured. Nutritional status was evaluated with a content-equivalent version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (Taiwan version-1, T1). The Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1 was effective in assessing the nutritional status of people of all three subtypes of disorder. Nutritional statuses predicted with the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1 agreed well with other nutritional indicators such as BMI, waist circumference and appetite status. According to the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1, people with major depression were more likely to be at risk of undernutrition, whereas people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were more likely to be at risk of overnutrition. The Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1 can effectively grade both undernutrition and overnutrition of people with schizophrenia, major depression or bipolar disorder. The Mini Nutritional Assessment enables nurses to monitor emerging nutritional problems in people with psychiatric disorder without relying on subjective judgement. With proper intervention, it can help reduce nutrition-related chronic conditions in these individuals and save on healthcare cost. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Margaret Joy Dauncey
Full Text Available Considerable evidence links many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders with multiple complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors such as nutrition. Mental health problems, autism, eating disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and brain tumours are related to individual variability in numerous protein-coding and non-coding regions of the genome. However, genotype does not necessarily determine neurological phenotype because the epigenome modulates gene expression in response to endogenous and exogenous regulators, throughout the life-cycle. Studies using both genome-wide analysis of multiple genes and comprehensive analysis of specific genes are providing new insights into genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying nutrition and neuroscience. This review provides a critical evaluation of the following related areas: (1 recent advances in genomic and epigenomic technologies, and their relevance to brain disorders; (2 the emerging role of non-coding RNAs as key regulators of transcription, epigenetic processes and gene silencing; (3 novel approaches to nutrition, epigenetics and neuroscience; (4 gene-environment interactions, especially in the serotonergic system, as a paradigm of the multiple signalling pathways affected in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. Current and future advances in these four areas should contribute significantly to the prevention, amelioration and treatment of multiple devastating brain disorders.
Full Text Available "n Objective: "n The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among 12 to 17 years old adolescents in urban areas of Tehran. "nMethod: In this study, 1105 adolescents (12 -17 years old were selected from 250 clusters of the entire 22 municipality areas of Tehran using a multistage sampling method. After responding to the Farsi version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report version, the Farsi version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL was administered to 273 adolescents and their families. The prevalence of adolescent psychiatric disorders was determined using the results of K-SADS-PL. "nResults: There were not any statistically significant differences between the sexes in the frequency of psychiatric disorders except for ADHD which was observed more frequently in boys. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, depressive disorders and separation anxiety disorder. "nConclusion: The frequency of psychiatric disorders among the adolescents in Tehran's urban areas was comparable to the reports from other countries. However, using methods to deal with missing data makes these prevalence rates somehow higher.
mohamad hasan Eftekhari
Full Text Available Background : Adolescence is one of the most critical growth periods in the human's life. Eating disorder is one of the most common nutritional-psychological disorders in this period, which can lead to acute and chronic physical and mental problems. Therefore, regarding the importance of the topic, the present study was designed to determine the prevalence of weight – controlling attitude and eating disorders, and their association with anthropometric indices in female adolescent school students. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional descriptive analytical study. 594 high school adolescent girls were selected using multi-stage random sampling method. Nutritional attitude was assessed by use of a nutritional attitude questionnaire. Another specific questionnaire was used to gather demographic and anthropometric information. Data analysis was done using SPSS software, independent t- test and Chi-square (P˂0.05. Results: The information shows that 80% of the studied population are at risk of eating disorders. The number of the obese , over weight and underweight students were significantly more in the group with nutritional attitude disorders. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of eating disorders in adolescent girls, and the concomitant obesity and underweight with these disorders, the correction of these attitude could be mentioned as a health priority in this city
Autism and autistic spectrum disorders are still relatively poorly understood. This article outlines the results of new research into the prevalence of autism and into the causes of the condition and highlights implications for nurses from the findings.
McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Altshuler, Lori; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Post, Robert M.
Objective: Relatively little is known about the co-occurrence of bipolar and eating disorders. We therefore assessed the prevalence and clinical correlates of eating disorders in 875 patients with bipolar disorder. Method: 875 outpatients with DSM-IV bipolar I or II disorder were evaluated with
Noor Safiza Mohamad Nor
Full Text Available Introduction: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, Down Syndrome (DS and Cerebral Palsy (CP are the most common disabilities among children. Nutritional status assessment is important as these children are at risk of underweight, overweight or obesity. Therefore, the objectives of this review were to identify evidence on the prevalence of nutritional status of children with DS, CP and ASD, and to determine tools and indicators to measure the nutritional status of these children. Methods: This scoping review was conducted using a framework suggested by Arksey and O'Maley. A comprehensive search was performed to identify published and unpublished works, reviews, grey literature and reports. Inclusion criteria for the search were articles in English published from 1990 to 2014 and related to children with ASD, DS and CP. Titles, abstract, and keywords for eligibility were examined independently by the researchers. Results: A total of 305,268 titles were extracted from electronic databases and other resources. Based on the inclusion criteria, 21 articles were selected for review. The prevalence of overweight or obese children with DS ranged from 33.5% to 43.5%. The prevalence of underweight children with CP was 22.2% to 78.2%. Children with ASD at a younger age were more likely to be overweight or obese compared with normal developing children. The common nutritional indicators used were z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, body mass index-for-age, and head circumference-for-age. Conclusions: Overall, there is emerging evidence on the nutritional status of children with ASD, DS and CP although this is still very limited in developing countries including Malaysia. The evidence shows that children with CP were at risk of being underweight, while children with DS and ASD were at risk of being overweight or obese.
Full Text Available Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG are a group of more than 130 inborn errors of metabolism affecting N-linked, O-linked protein and lipid-linked glycosylation. The phenotype in CDG patients includes frequent liver involvement, especially the disorders belonging to the N-linked protein glycosylation group. There are only a few treatable CDG. Mannose-Phosphate Isomerase (MPI-CDG was the first treatable CDG by high dose mannose supplements. Recently, with the successful use of d-galactose in Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1-CDG, other CDG types have been trialed on galactose and with an increasing number of potential nutritional therapies. Current mini review focuses on therapies in glycosylation disorders affecting liver function and dietary intervention in general in N-linked glycosylation disorders. We also emphasize now the importance of early screening for CDG in patients with mild hepatopathy but also in cholestasis.
Ali Reza Zolfaghari
Full Text Available Objective: Behavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence represent a range of problems and Its prevalence varies in different parts of Iran and the world. Knowledge of them is essential to the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of patients. The aim of this survey is assessment of behavior disorders prevalence in high school students in Hamedan province. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and cross sectional study, 500 boy and girl students were selected from Hamedan high schools by multistep cluster sampling, based on region and gender. Data were gathered by Achenbach experience questionnaire (YSR form and analyzed by Friedman and independent T tests. Results: The findings showed that prevalence of behavioral problems among students in the province is 10 percent and it was higher in girls than boys. Most disorders were withdrawal disorder / anxiety and attention problems and somatization disorder was the least problem. Conclusion: Prevalence of behavior disorders in Hamedan province compared to other studies is moderate, but the behavior disorders prevalence of boys and girls are different from other researchs.
Arias, Francisco; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Mesías, Beatriz; Basurte, Ignacio; Rentero, David
Given its prevalence and impact on public health, the comorbidity of bipolar and substance use disorders is one of the most relevant of dual diagnoses. The objective was to evaluate the characteristics of patients from community mental health and substance abuse centres in Madrid. The sample consisted of 837 outpatients from mental health and substance abuse centres. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Personality Disorder Questionnaire (PDQ4+) to evaluate axis I and II disorders. Of these patients, 174 had a lifetime bipolar disorder, 83 had bipolar disorder type I and 91 had type II. Most patients had dual pathology. Of the 208 participants from the mental health centres, 21 had bipolar disorder and 13 (61.9%) were considered dually-diagnosed patients, while 33.2% of non-bipolar patients had a dual diagnoses (p = 0.03). Of the 629 participants from the substance abuse centres, 153 patients (24.3%) had a bipolar diagnosis. Bipolar dual patients had higher rates of alcohol and cocaine dependence than non-bipolar patients. Moreover, age at onset of alcohol use was earlier in bipolar duallydiagnosed patients than in other alcoholics. Bipolar dually-diagnosed patients had higher personality and anxiety disorder comorbidities and greater suicide risk. Thus, alcohol and cocaine are the drugs most associated with bipolar disorder. Given the nature of the study, the type of relationship between these disorders cannot be determined.
Ram, Saravanan; Seirawan, Hazem; Kumar, Satish K S; Clark, Glenn T
Epidemiologic studies on sleep disorders in the USA have mostly focused on specific disorders in specific groups of individuals. Most studies on sleep habits and sleep-related difficulties have focused on children and adolescents. The authors describe the prevalence of the three common physician-diagnosed sleep disorders (insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless legs syndrome (RLS)) by age, gender, and race in the US population. In addition, the authors describe the sleep habits and sleep-related difficulties in carrying routine daily activities. The authors also investigate the impact of the sleep disorders on performing routine daily activities. Data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 6,139 individuals over the age of 16 was analyzed for sleep-related parameters. The prevalence was highest for sleep apnea (4.2%), followed by insomnia (1.2%) and RLS (0.4%). Hispanics and Whites reported longer sleep duration than Blacks by 24 to 30 min. The predominant sleep habits were snoring while sleeping (48%), feeling unrested during the day (26.5%), and not getting enough sleep (26%). Difficulty concentrating (25%) or remembering (18%) were the main sleep-related difficulties in our sample. Insomnia, sleep apnea, and RLS had the highest impact on concentration and memory. Our findings suggest that the prevalence of sleep disorders in the USA is much lower than previously reported in the literature suggesting under diagnosis of sleep disorders by primary care physicians.
Mundt, Adrian P.; Alvarado, Rubén; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Poblete, Catalina; Villagra, Carolina; Kastner, Sinja; Priebe, Stefan
Objective High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. Method A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. Results Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1) for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0) for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8) for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1) for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2) for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3) for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, pprison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; pprison population than in the general population. Conclusions Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders. PMID:23894415
Conclusion: This study fills the hiatus in the existing South African literature with respect to age of onset and prevalence of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours across ethnic boundaries. Furthermore, it creates a foundation for developing appropriate strategies to address eating disorders in the multicultural South ...
Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.
Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms
Hoek, HW; van Hoeken, D
Objective: To review the literature on the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders. Methods: We searched Medline using several key terms relating to epidemiology and eating disorders and we checked the reference lists of the articles that we found. Special attention has been paid to
Budhiraja, Rohit; Roth, Thomas; Hudgel, David W.; Budhiraja, Pooja; Drake, Christopher L.
Study Objectives: To determine the prevalence and polysomnographic correlates of insomnia in subjects with self-reported medical disorders. Design: Prospective cross-sectional study. Participants: Community-based sample of 3282 men and women aged 18 to 65 years old, with a subset who underwent polysomnography. Measurements: Self-reported measures of sleep habits and current health, and polysomnographic sleep variables. Results: The prevalence of insomnia was 21.4%. The adjusted odds of insomnia were 2.2 times as high in persons with any medical disorders as in those without medical disorders. Specifically, odds of insomnia were higher in people with heart disease (OR = 1.6 [95% CI: 1.2-23], P = 0.004), hypertension (1.5 [12-18], P insomnia increased with increasing number of medical disorders. However, polysomnographic sleep was not significantly different in persons with or without medical disorders for most disorders assessed. Conclusion: This large population-based study suggests that insomnia is highly prevalent in diverse chronic medical disorders. However, polysomnographic evidence of disturbed sleep is present in only a subset of comorbid insomnia populations. Citation: Budhiraja R; Roth T; Hudgel DW; Budhiraja P; Drake CL. Prevalence and polysomnographic correlates of insomnia comorbid with medical disorders. SLEEP 2011;34(7):859-867. PMID:21731135
Machado, Paulo P. P.; Machado, Barbara C.; Goncalves, Sonia; Hoek, Hans W.
Objective: Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) represent the most common eating disorder diagnosed in specialized treatment settings. The purpose of the current study is to assess the prevalence of EDNOS in a nationwide community sample. Method: Participants were 2,028 female students,
Alaraifi, Jehad Ahmad; Amayreh, Mousa Mohammad; Saleh, Mohammad Yusef
Problem: There are no available studies on the prevalence, and distribution of speech disorders among Arabic speaking undergraduate students in Jordan. Method: A convenience sample of 400 undergraduate students at the University of Jordan was screened for speech disorders. Two spontaneous speech samples and an oral reading of a passage were…
Machado, Paulo P. P.; Machado, Bárbara César; Gonçalves, Sónia; Hoek, Hans W.
Objective: Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) represent the most common eating disorder diagnosed in specialized treatment settings. The purpose of the current study is to assess the prevalence of EDNOS in a nationwide community sample. Method: Participants were 2028 female students, aged 12 to 23, attending public schools in the 9th to 12th grades in Portugal. Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire in Stage 1 of the study. In Stage 2, we selected a...
Journal Home > Vol 4, No 4 (2014) > ... Background: Work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the common occupational ... of the doctor, duration of practice, working hours per week, physical activity and working environment.
Watson, Hunna J; Hamer, Robert M; Thornton, Laura M; Peat, Christine M; Kleiman, Susan C; Du, Shufa; Wang, Huijin; Bulik, Cynthia M
China is undergoing dramatic Westernization, hence may be able to provide unique insights into the role of sociocultural factors in disease. The purpose of this exploratory study was two-fold: to describe the prevalence of screening-detected eating disorders and disordered eating in China at the first occasion of assessment in the large-scale China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) and to explore the associations between dietary practices and disordered eating. Regarding the first objective, participants are provincially representative and in subsequent waves will be followed longitudinally. CHNS participants were recruited using multistage, cluster random sampling, beginning in 1989. In this study, participants comprised 259 female adolescents (12-17 years) and 979 women (18-35 years) who participated in the CHNS 2009 survey, which is the first CHNS survey to assess disordered eating. Dietary practice-disordered eating associations were investigated with logistic regression adjusting for age, body mass index, and urbanization. Of the participants, 6.3% (95% CI: 4.8, 8.2) of adults and 7.8% (95% CI: 5.0, 12.0) of adolescents had a screening-detected eating disorder. Dietary practices had non-significant associations with disordered eating at the general population level, except for protein consumption among women. There was evidence that skipping meals and a high-fat diet may confer risk. Screening-detected eating disorders in China are lower in prevalence than in developed countries. Dietary practices had fairly limited associations with disordered eating at the general population level; protein consumption, skipping meals, and a high-fat diet are candidate dietary practice exposures for disordered eating. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
María Nieves García-Casal
Full Text Available The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females. A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and post-intervention tests, 6 workshops, 2 participative talks, 5 game activities, 1 cooking course and 1 recipe contest. Anthropometrical and biochemical determinations included weight, height, body-mass index, nutritional status, hematocrit, serum ferritin, retinol and folate concentrations. There was high prevalence of iron (25%, folates (75% and vitamin A (43% deficiencies in school children, with a low consumption of fruit and vegetables, high consumption of soft drinks and snacks and almost no physical activity. The nutritional education intervention produced a significant reduction in iron deficiency prevalence (25 to 14%, and showed no effect on vitamin A and folates deficiencies. There was a slight improvement in nutritional status. This study shows, through biochemical determinations, that nutritional education initiatives and programs have an impact improving nutritional health in school children.
Andréa Romero Latterza
Full Text Available Pacientes com transtornos alimentares possuem inadequações profundas no consumo, padrão e comportamento alimentar, além de diversas crenças equivocadas sobre alimentação, o que geralmente acarreta piora do estado nutricional. O tratamento nutricional visa a reverter tais alterações e promover hábitos alimentares saudáveis e melhor relação para com o alimento. Os objetivos e características do tratamento diferem para a anorexia nervosa e a bulimia nervosa, contudo, usualmente, a abordagem é dividida em duas fases: a educacional, cujas principais metas são a regularização do hábito alimentar e o aumento do conhecimento nutricional, e a experimental, que visa a propiciar maior reabilitação nutricional e mudanças mais profundas no comportamento alimentar. As evidências existentes sugerem que o tratamento nutricional promove a melhora de tais parâmetros, porém, alguns comportamentos alimentares, como a sensação de incompetência ao lidar com os alimentos, permanecem. Desta forma, mais estudos são necessários para que se possa de fato avaliar a eficácia da abordagem nutricional.Patients with eating disorders have disturbed food intake, food pattern, food behavior, and mistaken beliefs about food and nutrition, which can worsen nutritional status. The nutritional treatment aims to revert such alterations and to promote better food habits and relationship with food. The objectives and characteristics of the treatment are different for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, but usually the approach has two phases: the educational phase, whose major goals are regularization of food habits and increase of nutrition knowledge; and the experimental phase, whose targets are better nutritional rehabilitation and more complex improvements of nutritional behavior. Evidence suggests that nutritional treatment can ameliorate such parameters, but some inadequate food behaviors remain, such as feeling of incompetence while dealing with
Xiao-Jing Li; Yan-Ling He; Hong Ma; Zhe-Ning Liu; Fu-Jun Jia; Ling Zhang; Lan Zhang
AIM:To investigate the prevalence and physicians'detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders in gastrointestinal (GI) outpatients across China.METHODS:A hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the GI outpatient departments of 13general hospitals.A total of 1995 GI outpatients were recruited and screened with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).The physicians of the GI departments performed routine clinical diagnosis and management without knowing the HADS score results.SubJects with HADS scores ≥ 8 were subsequently interviewed by psychiatrists using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to make further diagnoses.RESULTS:There were 1059 patients with HADS score ≥ 8 and 674 (63.64％) of them undertook the MINI interview by psychiatrists.Based on the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition),the adjusted current prevalence for depressive disorders,anxiety disorders,and comorbidity of both disorders in the GI outpatients was 14.39％,9.42％ and 4.66％,respectively.Prevalence of depressive disorders with suicidal problems [suicide attempt or suicide-related ideation prior or current; module C (suicide) of MINI score ≥ 1] was 5.84％ in women and 1.64％ in men.The GI physicians' detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders accounted for 4.14％.CONCLUSION:While the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders is high in Chinese GI outpatients,the detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders by physicians is low.
Winer, Sharon A; Rapkin, Andrea J
Millions of reproductive-age U.S. women experience premenstrual symptoms with varying degrees of severity. The large number and variety of premenstrual symptoms reported have made premenstrual disorders difficult to characterize. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the etiology of premenstrual symptoms. Some women appear to have a genetic predisposition toward severe premenstrual symptoms or to have vulnerability traits that increase their risk. It has been suggested that 1 or more neurotransmitters and/or neurohormonal systems in certain women may have an abnormal response to normal fluctuations in gonadal hormones across the menstrual cycle. Premenstrual disorders can have a significant negative impact on a woman's quality of life and work productivity.
Full Text Available Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often associated with other psychological problems. Objectives The present study aimed to study the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD who admitted to Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods This was a descriptive/analytic cross-sectional study carried out on 118 outpatient children and adolescents who were selected by convenient sampling. The data were collected using the questionnaire, designed by authors, and were analyzed through descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results The prevalence of comorbid disorders were as follows: anxiety disorders (48.3%; depression (20.33%; bipolar disorder (17.79%; obsessive-compulsive (47.45%; tic and tourette (35.59%, oppositional defiant disorder (43.22%; conduct disorder (11.01%; urinary incontinence (58.47%; communication disorder (9.32%; and learning disorder (21.18%. There was no significant difference between females and males with respect to the prevalence of comorbid disorders. Conclusions Similar to previous studies, we found some comorbid psychiatric disorders with ADHD. The treatment of the disorder can be improved, by more attention to comorbid psychiatric disorders, early diagnosis of them, and using distinct and specific treatment for everyone.
Watson, Hunna J.; Hamer, Robert M.; Thornton, Laura M.; Peat, Christine M.; Kleiman, Susan C.; Du, Shufa; Wang, Huijin; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Objective China is undergoing dramatic Westernization, hence may be able to provide unique insights into the role of sociocultural factors in disease. The purpose of this exploratory study was two-fold: to describe the prevalence of screening-detected eating disorders and disordered eating in China at the first occasion of assessment in the large-scale China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) and to explore the associations between dietary practices and disordered eating. Regarding the first objective, participants are provincially representative and in subsequent waves will be followed longitudinally. Method CHNS participants were recruited using multistage, cluster random sampling, beginning in 1989. In this study, participants comprised 259 female adolescents (12–17 years) and 979 women (18–35 years) who participated in the CHNS 2009 survey, which is the first CHNS survey to assess disordered eating. Dietary practice-disordered eating associations were investigated with logistic regression adjusting for age, body mass index, and urbanization. Results Of the participants, 6.3% (95% CI: 4.8, 8.2) of adults and 7.8% (95% CI: 5.0, 12.0) of adolescents had a screening-detected eating disorder. Dietary practices had non-significant associations with disordered eating at the general population level, except for protein consumption among women. There was evidence that skipping meals and a high-fat diet may confer risk. Discussion Screening-detected eating disorders in China are lower in prevalence than in developed countries. Dietary practices had fairly limited associations with disordered eating at the general population level; protein consumption, skipping meals, and a high-fat diet are candidate dietary practice exposures for disordered eating. PMID:25407415
Adrian P Mundt
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. METHOD: A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1 for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0 for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8 for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1 for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2 for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3 for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05 and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001. Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05, simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001 and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05 were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05 and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001 were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders.
S. Alireza Sajjadi
Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders are important complications of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus.Materials and method: In this descriptive study, 80 patients with diabetes type 2 referred to diabetes clinic of Zahedan in 2009. They were selected by simple randomized method, screened by General Health Questionnaire and assessed by psychiatric interview, if it was necessary.Results: Totally, 67.5% required an interview and 43.75% were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. Major depression were more prevalent (13.5% than adjustment disorders (15%.Conclusion: High prevalence of depression and adjustment disorder in diabetic patients needs psychiatric assessment and treatment as the main part, in the diabetes clinics
García-Casal, María Nieves; Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza; Puche, Rafael; Leets, Irene; Carvajal, Zoila; Patiño, Elijú; Ibarra, Carlos
The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females). A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and...
Tobiassen, Linn Graham
The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Additional aims were to assess whether having comorbid eating disorders could influence the treatment outcome for OCD, and if symptoms of eating disorders were reduced after treatment for OCD. The sample consisted of 93 patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD. The patients underwent assessment with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Beck Depress...
Yuan, Kang Chuan; Ruo Yao, Zhao; Zhen Yu, Shi; Xu Dong, Zhao; Jian Zhong, Yang; Edwards, Jason Glen; Edwards, Glen David
Studies about stress disorders following a disaster have mainly been based on single-event trauma with little emphasis on multiple traumas. This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of stress disorders following two earthquakes in China. Subjects were randomly sampled from 11 villages in rural China. A total of 624 subjects were administered with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Symptom Checklist -90-R (SCL-90-R), Coping Style Scale and Social Support Rating Scale. This was followed by a structural clinical interview using the Chinese translation of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV-TR axis 1 disorders (SCID-I-P) for acute stress disorder (ASD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The prevalence of ASD and PTSD was 15% and 29%, respectively. Regression analysis indicated that high intensity of trauma exposure, lower educational level, subjective feeling of economic status and psychological stress after the first earthquake significantly predicted the outcome of PTSD. The study suggested that the prevalence of stress disorders in two earthquakes were higher than that experienced in a single disaster. The intensity of trauma exposure, low educational level, bad subjective feeling of economic status, and psychological stress after the first earthquake could be used to identify survivors at risk of developing PTSD in two earthquakes.
Mazurek, Dominika; Wyka, Joanna
Down syndrome (DS) is one of the more commonly occurring genetic disorders, where mental retardation is combined with nutritional diseases. It is caused by having a third copy of chromosome 21, and there exist 3 forms; Simple Trisomy 21, Translocation Trisomy and Mosaic Trisomy. Symptoms include intellectual disability/mental retardation, early onset of Alzheimer's disease and the appearance of various phenotypic features such as narrow slanted eyes, flat nose and short stature. In addition, there are other health problems throughout the body, consisting in part of cardiac defects and thyroid function abnormalities along with nutritional disorders (ie. overweight, obesity, hypercholesterolemia and deficiencies of vitamins and minerals). Those suffering DS have widespread body frame abnormalities and impaired brain development and function; the latter leading to impaired intellectual development. Many studies indicate excessive or deficient nutrient uptakes associated with making inappropriate foodstuff choices, food intolerance, (eg. celiac disease) or malabsorption. DS persons with overweight or obesity are linked with a slow metabolic rate, abnormal blood leptin concentrations and exhibit low levels of physical activity. Vitamin B group deficiencies and abnormal blood homocysteine levels decrease the rate of intellectual development in DS cases. Zinc deficiencies result in short stature, thyroid function disorders and an increased appetite caused by excessive supplementation. Scientific advances in the research and diagnosis of DS, as well as preventing any associated conditions, have significantly increased life expectancies of those with this genetic disorder. Early dietary interventions by parents or guardians of DS children afford an opportunity for decreasing the risk or delaying some of the DS associated conditions from appearing, thus beneficially impacting on their quality of life.
Behr, M; Acker, J; Cohrs, S; Deuschle, M; Danker-Hopfe, H; Göder, R; Norra, C; Richter, K; Riemann, D; Schilling, C; Weeß, H-G; Wetter, T C; Wollenburg, L M; Pollmächer, T
Sleep-related breathing disorders seriously impair well-being and increase the risk for relevant somatic and psychiatric disorders. Moreover, risk factors for sleep-related breathing disorders are highly prevalent in psychiatric patients. The aim of this study was for the first time in Germany to study the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as the most common form of sleep-related breathing disorder in patients with psychiatric disorders. In 10 psychiatric hospitals in Germany and 1 hospital in Switzerland, a total of 249 inpatients underwent an 8‑channel sleep polygraphy to investigate the prevalence of sleep apnea in this group of patients. With a conspicuous screening result of 23.7% of the subjects, a high prevalence of sleep-related breathing disorders was found to occur among this group of patients. Male gender, higher age and high body mass index (BMI) were identified as positive risk factors for the detection of OSAS. The high prevalence indicates that sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder among psychiatric patients. Although OSAS can lead to substantial disorders of the mental state and when untreated is accompanied by serious somatic health problems, screening procedures are not part of the routine work-up in psychiatric hospitals; therefore, sleep apnea is presumably underdiagnosed in psychiatric patients. In view of the results of this and previous studies, this topic complex should be the subject of further research studies.
Full Text Available In recent years, the authors of epidemiological studies have documented that autoimmune diseases are a major problem of modern society and are classified as diseases of civilization. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs are caused by an abnormal immune response to autoantigens present in the thyroid gland – they often coexist with other autoimmune diseases. The most common dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto’s disease. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis can be the main cause of primary hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Anthropometric, biochemical and physicochemical parameters are used to assess the nutritional status during the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. Patients with hypothyroidism are often obese, whereas patients with hyperthyroidism are often afflicted with rapid weight loss. The consequence of obesity is a change of the thyroid hormones’ activity; however, weight reduction leads to their normalization. The activity and metabolic rate of thyroid hormones are modifiable. ATDs are associated with abnormalities of glucose metabolism and thus increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Celiac disease (CD also increases the risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. Malnutrition or the presence of numerous nutritional deficiencies in a patient’s body can be the cause of thyroid disorders. Coexisting deficiencies of such elements as iodine, iron, selenium and zinc may impair the function of the thyroid gland. Other nutrient deficiencies usually observed in patients suffering from ATD are: protein deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies (A, C, B6, B5, B1 and mineral deficiencies (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium. Proper diet helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease, maintains a healthy weight and prevents the occurrence of malnutrition. This article presents an overview of selected documented studies and scientific reports on the
Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena
In recent years, the authors of epidemiological studies have documented that autoimmune diseases are a major problem of modern society and are classified as diseases of civilization. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are caused by an abnormal immune response to autoantigens present in the thyroid gland - they often coexist with other autoimmune diseases. The most common dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto's disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be the main cause of primary hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Anthropometric, biochemical and physicochemical parameters are used to assess the nutritional status during the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. Patients with hypothyroidism are often obese, whereas patients with hyperthyroidism are often afflicted with rapid weight loss. The consequence of obesity is a change of the thyroid hormones' activity; however, weight reduction leads to their normalization. The activity and metabolic rate of thyroid hormones are modifiable. ATDs are associated with abnormalities of glucose metabolism and thus increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Celiac disease (CD) also increases the risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. Malnutrition or the presence of numerous nutritional deficiencies in a patient's body can be the cause of thyroid disorders. Coexisting deficiencies of such elements as iodine, iron, selenium and zinc may impair the function of the thyroid gland. Other nutrient deficiencies usually observed in patients suffering from ATD are: protein deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies (A, C, B6, B5, B1) and mineral deficiencies (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium). Proper diet helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease, maintains a healthy weight and prevents the occurrence of malnutrition. This article presents an overview of selected documented studies and scientific reports on the relationship of metabolic
Zwirs, B.W.; Burger, H.; Schulpen, T.W.J.; Wiznitzer, M.; Fedder, H.; Buitelaar, J.K.
The present study assesses the population prevalence of DSM-IV disorders among native and immigrant children living in low socio-economic status (SES) inner-city neighborhoods in the Netherlands. In the first phase of a two-phase epidemiological design, teachers screened an ethnically diverse sample
Zwirs, Barbara W. C.; Burger, Huibert; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; Wiznitzer, Martin; Fedder, Hans; Buitelaar, Jan K.
The present study assesses the population prevalence of DSM-IV disorders among native and immigrant children living in low socio-economic status (SES) inner-city neighborhoods in the Netherlands. In the first phase of a two-phase epidemiological design, teachers screened an ethnically diverse sample
Objective: To provide estimates of the prevalence of selected mental disorders in the Western Cape, based on the consensus achieved by a working group established for this purpose. Method: An expert working group was established to provide technical expertise for the project. Potential risk factors likely to influence local ...
Physically awkward children face a host of difficulties, which include difficulties in the school environment. Therefore, it is important to identify Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) early in a child's life to allow for proper and timely intervention and support. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence ...
Elsabbagh, Mayada; Divan, Gauri; Koh, Yun-Joo; Kim, Young Shin; Kauchali, Shuaib; Marcín, Carlos; Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Patel, Vikram; Paula, Cristiane S; Wang, Chongying; Yasamy, Mohammad Taghi; Fombonne, Eric
We provide a systematic review of epidemiological surveys of autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) worldwide. A secondary aim was to consider the possible impact of geographic, cultural/ethnic, and socioeconomic factors on prevalence estimates and on clinical presentation of PDD. Based on the evidence reviewed, the median of prevalence estimates of autism spectrum disorders was 62/10 000. While existing estimates are variable, the evidence reviewed does not support differences in PDD prevalence by geographic region nor of a strong impact of ethnic/cultural or socioeconomic factors. However, power to detect such effects is seriously limited in existing data sets, particularly in low-income countries. While it is clear that prevalence estimates have increased over time and these vary in different neighboring and distant regions, these findings most likely represent broadening of the diagnostic concets, diagnostic switching from other developmental disabilities to PDD, service availability, and awareness of autistic spectrum disorders in both the lay and professional public. The lack of evidence from the majority of the world's population suggests a critical need for further research and capacity building in low- and middle-income countries. Autism Res 2012, 5: 160–179. © 2012 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22495912
Context: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most common consequence of traumatic experiences. The North Central Nigeria to which Plateau State belongs has witnessed many ethno‑religious crises. While previous studies suggested a high prevalence of PTSD among students, to the best of our knowledge, ...
Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.; Rupp, Claudia I.; Lackner-Seifert, Kerstin; Frey, Nadja; Whitworth, Alexandra B.; Pope, Harrison G.; Kinzl, Johann
Objective: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) in middle-aged women. Method: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to 1,500 Austrian women aged 40-60 years, assessing ED (defined by DSM-IV), subthreshold ED, body image, and quality of life. We broadly defined
The study investigated the prevalence of conduct disorder among adolescents in a senior secondary school in Benin City. This was a survey study. The population was made up of 1,540 students in one of the mixed schools that was randomly selected from the senior secondary schools in Benin City, Edo State Nigeria.
Objectives: To find out the prevalence and risk factors of allergic disorders. Methods: Data ..... with being continuously alert to their eating habits due to fear of allergic ... and fish.6,13,20,23 Genetic factors are known to be incrim- inated with ...
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of serious mental disorders in a prison population in Durban, South Africa, one of the largest prisons in the Southern hemisphere. Method: 193 prisoners were interviewed using the Mini Neuro-psychiatric Interview, a screening questionnaire and a ...
Campbell, Marilyn; Hwang, Yoon-Suk; Whiteford, Chrystal; Dillon-Wallace, Julie; Ashburner, Jill; Saggers, Beth; Carrington, Suzanne
All forms of bullying, physical, verbal, social, and cyber, are prevalent among youth worldwide. An especially vulnerable population for involvement in bullying is students with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although there are some studies that have investigated bullying in these students, many of these are beset by methodological issues. We…
Al-Jazi, Aya Bassam; Al-Khamra, Rana
Goal: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of speech (articulation, voice, and fluency) disorders among elementary school students from first grade to fourth grade. This research was based on the screening implemented as part of the Madrasati Project, which is designed to serve the school system in Jordan. Method: A sample of 1,231…
Claudia S Lopes
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescent students, according to geographical macro-regions, school type, sex, and age. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents who participated in the Cardiovascular Risk Study in Adolescents (ERICA, a cross-sectional, national, school-based study conducted in 2013-2014 in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. A self-administered questionnaire and an electronic data collector were employed. The presence of common mental disorders was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. We estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of common mental disorders by sex, age, and school type, in Brazil and in the macro-regions, considering the sample design. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders was of 30.0% (95%CI 29.2-30.8, being higher among girls (38.4%; 95%CI 37.1-39.7 when compared to boys (21.6%; 95%CI 20.5-22.8, and among adolescents who were from 15 to 17 years old (33.6%; 95%CI 32.2-35.0 compared to those aged between 12 and 14 years (26.7%; 95%CI 25.8-27.6. The prevalence of common mental disorders increased with age for both sexes, always higher in girls (ranging from 28.1% at 12 years to 44.1% at 17 years than in boys (ranging from 18.5% at 12 years to 27.7% at 17 years. We did not observe any significant difference by macro-region or school type. Stratified analyses showed higher prevalence of common mental disorders among girls aged from 15 to 17 years of private schools in the North region (53.1; 95%CI 46.8-59.4. CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence of common mental disorders among adolescents and the fact that the symptoms are often vague mean these disorders are not so easily identified by school administrators or even by health services. The results of this study can help the proposition of more specific prevention and control measures, focused on highest risk subgroups.
Douglas, Katie M; Gallagher, Peter; Robinson, Lucy J; Carter, Janet D; McIntosh, Virginia Vw; Frampton, Christopher Ma; Watson, Stuart; Young, Allan H; Ferrier, I Nicol; Porter, Richard J
The current study examines prevalence of cognitive impairment in four mood disorder samples, using four definitions of impairment. The impact of premorbid IQ on prevalence was examined, and the influence of treatment response. Samples were: (i) 58 inpatients in a current severe depressive episode (unipolar or bipolar), (ii) 69 unmedicated outpatients in a mild to moderate depressive episode (unipolar or bipolar), (iii) 56 outpatients with bipolar disorder, in a depressive episode, and (iv) 63 outpatients with bipolar disorder, currently euthymic. Cognitive assessment was conducted after treatment in Studies 1 (6 weeks of antidepressant treatment commenced on admission) and 2 (16-week course of cognitive behaviour therapy or schema therapy), allowing the impact of treatment response to be assessed. All mood disorder samples were compared with healthy control groups. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was highest for the inpatient depression sample (Study 1), and lowest for the outpatient depression sample (Study 2). Substantial variability in rates was observed depending on the definition of impairment used. Correcting cognitive performance for premorbid IQ had a significant impact on the prevalence of cognitive impairment in the inpatient depression sample. There was minimal evidence that treatment response impacted on prevalence of cognitive impairment, except in the domain of psychomotor speed in inpatients. As interventions aiming to improve cognitive outcomes in mood disorders receive increasing research focus, the issue of setting a cut-off level of cognitive impairment for screening purposes becomes a priority. This analysis demonstrates important differences in samples likely to be recruited depending on the definition of cognitive impairment and begins to examine the importance of premorbid IQ in determining who is impaired. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid disorders are the second most common endocrinological disorders seen in pregnant women. Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in pregnancy both in the development of a healthy baby and in maintaining the health of the mother. Several studies have shown a rising prevalence of thyroid disease in India and in South Asian countries. The diagnosis of thyroid disease in pregnancy is difficult as many of the signs and symptoms of thyroid disease are also common to pregnancy. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of thyroid disease in pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a hospital-based cross-sectional study. 333 antenatal women were screened in their first visit to the antenatal clinic by serum TSH, fT3, fT4. Statistical analysis of the results was done. RESULTS 283 women out of 333 antenatal women screened were found to be euthyroid. 50 women were detected to be having thyroid disorder. 45 women had subclinical hypothyroidism, one woman had overt hypothyroidism and four women had subclinical hyperthyroidism. 4 women had hypothyroidism prior to pregnancy. The overall prevalence of thyroid disorders in pregnancy in our study was found to be 16.21%. CONCLUSION The prevalence was found to be high in our study and in several studies from India and in its neighbouring countries. This is probably due to iodine deficiency being prevalent in several areas in our country. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism is high. This all the more stresses the need for universal screening of pregnant women for thyroid disease in our country.
Full Text Available Diet-related adaptive gene (DRAG polymorphisms identified in specific populations are associated with chronic disorders in carriers of the adaptive alleles due to changes in dietary and lifestyle patterns in recent times. Mexico’s population is comprised of Amerindians (AM and Mestizos who have variable AM, European (EUR and African genetic ancestry and an increased risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Nutritional advice based on the Mexican genome and the traditional food culture is needed to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies. Therefore, we aimed to provide a prevalence profile of several DRAG polymorphisms in the Mexican population, including Central West (CW Mexico subpopulations. Geographic heat maps were built using ArcGIS10 (Esri, Redlands, CA, USA software, based on the published data of the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133, ABCA1 Arg230Cys (rs9282541, APOE T388C (rs429358/C526T (rs7412, LCT C-13910T (rs4988235 polymorphisms and AMY1 copy number variation (CNV. Also, new data obtained by allelic discrimination-real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays for the MTHFR, ABCA1, and APOE polymorphisms as well as the AMY1 CNV in the CW Mexico subpopulations with different proportions of AM and EUR ancestry were included. In the CW region, the highest frequency of the MTHFR 677T, ABCA1 230C and APOE ε4 adaptive alleles was observed in the AM groups, followed by Mestizos with intermediate AM ancestry. The LCT-13910T allele frequency was highest in Mestizos-EUR but extremely low in AM, while the AMY1 diploid copy number was 6.82 ± 3.3 copies. Overall, the heat maps showed a heterogeneous distribution of the DRAG polymorphisms, in which the AM groups revealed the highest frequencies of the adaptive alleles followed by Mestizos. Given these genetic differences, genome-based nutritional advice should be tailored in a regionalized and individualized manner according to the available foods and Mexican traditional food culture that
Scahill, Lawrence; Specht, Matthew; Page, Christopher
Background Prevalence is a simple statement about the frequency of a disease in the population. For many medical conditions, including Tourette syndrome, there are true cases that have not been previously diagnosed due to problems of access to appropriate clinical services. Therefore, to obtain a trustworthy estimate of prevalence, it is necessary to go beyond cases identified in clinical settings and evaluate community samples. Method We reviewed 11 community surveys in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) published since 2000. We also examined the frequency of co-occurring psychiatric conditions in community samples and large clinically-ascertained samples. Results Transient tics are relatively common affecting as many as 20% of school-age children. The 11 studies reviewed here offer a wide range of estimates from 2.6 to 38 per 1000 children for TS. Six studies provide estimates in a narrower range from 4.3 to 7.6 per 1000, but the confidence interval around this narrower range remains wide. Six studies provided results on chronic tic disorders ranging from 3 to 50 per 1000 for Chronic Motor Tic Disorder and 2.5 to 9.4 per 1000 for Chronic Vocal Tic Disorder. Community samples and large clinically-ascertained samples consistently show high rates of ADHD, disruptive behavior and anxiety disorders in children with TS. Conclusions The wide range of prevalence estimates for TS and chronic tic disorders is likely due to differences in sample size and assessment methods. The best estimate of prevalence for TS in school-age children is likely to fall between 4 and 8 cases per 1000. Clinical assessment of children with chronic tic disorders warrants examination of other problems such as ADHD, disruptive behavior and anxiety. PMID:25436183
Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Franco Garcia, Dora Nelly; Fontecha Sandoval, Gustavo Adolfo; Hernandez Santana, Adriana; Singh, Prabhjot; Mancero Bucheli, Sandra Tamara; Saboya, Martha; Paz, Mirian Yolanda
Many small studies have been done in Honduras estimating soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) prevalence but a country-wide study was last done in 2005. The country has the highest burden of malaria among all Central American countries. The present study was done to estimate country-wide STH prevalence and intensity, malaria prevalence and nutritional status in school going children. A cross-sectional study was conducted following PAHO/WHO guidelines to select a sample of school going children of 3rd to 5th grades, representative of ecological regions in the country. A survey questionnaire was filled; anthropometric measurements, stool sample for STH and blood sample for malaria were taken. Kato-Katz method was used for STH prevalence and intensity and rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for malaria parasite detection. A total of 2554 students were studied of which 43.5% had one or more STH. Trichuriasis was the most prevalent (34%) followed by ascariasis (22.3%) and hookworm (0.9%). Ecological regions II (59.7%) and VI (55.6%) in the north had the highest STH prevalence rates while IV had the lowest (10.6%). Prevalence of one or more high intensity STH was low (1.6%). Plasmodium vivax was detected by PCR in only 5 students (0.2%), all of which belonged to the same municipality; no P. falciparum infection was detected. The majority of children (83%) had normal body mass index for their respective age but a significant proportion were overweight (10.42%) and obese (4.35%). Biannual deworming campaigns would be necessary in ecological regions II and VI, where STH prevalence is >50%. High prevalence of obesity in school going children is a worrying trend and portends of future increase in obesity related diseases. Malaria prevalence, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, was low and provides evidence for Honduras to embark on elimination of the disease.
Parlesak, Alexandr; Klein, B.; Schecher, K.
and nutritional status was recorded with a computer-aided diet history. RESULTS: The prevalence of a positive hydrogen breath test (>10 ppm increase) was 15.6% in older adults, compared with 5.9% in subjects aged 24 to 59. The intake of inhibitors of gastric acid production contributed significantly to the high...
Mickelsen, Olaf; And Others
Concern over the nutritional status of the disadvantaged in America led to this study describing the prevalence of anemia among Head Start children in Pontiac, Michigan. Hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations, along with measurements of height and weight, were performed on 77 children, 4 to 6 years old, enrolled in Head Start classes. These…
Hanson, Ellen; Cerban, Bettina M.; Slater, Chelsea M.; Caccamo, Laura M.; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia
Currently, both the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 preclude the diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cases that present with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This criterion will be removed in the upcoming DSM-V, but the relationship between ASD and ADHD, and in particular the prevalence of ADHD among the ASD population, remains…
de Haan, Lieuwe; Dudek-Hodge, Christine; Verhoeven, Yolanda; Denys, Damiaan
Introduction: The co-occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in patients with schizophrenia and related disorders has been increasingly recognized. However, the rate of psychosis comorbidity in OCD patients has yet to be systematically evaluated. Methods: The prevalence of the Diagnostic
Full Text Available Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa21Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Bahrain, and Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Science, College of Education, and Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs and the risk factors associated with these diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. A systematic literature review of studies and reports published between January 1, 1990 and September 15, 2011 was conducted using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, and osteoporosis have become the main causes of morbidity and mortality, especially with progressive aging of the population. The estimated mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes ranged from 179.8 to 765.2 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates in poor countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was very high, ranging from 19% to 45%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 has reached an alarming level in most countries of the region, ranging from 25% to 82%, with a higher prevalence among women. The estimated mortality rate for cancer ranged from 61.9 to 151 per 100,000 population. Osteoporosis has become a critical problem, particularly among women. Several risk factors may be contributing to the high prevalence of N-NCDs in EMR, including nutrition transition, low intake of fruit and vegetables, demographic transition, urbanization, physical inactivity, hypertension, tobacco smoking, stunting of growth of preschool children, and lack of nutrition and health awareness. Intervention programs to prevent and control N-NCDs are urgently needed, with special focus
Full Text Available Background Individual factors are usually important as non-occupational parameters that participate in the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. Personality traits are one of the individual factors that affect physical illness, which are constant over time, thereby reflecting stable individual differences. Identifying the personality trait can be used to predict musculoskeletal disorders in workers and select individual with appropriate personality traits for different works. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to identify the personality traits used to determine the relationship between different personality traits and the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. Methods 136 people of 2 different companies in Tabriz (in 2015 were selected as the study population. The first group was selected from the petrochemical repair workers and the second from a dairy factory. The 50-item version of Goldberg’s big five personality scale was used to assess the personality traits. Nordic questionnaire was employed to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. Chi-square test was incorporated for analyzing the data. Finally, logistic regression test was used to study the factors affecting upper and lower body pain. Results Results indicated that individual personality traits were associated with musculoskeletal disorder prevalence in some members of body: Extraversion with wrist (P-value = 0.013 and hip (P-value = 0.044, emotional stability with shoulder (P-value = 0.012, wrist (P-value = 0.043, back (P-value = 0.034, low back (P-value = 0.029 and ankle( P-value = 0.014, Conscientiousness with Hip ( P-value = 0.009, Agreeableness with shoulder (P-value = 0.004, back (P-value = 0.001, Hip ( P-value = 0.006 and ankle ( P-value = 0.019. Conclusions According to the results of this study, the personality traits can contribute to musculoskeletal disorders. Therefore, notice of personality traits can be used to predict individuals who
Chávez Zúñiga, María Concepción; Madrigal Fritsch, Herlinda; Villa, Antonio R; Guarneros Soto, Noé
Malnutrition among the indigenous early childhood population is still currently a serious public health problem, and given that no specific studies affording the possibility of knowing the nutritional condition of this population, the question was posed of identifying the prevalence of malnutrition among the indigenous population of Mexico by means of the 1999 National Nutrition Survey. A rural sample was selected from the Northern, Central and Southern regions where 70% or more of the population speak an indigenous language. The weight/age, height/age and weight/height Score Z desviations was calculated for 3,236 preschoolers and 4,899 school-age children. Nationwide and by regions, there were no difference by age group regarding the prevalences of the three indicators. By regions, for preschoolers, the South showed the highest prevalences of underheight (69.8%) and underweight (49.8%) than the North (respectively 36.1% and 22.6%), entailing statistically significant differences (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.04). For overweight and obesity, the North showed a 14.2% prevalence, and the South 5.6% (p < 0.05) for the same age group. The nutritional condition of the children studied reveals a geographical polarization, the greatest prevalences related to underheight and underweight children being found in southern Mexico, whilst those due to overalimentation were located in the North, this phenomenon possibly being due to lifestyles and availability of food differing from one region to the other.
Souza, Nilian Carla Silva; Mendonca, Jacqueline Nakau; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Jordao Junior, Alceu Afonso; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Chiarello, Paula Garcia
Autism is a developmental disorder with a possible connection between dietary components and triggering or worsening of symptoms. An altered intestinal permeability might allow absorption of incompletely digested peptides (gluten and casein) that could produce opioid-like activity on the brain, causing significant changes in behavior. To assess the intestinal permeability and nutritional status of participants with developmental disorders to determine if changes in the intestinal mucosal barrier and/or injury to the intercellular junctions have occurred that might justify application of further dietary modifications. To assess intestinal permeability, the research team analyzed participants urine under fasting conditions, using gas chromatography to determine chromatographic peaks. To assess nutritional status, the team determined participants heights and weights and performed a bioelectric bioimpedance examination at least 4 hours after their most recent meal. In addition, the team determined food intake using three diet diaries. They asked participants and caregivers to register each food consumed during 2 nonconsecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. The study occurred at the Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, Sao Paulo University. Seven participants aged 9 to 23 years with developmental disorders (the developmental group, DG) completed the study. The research team recruited them through the Association of Friends of the Autistic Persons of Ribeirao Preto in Ribeirao Preto, Brazil. The control group (CG) consisted of nonsmoking healthy volunteers in the general population who were similar in age to the experimental group and did not suffer from diseases that potentially could influence nutritional status and intestinal function. To assess intestinal permeability, participants ingested 150 mL of an isosmolar solution of the sugars mannitol (2 g) and lactulose (7.5 g) under fasting conditions and the researchers collected all voided urine over a period of 5 hours
Godart, N; Radon, L; Curt, F; Duclos, J; Perdereau, F; Lang, F; Venisse, J L; Halfon, O; Bizouard, P; Loas, G; Corcos, M; Jeammet, Ph; Flament, M F
In a clinical population, we estimated the frequency of mood disorders among 271 patients suffering from Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) in comparison to a control group matched for age and gender. The frequency of mood disorders was measured using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), DSM-IV version. Mood disorders were more frequent among eating disorder (ED) patients than among controls, with a global prevalence of the order of 80% for each ED group. The majority of the mood disorders comorbid with ED were depressive disorders (MDD and dysthymia). The relative chronology of onset of these disorders was equivocal, because mood disorders in some cases preceded and in others followed the onset of the eating disorders. Our sample was characterized by patients with severe ED and high comorbidities, and thus do not represent the entire population of AN or BN. This also may have resulted in an overestimation of prevalence. Mood disorders appear significantly more frequently in patients seeking care for ED than in controls. These results have implications for the assessment and treatment of ED patients, and for the aetio-pathogenesis of these disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten
PURPOSE: The present study established the national prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) among Danish psychiatric patients. Furthermore, patients with SUDs and those without SUDs were compared on a range of socio-demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics. METHODS: Data were......). Patients with SUDs were more often men, had fewer years of formal education, more often received disability pension and died due to unnatural causes. CONCLUSIONS: The study was the most comprehensive of its kind so far to estimate the prevalence of SUDs in an unselected population-based cohort...
Guilford, W G; Matz, M E
Dietary protein, carbohydrates, fats and fibre have marked influences on gastrointestinal tract function and dysfunction. This article reviews the nutritional management of common gastrointestinal disorders in companion animals and introduces some of the current areas of research including probiotics, prebiotics, protein-hydrolysate diets, immunonutrition and dietary fibre. Nutritional management of oesophageal disease revolves around varying the consistency of the diet and feeding the animal from an elevated container. Provision of bowel rest remains the mainstay of the management of acute gastroenteritis but food-based oral rehydration solutions are a useful adjunct. The recommended diet for chronic small bowel diarrhoea is a highly digestible, hypoallergenic, gluten-free, low-lactose and low-fat diet with modest amounts of fermentable fibre. The use of probiotics in the management of diarrhoea in companion animals has not yet been shown to be beneficial. It is likely that prebiotics will prove more effective than probiotics in the prevention of enteropathogenic infections. Approximately 50% of cats in New Zealand that suffer from chronic idiopathic vomiting or diarrhoea will respond to a novel-protein-elimination diet and approximately 30% meet the diagnostic criteria for food sensitivity. Growing evidence supports the use of protein-hydrolysate diets in the management of inflammatory bowel disease and further advances in immunonutrition are expected. The dietary management of colitis should include a hypoallergenic diet with a fermentable fibre source. Manipulation of the diet provides clinicians a powerful therapeutic strategy to be used alone or concurrently with drug therapy in the management of gastrointestinal disorders.
Full Text Available The prevalence of sleep related complaints is reported by questionnaire studies to be as high as 83.3% in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Questionnaire studies report the presence of various parasomnia in ASD. However, no polysomnographic study reports non-REM parasomnias and only a single study reports REM related parasomnias in ASD. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of sleep disorders by polysomnographic study and questionnaires in a cohort of 23 children with ASD and 23 age-matched children of a non-autistic comparison group. The results showed significantly more non-REM parasomnias in 14 children with ASD on polysomnograms (PSG and 16 ASD children by questionnaire, a finding that was not associated with medication use, other comorbid medical or psychiatric disorders, or sleep disordered breathing. Of the 14 children with ASD who had PSG evidence of parasomnia, 11 of them had a history suggestive of parasomnia by questionnaire. There was a high sensitivity but a low specificity of parasomnia in ASD by questionnaire in predicting the presence of parasomnia in the PSG. Of the parasomnias recorded in the laboratory, 13 ASD children had Disorders of Partial Arousal, consistent with sleep terrors or confusional arousals. Furthermore, multiple episodes of partial arousal occurred in 11 of the 13 ASD children who had PSG evidence of Disorders of Partial Arousal. Of the 11 ASD children with multiple episodes of partial arousal, 6 ASD children had multiple partial arousals during both nights’ PSG study. Sleep architecture was abnormal in children with ASD, characterized by increased spontaneous arousals, prolonged REM latency and reduced REM percentage. These results suggest a high prevalence of parasomnia in this cohort of children with ASD and a careful history intake of symptoms compatible with parasomnia could be prudent to diagnose parasomnia in ASD children when performing a PSG is not possible.
Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kwok-Kit
An excessive, problematic gambling pattern has been regarded as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) for more than 3 decades (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1980). In this study, its latest prevalence in Macao (one of very few cities with legalized gambling in China and the Far East) was estimated with 2 major changes in the diagnostic criteria, suggested by the 5th edition of DSM (APA, 2013): (a) removing the "Illegal Act" criterion, and (b) lowering the threshold for diagnosis. A random, representative sample of 1,018 Macao residents was surveyed with a phone poll design in January 2013. After the 2 changes were adopted, the present study showed that the estimated prevalence rate of gambling disorder was 2.1% of the Macao adult population. Moreover, the present findings also provided empirical support to the application of these 2 recommended changes when assessing symptoms of gambling disorder among Chinese community adults. Personal risk factors of gambling disorder, namely being male, having low education, a preference for casino gambling, as well as high materialism, were identified.
C. W. Slotema
Full Text Available BackgroundA diagnosis of psychotic disorder is traditionally considered incompatible with borderline personality disorder (BPD, even though patients sometimes fulfill the diagnostic criteria for both disorders. How often this happens is barely known, as is the influence of comorbid psychotic disorders on the outcome of BPD. Since studies on isolated auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with BPD indicate that these perceptual symptoms have severe consequences and are associated with suicidal behavior and hospitalization, patients with comorbid psychotic disorders are unlikely to fare better.ObjectiveTo examine the point prevalence of psychotic disorders in patients with BPD, their association with the outcome of BPD, and their predictive value for outcome.MethodsIn a cross-sectional design, 84 female outpatients diagnosed with BPD were interviewed with the aid of the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview to establish the point prevalence of comorbid psychotic and other comorbid disorders. After termination of their treatment at a specialized outpatient clinic, the type of referral was considered to be a “good” outcome when they were referred to their general practitioner or to basic psychiatric care for noncomplex patients, and a “poor” outcome when referred to a specialized psychiatric department or to a psychiatric district team for patients with severe psychiatric disorders.ResultsPsychotic disorders were present in 38% of the patients with BPD. With a prevalence of 20%, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (NOS was the most common subtype; the least common types were schizophrenia (2%, substance-induced psychotic disorder (2%, and brief psychotic disorder (1%. Among six types of comorbid disorders, only psychotic disorders were associated with a poor outcome; they were also predictors for a poor outcome, along with comorbid mood disorders, eating disorders, and somatoform disorders, as well as the severity of BPD
Hwang, Se Hwan; Ahn, Ma Rhip; Han, Kyung Do; Lee, Jung Ho
With the steady rise of health and environmental awareness, the number of bicyclists is increasing. However, there are few epidemiologic studies on bicycling under the influence (BUI). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of BUI and the associated risk factors in a representative Korean population. The data of 4,833 adult bicyclists who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012) were analyzed. Among the 4,833 participants investigated in this study, 586 (12.1%) had experienced BUI. As participants' age increased, so did the prevalence of BUI (P < 0.001), with the participants who were aged 60-69 showing the highest prevalence of BUI (19.6%). With regard to BUI and drinking habits, the likelihood of being a heavy or high-risk drinker increased with the frequency of BUI (P < 0.001). In addition, there was a positive relationship between the frequency of BUI and alcohol use disorder identification score level. Finally, those who had previous experiences of BUI were significantly more likely to drive and ride motorcycles under the influence (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the prevalence of BUI was 12.1% and several associated risk factors for BUI were elucidated in this study. The development of specific preventive strategies and educational programs aimed at deterring individuals at a high risk of engaging in BUI is expected to reduce the number of alcohol-related bicycle injuries. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.
Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reingold, Stephen; Cohen, Jeffrey
-based studies, the prevalence of anxiety was 21.9% (95% CI: 8.76%-35.0%), while it was 14.8% for alcohol abuse, 5.83% for bipolar disorder, 23.7% (95% CI: 17.4%-30.0%) for depression, 2.5% for substance abuse, and 4.3% (95% CI: 0%-10.3%) for psychosis. CONCLUSION: This review confirms that psychiatric......BACKGROUND: Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with lower quality of life, more fatigue, and reduced adherence to disease-modifying therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are to estimate the incidence and prevalence of selected comorbid psychiatric...... disorders in MS and evaluate the quality of included studies. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, PsychInfo, SCOPUS, and Web of Knowledge databases and reference lists of retrieved articles. Abstracts were screened for relevance by two independent reviewers, followed by full-text review. Data were abstracted...
Work as a librarian involves exposure to potential risk factors for developing upper limb disorders. The prevalence of upper limb symptoms has, however, not previously been assessed in this occupational group. To estimate the 7-day and annual prevalence of self-reported neck and upper limb symptoms in librarians and to examine associations with specific tasks and ergonomic risk factors. A cross-sectional study using components of the standardized Nordic questionnaire. The study population consisted of librarians employed by a large local authority, and data collection was by means of a self-administered questionnaire. from studies on keyboard workers and on the general population were used as comparators. The 7-day prevalence of self-reported neck and upper limb pain in female librarians was 42% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33.7-50.5) and the annual prevalence was 65% (95% CI 56.6-72.8). The prevalence of reported wrist and hand pain increased with increased working involving a wide thumb-index span (P librarians was high, but there was insufficient evidence to confirm whether the prevalence was higher than in the general population or among keyboard workers. Working with a wide thumb-index span was associated with reporting upper limb symptoms.
Zwirs, B.W.; Burger, H.; Schulpen, T.W.J.; Wiznitzer, M.; Fedder, H.; Buitelaar, J.K.
The present study assesses the population prevalence of DSM-IV disorders among native and immigrant children living in low socio-economic status (SES) inner-city neighborhoods in the Netherlands. In the first phase of a two-phase epidemiological design, teachers screened an ethnically diverse sample of 2041 children aged 6-10 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In the second phase, a subsample of 253 children was psychiatrically examined, while their parents were i...
Full Text Available Hamdy El-Tallawy,1 Wafa Farghaly,1 Nabil Metwally,2 Tarek Rageh,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Reda Badry,1 Esam El Moselhy,2 Mahmoud Hassan,2 Mohamed M Sayed,3 Ahmed A Abdelwarith,1 Y Hamed,2 I Shaaban,2 Talal Mohamed,4 Mohamed Abd El Hamed,1 MR Kandil1 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Neurology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Assiut branch, Assiut, Egypt; 3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt; 4Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Qena University, Qena, Egypt Abstract: Methodology and strategy play a very important role in epidemiological studies. Determination of the study area, geographical features, facilities, difficulties, and key personnel from the same area are important factors for successful methodology. Over 31 months (July 1, 2009 to January 31, 2012, a screening and an examination survey were carried out to ascertain the prevalence of epilepsy, stroke, dementia, cerebellar ataxia, migraine, cerebral palsy, Parkinsonism, chorea, athetosis, dystonia, trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in Al Quseir, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt. A total of 33,285 people were screened by three neurologists in a door-to-door manner, including every door, using a standardized Arabic questionnaire to detect any subject with a neurological disorder. The methodological aspects of this project were carried out through eight phases: (1 data collection; (2 preparation; (3 screening; (4 case ascertainment; (5 investigations; (6 classifications; (7 data entry; and (8 statistics and tabulations. The results of this study reveal that the total prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir was 4.6% and higher among females (5.2% than males (3.9%. The highest prevalence was recorded in the elderly population (60+ years [8.0%] and among the age
Pharoah, P O; Stevenson, C J; Cooke, R W; Stevenson, R C
OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of behaviour disorders in low birthweight infants. DESIGN--Children of birth weight < or = 2000 g born to mothers resident in Merseyside in 1980-1 assessed using the Rutter parent and teacher behaviour questionnaires and the Conner modification of the Rutter teacher questionnaire. Children attending normal schools were assessed with controls matched for age, sex, and class in school. Children attending special schools were assessed unmatched. SUBJECTS--2...
Metcalfe, Drew B; Duggal, Claire S; Gabriel, Allen; Nahabedian, Maurice Y; Carlson, Grant W; Losken, Albert
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by a preoccupation with a slight or imagined defect in physical appearance. It has significant implications for patients who desire breast reconstruction, because patient satisfaction with the aesthetic outcome is a substantial contributor to the success of the procedure. The authors estimated the prevalence of BDD among women seeking breast reconstruction by surveying patients with the previously validated Dysmorphic Concerns Questionnaire (DCQ). One hundred eighty-eight women who presented for immediate or delayed breast reconstruction completed the DCQ anonymously, during initial consultation with a plastic surgeon. Two groups of respondents were identified: those who desired immediate reconstruction and those who planned to undergo delayed reconstruction. The prevalence of BDD among breast reconstruction patients was compared between the 2 groups, and the overall prevalence was compared with published rates for the general public. Body dysmorphic disorder was significantly more prevalent in breast reconstruction patients than in the general population (17% vs 2%; P < .001). It also was much more common among patients who planned to undergo delayed (vs immediate) reconstruction (34% vs 13%; P = .004). Relative to the general public, significantly more women who sought breast reconstruction were diagnosed as having BDD. Awareness of the potential for BDD will enable clinicians to better understand their patients' perspectives and discuss realistic expectations at the initial consultation. Future studies are warranted to examine the implications of BDD on patient satisfaction with reconstructive surgery. 3. © 2014 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.
Full Text Available Norbert Dahmen, Julia Becht, Alice Engel, Monika Thommes, Peter TonnPsychiatry Department, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Narcoleptic patients suffer frequently from obesity and type II diabetes. Most patients show a deficit in the energy balance regulating orexinergic system. Nevertheless, it is not known, why narcoleptic patients tend to be obese. We examined 116 narcoleptic patients and 80 controls with the structured interview for anorectic and bulimic eating disorders (SIAB to test the hypothesis that typical or atypical eating attacks or eating disorders may be more frequent in narcoleptic patients. No difference in the current prevalence of eating disorders bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or anorexia nervosa was found, nor was the frequency of eating attacks higher in the narcolepsy group. We conclude that present eating disorders and eating attacks as defined in DSM IV are not the reason for the observed differences in body composition. Additional factors, such as basal metabolic rates and lifestyle factors need to be considered.Keywords: narcolepsy, eating disorder, SIAB, bulimia, anorexia, eating attack
Full Text Available Christopher W Drapeau, Michael R Nadorff Department of Psychology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA Abstract: Sleep disturbances are associated with suicide-related thoughts and behaviors, and the incidence of sleep concerns and suicide has increased recently in the US. Most published research exploring the sleep–suicidality relation is focused on select sleep disorders, with few reviews offering a comprehensive overview of the sleep–suicidality literature. This narrative review broadly investigates the growing research literature on sleep disorders and suicidality, noting the prevalence of suicide ideation and nonfatal and fatal suicide attempts, the impact of several sleep disorders on suicide risk, and potential sleep-disorder management strategies for mitigating suicide risk. Aside from insomnia symptoms and nightmares, there exist opportunities to learn more about suicide risk across many sleep conditions, including whether sleep disorders are associated with suicide risk independently of other psychiatric conditions or symptoms. Generally, there is a lack of randomized controlled trials examining the modification of suicide risk via evidence-based sleep interventions for individuals with sleep disorders. Keywords: sleep, suicide, suicidality, insomnia, nightmares, treatment
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Rosselli, Francine; Perrin, Nancy; DeBar, Lynn; Wilson, G. Terence; May, Alexis; Kraemer, Helena C.
Objective This study examined gender differences in prevalence of eating disorder symptoms including body image concerns (body checking or avoidance), binge eating, and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. Method A random sample of members (ages 18 to 35) of a health maintenance organization was recruited to complete a survey by mail or on-line. Items were drawn from the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results Among the 3,714 women and 1,808 men who responded, men were more likely to report overeating whereas women were more likely to endorse loss of control while eating. Although statistically significant gender differences were observe, with women significantly more likely than men to report body checking and avoidance, binge eating, fasting, and vomiting, effect sizes (“Number Needed to Treat”) were small to moderate. Conclusions Few studies of eating disorders include men, yet our findings suggest that a substantial minority of men also report eating disorder symptoms. PMID:19107833
Kallail, K James; Downs, David; Scherz, Julie; Sweet, Donna; Zackula, Rosalee E
Few adult patients with HIV/AIDS are evaluated for communication disorders. A broad inventory of the communication disorders was obtained in a convenience sample of 82 adult HIV/AIDS patients who presented for medical appointments. Each participant underwent a head and neck exam and a communications skills evaluation. Speech, language, and cognition were assessed using a 10-item test battery. A 14-item hearing test battery was conducted in a separate session. The primary outcomes were the presence and degree of communication disorders. Head and neck exams revealed 40% with ear-related issues. Only 2 participants showed normal findings on all 24 communication skills assessments. Four demonstrated normal findings on all speech-language-cognitive assessments, whereas 8 had normal findings on the complete hearing test battery. A relatively high prevalence of cognitive and language deficits and central auditory disturbances were found. Clinicians must recognize the potential for communication deficits even in a relatively healthy patient with HIV.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of the annual prevalence for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD were consistent across the international sites range, 1.9% – 2.5%. The nine population surveys, which used Diagnostic Interview Schedule, estimated a six-month prevalence of OCD ranging from 0.7% to 2.1%. This study performed in order to determine the prevalence of OCD in a population-based study among Iranian adults aged 18 and older and to study the association of them with factors such as sex, marital status, education, type of occupation and residential area. Methods A cross-sectional nationwide epidemiological study of the Iranian population aged 18 and older was designed to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their association with the above mentioned factors. 25180 individuals were selected and interviewed through a randomized systematic and cluster sampling method from all Iranian households. Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV criteria were used in diagnosis of OCD. 250 clinical psychologists interviewed the selected subjects face to face at their homes. Results The prevalence of OCD in Iran is 1.8% (0.7% and 2.8% in males and females; respectively. 50.3% of the survey sample were men, 49.9% women, 29.1% single, 67.45% married, 0.4% separated or divorced, 2.5% widow/widower and 4% undetermined. All of the above-mentioned factors were examined in the univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Although the data did not fit the models well, but in univariate models, sex, the category "single" of marital status, age, the categories "business" and "housewife" and residential areas showed significant effect adjusting for the factors, but the models didn't fit the data properly. Conclusion The study suggests that the prevalence of OCD is not rare in the community of Iran and is within the range of other countries. Similar to prior
Yu, Zhiping; Tan, Michael
Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students ( n = 967, ages 18-25, female 72.7%, white 74.8%) enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.
Yu, Zhiping; Tan, Michael
Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18–25, female 72.7%, white 74.8%) enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students. PMID:27792162
Full Text Available Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18–25, female 72.7%, white 74.8% enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.
Schneider, Sophie C; Mond, Jonathan; Turner, Cynthia M; Hudson, Jennifer L
The aim of the current study was to establish the prevalence of subthreshold body dysmorphic disorder (subthreshold-BDD) in a community sample of adolescents, and to compare disorder correlates in individuals with subthreshold-BDD to those with probable full-syndrome BDD (probable-BDD) and those without BDD (non-BDD). Self-report questionnaires assessing DSM-IV BDD criteria, past mental health service use, and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders, were completed by 3149 Australian high school students (mean age =14.6 years, 63.5% male). Male participants also completed measures assessing quality of life, muscularity concerns, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and peer problems. The prevalence of subthreshold-BDD was 3.4%, and probable-BDD was 1.7%. Compared to the non-BDD group, subthreshold-BDD was associated with elevated symptoms of comorbid psychopathology and greater past mental health service use, and in male-only measures, with poorer quality of life and elevated muscularity concerns. Subthreshold-BDD participants reported significantly lower mental health service use, and fewer symptoms of depression, eating disorders, and hyperactivity than probable-BDD participants, however, other comorbid symptoms did not differ significantly between these groups. These findings indicate that subthreshold-BDD is associated with substantial difficulties for adolescents in the general community. BDD screening should include subthreshold presentations, as these may be an important target for early intervention programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most prevalent psychiadric disorders starting from Childhood and is considered as an important mental health problem of a society. Behavioral disorders including ADHD may have distractive effects on peoples social, educational, personality, and behavioral relationship in their childhood and adulthood. Therefore, we decided to conduct the present research for ADHD in elementary school students of Khoramabad year 2004. Materials and methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. Its statistical community includes all the students studing in grades one to five at elementary school in Khorramabad (N=945. Some 16 state and private schools (8 girls and 8 boys schools were selected in a cluster and multi-stage method. The standardized questionnaire Child symptom inventories – 4 (CSI4 has been used to collect data, which was a means for the prevalens of children’s psychiatric disorders. Owing to their scoring. The cases which showed ADHD were undergone clinical examination by psychiatrist. Then, the results were analyzed using descriptive statistic and X2 test. Results: The total sample was 945 children There were 50.7% and 49.3% girls and boys respectively. Some 3.17 per cent of them were reported to suffer from ADHD the most percentages of which were of inattention (40%, overactivens (33.3%, and mixed type (26.6%. ADHD was reported to be more prevalent in boys than girls (4.9% VS. 1.5%. The students in grade 5 showed the lowest, and those in grade 2 and 3 showed the highest prevalence rate of suffering from ADHD. There was also a significant relationship between children’s sex and ADHD (P<0.005. However, there seemed no significant relationship between parents age, education, job, income, grade, and the family psychiatric problems. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of the disorder including ADHD, and lack of enough attention to their consequences in children and
Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are widespread in many countries around the world. It has been reported that about 58 percent of the world's population over the age of 10 years spent one third of their life span at work. The population at a high risk include nursing facilities, transportation, mining, food processing, leather tanning, heavy and light manufacturing. Transport workers have been found to be at high risk of developing work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. There has been literature evidence regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in bus drivers of various cities of different countries. But no study has been done so far in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali for the same. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs among bus drivers of Tricity. Methods: 300 bus drivers were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The standardized Nordic questionnaire for musculoskeletal disorder and a self administered questionnaire were filled by therapist after the personal interview of each driver. Results: Unpaired t test was used to measure the difference in variable of two groups and Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between two entities. In the present study, the subjects were in the age group of 25 to 50 years. Out of the total sample of 300 male bus drivers in Tricity, 159 reported that they had WRMSDs. The prevalence of WRMSDs among bus drivers in Tricity was 53%. In present study, the prevalence of low back pain was highest among the bus drivers that are 30.3%, then neck pain 17.3%, knee pain 14.7%, shoulder 6.3%, ankle and feet 5.7%, upper back 4%, hip and thigh 4%, elbow 1.3% and wrist and hand 1.3%. Thus low back pain, neck pain and knee pain are the most prevalent WRMSDs amongst bus drivers. Conclusions: Work-related biomechanical
Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Jacobsen, Bendt; Gram, Jeppe
Objective To estimate the incidence of nutritional rickets and the incidence and prevalence of hereditary rickets. Design Population-based retrospective cohort study based on a review of medical records. Methods Patients aged 0-14.9 years referred to or discharged from hospitals in Southern Denmark...... from 1985 to 2005 with a diagnosis of rickets were identified by register search and their medical records were retrieved. Patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of primary rickets were included. Results We identified 112 patients with nutritional rickets of whom 74% were immigrants. From 1995......-2005 the average incidence of nutritional rickets in children aged 0-14.9 years and 0-2.9 years was 2.9 and 5.8 per 100,000 per year, respectively. Among immigrant children born in Denmark the average incidence was 60 (0-14.9 years) per 100,000 per year. Ethnic Danish children were only diagnosed in early...
Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Franco Garcia, Dora Nelly; Fontecha Sandoval, Gustavo Adolfo; Hernandez Santana, Adriana; Singh, Prabhjot; Mancero Bucheli, Sandra Tamara; Saboya, Martha; Paz, Mirian Yolanda
Background Many small studies have been done in Honduras estimating soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) prevalence but a country-wide study was last done in 2005. The country has the highest burden of malaria among all Central American countries. The present study was done to estimate country-wide STH prevalence and intensity, malaria prevalence and nutritional status in school going children. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted following PAHO/WHO guidelines to select a sample of school going children of 3rd to 5th grades, representative of ecological regions in the country. A survey questionnaire was filled; anthropometric measurements, stool sample for STH and blood sample for malaria were taken. Kato-Katz method was used for STH prevalence and intensity and rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for malaria parasite detection. A total of 2554 students were studied of which 43.5% had one or more STH. Trichuriasis was the most prevalent (34%) followed by ascariasis (22.3%) and hookworm (0.9%). Ecological regions II (59.7%) and VI (55.6%) in the north had the highest STH prevalence rates while IV had the lowest (10.6%). Prevalence of one or more high intensity STH was low (1.6%). Plasmodium vivax was detected by PCR in only 5 students (0.2%), all of which belonged to the same municipality; no P. falciparum infection was detected. The majority of children (83%) had normal body mass index for their respective age but a significant proportion were overweight (10.42%) and obese (4.35%). Conclusions Biannual deworming campaigns would be necessary in ecological regions II and VI, where STH prevalence is >50%. High prevalence of obesity in school going children is a worrying trend and portends of future increase in obesity related diseases. Malaria prevalence, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, was low and provides evidence for Honduras to embark on elimination of the disease. PMID:25330010
Eating disorders in young women are often associated with a number of comorbid conditions, including mood disorders and cognitive problems. Although group therapy is often used as part of overall treatment for eating disorders in many types of settings, specific nutritional interventions used in such settings have rarely been evaluated. In this…
Jamie N. Pugh
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS amongst recreational runners during a marathon race, and potential nutritional factors that may contribute. Recreational runners of the 2017 Liverpool (n = 66 and Dublin (n = 30 marathons were recruited. GIS were reported post-marathon and we considered GIS in the 7 days prior to the marathon and during the marathon using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS. Nutritional intake was recorded using food diaries for the day before the race, morning of the race, and during the race; 43% of participants reported moderate (≥4 GIS in the 7 days prior to the marathon and 27% reported moderate symptoms during the marathon with most common symptoms being flatulence (16% during training, and nausea (8% during the marathon race. Correlations between all nutritional intake and GIS were not statistically significant (p > 0.05. There were significant correlations between total GIS score (r = 0.510, p < 0.001, upper GIS score (r = 0.346, p = 0.001 and lower GIS score (r = 0.483, p < 0.001 in training and during the marathon. There appears to be a modest prevalence of GIS in recreational runners, in the week prior to a marathon and during marathon running, although there was no association with nutritional intake before or during the race.
Pugh, Jamie N; Kirk, Ben; Fearn, Robert; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) amongst recreational runners during a marathon race, and potential nutritional factors that may contribute. Recreational runners of the 2017 Liverpool ( n = 66) and Dublin ( n = 30) marathons were recruited. GIS were reported post-marathon and we considered GIS in the 7 days prior to the marathon and during the marathon using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS). Nutritional intake was recorded using food diaries for the day before the race, morning of the race, and during the race; 43% of participants reported moderate (≥4) GIS in the 7 days prior to the marathon and 27% reported moderate symptoms during the marathon with most common symptoms being flatulence (16%) during training, and nausea (8%) during the marathon race. Correlations between all nutritional intake and GIS were not statistically significant ( p > 0.05). There were significant correlations between total GIS score ( r = 0.510, p training and during the marathon. There appears to be a modest prevalence of GIS in recreational runners, in the week prior to a marathon and during marathon running, although there was no association with nutritional intake before or during the race.
Full Text Available Restricted diets and inadequate nutrient intake of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD have been reported. This study examined the nutritional statuses of children with ASD and the relationships between their behaviors and nutritional intake. A total of 154 children with ASD (age = 5.21 ± 1.83 years and 73 typically-developing (TD children (age = 4.83 ± 0.84 years from Chongqing, China, were enrolled. The severity of ASD was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS. The serum ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, 25(OH vitamin D, and vitamin A concentrations in the children with ASD were determined. All participants underwent anthropometric examinations, dietary assessments, and questionnaire assessments about their feeding behaviors, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The ZHA, ZWA, and ZBMIA were found to be significantly lower in the children with ASD compared with those without ASD. In addition, the percentages of children exhibiting severe picky eating and severe resistance to new foods, as well as those with a reported general impression of severe eating problems and constipation, were higher among the children with ASD. These children consumed significantly fewer macronutrients compared with the children without ASD. In addition, the children with ASD had the highest rate of vitamin A deficiency, followed by iron deficiency. After adjusting for sex, the vitamin A concentration was found to be negatively correlated with the CARS score (rs = −0.222, p = 0.021. No correlation between the ferritin, folate, vitamin D, or vitamin B12 concentration and the CARS score was found. These results suggest that reduced macronutrient intakes, severe feeding behavior issues, constipation, and vitamin A deficiency are quite common among children with ASD. Further, a low serum vitamin A level may be a risk factor for symptoms of ASD. However, the underlying mechanism should be further studied.
Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chang, Chin-Hao; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Hsi-Chung
To investigate the prevalence and correlates of bipolar disorders in patients with eating disorders (EDs), and to examine differences in effects between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder on these patients. Sequential attendees were invited to participate in a two-phase survey for EDs at the general psychiatric outpatient clinics. Patients diagnosed with EDs (n=288) and controls of comparable age, sex, and educational level (n=81) were invited to receive structured interviews for psychiatric co-morbidities, suicide risks, and functional level. All participants also completed several self-administered questionnaires assessing general and eating-related pathology and impulsivity. Characteristics were compared between the control, ED-only, ED with major depressive disorder, and ED with bipolar disorder groups. Patients with all ED subtypes had significantly higher rates of major depressive disorder (range, 41.3-66.7%) and bipolar disorder (range, 16.7-49.3%) than controls did. Compared to patients with only EDs, patients with comorbid bipolar disorder and those with comorbid major depressive disorder had significantly increased suicidality and functional impairments. Moreover, the group with comorbid bipolar disorder had increased risks of weight dysregulation, more impulsive behaviors, and higher rates of psychiatric comorbidities. Participants were selected in a tertiary center of a non-Western country and the sample size of individuals with bipolar disorder in some ED subtypes was small. Bipolar disorders were common in patients with EDs. Careful differentiation between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder in patients with EDs may help predict associated psychopathology and provide accurate treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Masand, Prakash S; Keuthen, Nancy J; Gupta, Sanjay; Virk, Subhdeep; Yu-Siao, Barbara; Kaplan, David
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) occurs more frequently in psychiatric patients, especially those with anxiety and mood disorders. We sought to determine the prevalence and phenomenology of IBS in patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A semi-structured diagnostic interview was administered to patients seeking treatment for OCD in outpatient settings. Structured questions regarding gastrointestinal functioning and IBS symptoms were administered. IBS was diagnosed by a gastroenterologist using Rome I criteria. Thirty-seven patients (35.1%) with OCD met criteria for IBS. Of these, 53.8% had IBS with both diarrhea and constipation, 30.8% had diarrhea-predominant IBS, and 15.4% had constipation-predominant IBS. The prevalence rate of IBS in an age- and sex-matched control group (n=40) of medical patients in a family practice was 2.5%. IBS prevalence rates were significantly higher for OCD patients than control subjects (P=.0002). IBS and psychiatric illness have high rates of bi-directional comorbidity. This study shows that 35.1% of patients with OCD satisfied criteria for IBS in contrast to 2.5% of the controlled subjects. In most patients the IBS was characterized by both diarrhea and constipation. While taking the initial history clinicians should inquire about bowel symptoms in patients presenting with psychiatric illnesses, including OCD. SSRIs could potentially worsen such symptoms and lead to non-adherence.
Full Text Available Abstract Background: The speech disorders may produce irreparable damage to childs speech and language development in the psychosocial view. The voice, speech sound production and fluency disorders are speech disorders, that may result from delay or impairment in speech motor control mechanism, central neuron system disorders, improper language stimulation or voice abuse. Materials and Methods: This study examined the prevalence of speech disorders in 1393 Arakian students at 1 to 6th grades of primary school. After collecting continuous speech samples, picture description, passage reading and phonetic test, we recorded the pathological signs of stuttering, articulation disorder and voice disorders in a special sheet. Results: The prevalence of articulation, voice and stuttering disorders was 8%, 3.5% and%1 and the prevalence of speech disorders was 11.9%. The prevalence of speech disorders was decreasing with increasing of student’s grade. 12.2% of boy students and 11.7% of girl students of primary school in Arak had speech disorders. Conclusion: The prevalence of speech disorders of primary school students in Arak is similar to the prevalence of speech disorders in Kermanshah, but the prevalence of speech disorders in this research is smaller than many similar researches in Iran. It seems that racial and cultural diversity has some effect on increasing the prevalence of speech disorders in Arak city.
da Silva, Fernanda Marchetto; Jorge, Alexander Augusto; Malaquias, Alexandra; da Costa Pereira, Alexandre; Yamamoto, Guilherme Lopes; Kim, Chong Ae; Bertola, Debora
Rasopathies are a group of rare disorders characterized by neurocardiofaciocutaneous involvement, and caused by mutations in several genes of the RAS/MAPK pathway. In the present study, we characterized growth parameters, body composition, and nutritional aspects of children and adults (n = 62) affected by these disorders, mainly Noonan syndrome, using an indirect method-anthropometry-and a 24-hr recall questionnaire. The growth parameters in our cohort showed short stature, especially in individuals with RAF1 and SHOC2 mutations, lower obesity rates compared to the control population, and BMI scores highest in individuals with BRAF mutations and lowest in individuals with SHOC2. Body composition showed a compromise in the upper arm muscle circumference, with a statistically significant difference in the z-score of triceps skinfold (P = 0.0204) and upper arm fat area (P = 0.0388) between BRAF and SHOC2 groups and in the z-score of triceps skinfold between RAF1 and SHOC2 (P = 0.0218). The pattern of macronutrient consumption was similar to the control population. Our study is the first to address body composition in RASopathy individuals and the data indicate a compromise not only in adipose tissue, but also in muscle mass. Studies using different techniques, such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or imaging studies, which give a more precise delineation of fat and non-fat mass, are required to confirm our results, ultimately causing an impact on management strategies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Winship, G; Hardy, S
Personality disorder (PD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder. A methodical literature search identified that PD is under researched compared with other mental health problems such as depression or schizophrenia. Social and psychotherapeutic approaches emerge as dominant treatment approaches with PD where there is good evidence of efficacy. Collaborative group-based therapeutic approaches appear to offer a therapeutic counterpoise to the anti-social traits often prevalent in PD. A retrospective analysis of formal group therapy on acute inpatient units (treating PD patients among other mental health disorders) reveals only one violent incident in over 40,000 treatment hours of formal group therapy. It is argued that group-based and social therapy should be the recommended treatment approach because these approaches have been shown to create a safe and contained milieu, establishing a good base for therapeutic gain with PD patients. The case for widening the scope of collaborative group and community-based therapies is considered and the merits and shortcomings of a key worker system with PD patients are critiqued.
Full Text Available Problems occupying special attention identified by the World Health Organization also include Childhood malnutrition (Beagle hole et al., 1993. Development goals are also program by the United Nations to halve the problem of under nutrition (Alderman et al., 2005. Despite of the involvement of international organizations still under nutrition has a main contribution to the high mortality rate of the children in the most part of the world (Caulfield et al., 2004. Poverty plays a main part in the high prevalence of childhood under nutrition. The child is said to be under-weight when its weight is lower than the weight of the reference rage for that age. The weight for height deficiency is known as wasting, while height for age deficiency as stunting. Wasting may be due to acute food shortage while prolonged food deprivation can cause stunting (Cosminsky et al., 1993; de Onis et al., 2000; Fernandez et al., 2002; and Zere & McIntyre, 2003. The factors responsible for the predisposition of children to mal nutrition vary and ranges from political instability to the economical status of the area (de Onis et al., 2000. Therefore protocols developed for the preventive measures of mal-nutrition should be multifaceted.
Portillo, Karina; Morera, Josep
Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTMLD) in immunocompetent patients is an increasingly important epidemiologic concern. However, risk factors associated with susceptibility to NTMLD are not completely known. A prevalence of NTMLD appears to be rising, mainly in some populations such as middle-aged or elderly thin women, (a group including those with Lady Windermere syndrome) with neither remarkable history of respiratory disease nor smoking habit. Right middle lobe (RML) and lingula are often involved. Various predisposing factors and genetic defects have been described as possible causes of development of NTMLD, namely: voluntary suppression of cough, RML anatomical factors, menopause and mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Malnutrition is also an important and common risk factor associated with other mycobacterial disease like tuberculosis (TB) and its probable association with NTMLD as have been pointed out for some authors. However, a real description of all nutritional aspects and eating habits of patients prior to NTMLD diagnosis is lacking. We hypothesized that malnutrition and eating disorders like anorexia nervosa could be risk factors that may promoting NTMLD. From a clinical viewpoint, if this hypothesis proves to be correct, eating habits and nutritional aspects should be taken into account in the diagnosis process of suspected NTMLD, since they are easily identifiable and treatable conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Nie, Noémi C; Meijers, Judith M M; Schols, Jos M G A; Lohrmann, Christa; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Halfens, Ruud J G
The aim of this study was to explore whether structural quality indicators for nutritional care influence malnutrition prevalence in the Netherlands, Germany, and Austria. Furthermore, differences in malnutrition prevalence and structural quality indicators for nutritional care nursing homes in the three countries were examined. This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study using a standardized questionnaire at the patient, ward, and institutional levels. Malnutrition was assessed by low body mass index, undesired weight loss, and reduced intake. Structural quality indicators of nutritional care were measured at the ward and institutional levels. The prevalence of malnutrition differed significantly between the three countries (Netherlands 18%, Germany 20%, and Austria 22.7%). Structural quality indicators related to nutritional care as having a guideline of prevention and treatment of malnutrition were related to malnutrition and explained malnutrition prevalence variance between the Netherlands and Germany. Differences between the Netherlands and Austria in malnutrition prevalence still existed after controlling for these quality structural indicators. Structural quality indicators of nutritional care are important in explaining malnutrition variance between the Netherlands and Germany. However, they did not explain the difference in malnutrition prevalence between the Netherlands and Austria. Investigating the role of process indicators may provide insight in the role of structural quality indicators of nutritional care in explaining the malnutrition prevalence differences between the Netherlands and Austria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McElroy, Susan L; Crow, Scott; Blom, Thomas J; Biernacka, Joanna M; Winham, Stacey J; Geske, Jennifer; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B; Bobo, William V; Prieto, Miguel L; Veldic, Marin; Mori, Nicole; Seymour, Lisa R; Bond, David J; Frye, Mark A
To determine prevalence rates and clinical correlates of current DSM-5 eating disorders in patients with bipolar disorder (BP). Prevalence rates of current DSM-5- and DSM-IV-defined binge eating disorder (BED), bulimia nervosa (BN), and anorexia nervosa (AN) were assessed with the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) in 1092 patients with BP. Psychiatric illness burden was evaluated with five proxy measures of BP illness severity. Medical illness burden was evaluated with the Cumulative Index Rating Scale (CIRS). Twenty-seven percent of patients had a current DSM-5 eating disorder: 12% had BED, 15% had BN, and 0.2% had AN. Rates of DSM-5-defined BED and BN were higher than clinical diagnosis rates and rates of DSM-IV-defined BED and BN. Compared with BP patients without an eating disorder, BP patients with a DSM-5 eating disorder were younger and more likely to be women; had an earlier age of onset of BP; had higher EDDS composite scores and higher degrees of suicidality, mood instability, and anxiety disorder comorbidity; and had a higher mean BMI, higher rate of obesity, and higher CIRS total scores. In a logistic regression model controlling for previously identified correlates of an eating disorder, younger age, female gender, and higher BMI remained significantly associated with an eating disorder. The EDDS has not been validated in BP patients. DSM-5-defined BED and BN are common in BP patients, possibly more common than DSM-IV-defined BED and BN, and associated with greater psychiatric and general medical illness burden. Further studies assessing DSM-5 eating disorders in people with BP are greatly needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Okuda, Mayumi; Liu, Weiwei; Cisewski, Jodi A; Segura, Luis; Storr, Carla L; Martins, Silvia S
Previous studies demonstrate disparities in health and health services including gambling disorders (GD) among ethnic and racial minority groups. In this review, we summarize studies examining the prevalence of GD across different ethnic and racial minorities. We describe the sociodemographic subgroup variations at heightened risk for GD and factors associated with GD in racial and ethnic minority groups including gambling availability, comorbid substance use, psychiatric conditions, stress, acculturation, and differences in cultural values and cognitions. We found that research of GD among minority groups is scant, and the prevalence of GD among these groups is at a magnitude of concern. Racial and ethnic minority status in it of itself is not a risk factor for GD but may be a proxy for underlying potential risk factors. The need for prevention and treatment programs for different cultural group remains unmet.
Afsun Nodehi- Moghadam
Full Text Available Introduction: The decline of visual function with increasing age is a significant concern in elderly. Despite previous work on prevalence of specific ophthalmic pathologies, there has not been enough valid data about overall eye disorders in Tehran yet, and it is poorly defined and not underpinned by strong evidence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the common eye disorders in the elderly population of Tehran. Methods: A total of 392 elderly community residents aged 60 to 96 were enrolled. The 278 older adults referred to Tehran’s Polyclinic of 6th Region of municipality and 114 older adults referred to the health centers of 9th Region of municipality between 2013 and 2014 were examined. All participants underwent an extensive ophthalmologic screening examination including cataract, diabetic retinopathy of optic nerve, macular degeneration, and glaucoma. The prevalence of various eye disorders was calculated as percentages of the total study population and categorized by age and sex. Results: Of the 392 participants, 152 subjects (38.8% had no eye disease. Common visual impairments in elderly were cataract (39.3%, macular degeneration (11.5%, diabetic retinopathy of optic nerve (5.6% and glaucoma (4.8%. It has also showed cataract prevalence increased with age from (6.3% in the 60-64 age group to (47.6% for the patients 85years of age and older. Conclusion: Cataract is the most frequent eye disease in community dwelling older adults that should be considered at a younger age by health officials to provide preventive programs. Improving accessibility to surgery for the treatment of cataract among the old people will help diminish of untreated cataract that lead to visual impairment.
Happiness Anulika Aweto
Full Text Available Objectives: This study has investigated the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs, the most commonly affected body parts, the risk factors of WMSDs and the coping strategies adopted by hairdressers. Material and Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. Two hundred and ninety-nine hairdressers (242 females and 57 males from salons in Surulere and Mushin Local Government Areas of Lagos State completed a 27-item questionnaire. They were selected using a non-probability consecutive sampling technique. The inferential analysis was conducted using the Chi2 test. The level of significance stood at p < 0.05. Results: The 12-month prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders stood at 75.6%. Two hundred and twenty-one (91.3% participants reported gradual onset of musculoskeletal disorders. One hundred and sixteen (47.9% participants had the onset of the WMSDs at the age range of 26–35 years. The most commonly affected body parts included the low back (76.3%, shoulder (62.5% and neck (46.3%. Some of the major job risk factors of the WMSDs that were identified included: working in the same position for long periods and attending to a large number of customers in 1 day. Taking sufficient rest breaks by participants was one of the coping strategies adopted by the participants. The mean number of years of working experience was 7.85±0.4 years. One hundred and twenty-four (41.5% participants had worked for 1–5 years. The Chi2 analysis showed that the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders were significantly associated with the age of a participant (Chi2 = 78.78, p = 0.001, years of working experience (Chi2 = 78.03, p = 0.001 and hours spent working in a standing position (Chi2 = 8.77, p = 0.01, respectively. Conclusions: The age of hairdressers, their years of working and the long hours they spent working in a standing position may be significant factors that contribute to the high prevalence of the WMSDs
Játiva, Edgar; Velasco-Benítez, Carlos A; Koppen, Ilan J N; Játiva-Cabezas, Zahira; Saps, Miguel
The prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in children in Ecuador is unknown. We describe a survey study in 2 schools in Quito, Ecuador, using a Spanish translation of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version (QPGS-RIII). A total of 417 children (51% boys) with a mean age of 12.0 years were included. FGIDs were present in 95 children (22.8%) and occurred in 25% of girls and in 20.7% of boys (P = 0.296). Functional defecation disorders were found in 12.0% of children, 9.4% had an abdominal pain-related FGID and 3.8% was diagnosed with a vomiting or aerophagia FGID.
Full Text Available Background: Health professions like dentistry, nursing and physical therapy have been reported at high risk for developing workrelated musculoskeletal disorders. Results of studies conducted in these occupational groups may help formulate prevention strategies. However, no such data among physical therapists has been reported in India. Material and Methods: We conducted an online survey among 100 physiotherapists in Delhi. Results: The response rate was 75%. The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders is found to be high since 92% of them reported to feel some pain after joining physical therapy which affects daily activities and even sometimes forces them to change their work. Physical therapists specialty, gender, furniture used in clinic and duration of patient contact are found to be related to the pain development (p < 0.05. Conclusions: We need to emphasize the role of ergonomics and techniques of patient handling in development of work-related pain symptoms. Med Pr 2015;66(4:459–469
Full Text Available Håvard Østerås,1 Kirsti Krohn Garnæs,2 Liv Berit Augestad3 1Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Education and Social Work, Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim, Norway; 2Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Abstract: The purpose was to examine musculoskeletal disorders in Norwegian female biathlon athletes (age ≥ 16, both juniors and seniors. The design was a retrospective cross-sectional study. In all, 148 athletes (79.1% responded; of these, 118 athletes were 16–21 years (juniors (77.6%, and 30 athletes were 22 years or older (seniors (20.3%, and mean age was 19.1. A validated questionnaire was used to collect the data. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was 57.8%. The most affected parts were the knee (23.0% of the total injuries, calf (12.2%, ankle/foot (10.8%, lower back (10.8%, and thigh (10.1%. The disorders resulted in training/competition cessation for 73.5% of athletes, in alternative training for 87.8%. Fifty percent of the athletes had one or several musculoskeletal disorders. Most of the problems occurred preseason, and the duration of symptoms was often prolonged. Few differences between the juniors and seniors were found. This study showed the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems among female biathlon athletes. The results indicate that prevention of lower limb problems must be prioritized, especially during the preseason. Keywords: injuries, cross-country skiing, skating
Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M
This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs) and the risk factors associated with these diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). A systematic literature review of studies and reports published between January 1, 1990 and September 15, 2011 was conducted using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, and osteoporosis have become the main causes of morbidity and mortality, especially with progressive aging of the population. The estimated mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes ranged from 179.8 to 765.2 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates in poor countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was very high, ranging from 19% to 45%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) has reached an alarming level in most countries of the region, ranging from 25% to 82%, with a higher prevalence among women. The estimated mortality rate for cancer ranged from 61.9 to 151 per 100,000 population. Osteoporosis has become a critical problem, particularly among women. Several risk factors may be contributing to the high prevalence of N-NCDs in EMR, including nutrition transition, low intake of fruit and vegetables, demographic transition, urbanization, physical inactivity, hypertension, tobacco smoking, stunting of growth of preschool children, and lack of nutrition and health awareness. Intervention programs to prevent and control N-NCDs are urgently needed, with special focus on promotion of healthy eating and physical activity. PMID:22399864
Haas, Verena; Boschmann, Michael
Several studies provide evidence for the existence of a hypermetabolic state of biological origin in recently weight recovered patients with anorexia nervosa. It remains unclear if current nutritional rehabilitation strategies are consistent with the resulting high energy requirements. Further insight into specific pathophysiological characteristics of energetic efficiency in patients with anorexia nervosa will help us to provide evidence based nutritional guidance. Basic nutritional research in this field is urgently required. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Donofry, Shannon D; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Rohan, Kelly J; Wildes, Jennifer E; Kamarck, Marissa L
Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder (BED) in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N=112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maria C Gonçalves
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD, using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD in women with episodic and chronic migraine (M and CM, as well as in asymptomatic women. METHOD: Sample consisted of 61 women, being 38 with M and 23 with CM, identified from a headache outpatient center; we also investigated 30 women without headaches for at least 3 months (women without headache group - WHG. Assessment of TMD was conducted by a physical therapist who was blind to the headache status. RESULTS: The prevalence of TMD, assessed through the RDC, was 33.3% in the WHG, 86.8% in the M group and 91.3% of the CM group. Differences were significant when comparing M and CM groups with WHG (p0.05 as well as higher risk for TMD [odds ratio (OR=3.15, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.73-5.71 and OR=3.97, 95%CI 1.76-8.94]. CONCLUSION: Women with migraine are more likely to have muscular and articular TMD, suggesting that both disorders might be clinically associated, which demonstrate the importance of physical therapy assessment in the multidisciplinary team.
Schubiner, H; Tzelepis, A; Milberger, S; Lockhart, N; Kruger, M; Kelley, B J; Schoener, E P
This cross-sectional study sought to determine the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder among adults admitted to 2 chemical dependency treatment centers. It was hypothesized that ADHD alone or in combination with conduct disorder would be overrepresented in a population of patients with psychoactive substance use disorders. Two hundred one participants were selected randomly from 2 chemical dependency treatment centers. Standardized clinical interviews were conducted using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Addiction Severity Index, and DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. Reliabilities for the diagnostic categories were established using the Cohen kappa, and the subgroups of individuals with and without ADHD and conduct disorder were compared. Forty-eight (24%) of the participants were found to meet DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. The prevalence of ADHD was 28% in men (30/106) and 19% in women (18/95; NS). Seventy-nine participants (39%) met criteria for conduct disorder, and 34 of these individuals also had ADHD. Overall, individuals with ADHD (compared with those without ADHD) were more likely to have had more motor vehicle accidents. Women with ADHD (in comparison with women without ADHD) had a higher number of treatments for alcohol abuse. Individuals with conduct disorder (in comparison with those without conduct disorder) were younger, had a greater number of jobs as adults, and were more likely to repeat a grade in school, have a learning disability, be suspended or expelled from school, have an earlier age at onset of alcohol dependence, and have had a greater number of treatments for drug abuse. They were more likely to have a lifetime history of abuse of and/or dependence on cocaine, stimulants, hallucinogens, and/or cannabis. A significant overrepresentation of ADHD exists among inpatients with psychoactive substance use disorders. Over two thirds of those with ADHD in this sample also met criteria for conduct
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike
The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse nutrition behaviour, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking) among retired professional Rugby Union players. The secondary aim was to explore the associations between stressors (life events, Rugby Union career dissatisfaction) and the health conditions under study. Therefore, cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study of retired professional Rugby Union players. An electronic questionnaire was established using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of CMD and stressors. The electronic questionnaire was subsequently distributed to retired players by the national Rugby Union players' associations in France, Ireland and South Africa. Among 295 retired professional Rugby Union players (mean age of 38 years), prevalence rates were 25% for distress, 28% for anxiety/depression, 29% for sleeping disturbance, 62% for adverse nutrition behaviour, 15% for smoking and 24% for adverse alcohol behaviour. A higher number of life events were associated with distress (OR = 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4), anxiety/depression (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1), sleeping disturbance (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.5). A higher level of dissatisfaction of the player's Rugby Union career was associated with distress (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-1.0), sleeping disturbance (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0), smoking (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-0.9). In conclusion, our study suggests that prevalence of symptoms of CMD is high among retired professional Rugby Union players, being associated with both a higher number of life events and a higher level of Rugby Union career dissatisfaction.
McKinnon, David H.; McLeod, Sharynne; Reilly, Sheena
Purpose: The aims of this study were threefold: to report teachers' estimates of the prevalence of speech disorders (specifically, stuttering, voice, and speech-sound disorders); to consider correspondence between the prevalence of speech disorders and gender, grade level, and socioeconomic status; and to describe the level of support provided to…
Full Text Available Abstract Undernutrition – protein energy malnutrition or specific nutrient deficiencies – has been an inherent characteristic of impoverished populations throughout the world. Over-nutrition, obesity and nutrition imbalance is a current concern among those with rising though still insufficient incomes. We review data to suggest that the prevalence of these forms of malnutrition in populations is highly influenced by the rate of appearance of discretionary income. In developed countries, discretionary (alternatively "disposable" income refers to funds available after obligate payments (rent, heat, and the cost of getting to work and payment for necessities (food and clothing. For families living at or below poverty, the last dollar earned is spent on these obligations. Undernutrition is common. By contrast, likelihood for obesity or imbalance increases with rising income when that last dollar is earned without certainty that it is available for discretionary spending. In the United States, neither under- nor over-nutrition is likely when new income is free and clear of debt or obligation. This occurs at approximately three times the poverty level. While income poverty and food insecurity affect risk for malnutrition rather than outcome, nutrition education programs that address issues of income and food support increase likelihood for adherence to recommendations.
Atwoli, Lukoye; Stein, Dan J.; Koenen, Karestan C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.
Purpose of review This review discusses recent findings from epidemiological surveys of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) globally, including their prevalence, risk factors, and consequences in the community. Recent findings A number of studies on the epidemiology of PTSD have recently been published from diverse countries, with new methodological innovations introduced. Such work has not only documented the prevalence of PTSD in different settings, but has also shed new light on the PTSD conditional risk associated with specific traumatic events, and on the morbidity and comorbidities associated with these events. Summary Recent community studies show that trauma exposure is higher in lower-income countries compared with high-income countries. PTSD prevalence rates are largely similar across countries, however, with the highest rates being found in postconflict settings. Trauma and PTSD-risk factors are distributed differently in lower-income countries compared with high-income countries, with sociodemographic factors contributing more to this risk in high-income than low-income countries. Apart from PTSD, trauma exposure is also associated with several chronic physical conditions. These findings indicate a high burden of trauma exposure in low-income countries and postconflict settings, where access to trained mental health professionals is typically low. PMID:26001922
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric surveys conducted in prison populations find high prevalence rates, but diagnoses may be difficult in this particular context. None of these surveys have been conducted in France. Methods 800 incarcerated male were sampled at random. Each prisoner was interviewed by a group of 2 clinicians, at least one of them being a senior psychiatrist. One of the clinicians used a structured clinical interview which generated DSM IV diagnosis (MINI plus; the second completed the procedure with an open clinical interview. Results Prevalence rates for a diagnosis given independently by both clinicians and for a consensual diagnosis were respectively: 3.8% (6.2% for schizophrenia, 17.9% (24% for major depressive disorder, 12.0% (17.7% for generalized anxiety and 10.8% (14.6% for drug dependence. Conclusion Psychiatric diagnosis can be difficult to interpret in prison, especially using traditional standardized interviews. The approach proposed here, with good reliability and closer to a day-to-day clinical practice, yields high prevalence rates.
Grozdinska, Alina; Hofmann, Elisabeth; Schmid, Matthias; Hirschfelder, Ursula
Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), also known as Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), is a degenerative inflammatory disease with high prevalence among women and has been associated with fibromyalgia and widespread chronic pain. The goal was to determine the frequency of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in patients with HT. In all, 119 women (age 19-60 years) were divided into a study (52 women diagnosed with HT) and a control (67 healthy individuals, of which 15 were excluded) group. Serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), anti-thyroglobulin (Tg) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody levels were measured. The temporomandibular jaw and muscles were examined using the German Society of Functional Diagnostics and Therapy guidelines. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) was used to assess TMD. Standardized questionnaires, incorporating epidemiological criteria, state and treatment of the thyroid disease, Helkimo Index (HI), and Fonseca Anamnestic Index (FAI), were filled out by all patients. The two groups did not differ in terms of demographic parameters or mandibular jaw mobility. Significantly higher levels of anti-TPO and anti-Tg were attested in all subjects of the HT group. Markedly elevated prevalence of TMD was found in the HT group. Muscle pain and stiffness were found in 45 (86.5%) subjects of the HT group (p < 0.001), of whom 33 (63.4%) also had disc displacement with reposition (p < 0.001). Whereas 50% of the control group showed no TMD symptoms, all subjects in the HT group had symptoms. A significantly elevated prevalence of TMD was found in patients with HT. Thus, patients with TMD who do not respond to therapy should be referred for thyroid diagnostic workup.
Fomon, Samuel J.
Intended for child health care providers, the text contains information on improving preventive efforts in nutrition, particurlarly those focused on prevention of the major health problems which are nutrition related (obesity, atherosclerosis, dental caries, and anemia). Part I focuses on screening of individual children likely to be at risk of…
Hedayati, Kerstin Khalaj; Dittmar, Manuela
This study analyzed whether sarcopenia, a risk factor for disability in the aged, also occurs in healthy community-dwelling elders with normal nutritional state. As indicators, body cell mass (BCM) and lean body mass (LBM) were determined in 110 Germans (ages 60-83) using bioimpedance analysis. Nutritional status, muscle function, anthropometry, and physical activity level were investigated. Sarcopenia was already present in well nourished healthy elders. Its prevalence depended on the measure of muscle mass used (BCM percent, 22 percent males, 20 percent females; LBM percent, 4 percent males, 11 percent females). In conclusion, screening for presence of sarcopenia is needed in healthy, well-nourished elderly populations requiring an international standardization. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Full Text Available Álvaro Frías,1,2 Carol Palma,1,2 Núria Farriols,1,2 Laura González2 1FPCEE Blanquerna, Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona, 2Adult Outpatient Mental Health Center, Hospital de Mataró – CSdM, Mataró, Spain Background: With the advent of the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD has been subsumed into the obsessive-compulsive disorders and related disorders (OCDRD category. Objective: We aimed to determine the empirical evidence regarding the potential relationship between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD based on the prevalence data, etiopathogenic pathways, and clinical characterization of patients with both disorders. Method: A comprehensive search of databases (PubMed and PsycINFO was performed. Published manuscripts between 1985 and May 2015 were identified. Overall, 53 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Results: Lifetime comorbidity rates of BDD–OCD are almost three times higher in samples with a primary diagnosis of BDD than those with primary OCD (27.5% vs 10.4%. However, other mental disorders, such as social phobia or major mood depression, are more likely among both types of psychiatric samples. Empirical evidence regarding the etiopathogenic pathways for BDD–OCD comorbidity is still inconclusive, whether concerning common shared features or one disorder as a risk factor for the other. Specifically, current findings concerning third variables show more divergences than similarities when comparing both disorders. Preliminary data on the clinical characterization of the patients with BDD and OCD indicate that the deleterious clinical impact of BDD in OCD patients is greater than vice versa. Conclusion: Despite the recent inclusion of BDD within the OCDRD, data from comparative studies between BDD and OCD need further evidence for supporting this nosological approach. To better define this issue, comparative studies between BDD, OCD, and social phobia
Full Text Available Jenni B Teeters,1,2 Cynthia L Lancaster,1,2 Delisa G Brown,3 Sudie E Back1,2 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; 2Ralph H Johnson Veterans Affairs (VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC, USA, 3Department of Human Development and Psychoeducation, Howard University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Substance use disorders (SUDs are a significant problem among our nation’s military veterans. In the following overview, we provide information on the prevalence of SUDs among military veterans, clinical characteristics of SUDs, options for screening and evidence-based treatment, as well as relevant treatment challenges. Among psychotherapeutic approaches, behavioral interventions for the management of SUDs typically involve short-term, cognitive-behavioral therapy interventions. These interventions focus on the identification and modification of maladaptive thoughts and behaviors associated with increased craving, use, or relapse to substances. Additionally, client-centered motivational interviewing approaches focus on increasing motivation to engage in treatment and reduce substance use. A variety of pharmacotherapies have received some support in the management of SUDs, primarily to help with the reduction of craving or withdrawal symptoms. Currently approved medications as well as treatment challenges are discussed. Keywords: addiction, alcohol use disorders, drug use disorders, treatment, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy
Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W; Rupp, Claudia I; Lackner-Seifert, Kerstin; Frey, Nadja; Whitworth, Alexandra B; Pope, Harrison G; Kinzl, Johann
Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) in middle-aged women. We mailed anonymous questionnaires to 1,500 Austrian women aged 40-60 years, assessing ED (defined by DSM-IV), subthreshold ED, body image, and quality of life. We broadly defined "subthreshold ED" by the presence of either (1) binge eating with loss of control or (2) purging behavior, without requiring any of the other usual DSM-IV criteria for frequency or severity of these symptoms. Of the 715 (48%) responders, 33 [4.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.3-6.4%] reported symptoms meeting full DSM-IV criteria for an ED [bulimia nervosa = 10; binge eating disorder = 11; eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) = 12]. None displayed anorexia nervosa. Another 34 women (4.8%; CI: 3.4-6.6%) displayed subthreshold ED. These women showed levels of associated psychopathology virtually equal to the women with full-syndrome diagnoses. ED appear common in middle-aged women, with a preponderance of binge eating disorder and EDNOS diagnoses as compared to the "classical" diagnoses of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Interestingly, middle-aged women with even very broadly defined subthreshold ED showed distress and impairment comparable to women with full-scale ED. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2, Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, and Symptom Check List (SCL-90. Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC.
José Caetano Dell'Aglio Jr.
Full Text Available This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.
Manterola, C; Barroso, M S; Losada, H; Muñoz, S; Vial, M
The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of esophageal disorders (ED) associated with recurrent chest pain (RCP) and the utility of esophageal functional tests (EFT) in the study of these patients. The cross-sectional study was conducted at Hospital Clínico de La Frontera, Chile. One hundred and twenty-three patients with RCP were studied using esophageal manometry, edrophonium stimulation and 24-h pH monitoring. The performance of EFT was considered acceptable when they were capable of finding ED. To state the probability that RCP had an esophageal origin, patients were classified according to whether their pain had a probable, possible or unlikely esophageal origin. The prevalence of ED was determined according to diagnoses obtained after applying EFT and a multivariate analysis was performed to examine the association between the esophageal origin of RCP and ED. Rates of correct diagnosis of 65.9%, 56.9% and 31.7% was verified for 24-h pH monitoring, esophageal manometry and edrophonium stimulation, respectively. In 38.2% of patients with RCP, the pain was probably of esophageal origin, in 42.3% there was a possible esophageal origin and in 19.5% an unlikely esophageal origin. A 44.7% prevalence of GERD, 26.8% of GERD with secondary esophageal motor dysfunction and 8.9% of pure esophageal motor dysfunction were verified. The multivariate analysis allowed us to verify the association between the probability of esophageal origin of RCP, the variables RCP duration, esophagitis and dysphagia coexistence (P= 0.037, P= 0.030 and P= 0.024, respectively), and a statistically significant association between ED and dysphagia coexistence (P= 0.028). A high prevalence of ED was identified in patients with RCP.
Luciano Meireles de Pontes
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in amateur soccer players. Thirty-two men (39.0 ± 6.4 years regularly playing soccer were studied. Nutritional status was evaluated according to body mass index (BMI and the World Health Organization classification. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criterion of the International Diabetes Federation which, in addition to central obesity (waist circumference > 90 cm, considers two or more of the following conditions in males: triglyceridemia ≥ 150 mg/dl; HDL < 40 mg/dl; systolic pressure ≥ 130 mmHg or diastolic pressure ≥ 85 mm/Hg, and fasting glycemia ≥ 100 mg/dl. Statistical analysis processed descriptive data of percentage, mean, minimum, maximum, and standard deviation. Correlations between pairs of variables were determined by Pearson’s r coefficient. The results showed that 43.8% of the soccer players were eutrophic, 43.8% presented overweight and 12.5% were obese. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.5% and the most prevalent components were abdominal obesity in 59.4%, hypertension in 40.6%, hypertriglyceridemia in 34.4%, HDL-c in 28.1%, and fasting glycemia in 15.6%. BMI presented a more robust correlation with waist circumference (r = 0.918. In conclusion, the nutritional status of the soccer players studied was characterized by the presence of overweight and obesity. Although the frequency of metabolic syndrome was lower than in other epidemiological studies, these sportsmen should engage in other health-promoting behaviors such as good eating habits and control of stress in addition to physical activity.
Sun, Xiang; Allison, Carrie
Electronic databases and bibliographies were searched for English language articles on the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Asia over time to estimate prevalence. The overall reported prevalence of ASD in recent studies was higher than the previously reported in Asia. The average prevalence of ASD before 1980 was around 1.9/10,000 while…
, Ethiopia. Brief Communication. Prevalence of Iodine deficiency disorder in a highland district in Tigray. Teklay Kidane1, Aregai Woldegebriel2. Abstract. A cross-sectional community based goiter prevalence survey was conducted in February ...
Wittchen, H.U.; Becker, E.S.; Lieb, R.; Krause, P.
Background. Despite an abundance of clinical research on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. few epidemiological data provide estimates of the prevalence, incidence, co-morbidity, stability and correlates of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in the community. Aims. To describe the prevalence,
Dagan, Y; Sela, H; Omer, H; Hallis, D; Dar, R
The purpose of this study was to examine systematically our previous clinical impression regarding the prevalence of personality disorders in patients suffering from circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). We hypothesized that, in a group of patients suffering from CRSD, there would be a higher frequency of personality disorders than in a group of healthy controls. The experimental group consisted of CRSD patients diagnosed according to a clinical interview and actigraphic recordings. The control group consisted of healthy volunteers in whom CRSD had been ruled out by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Both groups were assessed for personality disorders using the MCMI, a diagnostic tool based on Millon's biopsychosocial theory of personality and the PRQ-R, a diagnostic tool based on the DMS-III-R. Both tests provided clear and significant support for the hypothesis that individuals suffering from CRSD are characterized to a greater extent by personality disorders than a control group. No specific characteristic pattern or profile of personality disorders was clearly detected. Correct early diagnosis and treatment of CRSD may improve afflicted individuals' adaptive capabilities and perhaps even prevent the development of a personality disorder. This suggests how important a greater awareness of CRSD on the part of the professional community may be.
Jeynes, Kendall D; Gibson, E Leigh
Nutrition is a prerequisite for health; yet, there is no special nutritional assessment or guidance for drug and alcohol dependent individuals, despite the fact that their food consumption is often very limited, risking malnutrition. Further, the premise is examined that malnutrition may promote drug seeking and impede recovery from substance use disorders (SUD). A narrative review addressed the relationship between substance use disorders and nutrition, including evidence for malnutrition, as well as their impact on metabolism and appetite regulation. The implications of the biopsychology of addiction and appetite for understanding the role of nutrition in SUD were also considered. The literature overwhelmingly finds that subjects with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and drug use disorder (DUD) typically suffer from nutrient deficiencies. These nutrient deficiencies may be complicit in the alcoholic myopathy, osteopenia and osteoporosis, and mood disorders including anxiety and depression, observed in AUD and DUD. These same individuals have also been found to have altered body composition and altered hormonal metabolic regulators. Additionally, brain processes fundamental for survival are stimulated both by food, particularly sweet foods, and by substances of abuse, with evidence supporting confusion (addiction transfer) when recovering from SUD between cravings for a substance and craving for food. Poor nutritional status in AUD and DUD severely impacts their physical and psychological health, which may impede their ability to resist substances of abuse and recover their health. This review contributes to a better understanding of interventions that could best support individuals with substance use disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schneider, Sophie C; Turner, Cynthia M; Mond, Jonathan; Hudson, Jennifer L
Body dysmorphic disorder typically begins in adolescence, yet little is known about the prevalence and correlates of the disorder in this age group. The current study aimed to explore the presenting features of adolescents meeting probable criteria for body dysmorphic disorder in a large community sample, and compare levels of comorbid psychopathology, quality of life and mental health service use between adolescents with probable body dysmorphic disorder and those without. Questionnaires were completed at school by 3149 adolescents: 63% male, aged 12-18 years ( M = 14.58). These assessed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) body dysmorphic disorder criteria, past mental health service use and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders. In male participants, additional measures assessed quality of life, muscularity concerns, emotional symptoms, peer problems, conduct problems and hyperactivity. The prevalence of probable body dysmorphic disorder was 1.7%; there was no sex difference in prevalence, but older adolescents reported higher prevalence than younger adolescents. Probable body dysmorphic disorder participants reported substantially elevated levels of psychopathology, quality of life impairment and mental health service use compared to non-body dysmorphic disorder participants. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in adolescents is similar to adult samples, and probable body dysmorphic disorder is associated with comorbidity, distress and functional impairment in a community sample. Further research is required to better understand the presentation of body dysmorphic disorder in adolescents, and to improve diagnosis and treatment.
Greenberg, Erica; Tung, Esther S; Gauvin, Caitlin; Osiecki, Lisa; Yang, Kelly G; Curley, Erin; Essa, Angela; Illmann, Cornelia; Sandor, Paul; Dion, Yves; Lyon, Gholson J; King, Robert A; Darrow, Sabrina; Hirschtritt, Matthew E; Budman, Cathy L; Grados, Marco; Pauls, David L; Keuthen, Nancy J; Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M
Trichotillomania/hair pulling disorder (HPD) and excoriation/skin picking disorder (SPD) are childhood-onset, body-focused repetitive behaviors that are thought to share genetic susceptibility and underlying pathophysiology with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). We sought to determine the prevalence of DSM-5 HPD and SPD in TS patients, and to identify clinical factors most associated with their co-morbidity with TS. Participants included 811 TS patients recruited from TS specialty clinics for a multi-center genetic study. Patients were assessed using standardized, validated semi-structured interviews. HPD and SPD diagnoses were determined using a validated self-report questionnaire. HPD/SPD prevalence rates were calculated, and clinical predictors were evaluated using regression modeling. 3.8 and 13.0% of TS patients met DSM-5 criteria for HPD and SPD, respectively. In univariable analyses, female sex, OCD, and both tic and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity were among those associated with HPD and/or SPD. In multivariable analyses, only lifetime worst-ever motor tic severity remained significantly associated with HPD. Female sex, co-occurring OCD, ADHD, and motor tic severity remained independently associated with SPD. This is the first study to examine HPD and SPD prevalence in a TS sample using semi-structured diagnostic instruments. The prevalence of HPD and SPD in TS patients, and their association with increased tic severity and co-occurring OCD, suggests that clinicians should screen children with TS and related disorders for HPD/SPD, particularly in females and in those with co-occurring OCD. This study also helps set a foundation for subsequent research regarding HPD/SPD risk factors, pathophysiology, and treatment models.
Full Text Available Georgios D Floros 2nd Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece Abstract: Research on adolescence gambling over the past twenty years has revealed significant incidence and prevalence rates and highlighted the possible negative effects on an adolescent’s well-being. Several risk and protective factors have also been identified. Over the course of the past few years, technological advances have heralded the advent of new avenues for gambling as well as new opportunities to gamble without any direct monetary exchange. This review article examines those established trends as well as the new issues that we are faced with, in order to accurately portray the current challenges in research, prevention, and treatment. Keywords: adolescence, gambling disorder
Conclusion The prevalence of inventory disorders in the three types of ADHD varied according to age and sex. Statistically significant differences were observed between the three types of ADHD, confrontational disorder (4000.0, and anxiety (0.02.
Otte, Julie L; Carpenter, Janet S; Manchanda, Shalini; Rand, Kevin L; Skaar, Todd C; Weaver, Michael; Chernyak, Yelena; Zhong, Xin; Igega, Christele; Landis, Carol
Although sleep is vital to all human functioning and poor sleep is a known problem in cancer, it is unclear whether the overall prevalence of the various types of sleep disorders in cancer is known. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to evaluate if the prevalence of sleep disorders could be ascertained from the current body of literature regarding sleep in cancer. This was a critical and systematic review of peer-reviewed, English-language, original articles published from 1980 through 15 October 2013, identified using electronic search engines, a set of key words, and prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information from 254 full-text, English-language articles was abstracted onto a paper checklist by one reviewer, with a second reviewer randomly verifying 50% (k = 99%). All abstracted data were entered into an electronic database, verified for accuracy, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequencies in SPSS (v.20) (North Castle, NY). Studies of sleep and cancer focus on specific types of symptoms of poor sleep, and there are no published prevalence studies that focus on underlying sleep disorders. Challenging the current paradigm of the way sleep is studied in cancer could produce better clinical screening tools for use in oncology clinics leading to better triaging of patients with sleep complaints to sleep specialists, and overall improvement in sleep quality
Nicely, Terri A; Lane-Loney, Susan; Masciulli, Emily; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Ornstein, Rollyn M
Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is a "new" diagnosis in the recently published DSM-5, but there is very little literature on patients with ARFID. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of ARFID in children and adolescents undergoing day treatment for an eating disorder, and to compare ARFID patients to other eating disorder patients in the same cohort. A retrospective chart review of 7-17 year olds admitted to a day program for younger patients with eating disorders between 2008 and 2012 was performed. Patients with ARFID were compared to those with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other specified feeding or eating disorder/unspecified feeding or eating disorder with respect to demographics, anthropometrics, clinical symptoms, and psychometric testing, using Chi-square, ANOVA, and post-hoc analysis. 39/173 (22.5%) patients met ARFID criteria. The ARFID group was younger than the non-ARFID group and had a greater proportion of males. Similar degrees of weight loss and malnutrition were found between groups. Patients with ARFID reported greater fears of vomiting and/or choking and food texture issues than those with other eating disorders, as well as greater dependency on nutritional supplements at intake. Children's Eating Attitudes Test scores were lower for children with than without ARFID. A higher comorbidity of anxiety disorders, pervasive developmental disorder, and learning disorders, and a lower comorbidity of depression, were found in those with ARFID. This study demonstrates that there are significant demographic and clinical characteristics that differentiate children with ARFID from those with other eating disorders in a day treatment program, and helps substantiate the recognition of ARFID as a distinct eating disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5.
Frías, Álvaro; Palma, Carol; Farriols, Núria; González, Laura
Background With the advent of the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) has been subsumed into the obsessive-compulsive disorders and related disorders (OCDRD) category. Objective We aimed to determine the empirical evidence regarding the potential relationship between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on the prevalence data, etiopathogenic pathways, and clinical characterization of patients with both disorders. Method A comprehensive search of databases (PubMed and PsycINFO) was performed. Published manuscripts between 1985 and May 2015 were identified. Overall, 53 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Results Lifetime comorbidity rates of BDD–OCD are almost three times higher in samples with a primary diagnosis of BDD than those with primary OCD (27.5% vs 10.4%). However, other mental disorders, such as social phobia or major mood depression, are more likely among both types of psychiatric samples. Empirical evidence regarding the etiopathogenic pathways for BDD–OCD comorbidity is still inconclusive, whether concerning common shared features or one disorder as a risk factor for the other. Specifically, current findings concerning third variables show more divergences than similarities when comparing both disorders. Preliminary data on the clinical characterization of the patients with BDD and OCD indicate that the deleterious clinical impact of BDD in OCD patients is greater than vice versa. Conclusion Despite the recent inclusion of BDD within the OCDRD, data from comparative studies between BDD and OCD need further evidence for supporting this nosological approach. To better define this issue, comparative studies between BDD, OCD, and social phobia should be carried out. PMID:26345330
Donofry, Shannon D.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Rohan, Kelly J.; Wildes, Jennifer E.; Kamarck, Marissa L.
Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of BED in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N = 112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms. PMID:24680872
Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Birmaher, Boris
Background Over the past 20 years, the evidence regarding pediatric bipolar disorder (BP) has increased substantially. As a result, recent concerns have focused primarily on prevalence and differential diagnosis. Method Selective review of the literature. Results BP as defined by rigorously applying diagnostic criteria has been observed among children and especially adolescents in numerous countries. In contrast to increasing diagnoses in clinical settings, prevalence in epidemiologic studies has not recently changed. BP-spectrum conditions among youth are highly impairing and confer high risk for conversion to BP-I and BP-II. Compared to adults, youth with BP have more mixed symptoms, more changes in mood polarity, are more often symptomatic and seem to have worse prognosis. The course, clinical characteristics, and comorbidities of BP among children and adolescents are in many ways otherwise similar to those of adults with BP. Nonetheless, many youth with BP receive no treatment and most do not receive BP-specific treatment. Conclusion Despite increased evidence supporting the validity of pediatric BP, discrepancies between clinical and epidemiologic findings suggest that diagnostic misapplication may be common. Simultaneously, low rates of treatment of youth with BP suggest that withholding of BP diagnoses may also be common. Clinicians should apply diagnostic criteria rigorously in order to optimize diagnostic accuracy and ensure appropriate treatment. PMID:22652925
Fortea Sevilla, M S; Escandell Bermúdez, M O; Castro Sánchez, J J
To make an initial estimate of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) among children in the province of Las Palmas (Spain). Descriptive study was conducted on 1,796 children between the ages of 18 and 30 months of age, all part of the Child Health Surveillance of the Canary Islands, more specifically the province of Las Palmas, with a population of 1,090,605. The parents of children involved completed the Spanish version of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT/ES) in the paediatric clinic. The positive cases were then diagnosed by experts by means of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADIR) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). A 0.61% prevalence of ASDs was determined, similar to that reported in previous studies using the same tools. The ratio was six girls for every five boys. This was contrary to the results of previous studies which suggested more boys than girls were affected. This may have been due to the sample size, which will have to be increased in future studies to confirm this outcome. An increased sample size and also spread to other age ranges should be used in order to obtain a more reliable estimate of prevalence. As regards the gender ratio, this could be a result of the small size of the sample researched, and should therefore be confirmed by further studies. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Magee, Pamela Jane; Gallagher, Alison M; McCormack, Jacqueline M
Although dehydration of ≥ 2% body weight (BW) loss significantly impairs endurance performance, dehydration remains prevalent among athletes and may be owing to a lack of knowledge in relation to fluid requirements. The aim of this study was to assess the hydration status of university/club level athletes (n = 430) from a range of sports/activities (army officer cadet training; bootcamp training; cycling; Gaelic Athletic Association camogie, football and hurling; golf; hockey; netball; rugby; running (sprinting and endurance); Shotokan karate and soccer) immediately before and after training/competition and to assess their nutritional knowledge. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured immediately before and after exercise and BW loss during exercise was assessed. Nutritional knowledge was assessed using a validated questionnaire. 31.9% of athletes commenced exercise in a dehydrated state (USG >1.020) with 43.6% of participants dehydrated posttraining/competition. Dehydration was particularly prevalent (>40% of cohort) among karateka, female netball players, army officer cadets, and golfers. Golfers that commenced a competitive 18 hole round dehydrated took a significantly higher number of strokes to complete the round in comparison with their euhydrated counterparts (79.5 ± 2.1 vs. 75.7 ± 3.9 strokes, p = .049). Nutritional knowledge was poor among participants (median total score [IQR]; 52.9% [46.0, 59.8]), albeit athletes who were euhydrated at the start of exercise had a higher overall score in comparison with dehydrated athletes (55.2% vs. 50.6%, p = .001). Findings from the current study, therefore, have significant implications for the education of athletes in relation to their individual fluid requirements around exercise.
Kavimandan, Amit; Sharma, Meenakshi; Verma, Anil K; Das, Prasenjit; Mishra, Prabhash; Sinha, Sanjeev; Mohan, Anant; Sreenivas, V; Datta Gupta, Siddhartha; Makharia, Govind K
While anemia occurs in 80 % to 90 % of patients with celiac disease (CD), it may be the sole manifestation of CD. The prevalence of CD in Indian patients with nutritional anemia is not known. Adolescent and adult patients presenting with nutritional anemia were prospectively screened for CD using IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (anti-tTG Ab) followed, if positive, by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and duodenal biopsy. Ninety-six patients [mean ± SD age 32.1 ± 13.1 years and median duration of anemia 11 months (range 1 to 144 months)] were screened. Of these patients, 80 had iron deficiency anemia, 11 had megaloblastic anemia, and 5 had dimorphic anemia. Seventy-three patients were on hematinics and 36.4 % had received blood transfusions. Nineteen had a history of chronic diarrhea and the mean ± SD duration of diarrhea in them was 9.7 ± 35.8 months. IgA anti-tTG Ab was positive in 13 patients, of whom 12 agreed to undergo duodenal biopsy. Ten patients had villous atrophy (Marsh grade 3a in three, 3b in one, and 3c in six) and two did not. Thus, 10 patients with nutritional anemia (iron deficiency 9, vitamin B12 deficiency 1) were diagnosed to have CD. On multivariate logistic regression, age, duration of symptoms, and presence of diarrhea were found to be the predictors of CD. All the patients with CD were put on gluten-free diet and with iron and vitamin supplementations and showed a significant improvement in hemoglobin concentration. CD screening should be included in the work up of otherwise unexplained nutritional anemia.
Rennert, Lior; Denis, Cécile; Peer, Kyle; Lynch, Kevin G.; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R.
Background The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) replaced the DSM-IV diagnosis of Pathological Gambling (PG) with Gambling Disorder (GD). GD requires four rather than five criteria for the diagnosis and excludes the “Illegal Acts” criterion. We examined the prevalence of GD and its characteristics and validity in a substance use disorder (SUD) sample. Methods Participants (N=6,613) in genetic studies of substance dependence underwent a semi-structured psychiatric interview. Individuals who reported ever having gambled $10 at least monthly (n = 1,507) were the focus of the analyses. Results Approximately one-third of acknowledged gamblers (n = 563; 8.5% of the total sample) received both PG (DSM-IV) and GD (DSM-5) diagnoses and 678 (10.3% of the total) received a DSM-5 diagnosis, representing an increase of 20.4% relative to DSM-IV. Although the three groups were comparable demographically, the DSM-5-Only group was intermediate between the other two groups on the prevalence of comorbid substance use disorders, the distribution of DSM-IV PG criteria endorsed, and the types of gambling reported. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that the DSM-5-Only group was more likely than the No-Diagnosis group and less likely than the Both-Diagnoses group to acknowledge a gambling problem. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of PG in this SUD sample. Analysis of non-DSM variables suggested that the increased sensitivity of the DSM-5 GD diagnosis successfully identifies a broader set of individuals with clinically significant gambling-related problems. Prospective studies of individuals with GD are needed to validate this finding. PMID:24490711
Casanova, María José; Chaparro, Maria; Molina, Begoña; Merino, Olga; Batanero, Ricardo; Dueñas-Sadornil, Carmen; Robledo, Pilar; Garcia-Albert, Ana María; Gómez-Sánchez, Maria Bienvenida; Calvet, Xavier; Trallero, Maria Del Roser; Montoro, Miguel; Vázquez, Iria; Charro, Mara; Barragán, Amaya; Martínez-Cerezo, Francisco; Megias-Rangil, Isabel; Huguet, José María; Marti-Bonmati, Ezequiel; Calvo, Marta; Campderá, Mariana; Muñoz-Vicente, Margarita; Merchante, Angel; Ávila, Ansel David; Serrano-Aguayo, Pilar; De Francisco, Ruth; Hervías, Daniel; Bujanda, Luis; Rodriguez, Gloria Esther; Castro-Laria, Luisa; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; Van Domselaar, Manuel; Ramirez de la Piscina, Patricia; Santos-Fernández, Javier; Algaba, Alicia; Torra, Sandra; Pozzati, Liliana; López-Serrano, Pilar; Arribas, Maria Del Rosario; Rincón, Maria Luisa; Peláez, Andrés Camilo; Castro, Elena; García-Herola, Antonio; Santander, Cecilio; Hernández-Alonso, Moisés; Martín-Noguerol, Elisa; Gómez-Lozano, María; Monedero, Tamara; Villoria, Albert; Figuerola, Ariadna; Castaño-García, Andrés; Banales, Jesús M; Díaz-Hernández, Laura; Argüelles-Arias, Federico; López-Díaz, Javier; Pérez-Martínez, Isabel; García-Talavera, Noelia; Nuevo-Siguairo, Olivia Karina; Riestra, Sabino; Gisbert, Javier P
This study sought to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, to analyse the dietary beliefs and behaviours of these patients, to study their body composition, to evaluate their muscular strength and to identify the factors associated with malnutrition in these patients. This was a prospective, multicentre study. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients from 30 Spanish centres, from the outpatient clinics, were included. A questionnaire of 11 items was applied to obtain data from patients' dietary behaviour and beliefs. Patients who accepted were evaluated to assess their nutritional status using Subjective Global Assessment and body mass index. Body composition was evaluated through bioelectrical impedance. A total of 1271 patients were included [51% women, median age 45 years, 60% Crohn's disease]. Of these, 333 patients underwent the nutritional evaluation. A total of 77% of patients declared that they avoided some foods to prevent disease relapse. Eighty-six per cent of patients avoided some foods when they had disease activity because of fear of worsening the flare. Sixty-seven per cent of patients modified their dietary habits after disease diagnosis. The prevalence of malnutrition was 16% [95% confidence interval = 12-20%]. In the multivariate analysis, history of abdominal surgery, active disease and avoidance of some foods during flares were associated with higher risk of malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition in inflammatory bowel disease patients was high. We identified some predictive factors of malnutrition. Most of the patients had self-imposed food restrictions, based on their beliefs. Copyright © 2017 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Fereshtehnejad, S-M; Shafieesabet, M; Shahidi, G A; Delbari, A; Lökk, J
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder that can coexist with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the association between these two movement disorders is quite poorly explored and previous findings are controversial in different aspects. To compare prevalence of RLS in Iranian PD population with a matched control group and to investigate the impact of comorbid RLS on quality of life (QoL), nutritional status, and clinical characteristics in PD population. This study was conducted on 108 individuals with idiopathic PD (IPD) and 424 matched controls. RLS was diagnosed using the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) criteria. Further assessments were performed on clinical characteristics, PD severity scales, psychiatric features, nutritional status, fatigue, and QoL in PD patients with and without RLS. Restless legs syndrome was significantly more common among the patients with IPD (14.8%) compared to the controls (7.5%) [OR = 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1-4.0)]. IPD subjects with RLS had significantly higher anxiety score [10.1 (SD = 5.1) vs 5.9 (SD = 5.0); P = 0.003], worse nutritional status [23.7 (SD = 2.7) vs 25.4 (SD = 3.7); P = 0.008], and poorer QoL [26.9 (SD = 13.1) vs 17.0 (SD = 13.2); P = 0.006]. The number of positive answers to the IRLSSG diagnostic criteria had significant direct correlation with unpredictability of the off periods and the presence of symptomatic orthostasis. Our study demonstrated a higher prevalence of RLS in patients with PD compared to general population. PD patients with RLS suffer from more anxiety, worse nutritional status, and worse QoL. RLS negatively accompanies with psychiatric problems, emotional behaviors, stigma, and cognitive impairment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available A variety of feeding issues and concerns, including food aversion, food selectivity, and complete food refusal, are not uncommon among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Other underlying issues are often comorbid with the concerns for feeding and ASD. These may include food allergies, gastrointestinal issues, oral motor issues, and swallowing disorders. The refusal to consume particular foods coupled with the inability to tolerate, digest, and absorb these foods can compromise an individual’s overall nutrition status. Therefore, a child’s behavior toward food and feeding activities has great impact on dietary intake, nutritional status, and growth. This case report is the first to document combined medical, behavioral, and nutritional intervention for a toddler with ASD and comorbid feeding disorder.
Magallón-Neri, Ernesto; González, Esther; Canalda, Gloria; Forns, Maria; De La Fuente, J Eugenio; Martínez, Estebán; García, Raquel; Lara, Anais; Vallès, Antoni; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina
The objective of this study is to explore and compare the prevalence of categorical and dimensional personality disorders (PDs) and their severity in Spanish adolescents with Eating Disorders (EDs). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision-10 modules of the International Personality Disorder Examination were administered to a sample of 100 female adolescents with EDs (mean age=15.8 years, SD=0.9). 'Thirty-three per cent of the sample had at least one PD, in most cases a simple PD. The rate of PDs was 64-76% in bulimia patients, 22-28% in anorexia and 25% in EDs not otherwise specified. The highest dimensional scores were observed in bulimia, [corrected] mainly in borderline and histrionic PDs, and higher scores for anankastic PD in anorexia than in the other ED diagnoses. Overall, purging type EDs had higher cluster B personality pathology scores than restrictive type.' [corrected] The Publisher would like to apologize for this error and any confusion it may have caused. [corrected]. Adolescent female patients with ED have a risk of presenting a comorbid PD, especially patients with bulimia and purging type EDs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Steinberg, Tamar; Tamir, Inbal; Zimmerman-Brenner, Sharon; Friling, Michal; Apter, Alan
Tic disorders are common causes of morbidity in Israel but their prevalence in this country needs further study. To assess the prevalence of mental disorders in Israeli youth including tic disorders, as part of the Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA). The ISMEHA was conducted in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers during 2004-2005. We interviewed the adolescents and their mothers in their homes and collected demographic information about the use of services. We also administered a psychiatric interview, the Development and Well-Being Assessment inventory (DAWBA), which included a question on tic disorder. The prevalence of tic disorders was calculated based on the adolescents' and maternal reports. The relationships among demographic data, comorbidity rates, help-seeking behaviors and tic disorder are presented. The prevalence of tics was 1.3% according to maternal reports and 4.4% according to adolescents' reports. The prevalence correlated with externalizing disorders and learning disabilities. A higher prevalence of tics was found in the Arab population compared with Jewish adolescents. The prevalence of tic disorders in Israel, as measured by a direct question in this epidemiological study, and associated comorbidities concurs with previous reports. The complexities of prevalence estimations, comorbidities, demographic correlates, and help-seeking behaviors are discussed.
Maraz, Aniko; van den Brink, Wim; Demetrovics, Zsolt
Compulsive buying is a relatively new psychopathological concept and very few data are currently available regarding the prevalence and validity of compulsive buying disorder. In this cross-sectional study, we establish the prevalence of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors and
Søndergård, S; Vaegter, H B; Erlangsen, A
BACKGROUND: Prevalence rates of mental disorders in patients with chronic pain vary and may be overestimated when assessed by screening instruments only. Objectives were to estimate the 10-year prevalence of different mental disorders diagnosed by psychiatrists in patients with chronic pain compa...
Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J; Rull, Juan; Villalpando, Salvador; Barquera, Simón; Rojas, Rosalba
To describe the prevalence of lipid abnormalities found in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANut 2006). Information was obtained from 4 040 subjects aged 20 to 69 years, studied after a 9- to 12-hour fast. Median lipid concentrations were: cholesterol 198.5 mg/dl, triglycerides 139.6 mg/dl, HDL-cholesterol 39.0 mg/dl, non-HDL-cholesterol 159.5 mg/dl and LDL-cholesterol 131.5 mg/dl. The most frequent abnormality was HDL-cholesterol below 40 mg/dl with a prevalence of 60.5% (95%CI 58.2-62.8%). Hypercholesterolemia (> 200 mg/dl) had a frequency of abnormality of 43.6% (95%CI 41.4-46.0%). Only 8.6% of the hypercholesterolemic subjects knew their diagnosis. Hypertriglyceridemia (>or= 150 mg/dl) was observed in 31.5% (IC 95% 29.3-33.9%) of the population. The ENSANUT 2006 data confirm that the prevalence of hypoalphalipoproteinemia and other forms of dyslipidemia in Mexican adults is very high.
Bollez, Anouck; de Rooster, Hilde; Furcas, Alessandra; Vandenabeele, Sophie
Objectives Feline otitis externa is a multifactorial dermatological disorder about which very little is known. The objective of this study was to map the prevalence of external ear canal disorders and the pathogens causing otitis externa in stray cats roaming around the region of Ghent, Belgium. Methods One hundred and thirty stray cats were randomly selected during a local trap-neuter-return programme. All cats were European Shorthairs. This study included clinical, otoscopic and cytological evaluation of both external ears of each cat. Prospective data used as parameters in this study included the sex, age and body condition score of each cat, as well as the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge, and the results of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) Snap tests. Results Remarkably, very few (sub)clinical problems of the external ear canal were found in the stray cat population. Malassezia species was by far the most common organism found in the external ear canals of the 130 stray cats. A total of 96/130 (74%) cats were found to have Malassezia species organisms present in one or both ears based on the cytological examination. No correlation was found between the parameters of sex, age, body condition score, the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge and FIV and FeLV status, and the presence of parasites, bacteria or yeasts. Conclusions and relevance This study provides more information about the normal state of the external ear canal of stray cats. The ears of most stray cats are relatively healthy. The presence of Malassezia species organisms in the external ear canal is not rare among stray cats.
Auiwattanakul, Supakrit; Ungpinitpong, Winai; Yutthakasemsunt, Surakrant; Buranapin, Supawan; Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak
The authors aimed to estimate the prevalence of pressure ulcers and to explore the nutritional effects of the prognostic factors on successful pressure ulcer closure in a public tertiary care hospital in Thailand. The study was a retrospective cohort analysis of seven-year census (2008 - 2014) at Surin hospital in Thailand. There were 424 of total 240,826 patients aged over than 15 years admitted to surgery, orthopedics and medicine wards during the study period with documented pressure ulcers (ICD 10TM). We analyzed four hundred and ten patients after excluding 14 patients with non-pressure ulcers (due to burning/ diabetic/ ischemic neuropathic ulcers, and less than 24 hours of admission) and loss medical record. We selected independent factors from demographic data, nutritional factors, pressure ulcer characteristics, and management data. The outcome of interest was successful pressure ulcer closure. The analysis method was the semi-parametric Cox regression model and reported as Hazard Ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The total hospital admission was 240,826 patients between 2008 - 2014. 410 patients were developing pressure ulcers, of these, 7% (28/410) success in ulcer closure, and 77% (314/410) failure in closure requiring for additional procedures (excisional debridement). The rest of patients (16%, 68/410) was non-operative care. The prevalence of pressure ulcers was 1.7 per 1,000 person-year. The multivariable model found that only the Nottingham Hospital Screening Tool (NS) score was a statistically significant nutritional variable, and additional subgroup analysis of two models of sepsis and spinal cord co-morbidities was also significant. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for NS score = 0.355 (95% CI: 0.187, 0.674), p=0.002), for sepsis = 0.312 (95% CI: 0.140, 0.695), p=0.004), and for spinal cord co-morbidity = 0.420 (95% CI: 0.184, 0.958), p=0.039). The annual prevalence was 1.7 per 1,000 persons. NS score was strongly associated with
Davis Manuel; Mini John; Rekha N. S
BACKGROUND Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric problem in school going children worldwide. OBJECTIVE This study was done to find the prevalence and risk factors for anxiety disorders in adolescents in rural Kerala. METHODS A school based survey was done among children of 10 to 13 years using SCARED anxiety scale. Specific items in the SCARED scale were used to assess panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social anxiety dis...
Gordon, Olivia M; Salkovskis, Paul M; Oldfield, Victoria B; Carter, Natalie
The relationship between Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) has been the subject of interest for some time due to the historical assumption that OCPD causes OCD. This study systematically examined the association between OCD and OCPD in terms of prevalence and clinical presentation. The specificity of the association between OCD and OCPD was investigated relative to another axis I anxiety disorder (Panic disorder). Data for this study were drawn from measures taken at initial assessment at a specialist treatment centre for anxiety disorders. Of the 359 participants included in this study, 189 had a principal diagnosis of OCD, while 170 had a principal diagnosis of Panic disorder. Measures included SCID I and II interview modules and self-report measures of anxiety, depression, and OCD syptomatology. Significantly elevated rates of OCPD were found in OCD relative to Panic disorder. Regardless of axis I disorder, individuals with comorbid OCPD reported more severe depression relative to those without. Participants with both OCD and OCPD had greater self-reported OCD symptom severity, doubting, ordering, and hoarding symptoms at assessment relative to those without OCPD. Participants with OCD and comorbid OCPD also reported significantly higher levels of alcohol consumption. There appears to be a significant and specific association between OCD and OCPD. Co-occurring OCD and OCPD is associated with greater severity of impairment in terms of certain OCD symptoms. The significant and specific association between OCD and OCPD suggests that OCPD occurs more frequently with OCD than previously suggested. A comorbid OCPD diagnosis is associated with a greater degree of depression, regardless of axis I disorder, either OCD or Panic disorder. This is an important consideration, as depression can interfere with therapeutic progress (Foa, 1979). Participants with OCD and OCPD had greater self-reported OCD severity, along
Nourmohammad Bakhshani; Zahra Hasanzadeh; Mahvash Raghibi
Background: It is believed that adolescents suffer from dysmenorrhea but premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is not a common and prevalent disorder. Recently, some studies indicated that PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) were common problems among students and prevalence of premenstrual symptoms reported differently due to socio-cultural characteristics. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of PMS and PMDD in a group of Iranian adolescent students.Materials and Me...
da Silva, Simone Guerra L; Sarni, Roseli O S; de Souza, Fabíola I S; Molina, Juliana; Terreri, Maria Teresa R A; Hilário, Maria Odete E; Len, Claudio A
To assess eating disorders, nutritional status, body composition, and food intake in adolescents presenting with fibromyalgia. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the nutritional status (z score of body mass index [ZBMI]), waist circumference, body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance analysis, symptoms of disordered eating, and possible eating disorders (Kids' Eating Disorders Survey [KEDS]) of 23 female adolescents with fibromyalgia and 23 matched healthy control subjects. Median age for both groups was 15 years. In the fibromyalgia group, the median time for diagnosis was 13.5 months. We did not observe a statistically significant difference between the control and fibromyalgia groups in relation to ZBMI, fat mass percentage, food intake, and symptoms of disordered eating (KEDS). In the fibromyalgia group, there was a significant correlation between fat mass percentage and the total KEDS score (r = .587, p = .003); the same correlation was observed for ZBMI (r = .0778, p fibromyalgia that, in addition to the correlation between adiposity indexes and KEDS total score, emphasizes the importance of nutritional and body composition assessment, allowing an early and adequate nutritional intervention. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zabala-Baños, M C; Segura, A; Maestre-Miquel, C; Martínez-Lorca, M; Rodríguez-Martín, B; Romero, D; Rodríguez, M
To determine the lifetime and monthly prevalence of people with mental disorders and its association with sociodemographic factors and criminal risk in three Spanish prisons (Ocaña, Madrid I, II and VI). Cross-sectional epidemiological study of a sample of 184 inmates. Socio-demographic and criminal data were collected by an ad hoc interview. Mental disorders were assessed with the clinical version of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Life prevalence of mental disorders was 90.2%. The most common mental disorders and substance abuse or dependence was 72.3%, followed by mood disorder (38.5%) and psychotic disorders (34.2%). Moreover, the prevalence of any mental disorder in the last month was 52.2%. The main psychotic disorder (20.7%) was followed by substance abuse or dependence (18.5%), and mood disorder state (13%). A socio-demographic profile as a risk for each disorder was found. The prevalence of people with mental disorders is very high in Spanish prisons, and is associated with a distinct demographic profile. It is essential to continue researching this reality, translating the results into therapeutic and preventive action adapted to the status of inmates to reduce social inequalities in this high priority public health situation.
Full Text Available Aims: To determine the lifetime and monthly prevalence of people with mental disorders and its association with sociodemographic factors and criminal risk in three Spanish prisons (Ocaña, Madrid I, II and VI. Method: Cross-sectional epidemiological study of a sample of 184 inmates. Socio-demographic and criminal data were collected by an ad hoc interview. Mental disorders were assessed with the clinical version of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis I Disorders (SCID-I. Results: Life prevalence of mental disorders was 90.2%. The most common mental disorders and substance abuse or dependence was 72.3%, followed by mood disorder (38.5% and psychotic disorders (34.2%. Moreover, the prevalence of any mental disorder in the last month was 52.2%. The main psychotic disorder (20.7% was followed by substance abuse or dependence (18.5%, and mood disorder state (13%. A socio-demographic profile as a risk for each disorder was found. Discussion: The prevalence of people with mental disorders is very high in Spanish prisons, and is associated with a distinct demographic profile. It is essential to continue researching this reality, translating the results into therapeutic and preventive action adapted to the status of inmates to reduce social inequalities in this high priority public health situation.
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that nutrition intervention, including nutritional counseling, by a registered dietitian (RD) is an essential component of the team treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders during assessment and treatment across the continuum of care. Diagnostic criteria for eating disorders provide important guidelines for identification and treatment. However, it is thought that a continuum of disordered eating may exist that ranges from persistent dieting to subthreshold conditions and then to defined eating disorders, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Understanding the complexities of eating disorders, such as influencing factors, comorbid illness, medical and psychological complications, and boundary issues, is critical in the effective treatment of eating disorders. The nature of eating disorders requires a collaborative approach by an interdisciplinary team of psychological, nutritional, and medical specialists. The RD is an integral member of the treatment team and is uniquely qualified to provide medical nutrition therapy for the normalization of eating patterns and nutritional status. RDs provide nutritional counseling, recognize clinical signs related to eating disorders, and assist with medical monitoring while cognizant of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy that are cornerstones of eating disorder treatment. Specialized resources are available for RDs to advance their level of expertise in the field of eating disorders. Further efforts with evidenced-based research must continue for improved treatment outcomes related to eating disorders along with identification of effective primary and secondary interventions.
White, Melinda; Dennis, Nicole; Ramsey, Rebecca; Barwick, Katie; Graham, Christie; Kane, Sarah; Kepreotes, Helen; Queit, Leah; Sweeney, Annabel; Winderlich, Jacinta; Wong See, Denise; Littlewood, Robyn
Low prevalence rates of malnutrition at 2.5% to 4% have previously been reported in two tertiary paediatric Australian hospitals. The current study is the first to measure the prevalence of malnutrition, obesity and nutritional risk of paediatric inpatients in multiple hospitals throughout Australia. Malnutrition, obesity and nutritional risk prevalence were investigated in 832 and 570 paediatric inpatients, respectively, in eight tertiary paediatric hospitals and eight regional hospitals across Australia on a single day. Malnutrition and obesity prevalence was determined using z-scores and body mass index (BMI) percentiles. High nutritional risk was determined as a Paediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score of 2 or more. The prevalence rates of malnourished, wasted, stunted, overweight and obese paediatric patients were 15%, 13.8%, 11.9%, 8.8% and 9.9%, respectively. Patients who identified as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander were more likely to have lower height-for-age z-scores (P malnutrition and nutritional risk of Australian paediatric inpatients on a given day was much higher when compared with the healthy population. In contrast, the proportion of overweight and obese patients was less. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Poli, Roberto; Agrimi, Emilia
Internet addiction is one of the latest forms of addiction that has attracted the attention of popular media and researchers in these last few years. Several authors think Internet addiction is a separate disorder that merits inclusion in DSM-V. There is considerable controversy about this opinion. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Internet addiction in a representative sample of high school students attending secondary institutions in the district of Cremona and to assess any difference concerning variables such as gender, age, place of residence and kind of school attended. The Italian version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) has been administered to a sample of 2533 students from different kinds of school. The survey also required social and demographic data. The majority of respondents were classified as normal users of the Internet (n = 2386, 94.19%), with 127 (5.01%) moderately addicted and 20 (0.79%) seriously addicted. Significant differences in gender and in kinds of school were found. No statistical differences were revealed in age and urban or rural conditions. Our study has confirmed the general use of the Internet among youngest people, the emergence of Internet addiction and the male preponderance of this phenomenon.
Boden, Matthew Tyler
To examine prevalence, functioning and treatment associated with all DSM-5 12-month mood, anxiety, eating and substance use disorders among people with diabetes in data obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. Through multistage stratified randomized sampling a sample representative of the United States civilian population was obtained. Prevalence of diabetes (Type 1 and 2), DSM-5 disorders, physical and mental functioning, and treatment utilization were assessed via telephone interview. Analyses of weighted data (N=36,138) included calculation of descriptive statistics, and chi-square, logistic and linear regression analyses. Participants with (vs. without) diabetes (9.3% of weighted sample) had a significantly: (a) higher prevalence of any anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (with and without adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics), and any mood disorder, major depressive disorder and specific phobia (with adjustment), (b) lower prevalence of any substance use disorder and alcohol and tobacco use disorders (with and without adjustment), and cannabis use disorder (without adjustment). Among participants with diabetes, mental disorder prevalence was consistently associated with sex and age, and to a lesser frequency, race/ethnicity. Lower levels of physical and mental functioning were found among participants with diabetes and a comorbid mental disorder. A minority of participants with diabetes and a comorbid mental disorder received treatment for mood and anxiety disorders, and few received treatment for eating and substance use disorders. Multiple types of mood, anxiety, eating and substance use disorders are prevalent, problematic, and often untreated among people with diabetes. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Toeller, M; Buyken, A E; Heitkamp, G
and proliferative retinopathy were more common. Persons from the eastern European and the German centres consumed undesirably high amounts of cholesterol, total and saturated fat. Overall, improvements in the prevention, detection and management of diabetes complications in persons with type 1 diabetes......) and chronic diabetes complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, cardiovascular disease) were all considerably more frequent in the eastern European centres. HbA1c was lower in the German centres than in the total EURODIAB cohort or in the north-western European centres, but severe hypoglycaemia......This study compares the prevalence of chronic complications, the quality of metabolic control and the nutritional intake in people with type 1 diabetes in different European regions. The EURODIAB Complications Study included a sample of 3250 European patients with type 1 diabetes stratified...
Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reider, Nadia; Cohen, Jeffrey
was 3.09% (95% CI: 2.01-4.16%). For sleep disorders we evaluated 18 studies; none were population-based. The prevalence ranged from 0-1.6% for narcolepsy, 14.4-57.5% for restless legs syndrome, 2.22-3.2% for REM behavior disorder, and 7.14-58.1% for obstructive sleep apnea. CONCLUSION: This review......BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that comorbid neurologic disorders are more common than expected in multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of comorbid seizure disorders and sleep disorders in persons with MS and to evaluate the quality of studies...... suggests that seizure disorders and sleep disorders are common in MS, but highlights gaps in the epidemiological knowledge of these conditions in MS worldwide. Other than central-western Europe and North America, most regions are understudied....
Jae Hee Ahn
Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. It manifests as albuminuria or impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies with ethnicity. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its determinants in Korean adults have not previously been studied at the national level. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of albuminuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD in Korean patients with diabetes.MethodsThe Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, conducted in 2011, was used to define albuminuria (n=4,652, and the dataset of KNHANES IV-V (2008-2011 was used to define CKD (n=21,521. Selected samples were weighted to represent the entire civilian population in Korea. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. CKD was defined as a GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2.ResultsAmong subjects with diabetes, 26.7% had albuminuria, and 8.6% had CKD. Diabetes was associated with an approximate 2.5-fold increased risk of albuminuria, with virtually no difference between new-onset and previously diagnosed diabetes. Only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with albuminuria, and old age, high serum triglyceride levels, and previous cardiovascular disease (CVD were related with CKD in subjects with diabetes.ConclusionKorean subjects with diabetes had a higher prevalence of albuminuria and CKD than those without diabetes. Blood pressure was associated with albuminuria, and age, triglyceride level, and previous CVD were independent determinants of CKD in subjects with diabetes.
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of behavioral disorder among of primary school students in Abhar. Materials & Methods: 600 primary school students (300 boys and 300 girls of public primary schools in Abhar, Iran were used as the sample for this study. Their behavioral disorder scores were obtained by means of Rutter's teachers' questionnaire. Results: Using a cutpoint of 9, the prevalence rate of behavioral disorder was 43.3% among subjects, with boys showing higher rates of behavioral disorder (44.7% than girls (42% but no significant differences were found by gender on rates of behavioral disorders. 6.3 percent of the subjects had severe behavioral disorder. Conclusion: Academic achievement was negatively related to behavioral disorder. Significant differences were found by mothers' education on children’s rates of behavioral disorder. Significant differences were found by fathers' occupation on children’s rates of behavioral disorder.
Yee, Hway Ann; Loh, Huai Seng; Ng, Chong Guan
To determine the prevalence of alcohol-use disorder and associated correlates amongst bipolar patients in a university hospital in Malaysia. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 121 bipolar disorder patients were included. Their alcohol use disorders were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (plus version) and the Addiction Severity Index-Lite-Clinical Factors version. The number of lifetime hospitalizations and the survival days (the number of days between the last discharge and the most current readmission) were calculated. The prevalence of alcohol-use disorder amongst bipolar patients was 18.2%. Indian ethnicity was the only demographic factor that was statistically associated with alcohol-use disorder (p rate of suicidal attempt (p Malaysia. Since alcohol-use disorder, as well as the potential interactions with the course of the disorder, is highly prevalent amongst bipolar patients, alcohol use should be addressed in these patients.
Bachmann, Christian J.; Gerste, Bettina; Hoffmann, Falk
For Germany, no data on trends in autism spectrum disorder diagnoses are available. The primary aim of this study was to establish the time trends in the administrative prevalence of autism spectrum disorder diagnoses. The second aim was to assess the stability of autism spectrum disorder diagnoses over time. We analysed administrative outpatient…
Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Hoek, Hans W.
Objective: The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes a considerably revised eating disorder section. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence and severity of eating disorders based on the new DSM-5 criteria in a community cohort of
Albert, Umberto; Maina, Giuseppe; Forner, Federica; Bogetto, Filippo
The relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to analyze DSM-IV OCPD prevalence rates in OCD and panic disorder (PD) patients to test for the specificity of the OCPD-OCD link, and to compare them to OCPD prevalence in a control group of subjects without any psychiatric disorder. A total of 109 patients with a principal diagnosis of DSM-IV (SCID-I) OCD and 82 with PD were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) in order to assess the prevalence of OCPD. All patients with a coexisting axis I diagnosis were excluded from the study to eliminate confounding factors when evaluating the association between prevalence rates of OCPD and anxiety disorder diagnoses. An exclusion criteria was also a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score >/=16. A sample of comparison subjects (age 18 to 65 years) without any psychiatric disorder was recruited from people registered with two general practitioners (GPs), whether or not they consulted the doctor, in order to evaluate OCPD prevalence rate in the community. A significant difference was found between the prevalence of OCPD in OCD (22.9%) and in PD (17.1%) on one hand, and that in the comparison sample (3.0%) on the other. No differences were found between the two psychiatric groups, even when splitting the samples according to gender. Our study failed to support the hypothesis of a specific relationship between OCPD and OCD; we confirmed the higher prevalence rate of this personality disorder in OCD subjects with regard to the general population, but we also confirmed the higher rate of OCPD in another anxiety disorder which is phenomenologically well characterized and different from OCD, such as PD.
Sedighah Akhavan Karbasi
Full Text Available Communication disorder is a widespread disabling problems and associated with adverse, long term outcome that impact on individuals, families and academic achievement of children in the school years and affect vocational choices later in adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of speech disorders specifically stuttering, voice, and speech-sound disorders in primary school students in Iran-Yazd. In a descriptive study, 7881 primary school students in Yazd evaluated in view from of speech disorders with use of direct and face to face assessment technique in 2005. The prevalence of total speech disorders was 14.8% among whom 13.8% had speech-sound disorder, 1.2% stuttering and 0.47% voice disorder. The prevalence of speech disorders was higher than in males (16.7% as compared to females (12.7%. Pattern of prevalence of the three speech disorders was significantly different according to gender, parental education and by number of family member. There was no significant difference across speech disorders and birth order, religion and paternal consanguinity. These prevalence figures are higher than more studies that using parent or teacher reports.
Strakowski Stephen M
Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature examining the epidemiology, outcome, and treatment of patients with bipolar disorder and co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs. Articles for this review were initially selected via a comprehensive Medline search and further studies were obtained from the references in these articles. Given the lack of research in this field, all relevant studies except case reports were included. Prior epidemiological research has consistently shown that substance use disorders (SUDs are extremely common in bipolar I and II disorders. The lifetime prevalence of SUDs is at least 40% in bipolar I patients. Alcohol and cannabis are the substances most often abused, followed by cocaine and then opioids. Research has consistently shown that co-occurring SUDs are correlated with negative effects on illness outcome including more frequent and prolonged affective episodes, decreased compliance with treatment, a lower quality of life, and increased suicidal behavior. Recent research on the causal relationship between the two disorders suggests that a subgroup of bipolar patients may develop a relatively milder form of affective illness that is expressed only after extended exposure to alcohol abuse. There has been very little treatment research specifically targeting this population. Three open label medication trials provide limited evidence that quetiapine, aripiprazole, and lamotrigine may be effective in treating affective and substance use symptoms in bipolar patients with cocaine dependence and that aripiprazole may also be helpful in patients with alcohol use disorders. The two placebo controlled trials to date suggest that valproate given as an adjunct to lithium in bipolar patients with co-occurring alcohol dependence improves both mood and alcohol use symptoms and that lithium treatment in bipolar adolescents improves mood and SUD symptoms. Given the high rate of SUD co
Qu, Yuan; Jiang, Hongyun; Zhang, Ni; Wang, Dahai; Guo, Lanting
To investigate the point prevalence of mental disorders in school students, multistage cluster stratified random sampling and two-phase survey methods were used to identify 40 primary and middle schools. The students were screened using the Chinese version of the Child Behavior Checklist and diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The prevalence of behavioral problems was 19.13%. The prevalence of behavioral problems significantly differed by sex, age, city of residence, and caretaker. The six-month prevalence of any mental disorder was 15.24% (95% CI: 15.49%-16.97%). Psychiatric disorders were more prevalent in boys (17.33%) relative to girls (13.11%; p mental disorders significantly differed by community and caretaker, and 36.46% of students exhibited comorbidity. Results demonstrated important mental health issues, with a high incidence of comorbidities, in this population. Students' mental health requires increased attention, particularly in poverty-stricken areas and left-behind children and adolescents.
Pedersen, Preben; Bjerrum, Merete; Larsen, Palle
REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE:: The objective of this scoping review is to examine and map reported nutritional interventions and their outcomes in relieving symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the daily lives of children and adults. A further objective is to determine...
Al-Ansari, A M; Ahmed, M M
European and North American studies show that the prevalence of autistic disorder is inccreasing. This study was performed to identify the prevalence of autistic disorder in Bahrain, and determine some of the demographic and family characteristics. Using a case-control design, 100 children who received a diagnosis of autistic disorder according to DSM-IV-TR during the period 2000-2010 were selected. An equal numberofcontrols who had received a diagnosis of nocturnal enuresis and no psychopathology were selected, matched for sex and age group. The prevalence of autistic disorder was estimated as 4.3 per 10,000 population, with a male:female sex ratio of 4:1. Significantly more cases than controls were delivered by caesarean section and had mothers who suffered prenatal complications. The prevalence estimate in Bahrain is comparable to previous reports using similar methods. Obstetric complications and caesarean section delivery may be associated with autistic disorder.
Andersen, S B; Boye, M; Nash, D R; Boomsma, J J
Wolbachia are renowned as reproductive parasites, but their phenotypic effects in eusocial insects are not well understood. We used a combination of qrt-PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization and laser scanning confocal microscopy to evaluate the dynamics of Wolbachia infections in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex octospinosus across developmental stages of sterile workers. We confirm that workers are infected with one or two widespread wsp genotypes of Wolbachia, show that colony prevalence is always 100% and characterize two rare recombinant genotypes. One dominant genotype is always present and most abundant, whereas another only proliferates in adult workers of some colonies and is barely detectable in larvae and pupae. An explanation may be that Wolbachia genotypes compete for host resources in immature stages while adult tissues provide substantially more niche space. Tissue-specific prevalence of the two genotypes differs, with the rarer genotype being over-represented in the adult foregut and thorax muscles. Both genotypes occur extracellularly in the foregut, suggesting an unknown mutualistic function in worker ant nutrition. Both genotypes are also abundant in the faecal fluid of the ants, suggesting that they may have extended functional phenotypes in the fungus garden that the ants manure with their own faeces. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Quintero, J; Rodríguez-Quirós, J; Correas-Lauffer, J; Pérez-Templado, J
Attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) has received in the past years a lot of attention from the paediatrician's specialties. Even though the studies of its etiopathology have advanced, mainly the ones related with genetics and neuroimaging, the final cause today is still unclear. It has been related to many factors such as diet, like some allergies to additives, toxicity to heavy metals and other toxic substances from the environment, due to low protein diets with a high carbohydrate content, unbalanced minerals, essential fatty acids and phospholipid deficit, amino acid deficits, thyroid disorders, and vitamin B complex disorders and phytochemicals. The way our lifestyle has changed in general and the diet in particular nowadays is being considered as a hypothesis for many disorders and health problems, but what about ADHD? One of the changes that we want to emphasize is related to vegetable fat and oils that dominate human consumption and the reduction income of fatty acids from the omega-3 family, including alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid. The fact is even worse when the amount of omega-6 increases and the ratio between both changes. It is a fact that these kinds of nutrients play an important role in the nervous system development. In this paper the essential fatty acids in neuropsychiatric disorders in general, ADHD in particular, is reviewed.
Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed at comparing the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and generalized anxiety disorder between performance-enhancing drug users and nonuser bodybuilders. Moreover, the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders was also reported.Method: In this study, 453 athletes were recruited from Bushehr bodybuilding gyms from February to May 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the participants’ information, including demographic characteristics, sports’ status and performance-enhancing drug use. According to the condition of performance-enhancing drug use, the participants were divided into current users, non-current users, and nonusers. The psychiatric status of the participants was evaluated using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia. We also asked about the acute psychotic disturbances after using performance-enhancing drugs, alcohol use, and history of aggressive behavior in bodybuilders. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests.Results: Prevalence of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, generalized anxiety disorder, and the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the bodybuilders was 19.7%, 3.8%, 1.5%, 16.6%, and 26.7%, respectively. After using performance-enhancing drugs, 33% of the bodybuilders had experienced acute psychological disturbances. There were no significant differences between current, non-current, and nonuser bodybuilding athletes in the measured psychiatric disorders.Conclusion: Prevalence of psychiatric disorders was not significantly different in performance-enhancing drug users and nonusers. Thus, it can be concluded that performance-enhancing drugs do not increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders.
Ostovar, Afshin; Haerinejad, Mohammad Javad; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Keshavarz, Mojtaba
Objective: The present study aimed at comparing the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and generalized anxiety disorder between performance-enhancing drug users and nonuser bodybuilders. Moreover, the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders was also reported. Method: In this study, 453 athletes were recruited from Bushehr bodybuilding gyms from February to May 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the participants' information, including demographic characteristics, sports' status and performance-enhancing drug use. According to the condition of performance-enhancing drug use, the participants were divided into current users, non-current users, and nonusers. The psychiatric status of the participants was evaluated using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia. We also asked about the acute psychotic disturbances after using performance-enhancing drugs, alcohol use, and history of aggressive behavior in bodybuilders. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests. Results: Prevalence of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, generalized anxiety disorder, and the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the bodybuilders was 19.7%, 3.8%, 1.5%, 16.6%, and 26.7%, respectively. After using performance-enhancing drugs, 33% of the bodybuilders had experienced acute psychological disturbances. There were no significant differences between current, non-current, and nonuser bodybuilding athletes in the measured psychiatric disorders. Conclusion: Prevalence of psychiatric disorders was not significantly different in performance-enhancing drug users and nonusers. Thus, it can be concluded that performance-enhancing drugs do not increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders.
Quirk, Shae E; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Chanen, Andrew M; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Burke, Lisa M; Jackson, Henry J; Hulbert, Carol; A Olsson, Craig; Moran, Paul; Stuart, Amanda L; Williams, Lana J
We aimed to describe the prevalence and age distribution of personality disorders and their comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders in an age-stratified sample of Australian women aged ⩾25 years. Individual personality disorders (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive), lifetime mood, anxiety, eating and substance misuse disorders were diagnosed utilising validated semi-structured clinical interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-patient Edition and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders). The prevalence of personality disorders and Clusters were determined from the study population ( n = 768), and standardised to the Australian population using the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. Prevalence by age and the association with mood, anxiety, eating and substance misuse disorders was also examined. The overall prevalence of personality disorders in women was 21.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.7, 24.9). Cluster C personality disorders (17.5%, 95% CI: 16.0, 18.9) were more common than Cluster A (5.3%, 95% CI: 3.5, 7.0) and Cluster B personality disorders (3.2%, 95% CI: 1.8, 4.6). Of the individual personality disorders, obsessive-compulsive (10.3%, 95% CI: 8.0, 12.6), avoidant (9.3%, 95% CI: 7.1, 11.5), paranoid (3.9%, 95% CI: 3.1, 4.7) and borderline (2.7%, 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) were among the most prevalent. The prevalence of other personality disorders was low (⩽1.7%). Being younger (25-34 years) was predictive of having any personality disorder (odds ratio: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.18, 4.74), as was being middle-aged (odds ratio: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.72). Among the strongest predictors of having any personality disorder was having a lifetime history of psychiatric disorders (odds ratio: 4.29, 95% CI: 2.90, 6.33). Mood and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid
Full Text Available Abstract Background The strong causal role of hypercholesterolaemia on the progression of atherosclerosis and subsequently on the development of cardiovascular disease is well described. Main aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to nutritional habits, in a representative nationwide sample of adult Greek population. Methods Cross sectional survey. Based on a multistage sampling, 5003 adults (18 – 74 yr were enrolled (men: 48.8%, women: 51.2%. All participants were interviewed by trained personnel who used a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle habits and nutritional assessment. Results The prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia was 16.4% in men and 21.8% in women (P Conclusion Hypercholesterolaemia seems to affect a large part of Greek population. It is hopeful that hypercholesterolaemics may have started adopting some more healthy nutritional behaviour compared to normocholesterolaemic ones.
Bastons-Compta, A; Astals, M; Andreu-Fernandez, V; Navarro-Tapia, E; Garcia-Algar, O
Ethanol is the most important teratogen agent in humans. Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a wide range of adverse effects, which are broadly termed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The most severe consequence of maternal alcohol abuse is the development of fetal alcohol syndrome, defined by growth retardation, facial malformations, and central nervous system impairment expressed as microcephaly and neurodevelopment abnormalities. These alterations generate a broad range of cognitive abnormalities such as learning disabilities and hyperactivity and behavioural problems. Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, differences in genetic susceptibility related to ethanol metabolism, alcohol consumption patterns, obstetric problems, and environmental influences like maternal nutrition, stress, and other co-administered drugs are all factors that may influence FASD manifestations. Recently, much attention has been paid to the role of nutrition as a protective factor against alcohol teratogenicity. There are a great number of papers related to nutritional treatment of nutritional deficits due to several factors associated with maternal consumption of alcohol and with eating and social disorders in FASD children. Although research showed the clinical benefits of nutritional interventions, most of work was in animal models, in a preclinical phase, or in the prenatal period. However, a minimum number of studies refer to postnatal nutrition treatment of neurodevelopmental deficits. Nutritional supplementation in children with FASD has a dual objective: to overcome nutritional deficiencies and to reverse or improve the cognitive deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. Further research is necessary to confirm positive results, to determine optimal amounts of nutrients needed in supplementation, and to investigate the collective effects of simultaneous multiple-nutrient supplementation.
L. A. Tekebaeva
Full Text Available The paper gives the results of a study project at the Infant Neurology Department, which has shown the urgency of nutritional rehabilitation in children aged 3 months to 5 years with infantile cerebral paralysis. Thirty patients were followed up to study the causes of malnutrition, to assess and correct their nutritional status, and to show the efficiency of the measures implemented. A diet corrected by a nutritionist was combined with nonsurgical interventions, such as positioning, a decision on the transition to nasogastric tube feeding, and maternal work. The complementary foods were FrutoNyanya products as the latter are low-immunogenic, cause no allergic reactions, and may be used both in the feeding of high-risk group children and as ingredients of a therapeutic diet for patients with different diseases. This resulted in 305-g weight gain within 7-10 day of hospital stay in those whose underweight averaged 28%. The emotional status of the patients and their caregivers was improved by 2-3 scores on 5-point rating scale. There were improvements in their emotional tone (in 75%, chewing (in 28%, and swallowing (in 35% and reductions in reflux episodes (in 19% and stress in the caregivers (in 86%.
Terezinha Soares Biscegli
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional e descrever a prevalência de enteroparasitoses em crianças de uma creche. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 133 crianças (sete a 78 meses de idade matriculadas na Creche "Sinharinha Neto", Catanduva (SP. Avaliou-se o estado nutricional pelas curvas da OMS/2006 e NCHS/2000 (menores e maiores de cinco anos, respectivamente e investigou-se enteroparasitoses por meio de exames parasitológicos de fezes. O escore Z dos índices peso/altura foi aplicado para classificar desnutrição aguda (Z2 e o da altura/idade para desnutrição pregressa e crônica (ZOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional status and the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases among children enrolled in a day care center. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 133 children, aged seven to 78 months, assisted in a nonprofit day care center in Catanduva, SP, Brazil. The nutritional status was classified according to WHO/2006 and NCHS/2000 curves (younger and older than five years, respectively. Faecal samples were collected for parasite examination. Z scores of weight/height were used to classify acute malnutrition (Z2, and height/age to classify past and chronic malnutrition (Z<-2. Statistical analyses were performed by Z test for proportions, beeing significant p<0.05. RESULTS: Among the evaluated children, 0.8% presented acute malnutrition, 1.5% past malnutrition and 6% obesity. Nutritional disorders were more prevalent among boys. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 29.2%. The parasites identified were Giardia lamblia (73.6%, Entamoeba coli and yeasts (10.5% each and Endolimax nana (7.9%. Children aged 25 to 60 months presented more parasites (60.5%. Entamoeba coli and yeasts were more prevalent among malnourished children in comparison to eutrophic children. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional transition was observed in this study. Improvement in life conditions contributed to the disappearance of some parasites, but not of
Rabah M. Shawky
Feb 4, 2012 ... syndromes, multiple genetic disorders in the same individual or same family and homozygosity ...... array of hereditary eye disorders has been identified. These in- ..... of ED, decreased sweating was present in 92%, dry skin in.
Oct 10, 2013 ... Background: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) develops ... like child sexual abuse can develop post-traumatic stress disorder ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... abuse and development of behavior problem ranging.
Gómez Candela, Carmen; Palma Milla, Samara; Miján-de-la-Torre, Alberto; Rodríguez Ortega, Pilar; Matía Martín, Pilar; Loria Kohen, Viviana; Campos Del Portillo, Rocío; Virgili Casas, M ª Nuria; Martínez Olmos, Miguel Á; Mories Álvarez, M ª Teresa; Castro Alija, M ª José; Martín-Palmero, Ángela
Eating disorders (ED) are characterized by persistent changes in eating habits that negatively affect a person's health and psychosocial abilities. They are considered psychiatric disorders, highly variable in their presentation and severity, with a huge impact on nutrition, which conditions various therapeutic approaches within a key multidisciplinary context. A group of experts in nutrition, we decided to set up a task force adscribed to the "Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral" (SENPE), which has stated as one of its goals the development of a consensus document to generate a protocol based on the best scientific evidence and professional experience available in order to improve health care in this field.
Schlander, M; Schwarz, O; Rothenberger, A; Roessner, V
Coexistence of tics and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has important clinical and scientific implications. Existing data on the co-occurrence of tic disorders, Tourette Syndrome (TS), and ADHD are largely derived from small-scale studies in selected samples and therefore heterogeneous. The Nordbaden project captures the complete outpatient claims data of more than 2.2 million persons, representing 82% of the regional population in 2003. Based upon the number of diagnosed cases of tic disorders, TS, and ADHD, we determined 12-months administrative prevalence rates as well as rates of co-occurrence. Both tic disorders and ADHD were diagnosed most often in the age group 7-12 years (any tic disorder: 0.8%; ADHD: 5.0%). With increasing age, the administrative prevalence difference in favor of males disappeared, with tic disorders being somewhat more frequently reported in females than males in the age groups above 30 years. The highest rate of ADHD co-occurring with tic disorders was found in adolescents (age 13-18 years, 15.1%). Tic disorders were observed in 2.3% of patients with ADHD. Administrative prevalence rates of tic disorders and TS were substantially lower compared to rates found in community-based epidemiological studies, suggesting that a large number of cases remain undetected and untreated under present conditions of routine outpatient care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
DE HERT, MARC; CORRELL, CHRISTOPH U.; BOBES, JULIO; CETKOVICH-BAKMAS, MARCELO; COHEN, DAN; ASAI, ITSUO; DETRAUX, JOHAN; GAUTAM, SHIV; MÖLLER, HANS-JURGEN; NDETEI, DAVID M.; NEWCOMER, JOHN W.; UWAKWE, RICHARD; LEUCHT, STEFAN
The lifespan of people with severe mental illness (SMI) is shorter compared to the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. We report prevalence rates of different physical illnesses as well as important individual lifestyle choices, side effects of psychotropic treatment and disparities in health care access, utilization and provision that contribute to these poor physical health outcomes. We searched MEDLINE (1966 – August 2010) combining the MeSH terms of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder with the different MeSH terms of general physical disease categories to select pertinent reviews and additional relevant studies through cross-referencing to identify prevalence figures and factors contributing to the excess morbidity and mortality rates. Nutritional and metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, viral diseases, respiratory tract diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, sexual dysfunction, pregnancy complications, stomatognathic diseases, and possibly obesity-related cancers are, compared to the general population, more prevalent among people with SMI. It seems that lifestyle as well as treatment specific factors account for much of the increased risk for most of these physical diseases. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence that people with SMI are less likely to receive standard levels of care for most of these diseases. Lifestyle factors, relatively easy to measure, are barely considered for screening; baseline testing of numerous important physical parameters is insufficiently performed. Besides modifiable lifestyle factors and side effects of psychotropic medications, access to and quality of health care remains to be improved for individuals with SMI. PMID:21379357
Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students. This research was among epidemiological-correlational descriptive studies. Method: For this purpose, 389 male students were selected via a multi-stage cluster sampling method. All subjects completed Millon's personality disorder (1987 and five-factor personality Costaand McCrae's questionnaires (1989. Results: The results showed that the prevalence of personality disorders is among students. It was also found that there existed a positive correlation between schizoid, avoidant, dependent, schizotypal, borderline and paranoid personality disorders with Neuroticism factor (r = .1. There was a significant negative correlation between schizoid, avoidant and schizotypal personality disorders with extraversion factor (r = .1 and significant positive correlation between histrionic disorders and extraversion (r = .1. There was a significant negative correlation between dependent personality disorder and Openness factor (r = .1 , significant negative correlation between narcissistic, antisocial and paranoid personality disorders with agree ableness factor (r = .1 and finally, significant negative correlation between antisocial, passive-aggressive and borderline personality disorders with accountability factor (r = .1and a significant positive correlation between accountability factor and compulsive personality disorder (r = .1. Conclusion: The results suggest a prevalence of personality disorders among students and significant correlation between some disorders with personality factors. Further studies in this area could provide more insightful findings in the field.
McLean, Carmen P.; Asnaani, Anu; Litz, Brett T.; Hofmann, Stefan G.
Women have consistently higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders, but less is known about how gender affects age of onset, chronicity, comorbidity, and burden of illness. Gender differences in DSM-IV anxiety disorders were examined in a large sample of adults (N = 20,013) in the United States using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES). The lifetime and 12-month male:female prevalence ratios of any anxiety disorder were 1:1.7 and 1:1.79, respectively. Women had higher rates of lifetime diagnosis for each of the anxiety disorders examined, except for social anxiety disorder which showed no gender difference in prevalence. No gender differences were observed in the age of onset and chronicity of the illness. However, women with a lifetime diagnosis of an anxiety disorder were more likely than men to also be diagnosed with another anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, and major depressive disorder. Furthermore, anxiety disorders were associated with a greater illness burden in women than in men, particularly among European American women and to some extend also among Hispanic women. These results suggest that anxiety disorders are not only more prevalent but also more disabling in women than in men. PMID:21439576
Kim, Young Shin; Fombonne, Eric; Koh, Yun-Joo; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Leventhal, Bennett L
Changes in autism diagnostic criteria found in DSM-5 may affect autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalence, research findings, diagnostic processes, and eligibility for clinical and other services. Using our published, total-population Korean prevalence data, we compute DSM-5 ASD and social communication disorder (SCD) prevalence and compare them with DSM-IV pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) prevalence estimates. We also describe individuals previously diagnosed with DSM-IV PDD when diagnoses change with DSM-5 criteria. The target population was all children from 7 to 12 years of age in a South Korean community (N = 55,266), those in regular and special education schools, and a disability registry. We used the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire for systematic, multi-informant screening. Parents of screen-positive children were offered comprehensive assessments using standardized diagnostic procedures, including the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Best-estimate clinical diagnoses were made using DSM-IV PDD and DSM-5 ASD and SCD criteria. DSM-5 ASD estimated prevalence was 2.20% (95% confidence interval = 1.77-3.64). Combined DSM-5 ASD and SCD prevalence was virtually the same as DSM-IV PDD prevalence (2.64%). Most children with autistic disorder (99%), Asperger disorder (92%), and PDD-NOS (63%) met DSM-5 ASD criteria, whereas 1%, 8%, and 32%, respectively, met SCD criteria. All remaining children (2%) had other psychopathology, principally attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorder. Our findings suggest that most individuals with a prior DSM-IV PDD meet DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ASD and SCD. PDD, ASD or SCD; extant diagnostic criteria identify a large, clinically meaningful group of individuals and families who require evidence-based services. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gómez Candela, Carmen; Palma Milla, Samara; Miján-de-la-Torre, Alberto; Rodríguez Ortega, Pilar; Matía Martín, Pilar; Loria Cohen, Viviana; Campos Del Portillo, Rocío; Virgili Casas, M ª Nuria; Martínez Olmos, Miguel Á; Mories Álvarez, M ª Teresa; Castro Alija, M ª José; Martín-Palmero, Ángela
Bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder are unique nosological entities. Both show a large variability related to its presentation and severity which involves different therapeutic approaches and the need to individualize the treatment, thus it is indispensable a multidisciplinary approach. Patients with bulimia nervosa may suffer from malnutrition and deficiency states or even excess weight, while in binge eating disorders, it is common overweight or obesity, which determine other comorbidities. Many of the symptoms and complications are associated with compensatory behaviors. There are many therapeutic tools available for the treatment of these patients. The nutritional approach contemplates the individualized dietary advice which guarantees an adequate nutritional state and nutritional education. Its objective is to facilitate the voluntary adoption of eating behaviors that promote health and allow the long-term modification of eating habits and the cessation of purgatory and bingeing behaviors. Psychological support is a first-line treatment and it must address the frequent disorder of eating behavior and psychiatric comorbidities. Psychotropic drugs are effective and widely used although these drugs are not essential. The management is carried out mainly at an outpatient level, being the day hospital useful in selected patients. Hospitalization should be reserved to correct serious somatic or psychiatric complications or as a measure to contain non-treatable conflict situations. Most of the guidelines' recommendations are based on expert consensus, with little evidence which evaluates clinical results and cost-effectiveness.
Nii, Maria; Maeda, Keisuke; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Nishioka, Shinta; Tanaka, Atsuko
Malnutrition affects the activities of daily living (ADLs) in convalescent patients with cerebrovascular disorders. We investigated the relationship between nutritional improvement, energy intake at admission, and recovery of ADLs. We evaluated 67 patients with cerebrovascular disorders admitted to our rehabilitation hospital between April 2013 and April 2015. These patients received interventions from the rehabilitation nutritional support team according to the following criteria: weight loss of 2 kg or more and body mass index of 19 kg/m(2) or lower. Exclusion criteria included a body mass index of 25 kg/m(2) or higher, duration of intervention of less than 14 days, or transfer to an acute care hospital because of clinical deterioration. We assessed nutritional status using the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and ADL using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score, FIM gain, and FIM efficiency. The mean age of the patients was 78.7 ± 8.0 years. The numbers of patients in each category of cerebrovascular disorder were 39 with cerebral infarction, 16 with intracerebral hemorrhage, 8 with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 4 others. Compared with the counterpart group, the group with an improvement in GNRI had a greater gain in FIM (median 17 and 20, respectively; P = .036) and a higher FIM efficiency (.14 and .22, respectively; P = .020). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that an improvement in GNRI, increasing energy intake at admission, and intracerebral hemorrhage were associated independently with greater FIM efficiency. This study suggested that nutritional improvement and energy intake at admission are associated with recovery of ADL after cerebrovascular disorders. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to study the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a sample of delinquent adolescents of both genders and to compare the prevalence between genders. A total of 116 adolescents (99 males and 17 females aged 12 to 19 on parole in the State of Rio de Janeiro were interviewed using the screening interview based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime (KSADS-PL. Data were collected between May 2002 and January 2003. Of 373 male and 58 female adolescents present in May 2002 in the largest institution that gives assistance to adolescents on parole in the city of Rio de Janeiro, 119 subjects were assessed (three of them refused to participate. Their average age was 16.5 years with no difference between genders. The screening interview was positive for psychopathology for most of the sample, with the frequencies of the suggested more prevalent psychiatric disorders being 54% for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, 77% for conduct disorder, 41% for oppositional defiant disorder, 57% for anxiety disorder 57, 60% for depressive disorder 60, 63% for illicit drug abuse, and 58% for regular alcohol use. Internalizing disorders (depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and phobias were more prevalent in the female subsample. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of illicit drug abuse between genders. There were more male than female adolescents on parole and failure to comply with the sentence was significantly more frequent in females. The high prevalence of psychopathology suggested by this study indicates the need for psychiatric treatment as part of the prevention of juvenile delinquency or as part of the sentence. However, treatment had never been available for 93% of the sample in this study.
Alleblas, C.C.J.; Man, A.M. de; Haak, L. van den; Vierhout, M.E.; Jansen, F.W.; Nieboer, T.E.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) prevalence among surgeons performing minimally invasive surgery. BACKGROUND: Advancements in laparoscopic surgery have primarily focused on enhancing patient benefits. However, compared with open surgery, laparoscopic
Joseph Chukwuma Eziechila
Full Text Available AIM: To determine the pattern and prevalence of ocular disorders among artisans with a view to make recommendations to the appropriate ministries for the formulation of necessary policies to preserve the ocular health status of these artisans.METHODS: This was a descriptive cross sectional study in which the sample population was selected using the proportion to size technique and simple random sampling.RESULTS: There was a high prevalence of degenerative conjunctival disorders among the artisans with pingueculum topping the list at 30.1%. Automobile mechanics had the highest prevalence for conjunctival disorders, corneal opacities, and allergic conjunctivitis. Superficial foreign bodies(74.4%were the most common work related injury observed while 13.6% of the artisans developed cataract from work related injuries.CONCLUSION: Governmental policies targeted at preserving and maintaining the ocular health of the artisans is needed to reduce the prevalence of ocular disorders noted in this study.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Morocco, no epidemiological study has been conducted to show the current prevalence of mental disorders in the general population. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and comorbidity of anxiety disorders in Moroccan subjects. Methods We used cross-sectional study, with a representative sample of Casablanca city. Direct interviews used the Mini International Neurpsychiatric Interview in its validated Moroccan Arabic version Results Among 800 subjects, 25.5% met criteria of at least one current anxiety disorder: Panic Disorder (2%, Agoraphobia (7.6% Social phobia (3.4, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (6.1%, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (3.4%, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (4.3% Conclusion The results are generally similar to those of Western countries. Future studies need to replicate these results and to concentrate on their impact on the quality of life and the cost of such conditions in the community.
Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Ramacciotti, Carla; Rania, Marianna; Aloi, Matteo; Caroleo, Mariarita; Bruni, Antonella; Gazzarrini, Denise; Sinopoli, Flora; De Fazio, Pasquale
The pursuit for healthy food consumption is considered a laudable habit. This attitude can turn into pathological when cognitions and worries about healthy nutrition lead to such an accurate food selection that correct diet becomes the most important part of one's own life leading to important dietary restrictions, stereotyped eating or impairment in important areas of functioning. This behaviour is coined orthorexia nervosa (ON) and can share common characteristics with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The purpose of the present study was to examine the frequency of ON among women with eating disorders (EDs) and to evaluate if it changed after treating the ED. Thirty-two patients with AN or BN were evaluated by means of the ORTO-15, the Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale (YBC-EDS) and the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) before (t0) and 3 years after the treatment of their ED (t1), and compared to 32 female healthy controls (HC) matched by gender, age, and BMI at t1. A significantly higher percentage of patients either at t0 (28 %) or t1 (58 %) resulted positive to ORTO-15 compared to controls (6 %). YBC-EDS and EAT-26 scores were higher among ED patients than in HC, but they decreased from t0 to t1. Orthorexia nervosa symptoms are highly prevalent among patients with AN and BN, and tend to increase after treatment. ON seems associated both with the clinical improvement of AN and BN and the migration towards less severe forms of EDs. It is necessary to clarify if ON residual symptomatology can be responsible for a greater number of relapses and recurrences of EDs.
Ford, Tamsin; Goodman, Robert; Meltzer, Howard
To describe the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders and comorbidity in a large population-based sample of British children and adolescents. Using a one-phase design, 10,438 children were assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), a structured interview with verbatim reports reviewed by clinicians so that information from parents, teachers, and children was combined in a manner that emulated the clinical process. The authors' analysis examined comorbidity and the influence of teacher reports. The overall prevalence of DSM-IV disorders was 9.5% (95% confidence interval 8.8-10.1%), but 2.1% of children were assigned "not otherwise specified" rather than operationalized diagnoses. After adjusting for the presence of a third disorder, there was no longer significant comorbidity between anxiety and conduct disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or between depression and oppositional defiant disorder. A comparison of the disorders in children with and without teacher reports suggested that the prevalence of conduct disorders and ADHD would be underestimated in the absence of teacher information. Roughly 1 in 10 children have at least one DSM-IV disorder, involving a level of distress or social impairment likely to warrant treatment. Comorbidity reported between some childhood diagnoses may be due to the association of both disorders with a third. Diagnoses of conduct disorder and ADHD may be missed if information is not sought from teachers about children's functioning in school.
... of States, Districts, and Schools That Required Teaching Nutrition and Dietary Behavior, by School Level 100 80 60 40 20 0 72. ... no comparable variable existed in both survey years. Nutrition Services • 68.6% of schools offered breakfast to students and 63.0% participated ...
Davod Ghaderi; Ali Mostafaei; Saadi Bayazidi; Mahdi Shahnazari
The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students. This research was among epidemiological-correlational descriptive studies. Method: For this purpose, 389 male students were selected via a multi-stage cluster sampling method. All subjects completed Millon's personality disorder (1987) and five-factor personality Costaand McCrae's questionnaires (1989). Results: The results showed that the prevalence ...
Sanchón, Raúl; Gambineri, Alessandra; Alpañés, Macarena; Martínez-García, M Ángeles; Pasquali, Renato; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F
The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. On the contrary, the prevalences of other disorders of androgen excess such as idiopathic hyperandrogenism and idiopathic hirsutism remain unknown. We aimed to obtain an unbiased estimate of the prevalence in premenopausal women of (i) signs of androgen excess and (ii) PCOS, idiopathic hyperandrogenism and idiopathic hirsutism. A multicenter prevalence survey included 592 consecutive premenopausal women (393 from Madrid, Spain and 199 from Bologna, Italy) reporting spontaneously for blood donation. Immediately before donation, we conducted clinical and biochemical phenotyping for androgen excess disorders. We determined the prevalence of (i) hirsutism, acne and alopecia as clinical signs of androgen excess and (ii) functional disorders of androgen excess, including PCOS, defined by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development/National Institute of Health criteria, idiopathic hyperandrogenism and idiopathic hirsutism. Regarding clinical signs of hyperandrogenism, hirsutism and acne were equally frequent [12.2% prevalence; 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.5-14.8%], whereas alopecia was uncommon (1.7% prevalence, 95% CI: 0.7-2.7%). Regarding functional disorders of androgen excess, PCOS and idiopathic hirsutism were equally frequent (5.4% prevalence, 95% CI: 3.6-7.2) followed by idiopathic hyperandrogenism (3.9% prevalence, 95% CI: 2.3-5.4). Clinical signs of hyperandrogenism and functional disorders of androgen excess show a high prevalence in premenopausal women. The prevalences of idiopathic hyperandrogenism and idiopathic hirsutism are similar to that of PCOS, highlighting the need for further research on the pathophysiology, consequences for health and clinical implications of these functional forms of androgen excess.
Full Text Available Background: Firefighters have a high probability of being exposed to a variety of traumatic events. Potentially traumatic events can occur during a single rescue such as: providing aid to seriously injured or helpless victims. Moreover, firefighters who are injured in the line of duty may have to retire as a consequence of their injury. The psychological cost of this exposure may increase the risk of long-term problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and assess related variables such as coping strategies and social support among Saudi firefighters. Method: Two hundred firefighters completed the Fire-fighter Trauma History Screen (FTHS to measure the number of traumatic events, Screen for Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS scale to assess the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS to assess depression and anxiety, Brief Cope (BC scale to measure coping strategies used, and Social Support scale was used to evaluate the firefighter's support received. Results: The results showed that 84% (169/200 of firefighters were exposed to at least one traumatic event. The result presented that 57% (96/169 of exposure firefighters fully met the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD with high levels of depression and anxiety; 39% (66/169 partially met the PTSD criteria. However, only 4% participants have not met the PTSD criteria. The results also revealed that adaptive coping strategies and higher perceived social support was associated with lower levels of PTSD. Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of PTSD related to the type and severity of the traumatic events and years of experience in the job. Accordingly, many firefighters were severely affected by their experiences, and we should be developing methods to help them.
Gustavson, Kristin; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Nesvåg, Ragnar; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Vollset, Stein Emil; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted
Mental disorders often have onset early in life, contribute substantially to the global disease burden, and may interfere with young people's ability to complete age-relevant tasks in important developmental periods. However, knowledge about prevalence and course of mental disorders in young adulthood is sparse. The aim of the current study was to estimate prevalence and stability of mental disorders from the twenties to the thirties/forties. DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in two waves (1999-2004 and 2010-2011) in 1623 young adult Norwegian twins (63.2% women, aged 19-29 years in wave 1). In wave 1, the 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder among people in the twenties was 19.8% (men) and 32.4% (women), anxiety disorders: 9.6% (men) and 26.7% (women), anxiety disorders excluding specific phobias: 2.5% (men) and 6.9% (women), major depressive disorder (MDD): 4.4% (men) and 7.2% (women), and alcohol use disorder (AUD): 8.7% (men) and 4.4% (women). The prevalence of any mental disorder decreased from the twenties to the thirties/forties. This was due to a decrease in AUD and specific phobias. Anxiety disorders in the twenties predicted anxiety disorders and MDD ten years later, even when controlling for the association between these disorders in the twenties. MDD in the twenties predicted MDD ten years later. At both ages, two-week and 12-month prevalence estimates differed markedly for MDD - indicating an episodic course. Common mental disorders are highly prevalent among young adults in the twenties, and somewhat less prevalent in the thirties/forties. Those who suffer from one mental disorder in the twenties are at considerably increased risk for suffering from a disorder ten years later as well. This may have significant implications for young people's ability to attain education, establish a family, and participate in occupational life.
Arias, Francisco; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Mesias, Beatriz; Basurte, Ignacio; Morant, Consuelo; Ochoa, Enriqueta; Poyo, Félix; Babin, Francisco
Cannabis use has been associated to a wide variety of mental disorders, the possible causal role of this use in the etiology of severe mental disorders as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder standing out. Moreover, the cannabinoid system is involved in emotional regulation, so cannabis use could disturb this process and provoke anxiety and mood disorders. The main objective of this study was to analyze the cannabis addict subgroup from Madrid study of prevalence of dual disorders in community mental health and substance misuse services. The sample consisted of 837 outpatients under treatment in the mental health network or drug network of the Community of Madrid (Spain). Of these, 353 subjects had a lifetime diagnosis of cannabis abuse or dependence and 357 subjects did not have cannabis substance use disorder. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to evaluate axis I mental disorders, and Personality Disorder Questionnaire to evaluate personality disorders. It was considered that 76.5% of the cannabis addicts had a current dual disorder. The most prevalent ones were mood and anxiety disorders. Of those addicted to cannabis, 51% had a personality disorder. Most of them had several substance use disorders. Cannabis abuse or dependence subjects had an earlier onset in consumption of other drugs such as alcohol, cocaine, and tobacco than addicts without cannabis abuse or dependence. The cannabis addicts also differed from the other addicts because of an association to antisocial personality disorder, bipolar disorder, psychosis and agoraphobia. The presence of these mental disorders was significantly associated to a lower age at initiation of cannabis use. Dual pathology is very high in cannabis addicts under treatment. Said consumption of cannabis, probably within a polysubstance use pattern, is associated to severe mental disorders as psychosis and bipolar disorder. An earlier age of onset in cannabis use is associated to a greater risk of
Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Ng, Shu Wen; Xue, Ya; Harding, Matthew
This study examines trends in the prevalence of price promotions among packaged food and beverage purchases, differences in prevalence by household race/ethnicity or income, and the association between price promotions and the nutritional profile of purchases. This cross-sectional study utilizes a dataset of 90 million purchases from 38,744 (2008) to 45,042 (2012) US households in 2008-2012. Chi-square tests were used to examine whether the proportion of purchases with price promotions changed over time or differed by household race/ethnicity or income. T-tests were used to compare purchased products' nutritional profiles. Prevalence of price promotions among packaged food and beverage purchases increased by 8% and 6%, respectively, from 2008 to 2012, with both reaching 34% by 2012. Higher-income households had greater proportions of purchases with price promotions than lower-income households. Asian households had the highest proportion of purchases with any price promotion, followed by non-Hispanic whites. While total price-promoted packaged food purchases had higher mean energy, total sugar, and saturated fat densities than purchases with no price promotions, absolute differences were small. Prevalence of price promotions among US household purchases increased from 2008 to 2012 and was greater for higher-income households. No clear associations emerged between presence of price promotions and nutritional quality of purchases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Objectives: Although the prevalence of depressive disorders in South Korea’s general population is known, no reports on the prevalence of depression among patients who visit primary care facilities have been published. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the prevalence of depressive disorder in patients that visit two primary care facilities. Methods: Among 231 consecutive eligible patients who visited two primary care settings, 184 patients consented to a diagnostic interview for depression by psychiatrists following the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. There were no significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, age, or level of education between the groups that consented and declined the diagnostic examination. The prevalence of depressive disorder and the proportion of newly diagnosed patients among depressive disorder patients were calculated. Results: The prevalence of depressive disorder of patients in the two primary care facilities was 14.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1 to 19.2, with major depressive disorder 5.4% (95% CI, 2.1 to 8.7, dysthymia 1.1% (95% CI, 0.0 to 2.6, and depressive disorder, not otherwise specified 7.6% (95% CI, 3.7 to 11.5. Among the 26 patients with depressive disorder, 19 patients were newly diagnosed. Conclusions: As compared to the general population, a higher prevalence of depressive disorders was observed among patients at two primary care facilities. Further study is needed with larger samples to inform the development of a primary care setting-based depression screening, management, and referral system to increase the efficiency of limited health care resources.
Jo, Sun-Jin; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Jeong, Hyunsuk; Song, Hoo Rim; Ju, Sang Yhun; Kim, Jong Lyul; Jun, Tae-Youn
Although the prevalence of depressive disorders in South Korea's general population is known, no reports on the prevalence of depression among patients who visit primary care facilities have been published. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the prevalence of depressive disorder in patients that visit two primary care facilities. Among 231 consecutive eligible patients who visited two primary care settings, 184 patients consented to a diagnostic interview for depression by psychiatrists following the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. There were no significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, age, or level of education between the groups that consented and declined the diagnostic examination. The prevalence of depressive disorder and the proportion of newly diagnosed patients among depressive disorder patients were calculated. The prevalence of depressive disorder of patients in the two primary care facilities was 14.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1 to 19.2), with major depressive disorder 5.4% (95% CI, 2.1 to 8.7), dysthymia 1.1% (95% CI, 0.0 to 2.6), and depressive disorder, not otherwise specified 7.6% (95% CI, 3.7 to 11.5). Among the 26 patients with depressive disorder, 19 patients were newly diagnosed. As compared to the general population, a higher prevalence of depressive disorders was observed among patients at two primary care facilities. Further study is needed with larger samples to inform the development of a primary care setting-based depression screening, management, and referral system to increase the efficiency of limited health care resources.
Perez, Marisol; Ohrt, Tara K.; Hoek, Hans W.
Purpose of reviewWe reviewed the recent literature on prevalence rates, and application of evidence-based treatments for eating disorders among Hispanics/Latinos residing in the United States.Recent findingsLifetime prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa are lower among Hispanic/Latinos than
Perez, Marisol; Ohrt, Tara K.; Hoek, Hans W.
Purpose of reviewWe reviewed the recent literature on prevalence rates, and application of evidence-based treatments for eating disorders among Hispanics/Latinos residing in the United States.Recent findingsLifetime prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa are lower among Hispanic/Latinos than
Paula, Cristiane S.; Ribeiro, Sabrina H.; Fombonne, Eric; Mercadante, Marcos T.
This pilot study presents preliminary results concerning the prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) in South America. It was a three-phase study conducted in a typical town in Southeast Brazil. Case definition was based in a combination of standardized instruments and clinical evaluations by experts. The prevalence of PDD was…
Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary
In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…
Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed S.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Waly, Mostafa I.
Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in Oman is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of ASD among 0-14 year old children. Diagnoses were made as per DSM-IV-TR criteria and supplemented with information collected with the standard Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) questionnaire. A total 113 cases of…
Neik, Tina Ting Xiang; Lee, Lay Wah; Low, Hui Min; Chia, Noel Kok Hwee; Chua, Arnold Chee Keong
The prevalence of autism is increasing globally. While most of the published works are done in the Western and European countries, the trend in autism research is shifting towards the Asian continent recently. In this review, we aimed to highlight the current prevalence, diagnosis, treatment and research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in…
Michielsen, M.; Semeijn, E.J.; Comijs, H.C.; van de Ven, P.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Kooij, J.J.S
Background: Little is known about the prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among older adults. Aims: To estimate the prevalence of the syndromatic and symptomatic DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis in older adults in The Netherlands. Method: Data were used from the Longitudinal Aging
Dekkers, Laura M.; Groot, Norbert A.; Díaz Mosquera, Elena N.; Andrade Zúñiga, Ivonne P.; Delfos, Martine F.
This research presents the results of the first phase of the study on the prevalence of pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in regular education in Quito, Ecuador. One-hundred-and-sixty-one regular schools in Quito were selected with a total of 51,453 pupils. Prevalence of ASD was assessed by an interview with the rector of the school or…
Davidovitch, Michael; Hemo, Beatriz; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Fombonne, Eric
The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders has been steadily rising. In most parts of the world, rates as high as 1% are reported, including in the United States. In Israel, previously reported prevalence rates have been in the 0.2% range, and were based on parental reporting of diagnosis. In this study, records from one of the largest Israeli…
Dekkers, L.M.S.; Groot, N.A.; Díaz Mosquera, E.N.; Andrade Zúñiga, I.P.; Delfos, M.F.
This research presents the results of the first phase of the study on the prevalence of pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in regular education in Quito, Ecuador. One-hundred-and-sixty-one regular schools in Quito were selected with a total of 51,453 pupils. Prevalence of ASD was assessed by
Lähteenmäki, Sini; Saarni, Suoma; Suokas, Jaana; Saarni, Samuli; Perälä, Jonna; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suvisaari, Jaana
This study investigated the epidemiology of eating disorders in a population-based sample of young adults. A mental health questionnaire was sent to a nationally representative two-stage cluster sample of 1863 Finns aged 20-35 years. All screen-positives and a random sample of screen-negatives were invited to participate in a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) interview. Case records from all lifetime mental health treatments were also obtained and were used to complement the diagnostic assessment. The lifetime prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorder not otherwise specified and any eating disorder among women were 2.1%, 2.3%, 2.0% and 6.0%, respectively, while there was only one man with an eating disorder. Unlike other mental disorders, they are associated with high education. Of women diagnosed with lifetime eating disorder, 67.9% had at least one comorbid Axis I psychiatric disorder, most commonly depressive disorder. While 79.3% of women with lifetime eating disorder had had a treatment contact, only one third of persons with current eating disorder had a current treatment contact. Women whose eating disorder had remitted still experienced more psychological distress and had lower psychosocial functioning that women without lifetime Axis I disorders. Eating disorders are the fourth largest group of mental disorders among young women. They tend to be comorbid, often remain untreated and are associated with residual symptoms after the remission of eating disorder symptoms.
Abubakar, Amina; Uriyo, Jacqueline; Msuya, Sia E; Swai, Mark; Stray-Pedersen, Babill
The current study investigated the prevalence and risk factors for poor nutritional status among children less than 36 months of age in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Using a cross sectional study design, children and their caregivers were recruited into the study. Anthropometric measures were taken based on established protocol while a standard questionnaire was utilized to collect socio-demographic data. A finger-prick blood sample was collected from all the children and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration analyzed using a HemoCue photometer (HemoCue AB, Angelholm, Sweden). Four hundred and twenty three (423) children (214 females) took part in this study. Participating children were aged between 1–35 months (mean = 13.04, SD = 7.70). We observed high rates of stunting (44.2%) and underweight (19.1%). Nearly 70% (n = 295) of the sample was anaemic (Hb education, and child's age were found to independently predict stunting; whereas concerns over child's growth and development, and distance to water source were found to uniquely predict being underweight. Maternal education was the only factor related to the child's anaemia. The current study further emphasizes the need to implement context relevant interventions to combat malnutrition in this region of Tanzania and other similar settings.
Genetic disorders are common in dogs and in the media it is reported that genetic disorders are more frequent in pedigree dogs than in look-a-likes or in mixed-breed dogs. Here, we consider pedigree dogs as purebred dogs (i.e. matching a breed-specific morphology) with a registered and certified
trists treat abour 5 - 10% of all people with psychiatric ... orders such as anxiety and depressive disorders and, if ... of psychiatric disorders in a PC clinic in Soweto, .... Others simply refused to wait or to return later. There was no correlation between age or level of ... evaluation and it is not known how they were handled.
Álvaro Machado Dias
Full Text Available Several studies report that incarcerated young offenders show a high rate of psychiatric disorders whereas associations between specific psychiatric disorders and recidivism remain unknown. The Brazilian legal system has created a unique opportunity for the study of this issue when consider young offenders not that guilty in spite of the severity of the crime, settling in three years the maximum period of incarceration. This study aims to determine the rate of psychiatric disorders in a cohort of incarcerated young offenders and evaluate the possible psychiatric connections of primary offenders and recidivism. A group of 898 incarcerated young offenders at Fundação Casa answered psychiatric interviews and was diagnosed according to the criteria of ICD-10. Statistic connections were analyzed using the tests of Pearson and Cramer. The cohort was comprised of 619 primaries and 267 recidivists. 'Psychoactive Substance Use' and 'Disorders of Adult Personality and Behavior' categories were related to recidivism, whereas 'Organic Mental Disorders', 'Mood Disorders', and 'Stress-related Disorders' were related to primary offenders. Discriminating disorders were the most likely to represent reactions to primary incarceration. In relation to associations that might represent predictors of crime, it became highly suggestive that substance abuse is the main cause of incarceration for the entire cohort.
Andersen, I; Thielen, K; Nygaard, Else
Uncertainties exist about the strength of the relation between socioeconomic position and depressive disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between education, occupation, employment and income and depressive disorders measured as minor and major depression, as well as...
Full Text Available Background: Mental health of prisoners, as a high risk group, is of considerable importance. Unfortunately limited data is currently available about psychiatric morbidity of this group in Iran. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of axis I disorders in prisoners and their correlation with the type of offense. Methods: Using stratified random sampling 351 prisoners from five offense categories (54 from financial, 71 from violent, 74 from nonviolent, 72 from drug related and 80 from immoral acts subgroup were recruited into the study, and examined by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Results: Eighty- eight percent of the prisoners had experienced at least one axis I disorder throughout their lives, and 46.9% met the criteria for current disorders. Substance related (78% and mood disorders (48.7% were the most prevalent of lifetime disorders. However, mood (30.7% and adjustment (12.6% disorders had the highest amounts in current diagnoses. The total number of disorders was lowest in the financial subgroup. The drug related subgroup had lower rate of anxiety and higher rate of substance related disorders. Conclusion: Compared to western studies, the prevalence of axis I disorders in this study is among the highest. The fact that about half of all prisoners at the time of study suffered from at least one axis I disorder shows the emergent need of this group for more mental health care and services.
Wang, Huaning; Zhang, Ruiguo; Chen, Yunchun; Wang, Huaihai; Zhang, Yahong; Gan, Jingli; Zhang, Liyi; Tan, Qingrong
The objective of this work is To investigate the prevalence, comorbidities, impairment, and treatment-seeking of social anxiety disorder in the Chinese military personnel. Military personnel (n=11,527) were surveyed from May to August 2007 using a multistage whole cohort probability sampling method. A Chinese version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used for assessment, and a military-related socio-demographic questionnaire was used to describe the prevalence distribution. A unified survey was performed to investigate 11 different social situations. The short-form health survey was used to assess role impairment. The 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of social anxiety disorder were 3.34% (95% CI: 3.25-3.42%) and 6.22% (95% CI: 6.11-6.32%), respectively. Social anxiety disorder was associated with increased odds of depression, substance abuse, panic attacks/disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Childhood foster, female, stressful life events, younger age, and being divorced/widowed increase the incidence of social anxiety disorder. Treatment-seeking was relatively rare. Social anxiety disorder is a common disorder in military personnel in China, and it is a risk factor for subsequent depressive illness, substance abuse and other mental disorder. Early detection and treatment of social anxiety disorder are important because of the low rate of treatment-seeking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Litmanen, Jessi; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Isomaa, Rasmus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu
A debate concerns whether eating disorders are increasing in prevalence. The role of socio-economic status (SES) for adolescent eating disorders (ED) is another matter of debate. To ascertain whether self-reported eating disorders or their symptoms have increased in prevalence in adolescent population from the early 2000s to early 2010s. A person-identifiable classroom survey, Adolescent Mental Health Cohort study, was carried out among the 9th graders in comprehensive schools in Tampere, Finland, during academic year 2002-2003, and replicated among then 9th graders during academic years 2012-2013. Eating disorders were elicited with questionnaires tailored according to DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. No changes were observed between 2002-2003 and 2012-2013 in the prevalence of anorexia and bulimia, most of the symptoms of anorexia and bulimia, or the proportion of adolescents having received treatment due to eating disorders among the girls or the boys. Eating disorders, treatment contacts due to eating disorders, and eating disorder symptoms were not systematically associated with either low or high parental socio-economic status. Based on this dataset, eating disorders are not increasing in the adolescent population. Adolescent eating disorders are not associated with socio-economic status of their family.
Ndetei, David Musyimi; Mutiso, Victoria; Musyimi, Christine; Mokaya, Aggrey G; Anderson, Kelly K; McKenzie, Kwame; Musau, Abednego
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of mental disorders among upper primary school children in grades five through seven in Kenya. The Youth Self Report (YSR) instrument was adapted for use in Kenyan schools and administered to 2267 school children in grades five through seven from 23 randomly selected schools. We estimated the prevalence of DSM-IV mental disorders, and used logistic regression analyses to examine the socio-demographic factors associated with each disorder. The prevalence of any mental disorder among Kenyan school children was 37.7 % (95 % CI = 35.7-39.7 %). Somatic complaints were the most prevalent (29.6 %, 95 % CI = 27.8-31.5 %), followed by affective disorders (14.1 %, 95 % CI = 12.7-15.6 %) and conduct disorder (12.5 %, 95 % CI = 11.2-13.9). The presence of one or more comorbid mental disorder was seen among 18.2 % (95 % CI = 16.6-19.8 %) of children. Male sex, living in a peri-urban vs. rural area, being held back in school, having divorced or separated parents, and having an employed mother were associated with an increased likelihood of having most of the mental disorders examined, whereas increasing age was associated with a reduced likelihood. We observed a high prevalence of mental disorders among school children in Kenya. If not detected early, these disorders may interfere with children's psychological, social, and educational development. Our findings highlight the importance of implementing screening measures in schools that can detect single and multiple disorders in order to improve the mental health and well-being of the next generation.
Full Text Available Introduction: Body dysmorphic disorder is one of the common disorders in which adolescents give excessive attention to their appearances. In fact, it may causes disruptions in adolescents' individual and social life. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in female adolescents of Yazd. Method: In this cross-sectional study, the population consisted of all high school female students of Yazd (N= 10737 in 2012-2013, among which 371 students were selected as the study sample by using Cochran formula and cluster sampling method. Moreover, the participants completed a series of demographic questions as well as the questionnaire of Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Y-BOCS-BDD. Results: The findings revealed that 41% of sample were reported to have unusual concern about appearance and body shape in range of low to very severe. As a matter of fact, most of them experienced moderate severity and 7.1% showed severe body dysmorphic disorder that required immediate psychological intervention. The prevalence in female adolescents was estimated as 7.1% and most prevalent age of suffering was 17. Conclusion: In this research, it was endeavored to provide a more realistic image of body dysmorphic disorder in Yazd adolescents by utilizing a precise methodology. Considering the high prevalence of this disorder in female adolescents and its adverse consequences, some programs are recommended to be applied for diagnosis and early treatment of body dysmorphic disorder to promote adolescents mental health.
The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and types of psychiatric disorders among Bedouin adolescents with mild to moderate intellectual disability. This is the first study ever conducted on this topic within the Bedouin community in the Negev in Israel. The issue of psychiatric disorders among adolescents with intellectual disability…
Mauritz, M.W.; Goossens, P.J.J.; Draijer, N.; Achterberg, T. van
BACKGROUND: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. METHODS: We
Maria W. Mauritz
Full Text Available Background: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI are often not recognized in clinical practice. Objective: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of four databases (1980–2010 and then described and analysed 33 studies in terms of primary diagnosis and instruments used to measure trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders. Results: Population-weighted mean prevalence rates in SMI were physical abuse 47% (range 25–72%, sexual abuse 37% (range 24–49%, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD 30% (range 20–47%. Compared to men, women showed a higher prevalence of sexual abuse in schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, and mixed diagnosis groups labelled as having SMI. Conclusions: Prevalence rates of interpersonal trauma and trauma-related disorders were significantly higher in SMI than in the general population. Emotional abuse and neglect, physical neglect, complex PTSD, and dissociative disorders have been scarcely examined in SMI.
Mauritz, Maria W; Goossens, Peter J J; Draijer, Nel; van Achterberg, Theo
Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. We conducted a systematic review of four databases (1980-2010) and then described and analysed 33 studies in terms of primary diagnosis and instruments used to measure trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders. Population-weighted mean prevalence rates in SMI were physical abuse 47% (range 25-72%), sexual abuse 37% (range 24-49%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 30% (range 20-47%). Compared to men, women showed a higher prevalence of sexual abuse in schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, and mixed diagnosis groups labelled as having SMI. Prevalence rates of interpersonal trauma and trauma-related disorders were significantly higher in SMI than in the general population. Emotional abuse and neglect, physical neglect, complex PTSD, and dissociative disorders have been scarcely examined in SMI.
Mauritz, M.W.; Goossens, P.J.J.; Draijer, N.; van Achterberg, T.
Background: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. Objective: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. Methods: We
Paul, Mohd Altaf; Khan, Waheeda
Prevalence of mental disorders among children is affected by armed conflict and same is true in protracted conflict of Kashmir, where the ongoing conflict has affected mental health of children badly. In order to understand mental health condition of school going children, the present study was designed to study the nature and prevalence of mental disorders among school children in Kashmir valley. The present study employed multi-stage sampling and multi-informant reporting of mental health problems in children. A sample of 1000 school children was taken from 12 schools of Shopian district through systematic random sampling method. Data was collected at different levels of screening by using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (Teacher form) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (MINI-Kid). Socio-demographic data sheet was included to gather relevant information. The prevalence rates of mental disorders among school children were presented at different levels of screening. It was found to be 27.1% based on SDQ and 22.2% when assessed by MINI-Kid at second level of screening. The most commonly found mental disorders were of anxiety (8.5%), followed by mood disorders (6.3%) and then behavioural disorders (4.3%). Percentage of schoolgoing children with mental disorders in Kashmir is much more than in other states of India. The political conflict in the state and lack of mental health facilities give rise to high prevalence rates of mental disorders and warrant our urgent attention.
Gaultney, Jane F.
Objective: To examine the prevalence of risk for sleep disorders among college students by gender and age, and their associations with grade point average (GPA). Participants: Participants were 1,845 college students at a large, southeastern public university. Methods: A validated sleep disorder questionnaire surveyed sleep data during the…
Salmanian, Maryam; Asadian-Koohestani, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza
Several epidemiological studies have been done on conduct disorder in the Middle East, but no systematic review has been conducted on this topic. Thus, we aimed at investigating the prevalence of conduct disorder in the Middle East in this systematic review of the literature. We searched all the cross-sectional studies in the scientific databases of PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region, Islamic World Science Citation Center, and Grey Literature including conference proceedings, and hand searching of key journals from 1995 to the end of 2014. Included studies described the prevalence of conduct disorder prior to age of 18, with any type of random or non-random sampling for at least one gender in the general or school-based populations who resided in Middle Eastern countries. Two reviewers assessed the quality of the included studies independently and extracted the relevant data. Twenty-four studies were included in this review. Sample sizes varied from 136 to 9636 with the age range of 6-18 years. These studies were conducted in Iran, Turkey, Israel, Cyprus, Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Iraq, Afghanistan, Yemen, and Palestine. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used in most of the included studies. The prevalence of conduct disorder was reported from 2.4% by diagnostic criteria taken from DSM-IV-TR in Iraq to 32.9% by SDQ in Iran; the prevalence rates ranged from 1 to 29.9% for females and from 3.3 to 34.6% for males. However, the prevalence of conduct disorder was reported 0.34% by the diagnostic instrument of Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime in Iranian children and adolescents. The prevalence of conduct disorder in this study was higher than the worldwide prevalence, thus, it seems essential to design preventive and treatment programs for children and adolescents with conduct disorder.
Kagee, Ashraf; Saal, Wylene; De Villiers, Laing; Sefatsa, Mpho; Bantjes, Jason
We administered the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM to 485 persons seeking HIV testing at five community testing centres in South Africa to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders among this population. The prevalence estimates for the various disorders were as follows: major depressive disorder: 14.2 % (95 % CI [11.1, 17.3]); generalised anxiety disorder 5.0 % (95 % CI [3.07, 6.93]); posttraumatic stress disorder 4.9 % (95 % CI [2.98, 6.82]); and alcohol use disorder 19.8 % (95 % CI [16.26, 23.34]). Our findings imply the need to research the integration of screening and referral trajectories in the context of voluntary HIV counselling and testing.
Stefańska, Ewa; Lech, Magdalena; Wendołowicz, Agnieszka; Konarzewska, Beata; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Ostrowska, Lucyna
The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional value of the food intake in the group of men and women suffering from recurrent affective disorders and schizophrenia, and also to determine the relation between selected nutritional parameters with anthropometric indices defining the nutritional status of the subjects. 219 persons participated in the study (61 patients with recurrent depressive disorders, 60 patients with schizophrenia and 98 healthy volunteers). A24-hour dietary recall was used in the quantitative assessment of the diet. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements as well as body composition analysis were used to assess the nutritional status. It was shown that women with depression and schizophrenia had a significantly higher content of both visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue as compared with the control group. A diet with a higher content of energy from protein, a higher supply of calcium promoted a lower fat content in the bodies of women suffering from depression (no such relationship was observed in the group of men). In the group of patients with schizophrenia, a diet with a lower supply of energy promoted a lower BMI value, waist circumference, lower waist-hip ratio and a lower fat content in the body. An improper energy structure and an improper content of nutrients can, in the future, contribute to the development of many somatic diseases, thus leading to deterioration of life quality of subjects and preventing the maintenance of mental health.
Easter, Abigail; Naumann, Ulrike; Northstone, Kate; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia
OBJECTIVE: To investigate dietary patterns and nutritional intake in children of mothers with eating disorders. STUDY DESIGN: Mothers (N = 9423) from a longitudinal general population birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, completed Food Frequency Questionnaires on their children at 3, 4, 7, and 9 years of age. Macronutrient intake was estimated, and dietary patterns were obtained using principal components analysis. Linear regression and mixed-effects models...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Adolescence is one of the important period in growth and evolution process, Also, eating disorders in adolescences, especially girls is one of the major problems in communities. Therefore, an effective education is of special priority for prevention of eating disorders. The current study was performed with the goal of assessment of the effect of nutrition education on eating disorders attitude in girls high school students. Methods: This non-experimental study with a single group pre- and post-test design, was performed using purposive sampling method on 97 students of the first year of high school, in 2015. Data collection tool was EAT-26 standardized questionnaire, which was completed by the participants using self-report method before and 3 months after the education. Data were analyzed using paired t-test. The significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: The mean score of abnormal eating attitude decreased from 1.7±0.04 (before education to 1.4±0.06 (after education. Also, there was a significant statistical difference between the results of before and after education (p=0.0001. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that nutrition education has brought about desired changes in the attitude. However, the increase of nutrition awareness and attitude change can gradually lead to behavior change. Therefore, the current study can help the authorities to include a wider range of nutritional education in the curriculum of students in dorder to prevent eating disorder.
Srinivasa; Chaithanya C; Ravindra
Anxiety disorders are very common in secondary school children with little epidemiological data from countries like India. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders in higher secondary school students using Screen for Ch ild Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) questionnaire. Methodology: The study was conducted in July 2014 and 100 students belonging to class 11 and class 12 of a higher secondary school at Tiptur were includ...
Easter, Abigail; Naumann, Ulrike; Northstone, Kate; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia
To investigate dietary patterns and nutritional intake in children of mothers with eating disorders. Mothers (N = 9423) from a longitudinal general population birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, completed Food Frequency Questionnaires on their children at 3, 4, 7, and 9 years of age. Macronutrient intake was estimated, and dietary patterns were obtained using principal components analysis. Linear regression and mixed-effects models were used to assess dietary patterns and nutritional intake among children of women with lifetime anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 140), bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 170), or AN+BN (n = 71), compared with children of women without eating disorders (unexposed women, n = 9037). Children in the maternal AN and BN groups had higher scores on the "health conscious/vegetarian" dietary pattern compared with unexposed children. Less adherence to the "traditional" dietary pattern was observed in children of exposed mothers, with more pronounced differences in early childhood. Children of women with AN and BN had higher intake of energy and children of women with BN had higher intake of carbohydrates and starch and lower intake of fat, compared with children in the unexposed group. Maternal eating disorders are associated with altered offspring dietary patterns and macronutrient intake. Longitudinal changes in patterns of diet in children of women with eating disorders may increase the risk of weight gain or disordered eating later in life. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Boerman, Remco; Cohen, Dan; Schulte, Peter F J; Nugter, Annet
Several studies show an association between schizophrenia and low levels of vitamin D. To date, there are only few studies about the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with bipolar disorder. We hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency is less common among patients with bipolar disorder than among patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A second hypothesis is that vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent among patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorders than among the general Dutch population.Most studies have been conducted with hospitalized patients; in this study, we only included outpatients. All outpatients of a center for bipolar disorders and all outpatients of 3 flexible assertive community treatment teams were asked to participate in this cross-sectional study. We included 118 patients with bipolar disorder and 202 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Vitamin D levels were deficient in 30.3% (95% confidence interval, 25.5-35.6) of the cases. The type of psychiatric disorder was not a predictor of vitamin D deficiency. The absolute difference in risk of deficiency between the study population and the Dutch Caucasian population was 23.8% (95% confidence interval, 18.3%-29.3%). In this study, vitamin D deficiency was 4.7 times more common among outpatients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder than among the Dutch general population.Given the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, we believe that outpatients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder should be considered at risk of having low levels of vitamin D. Annual measurement of vitamin D levels in psychiatric outpatients with these disorders seems to be justified to maintain bone health, muscle strength, and to prevent osteoporosis.
McLean, Carmen P.; Asnaani, Anu; Litz, Brett T.; Hofmann, Stefan G.
Women have consistently higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders, but less is known about how gender affects age of onset, chronicity, comorbidity, and burden of illness. Gender differences in DSM-IV anxiety disorders were examined in a large sample of adults (N = 20,013) in the United States using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES). The lifetime and 12-month male:female prevalence ratios of any anxiety disorder were 1:1.7 and 1:1.79, respectively. Women h...
Mangatt, Meghana; Wong, Kingsley; Anderson, Barbara; Epstein, Amy; Hodgetts, Stuart; Leonard, Helen; Downs, Jenny
Initially described as an early onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome, the CDKL5 disorder is now considered as an independent entity. However, little is currently known about the full spectrum of comorbidities that affect these patients and available literature is limited to small case series. This study aimed to use a large international sample to examine the prevalence in this disorder of comorbidities of epilepsy, gastrointestinal problems including feeding difficulties, sleep and respiratory problems and scoliosis and their relationships with age and genotype. Prevalence and onset were also compared with those occurring in Rett syndrome. Data for the CDKL5 disorder and Rett syndrome were sourced from the International CDKL5 Disorder Database (ICDD), InterRett and the Australian Rett syndrome Database (ARSD). Logistic regression (multivariate and univariate) was used to analyse the relationships between age group, mutation type and the prevalence of various comorbidities. Binary longitudinal data from the ARSD and the equivalent cross-sectional data from ICDD were examined using generalized linear models with generalized estimating equations. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the failure function for the two disorders and the log-rank test was used to compare the two functions. The likelihood of experiencing epilepsy, GI problems, respiratory problems, and scoliosis in the CDKL5 disorder increased with age and males were more vulnerable to respiratory and sleep problems than females. We did not identify any statistically significant relationships between mutation group and prevalence of comorbidities. Epilepsy, GI problems and sleep abnormalities were more common in the CDKL5 disorder than in Rett syndrome whilst scoliosis and respiratory problems were less prevalent. This study captured a much clearer picture of the CDKL5 disorder than previously possible using the largest sample available to date. There were differences in the presentation of
Background: Pregnancy is a physiological state, but when associated with an underlying medical disorder, it has a large ..... bacteriuria in pregnant women versus inpatient treatment ... implication of routine screen for asymptomatic bacteria.
Kathryn van Boom
disorders were prominent in long-distance bus drivers. This ... Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted to determine the .... irregular eating habits, sitting for prolonged periods and low physical ... Future intervention studies.
Kaltsa, Maria; Garoufi, Anastasia; Tsitsika, Artemis; Tsirogianni, Alexandra; Papasteriades, Chryssa; Kossiva, Lydia
This study assessed the presence of specific antibodies for coeliac disease in outpatients suffering from eating disorders before and after nutritional intervention. We also evaluated whether those patients should undergo regular screening for coeliac disease. The sample consisted of 154 patients with a mean age of 16.7 years - ranging from one to 19 years of age - suffering from eating disorders. Serology screening for coeliac disease and total immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels was evaluated in the 154 children before the nutritional intervention and in 104 patients after the intervention. The patients consumed an adequate amount of gluten in both phases. Postintervention evaluation revealed that 92 patients (88.5%) achieved a normal body weight, while the remaining 12 (11.5%) became obese. Postprandial abdominal discomfort and pain were resolved. The serology tests were negative in all patients, before and after intervention. None displayed IgA deficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first prospective study where patients underwent a screening serology for coeliac disease before and after nutritional intervention. No indication of the coexistence of eating disorders and coeliac disease was documented, and the patients in our study were unlikely to require regular screening for coeliac disease. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cremaschi, Laura; Kardell, Mathias; Johansson, Viktoria; Isgren, Anniella; Sellgren, Carl M; Altamura, A Carlo; Hultman, Christina M; Landén, Mikael
Previous studies on the relationship between autoimmune diseases, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder are mainly based on hospital discharge registers with insufficient coverage of outpatient data. Furthermore, data is scant on the prevalence of autoimmune diseases in bipolar subgroups. Here we estimate the self-reported prevalences of autoimmune diseases in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I and II, and controls. Lifetime prevalence of autoimmune diseases was assessed through a structured interview in a sample of 9076 patients (schizophrenia N = 5278, bipolar disorder type I N = 1952, type II N = 1846) and 6485 controls. Comparative analyses were performed using logistic regressions. The prevalence of diabetes type 1 did not differ between groups. Hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism regardless of lithium effects, rheumatoid arthritis, and polymyalgia rheumatica were most common in bipolar disorder. Systemic lupus erythematosus was less common in bipolar disorder than in the other groups. The rate of autoimmune diseases did not differ significantly between bipolar subgroups. We conclude that prevalences of autoimmune diseases show clear differences between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but not between the bipolar subgroups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nayerifard, Razieh; Bureng, Majid Akbari; Zahiroddin, Alireza; Namjoo, Massood; Rajezi, Sepideh
Research has shown that the metabolic syndrome is more prevalent among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder. Given the scarcity of research on the disorders, this paper aims to compare the prevalence of the syndrome among the two groups of patients. A total of 120 individuals participated in this cross sectional study: 60 patients with schizophrenia (26 males and 34 females) and 60 patients with bipolar I disorder (32 males and 28 females). The psychological disorders were diagnosed by some experienced psychiatrists according to the DSM-V. Furthermore, metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to ATP III guidelines. Metabolic syndrome prevalence among schizophrenic and bipolar I patients was 28 and 36 percent, respectively; the disparity in prevalence is not significant. According to the results, compared to their male counterparts, females were more prone significant to metabolic syndrome. Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher among bipolar I patients. On the other hand, schizophrenic males were observed to have higher fasting blood sugar levels in comparison to bipolar I males patients. Age, consumption of second generation antipsychotics or antidepressants, and the duration of the disorder were found to be related to metabolic syndrome. This study showed that metabolic syndrome is not more prevalent among bipolar I patients, compared to those with schizophrenia. Also, women are more likely to be affected by the syndrome. A number of factors such as age, consumption of medication, and duration of the disorder are associated with the likelihood of the syndrome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Waaddegaard, Mette; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette
AIMS: Danish women aged 16-29 from two nationwide, representative, cross-sectional interview/questionnaire surveys from 2000 and 2005 are analyzed for trends in prevalence of risk behaviour for developing eating disorders and associations to BMI and age. METHODS: Participants completed the Danish...... Health Interview Survey and an 8-item screen, RiBED-8, for risk behaviour for eating disorders. To analyze how the prevalence of risk behaviour depends on age, BMI, and year of survey, logistic regression analyses were applied. On acceptance of no interaction, the effect of each variable was tested...... and described using odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Women aged 16-19 or with a BMI of>25 had the greatest chance of reporting risk behaviour for eating disorders. However, many women in their 20s also had risk behaviour. Prevalence of risk behaviour for eating disorders did not change from...
Farbstein, Ilana; Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Levinson, Daphna; Goodman, Robert; Levav, Itzhak; Vograft, Itzik; Kanaaneh, Rasim; Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Brent, David A; Apter, Alan
The development of epidemiological instruments has enabled the assessment of mental disorders in youth in countries that plan policy according to evidence-based principles. The Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA) was conducted in 2004-2005 in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers. The aims of this study were to estimate prevalence rates of internalizing and externalizing mental disorders and their socio-demographic and health correlates. Disorders were ascertained with the Development and Well-Being Assessment inventory and verified by child psychiatrists. The prevalence rates were 11.7%, 8.1% and 4.8% for any disorder, internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders, respectively. Distinct risk factors were associated with the different types of disorders: internalizing disorders were associated with female gender, chronic medical conditions and being cared for by a welfare agency. Risk factors for externalizing disorders were male gender, having divorced or single parents, being an only child or having only one sibling. Learning disability was associated with both types of disorders. The risk and protective factors related to internalizing and externalizing disorders are interpreted within the framework of family composition in this multicultural society.
Dan G O Neill
Full Text Available Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3, periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3 and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1. Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9, the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6 and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3. Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P = 0.001, obesity (P = 0.006 and skin mass lesion (P = 0.033, and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P = 0.002, overgrown nails (P = 0.004, degenerative joint disease (P = 0.005, obesity (P = 0.001 and lipoma (P = 0.003. These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information
O Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C
Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P = 0.001), obesity (P = 0.006) and skin mass lesion (P = 0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P = 0.002), overgrown nails (P = 0.004), degenerative joint disease (P = 0.005), obesity (P = 0.001) and lipoma (P = 0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported
Chabra, Tarun; Tahbildar, Pranjal; Sharma, Ayush; Boruah, Sushanta; Mahajan, Rajat; Raje, Amrut
The present study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of skeletal deformity due to nutritional rickets in children aged 1-18 years in tea garden community in Dibrugarh District of Assam. It was a cross-sectional study and two-stage cluster sampling was used. In the selected tea gardens, all the children aged 1-18 years were screened for skeletal deformity by house-to-house visit. The overall prevalence of skeletal deformity was 2.7 per thousand. Majority of children with deformities (57.27%) were between 7 and 12 years of age. Widening of wrists and ankle was the most frequent symptom (53.8%). Most of the children with deformity had moderate malnutrition (77.27%). Most of the children with skeletal deformity belong to lower (v) (45.45%) grade of Kuppuswamy's grading scale. Bilateral genu valgus deformity (54.54%) and bilateral genu varum (25.92%) deformity were the most common deformities. Widening of wrists and ankle was the most frequent symptom (61.66%). Of the 16,274 tea garden children included in our study (male and female) in the age group 1-18 years, 44 had skeletal deformity due to nutritional rickets. The prevalence of skeletal deformity due to nutritional rickets was found to be 2.7 per thousand children, which are significantly higher when compared with the only other such study, which was on general population in Bangladesh.
Gillentine, Madelyn A; Lupo, Philip J; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Schaaf, Christian P
Multiple genomic disorders result from recurrent deletions or duplications between low copy repeat (LCR) clusters, mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination. These copy number variants (CNVs) often exhibit variable expressivity and/or incomplete penetrance. However, the population prevalence of many genomic disorders has not been estimated accurately. A subset of genomic disorders similarly characterized by CNVs between LCRs have been studied epidemiologically, including Williams-Beuren syndrome (7q11.23), Smith-Magenis syndrome (17p11.2), velocardiofacial syndrome (22q11.21), Prader-Willi/Angelman syndromes (15q11.2q12), 17q12 deletion syndrome, and Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1/hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (PMP22, 17q11.2). We have generated a method to estimate prevalence of highly penetrant genomic disorders by (1) leveraging epidemiological data for genomic disorders with previously reported prevalence estimates, (2) obtaining chromosomal microarray data on genomic disorders from a large medical genetics clinic; and (3) utilizing these in a linear regression model to determine the prevalence of this syndromic copy number change among the general population. Using our algorithm, the prevalence for five clinically relevant recurrent genomic disorders: 1q21.1 microdeletion (1/6882 live births) and microduplication syndromes (1/6309), 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome (1/5525), and 16p11.2 microdeletion (1/3021) and microduplication syndromes (1/4216), were determined. These findings will inform epidemiological strategies for evaluating those conditions, and our method may be useful to evaluate the prevalence of other highly penetrant genomic disorders.
McDonald, Scott D; Mickens, Melody N; Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Mutchler, Brian J; Ellwood, Michael S; Castillo, Teodoro A
Depression and other mental disorders are more prevalent among individuals living with spinal cord injury (SCI) than in the community at large, and have a strong association with quality of life. Yet little is known about the prevalence and predictors of mental disorders among U.S. military Veterans living with SCI. The primary aim of this study was to present an estimate of mental disorder point prevalence in this population. The secondary aim was to examine the relationship of mental disorders to demographics, injury characteristics, and other clinically relevant features such as impairment from mental health problems and life satisfaction. Cross-sectional. A SCI & Disorders Center at a U.S. Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Administrative and medical records of 280 Veterans who attended annual comprehensive SCI evaluations were evaluated. Demographics, injury characteristics, self-reported mental and emotional functioning (i.e. SF-8 Health Survey), and clinician-determined mental disorder diagnoses were attained. Overall, 40% of patients received at least one mental disorder diagnosis, most commonly depressive disorders (19%), posttraumatic stress disorder (12%), and substance or alcohol use disorders (11%). Several patient characteristics predicted mental disorders, including age, racial minority identity, non-traumatic SCI etiology, and incomplete (i.e. AIS D) vs. complete injury. Mental disorders were associated with greater impairment from health and mental health-related problems and less satisfaction with life. Mental disorders are common among outpatients receiving VA specialty care for SCI. These findings highlight the importance of having adequate and effective available mental health services available for Veterans with SCI.
Ford, Briggett C; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Toler, Amanda K; Neighbors, Harold W; Jackson, James S
The purpose of this study was to estimate lifetime and 12-month prevalence of 13 psychiatric disorders for older African Americans. Data are from the older African American subsample of the National Survey of American Life. Selected measures of lifetime and 12-month Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) psychiatric disorders were examined (i.e., panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder, dysthymia, bipolar I and II disorders, alcohol abuse/dependence, and drug abuse/dependence). Twenty-three percent of older African Americans reported at least one lifetime disorder and 8.54% reported at least one 12-month disorder. Alcohol abuse, PTSD, and major depression were the most prevalent lifetime disorders. The most prevalent 12-month disorders were PTSD, major depression, and social phobia. Age, sex, education, and region were significantly associated with the odds of having a lifetime disorder. This is the first study of prevalence rates of serious mental disorders for older African Americans based on a national sample. Demographic correlates of the prevalence of disorders are discussed with an emphasis on age and regional differences.
Hor, Jyh Yung; Lim, Thien Thien; Chia, Yuen Kang; Ching, Yee Ming; Cheah, Chun Fai; Tan, Kenny; Chow, Han Bing; Arip, Masita; Eow, Gaik Bee; Easaw, P E Samuel; Leite, M Isabel
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) occurs worldwide in all ethnicities. Recently, population-based studies have shown that NMOSD is more common among non-White populations. There is scarce data about NMOSD prevalence in South East Asian populations. (1) A population-based study was undertaken to estimate NMOSD prevalence in the multi-ethnic Penang Island, Malaysia, comprising Chinese, Malays, and Indians. Medical records of NMOSD patients followed up at the Penang General Hospital (the neurology referral centre in Penang Island) were reviewed. The 2015 diagnostic criteria of the International Panel for NMO Diagnosis were used for case ascertainment. (2) A review of population-based prevalence studies of NMOSD worldwide was carried out. PubMed and conference proceedings were searched for such studies. Of the 28 NMOSD patients, 14 were residents of Penang Island on prevalence day [13 (93%) Chinese and one (7%) Malay]. All 14 patients were females and aquaporin 4 seropositive. The prevalence of NMOSD in Penang Island was 1.99/100,000 population; according to ethnicities, the prevalence in Chinese was significantly higher than in Malays (3.31/100,000 vs 0.43/100,000, respectively, p = 0.0195). Based on our and other population-based studies, among Asians, East Asian origin populations (Chinese and Japanese) appear to have higher NMOSD prevalence than other Asian ethnic groups. Worldwide, Blacks seem to have the highest NMOSD prevalence. More studies in different geographical regions and ethnic groups will be useful to further inform about potential factors in NMOSD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
14 items ... The prevalence of BDD among student populations ranges from. 2.3% in Australia ... since students tend to have a younger mean age than participants ... Proportionate stratified random cluster sampling was used to select the sample. ... In order to ensure optimal ... variables was determined by calculating Pearson.
Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M
Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa21Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Bahrain, and Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Science, College of Education, and Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs) ...
Marshall, Grant N; Elliott, Marc N; Schell, Terry L
Research has suggested that disordered gambling is endemic to Cambodian refugees. Whereas earlier study of the prevalence and correlates of disordered gambling has relied on convenience sampling, this investigation used a subset of a sample representative of the largest Cambodian refugee community in the US. Face-to-face interviews assessing gambling disorder were conducted with a subsample of persons (N = 127) participating in a broader study of the mental health of this community. 13.9% of participants met screening criteria for lifetime disordered gambling, in contrast to previous research suggesting that prevalence rates may exceed 70%. After adjusting for a range of covariates, breadth of trauma exposure and marital status emerged as significant predictors of disordered gambling. Given the myriad mental health challenges facing the Cambodian refugee community, these data indicate that scarce prevention and treatment resources may be more productively channeled toward addressing other mental health and social service needs.
Alshami, Ali M.
Objectives: To establish the period prevalence of spinal disorders referred to physical therapy in a university hospital over a 3-year period, and to determine the relationships of common spinal disorders with patients’ age and gender. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the Physical Therapy Department, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Computer data of all new electronic referrals from January 2011 to December 2013 were retrieved and reviewed. The computer data included demographic information, referring facility, and diagnosis/disorder. Results: One thousand six hundred and sixty-nine (28.1%) of all referred patients (5929) had spinal disorders. The most common disorders affected the lumbar spine (53.1%) and cervical spine (27.1%), and pain was the most common disorder. Neck pain (60.5%) was more common in patients spondylosis was common (~30%) in the >30 age groups. Spondylosis and low back pain were more prevalent in women (7.8% and 76.2%) than in men (73.9% and 3.3%). Conclusion: Spinal disorders were common compared with other disorders. Low back pain and neck pain were the most common spinal disorders. Age and gender were weakly related to some of the disorders that affected the lumbar and cervical spine. PMID:25987116
Melisa Hanifi Vahed
Full Text Available Background: Behavioural disorder is a common disorder in children. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of behavioural disorders and analyse the moderating role of gender and grade in primary school students of Alborz province. Methods: The population of the study consisted of all the primary students from the third grade to the fifth grade in Alborz province. The participants were 375 students who were recruited by multistage random sampling. They completed Rutter Behavioural Evaluation Questionnaire (Teacher’s Form. The moderating role of gender and grade was examined. Data were analysed by chi-square and Fisher log-linear models. Results: The prevalence of behavioural disorders was 12% in the primary school students. The prevalence of behavioural disorders in the fifth grade was more than the third and fourth grades. Sex and sex × grade interaction did not have the moderating role. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of behavioral problems in primary school Alborz was roughly proportional to the average rate of the country. The highest rate of prevalence was observed in the fifth grade.
Full Text Available To investigate the point prevalence of mental disorders in school students, multistage cluster stratified random sampling and two-phase survey methods were used to identify 40 primary and middle schools. The students were screened using the Chinese version of the Child Behavior Checklist and diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The prevalence of behavioral problems was 19.13%. The prevalence of behavioral problems significantly differed by sex, age, city of residence, and caretaker. The six-month prevalence of any mental disorder was 15.24% (95% CI: 15.49%–16.97%. Psychiatric disorders were more prevalent in boys (17.33% relative to girls (13.11%; p < 0.01. The prevalence of mental disorders significantly differed by community and caretaker, and 36.46% of students exhibited comorbidity. Results demonstrated important mental health issues, with a high incidence of comorbidities, in this population. Students’ mental health requires increased attention, particularly in poverty-stricken areas and left-behind children and adolescents.
Kathryn van Boom
excessive stress along the kinetic chain and affect the driver's personal and social life. A study in Ghana ... and strain due to work demands and the environment. Objective: The ....  As a result of this muscle imbalance, inadequate function of the ... disorder among workers in Taiwan: a nationwide study. J Occup. Table 2 ...
reasons include inadequate medical school and residency training in addictions and a lack of adequate faculty role models who intervene and diagnose alcohol dependence (30). The likelihood that a physician will detect and address alcohol use disorders in patients varies according to the physician's field of training (8).
Nov 3, 2010 ... economic classes, who lived in socially competitive environments.5 ... eating disorders among black female South Africans only appeared ... to experience a significant increase in reported bulimia-associated behaviours in grades ... behaviours across three educational phases (age of onset) for black.
As clinical geneticists, we recently reviewed our 43 years experience in an attempt to represent the frequency of genetic disorders in the Division of Genetics at Pediatric Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, during the period from 1966 to 2009. All patients (from birth up to 18 years) suspected of ...
Hundscheid, T; van der Hulst, R R W J; Rutten, B P F; Leue, C
Patients suffering from body dysmorphic disorder (bdd) are preoccupied with a slight or imagined defect in appearance. First of all, to review the literature on the prevalence of bdd in cosmetic surgery and thereafter to review the literature on psychiatric comorbidity and the outcome of surgical interventions. We based our search strategy on Embase, Medline and PubMed, using the search terms 'body dysmorphic disorder', 'cosmetic surgery', 'prevalence', 'comorbidity' and 'outcome'. Our search covered English and Dutch literature published after the introduction of bdd in dsm-iii-r and before 1 November, 2013. A study of the relevant articles enabled us to access additional articles mentioned in these texts. Our initial search strategy turned out to be too narrow. It was therefore broadened to include 'body dysmorphic disorder', 'cosmetic surgery', and 'prevalence'. Eventually we included 23 original articles. In 11 of these the prevalence of bdd varied from 3.2 to 53.6%. Twelve articles on psychiatric comorbidity revealed predominantly mood and anxiety disorders on axis I and cluster C personality disorders on axis II. Only two studies reported on the outcome of cosmetic surgery performed on bdd patients; surgical interventions, however, seemed to result in new preoccupations with the prolongation of psychiatric comorbidity. bdd is a common psychiatric disorder that can sometimes lead to cosmetic surgery. However, pre-operative screening of bdd patients is vital so that efficient psychiatric treatment can be initiated and patients are not subjected to surgical interventions which may be ineffective or even harmful.
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Studies have shown the high prevalence rate of behavioral disorders in primary school students, which may underlie many complications and problems for the students and their families. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of behav-ioral disorders among primary school students. Materials & Methods: This is a cross sectional-descriptive study which have been done on 352 primary school students in Hamadan. Samples have been selected based on a multistage ran-dom sampling and Rutter behavioral disorder questionnaire (teacher form was used for data collection. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 using chi-square. Results: Our result showed that 16.1% of the participants suffered from behavioral disorders. The prevalence was more among the boys. Father's education and occupation, history of mental illness, parental divorce, and death of parents had significant relationships with the prevalence of behavioral disorders in these students. Conclusion: According to the results, designing and implementing educational programs for the prevention and treatment of student's behavioral disorders appear to be essential.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:62-68
Full Text Available Background & Objectives : High prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in dentistry represents the importance of investigation of working conditions in this profession to reduce musculoskeletal disorders.The purpose of this study was to determine the postural load on the upper limb postural using macro LUBA technique and the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. Methods: This study was conducted on 30 post graduate dental students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences . LUBA technique was used to evaluate the postural load. The Nordic questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders . The results were analyzed using SPSS version 16 . Results: The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was as follows neck( 63.3%, back ( 43.3%, back ( 30%, knee ( 20%, shoulder( 13%, wrist ( 10%, legs (10 %, elbows( 6.7% and thigh( 0%. The maximum postural load index was 23 for women and 21for men. In total, 50 % of dentists were in group 3 , 33 % of dentists in group 4 and 16.7 % in group 2 of the corrective measures . There was no significant association b etween demographic variables and presence of musculoskeletal disorders . Besides, there was no significant association between the presence of pain in upper limbs and the postural load index (Pvalue > 0.05. Conclusions: This study showed high levels of p ostural load index and musculoskeletal disorders among dental students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. High levels of p ostural load index indicate a high level of risk, which requires immediate corrective action and intervention.
Eadie, Patricia; Morgan, Angela; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Ttofari Eecen, Kyriaki; Wake, Melissa; Reilly, Sheena
The epidemiology of preschool speech sound disorder is poorly understood. Our aims were to determine: the prevalence of idiopathic speech sound disorder; the comorbidity of speech sound disorder with language and pre-literacy difficulties; and the factors contributing to speech outcome at 4 years. One thousand four hundred and ninety-four participants from an Australian longitudinal cohort completed speech, language, and pre-literacy assessments at 4 years. Prevalence of speech sound disorder (SSD) was defined by standard score performance of ≤79 on a speech assessment. Logistic regression examined predictors of SSD within four domains: child and family; parent-reported speech; cognitive-linguistic; and parent-reported motor skills. At 4 years the prevalence of speech disorder in an Australian cohort was 3.4%. Comorbidity with SSD was 40.8% for language disorder and 20.8% for poor pre-literacy skills. Sex, maternal vocabulary, socio-economic status, and family history of speech and language difficulties predicted SSD, as did 2-year speech, language, and motor skills. Together these variables provided good discrimination of SSD (area under the curve=0.78). This is the first epidemiological study to demonstrate prevalence of SSD at 4 years of age that was consistent with previous clinical studies. Early detection of SSD at 4 years should focus on family variables and speech, language, and motor skills measured at 2 years. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.
Georgios D Floros 2nd Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece Abstract: Research on adolescence gambling over the past twenty years has revealed significant incidence and prevalence rates and highlighted the possible negative effects on an adolescent’s well-being. Several risk and protective factors have also been identified. Over the course of the past few years, technological advances have heralded the advent of new av...
Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Na-Rae; Lee, Jung-Sug; Choi, Young-Sun; Kwak, Tong-Kyung; Chung, Hae Rang; Kwon, Sehyug; Choi, Youn-Ju; Lee, Soon-Kyu; Kang, Myung-Hee
This study was performed to investigate the differences in food choice, nutrition labeling perceptions, and prevalence of obesity due to meal skipping in Korean elementary school children. A national survey was performed in 2010 to collect data on food intake frequency, understanding of nutrition labeling, and body mass index from 2,335 fifth grade students in 118 elementary schools selected from 16 metropolitan local governments by stratified cluster sampling. The data were analyzed using the SAS 9.1 and SUDAAN 10.0 packages. Students who consumed three meals for 6-7 days during the past week were classified into the regular meal eating (RM) group (n = 1,476) and those who did not were placed into the meal skipping (MS) group (n = 859). The daily intake frequency of fruits, vegetables, kimchi, and milk was significantly lower in the MS group compared to that in the RM group (P instant noodles (ramyeon) was significantly higher in the MS group than that in the RM group (P < 0.05). The MS group demonstrated a significantly lower degree of understanding with regard to nutrition labeling and high calorie foods containing low nutritional value than that in the RM group. The distribution of obesity based on the percentile criteria using the Korean growth chart was different between the MS and RM groups. The MS group (8.97%) had a higher percentage of obese subjects than that in the RM group (5.38%). In conclusion, meal skipping was related to poor food choice, low perception of nutrition labeling, and a high prevalence of obesity in Korean fifth grade children.
Gowda, Dinesh; Premalatha, V; Imtiyaz, D B
Nutritional deficiencies are known to be associated with hair loss; however, the exact prevalence is not known. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies in participants with hair loss. In this cross-sectional study, 100 enrolled participants were divided into telogen effluvium (TE), male-pattern hair loss (MPHL), and female-pattern hair loss (FPHL) based on the type of hair loss. All participants underwent laboratory estimation for micronutrients and amino acid levels. Participants with hair loss showed varied amino acid and micronutrient deficiencies across all types of hair loss. Nutritional status did not vary much between the types of hair loss. Among the essential amino acids, histidine deficiency was seen in >90% of participants with androgenic alopecia and 77.78% of participants with TE while leucine deficiency was seen 98.15% of participants with TE and 100% with FPHL. Valine deficiency was also very common across alopecia subtypes. Among the nonessential amino acids, alanine deficiency was observed in 91.67% FPHL, 91.18% MPHL, and 90.74% TE. Cysteine deficiency was present in 55.58% and 50% of participants with MPHL and TE, respectively. A relatively higher proportion of participants with TE had iron deficiency compared to androgenic alopecia ( P = 0.069). Zinc deficiency was seen in 11.76% of participants with MPHL while copper deficiency was seen in 29.41% and 31.48% of participants with MPHL and TE, respectively. Nutritional deficiency is a common problem in participants with hair loss irrespective of the type of alopecia. The findings of our study suggest need for identification and correction of nutritional deficiencies in patients with hair loss.
Teresa Cristina Ciavaglia VILARDI
Full Text Available Pesquisas indicam que é elevada a prevalência de distúrbios alimentares em atletas femininas jovens envolvidas em esportes que preconizam a magreza e o baixo peso corporal, tais como ginástica olímpica e corridas de longa distância. A fim de compreender a etiologia destes problemas, esta revisão apresenta os principais distúrbios nutricionais encontrados em atletas femininas, incluindo definições, critérios para diagnóstico, fatores de risco, presença de desordens inter-relacionadas - anemia, irregularidades menstruais e desmineralização óssea e suas conseqüências sobre a saúde e rendimento atlético. É fundamental ressaltar a importância da nutrição no desempenho físico. A presença de um baixo peso corporal e um consumo energético severamente restrito é o principal fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de tais distúrbios. Como as atletas e seus treinadores não apresentam adequados conhecimentos sobre nutrição, é necessária uma orientação nutricional individualizada, de forma a evitar o desenvolvimento destas alterações.Researches have indicated that the prevalence of nutrition disorders is high among young female athletes engaged in sports that emphasize the importance of leanness and low body weight, such as olympic gymnastics and distance running. In order to understand the etiology of these problems, this review presents the main nutrition disorders in female athletes, including definitions, diagnostic criteria, risk factors, presence of interrelated disorders (anemia, menstrual irregularities and failure of bone mineralization and their consequences on health and athletic performance. It is fundamental to point out the importance of nutrition on physical performance. The presence of a low body weight and a very restricted energy intake is the principal risk factor for the development of nutritional disturbances. The athletes and their coaches do not have an apropriate knowledge about nutrition, so it is
Thiago Batista Firmato de Almeida
Full Text Available Lettuce is the most popular of the leafy vegetables. It is known worldwide and its consumption occurs mainly in the natural form. The objective was to evaluate the effect of macronutrient omission on the growth and nutritional status of the lettuce cv. Veronica, and to describe the visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency. The treatments complete consisted of the solution and the individual omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S, under a completely randomized design with three replications. Plants were grown in Hoagland & Arnon, in pots (8L. At 56 days after transplant we evaluated plant height, leaf number, leaf area, SPAD index, dry matter of shoots, roots and whole plant, levels of macronutrients in shoots and roots, and the nature of nutritional disorders. The omission of nutrients affected the growth variables. The nutrients found in lettuce plants from nutrient solution and the complete omission in the shoot were, respectively, N= 23.2 to 9.5, P= 5.4 to 1.3, K= 58,9 to 3.2, Ca= 12.1 to 3.6, Mg= 5.5 to 0.7 and S= 3.2 to 1.5g.kg-1. The omission of macronutrients caused quality losses, since it affected the nutrition of the vegetables and this resulted in morphological changes, reflected as symptoms of deficiency for each nutrient.
Smink, Frédérique R E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Hoek, Hans W
The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes a considerably revised eating disorder section. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence and severity of eating disorders based on the new DSM-5 criteria in a community cohort of adolescents. This study is part of TRAILS (TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey), a Dutch cohort study on mental health and social development from preadolescence into young adulthood. At baseline, the participants (n = 2,230) were about 11 years old. Body mass index was measured at all four assessment waves. At age 19, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to 1,584 of the participants. A two-stage screening approach was used to estimate the prevalence of DSM-5 eating disorders. Adolescents at high risk for eating disorders (n = 312) were selected for an additional interview administered by eating disorder experts. Of the high-risk group n = 296 (95%) could be interviewed. Among the women, the lifetime prevalence of DSM-5 anorexia nervosa was 1.7%, of bulimia nervosa 0.8% and of binge eating disorder 2.3%. Eating disorders were relatively rare among the men. The severity of most cases was mild to moderate and detection and treatment rates depended on the level of severity. The most common DSM-5 eating disorder diagnoses in adolescents in the community are anorexia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Severity ratings for eating disorders seem valid in terms of both the distribution in the community and the correlation with detection and treatment by health care services. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Leopold, Kenneth A.; Ahles, Tim A.; Walch, Susan; Amdur, Robert J.; Mott, Leila A.; Wiegand-Packard, Linda; Oxman, Thomas E.
Purpose: To validate a short, structured interview procedure that allows practicing oncologists to quickly and reliably identify mood disorders in their patients, and to estimate the prevalence and types of mood disorders in a radiation therapy patient setting, noting relationships between mood disorders and patient characteristics. Methods: Consecutive, eligible adult patients from the practices of two radiation oncologists were administered the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) by the treating physician. A subset of these patients was also evaluated with the SCID, administered by trained mental health care personnel. Agreement between the two instruments was examined using the kappa statistic. Prevalence of mood disorders was determined from the PRIME-MD. The significance of relationships between patient characteristics and mood disorders was examined by chi-square and ANOVA analysis, and subsequently by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: One hundred twenty-two patients were studied. Fifty-three of these were administered the SCID. Agreement between the two instruments was very good (kappa = 0.70). A diagnosis of a depressive or anxiety disorder by the PRIME-MD was made in 59 of the 122 patients (48%, 95% confidence interval = 39%, 58%). Multivariate analysis showed that a diagnosis of a depressive mood disorder was significantly related to pain intensity and prior history of depression. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the validity and feasibility of the PRIME-MD administered by oncologists in making diagnoses of mood disorders. The prevalence of mood disorders in our set of patients undergoing a course of RT was nearly 50%. Future studies should describe the natural history of these disorders, and determine optimal intervention strategies
Elie G Karam
Full Text Available There are no published data on national lifetime prevalence and treatment of mental disorders in the Arab region. Furthermore, the effect of war on first onset of disorders has not been addressed previously on a national level, especially in the Arab region. Thus, the current study aims at investigating the lifetime prevalence, treatment, age of onset of mental disorders, and their relationship to war in Lebanon.The Lebanese Evaluation of the Burden of Ailments and Needs Of the Nation study was carried out on a nationally representative sample of the Lebanese population (n = 2,857 adults. Respondents were interviewed using the fully structured WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Lifetime prevalence of any Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV disorder was 25.8%. Anxiety (16.7% and mood (12.6% were more common than impulse control (4.4% and substance (2.2% disorders. Only a minority of people with any mental disorder ever received professional treatment, with substantial delays (6 to 28 y between the onset of disorders and onset of treatment. War exposure increased the risk of first onset of anxiety (odds ratio [OR] 5.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-14.1, mood (OR 3.32, 95% CI 2.0-5.6, and impulse control disorders (OR 12.72, 95% CI 4.5-35.7.About one-fourth of the sample (25.8% met criteria for at least one of the DSM-IV disorders at some point in their lives. There is a substantial unmet need for early identification and treatment. Exposure to war events increases the odds of first onset of mental disorders.
La Maison, Carolina; Munhoz, Tiago N; Santos, Iná S; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando C; Matijasevich, Alicia
The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in early adolescence, to examine the distribution of psychiatric disorders by maternal and child characteristics and to evaluate the occurrence of psychiatric comorbidities. This was a prospective cohort study of all live births in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, in 2004 (n = 4231). A total of 3562 subjects were evaluated at 11 years of age. Psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to investigate risk factors for any psychiatric disorder. According to DSM-5 criteria, the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 13.2% (n = 471), 15.6% among the boys and 10.7% among the girls. The most common disorders were anxiety disorders (4.3%), any attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (4.0%) and any conduct/oppositional disorder (2.8%). Low maternal education, smoking during pregnancy, the presence of moods symptoms during pregnancy or maternal chronic and severe depressive symptoms in the first years of the adolescent´s life, male gender, 5-min Apgar score mental health care services in this age group.
Many clinicians and researchers have speculated that child sexual abuse and conduct disorder co-occur frequently, yet no systematic reviews of literature have specifically addressed both these conditions. To estimate the prevalence of sexual abuse among children with conduct disorder, the pertinent literature was systematically reviewed. Ten databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Twenty-three studies meeting minimum quality criteria that were enough to insure objectivity and not to invalidate results and including 7,256 participants with either conduct disorder or child sexual abuse were examined. The prevalence of child sexual abuse among participants with conduct disorder was 27 %; however, such figure might be underestimated due to selection, sampling, and recall biases; poor assessment methods; and narrow definitions of abuse in included studies. Participants with conduct disorder, compared with healthy individuals, reported higher rates of child sexual abuse. However, compared with other psychiatric populations, they reported similar or lower rates. There was also some evidence suggesting that children with conduct disorder might be more likely to report child physical abuse. Female participants with conduct disorder, compared with males, were significantly more likely to report child sexual abuse. Youths with conduct disorder are at risk of being (or having been) sexually abused, although such risk seems to be neither more specific to nor stronger for these individuals, compared with people with other psychiatric disorders.
Human beings are social creatures. Accordingly, fear of social situations can be severely disabling. Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by excessive fear of negative evaluation in social or performance situations. SAD has an early onset and often goes undetected an untreated. Descriptive studies on non‐clinical samples are required in order to find ways to prevent SAD and associated consequences. This thesis aimed at examining epidemiological variables of SAD in adolescence which ...
Norbert Dahmen; Julia Becht; Alice Engel; Monika Thommes; Peter Tonn
Norbert Dahmen, Julia Becht, Alice Engel, Monika Thommes, Peter TonnPsychiatry Department, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Narcoleptic patients suffer frequently from obesity and type II diabetes. Most patients show a deficit in the energy balance regulating orexinergic system. Nevertheless, it is not known, why narcoleptic patients tend to be obese. We examined 116 narcoleptic patients and 80 controls with the structured interview for anorectic and bulimic eating disorders (SIAB) to te...
Fernanda Mara de Paiva Bertoli
Full Text Available The prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD increases during adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have examined TMD prevalence in Brazilian adolescents.To investigate the prevalence of TMD in Brazilian adolescents.A representative population-based sample of 934 adolescents (10-14-years-old was examined. TMD screening was performed using a questionnaire by the American Academy of Orofacial Pain. TMD diagnoses used research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD-Axis-I. Examinations were performed by a single calibrated examiner (kappa > 0.80.The prevalence of TMD symptoms was 34.9%; the most frequently reported symptoms were headache and neck ache (20.9%, followed by joint sounds (18.5%. Myofascial pain was the most prevalent type (10.3%, followed by disc displacement with reduction (8.0% and arthralgia (3.5%. There was a significant association between sex and TMD symptoms; prevalence was significantly higher in girls (RP = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.14-1.65; p = 0.001. Myofascial pain of TMD and displacement with reduction were more prevalent in girls (RP = 1.76; p = 0.007 and RP = 2.06; p = 0.004, respectively.TMD symptoms were present in 34.9% of adolescents, with myofascial pain being the most prevalent type (10.3%. TMD was significantly more common in girls. Routine pediatric dental care should include a TMD screening.
Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint disorders are disturbances of mastication system due to one or more component of mastication system does not properly function. The factors that play a role in this problem divided into three factors; a predisposition factor (systemic, occlusion disturbances and psychological trouble, b initiation factor (traumatic and c perpetuation factor (social behavior. These disorders are able to cause a variety of symptom suck as limitedness of jaw movement, clicking, deviation locked joint, muscle pain, joint pain, jaw movement pain and pain of ear and headache. The objective of this study was to obtain information about the prevalence degree of severity of the temporomandibular joint disorder, the differences of prevalence between man and woman and the different among age groups. The study was descriptive and analysis survey, done to 134 patients as an experimental sample of 3–75-year old that have visited Dental Hospital, Padjadjaran University Bandung, during February 2008. Sample consist of 57 men and 77 women were evaluated by using Helkimo Index and analysis by using Z statistical proportion test to know the existence of difference prevalence degree of severity between man and woman and using the chi-square test to know the difference prevalence among age groups.The result of this study shows that there is highly prevalence severity of temporomandibular joint disorder (84,33% and significantly different on prevalence severity between man and woman and among a group of ages.The conclusion can be drawn that patients who visited the dental hospital, Padjadjaran University have higher prevalence severity of temporomandibular joint disorder where a woman has higher level compare to man, and the young adult group has highest either man and woman. Clicking is the most often symptom appear to man and woman.
Pascoal, Maria I. N.; Rapoport, Abrão; Chagas, José F. S.; Pascoal, Maria B.N.; Costa, Claudiney C.; Magna, Luis Antonio
Introdução: A presença de sintomas otológicos associados à desordem temporomandibular (DTM) é discutida há seis décadas; entretanto, sua etiologia ainda permanece obscura. Forma de estudo: Prospectivo clínico randomizado. Objetivo: Neste estudo foram avaliadas a prevalência de sintomas otológicos na DTM, sua correlação com a dor muscular e a ausência de dentes posteriores. Material e Método: Foram avaliados 126 pacientes portadores de DTM, através de questionário subjetivo dos sintomas, palpa...
Floros, Georgios D
Research on adolescence gambling over the past twenty years has revealed significant incidence and prevalence rates and highlighted the possible negative effects on an adolescent's well-being. Several risk and protective factors have also been identified. Over the course of the past few years, technological advances have heralded the advent of new avenues for gambling as well as new opportunities to gamble without any direct monetary exchange. This review article examines those established trends as well as the new issues that we are faced with, in order to accurately portray the current challenges in research, prevention, and treatment.
Floros, Georgios D
Research on adolescence gambling over the past twenty years has revealed significant incidence and prevalence rates and highlighted the possible negative effects on an adolescent’s well-being. Several risk and protective factors have also been identified. Over the course of the past few years, technological advances have heralded the advent of new avenues for gambling as well as new opportunities to gamble without any direct monetary exchange. This review article examines those established trends as well as the new issues that we are faced with, in order to accurately portray the current challenges in research, prevention, and treatment. PMID:29535564
Larissa da Cunha Feio Costa
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n3p326 University admission provides the adoption of new behaviors, which can affect the health of students. The objective of this study was to identify the characteristics and factors associated with the nutritional status of female university students in Florianopolis, SC, and to assess their prevalence. Socioeconomic and behavioral variables were obtained by a structured questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed based on body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage. Food consumption data were obtained through the application of a 24-hour food recall. The chi-square test was used to select independent variables associated with body mass index. Response rate in this study was 86.6% (total of 220 students. Most students were teenagers (57.7%, lived with parents (69.5%, were sedentary (55.9%, and eutrophic (72.3%. The prevalence was 15.9% for underweight and 11.8% for overweight. Breakfast was the main meal most frequently omitted (16.9%, and most students (79.0% had an energy intake below2,200 kcal. Energy intake was the only variable inversely associated with nutritional status (p =0.0358. There is a need to implement educational health measures in universities in order to establish healthier lifestyle and eating habits.
Larissa da Cunha Feio Costa
Full Text Available University admission provides the adoption of new behaviors, which can affect the health of students. The objective of this study was to identify the characteristics and factors associated with the nutritional status of female university students in Florianopolis, SC, and to assess their prevalence. Socioeconomic and behavioral variables were obtained by a structured questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed based on body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage. Food consumption data were obtained through the application of a 24-hour food recall. The chi-square test was used to select independent variables associated with body mass index. Response rate in this study was 86.6% (total of 220 students. Most students were teenagers (57.7%, lived with parents (69.5%, were sedentary (55.9%, and eutrophic (72.3%. The prevalence was 15.9% for underweight and 11.8% for overweight. Breakfast was the main meal most frequently omitted (16.9%, and most students (79.0% had an energy intake below2,200 kcal. Energy intake was the only variable inversely associated with nutritional status (p =0.0358. There is a need to implement educational health measures in universities in order to establish healthier lifestyle and eating habits.
van der Meer, Job; van Rood, Yanda R; van der Wee, Nic J; den Hollander-Gijsman, Margien; van Noorden, Martijn S; Giltay, Erik J; Zitman, Frans G
To describe the prevalence, demographic and clinical characteristics of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) compared with other psychiatric outpatients with a mood, anxiety or somatoform disorder. Outpatients referred for treatment of a mood, anxiety or somatoform disorder were routinely assessed at intake. A structured interview (MINI-Plus), observer-based and self-rating instruments were administered by an independent assessor. Among our sample of 3798 referred patients, 2947 patients were diagnosed with at least one DSM-IV mood, anxiety or somatoform disorder. Of these patients 1.8% (n = 54) met the diagnostic criteria for BDD. In comparison with other outpatients, patients with BDD were on average younger, less often married and were more often living alone. Highly prevalent comorbid diagnoses were major depression (in 46.3% of cases), social anxiety disorder (in 35.2% of cases) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (in 16.7% of cases). Furthermore, patients with BDD had higher scores on the Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) as well as lower scores on the Short Form 36 social role functioning. BDD is frequently associated with depression, social phobia and OCD. Patients with BDD have more distress and more impaired interpersonal functioning.
Baxter, Amanda J; Charlson, Fiona J; Cheng, Hui G; Shidhaye, Rahul; Ferrari, Alize J; Whiteford, Harvey A
Population-representative prevalence data for mental, neurological, and substance use disorders are essential for evidence-based decision making. As a background to the China-India Mental Health Alliance Series, we aim to examine the availability of data and report prevalence for the most common mental, neurological, and substance use disorders in China and India from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013 (GBD 2013). In this systematic analysis, data sources were identified from GBD 2013 for the prevalence of mental, neurological, and substance use disorders in China and India published up to Dec 31, 2013. We calculated the proportion of the population represented by the data with the adjusted population coverage (APC) method adjusting for age, sex, and population size. We developed prevalence models with DisMod-MR 2.0, a Bayesian meta-regression instrument used to pool population-representative epidemiological data as part of GBD 2013. We report estimates and 95% uncertainly intervals (95% UI) for 15 mental, neurological, and substance use disorders for China and India in 1990 and 2013, and benchmark these against those for other BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, and South Africa) in 2013. Few population-representative data were found for the disorders, with an average coverage of 15% of the population of the Chinese mainland and 1% of the population of India. For men in both China and India, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and alcohol dependence were the most common mental, neurological, and substance use disorders. Prevalence of major depressive disorder was 2·2% (95% UI 1·5-2·8) in Chinese men and 3·5% (2·4-4·6) in Indian men; prevalence of anxiety disorders was 2·0% (1·1-3·2) and 1·9% (1·2-2·3), respectively. For women, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, and dysthymia were the most common. Prevalence of major depressive disorder was 3·3% (2·3-4·1) in Chinese women and 4·7% (95% UI 3·3-6·2) in Indian women; prevalence
Raval, Chintan Madhusudan; Panchal, Bharat Navinchandra; Tiwari, Deepak Sachidanand; Vala, Ashok Ukabhai; Bhatt, Renish Bhupendrabhai
Background: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) characterized by mood changes, anxiety, and somatic symptoms experienced during the specific time of menstrual cycle. Prevalence data of PMS and PMDD is sparse among college girls in India. Aims: The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of PMS and PMDD among college students of Bhavnagar (Gujarat), its associated demographic and menstrual factors, to rank common symptoms and compare prem...
Heim, Eva; Wegmann, Iris; Maercker, Andreas
The prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs, i.e., depression and anxiety) worldwide is substantial, and prevalence rates are higher in high-income than in low- and middle-income countries. This difference might reflect both underlying prevalence rates as well as the measurement model used in cross-national epidemiological studies. Schwartz' cultural values provide a meaningful taxonomy to describe 'culture' and to examine how culture affects both the aetiology and phenomenology of CMDs. The present study examines to what extent Schwartz' cultural values correlate with prevalence rates of CMDs at the country-level. Twenty-five countries were included in this study. Countries were included if data on cultural values and lifetime prevalence rates, from either the World Mental Health Surveys or the Global Burden of Disease Study, were available for at least one CMD. Spearman rank correlations were calculated between prevalence rates and cultural values, controlling for gross national income (GNI) per capita. Affective disorders correlated with cultural values, after controlling for GNI. For anxiety disorders, correlations were lower but still offered meaningful insights. Correlations followed the circular structure of values, meaning that the strength of relationship decreased and increased again when moving around the circle: the strongest positive correlations were found with egalitarianism, and the strongest negative correlations with hierarchy and mastery. The autonomy-embeddedness dimension correlated weakly with the prevalence of CMDs. Diverging prevalence rates between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries are associated with differences in cultural values. Values might not only relate to the aetiology of mental disorders, but most possibly affect the way in which psychological distress is expressed. As an example, in societies with a strong focus on embeddedness, the fear of stigma might be more pronounced. Cultural values offer a
Richardson, Lisa K; Frueh, B Christopher; Acierno, Ronald
The aim of the present study was to provide a critical review of prevalence estimates of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel and veterans, and of the relevant factors that may account for the variability of estimates within and across cohorts, including methodological and conceptual factors accounting for differences in prevalence rates across nations, conflicts/wars, and studies. MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were examined for literature on combat-related PTSD. The following terms were used independently and in combinations in this search: PTSD, combat, veterans, military, epidemiology, prevalence. The point prevalence of combat-related PTSD in US military veterans since the Vietnam War ranged from approximately 2% to 17%. Studies of recent conflicts suggest that combat-related PTSD afflicts between 4% and 17% of US Iraq War veterans, but only 3-6% of returning UK Iraq War veterans. Thus, the prevalence range is narrower and tends to have a lower ceiling among combat veterans of non-US Western nations. Variability in prevalence is likely due to differences in sampling strategies; measurement strategies; inclusion and measurement of the DSM-IV clinically significant impairment criterion; timing and latency of assessment and potential for recall bias; and combat experiences. Prevalence rates are also likely affected by issues related to PTSD course, chronicity, and comorbidity; symptom overlap with other psychiatric disorders; and sociopolitical and cultural factors that may vary over time and by nation. The disorder represents a significant and costly illness to veterans, their families, and society as a whole. Further carefully conceptualized research, however, is needed to advance our understanding of disorder prevalence, as well as associated information on course, phenomenology, protective factors, treatment, and economic costs.
Fatemeh Sheikhmoonesi; Zohreh Hajheidari; Abbas Masoudzadeh; Reza Ali Mohammadpour; Mahbubeh Mozaffari
Most obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients meet psychiatrists 5 to 10 years after onset of OCD .Its relatively high prevalence ratio and the delay in seeking help suggest that patients with OCD may seek help at non-psychiatric clinics. The present study was undertaken to provide some epidemiological data on the prevalence and severity of OCD in dermatological patients. The participants included 265 consecutive patients with primary dermatologic chief complaint. They were visited by a d...
Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD among South African students is explored in this article. BDD is regarded as an obsessive-compulsive-related disorder characterised by a preoccupation with one or more perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance and expressed in repetitive behaviours or mental acts as a response to the appearance concerns, causing clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of BDD among undergraduate students (N=395 at an inner-city university. Methods. Proportionate stratified random cluster sampling was used to select the sample. The students completed a demographics survey and the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. Results and conclusion. An overall prevalence rate of 5.1% was found in this study, which is similar to prevalence rates reported in existing literature among student populations. No clinically significant differences in the severity of the BDD were found on the demographic variables of gender, race or sexual orientation. However, students differed significantly in their experience of the severity of the disorder in terms of age, in that students over the age of 21 reported higher severity levels than students under the age of 21. Although the prevalence of the disorder compares with that in other countries, its severity seems to increase with age among South African students.
Tybor David J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The condition of obesity has become a significant public health problem in the United States. In children and adolescents, the prevalence of overweight has tripled in the last 20 years, with approximately 16.0% of children ages 6–19, and 10.3% of 2–5 year olds being considered overweight. Considerable research is underway to understand obesity in the general pediatric population, however little research is available on the prevalence of obesity in children with developmental disorders. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of overweight among a clinical population of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Methods Retrospective chart review of 140 charts of children ages 3–18 years seen between 1992 and 2003 at a tertiary care clinic that specializes in the evaluation and treatment of children with developmental, behavioral, and cognitive disorders. Diagnostic, medical, and demographic information was extracted from the charts. Primary diagnoses of either ADHD or ASD were recorded, as was information on race/ethnicity, age, gender, height, and weight. Information was also collected on medications that the child was taking. Body mass index (BMI was calculated from measures of height and weight recorded in the child's chart. The Center for Disease Control's BMI growth reference was used to determine an age- and gender-specific BMI z-score for the children. Results The prevalence of at-risk-for-overweight (BMI >85th%ile and overweight (BMI > 95th%ile was 29% and 17.3% respectively in children with ADHD. Although the prevalence appeared highest in the 2–5 year old group (42.9%ile, differences among age groups were not statistically significant. Prevalence did not differ between boys and girls or across age groups (all p > 0.05. For children with ASD, the overall prevalence of at-risk-for-overweight was 35.7% and prevalence of overweight
Majid Motamedzade Torghabeh
Conclusion: Musculoskeletal disorders of the knees, the middle and lower back, shoulders and wrists are of a high prevalence among bakers of traditional bread. Therefore, both engineering and management interventions are recommended to eliminate musculoskeletal disorders.
Full Text Available In order to analyse metabolic disorders in Simmental cows, 2.641.223 test-day records have been used. The metabolic disorders prevalence risk was indicated by the fat to protein (F/P ratio, while the subclinical disorder was demonstrated using the F/P ratio and daily production. In terms of the ketosis prevalence risk (KPR, the highest prevalence risks occurred at the 20th lactation day in all tested cows with exception of cows in parity P4+ which experienced peak prevalence risk at 25th lactation day. A steady decrease of KPR after peak prevalence was observed in all animals except the 3rd lactation cows which experienced the second peak prevalence at the 30th lactation day, after which the prevalence risk continued to decline. The highest acidosis prevalence risk (APR was detected among 4+ parity cows. Considering the lactation stage, the highest APR occurred within the first 10 days, with the indication from 16 to 23 %, depending on parity. The peak prevalence risk was followed by a considerable decline during the ensuing 20 days. The prevalence risk began to increase among all cows after the 25th lactation day. Furthermore, there was a considerable decrease in a daily milk yield and variation of daily milk contents due to subclinical disorders. The most noticeable drop in daily milk yield, for both ketosis/acidosis, was detected in cows in 4+ parity in the amounts of 7.45 kg/day and 2.73 kg/day respectively. There was also a production decline in the subsequent milk controls. Subclinical disorders can also substantially change daily milk contents. The daily fat content was considerably reduced by the subclinical ketosis and the same parameter was considerably increased by the subclinical acidosis. The opposite trends were detected for daily protein content. Since indication criteria was set on Holstein population and considering the fact that Simmental cows produce noticeably less, some adjustment is needed before a routine use of test
Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint disorder is a stomatognathic system disorder causing mandibular function disturbance that clinically shows the following symptoms: clicking, crepitation, limited mouth opening, pain in masticatory muscles, pain in the jaw area, deviated mouth opening, ringing ear, pain around ear area, and headache. Experts stated that the prevalence of joint disorder was high. A study was conducted to the people of Cibodas Maribaya Village Bandung District who came to the Community Work event with results showing that the prevalence of clicking was 34 people or 32.4%, the deviation was found in 36 people or 34.3%, muscle pain was found in 28 people or 26.7%, a headache was found in 35 people or 33.3%, ear disorders was found in 23 people or 21.9%.
Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Ores, Liliane da Costa; Mondin, Thaíse Campos; Rizzo, Raquel Nolasco; Moraes, Inácia Gomes da Silva; Jansen, Karen; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of common mental disorders and the association with self-esteem and other factors in pregnant women. A nested cross-sectional study was performed in a cohort of pregnant women treated in the public health system in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to screen for common mental disorders and the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale for self-esteem. The sample consisted of 1,267 pregnant women with a mean age of 25 years (SD = 6.53). Mean self-esteem was 9.3 points (SD = 4.76), and prevalence of common mental disorders was 41.4%. Lower self-esteem was associated with higher odds of common mental disorders (p low self-esteem.
Full Text Available Objective: to establish the prevalence institutional alterations in hearing and languaje in children aged 4 and 5 years, attending the Growth and Development program at the Social Institution of Popayan in 2012. Methodology: We performed a cross-sectional study in sample of 96 children who attended four points ESE Care Popayan, during the months of december 2011 and January 2012. Were evaluated by Fonoaudiología, who applied the Reynell test to assess languaje and tone audiometry and otoacoustic emissions to assess hearing. Results: the mean age of the population was 59.34 months, while 50% was made up of men. The 78.1% had alterations in expressive language and 41.7% in language understanding, 29.2% showed changes of left ear as otoacoustic emissions and according to tone audiometry, high frequency of right are the most affected. Conclusions: the high prevalence of alterations in speech and hearing in children found to initiate processes that are more complex as the acquisition of reading and writing, could trigger negative consequences such as poor school performance and even dropouts.
Sar, Vedat; Onder, Canan; Kilincaslan, Ayse; Zoroglu, Süleyman S; Alyanak, Behiye
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dissociative identity disorder (DID) and other dissociative disorders among adolescent psychiatric outpatients. A total of 116 consecutive outpatients between 11 and 17 years of age who were admitted to the child and adolescent psychiatry clinic of a university hospital for the 1st time were evaluated using the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale, adolescent version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and McMaster Family Assessment Device. All patients were invited for an interview with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D) administered by 2 senior psychiatrists in a blind fashion. There was excellent interrater reliability between the 2 clinicians on SCID-D diagnoses and scores. Among 73 participants, 33 (45.2%) had a dissociative disorder: 12 (16.4%) had DID, and 21 (28.8%) had dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. There was no difference in gender distribution, childhood trauma, or family dysfunction scores between the dissociative and nondissociative groups. Childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction correlated with self-reported dissociation. Of the dissociative adolescents, 93.9% had an additional psychiatric disorder. Among them, only separation anxiety disorder was significantly more prevalent than in controls. Although originally designed for adults, the SCID-D is promising for diagnosing dissociative disorders in adolescents, its modest congruence with self-rated dissociation and lack of relationship between diagnosis and childhood trauma and family dysfunction suggest that the prevalence rates obtained with this instrument originally designed for adults must be replicated. The introduction of diagnostic criteria for adolescent DID in revised versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, would refine the assessment of dissociative disorders in this age group.
Full Text Available We aimed to conduct a review to investigate the prevalence of anxiety disorders among Iranian children and adolescents.We systematically reviewed the literature up to June 2014. We searched three Persian databases (Magiran, IranMedex and SID and three English databases: PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO. All original studies that investigated the current prevalence of anxiety in a sample of Iranian children and adolescents were entered into the study. All studies conducted on special samples or in special settings were excluded. By searching English databases, we obtained 124 original studies. After removing duplicate papers, 120 articles remained. In the next step, we screened the articles based on their title. In sum, 95 Persian and English articles had relevant titles. After screening based on the abstract and full text, 26 studies remained. After screening based on the full text, all selected studies were qualitatively assessed by two evaluators separately.Twenty five studies were eligible and reported different types of anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobias and panic disorder. The samples varied from 81 to 2996 among studies and their age range was 5 to 18 years. These studies were conducted in different cities of Iran. SCL-90 is a frequently used questionnaire. All anxiety disorders were mostly investigated with the prevalence rates ranging from 6.8% in Saravan to 85% in Bandar Abbas. OCD was the second common study with prevalence rates ranging from 1% in Tabriz to 11.9% in Gorgan.Our findings revealed considerable amount of anxiety disorder among Iranian children and adolescents. Given the fact that anxiety disorder has negative effects on the well-being and function of individuals and can lead to severe problems, this disorder should be considered in mental health programs designed for children and adolescents.
Mauritz, Maria W.; Goossens, Peter J.J.; Draijer, Nel; Achterberg, Theo van
Background: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice.Objective: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI.Methods: We conducted a systematic review of four databases (1980-2010) and then described and analysed 33 studies in terms of primary diagnosis and instruments used to measure trauma exposure and traumarelated dis...
Gisslén, Magnus; Price, Richard W; Nilsson, Staffan
Abstract Background A substantial prevalence of mild neurocognitive disorders has been reported in HIV, also in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This includes a new disorder that has been termed asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI). Discussion ANI is identified by performance on formal neuropsychological testing that is at least 1 SD below the mean of normative scores in at least two cognitive domains out of at least five examined in patients without as...
Sergio Baxter Andreoli
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the prison population in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Through stratified random sampling, 1.192 men and 617 women prisoners were evaluated for the presence of psychiatric disorders by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 2.1 version, according to definitions and criteria of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The prevalence estimates of mental disorders and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated and adjusted for sample design through complex sample analysis. RESULTS: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates differed between genders. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder was, respectively, 68.9% and 39.2% among women, and 56.1% and 22.1% among men. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of anxious-phobic disorders was, respectively, 50% and 27.7% among women and 35.3% and 13.6% among men, of affective disorders was 40% and 21% among women and 20.8% and 9.9% among men, and of drug-related disorders was 25.2% and 1.6% among women and 26.5% and 1.3% among men. For severe mental disorders (psychotic, bipolar disorders, and severe depression, the lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates were, respectively, 25.8% and 14.7% among women, and 12.3% and 6.3% among men. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale epidemiological study performed with the prison population in Brazil, revealed high rates of psychiatric disorders among men and women. Many similarities, as well as some differences, were found between our results and those of studies conducted in other countries. The differences observed are more likely due to the peculiarities of the prison systems in each country than to the diagnostic criteria adopted in the studies. This fact reinforces the importance of conducting such studies as part of planning and development of appropriate policies for the particular mental health needs of specific prison populations.
Matini, Diana; Ghanbari Jolfaei, Atefeh; Pazouki, Abdolreza; Pishgahroudsari, Mohadeseh; Ehtesham, Mehdi
Severe obesity is highly co-morbid with psychiatric disorders and may have effect on the quality of life. This study aimed to compare severity and prevalence rate of depression, anxiety and eating disorders and quality of life in severe obese patients before and 6 months after the gastric bypass surgery. This was a prospective observational study which conducted at Hazarat Rasool-Akram Hospital in Tehran, 2012. Questionnaires included demographic questions, eating disorder Inventory (EDI), The Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) for quality of life, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and anxiety (HRSA). Participants were interviewed two times, before surgery and six months after, to determine changes of the disorders. Patients with the history of bariatric surgery, individuals younger than 18 year old and those who disagreed to join the study were excluded. In assessing the eating disorder inventory-3rd version (EDI-3), Significant reduction in drive for thinness (DT) (p= 0.010), bulimia (B) (pdepression in HRSD (p= 0.311), prevalence of depression (p= 0.189) and prevalence of general anxiety disorder according to SCID (p=0.167) did not differ significantly, at this period. Although weight loss after bariatric surgery improved the physical component of quality of life, this improvement did not affect the mental aspect of life, depression and anxiety and it seems that these psychopathologies need attention and treatment in addition to weight loss treatments in patients with obesity.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Personality disorders considered as an important health problem are associated with significant consequences in the community. The disorders complicate the treatment process of other diseases and conditions as well. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of personality disorder in Tabriz city, northwest Iran. Material and Methods: The short form of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI, 71 questions was used to measure the personality disorders in a sample of 150 individuals (aged 18-62 years including staff and clients of the primary health care settings in Tabriz, northwest Iran. The clinical profile of the participants was assessed using MMPI questionnaire/software. The patients' test data were then interpreted by the study investigators. Results: The overall prevalence of the personality disorder was 20% (95% Confidence Intervals: 13.5 to 26.4 in the study population. The same rate was calculated 23.7% (95% Confidence Intervals: 15.2 to 32.1 in women, and 20.9% (95% Confidence Intervals: 13.3 to 28.5 for married individuals. Conclusion: According to our findings, personality disorders are common in the community. One in five persons was detected as having personality disorders. Understanding the epidemiology of personality disorders and the relevant comorbidities in general population is important for policy-making in mental health programs at community level.
Speck, V; Schlereth, T; Birklein, F; Maihöfner, C
Although specific psychological disorders in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) have not been identified, studies suggest that CRPS patients may have increased rates of traumatic life events. Because these events do not always lead to apparent psychological symptoms, we systematically screened CRPS patients for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to determine if PTSD could be a risk factor for CRPS. Consecutive CRPS patients referred to two university hospital centres (University of Erlangen, UMC Mainz) between December 2011 and April 2013 were prospectively examined using a diagnostic PTSD instrument (Post-traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS). We also tested maladaptive coping strategies (brief-COPE inventory) and the PDS severity score as predictors for CRPS. Patients with non-CRPS extremity pain and healthy individuals were used as control groups. We collected data from 152 patients with CRPS, 55 control patients and 55 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Fifty-eight CRPS patients (38%), six non-CRPS pain patients (10%) and two healthy individuals (4%) met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Initial PTSD symptom onset was prior to CRPS in 50 CRPS patients (86%) and during the course of CRPS in eight patients. Results of a logistic regression revealed that the PTSD severity score was associated with CRPS (p CRPS than it is in the general population. Research has not yet provided support for specific psychological predictors for CRPS. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.
Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Henrik; Hageman, Ida
BACKGROUND: Light severely affects the occurrence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). AIMS: To compare the prevalence of SAD in persons with severe visual impairment and persons with full sight, and in persons with severe visual impairment with or without light perception. METHOD: This cross......-sectional study assessed the Global Seasonality Score (GSS) and the prevalence of SAD among 2781 persons with visual impairment and 4099 persons with full sight using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). RESULTS: Respondents with visual impairment had significantly higher GSS and prevalence...... of SAD compared with full sight controls, Pvisual impairment and SPAQ-defined SAD parameters...
Maercker, Andreas; Hecker, Tobias; Augsburger, Mareike; Kliem, Sören
Prevalence rates are still lacking for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD) diagnoses based on the new ICD-11 criteria. In a nationwide representative German sample (N = 2524; 14-99 years), exposure to traumatic events and symptoms of PTSD or CPTSD were assessed with the International Trauma Questionnaire. A clinical variant of CPTSD with a lower threshold for core PTSD symptoms was also calculated, in addition to conditional prevalence rates dependent on trauma type and differential predictors. One-month prevalence rates were as follows: PTSD, 1.5%; CPTSD, 0.5%; and CPTSD variant, 0.7%. For PTSD, the highest conditional prevalence was associated with kidnapping or rape, and the highest CPTSD rates were associated with sexual childhood abuse or rape. PTSD and CPTSD were best differentiated by sexual violence. Combined PTSD and CPTSD (ICD-11) rates were in the range of previously reported prevalences for unified PTSD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition; ICD-10). Evidence on differential predictors of PTSD and CPTSD is still preliminary.
Perez, Marisol; Ohrt, Tara K; Hoek, Hans W
We reviewed the recent literature on prevalence rates, and application of evidence-based treatments for eating disorders among Hispanics/Latinos residing in the United States. Lifetime prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa are lower among Hispanic/Latinos than non-Hispanic Whites. There are comparable rates of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (BED) among Hispanic/Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites. BED is the most common eating disorder among Hispanic/Latinos. Evidence-based treatments have begun to be implemented with Hispanics/Latinos. The core concepts of cognitive behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa and BED apply to this population. Culture-specific adaptations include strengthening the collectivistic framework within an individualistic treatment, psychoeducation of immediate and extended family, and adjustment of meal plans that incorporated cultural foods. There are more similarities than differences in the prevalence of eating disorders across Hispanics/Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites. However, the social context such as immigration status and acculturation is important to consider in the development of eating disorders. In addition, the Westernization of Latin America may change the future relationship of immigration status and development of eating disorder within the United States. Overall, cultural adaptations of evidence-based treatments involved the inclusion of family within treatment, acculturation-related issues, and managing family conflicts that arise because of the changes in eating patterns.
Janno, Sven; Holi, Matti; Tuisku, Katinka; Wahlbeck, Kristian
Since most of the world's schizophrenia patients are treated with conventional antipsychotics, the authors evaluated various methods for establishing the prevalence of neuroleptic-induced movement disorders in these patients. DSM-IV criteria and established score thresholds on a movement disorder rating scale were used to identify cases of neuroleptic-induced movement disorder in a representative Estonian patient sample of 99 chronic institutionalized schizophrenia patients, 18-65 years old, treated with conventional neuroleptics (79.8%) or clozapine (20.2%). Neuroleptic-induced movement disorders according to DSM-IV criteria were found in 61.6% of the group: 31.3% had neuroleptic-induced akathisia, 23.2% had neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism, and 32.3% had neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia. Prevalence rates for akathisia and tardive dyskinesia were similar when either DSM-IV criteria or rating scale scores were used, but the prevalence rate for parkinsonism was much lower per DSM-IV criteria than according to rating scale score. Nearly two-thirds of chronic schizophrenia patients suffered from a neuroleptic-induced movement disorder. Globally, extrapyramidal adverse effects still impose a huge burden on the majority of neuroleptic-treated individuals with schizophrenia. The discrepancy between the standard identification methods for neuroleptic-induced movement disorder indicate the need for further research.
Ismael Hasan Jawad
Full Text Available Background:Malnutrition in children under five years of age is high priority public health problems especially in middle and low income countries including Iraq, it is +associated with high morbidity and mortality among infants and young children Objectives:To identify the prevalence and the correlates of under nutrition (underweight, stunting and wasting among children under 5 years of age living in Babylon province, Iraq. Methodology:A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted, to collect primary information from mothers of1000 children attending ten randomly selected primary health care centers (five rural and five urban centers in Babylon province during the period from January through June 2016 ,a scientific questionnaire, anthropometric measurements (weight for age, length/height for age and weight for height, were used to assess the nutritional status of the child . Results: The study revealed that the prevalence of underweight , stunting and wasting were 7.6%, , 20.6%, and 6.6% respectively . Significant statistical associations were found between all types of under nutrition and the following independent variables p<0.05 ; age,( gender , more common in boys , low level of mother education , types of breast feeding and family income. Conclusion:The study concluded that chronic malnutrition in the study area is still a concern that needs timely intervention by governmental and non-governmental organizations. We conclude that improvements in child feeding, and better maternal education are needed to maintain the children's nutritional status.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although psychoses and ethnicity are well researched, the importance of culture, race and ethnicity has been overlooked in Personality Disorders (PD research. This study aimed to review the published literature on ethnic variations of prevalence, aetiology and treatment of PD. Method A systematic review of studies of PD and race, culture and ethnicity including a narrative synthesis of observational data and meta-analyses of prevalence data with tests for heterogeneity. Results There were few studies with original data on personality disorder and ethnicity. Studies varied in their classification of ethnic group, and few studies defined a specific type of personality disorder. Overall, meta-analyses revealed significant differences in prevalence between black and white groups (OR 0.476, CIs 0.248 - 0.915, p = 0.026 but no differences between Asian or Hispanic groups compared with white groups. Meta-regression analyses found that heterogeneity was explained by some study characteristics: a lower prevalence of PD was reported among black compared with white patients in UK studies, studies using case-note diagnoses rather than structured diagnostic interviews, studies of borderline PD compared with the other PD, studies in secure and inpatient compared with community settings, and among subjects with co-morbid disorders compared to the rest. The evidence base on aetiology and treatment was small. Conclusion There is some evidence of ethnic variations in prevalence of personality disorder but methodological characteristics are likely to account for some of the variation. The findings may indicate neglect of PD diagnosis among ethnic groups, or a true lower prevalence amongst black patients. Further studies are required using more precise cultural and ethnic groups.
McGilloway, Angela; Hall, Ruth E; Lee, Tennyson; Bhui, Kamaldeep S
Although psychoses and ethnicity are well researched, the importance of culture, race and ethnicity has been overlooked in Personality Disorders (PD) research. This study aimed to review the published literature on ethnic variations of prevalence, aetiology and treatment of PD. A systematic review of studies of PD and race, culture and ethnicity including a narrative synthesis of observational data and meta-analyses of prevalence data with tests for heterogeneity. There were few studies with original data on personality disorder and ethnicity. Studies varied in their classification of ethnic group, and few studies defined a specific type of personality disorder. Overall, meta-analyses revealed significant differences in prevalence between black and white groups (OR 0.476, CIs 0.248 - 0.915, p = 0.026) but no differences between Asian or Hispanic groups compared with white groups. Meta-regression analyses found that heterogeneity was explained by some study characteristics: a lower prevalence of PD was reported among black compared with white patients in UK studies, studies using case-note diagnoses rather than structured diagnostic interviews, studies of borderline PD compared with the other PD, studies in secure and inpatient compared with community settings, and among subjects with co-morbid disorders compared to the rest. The evidence base on aetiology and treatment was small. There is some evidence of ethnic variations in prevalence of personality disorder but methodological characteristics are likely to account for some of the variation. The findings may indicate neglect of PD diagnosis among ethnic groups, or a true lower prevalence amongst black patients. Further studies are required using more precise cultural and ethnic groups.
Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; Galea, Gauden
Ageing and urbanization leading to sedentary lifestyles have been the major explanations proposed for a dramatic rise in diabetes worldwide and have been the variables used to predict future diabetes rates. However, a transition to Western diets has been suggested as an alternative driver. We sought to determine what socio-economic and dietary factors are the most significant population-level contributors to diabetes prevalence rates internationally. Multivariate regression models were used to study how market sizes of major food products (sugars, cereals, vegetable oils, meats, total joules) corresponded to diabetes prevalence, incorporating lagged and cumulative effects. The underlying social determinants of food market sizes and diabetes prevalence rates were also studied, including ageing, income, urbanization, overweight prevalence and imports of foodstuffs. Data were obtained from 173 countries. Population-based survey recipients were the basis for diabetes prevalence and food market data. We found that increased income tends to increase overall food market size among low- and middle-income countries, but the level of food importation significantly shifts the content of markets such that a greater proportion of available joules is composed of sugar and related sweeteners. Sugar exposure statistically explained why urbanization and income have been correlated with diabetes rates. Current diabetes projection methods may estimate future diabetes rates poorly if they fail to incorporate the impact of nutritional factors. Imported sugars deserve further investigation as a potential population-level driver of global diabetes.
Full Text Available Objective: Personality disorder is a multi-factorial condition in which workplace stress plays a significant role. This study was undertaken due to scarcity of information regarding the role of workplace stress which can cause personality disorder among nurses. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of personality disorders in nurses working in different hospital departments and assess factors affecting its onset. Methods: In this cross-sectional study the personality disorders of nurses working in various hospital departments were evaluated based on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2 test. After the completion of questionnaires, data were entered to MMPI-2 test’s special software and the final result was interpreted based on the opinion of a clinical psychologist. Finally, multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the independent effect of the mentioned factors on prevalence of personality disorders in nurses. Results: We gathered data from 2 groups of participants (n = 206. These groups included nurses in emergency departments and nurses in other hospital units. The mean of age was 32.5 ± 6.9 years. Overall, 54.3% (n = 38 of non-emergency nurses and 45.7% (n = 32 of emergency nurses showed symptoms of personality disorders respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that history of a serious accident or trauma increased the odds of detecting personality disorders up to 3.8 times (odds ratio [OR] = 3.84; 95% CI: 1.33-11.06; P = 0.01. In addition, an unpleasant incident in the past year increased it up to 2.2 times (OR = 2.23; 95% CI: 1.18 – 4.22; P = 0.01 in both groups. Conclusion: The present study showed that there was no significant difference between emergency departments and other units of hospitals regarding the prevalence of personality disorders among nurses. Overall, somatization, hysteria, and pollyannaish were the most common personality disorders among the studied population
Full Text Available Background: There is a scarcity of data on asthenopia and accommodative disorders in children in Ghana as optometrists sometimes fail to carry out comprehensive assessments because of the lack of appropriate instruments. Aim: To establish the prevalence of asthenopic symptoms and symptomatic accommodative disorders among Junior High School children in Cape Coast metropolis (in their habitual vision state and to investigate if there are any associations between asthenopic symptoms and the disorders. Method: A prospective cross-sectional school-based study using a multistage sample of 627 participants aged 12–17 years from Junior High Schools in Cape Coast metropolis, Ghana, was conducted. Participants completed a reliable asthenopic symptoms questionnaire (Cronbach’s α = 0.866, and 220 participants who expressed two or more severe or very severe symptoms were selected for comprehensive accommodative system assessment over their habitual vision state. Results: The prevalence of symptoms of asthenopia (two or more severe or very severe and symptomatic accommodative disorders were 35.1% and 17.4% respectively. For specific symptomatic accommodative disorders, the prevalence was as follows: 7.7% accommodative insufficiency, 4.5% accommodative infacility, 1.4% accommodative excess and 3.8% accommodative fatigue. There were significant associations between some specific accommodative disorders and some specific asthenopic symptoms even though these asthenopic symptoms overlapped in other accommodative disorders. Conclusion: Specific asthenopic symptoms do not discriminate between the presences of specific types of accommodative disorders. A comprehensive accommodative system assessment with appropriate instruments is relevant to the diagnosis and management of accommodative disorders to relieve asthenopic symptoms.
Full Text Available Abstract Background ADHD is a common and disabling disorder, with an increased risk for coexisting disorders, substance abuse and delinquency. In the present study, we aimed at exploring ADHD and criminality. We estimated the prevalence of ADHD among longer-term prison inmates, described symptoms and cognitive functioning, and compared findings with ADHD among psychiatric outpatients and healthy controls. Methods At Norrtälje Prison, we approached 315 male inmates for screening of childhood ADHD by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25 and for present ADHD by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Screener (ASRS-Screener. The response rate was 62%. Further, we assessed 34 inmates for ADHD and coexisting disorders. Finally, we compared findings with 20 adult males with ADHD, assessed at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and 18 healthy controls. Results The estimated prevalence of adult ADHD among longer-term inmates was 40%. Only 2 out of 30 prison inmates confirmed with ADHD had received a diagnosis of ADHD during childhood, despite most needed health services and educational support. All subjects reported lifetime substance use disorder (SUD where amphetamine was the most common drug. Mood and anxiety disorders were present among half of subjects; autism spectrum disorder (ASD among one fourth and psychopathy among one tenth. Personality disorders were common; almost all inmates presented conduct disorder (CD before antisocial personality disorder (APD. Prison inmates reported more ADHD symptoms during both childhood and adulthood, compared with ADHD psychiatric outpatients. Further, analysis of executive functions after controlling for IQ showed both ADHD groups performed poorer than controls on working memory tests. Besides, on a continuous performance test, the ADHD prison group displayed poorer results compared with both other groups. Conclusions This study suggested ADHD to be present among 40% of adult male longer-term prison inmates. Further, ADHD
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study investigates the prevalence of symptoms of shift work disorder in a sample of nurses, and its association to individual, health and work variables. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated three different shift work disorder assessment procedures all based on current diagnostic criteria and employing symptom based questions. Crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed with symptoms of shift work disorder as the dependent variable. Participants (n = 1968 reported age, gender, work schedule, commuting time, weekly work hours, children in household, number of nights and number of shifts separated by less than 11 hours worked the last year, use of bright light therapy, melatonin and sleep medication, and completed the Bergen Insomnia Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Global Sleep Assessment Questionnaire, Diurnal Scale, Revised Circadian Type Inventory, Dispositional Resilience (Hardiness Scale--Revised, Fatigue Questionnaire, questions about alcohol and caffeine consumption, as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Prevalence rates of symptoms of shift work disorder varied from 32.4-37.6% depending on the assessment method and from 4.8-44.3% depending on the work schedule. Associations were found between symptoms of shift work disorder and age, gender, circadian type, night work, number of shifts separated by less than 11 hours and number of nights worked the last year, insomnia and anxiety. The different assessment procedures yielded similar results (prevalence and logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of symptoms indicative of shift work disorder was high. We argue that three symptom-based questions used in the present study adequately assess shift work disorder in epidemiological studies.
Carballal Mariño, Marta; Gago Ageitos, Ana; Ares Alvarez, Josefa; Del Rio Garma, Mercedes; García Cendón, Clara; Goicoechea Castaño, Ana; Pena Nieto, Josefina
To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in primary care pediatrics in Atlantic Galicia. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional prevalence study was carried out in 9 outpatient clinics in A Coruña and Pontevedra with a population of 8293 children between September and November 2015. A total of 1286 randomly selected patients from 0 to 14 years of age were included. From the medical history was registered: age, sex, psychiatric diagnosis established by DSM-IV-TR criteria in its five axes, professionals who participated in the diagnosis and treatment of the process and what type of treatment was received. Authorization was obtained from the Research Ethics Committee of Galicia number 2015/427. 148 of 1286 patients presented psychiatric pathology (11,5% IC 95% 9.73-13,29), 68% male. Between 0 and 5years, the prevalence was 4.5%; between 6y and 10y, 18.5% and between 11y and 14y 22%. Symptoms lasted a median of 25 months. The most frequent pathologies in 1286 patients were ADHD (5.36%), language disorders (3.42%), learning disorders (3.26%), anxiety-depressive disorders (2.4%) and behavior disorders (1.87%). Of the 148 cases, 47% had comorbidity with another mental disorder. Most of them required attention by multiple social, health and educational professionals; 33% received psychopharmacological treatment. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in pediatric primary care is frequent, chronic and complex, increases with age and requires many health, educational and social resources. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Yayla, Sinan; Bakım, Bahadır; Tankaya, Onur; Ozer, Omer Akil; Karamustafalioglu, Oguz; Ertekin, Hulya; Tekin, Atilla
The 1st objective of the current study was to investigate the frequency and types of dissociative symptoms in patients with conversion disorder (CD). The 2nd objective of the current study was to determine psychiatric comorbidity in patients with and without dissociative symptoms. A total of 54 consecutive consenting patients primarily diagnosed with CD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, criteria who were admitted to the psychiatric emergency outpatient clinic of Sisli Etfal Research and Teaching Hospital (Istanbul, Turkey) were included in the study. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Structured Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, and Dissociative Experiences Scale were administered. Study groups consisted of 20 patients with a dissociative disorder and 34 patients without a diagnosis of any dissociative disorder. A total of 37% of patients with CD had any dissociative diagnosis. The prevalence of dissociative disorders was as follows: 18.5% dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, 14.8% dissociative amnesia, and 3.7% depersonalization disorder. Significant differences were found between the study groups with respect to comorbidity of bipolar disorder, past hypomania, and current and past posttraumatic stress disorder (ps = .001, .028, .015, and .028, respectively). Overall comorbidity of bipolar disorder was 27.8%. Psychiatric comorbidity was higher and age at onset was earlier among dissociative patients compared to patients without dissociative symptoms. The increased psychiatric comorbidity and early onset of conversion disorder found in patients with dissociative symptoms suggest that these patients may have had a more severe form of conversion disorder.
Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Richman, David M; Chesnut, Steven Randall; Little, Todd D
In analyzing data from the National Database for Autism Research, we utilized Mokken scaling techniques as a means of creating a more effective and efficient screening procedure for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) via the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). With a sample of 1,040, approximately 80% (n = 827) of the sample were males while approximately 20% (n = 213) were females. In regard to ethnicity, approximately 68% of the sample were White/Caucasian, while 7% were African American, 16% were Hispanic, 4% were Asian, and 1% were Native American or American Indian. As the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) states that, "individuals with a well-established DSM-IV diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified should be given the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder," (American Psychiatric Association, 2013, p. 51), the primary labeling difference between the DSM-IV and the DSM-5 would appear to be in identifying social communication disorder as a newly introduced disorder in the DSM-5, which we discuss. Though school psychologists are not dependent on the DSM to the same extent as clinical psychologists to provide services, school psychology is invested in the effective and efficient assessment of ASD. The current study demonstrates how Mokken scaling procedures may be utilized with respect to ASD identification via the SCQ as well as providing information regarding the prevalence of potential social communication disorder as a new disorder and its discrimination with ASD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Hoek, Hans Wijbrand
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to evaluate the recent literature on the incidence and prevalence of and mortality associated with eating disorders. Recent findings General-practice studies shove that the overall incidence rates of anorexia nervosa remained stable during the 1990s,
Frye, MA; Altshuler, LL; McElroy, SL; Suppes, T; Keck, PE; Denicoff, K; Nolen, WA; Kupka, R; Leverich, GS; Pollio, C; Grunze, H; Walden, J; Post, RM
Objective: The prevalence of lifetime alcohol abuse and/or dependence (alcoholism) in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be higher than in all other axis I psychiatric diagnoses. This study examined gender-specific relationships between alcoholism and bipolar illness, which have
FERDINAND, RF; VANDERREIJDEN, M; VERHULST, FC; NIENHUIS, FJ; GIEL, R
Background. The effectiveness of different assessment procedures for determining prevalence rates of psychiatric disorder in young adults was investigated. Method. In a two-stage multi-method procedure, the Young Adult Self-Report, the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), the
Notzon, Daniel P; Pavlicova, Martina; Glass, Andrew; Mariani, John J; Mahony, Amy L; Brooks, Daniel J; Levin, Frances R
To estimate the prevalence of ADHD and determine an effective screening test for ADHD in a population-seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders. The Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview forDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition(DSM-IV; CAADID) was used to generate sensitivity and specificity data for ADHD screening tests, which were then administered to 99 participants seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders to estimate ADHD prevalence. The prevalence estimated from the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) was 45% (sensitivity = 0.88, sensitivity of 0.75), from the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) 34% (sensitivity = 0.80, specificity = 0.91), from the WURS + CAARS 36% (sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.95), and from the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) 46% (sensitivity = 0.61, specificity = 0.86). The prevalence of ADHD in adults seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders is estimated to be between 34% and 46%. The WURS paired with the CAARS provides excellent sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of ADHD in this population. © The Author(s) 2016.
Duran, Bonnie; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Sanders, Margaret; Waitzkin, Howard; Skipper, Betty; Yager, Joel
Objective: To examine (1) the prevalence, types, and severity of child abuse and neglect (CAN) and (2) the relationship between CAN and lifetime psychiatric disorders among American Indian women using primary care services. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 234 American Indian women, age 18-45 who presented for outpatient…
Oldehinkel, AJ; Wittchen, HU; Schuster, P
Background. This article presents prospective longitudinal findings on prevalence, incidence, patterns of change and stability of depressive disorders in a community sample of 1228 adolescents. Methods. Data were collected at baseline and follow-up (20 months later) in a representative population
Dückers, M.L.A.; Alisic, E.; Brewin, C.R.
Background: Determinants of cross-national differences in the prevalence of mental illness are poorly understood. Aims: To test whether national post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates can be explained by (a) rates of exposure to trauma and (b) countries’ overall cultural and socioeconomic
Helvio L. Alves
Full Text Available Tourette syndrome (TS and tic disorders represent events of familiar magnitude characterized by involuntary movements and/or vocalization. To determine the prevalence of TS/tic disorders we studied a sample of 762 subjects (388 M, 374 F, between 1992 and 1997, age 6 to 43 years old, taken out of a population of 10,155 subjects (4,918 M, 5,237 F; age: 3-56 years old. A structured 4-item questionnaire, direct interview (multistaged, >1 yr follow-up, were used. 9,565 subjects (4,614 M, 4,951 F sent back the questionnaires, 3,354 of these (1,671 M, 1,683 F with positive answers to tics. 42 subjects (31 M, 11 F, age: 7-21 years old, mean: 11 years old met the DSM-III-R criteria. The total minimal prevalence of TS is 0.43%, with a 3:1 ratio male/female. The minimal prevalence of chronic tic disorder is 2.27%. The total minimal prevalence for tic disorders at all is 2.91%. No special education students participation.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric problem in school going children worldwide. OBJECTIVE This study was done to find the prevalence and risk factors for anxiety disorders in adolescents in rural Kerala. METHODS A school based survey was done among children of 10 to 13 years using SCARED anxiety scale. Specific items in the SCARED scale were used to assess panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder and school avoidance, detailed assessments of various sociodemographic variables were also done. RESULTS A total of 250 children were studied – 147 girls and 103 boys. Anxiety disorders were found to be highly prevalent in the study population (45.6% affected and girls were disproportionately more affected (53.4% vs. 40.1%, p = 0.0389. It was present among all socio-economic strata. CONCLUSION These findings call for urgent remedial measures involving the students, parents, teachers, school management, policy makers and the media.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological migrants has a special background compared with other types of migrant. However, the mental health status of ecological migrants who were expected to benefit from a massive “ecological migration project” initiated by the Chinese government is unknown. This study aims to explore the influence of environmental change on individuals’ mental health and to improve current understanding of the mechanisms that mental disorders occurred. Methods The data were extracted from a cross-sectional study. Anxiety disorders, mood disorders and substance use disorders were assessed using the Chinese version WHO-CIDI. The prevalence of mental disorders was stratified by migration status into ecological migrant, local resident and original resident groups. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate the risk of prevalence among these three groups. Results After controlling for gender, ethnicity, age, marriage, and education, the migrants had lower risk of mental disorders than original residents [OR = 0.70 (95 % CI: 0.57–0.86], p < 0.001, but had a higher risk of mental disorders than local residents [OR = 1.29 (95 % CI: 1.06–1.55], p = 0.007. Conclusion The ecological migration project may be beneficial to people’s mental health by improving their living environment and social economy.
van der Hoek, Wim; Feenstra, Sabiena G; Konradsen, Flemming
than five years were collected from 10 villages in the command area of the Hakra 6R canal in southern Punjab, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements were taken at the end of the study period. Additional surveys were conducted to collect information on the availability of water, sanitary facilities......This study assessed whether availability of water for domestic use had any impact on nutritional status of children in an area where people depend on irrigation water for all their domestic water needs. During May 1998-April 1999, data on the occurrence of diarrhoea among 167 children aged less......, hygiene, and socioeconomic status. Height-for-age and longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea were used as outcome measures. Quantity of water available in households was a strong predictor of height-for-age and prevalence of diarrhoea. Children from households with a large storage capacity for water...
Razi, M.F.U.D.; Khan, I.A.; Jaskani, M.J.
Citrus is an important fruit crop in Pakistan that requires proper crop nutrition and disease management strategies as it is a tree crop and withstands harsh seasonal conditions for decades. Huanglongbing (HLB) is a century old, devastating disease of citrus caused by phloem limiting bacteria of the alpha-proteobacteria subdivision. As disease has no known cure, so, effective prevention methods are useful in crop management. Improper crop nutrition impairs plant genetic resistance to invasive pathogens, decreases yield and reduces productive life of the plant. In this study we selected 116 citrus trees from 43 orchard of Punjab for a nutritional assessment. All the trees were showing HLB symptoms and were subjected to NPK and Zn analysis as well as molecular detection of Candidatus L. asiaticus, the pathogen associated with HLB. Nitrogen and Zn were significantly higher (P=0.05) in HLB infected trees. Out of 48 diseased trees, 19, 43 and 27 were deficient in nitrogen, phosphorous and potash, respectively. Our study concludes that there is no relationship between nutritional deficiency status and HLB incidence in citrus; however, nutritional treatments may help in stress relief to infected plants. (author)
Lebedeva, Elena R; Kobzeva, Natalia R; Gilev, Denis
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to estimate the one-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in three different social groups using the third edition beta of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population included a total...... of 3124 participants: 1042 students (719 females, 323 males, mean age 20.6, age range 17-40), 1075 workers (146 females, 929 males, mean age 40.4, age range 21-67) and 1007 blood donors (484 females, 523 males, mean age 34.1, age range 18-64). We used a semi-structured, validated face-to-face interview....... RESULTS: The age-adjusted one-year prevalence of migraine in females was significantly higher (p Age-adjusted prevalence of migraine among males did not differ among the three groups: 4.5% in students, 4.9% in workers and 4...
Toby G Knowles
Full Text Available Broiler (meat chickens have been subjected to intense genetic selection. In the past 50 years, broiler growth rates have increased by over 300% (from 25 g per day to 100 g per day. There is growing societal concern that many broiler chickens have impaired locomotion or are even unable to walk. Here we present the results of a comprehensive survey of commercial flocks which quantifies the risk factors for poor locomotion in broiler chickens. We assessed the walking ability of 51,000 birds, representing 4.8 million birds within 176 flocks. We also obtained information on approximately 150 different management factors associated with each flock. At a mean age of 40 days, over 27.6% of birds in our study showed poor locomotion and 3.3% were almost unable to walk. The high prevalence of poor locomotion occurred despite culling policies designed to remove severely lame birds from flocks. We show that the primary risk factors associated with impaired locomotion and poor leg health are those specifically associated with rate of growth. Factors significantly associated with high gait score included the age of the bird (older birds, visit (second visit to same flock, bird genotype, not feeding whole wheat, a shorter dark period during the day, higher stocking density at the time of assessment, no use of antibiotic, and the use of intact feed pellets. The welfare implications are profound. Worldwide approximately 2 x 10(10 broilers are reared within similar husbandry systems. We identify a range of management factors that could be altered to reduce leg health problems, but implementation of these changes would be likely to reduce growth rate and production. A debate on the sustainability of current practice in the production of this important food source is required.
Salmanian, Maryam; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Keshtkar, Aabbas Ali; Asadian-Koohestani, Fatemeh; Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Sepasi, Neda
The global burden of conduct disorder is a major public health concern. Although there are different reports on the prevalence of conduct disorder in different Middle Eastern countries, to date, no research has reviewed them. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the literature and present the prevalence of conduct disorder among children and adolescents in Middle Eastern countries. Those cross-sectional studies with any type of random or non-random sampling, which described the prevalence of conduct disorder prior to age of 18, for at least one gender in the general or school-based populations who resided in Middle Eastern countries were included in this review. The scientific databases of PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), Islamic World Science Citation Center (ISC), and Grey Literature including conference proceedings, and hand searching of key journals were searched from 1995 to the end of 2014. Two reviewers assessed the quality of the included studies independently and extracted the relevant data. This review provided a picture of different frequencies of conduct disorder in Middle Eastern countries and analyzed the sources of heterogeneity. PROSPERO CRD42014014996.
Full Text Available "nObjectives: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood. Children with ADHD may experience significant functional problems. Our objective was to examine the prevalence of ADHD and its subtypes in Iran. "nMethods: Pubmed, ISI web of science, psychinfo, Iranpsych, Iranmedex, Irandoc were searched. Irandoc, Iranmedex and Iranpsych are Iranian databases of which the last one is especially for psychiatry and psychology literature.Inclusion criteria were: conducting studies by random sampling, using valid instruments to assess ADHD diagnosis or symptoms ,and presenting a prevalence of ADHD or attention deficit and / or hyperactivity symptoms. "nResults: after quality assessment, 16 studies were accepted. Their estimation of prevalence was different as different scales were used. Hyperactive type was more prevalent in boys, and inattentive type was more prevalent in girls. "nConclusion: Being aware of the epidemiology of ADHD in Iran helps us to make improvements in planning the allocation of funds for mental health services. Using one instrument in studying the prevalence of ADHD in a population may lead to more precise estimations.
Czajkowska, Mariola; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Gałązka, Iwona; Naworska, Beata; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta
The purpose of this study was to assess the menstrual cycle, menstrual disorders and premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS/PMDD) in girls and young women participating in competitive sports. The impact of PMS/PMDD symptoms on the quality of life was also analyzed. The prospective study encompassed 125 girls and young women with the aim to determine the presence of menstrual disorders and the prevalence of PMS/PMDD. The studied group was composed of 75 female athletes aged 16 to 22 years. The control group included 50 healthy girls and young women who did not practice competitive sports. The studied athletes and the controls prospectively evaluated their 2 consecutive menstrual cycles by using a questionnaire. The research tools were a purpose-built questionnaire, a daily log of PMS symptoms according to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' guidelines, and a daily log of PMDD symptoms based on the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnostic criteria. To determine the impact of competitive sports on the menstrual cycle, menstrual disorders, and the prevalence of PMS/PMDD in girls and young women. Intensive physical exercise delayed menarche. PMDD was diagnosed in 8% and PMS in 42.4% of all respondents. The prevalence of PMDD did not differ significantly between the groups (9.33% versus 6.00%). PMS was significantly more frequent among athletes than among controls (49.33% versus 32%, P = .045). The prevalence of PMS correlated significantly with mean age (P = .00001) and age at menarche (P = .03) in athletes. PMS was more frequent in older athletes and in girls with older age at menarche. Competitive sports, older mean age, older age at menarche, length of sporting career, and intensity of training are conducive to PMS. The prevalence of PMS increases with the duration and intensification of competitive exercises. Copyright © 2015 North American Society
Nair, Sreejith S; Raghunath, Pooja; Nair, Sreekanth S
Increasing life expectancy around the world, an outstanding achievement of our century, has brought with it new public health challenges. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 72 million inhabitants above 60 years of age as of 2001. The life expectancy in India increased from 32 years in 1947 to over 66 years in 2010, with 8.0% of the population now reaching over 60 years of age. Few studies in India target the health, especially mental health, of this geriatric population. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the geriatric population of the rural area of Singanodi,Karnataka, India. This cross sectional, epidemiological, community-based study was conducted in a rural health training area of Singanodi, Raichur District, Karnataka, India.The General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 366 participants. Chi square tests with Yates correction were utilized for statistical analysis using SPSS 19.0 software. We found that 33.9% of the geriatric population in the selected province were above the threshold for mental illness based on the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Females had a higher prevalence of mental disorder at 77.6% (152 out of 196) as compared to males who had a prevalence of 42.4% (72 out of 170). The most common psychiatric disorder was depression (21.9%), and generalized anxiety was present in 10.7% of the study population. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 16.3%, with a significantly higher percentage of affected individuals in 80+ age group. Mental disorders are common among elderly people, but they are not well documented in rural India. The assessment of psychiatric disorder prevalence will help strengthen psycho-geriatric services and thus improve the quality of life of the elderly. A system that ensures comprehensive health care will have to be developed for this purpose as part of our future efforts.
Marzilli, Eleonora; Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia
Binge eating disorder (BED) represents one of the most problematic clinical conditions among youths. Research has shown that the developmental stage of adolescence is a critical stage for the onset of eating disorders (EDs), with a peak prevalence of BED at the age of 16–17 years. Several studies among adults with BED have underlined that it is associated with a broad spectrum of negative consequences, including higher concern about shape and weight, difficulties in social functioning, and emotional-behavioral problems. This review aimed to examine studies focused on the prevalence of BED in the adolescent population, its impact in terms of physical, social, and psychological outcomes, and possible strategies of psychological intervention. The review of international literature was made on paper material and electronic databases ProQuest, PsycArticles, and PsycInfo, and the Scopus index were used to verify the scientific relevance of the papers. Epidemiological research that examined the prevalence of BED in adolescent samples in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition showed a prevalence ranging from 1% to 4%. More recently, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of BED, in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria, reporting a prevalence of ~1%–5%. Studies that focused on the possible impact that BED may have on physical, psychological, and social functioning showed that adolescents with BED have an increased risk of developing various adverse consequences, including obesity, social problems, substance use, suicidality, and other psychological difficulties, especially in the internalizing area. Despite the evidence, to date, reviews on possible and effective psychological treatment for BED among young population are rare and focused primarily on adolescent females. PMID:29379325
Carter, Alice S.; Wagmiller, Robert J.; Gray, Sarah A. O.; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.
Objective: The aims of this paper are as follows: to present past-year prevalence data for DSM-IV disorders in the early elementary school years; to examine the impact of impairment criteria on prevalence estimates; to examine the relation of sociodemographic and psychosocial risk factors to disorders; and to explore associations between…
Picavet, Valerie A; Prokopakis, Emmanuel P; Gabriëls, Lutgardis; Jorissen, Mark; Hellings, Peter W
Nasal aesthetic deformities may be associated with significant body image dissatisfaction. The only diagnostic category in the current list of psychiatric disorders that directly addresses these concerns is body dysmorphic disorder. This large-scale study determined the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and its symptoms in patients seeking rhinoplasty and evaluated the clinical profile of these patients. Two hundred twenty-six patients were given questionnaires including demographic characteristics, visual analogue scales for nasal shape, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for body dysmorphic disorder to assess severity of symptoms, a generic quality-of-life questionnaire, and the Derriford Appearance Scale 59, to assess appearance-related disruption of everyday living. Independent observers scored the nasal shape. Thirty-three percent of patients showed at least moderate symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Aesthetic goals (p dysmorphic disorder scores correlated inversely with the subjective nasal scoring (n = 210, p dysmorphic disorder symptoms significantly reduced the generic quality of life (n = 160, p dysmorphic disorder symptoms in an aesthetic rhinoplasty population is high. Patients undergoing revision rhinoplasty and with psychiatric history are particularly at risk. Body dysmorphic disorder symptoms significantly reduce the quality of life and cause significant appearance-related disruption of everyday living. Risk, III.
Full Text Available Namdari P1, Nazari H2 1. Instructor, Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran Abstract Background: Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders starting from childhood and is considered an important mental health problem of the society. DBDs may have distractive effects on the social, educational, personality, and behavioral relationships of people in their childhood and adulthood. The present research was done to determine the prevalence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in elementary school students of Khorramabad in 2005. Materials and methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. Its statistical community includes all the students studying in grades one to five at elementary schools in Khorramabad (N = 943. Sixteen state and private schools (8 for girls and 8 for boys were selected in a cluster and multi–stage sampling method. The standardized questionnaire of Child Symptoms Inventories (CSI-4 was used to collect data on the prevalence of children’s psychiatric disorders. The results ware analyzed using descriptive statistic and Chi-square test. Results: The total sample included 943 children. There was 21.4% DBD behavior (17.7% oppositional defiant disorder and, 3.7% conduct disorder. The number of the boys was twice as that of the girls (28.7% vs. 14.4%. The students in grade 2 showed the lowest, and those in grade 3, 4 and 5 the highest prevalence rate of DBD. There was also a significant relationship between children’s grade (P= 0.02, parent’s education (P=0.005, P=0.006, Mother’s job (P= 0.03, income (P = 0.005 and DBD. However no significant relationship between father’s job, educational level of the students and parent’s mental problems and Disruptive Behavior Disorders was found. Conclusion: Due to the high
Toft, Tomas; Fink, Per; Oernboel, Eva; Christensen, Kaj; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Olesen, Frede
Prevalence and co-occurrence of mental disorders is high among patients consulting their family general practitioner (GP) for a new health problem, but data on diagnostics and socio-demographics are sketchy. A cross-sectional two-phase epidemiological study. A total of 1785 consecutive patients with new complaints, aged 18-65 years, consulting 28 family practices during March-April 2000 in Aarhus County, Denmark were screened, in the waiting room, for mental and somatic symptoms with SCL-8 and SCL-Somatization questionnaires, for illness worry with Whitely-7 and for alcohol dependency with CAGE. In a stratified random sample of 701 patients, physician interviewers established ICD-10 diagnoses using the SCAN interview. Prevalence was calculated using weighted logistic regression, thus correcting for sample skewness. Half of the patients fulfilled criteria for an ICD-10 mental disorders and a third of these for more than one group of disorders. Women had higher prevalence of somatization disorder and overall mental disorders than men. Men had higher prevalence of alcohol abuse and hypochondriasis than women. Psychiatric morbidity tended to increase with age. Prevalence of somatoform disorders was 35.9% (95% CI 30.4-41.9), anxiety disorders 164% (95% CI 12.7-20.9), mood disorders 13.5% (95% CI 11.1-16.3), organic mental disorders 3.1% (95% CI 1.6-5.7) and alcohol abuse 2.2% (95% CI 1.5-3.1). Co-morbidities between these groups were highest for anxiety disorders, where 89% also had another mental diagnosis, and lowest for somatoform disorders with 39%. ICD-10 mental disorders are very prevalent in primary care and there is a high co-occurrence between most disorders. Somatoform disorders, however, more often than not exist without other mental disorders.
Prevalência e fatores associados aos transtornos mentais comuns em residentes médicos e da área multiprofissional Prevalence and factors associated with commom mental disorders in medical and multiprofessional health residents
Carla Novaes Carvalho
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de transtornos mentais comuns (TMC e sua associação a fatores sociodemográficos e profissionais em residentes de medicina, enfermagem, nutrição e saúde coletiva da cidade do Recife (PE. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal foi conduzido, em 2007, envolvendo uma amostra aleatória de 178 residentes que responderam a questões sociodemográficas e sobre a formação profissional e ao Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Calcularam-se as prevalências de TMC e estimaram-se as razões de prevalência (RP e os intervalos de confiança. RESULTADOS: A prevalência total dos TMC foi de 51,1% e não se observou associação aos fatores sociodemográficos. A prevalência do evento foi 39% maior nos médicos que nos não médicos (p = 0,049 e 46% maior em residentes médicos das especialidades cirúrgicas que entre os de enfermagem, nutrição e saúde coletiva (p = 0,048. Cinco das queixas do SRQ-20 foram mais frequentes no sexo feminino (p OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD and its association with sociodemographics and professionals resident in medicine, nursing, nutrition and public health from the city of Recife (PE. METHODS: A survey was conducted in 2007, involving a random sample of 178 residents, who responded to question about sociodemographics and professional training and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. The prevalence of CMD were calculated, also prevalence ratios (PR and confidence intervals were estimated. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of CMD was 51.1%, and there was no association with sociodemographics factors. The prevalence of the event was 39% higher among the physicians than in the non-medical (p = 0,049 and 46% greater in the surgical specialties medical residents than among nursing, nutrition and public health (p = 0,048. Five of the SRQ-20 items were more frequent in female (p < 0,05. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate the high magnitude of CMD in
Strandjord, Sarah E; Sieke, Erin H; Richmond, Miranda; Rome, Ellen S
Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), a recently defined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 eating disorder diagnosis, has not been extensively studied in the inpatient population. This study compares hospitalized ARFID and anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, including differences in presentation, treatment response, and 1-year outcomes. We conducted a retrospective chart review of ARFID and AN patients hospitalized between 2008 and 2014 for acute medical stabilization at an academic medical center. Data, including characteristics on admission, during hospitalization, and 1 year after discharge, were recorded for each patient and compared between ARFID and AN patients. On presentation, ARFID patients (n = 41) were younger with fewer traditional eating disorder behaviors and less weight loss, comorbidity, and bradycardia than AN patients (n = 203). During hospitalization, although ARFID and AN patients had similar caloric intake, ARFID patients relied on more enteral nutrition and required longer hospitalizations than AN patients (8 vs. 5 days; p = .0006). One year after discharge, around half of ARFID and AN patients met criteria for remission (62% vs. 46%; p = .18), and less than one-quarter required readmission (21% vs. 24%; p = .65). The findings from this study reveal several differences in hospitalized eating disorder patients and emphasize the need for further research on ARFID patients, including research on markers of illness severity and optimal approaches to refeeding. Similar remission and readmission rates among ARFID and AN patients highlight both the success and the continued need for improvement in eating disorder treatment regardless of diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Nana; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Tianyi; Ji, Qiuhe
Objectives To determine whether the associations with key risk factors in patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are different using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010. Methods The study analysed the prevalence and association with risk factors of undiagnosed and diagnosed T2DM using a regression model and a multinomial logistic regression model. Data from the NHANES 1999-2010 were used for the analyses. Results The study analysed data from 10 570 individuals. The overall prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed T2DM increased significantly from 1999 to 2010. The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was significantly higher in non-Hispanic whites, in individuals 130-159 mg/dl) or very high (≥220 mg/dl) non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with diagnosed T2DM. Body mass index, low economic status or low educational level had no effect on T2DM diagnosis rates. Though diagnosed T2DM was associated with favourable diet/carbohydrate intake behavioural changes, it had no effect on physical activity levels. Conclusion The overall T2DM prevalence increased between 1999 and 2010, particularly for undiagnosed T2DM in patients that were formerly classified as low risk.
Zhang, Nana; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Tianyi
Objectives To determine whether the associations with key risk factors in patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are different using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010. Methods The study analysed the prevalence and association with risk factors of undiagnosed and diagnosed T2DM using a regression model and a multinomial logistic regression model. Data from the NHANES 1999–2010 were used for the analyses. Results The study analysed data from 10 570 individuals. The overall prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed T2DM increased significantly from 1999 to 2010. The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was significantly higher in non-Hispanic whites, in individuals educational level had no effect on T2DM diagnosis rates. Though diagnosed T2DM was associated with favourable diet/carbohydrate intake behavioural changes, it had no effect on physical activity levels. Conclusion The overall T2DM prevalence increased between 1999 and 2010, particularly for undiagnosed T2DM in patients that were formerly classified as low risk. PMID:28415936
Peebles, Rebecka; Lesser, Andrew; Park, Courtney Cheek; Heckert, Kerri; Timko, C Alix; Lantzouni, Eleni; Liebman, Ronald; Weaver, Laurel
Medical stabilization through inpatient nutritional rehabilitation is often necessary for patients with eating disorders (EDs) but includes the inherent risk of refeeding syndrome. Here we describe our experience of implementing and sustaining an inpatient nutritional rehabilitation protocol designed to strategically prepare patients with EDs and their families for discharge to a home setting in an efficient and effective manner from a general adolescent medicine unit. We report outcomes at admission, discharge, and 4-weeks follow-up. Protocol development, implementation, and unique features of the protocol, are described. Data were collected retrospectively as part of a continuous quality improvement (QI) initiative. Safety outcomes were the clinical need for phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium supplementation, other evidence of refeeding syndrome, and unexpected readmissions within one month of discharge. The value outcome was length of stay (LOS). Treatment outcomes were the percentage median BMI (MBMI) change from admission to discharge, and from discharge to 4-weeks follow-up visit. A total of 215 patients (88% F, 12% M) were included. Patients averaged 15.3 years old (5.8-23.2y); 64% had AN, 18% had atypical anorexia (AtAN), 6% bulimia nervosa (BN), 5% purging disorder (PD), 4% avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), and 3% had an unspecified food and eating disorder (UFED). Average LOS was 11 days. Initial mean calorie level for patients at admission was 1466 and at discharge 3800 kcals/day. Phosphorus supplementation for refeeding hypophosphatemia (RH) was needed in 14% of inpatients; full-threshold refeeding syndrome did not occur. Only 3.8% were rehospitalized in the thirty days after discharge. Patients averaged 86.1% of a median MBMI for age and gender, 91.4% MBMI at discharge, and 100.9% MBMI at 4-weeks follow-up. Mean percentage MBMI differences between time points were significantly different (admission-discharge: 5.3%, p <0
Jae Won Hong
Full Text Available The consequences of alcohol consumption on health outcomes are largely determined by two separate, but related, dimensions of drinking: the total volume of alcohol consumed and the pattern of drinking. Most epidemiological studies focus on the amount of alcohol consumed and do not consider the pattern of drinking.This study evaluated the prevalence of and factors associated with high-risk and heavy alcohol drinking in Korean adults.This study analyzed 15,215 of the 28,009 participants in the 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. High-risk alcohol drinking was defined as Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT scores ≥16, which provides a framework for intervention to identify hazardous and harmful drinking patterns as the cause of alcohol-use disorders, according to World Health Organization guidelines.The prevalence of high-risk drinking was 15.1%, with the highest prevalence of 17.2% in middle-aged adults (45-64 years. In men, the prevalence of high-risk alcohol drinking was 23.7%, with the highest prevalence found in middle-aged adults. In women, the prevalence of high-risk alcohol drinking was 4.2%, with the highest prevalence found in younger adults. Men had higher weighted mean AUDIT scores than women (10.0 vs. 4.0, P<0.001, and age was negatively associated with the AUDIT score (P<0.001. Elementary school graduates had higher mean AUDIT scores than senior high school (P = 0.003 or college (P<0.001 graduates. Regarding occupation, clerical support workers (P = 0.002 and service and sales workers (P<0.001 had higher mean AUDIT scores than managers and professionals. Logistic regression analyses of high-risk alcohol drinking using sex, age, education level, number of family members, household income, and occupation as covariates was performed. Women had a lower risk of high-risk alcohol drinking (odds ratio (OR 0.14, 95% CI: 0.13-0.16, P<0.001 than men. Regarding age, compared to control
Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: This survey was conducted in order to assess the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children of the war-wounded veterans, and to compare it with the general population of Shiraz.Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional survey on a random sample of children and adolescents of 223 veteran's (25%-70% families between 12-20 years old. The control group consisted of students of 12-20 years of age. Diagnosis was made using semi-structured clinical interviews on the basis of DSM-IV, through K-SADS-PL.Results: Out of 223 veteran's families interviewed, 123 families had at least one child with one psychiatric disorder. Those children, 52 boys (15 % and 71 girls (20%, suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of depressive disorders such as dysthymia was 2.3%, major depressive disorder 8.4%, and minor depression 5.8%. The prevalence of anxiety disorders including generalized anxiety disorder was (10.1%, separation anxiety disorder (1.4% obsessive compulsive disorder (4%, panic disorder (3.2%, post traumatic stress disorder (3.2%, social phobia (4.3% specific phobia (2% and agoraphobia was (1.4%. Conclusio: Although the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders did not significantly differ from that of control group, but more studies, and more consultative, preventive and therapeutic actions seem to be necessary for children of veterans, due to a higher prevalence of some of anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder and some depression symptoms.Keywords: Prevalence; Anxiety Disorders; Depressive Disorders; Child; Shiraz , Iran.
Piranveyseh, Peyman; Motamedzade, Majid; Osatuke, Katerine; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Heidar
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between organizational and personal (individual) factors with the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in office workers of the Iranian Gas Transmission Company. The participants rated two questionnaires - the standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire to measure the prevalence of MSDs, and the Veterans Healthcare Administration All Employee Survey questionnaire (2004 version) - to measure psychosocial, organizational and individual aspects of job satisfaction and workplace climate. The highest prevalence of MSDs was found in the lower back (49.7%) and neck (49.0%) regions. Results of the logistic regression models showed that some psychosocial and organizational factors and also some individual factors were associated with prevalence of MSDs (p < 0.05).These ﬁndings illustrate the need to consider all elements of the work system as a whole in future studies and in organizational planning.
Bonetti, Loris; Terzoni, Stefano; Lusignani, Maura; Negri, Marina; Froldi, Marco; Destrebecq, Anne
To determine and compare the prevalence of malnutrition in medical and surgical hospital units; to assess quality of nutritional care and patients' perception about quality of food and nutritional care. Hospital malnutrition in older people leads to increased mortality, length of stay, risk of infections and pressure ulcers. Several studies show that malnutrition is often caused by hospitalisation and related to poor nutritional care. Few studies report data on surgical older patients. A cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted in 12 hospitals in northern Italy. Malnutrition prevalence was determined according to the Mini Nutritional Assessment full-version. Head nurses were interviewed in 80 units, through a validated questionnaire regarding quality of nutritional care. Semi-structured interviews were administered to a sample of patients, to investigate their perception about quality of food and nutritional care. Two hundred twenty-eight patients of 1,066 were malnourished (21.4%). Medical patients were at higher risk, so were women, patients aged 85 or more, with impaired autonomy, pressure ulcers or taking more than three drugs. The lack of personnel impacts on quality of care: in 55% of the units, no nutritional screening is performed; nutritional history is investigated in 48% only. No protocols for nutritional problems exist in 70% of the wards; hardly ever the intake is measured. Patients are mostly satisfied, even though they report that food has no taste and is not well presented. They remark the need for more personnel. Prevalence was high, as found in other studies. Medical patients were at higher risk. Nutritional care was inadequate, and often no measures were adopted to prevent malnutrition. Staffing should be increased during meals. These findings will provide indications on the strategies needed to overcome such barriers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
D Infante Pina; X Badia Llach; B Ari(n)o-Armengol; V Villegas Iglesias
AIM: To assess the prevalence of mild gastrointestinal disorders in milk-fed infants in paediatric practice, and to evaluate the effectiveness and satisfaction with dietetic treatment.METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was first carried out. A total of 285 paediatricians included 3487 children seen during a period of one week. In a second phase an observational, prospective and multicentre study was conducted and 2069 milk-fed infants with mild gastrointestinal disorders (colic,constipation, regurgitation and diarrhoea) were included.There was a baseline visit (start of treatment) and a final visit four weeks later. The effectiveness of the various Novalac formulas, as well as the satisfaction of the parents/tutors and paediatricians with the dietetic treatment were assessed at the final visit.RESULTS: The prevalence of mild gastrointestinal disorders was 27.8% of all paediatrician consultations (9.2%, 7.8%, 6.1% and 4.6% in relation to colic,constipation, regurgitation and diarrhoea, respectively).The several Novalac adapted milk formulas resolved 88.4% of the mild gastrointestinal disorders. Depending on the type of disorder, differences in response rate were observed. The highest effectiveness was recorded with respect to diarrhoea (92.6%), followed by constipation (91.6%), colic (87.6%) and regurgitation (81%). Overall,91% of the paediatricians and 88.8% of the parents/tutors were satisfied or very satisfied with the Novalac adapted milk formulas.CONCLUSION: Mild gastrointestinal disorders show a high prevalence in paediatric practice. The Novalac adapted milk formulas have been shown to be effective in treating mild gastrointestinal disorders in milk-fed infants in the context of routine clinical practice.
Ray, Sumantra; Laur, Celia; Golubic, Rajna
One in four hospital patients in the UK are estimated to be affected by 'hospital malnutrition' (under-nutrition). There is a need for robust epidemiological data relating to the frequency, distribution and determinants of this clinical problem of public health importance. This review aims to undertake a narrative synthesis of data on the descriptive epidemiology of under-nutrition, and to address some of the methodological limitations. A methodical review of literature was undertaken, tracking the reported prevalence and incidence of under-nutrition in hospital, in the UK, since 1994. The 16 articles retrieved and reviewed demonstrate that nutrition in hospital is a long standing problem in UK hospitals and care homes. The existing literature is comprised mainly of cross-sectional surveys describing the prevalence of under-nutrition in hospital which ranges from 11 to 45%. There is considerable heterogeneity in the published literature on hospital malnutrition (under-nutrition) and very few studies either measure or have estimated incidence. Under-nutrition in hospital continues to be under-addressed, yet a major public health problem in the UK. Defining the descriptive epidemiology of this problem is one of the first steps towards understanding its aetiology or planning and evaluating appropriate prevention or treatment strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; Beato-Fernández, Luis; Belmonte-Llario, Antonia
Although the epidemiology of Eating Disorders (ED) has been highly developed in Spain, further research considering false negatives and also the prevalence of these disorders in males are needed. They were the aims of the present study. One thousand and seventy six adolescents (500 males and 576 females) participated in a two-stage survey. At the age of 13, apart from exploring numerous clinical and psychosocial variables, they were assessed by means of self-administered screening instruments, the eating attitude test (EAT), bulimic investigatory test Edinburgh (BITE), and body shape questionnaire (BSQ). The subjects were interviewed again 2 years later. Afterwards, 159 probable cases and 150 controls were interviewed by means of the structured interview SCAN. Prevalence of ED in adolescents was 3.71% (95% CI 2.58-4.83; 6.4% of females, 0.6% of males): anorexia nervosa 0.1%, bulimia nervosa 0.75%, eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) = 2.88%. The rate of false negative was 2.6% of the control group and most of them were EDNOS. The prevalence of ED obtained in our study, higher than others found in previous Spanish research, and a relatively high percentage of false negatives both indicate that up to now the prevalence of ED in Spanish adolescents could be underestimated.
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of psychological disorders among community health centers in Batang Padang district Perak. Material & Methods: To conduct this study survey research method was used, seven community health centers in Batang Padang District, Perak were contacted to collect data from (N=216 respondents, who attended health facilities in Batang Padang District. There is no age limit, no education difference and no other requirement needed. Instrument and Materials: Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21 PRIME Screen and PRIME MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ. Results: Data collected from seven health community centers revealed that prevalence of Stress 86%, anxiety 124%, depression 67, psychotic symptoms 16%, somatoform symptoms 52%, panic symptoms 28%, and substance abuse 21%. the higher prevalence was stress and depression among people attending health centers. Conclusion: Results findings indicated that there is significant prevalence of psychological disorder among community health centers. Analysis of the results help us to determine that there is strong need to provide psychological services, awareness and education plan, management and prevention for psychological disorders
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of psychological disorders among community health centers in Batang Padang district Perak. Material & Methods: To conduct this study survey research method was used, seven community health centers in Batang Padang District, Perak were contacted to collect data from (N=216 respondents, who attended health facilities in Batang Padang District. There is no age limit, no education difference and no other requirement needed. Instrument and Materials: Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21 PRIME Screen and PRIME MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ. Results: Data collected from seven health community centers revealed that prevalence of Stress 86%, anxiety 124%, depression 67, psychotic symptoms 16%, somatoform symptoms 52%, panic symptoms 28%, and substance abuse 21%. the higher prevalence was stress and depression among people attending health centers. Conclusion: Results findings indicated that there is significant prevalence of psychological disorder among community health centers. Analysis of the results help us to determine that there is strong need to provide psychological services, awareness and education plan, management and prevention for psychological disorders
Xiao, Rong; Wu, Wel-li; Hu, Jun-mei; Qiu, Chang-jian; Wang, Qiang; Wei, Geng; Sun, Jin-hua; Yang, Chuang; Song, Ping; Ye, An-hong; Zhang, Wei
To explore the prevalence and risk factors of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in high schools and universities in Chengdu. 2279 students in Chengdu sampled by optimum distributing delaminating grouping method were interviewed one-to-one by the trained psychiatrists according to SCID. Both the cooperated SAD patients (n=156) and the normal counterparts (NC, n=156) in the 2279 students completed Egma Minnen av Bardndosnauppforstran (EMBU), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Form Y), Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ). There were 179 SAD patients, 88 female ones and 91 male ones, in the 2279 students of the high schools and universities in Chengdu. Statistical analysis reveals that the SAD patients differ from the NC in seven aspects, i.e. growing circumstances (P = 0.049), family economical status(P = 0.000), family history of psychiatric disorder, scales of EMBU,STAI, FNE and DSQ. The total prevalence of SAD in the students of high schools and universities in Chengdu was 8.15%, the female prevalence 8.35%, and the male prevalence 7.62%. The possible risk factors were: growing up in the countryside, low family economic state, parental rearing pattern being deficient in emotional warmth, understanding, trust and encouragement but excessive in refuse, denial and overprotection, having anxiety trait, feeling fear of negative evaluation, more likely to use neurotic and immature defense mechanism while less likely to use mature defense mechanism, having positive family mental disorder history.
Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi S; Lee, Jong-Min; Alonso, Isabel; Gusella, James F; Smoller, Jordan W; Sklar, Pamela; MacDonald, Marcy E; Perlis, Roy H
Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms that are caused by huntingtin gene (HTT) CAG trinucleotide repeat alleles of 36 or more units. A greater than expected prevalence of incompletely penetrant HTT CAG repeat alleles observed among individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder raises the possibility that another mood disorder, bipolar disorder, could likewise be associated with Huntington's disease. We assessed the distribution of HTT CAG repeat alleles in a cohort of individuals with bipolar disorder. HTT CAG allele sizes from 2,229 Caucasian individuals diagnosed with DSM-IV bipolar disorder were compared to allele sizes in 1,828 control individuals from multiple cohorts. We found that HTT CAG repeat alleles > 35 units were observed in only one of 4,458 chromosomes from individuals with bipolar disorder, compared to three of 3,656 chromosomes from control subjects. These findings do not support an association between bipolar disorder and Huntington's disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Arcelus, Jon; Witcomb, Gemma L; Mitchell, Alex
Eating disorders in dancers are thought to be common, but the exact rates remain to be clarified. The aim of this study is to systematically compile and analyse the rates of eating disorders in dancers. A literature search, appraisal and meta-analysis were conducted. Thirty-three relevant studies were published between 1966 and 2013 with sufficient data for extraction. Primary data were extracted as raw numbers or confidence intervals. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for controlled studies. The overall prevalence of eating disorders was 12.0% (16.4% for ballet dancers), 2.0% (4% for ballet dancers) for anorexia, 4.4% (2% for ballet dancers) for bulimia and 9.5% (14.9% for ballet dancers) for eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The dancer group had higher mean scores on the EAT-26 and the Eating Disorder Inventory subscales. Dancers, in general, had a higher risk of suffering from eating disorders in general, anorexia nervosa and EDNOS, but no higher risk of suffering from bulimia nervosa. The study concluded that as dancers had a three times higher risk of suffering from eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa and EDNOS, specifically designed services for this population should be considered. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Markkula, Niina; Lehti, Venla; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana
Migrants appear to have a higher risk of mental disorders, but findings vary across country settings and migrant groups. We aimed to assess incidence and prevalence of mental disorders among immigrants and Finnish-born controls in a register-based cohort study. A register-based cohort study of 184.806 immigrants and 185.184 Finnish-born controls (1.412.117 person-years) was conducted. Information on mental disorders according to ICD-10 was retrieved from the Hospital Discharge Register, which covers all public health care use. The incidence of any mental disorder was lower among male (adjusted HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.77-0.87) and female (aHR 0.76, 95% CI 0.72-0.81) immigrants, being lowest among Asian and highest among North African and Middle Eastern immigrants. The incidence of bipolar, depressive and alcohol use disorders was lower among immigrants. Incidence of psychotic disorders was lower among female and not higher among male immigrants, compared with native Finns. Incidence of PTSD was higher among male immigrants (aHR 4.88, 95% CI 3.38-7.05). The risk of mental disorders varies significantly across migrant groups and disorders and is generally lower among immigrants than native Finns.
Adauto S. Clemente
Full Text Available Objective:Bipolar disorder (BD is common in clinical psychiatric practice, and several studies have estimated its prevalence to range from 0.5 to 5% in community-based samples. However, no systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of BD type 1 and type 2 has been published in the literature. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of the lifetime and 1-year prevalence of BD type 1 and type 2 and assessed whether the prevalence of BD changed according to the diagnostic criteria adopted (DSM-III, DSM-III-R vs. DSM-IV.Methods:We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and the reference lists of identified studies. The analyses included 25 population- or community-based studies and 276,221 participants.Results:The pooled lifetime prevalence of BD type 1 was 1.06% (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.81-1.31 and that of BD type 2 was 1.57% (95%CI 1.15-1.99. The pooled 1-year prevalence was 0.71% (95%CI 0.56-0.86 for BD type 1 and 0.50% (95%CI 0.35-0.64 for BD type 2. Subgroup analysis showed a significantly higher lifetime prevalence of BD type 1 according to the DSM-IV criteria compared to the DSM-III and DSM-IIIR criteria (p < 0.001.Conclusion:This meta-analysis confirms that estimates of BD type 1 and type 2 prevalence are low in the general population. The increase in prevalence from DSM-III and DSM-III-R to DSM-IV may reflect different factors, such as minor changes in diagnostic operationalization, use of different assessment instruments, or even a genuine increase in the prevalence of BD.
Baxter, Joanne; Kingi, Te Kani; Tapsell, Rees; Durie, Mason; McGee, Magnus A
To describe the prevalence of mental disorders (period prevalence across aggregated disorders, 12 month and lifetime prevalence) among Māori in Te Rau Hinengaro: The New Zealand Mental Health Survey. Te Rau Hinengaro: The New Zealand Mental Health Survey, undertaken between 2003 and 2004, was a nationally representative face-to-face household survey of 12,992 New Zealand adults aged 16 years and over, including 2,595 Māori. Ethnicity was measured using the 2001 New Zealand census ethnicity question. A fully structured diagnostic interview, the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0), was used to measure disorder. The overall response rate was 73.3%. This paper presents selected findings for the level and pattern of mental disorder prevalence among Māori. Māori lifetime prevalence of any disorder was 50.7%, 12 month prevalence 29.5% and 1 month prevalence 18.3%. The most common 12 month disorders were anxiety (19.4%), mood (11.4%) and substance (8.6%) disorders and the most common lifetime disorders were anxiety (31.3%), substance (26.5%) and mood (24.3%) disorders. Levels of lifetime comorbidity were high with 12 month prevalence showing 16.4% of Māori with one disorder, 7.6% with two disorders and 5.5% with three or more disorders. Twelve-month disorders were more common in Māori females than in males (33.6%vs 24.8%) and in younger age groups: 16-24 years, 33.2%; 25-44 years, 32.9%; 45-64 years, 23.7%; and 65 years and over, 7.9%. Disorder prevalence was greatest among Māori with the lowest equivalized household income and least education. However, differences by urbanicity and region were not significant. Of Māori with any 12 month disorder, 29.6% had serious, 42.6% had moderate and 27.8% had mild disorders. Mental disorders overall and specific disorder groups (anxiety, mood and substance) are common among Māori and measures of severity indicate that disorders
Rahman, Atif; Ahmed, Mansoor; Sikander, Siham; Malik, Abid; Tomenson, Barbara; Creed, Francis
The prevalence of depression is very high among adult women in Pakistan but it is not known whether such a high prevalence occurs in younger women. We aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of depression in 16 to 18-year old unmarried women in Pakistan. Population-based survey of all 16 to 18-year old unmarried women in one rural community in Rawalpindi District, Punjab, Pakistan. Depressive disorder and psychological distress were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID) and Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) respectively. 337 eligible women were identified of whom 321 (95%) were interviewed. Fourteen (4.4%) had depressive disorder; one third scored 9 or more on SRQ. On multivariate analysis a high SRQ score was associated with childhood experience of poverty, father's education, stressful life events, disturbed family relationships and mother's depression. The sample was derived from one rural community only and the results should be generalised with caution. Depressive disorder is not common in young women in rural Pakistan though distress appears common and is associated with early and recent adversity and family difficulties. These results suggest future work might aim to understand onset and prevent chronic depression.
Demmer, David H; Hooley, Merrilyn; Sheen, Jade; McGillivray, Jane A; Lum, Jarrad A G
This review provides a meta-analysed male:female prevalence ratio of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) during middle childhood in non-referred children. It also analyses sex differences in prevalence across cultures and over time. A systematic search for studies via the following sources was conducted: PsycInfo, Web of Knowledge, Medline Complete, Scopus, EMBASE, InfoRMIT, Psychological and Behavioural Sciences Collection, Cochrane Library, PubMed and ProQuest Health. The studies presented in two previous systematic reviews were also added to the search results. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were then applied and final studies were appraised for their methodological quality. Nineteen independent effect sizes met full inclusion criteria (aggregated sample N = 44,107). Overall, the prevalence of ODD was significantly higher in boys than girls (RR = 1.59, 95 % CI [1.36, 1.86], p 0.05). Sex differences in prevalence were significant in studies published prior to and post the year 2000 (RR = 1.57, 95 % CI [1.22, 2.02], p 0.05). The sex differences in ODD prevalence are discussed within the context of (i) predominant theories of sex differences in externalising behaviours, and (ii) departure from the sex-differences pattern found for other disruptive behavioural disorders.
Bennatan Ferreira dos Santos
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The instrumental practice for a long time, the high performance level, the strict technique and the specific shape of each musical instrument can take musicians to overcome their physiological limits, giving a high prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries. Objective: Investigate the prevalence of temporomandibular joint disorder and neck pain in musicians. Methods: Between August and September 2015 were reviewed five databases: LILACS, SciELO, Medline / PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. The articles were read and evaluated by the criteria of the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE, items, that obtained a percentage above of 50 percent, were considered in the analysis of this work. Results: 15 articles attended the inclusion criteria. Among all musicians the prevalence of TMJ pain ranged from 10 - 81% and the prevalence of neck pain ranged from 29 - 80%. Conclusion: In this study was observed that the musicians showed both, temporomandibular joint disorders and neck pain, watching a high prevalence especially in violinists and the horn players. In the risk factors identified in the literature for the emergence of painful symptoms in musicians, stand out the biomechanical factors involved in maintaining anti-physiologic postures.
Dhawan, Nikhil; Kunik, Mark E; Oldham, John; Coverdale, John
Few studies have examined the prevalence and treatment of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). We systematically reviewed studies of NPD that used suitable diagnostic methods in adult nonclinical samples and evaluated their strengths and weaknesses. Searches were conducted of MEDLINE (using both MeSH category and free-word search terms), PsycINFO, and PsycLIT for articles in English from January 1980 to August 2008 using the terms Narcissis* and prevalence, of unpublished work identified via contacts with experts in the field, of books on personality disorders, and of reference lists from relevant articles and books. We evaluated articles using a 6-point epidemiologic quality tool that we developed. To determine the most efficacious treatments for NPD without other comorbidities, we performed searches using Narcissis*, pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, therapeutics, and psychotherapy for reports of controlled trials from January 1980 to August 2008. We identified 7 prevalence studies that had used a structured or semistructured interview, 5 of which scored 5/6 using the epidemiologic quality tool. Mean prevalence was 1.06%, and the range was 0% to 6.2%. We found no studies of treatment meeting our inclusion criteria. There was an overall finding of a low prevalence of NPD in adult nonclinical samples. Changes in the classification system might promote further empirical investigations. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Pestana, Pedro Melo; Vaz-Freitas, Susana; Manso, Maria Conceição
The study aimed to review the prevalence of self-reported voice disorders in singers. The study is a systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic review of five major scientific databases was conducted. An extensive search strategy was used considering the rules of each database. Original articles were included only if they had data related to self-perception of dysphonia in the past. Furthermore, heterogeneity and its relative significance were assessed. There were 2371 articles identified; duplicates were deleted, screenings were conducted, and inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The final analysis was conducted on 11 studies. The most implemented instruments for the study were customized questionnaires. The findings about singing styles, voice use, and age were found to be different among subjects. The overall prevalence of self-reported dysphonia in singers was 46.09% (95% confidence interval: 38.16-54.12). The heterogeneity was considerable among the studied samples (I 2 = 90.59%). Four groups were then established-students, teachers, classical, and nonclassical-and compared regarding overall prevalence (21.76% in students, and significantly higher and nondifferent in the other three groups, 55.15%, 40.53%, and 46.96%, respectively) and heterogeneity (low only for the students' studies). Although with low homogeneity, singers present a high prevalence of self-perceived dysphonia over their careers. Singing students were the group with a lower prevalence. On the other hand, traditional and popular music singers, as well as singing teachers, revealed significantly higher prevalence of self-perceived dysphonia. Overall, singers are likely to report voice disorders, no matter their singing style or skills. This highlights the need of a preventive approach to address voice disorders in traditional and untrained singers. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nešić Blagoje V.
Full Text Available On the territory of the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija (Kosovo municipalities Mitrovica, Zvecan, Leposavic and Zubin Potok a study is conducted in primary schools in order to determine the presence of speech-language disorders in children of early school age. Data were collected from the teachers of the third and fourth grades of primary schools in these municipalities (n = 36, which include a total number of 641 student. The results show that the number of children with speech and language disorders represented in the different municipalities of the research vary (the largest is in Leposavic, the smallest is in Zvecan, then 3/4 the total number of children with speech and language disorders are boys. It is also found that the speech-language disorders usually appear from the very beginning of schooling and that the examined teachers recognize 12 types of speech-language disorders in their students. Teachers recognize dyslexia as the most common speech-language disorder, while dysphasia and distortion are the least common, in the opinion of the teachers. The results show that children are generally accepted by their peers, but only during schooling; then, there is a difference in school success between children with speech and language disorders and children without any speech-language disorders. It also found that the teachers' work is generally not affected by the children with speech and language disorders, and that there is generally an intensive cooperation between teachers and parents of children with speech and language disorders. The research and the results on prevalence of speech-language disorders in children in northern Kosovo and Metohija can be considered as an important guidelines in future work.
Liesenborghs, Ilona; De Clerck, Eline E B; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Goezinne, Fleur; Schram, Miranda T; Henry, Ronald M A; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Webers, Carroll A B; Schouten, Jan S A G
To calculate the prevalence of all vitreomacular interface (VMI) disorders and stratify according to age, sex and (pre)diabetes status. The presence of VMI disorders was assessed in 2660 participants aged between 40 and 75 years from The Maastricht Study who had a gradable macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volume scan in at least one eye [mean 59.7 ± 8.2 years, 50.2% men, 1531 normal glucose metabolism (NGM), 401 prediabetes, 728 type 2 diabetes (DM2, oversampled)]. A stratified and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used. The prevalence of the different VMI disorders for individuals with NGM, prediabetes and DM2 was, respectively, 5.7%, 6% and 6.7% for epiretinal membranes; 6%, 9.6% and 6.8% for vitreomacular traction; 1.1%, 0.7% and 0.3% for lamellar macular holes; 0.1%, 0% and 0% for pseudoholes; 1.1%, 1.9% and 5.5% for macular cysts. None of the participants was diagnosed with a macular hole. The prevalence of epiretinal membranes, vitreomacular traction and macular cysts was higher with age (p women (p DM2 is positively associated [OR = 3.9 (95% CI 2.11-7.22, p < 0.001)] with macular cysts and negatively associated with lamellar macular holes [OR = 0.2 (95% CI 0.04-0.9, p = 0.036)] after adjustment for age and sex. The calculated prevalence of VMI disorders was 15.9%. The calculated prevalence of VMI disorders in individuals aged between 40 and 75 years is 15.9%. The prevalence depends on age, sex and glucose metabolism status for several types of VMI disorders. © 2018 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Full Text Available The nutritional status of an individual is usually a result of multiple factors that interact with each other at different levels. Recognizing the role of diet at the onset of many diseases and assessing the nutritional status of an individual, family and community are important for public health. The nutritional assessment is done to obtain information about the prevalence and geographic distribution of nutritional disorders within a community or a specified population group. It can also be used to identify high-risk groups and to assess the role of different epidemiological factors in nutritional deficiency. Assessment of the nutritional status aids assessing the prevalence of nutritional disorders, planning corrective measures, and evaluating the effectiveness of the implemented strategies simultaneously.
Tchoungui Oyono, Lilly; Pascoe, Michelle; Singh, Shajila
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of speech and language disorders in French-speaking preschool-age children in Yaoundé, the capital city of Cameroon. A total of 460 participants aged 3-5 years were recruited from the 7 communes of Yaoundé using a 2-stage cluster sampling method. Speech and language assessment was undertaken using a standardized speech and language test, the Evaluation du Langage Oral (Khomsi, 2001), which was purposefully renormed on the sample. A predetermined cutoff of 2 SDs below the normative mean was applied to identify articulation, expressive language, and receptive language disorders. Fluency and voice disorders were identified using clinical judgment by a speech-language pathologist. Overall prevalence was calculated as follows: speech disorders, 14.7%; language disorders, 4.3%; and speech and language disorders, 17.1%. In terms of disorders, prevalence findings were as follows: articulation disorders, 3.6%; expressive language disorders, 1.3%; receptive language disorders, 3%; fluency disorders, 8.4%; and voice disorders, 3.6%. Prevalence figures are higher than those reported for other countries and emphasize the urgent need to develop speech and language services for the Cameroonian population.
Gupta, Priya; Zhao, Di; Guallar, Eliseo; Ko, Fang; Boland, Michael V.; Friedman, David S.
Purpose To estimate the prevalence of glaucoma in the US population based on optic nerve head photography, to estimate the prevalence of glaucoma awareness, and to identify demographic and ocular risk factors for being unaware of having glaucoma. Methods The study included 5746 men and women 40 years of age and older participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008. Each participant had 45° photographs of the macula and optic disc of both eyes. Fundus photographs were first graded by a reading center, and those with a cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) ≥ 0.6 were regraded by three glaucoma specialists to determine the presence or absence of glaucoma. Analyses were performed using NHANES weights to account for the complex multistage probability sampling design. Results The estimated overall prevalence of glaucoma in the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population 40 years of age and older was 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7%–2.6%). Glaucoma affected 2.9 million individuals, including 1.4 million women; 1.5 million men; 2.3 million people 60 years of age and older; and 0.9 million blacks, Mexican Americans, and people of other races. The prevalence of glaucoma was highest in non-Hispanic blacks, followed by non-Hispanic whites, Mexican Americans, and others. Over half of participants with glaucoma were unaware that they had the disease. Conclusions The prevalence of glaucoma based on optic nerve fundus photography assessment in the general US population 40 years of age and older was 2.1%. Approximately half of glaucoma cases were previously undiagnosed. Studies to determine whether and how to identify undiagnosed glaucoma are an important next step. PMID:27168366
Rayner, L; Simpson, A; Matcham, F; Shetty, S; Lahoti, O; Groom, G; Hotopf, M
This cross-sectional survey aimed to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and drug and alcohol dependence in a limb reconstruction population and examine associations with demographic and functional variables. As part of routine clinical care, data were collected from 566 patients attending a tertiary referral centre for limb reconstruction between April 2012 and February 2016. Depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and alcohol and drug dependence were measured using standardised self-report screening tools. 173 patients (30.6% CI 26.7-34.4) screened positive for at least one of the mental disorders assessed. 110 (19.4% CI 16.2-22.7) met criteria for probable major depression; 112 (19.9% CI 16.6-23.2) patients met criteria for probable generalised anxiety disorder; and 41 (7.6% CI 5.3-9.8) patients met criteria for probable PTSD. The prevalence of probable alcohol dependence and probable drug dependence was 1.6% (CI 0.6-2.7) and 4.5% (CI 2.7-6.3), respectively. Patients who screened positive for depression, anxiety and PTSD reported significantly higher levels of pain, fatigue, and functional impairment. Depression and anxiety were independently associated with work disability after adjustment for covariates (OR 1.98 (CI 1.08-3.62) and OR 1.83 (CI 1.04-3.23), respectively). The high prevalence and adverse associations of probable mental disorder in limb reconstruction attest to the need for routine psychological assessment and support. Integrated screening and management of mental disorder in this population may have a positive impact on patients' emotional, physical and occupational rehabilitation. A randomised controlled trial is needed to test this hypothesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Leandro da Costa Lane Valiengo,1 Florindo Stella,1,2 Orestes Vicente Forlenza1 1Laboratory of Neuroscience (LIM-27, Department and Institute of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, 2Biosciences Institute, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, Brazil Abstract: Despite the lower prevalence of severe mood disorders in the elderly as compared to younger adults, late-life depression and bipolar disorder (BD are more strongly associated with negative outcomes related to the presence of medical comorbidities, cognitive deficits, and increased suicide risk and overall mortality. The mechanisms that contribute to these associations are probably multifactorial, involving pathological factors related directly and indirectly to the disease itself, ranging from biological to psychosocial factors. Most of the accumulated knowledge on the nature of these associations derives from naturalistic and observational studies, and controlled data are still scarce. Nonetheless, there has clearly been a recent growth of the scientific interest on late-life BD and geriatric depression. In the present study, we review the most relevant studies on prevalence, clinical presentation, and cognitive/functional impact of mood disorders in elderly. Several clinical–epidemiological studies were dedicated to the study of the prevalence of mood disorders in old age in distinct settings; however, fewer studies investigated the underlying neurobiological findings and treatment specificities in late-life depression and BD. In the present study, we further discuss the implications of these findings on the management of mood disorders in older adults. Keywords: depression, bipolar disorder, psychogeriatric, geriatric, old age, older adults
Shaffi Ahamed, Shaik; Enani, Jawaher; Alfaraidi, Lama; Sannari, Lujain; Algain, Rihaf; Alsawah, Zainah; Al Hazmi, Ali
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a distressing psychiatric disorder. So far there have not been any studies on BDD in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in female medical students and to investigate whether there is an association between BDD and body features of concern, social anxiety and symptoms of BDD. A cross sectional study was carried out on female medical students of the college of medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during January to April, 2015. Data were collected using the body image disturbance questionnaire, Body dysmorphic disorder symptomatology and social interaction anxiety scale. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to analyze the results. Out of 365 students who filled out the questionnaire, 4.4% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.54% to 7.04%) were positive for BDD with skin (75%) and fat (68.8%) as the most frequent body features of concern. Ten features (skin, fat, chest, hips, buttocks, arms, legs, lips, fingers, and shoulders) out of twenty-six were significantly associated with BDD. Arms and chest were independently associated with BDD. The odds of presence of body concern related to "arms" was 4.3 (95% C.I: 1.5, 12.1) times more in BDD subjects than non-BDD subjects, while concern about "chest" was 3.8 (1.3, 10.9) times more when compared to non-BDD subjects. No statistically significant association was observed between BDD and social anxiety (P = 0.13). This was the first study conducted in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) on female medical students, which quantified the prevalence of BDD and identified the body features associated with it. Body dysmorphic disorder is prevalent in female medical students but it is relatively rare and an unnoticed disorder.
Bender, M; Rustige, L; Lindemann, J
Psychiatric disorders are known to influence the result of many surgical procedures. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is found in many patients undergoing plastic surgery. The prevalence before functional rhinosurgery has not been examined so far. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression and BDD before functional rhinosurgery. 201 patients were prospectively examined with a questionnaire before functional rhinosurgery. Beck-Depression-Index was used to rate depression, the PISA body dsymorphic symptom scale was used to evaluate the likelihood that a patient suffers from body dysmoprhic disorder. 186 patients returned a complete questionnaire. In 33.9% showed a mild or strong indication for a body dysmorphic disorder. Patients who were planned to undergo septorhinoplasty had a significantly higher scores in the PISA-scale compared to patients before septoplasty. 1.7% patients were depressive without a significant difference between the planned surgical procedure. Many patients before functional septorhinoplasty show signs of body dysmorphic disorder. Whether this influences the subjective clinical outcome needs to be evaluated in further studies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Brooke, D.; Taylor, C.; Gunn, J.; Maden, A.
OBJECTIVES: To determine prevalence of mental disorder among male unconvicted prisoners and to assess the treatment needs of this population. DESIGN: Semi-structured interview and case note review of randomly selected cross section of male remand population. Non-attenders were replaced by the next name on prison roll. SETTING: Three young offenders' institutions and 13 adult men's prisons. SUBJECTS: 750 prisoners, representing 9.4% cross sectional sample of male unconvicted population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of ICD-10 diagnoses of mental disorder, and associated treatment needs. RESULTS: Psychiatric disorder was diagnosed in 469 (63%) inmates. The main diagnoses were: substance misuse, 285 (38%); neurotic illness, 192 (26%); personality disorder, 84 (11%); psychosis, 36 (5%); other and uncertain, 36 (0.5%). Subjects could have more than one diagnosis. The average refusal rate was 18%. In total 414 inmates (55%) were judged to have an immediate treatment need: transfer to an NHS bed, 64 (9%); treatment by prison health care services, 131 (17%); motivational interviewing for substance misuse, 115 (15%); and therapeutic community placement, 104 (14%). CONCLUSIONS: Mental disorder was common among male unconvicted prisoners. Psychosis was present at four or five times the level found in the general population. Extrapolation of our results suggests that remand population as a whole probably contains about 680 men who need transfer to hospital for psychiatric treatment, including about 380 prisoners with serious mental illness. PMID:8978228
Maraz, Aniko; van den Brink, Wim; Demetrovics, Zsolt
Compulsive buying is a relatively new psychopathological concept and very few data are currently available regarding the prevalence and validity of compulsive buying disorder. In this cross-sectional study, we establish the prevalence of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors and explore the construct validity of the concept using the revised version of the Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale in 1441 shopping mall visitors looking at shopping habits, current substance use (smoking, alcohol and illicit drug) and various psychological characteristics. Overall, 8.7% (95% CI: 7.3-10.3) of our sample was classified as having a compulsive buying disorder. Compulsive buyers were younger, less educated and more likely to be female than non-compulsive buyers. They were also more likely to have used licit and illicit substances. Compulsive buyers also reported higher levels of impulsivity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, lower levels of well-being and self-esteem and more psychological distress. Finally, compulsive buyers were five times more likely to meet criteria for borderline personality disorder than non-compulsive buyers. Compulsive buying is a frequent disorder in shopping mall visitors and is associated with important and robust indicators of psychopathology thus supporting the validity of the construct. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Smith, Timothy; Leonard, Helen
Abstract To investigate the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Western Australia (WA). A cohort of children born from 1983 to 2010 in WA with an ID and/or ASD were identified using the population-based IDEA (Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers) database, which ascertains cases through the Disability Services Commission (DSC) as well as education sources. Information on race, gender, mother's residence at birth and deaths was obtained through linkage to the Midwives Notification System and the Mortality Register. Diagnostic information on the cause of ID was obtained through review of medical records where available and children were classified as biomedical cause, ASD, or unknown cause. An overall prevalence of ID of 17.0/1000 livebirths (95% CI: 16.7, 17.4) showed an increase from the 10-year previous prevalence of 14.3/1000. The prevalence for mild or moderate ID was 15.0 (95% CI: 14.6, 15.3), severe ID was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.3), and unknown level of ID was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0)/1000 livebirths. The prevalence for Aboriginal children was 39.0/1000 compared with 15.7/1000 for non-Aboriginal children, giving a prevalence ratio of 2.5 (95% CI: 2.4, 2.6). Prevalence of all ASD was 5.1/1000 of which 3.8/1000 had ASD and ID. The prevalence of ID has risen in WA over the last 10 years with most of this increase due to mild or moderate ID. Whilst the prevalence of ASD has also increased over this time this does not fully explain the observed increase. Aboriginal children are at a 2.5-fold risk of ID but are less likely to be accessing disability services. PMID:27227936
van der Hoek, Wim; Feenstra, Sabiena G; Konradsen, Flemming
This study assessed whether availability of water for domestic use had any impact on nutritional status of children in an area where people depend on irrigation water for all their domestic water needs. During May 1998-April 1999, data on the occurrence of diarrhoea among 167 children aged less than five years were collected from 10 villages in the command area of the Hakra 6R canal in southern Punjab, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements were taken at the end of the study period. Additional surveys were conducted to collect information on the availability of water, sanitary facilities, hygiene, and socioeconomic status. Height-for-age and longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea were used as outcome measures. Quantity of water available in households was a strong predictor of height-for-age and prevalence of diarrhoea. Children from households with a large storage capacity for water in the house had a much lower prevalence of diarrhoea and stunting than children from families without this facility. Having a toilet was protective for diarrhoea and stunting. Increased quantity of water for domestic use and provision of toilet facilities were the most important interventions to reduce burden of diarrhoea and malnutrition in this area. An integrated approach to water management is needed in irrigation schemes, so that supply of domestic water is given priority when allocating water in time and space within the systems.
Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Carter, Jennifer; Reel, Justine J.
Objective: The authors assessed the prevalence of pathogenic eating and weight-control behaviors among female college athletes, using a psychometrically valid measure. Participants: Participants were 204 college athletes (M age = 20.16 years, SD = 1.31 years) from 17 sports at 3 universities. On average, they participated in their sport for 10.88…
Halbreich, Uriel; Borenstein, Jeff; Pearlstein, Terry; Kahn, Linda S
Currently it is estimated that 3-8% of women of reproductive age meet strict criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Assessment of published reports demonstrate that the prevalence of clinically relevant dysphoric premenstrual disorder is probably higher. 13-18% of women of reproductive age may have premenstrual dysphoric symptoms severe enough to induce impairment and distress, though the number of symptoms may not meet the arbitrary count of 5 symptoms on the PMDD list. The impairment and lowered quality of life for PMDD is similar to that of dysthymic disorder and is not much lower than major depressive disorder. Nevertheless, PMS/PMDD is still under-recognized in large published epidemiological studies, as well as assessments of burden of disease. It is demonstrated here that the burden of PMS/PMDD as well as the disability adjusted life years (DALY) lost due to this repeated-cyclic disorder is in the same magnitude as major recognized disorders. Appropriate recognition of the disorder and its impact should lead to treatment of more women with PMS/PMDD. Efficacious treatments are available. They should reduce individual suffering and impact on family, society, and economy.
Tsui, K W; Lai, Kelly Y C; Lee, Marshall M C; Shea, Caroline K S; Tong, Luke C T
Local data on the occurrence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are not available but an understanding of this important issue may enable better planning of medical services. We aimed to determine the prevalence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a local population. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, children aged 6 to 9 years diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder over a period of 6 months from 1 July to 31 December 2011 were recruited from the Joint Paediatric and Child Psychiatric ADHD Program in New Territories East Cluster in Hong Kong. Movement Assessment Battery for Children and Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire-Chinese version were used to determine the presence of motor problems. Data from 95 participants were included in the final analysis. The number of children who had no, borderline, or definite motor problems was 63, 15, and 17, respectively. It is estimated that up to one third of local children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder might have developmental coordination disorder. Motor problems are common in local children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and figures are comparable with those from other parts of the world. Despite the various limitations of this study, the magnitude of the problem should not be overlooked.
Bozkurt, Hasan; Coskun, Murat; Ayaydin, Hamza; Adak, Ibrahim; Zoroglu, S Salih
To investigate prevalence and patterns of psychiatric disorders in young subjects with Internet addiction (IA). Subjects were taken from a sample of patients, aged 10-18 years old, referred to Istanbul Medical Faculty, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department due to a variety of behavioral and emotional problems alongside problematic Internet use. Inclusion criteria included IQ ≥70 and score ≥80 on Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS). Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Turkish version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version. Subjects were 45 boys (75%) and 15 girls (25%) with an age range of 10-18 years old (mean age, 13.38 ± 1.79 years). A total of 60% (n = 36) had been using Internet for ≥5 years. Mean hours/week spent on the Internet was 53.7 (range, 30-105 h) and the average YIAS score was 85. All subjects (100%) had at least one and 88.3% (n = 53) had at least two comorbid psychiatric disorders. The frequency of diagnostic groups were as follows: behavioral disorder, n = 52 (86.7%); anxiety disorder, n = 43 (71.7%); mood disorder, n = 23 (38.3%); elimination disorder, n = 16 (26.7%); tic disorder, n = 10 (16.7%); and substance use disorder, n = 4 (6.7%). The most common psychiatric disorders were attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 53; 83.3%), social phobia (n = 21; 35.0%) and major depressive disorder (n = 18; 30.0%). High rates of psychiatric comorbidity, particularly behavioral, anxiety and mood disorders were found in young subjects with IA. Because the presence of psychiatric disorders may affect the management /prognosis of IA, assessment should include that for other psychiatric disorders. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Harris, Natalie; Gee, David; d'Acquisto, Debra; Ogan, Dana; Pritchett, Kelly
Past research has examined eating disorder risk among college students majoring in Nutrition and has suggested an increased risk, while other studies contradict these results. Exercise Science majors, however, have yet to be fully examined regarding their risk for eating disorders and exercise dependence. Based on pressures to fit the image associated with careers related to these two disciplines, research is warranted to examine the potential risk for both eating disorder and exercise dependence. The purpose of this study is to compare eating disorder risk, exercise dependence, and body weight dissatisfaction (BWD) between Nutrition and Exercise Science majors, compared to students outside of these career pathways. Participants (n = 89) were divided into three groups based on major; Nutrition majors (NUTR; n = 31), Exercise Science majors (EXSC; n = 30), and other majors (CON; n = 28). Participants were given the EAT-26 questionnaire and the Exercise Dependence Scale. BWD was calculated as the discrepancy between actual BMI and ideal BMI. The majority of participants expressed a desire to weigh less (83%) and EXSC had significantly (p = .03) greater BWD than NUTR. However, there were no significant differences in eating disorder risk or exercise dependence among majors. This study suggested there was no significant difference in eating disorder risk or exercise dependence between the three groups (NUTR, EXSC, and CON).
Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R; Widiger, Thomas A; Miller, Joshua D; McCrae, Robert R; Costa, Paul T
Personality disorders (PDs) may be better understood in terms of dimensions of general personality functioning rather than as discrete categorical conditions. Personality-trait descriptions of PDs are robust across methods and settings, and PD assessments based on trait measures show good construct validity. The study reported here extends research showing that basic traits (e.g., impulsiveness, warmth, straightforwardness, modesty, and deliberation) can re-create the epidemiological characteristics associated with PDs. Specifically, we used normative changes in absolute trait levels to simulate age-related differences in the prevalence of psychopathy in a forensic setting. Results demonstrated that trait information predicts the rate of decline for psychopathy over the life span; discriminates the decline of psychopathy from that of a similar disorder, antisocial PD; and accurately predicts the differential decline of subfactors of psychopathy. These findings suggest that basic traits provide a parsimonious account of PD prevalence across the life span.
Full Text Available Eleonora Marzilli,1 Luca Cerniglia,2 Silvia Cimino1 1Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology, Psychology and Medicine Faculty, Sapienza – University of Rome, 2Department of Psychology, Psychology Faculty, International Telematic University Uninettuno, Rome, Italy Abstract: Binge eating disorder (BED represents one of the most problematic clinical conditions among youths. Research has shown that the developmental stage of adolescence is a critical stage for the onset of eating disorders (EDs, with a peak prevalence of BED at the age of 16–17 years. Several studies among adults with BED have underlined that it is associated with a broad spectrum of negative consequences, including higher concern about shape and weight, difficulties in social functioning, and emotional-behavioral problems. This review aimed to examine studies focused on the prevalence of BED in the adolescent population, its impact in terms of physical, social, and psychological outcomes, and possible strategies of psychological intervention. The review of international literature was made on paper material and electronic databases ProQuest, PsycArticles, and PsycInfo, and the Scopus index were used to verify the scientific relevance of the papers. Epidemiological research that examined the prevalence of BED in adolescent samples in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition showed a prevalence ranging from 1% to 4%. More recently, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of BED, in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria, reporting a prevalence of ~1%–5%. Studies that focused on the possible impact that BED may have on physical, psychological, and social functioning showed that adolescents with BED have an increased risk of developing various adverse consequences, including obesity, social problems, substance use, suicidality, and other psychological difficulties
Vargas Navarro, Pedro; Ibañez Pinilla, Edgar Antonio; Galeano España, Alejandra; Noguera Bravo, Ana María; Milena Pantoja, Sandra; Suárez Acosta, Ana María
Hypothyroidism results from inadequate production of thyroid hormone. It is known that there is a relationship between the major psychiatric disorders and hypothyroidism. To determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients admitted due to major psychiatric disorders in Montserrat Hospital during the period from March to October 2010. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 105 patients admitted to Montserrat Hospital with a primary diagnosis of major psychiatric disorder (major depression, bipolar affective disorder, generalised panic disorder, panic disorder, mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, and schizophrenia) in the aforementioned period. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) was performed to assess the evidence of hypothyroidism. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be 10.5% (95% CI; 5%-16%). It was 12.5% in anxiety disorder, 11.1% in depressive disorder, with a lower prevalence of 10.3% for bipolar disorder, and 9.9% for schizophrenia. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be less than in the general population, which is between 4.64% and 18.5%, and hypothyroidism was found in disorders other than depression. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Bahram Pourghassem Gargari
Full Text Available Introduction: This study was conducted to assess the nutritional status in Iranian major depres-sive disorder patients. We also determined the relationship between nutrients intake with depres-sion severity.Methods: Seventy major depressive patients were selected randomly from outpatient depressive subjects, referred to Razi Psychiatry Hospital in Tabriz, Iran in 2007. Dietary intakes were rec-orded and compared with dietary reference intakes (DRIs. Definition of the disease and its se-verity were according to DSM-IV-TR and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, respectively. Nu-tritionist III program, Chi-square, correlation and t-test were used for data analyses. Demo-graphic, clinical and laboratory data were analyzed using SPSS software for windows (ver-sion13.0.Results: According to dietary analysis, 11.4% and 55% of patients had dietary protein and energy deficiency, respectively. 97.1% and 95.7% of patients had less folate and B12 intakes than recom-mended dietary allowances. The mean (Mean ± SD for plasma folate and B12 was 5.18±6.11 ng/ml and 389.05±346.9 pg/ml, respectively. Low plasma folate and B12 was observed in 51.4% and 50.0 % of patients, respectively. There was no significant relationship between blood folate and B12 levels with depression severity. Similarly, nutrients intake had no effect on depression se-verity.Conclusions: Low plasma concentrations and low dietary intakes of folate and B12 are common among Tabrizian depressive patients. It seems that nutritional intervention for increasing folate and vitamin B12 intake must be considered as health promotive and preventative program for pa-tients suffering from depression disorders.
Zhu, Jie; Wu, Yang; Guo, Yonggao; Tang, Qingya; Lu, Ting; Cai, Wei; Huang, Haiyan
Parenteral nutrition (PN) has been found to influence duodenal motility in animals. Choline is an essential nutrient, and its deficiency is related to PN-associated organ diseases. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the role of choline supplementation in an infant rat model of PN-associated duodenal motility disorder. Three-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed chow and water (controls), PN solution (PN), or PN plus intravenous choline (600 mg/kg) (PN + choline). Rats underwent jugular vein cannulation for infusion of PN solution or 0.9% saline (controls) for 7 days. Duodenal oxidative stress status, concentrations of plasma choline, phosphocholine, and betaine and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were assayed. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of c-Kit proto-oncogene protein (c-Kit) and membrane-bound stem cell factor (mSCF) together with the electrophysiological features of slow waves in the duodenum were also evaluated. Rats on PN showed increased reactive oxygen species; decreased total antioxidant capacity in the duodenum; reduced plasma choline, phosphocholine, and betaine; and enhanced serum TNF-α concentrations, which were reversed by choline intervention. In addition, PN reduced mRNA and protein expression of mSCF and c-Kit, which were inversed under choline administration. Moreover, choline attenuated depolarized resting membrane potential and declined the frequency and amplitude of slow waves in duodenal smooth muscles of infant rats induced by PN, respectively. The addition of choline to PN may alleviate the progression of duodenal motor disorder through protecting smooth muscle cells from injury, promoting mSCF/c-Kit signaling, and attenuating impairment of interstitial cells of Cajal in the duodenum during PN feeding. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Full Text Available Background. Teachers as voice professionals with heavy vocal load represent a population at high risk of vocal problems. Until now there has not been any study evaluating prevalence and risk factors for voice disorders among teachers in Slovenia.Methods. Questionnaires about voice disorders and vocal habits were sent to randomly chosen 10% of elementary, middle schools and kindergarten in Slovenia. Answers from 1509 completed questionnaires were analyzed by statistical program SPSS 11.0.Results. In the school year 2002/03 51% of teachers occasionally experienced voice disorders and 15% did frequently. The prevalence of transient voice problems was therefore about 66%. By univariate χ 2 test we found statistically significant relationship to frequent voice disorders for female sex (p < 0.02, middle school teachers (p < 0.02, age over 40 years (p < 0.0005 and atopic constitution (p < 0.006; voice disorders during study showed borderline significance (p < 0.07. There was no significant relationship to voice problems for yelling, talking loudly or rapidly, using chalk while talking, cigarette smoking, water intake and gastroesophageal reflux. Statistically significant variates were included in the multivariate logistic regression model. There was 1.9-times higher risk of experiencing frequent voice disorders in females than for males (p < 0.003. Risk of vocal problems in middle school teachers was 1.5-times higher than in kindergarten teachers (p < 0.01 and 1.8-times higher than in elementary school teachers (p < 0.0005. Age over 40 years carried 2,3-times higher risk for hoarseness than age under 40 years (p < 0.0005. Voice disorders during study showed 1.7-times higher risk for later occupational vocal problems (p < 0.02. Atopic constitution had 1.6-times higher risk for frequent vocal problems (p < 0.008. The questionaire also showed how unfamiliar to vocal hygiene Slovene teachers are.Conclusions. The prevalence of voice disorders among
The study aimed to examine symptoms of hypochondriasis in relation to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), by investigating the prevalence of hypochondriacal symptoms in OCD, the effect hypochondriacal symptoms has on OCD treatment outcome, and how OCD treatment affects hypochondriacal symptoms. Another objective of the study was to explore the role of metacognition in symptoms of hypochondria. A sample of 313 patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD and 382 community controls were compared o...
Antonini, Angelo; Barone, Paolo; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Annoni, Karin; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Stanzione, Paolo
Impulse control disorders/other compulsive behaviours ('ICD behaviours') occur in Parkinson's disease (PD), but prospective studies are scarce, and prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients are insufficiently defined. To assess the presence of ICD behaviours over a 2-year period, and evaluate patients' clinical characteristics. A prospective, non-interventional, multicentre study (ICARUS (Impulse Control disorders And the association of neuRopsychiatric symptoms, cognition and qUality of life in ParkinSon disease); SP0990) in treated Italian PD outpatients. Study visits: baseline, year 1, year 2. Surrogate primary variable: presence of ICD behaviours and five ICD subtypes assessed by modified Minnesota Impulsive Disorder Interview (mMIDI). 1069/1095 (97.6%) patients comprised the Full Analysis Set. Point prevalence of ICD behaviours (mMIDI; primary analysis) was stable across visits: 28.6% (306/1069) at baseline, 29.3% (292/995) at year 1, 26.5% (245/925) at year 2. The most prevalent subtype was compulsive eating, followed by punding, compulsive sexual behaviour, gambling and buying disorder. Patients who were ICD positive at baseline were more likely to be male, younger, younger at PD onset, have longer disease duration, more severe non-motor symptoms (including mood and sexual function), depressive symptoms, sleep impairment and poorer PD-related quality of life. However, they did not differ from the ICD-negative patients in their severity of PD functional disability, motor performance and cognitive function. Prevalence of ICD behaviours was relatively stable across the 2-year observational period. ICD-positive patients had more severe depression, poorer sleep quality and reduced quality of life. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
LaPlante, Debi A.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Shaffer, Howard J.
Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between types of gambling and disordered gambling, with and without controlling for gambling involvement (i.e. the number of types of games with which respondents were involved during the past 12 months). Methods: We completed a secondary data analysis of the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (BGPS), which collected data in England, Scotland and Wales between September 2006 and March 2007. The sample included 9003 re...
Medeiros, Letícia Galery; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Silva, Giovanna Del Grande da; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Jansen, Karen
Objectives To verify the prevalence of current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in young adults, the occurrence of comorbidities and its association with quality of life. Methods This is a cross-sectional population-based study. The targeted population consisted on individuals aged 18 to 24 years old, who lived in the urban area of Pelotas-RS, Brazil. Cluster sampling was applied. PTSD and its comorbidities were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI 5.0), ...
Ansell, Emily B.; Pinto, Anthony; Crosby, Ross D.; Becker, Daniel F.; Añez, Luis M.; Paris, Manuel; Grilo, Carlos M.
This study sought to confirm a multi-factor model of Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in a Hispanic outpatient sample and to explore associations of the OCPD factors with aggression, depression, and suicidal thoughts. One hundred and thirty monolingual, Spanish-speaking participants were recruited from a community mental health center and were assessed by bilingual doctoral level clinicians. OCPD was highly prevalent (26%) in this sample. Multi-factor models of OCPD were teste...
Shaban, Zainab; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Shams, Jamal; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Sajjadi, Homeira
Background Childbirth might be a traumatic event for some women. Objectives This study was conducted with the objective of investigating the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) following childbirth. Patients and Methods The study was designed using a descriptive correlation scheme. The participants were selected from the women referred to the healthcare centers affiliated with Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran. Personal interviews were conducted with 600 wo...
Lee, Yu; Lin, Pao-Yen; Chien, Chih-Yen; Fang, Fu-Min
The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence and risk factors of depressive disorder in caregivers of patients with head and neck cancer. Study subjects were recruited from a multidisciplinary outpatient clinic for head and neck cancer in a medical center from February to July 2012. Caregivers of patients with head and neck cancer were enrolled and assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV, Clinician Version, the Short Form 36 Health Survey, and the Family APGAR index. The main aim of the study was to examine the difference in demographic data and clinical characteristics between the caregivers with and without depressive disorders. In addition, a stepwise forward model of logistic regression was used to test the possible risk factors. One hundred and forty-three caregivers were included in the study. The most prevalent psychiatric disorder was depressive disorder (14.7%), followed by adjustment disorder (13.3%). Nearly one-third of the caregivers had a psychiatric diagnosis. By using logistic regression analysis, it was found that unemployment (odds ratio (OR) = 3.16; 95% CI, 1.04-9.68), lower social functioning (OR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.18-1.72), and lower educational level (OR = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34) were significant risk factors for the depressive disorder. The clinical implication of our results is the value of using the standardized structured interview for early diagnosis of depressive disorder in caregivers of head and neck cancer patients. Early screening and management of depression in these caregivers will raise their quality of life and capability to care patients. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cornejo, J W; Osío, O; Sánchez, Y; Carrizosa, J; Sánchez, G; Grisales, H; Castillo-Parra, H; Holguín, J
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioural disorder among schoolchildren. It may persist into adulthood and affect performance in the academic, social, occupational and familial spheres, and increase the use and abuse of alcohol and psychoactive substances and the risk of having an accident. Its prevalence throughout the world varies widely and further knowledge about this situation would be valuable for the development of policies in the sector of education. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of ADHD and its distribution according to subtypes in schoolchildren from Sabaneta, Antioquia, Colombia, in 2001. The analysis involved a cross-sectional descriptive study using a representative randomised multistage sample (which was proportional to the size of the groups) of schoolchildren between 4 and 17 years old. Measurement was performed in two stages, first by application of a screening form according to DSM IV criteria, and later a structured interview, Conners' and Intelligence tests. Prevalence was found to be 20.4% and 15.8% if only children with an intelligence quotient of 80 or above were considered. The combined subtype was the most frequent, with 9.6%. In public schools it was 16.2%, private 15.3%, age group from 7-11 years 16.9%, 12-17 years old 14.2%, males 20.9%, females 10.1%, low 14.7%, medium 17.4% and high socioeconomic level 10.7%, with a male to female prevalence ratio of 3.88 to 1. Prevalence of ADHD in the school population in a municipality in the Metropolitan Area of Medellin, Colombia, is high. The most frequent subtype was the combined type, which was predominant in males, had repercussions on academic performance and low proportions of pharmacological interventions for the disorder (15%). Programmes must be developed for the detection of this problem and subsequent intervention in the school population.
Sallim, Adnaan Bin; Sayampanathan, Andrew Arjun; Cuttilan, Amit; Chun-Man Ho, Roger
The overall prevalence of mental health disorders among caregivers of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) remains unclear. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the prevalence of various mental health disorders among caregivers of patients with AD globally and to determine factors that predispose to development of the aforementioned, namely gender of caregiver, gender of patient, and caregiver-patient relationship. A total of 17 studies were eligible for systematic review and meta-analysis. A meta-analysis of published work was performed using the random effect model. Data analysis was done with RevMan 5.3. A total of 10,825 caregivers were assessed. The aggregate prevalence of depression among caregivers was 34.0%, anxiety at 43.6%, and use of psychotropic drugs at 27.2%. Meta-analysis revealed the odds of having of depression was 1.53 times higher in female caregivers (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-1.83; I(2) = 7%; Z = 4.78; P mental health disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, as compared with the general population and with their counterparts caring for patients with other illnesses. The higher prevalence is mainly observed in female caregivers, caregivers with male care-recipients, and caregivers who have a spousal relationship with care-recipients. Prevalence of anxiety was also notably higher in this cohort but more research needs to be done in this area. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.