WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevalent g152fs g161r

  1. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  2. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  3. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanesse Scerri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Malta is one of the countries with the highest MRSA prevalence in Europe, as identified from hospital blood cultures [1]. However, community prevalence of MRSA has never previously been investigated. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of community MRSA nasal colonization in Maltese individuals and identifying the clonal characteristics of the detected isolates. Nasal swabs were collected from 329 healthy individuals who were also asked to complete a brief questionnaire about risk factors commonly associated with MRSA carriage and infection. The swabs were transported and enriched in a nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl. The presence of MRSA was then determined by culturing on MRSA Select chromogenic agar and then confirming by several assays, including catalase, coagulase and PBP2a agglutination tests. The isolates were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities and typed by microarray analysis to determine the clonal characteristics of each strain. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in the healthy Maltese population was found to be 8.81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.75–11.87%, much higher than that found in other studies carried out in several countries. No statistical association was found between MRSA carriage and demographics or risk factors; however, this was hindered by the small sample size. Almost all the isolates were fusidic-acid resistant. The majority were found to belong to a local endemic clone (CC5 which seems to be replacing the previously prevalent European clone UK-EMRSA-15 in the country. A new clone (CC50-MRSA-V was also characterized. The presence of such a significant community reservoir of MRSA increases the burdens already faced by the local healthcare system to control the MRSA epidemic. Colonization of MRSA in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a risk for endogenous infection and transmission to

  4. Worldwide prevalence of hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A; van den Heijkant, M; Baumann, S

    2016-06-01

    Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation. Surgical repair and management of the long-term consequences require a substantial amount of socioeconomic resources. It is generally accepted that genetic and environmental factors play a major role in the etiology of hypospadias. There have been contradictory reports on rising hypospadias rates, and regional and ethnical differences. The exact prevalence of hypospadias is of major interest for healthcare providers, clinical medicine, and research. To review the literature regarding the worldwide prevalence of hypospadias. Pubmed, EMBASE and Google were systematically screened for: hypospadias, congenital malformation, anomaly, incidence, prevalence, and epidemiology. Exclusion criteria were surgical and risk-factor studies. To give an additional comprehensive overview, prevalence data were harvested from the Annual Report of the International Clearinghouse Centre for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Prevalence was reported as per 10,000 live births. Data were available from 1910 to 2013. The median study period was 9 years (range: 1-36 years). Approximately 90,255,200 births have been screened in all studies. The mean prevalence were: Europe 19.9 (range: 1-464), North America 34.2 (6-129.8), South America 5.2 (2.8-110), Asia 0.6-69, Africa 5.9 (1.9-110), and Australia 17.1-34.8. There were major geographical, regional, and ethnical differences, with an extreme heterogeneity of published studies. Numerous studies showed an increasing prevalence; on the other hand, there were a lot of contradictory data on the prevalence of hypospadias. The summary table shows contradictory data from the five largest international studies available. There was huge literature available on the prevalence of hypospadias. Most data derived from Europe and North America. Many methodological factors influenced the calculation of an accurate prevalence, and even more of the true changes in prevalence over time (no generally accepted

  5. Amblyopia risk factor prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) published a set of risk factors for amblyopia. The intent was to promote uniformity of reporting and development in screening. Because this prevalence is not yet known, this meta-analysis is an attempt to estimate it. Major community preschool eye examination studies were reviewed and AAPOS cut-offs estimated. The approximate prevalence of anisometropia is 1.2%, hyperopia is 6%, astigmatism is 15%, myopia is 0.6%, strabismus is 2.5%, and visual acuity less than 20/40 is 6%. The mean combined prevalence is 21% ± 2% compared to a prevalence of amblyopia 20/40 and worse of 2.5%. Knowing risk factor prevalence simplifies validation efforts. Amblyopia screening with a risk factor sensitivity less than 100% is expected and desirable. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Myopia: Prevalence and Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    D~ L LL Myopia Prevalence and Progression DTIC ELECTE ! SEP 19 1989 C _ _ ’ l A 9 ,3 /5i MYOPIA: PREVALENCE AND PROGRESSION Working Group on Myopia... WALLMAN , Department of Biology, City University of New York AC"esiOf) For NTtSCF& DTjC T;,jE 0 ey ____ (:3 1U: or iii COMMITTEE ON VISION ANTHONY J. ADAMS...provided by Carol Metcalf and Gora P. Lerma, for which the working group is grateful. Christine L . McShane, editor of the Commission on Behavioral and

  7. prevalence and risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-12-26

    Dec 26, 2012 ... increase the frequency of occurrence of hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia is a ... not only in increased frequency of falciparum malaria, but also .... of illness before presentation. Table 3: Prevalence of hypoglycaemia according to time of last meal. Table 4, shows the higher the parasite density the greater.

  8. Prevalence. Ascice. faotic dogs.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    reproduction. body weight evaluation and other existing ph}siological and pathological condn1ons. REFERE:\\CES. Datong. P. G. (2003). Seasonal Prevalence of Ascites in Dogs. '\\atonal Diploma project in. Animal I lealth and production Technology. FCAHPT. I'\\\\ RI. Vom .. Plateau State Pp 1-. 28. Gourley. I. M., and Vasseur ...

  9. Prevalence of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multiruka1

    esophagus. It is not known whether the trend is similar locally. Objective: To describe the prevalence and clinicopathological characteristics of adenocarcinoma of .... which is in keeping with trends observed in other regions of the world. Most of the patients present late with severe degrees of dysphagia, with wasting seen in.

  10. Disordered Gambling Prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Jessen, Lasse J.; Lau, Morten

    2018-01-01

    of detectable risk with these corrections, since gambling behavior is positively correlated with the decision to participate in gambling surveys. We also find that imposing a threshold gambling history leads to underestimation of the prevalence of gambling problems.......We study Danish adult gambling behavior with an emphasis on discovering patterns relevant to public health forecasting and economic welfare assessment of policy. Methodological innovations include measurement of formative in addition to reflective constructs, estimation of prospective risk...... for developing gambling disorder rather than risk of being falsely negatively diagnosed, analysis with attention to sample weights and correction for sample selection bias, estimation of the impact of trigger questions on prevalence estimates and sample characteristics, and distinguishing between total...

  11. [Monitoring the prevalence of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Due, P.; Hansen, B.

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Fitness and Nutrition Council has proposed a model to monitor the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Denmark. The model should make it possible to assess whether different initiatives reduce the prevalence of obesity and to gain knowledge on how to prevent obesity. The prevalence...

  12. Prevalence of Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhavan Karbasi Sedighah

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformation (CM will begin to emerge as one of the major childhood health problems .Treatment and rehabilitation of children with congenital malformations are costly and complete recovery is usually impossible. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of CM in Yazd central city of the Islamic Republic of Iran to find out if there has been any difference in the rate and types of CM in this area. This descriptive-observational study carried on 4800 births delivered at all maternity hospitals in Yazd from October 2003 to June 2004. Prevalence of CM was 2.83% (2.86 % in male and 2.68 % in female out of the 136 cases 69(51.88% were males and 64 (48.12% were females and 3 with ambiguous genitalia. Positive family history of CM in sibling was in only 6 cases (4.41%.Overall, musculoskeletal (0.83%, central nerv-ous system (0.47% and genital system (0.37% were accounted as the most common. Frequency of CM was more seen in still birth (12.5% as in comparison to live birth (2.71%. There was not statistical difference be-tween prevalence of CM and neonatal's gender, gestational age, birth order and mother's age, drug ingestion, illness and parental consanguinity. In this study the overall prevalence of congenital malformation among the newborn was higher than those previous reported in Iran and determining the causes of this difference needs more extensive studies.

  13. Prevalence of congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique T

    2017-05-01

    Congenital amusia (commonly known as tone deafness) is a lifelong musical disorder that affects 4% of the population according to a single estimate based on a single test from 1980. Here we present the first large-based measure of prevalence with a sample of 20 000 participants, which does not rely on self-referral. On the basis of three objective tests and a questionnaire, we show that (a) the prevalence of congenital amusia is only 1.5%, with slightly more females than males, unlike other developmental disorders where males often predominate; (b) self-disclosure is a reliable index of congenital amusia, which suggests that congenital amusia is hereditary, with 46% first-degree relatives similarly affected; (c) the deficit is not attenuated by musical training and (d) it emerges in relative isolation from other cognitive disorder, except for spatial orientation problems. Hence, we suggest that congenital amusia is likely to result from genetic variations that affect musical abilities specifically.

  14. Prevalence of schizophrenia: recent developments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long held view that schizophrenia affects about 1% of the population has been shown to be an overestimate and in fact derived from incorrect data.1 Also, for many years, it was believed that the prevalence of schizophrenia varied little between sites.2,3 It is in fact the case that the estimates of the prevalence of ...

  15. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, to investig...

  16. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, to investigate...

  17. Prevalence of Food Additive Intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1994-01-01

    1 The existing prevalence estimates of food additive intolerance(1-4) are being reviewed. 2 In the EEC report the estimated frequency of food additive intolerance is 0.03% to 0.15% based on data from patient groups. 3 The British population study results in a prevalence estimate of 0...... The prevalence estimates vary with a factor 100. As the results vary so do the study populations. 6 If the different study populations are accounted for, a common conclusion can be drawn: Food additive intolerance is found in adults with atopic symptoms from the respiratory tract and skin. The prevalence...... estimates are questionable but may be less than 0.15%. In adults and children with reproducible, and with more subjective symptoms, such as headache and behavioural/mood change the prevalence is even lower (0.026%). Food additive intolerance is primarily found in atopic children with cutaneous symptoms...

  18. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess addictive eating and how prevalent addictive eating patterns were in the respective studies. It is concluded that the prevalence of food addiction is increased in obese individuals and even more so in obese patients with binge eating disorder. However, prevalence of food addiction is not sufficient to account for the obesity epidemic. Conversely, an arguably high prevalence of food addiction can also be found in under-, normal-, and overweight individuals. Future studies may investigate which factors are associated with addictive eating in non-obese individuals.

  19. Prevalence of ataxia in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Cristina T.; Marasigan, Rhul; Jenkins, Mary E.; Konczak, Jürgen; Morton, Susanne M.; Bastian, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of childhood ataxia resulting from both genetic and acquired causes. Methods: A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) statement. Five databases were searched for articles reporting a frequency measure (e.g., prevalence, incidence) of ataxia in children. Included articles were first grouped according to the World Health Organization (WHO) regions and subsequently classified according to etiology (genetic, acquired, or mixed). Each article was assessed for its risk of bias on the domains of sampling, measurement, and analysis. Incidence values were converted to prevalence estimates whenever possible. European prevalence estimates for different etiologies of ataxia were summed to gauge the overall prevalence of childhood ataxia. Results: One hundred fifteen articles were included in the review. More than 50% of the data originated from the Europe WHO region. Data from this region also showed the least susceptibility to bias. Little data were available for Africa and Southeast Asia. The prevalence of acquired ataxias was found to vary more greatly across regions than the genetic ataxias. Ataxic cerebral palsy was found to be a significant contributor to the overall prevalence of childhood ataxia across WHO regions. The prevalence of childhood ataxias in Europe was estimated to be ∼26/100,000 children and likely reflects a minimum prevalence worldwide. Conclusions: The findings show that ataxia is a common childhood motor disorder with a higher prevalence than previously assumed. More research concerning the epidemiology, assessment, and treatment of childhood ataxia is warranted. PMID:24285620

  20. Hepatitis B prevalence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Hay, G; Cowan, S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Denmark is not clear. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in Denmark. The capture–recapture method was used to estimate the total population diagnosed with chronic HBV infection...... in Denmark using four nationwide registers. The population with undiagnosed chronic HBV infection was estimated by incorporating data from a two-year nationwide HBsAg screening programme in pregnant women. We identified 4,466 individuals with chronic HBV infection in the four registers until the end of 2007...... alive with HBV infection was 10,668 (95% CI: 10,224–16,164), corresponding to a prevalence of 0.24% (95% CI: 0.23–0.37%) in the Danish population older than 15 years. The estimated prevalence of chronic HBV infection among adults in Denmark was lower than reported from other northern European countries...

  1. Prevalence of Food Additive Intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1994-01-01

    estimates are questionable but may be less than 0.15%. In adults and children with reproducible, and with more subjective symptoms, such as headache and behavioural/mood change the prevalence is even lower (0.026%). Food additive intolerance is primarily found in atopic children with cutaneous symptoms......1 The existing prevalence estimates of food additive intolerance(1-4) are being reviewed. 2 In the EEC report the estimated frequency of food additive intolerance is 0.03% to 0.15% based on data from patient groups. 3 The British population study results in a prevalence estimate of 0.......026%. The challenged population is 81 children and adults with a history of reproducible clinical symptoms after ingestion of food additives. 4 In the Danish population study a prevalence of 1-2% is found in children age 5-16. In this study a total of 606 children mainly with atopic disease have been challenged. 5...

  2. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, to investigate...... the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities....

  3. Prevalence and pattern of asymptomatic bacteriuria among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the cultured organism (89%) were sensitive to Nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women at the UPTH is high. The most prevalent organism was Klebsiella. Keywords: Asymptomatic bacteriuria, Prevalence, Pattern, Klebsiella, Nitrofurantion, Morbidity ...

  4. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Joan K; Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide contemporary estimates of the prevalence of microcephaly in Europe, determine if the diagnosis of microcephaly is consistent across Europe, and evaluate whether changes in prevalence would be detected using the current European surveillance performed by EUROCAT (the European...... Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies). DESIGN: Questionnaire and population based observational study. SETTING: 24 EUROCAT registries covering 570 000 births annually in 15 countries. PARTICIPANTS: Cases of microcephaly not associated with a genetic condition among live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks......' gestation, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly at any gestation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of microcephaly (1 Jan 2003-31 Dec 2012) analysed with random effects Poisson regression models to account for heterogeneity across registries. RESULTS: 16 registries responded to the questionnaire...

  5. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the prevalence of sick leave and self-reported reasons given for sick leave during pregnancy. Furthermore, we aimed to estimate the frequency of long-term sick leave during pregnancy in relation to pre-baseline maternal characteristics and to identify predictors...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  6. Prevalence and obstetric risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    suggest that obstetric factors increase the risk of damage to the anal sphincter and subsequent development of AI.[4-6] These ... variations may impact on obstetric risk factors and AI prevalence. We therefore performed a study in our population, which .... Regulatory approvals. Institutional and hospital ethical approval were ...

  7. EAMJ October prevalence.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-10-10

    Oct 10, 2008 ... All the children were from a low socio-economic community with little access to proper medical/dental health care. The prevalence ... young patient and lead to difficulties in behaviour management during a dental visit. ... education, parental profession and the number of siblings in the family was sent to and ...

  8. PREVALENCE OF ACCOMMODATIVE INSUFFICIENCY AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    Department of Optometry and Visual Sciences. KNUST, Kumasi. ABSTRACT. This study sought to determine the prevalence of accommodative dysfunctions among Junior. High School students in the Sunyani Municipality in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana. All the. 204 students who were present in the randomly selected ...

  9. Prevalence of Myopia in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Emilie; Ingrand, Pierre; Pelen, François; Bentaleb, Yacine; Weber, Michel; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Souied, Eric; Leveziel, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Refractive error (RE), particularly myopia, is the first cause of visual impairment throughout the world. This study aimed to depict the prevalence of myopia in a multicentric series of French individuals. This cross-sectional analysis was carried out between January 2012 and November 2013 in eye clinics dedicated to REs. Data collection included age, gender, best-corrected visual acuity, RE, and any relevant medical history involving laser refractive surgery and cataract surgery. Exclusion criteria consisted of monophthalm patients or those with incomplete demographic data. Prevalences in the overall population, by gender and by age groups were reported for mild myopia (−0.50 to −2.75 diopter [D]), moderate myopia (−3 to −5.75 D), high myopia (less than −6 D), and very high myopia (less than −10 D). The analysis included 100,429 individuals, mean age 38.5 years (± 16.9). Overall prevalence of myopia was 39.1% (95% CI 38.8-39.4). Prevalences of mild, moderate, high and very high myopia were respectively 25.1% (95% CI 25.4-24.9), 10.6% (95% CI 10.4-10.8), 3.4% (95% CI 3.3-3.5) and 0.5% (95% CI 0.48-0.57). Even if possible bias occurred in recruitment, our results are similar to RE data collected in nationally representative samples of Caucasians in other studies. This is to our knowledge, one of the largest European series of individuals dedicated to myopia prevalences in different age groups. These results confirm the importance of myopia as a major health issue in Western countries. PMID:26559276

  10. Pain prevalence in hospitalized children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Larsen, S; Pedersen, M T; Friis, S M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain management in hospitalized children is often inadequate. The prevalence and main sources of pain in Danish university hospitals is unknown. METHODS: This prospective mixed-method cross-sectional survey took place at four university hospitals in Denmark. We enrolled 570 pediatric...... patients who we asked to report their pain experience and its management during the previous 24 hours. For patients identified as having moderate to severe pain, patient characteristics and analgesia regimes were reviewed. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirteen children (37%) responded that they had experienced...... pain in the previous 24 hours. One hundred and thirty four (24%) indicated moderate to severe pain and 43% would have preferred an intervention to alleviate the pain. In children hospitalized for more than 24 hours, the prevalence of moderate/severe pain was significantly higher compared to children...

  11. Prevalent knee pain and sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders

    1998-01-01

    and with weekly hours of participation in competitive gymnastics but negatively with weekly hours of tennis. Constant or recurrent knee pain was positively associated with years of swimming. Absence from sport due to knee pain was positively associated with weekly hours of soccer participation. CONCLUSIONS: Knee...... pain is a common symptom in athletes. The prevalence is associated with the type, amount and duration of sports participation....

  12. Insomnia: prevalence and associated factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Cátia; Lopes, Daniela; Ferreira, Sofia; Correia, Teresa; Pinto, Isabel C.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays sleep disorders are very common and affect most of the population, the most common may be insomnia. Insomnia is defined as the difficulty of initiating or maintaining sleep it, may also be reflected in an early wake up and by the presence of a non-restful sleep and it is associated with impairment in social and occupational functioning of the individual. Knowing the prevalence and the associated factors of insomnia. This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study. The pop...

  13. National prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, R; Andersen, PS; Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; De Monchy, J

    Background: Many epidemiological studies have assessed the prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders in confined geographical locations. However, no study has yet established nationally prevalence data in a uniform manner representing whole countries and, thus, enabling cross-national

  14. Prevalence Of Intestinal Helminths infections among schooling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central Schoo, Ovoko had the highest percent prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides (9.3 %), hookworm (6.0 %) and Trichuris trichiura (2.3 %). The least per cent prevalence of A. lumbricoides was recorded in Community Primary School, Iheakpu-Awka (2.3 %), while the least per cent prevalence of hookworm occurred in ...

  15. Increasing Autism Prevalence in Metropolitan New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-01-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder,…

  16. Prevalence and socioeconomic factors in schistosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infections was assessed among 160 students of Twohofo Holy International School. Cape Coast, Ghana. Overall prevalence was 34.4%, with males and females having prevalence of 32.3% and 35.8% respectively. Ago group 6-B years had 30%, while 24.2% were infected in age ...

  17. Prevalence of obesity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Heitmann, B L; Sørensen, T I A

    2007-01-01

    There has been a pronounced, distinctive increase of the prevalence of obesity within almost all age groups of the Danish population, during the last 25-30 years. The largest increase has been documented in studies based on objective data from total populations and the latest data show the increase...... will continue. The Danish studies show heterogeneity in the development of the obesity epidemic. A close association with birth cohorts indicates a need for further aetiological research, not only into behavioural factors, but also into early life factors that may explain some of this developmental pattern....

  18. [Pedophilia. Prevalence, etiology, and diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokros, A; Osterheider, M; Nitschke, J

    2012-03-01

    Pedophilia is a disorder of sexual preference that increases the risk for committing sexual offenses against children. Consequently, pedophilia is not only relevant in psychiatric therapy and prognostics, but also greatly influences the public attitude towards criminality. Public opinion seems to equate pedophilia with child sexual abuse and vice versa which leads to stigmatization of patients and may impede treatment. The present paper provides information on recent studies on the potential origins of the disorder and introduces new diagnostic methods. Moreover, the article presents estimates on the prevalence of pedophilic sexual interest.

  19. Prevalence of smoking in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M; Umenai, T; Radford, C

    1998-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Cambodia and identify prevailing knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP). Information on tobacco smoking and KAP was collected using the 30-cluster survey design wherein 10-15 males (age over 15 years) were interviewed from each of 30 randomly-selected population clusters in Phnom Penh (herein referred to as 'urban') and Siem Reap (herein referred to as 'rural') for a total of 601 interviews. Findings show that 65% of urban respondents and 86% of rural respondents smoke. Rural men start smoking at an earlier age, but the average urban smoker spends more. 17% of an urban smoker's personal cash income is spent on tobacco, whereas his rural counterpart spends 8%. This discrepancy is partly due to extensive tobacco brandname promotion in urban areas which has resulted in the average price of a pack of cigarettes being four times higher than that of rural. Other findings show an inverse correlation between incidence of smoking and levels of education/income. Concerning smoking cessation, 66% of urban smokers and 86% of rural smokers interviewed indicated they would attend a program in their area to stop smoking if such a program were available. The high prevalence of smoking in Cambodia, and the health impact it has and will increasingly have on its people is significant. The high cash expenditure for tobacco, especially in urban, is an important factor contributing to Cambodia's impoverished economy. Education, regulatory policies, and smoking cessation are important measures to be considered for effective tobacco control planning and implementation.

  20. [Prevalence of teenage sleeping disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdereau-Noël, M; Saliou, P; Vic, P

    2017-04-01

    Teenage sleeping disorders can have short- and long-term consequences such as learning disorders, accidents, depression, and type 2 diabetes. To assess the prevalence of sleeping disorders in high school students in the southwest of Brittany (Finistère), France. To search for family and social factors causing these disorders and drug use. Observational multicenter study that took place in May, 2015, asking high school students to anonymously complete a questionnaire during school time. A variable was created: sleep disorders (TrS+) when teenagers responded "often" or "very often" to at least one of the six questions concerning sleeping disorders. The prevalence of TrS+ was 73 % (4170/5556). These teenagers had difficulty falling asleep (36 %), woke up during the night (33 %), or had nightmares (10 %). Their sleep routine was disrupted (35 %), they did not feel rested the following day (49 %): 9 % were late for class related to their sleeping disorders. TrS+ were more recurrent among females (OR: 2.64; P10 cigarettes per a day) (OR: 2.39; P8h per a day; OR: 2.7; Psleep quality. Ten percent of TrS+ individuals consume medications and 9 % cannabis to help them fall asleep. Technology, drugs, and well-being at school have an impact on sleep quality. Screening of teenagers with sleeping disorders and information programs for teenagers must be provided by the teaching and medical staff. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The prevalence of thrombocytopenia in plasmodium falciparum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their platelet counts were evaluated using the auto-analyser Sysmex KX-21N. Results: The overall prevalence of thrombocytopenia was 5.0%, but it was higher in children with severe malaria. None of the children in the control group had thrombocytopenia. Conclusion: The prevalence of thrombocytopenia in falciparum ...

  2. Prevalence of gestrointestinal symptoms in pregnancy | Audu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of gestrointestinal symptoms in pregnancy. BM Audu, SK Mustapha. Abstract. Objectives: This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms among healthy pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. Methods: Questionnaires were ...

  3. Dutch diabetes prevalence estimates (DUDE-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, Nanne; Landman, Gijsw. D.; Van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; Meulepas, Marianne; Romeijnders, Arnold; Rutten, Guy E. H.; Klomp, Maarten; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent decades have seen a constant upward projection in the prevalence of diabetes. Attempts to estimate diabetes prevalence rates based on relatively small population samples quite often result in underestimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the Dutch

  4. PREVALENCE AND PREDICTORS OF PREDIABETES AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of prediabetes and to determine its predictors among administrative staff of ... Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of prediabetes among the administrative staff of University College ..... Riddell M, Fowles J. How to treat prediabetes with exercise effectively. Diabetes 2010 ...

  5. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome components, individually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-19

    Mar 19, 2013 ... 2005; 112: e297 and Circulation. 2005; 112: e298). Circulation. 2005; 112: 2735Б52. 19. Al-Lawati JA, Mohammed AJ, Al-Hinai HQ, Jousilahti P. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Omani adults. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26: 1781Б5. 20. Al-Qahtani DA, Imtiaz ML. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  6. Contraceptive prevalence amongst women attending infant welfare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contraceptive prevalence amongst women attending infant welfare clinic at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. ... Abstract. Background: Low contraceptive prevalence in Sub-Sahara Africa has increased the burden of unwanted pregnancies and continued population explosion thus hampering the economic ...

  7. Increased prevalence of migraine in Marfan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, Jeroen C.; Timmermans, Janneke; Post, Martijn C.; Budts, Werner; Schepens, Marc A. A. M.; Thijs, Vincent; Schonewille, Wouter J.; de Bie, Rob M. A.; Plokker, Herbert W. M.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A high prevalence of migraine has been described in various forms of congenital heart disease, with and without shunt. In this study we investigated the prevalence of migraine in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). METHODS: All 457 adult patients with MFS from the participating centres

  8. Increased prevalence of migraine in Marfan syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, J.C.; Timmermans, J.; Post, M.C.; Budts, W.; Schepens, M.A.; Thijs, V.; Schonewille, W.J.; Bie, R.M. de; Plokker, H.W.M.; Tijssen, J.G.P.; Mulder, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A high prevalence of migraine has been described in various forms of congenital heart disease, with and without shunt. In this study we investigated the prevalence of migraine in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). METHODS: All 457 adult patients with MFS from the participating centres

  9. Prevalence of Bird Louse, Menacanthus Cornutus (Pthiraptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the prevalence of bird lice in four selected farms in Kano metropolis was conducted to determine the lice species richness, lice abundance and percent prevalence in the four poultry farms. Two hundred and forty (240) birds were examined from four poultry farms within Kano in Tofa, Fagge, Brigade and Gwarzo ...

  10. Prevalence and distribution of Schistosoma haematobium infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and distribution of Schistosoma haematobium infection among school children living in southwestern shores of Lake Malawi. ... Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in primary schools. School ... Consistent and uniform interventions can reduce prevalence further and sustain control.

  11. Species and prevalence determination of Human Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a global health burden causing clinical morbidity. Parasitic protozoa and helminthes are responsible for some of the most devastating and prevalent diseases of human. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients attending Federal ...

  12. Prevalence, Progression and Associated Risk Factors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) ranges between 4.5% and 57% and is independently associated with cardiovascular disease burden irrespective of symptoms. Two thirds of cases are thought to be asymptomatic and may go unrecognised. Local prevalence and natural progression of ...

  13. Species and prevalence determination of Human Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a global health burden causing clinical morbidity. Parasitic protozoa and helminthes are responsible for some of the most devastating and prevalent diseases of human. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients attending ...

  14. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macur Mirna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia.

  15. community perceptions of schistosomiasis transmission, prevalence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    91 No. 7 July 2014. COMMUNITY PERCEPTIONS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS TRANSMISSION, PREVALENCE AND CONTROL IN RELATION ... prevalence, transmission and control in relation to aquatic habitats in the Lake Victoria basin of Kenya. .... for Windows software version 12.0 ( SPSS, Atlanta. GA, USA ) for statistical ...

  16. Increased prevalence of hypertension in haemophilia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Putte, Dietje E. Fransen; Fischer, Kathelijn; Makris, Michael; Tait, R. Campbell; Collins, Peter W.; Meijer, Karina; Roosendaal, Goris; Chowdary, Pratima; Schutgens, Roger E. G.; Mauser-Bunschoten, Eveline P.

    2012-01-01

    An increased prevalence of hypertension is reported in haemophilia patients, but data from large, unbiased studies are lacking. The aim of our study was to cross-sectionally assess the prevalence of hypertension in a large cohort of 701 haemophilia patients. Blood pressure (BP) measurements

  17. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori related gastritis is a major health ailment in developing nations. There is high morbidity and mortality ranging from chronic gastritis to gastric malignancies. Prevalence of H. pylori infection varies markedly from country to country and in a country, region to region. Aim: To study the prevalence ...

  18. The Prevalence of Intraventricular Haemorrhage and Associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Prevalence of Intraventricular Haemorrhage and Associated Risk Factors in Preterm Neonates in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the University Teaching ... any-IVH generated at the time of analysis was used in determining the prevalence of IVH and also as the dependent variable in multivariate logistic regression.

  19. Prevalence of Schistosomiasis in Wurukum, Makurdi Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence 43.3%), while none of those who use pipe borne and bore-hole water exclusively was infected (p < 0.05). Key words: urinary schistosomiasis, prevalence, water sources. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science Vol.12(2) 2003: 47 - 51 ...

  20. Prevalence of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma | Ojuka | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There has been a marked increase of the prevalence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus across the globe, with the risk factors including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Barrett's esophagus. It is not known whether the trend is similar locally. Objective: To describe the prevalence and ...

  1. The prevalence of stalking in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, S.; Kunst, M.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Over eight years after the enactment of the Dutch anti-stalking provisions there are still no figures detailing the prevalence of stalking in The Netherlands. This article aims to estimate the lifetime and annual prevalence of this form of victimization within the Dutch population. Questionnaires

  2. Constipation prevalence in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Álvaro de Freitas Lins Neto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of constipation in diabetic patients treated at the endocrinology outpatient clinic at Hospital Universitário Professor Alberto Antunes and PAM Salgadinho, from April to August 2013. Methods: a descriptive and cross-sectional study, carried out through a questionnaire using the Rome III criteria in 372 patients treated at the outpatient endocrinology clinic. Results: of 372 patients evaluated, the frequency of constipation found was 31.2% among diabetic patients. Females predominated in the sample (72.8% as well as for the frequency of constipation (80.2%. The incidence of type II diabetes was 97.3% and it was observed that 80.2% of the sample was older than 50 years. One hundred and twelve patients with inadequate glycemic control (HgA1c ≥ 7 had an association with constipation. Conclusion: there was an increased frequency of constipation in patients with diabetes mellitus according to the Rome III criteria, in relation to the general population. The inadequate glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus increases the frequency of constipation and it is necessary to perform studies that allow the confirmation of this association to demonstrate this hypothesis. Resumo: Objetivo: analisar a prevalência da constipação intestinal em pacientes diabéticos atendidos no ambulatório de endocrinologia do Hospital Universitário Professor Alberto Antunes e no PAM Salgadinho (HUPAA, de abril de 2013 a agosto 2013. Método: estudo descritivo e transversal, realizado através da aplicação de um questionário com os critérios de Roma III no ambulatório de endocrinologia do HUPAA. Resultado: em 372 pacientes, 271 feminino, 101 masculino, 162 de etnia branca, 55 negros e 155 pardos, 297 pacientes estavam acima de 50 anos, houve uma frequência de constipação de 31,2% nos pacientes diabéticos. O gênero feminino prevaleceu na amostra (73% assim como no índice de frequ

  3. [Prevalence of malnutrition in Spanish schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María I; Leis, Rosaura; Malvar, Alberto; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    2017-11-01

    The term malnutrition includes malnutrition due to excess or obesity, underweight as well as stunted growth. Its prevalence in a population can be estimated using anthropometric variables. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition in Galician schoolchildren aged 6 to 15years in the school year 2013-2014. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a representative sample by gender and age of the Galician population of 6 to 15years old. The prevalence of obesity, underweight, and short stature was estimated by age and gender using the reference standards proposed by the World Health Organisation. Of the total of 7,438 schoolchildren weighed and measured, 16.4% had malnutrition. The prevalence of obesity was 14.8%, underweight was 0.7%, and short stature for age was estimated at 1%. Obesity was more prevalent among boys. As regards underweight and short stature, when there were differences, prevalence was higher among girls. In Galicia, 16 out of every 100 schoolchildren aged 6 to 15years had malnutrition, with that due to excess or obesity being the most frequent. Prevalence of underweight and short stature did not exceed 1%. This data shows that primary prevention measures should be promoted at an early age to reduce malnutrition due to excess or adiposity, in particular. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  4. Prevalence of fibromyalgia: literature review update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Amelia Pasqual; Santo, Adriana de Sousa do Espírito; Berssaneti, Ana Assumpção; Matsutani, Luciana Akemi; Yuan, Susan Lee King

    The present study aimed to update the literature review on the prevalence of fibromyalgia published in 2006. A bibliographical survey was carried out from 2005 to 2014 in the MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, LILACS and SciELO databases and 3274 records were identified. Five researchers selected the studies, following the inclusion criteria: studies that obtained the prevalence of fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia studies in associated diseases were excluded. When screening by title and abstract, 2073 irrelevant articles were excluded. The full texts of 210 articles were evaluated for eligibility and this review included 39 studies, described in 41 articles. The selected studies were grouped into four categories: (A) prevalence of fibromyalgia in the general population; (B) prevalence of fibromyalgia in women; (C) prevalence of fibromyalgia in rural and urban areas; (D) prevalence of fibromyalgia in special populations. The literature shows values of fibromyalgia prevalence in the general population between 0.2 and 6.6%, in women between 2.4 and 6.8%, in urban areas between 0.7 and 11.4%, in rural areas between 0.1 and 5.2%, and in special populations values between 0.6 and 15%. This literature review update shows a significant increase in fibromyalgia prevalence studies in the world. The new 2010 American College of Rheumatology criteria have not been widely used yet and the COPCORD (Community-oriented program for control of Rheumatic Diseases) methodology has increased the quality of studies on the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of fibromyalgia: literature review update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Amelia Pasqual; Santo, Adriana de Sousa do Espírito; Berssaneti, Ana Assumpção; Matsutani, Luciana Akemi; Yuan, Susan Lee King

    2016-12-18

    The present study aimed to update the literature review on the prevalence of fibromyalgia (FM) published in 2006. A bibliographical survey was carried out from 2005 to 2014 in the MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, LILACS and SciELO databases and 3274 records were identified. Five researchers selected the studies, following the inclusion criteria: studies that obtained the prevalence of FM. FM studies in associated diseases were excluded. When screening by title and abstract, 2073 irrelevant articles were excluded. The full texts of 210 articles were evaluated for eligibility and this review included 39 studies, described in 41 articles. The selected studies were grouped into four categories: a) prevalence of FM in the general population; B) prevalence of FM in women; C) prevalence of FM in rural and urban areas; D) prevalence of FM in special populations. The literature shows values of FM prevalence in the general population between 0.2 and 6.6%, in women between 2.4 and 6.8%, in urban areas between 0.7 and 11.4%, in rural areas between 0.1 and 5.2%, and in special populations values between 0.6 and 15%. This literature review update shows a significant increase in FM prevalence studies in the world. The new 2010 American College of Rheumatology criteria have not been widely used yet and the COPCORD (Community-oriented program for control of Rheumatic Diseases) methodology has increased the quality of studies on the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in general. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  6. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merchant Anwar T

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be

  7. Prevalence of workplace bullying and risk groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortega, Adriana; Høgh, Annie; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of bullying and to identify risk groups in a representative population sample. METHODS: The data for this study was taken from the second Danish Psychosocial Work Environment Study (DPWES). The sample consisted of 3,429 employees between 20 and 59-years....../supervisors the lowest prevalence. People working with things (male-dominated occupations) and people working with clients/patients (female-dominated occupations) reported higher prevalence of bullying than people working with symbols or customers. No significant gender or age differences were found. CONCLUSIONS...

  8. Prevalence and course of pseudothrombocytopenia in outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froom, Paul; Barak, Mira

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and course of pseudothrombocytopenia in outpatients is uncertain. In a cohort study of 687,955 members of a health maintenance organization, we extracted 36,780 consecutive automated complete blood count test results and determined the point prevalence of pseudothrombocytopenia during a one-month period. We also calculated a retrospective cumulative prevalence over the past 5 years. There were 1105 (2.7%) patients with platelet counts of 100-149×10(9)/L and 304 (0.8%) with counts values, or the reference limit value should be lowered to 100×10(9)/L.

  9. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis amongst primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , southwestern Nigeria. ... International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences ... This investigation was carried out to determine the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in selected primary schools in Ado-Ekiti, between June and August ...

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of prostate cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and characteristics of prostate cancer among participants of a communitybased screening in Nigeria using serum prostate specific antigen and digital rectal examination. SO Ikuerowo, OA Omisanjo, MJ Bioku, MO Ajala, VPN Mordi, JO Esho ...

  11. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The prevalence of H. pylori infection is significantly high in rural and suburban population of Ernakulam district, Kerala. Early detection and prompt treatment are essential for prevention of serious complications. Keywords: Gastrointestinal complications, Helicobacter pylori infection, Histopathological ...

  12. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia , and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The intestinal protozoa Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. are the causative agents of giardiasis, amebiasis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively. Adequate knowledge of the geographical distribution of parasites and the demographic variables that influence their prevalence is ...

  13. Investigation into the prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation into the prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility patterns of aeromonas and plesiomonas species isolated from children with diarrhoea in Amuwo-Odofin and Surulere Local Government areas of Lagos, Nigeria.

  14. Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    . Nigeria. The aim of this research is to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of the University of Port Harcourt. Methods: Four hundred undergraduate ...

  15. Prevalence of hyponatremia in palliative care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoba Nair

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Prevalence of hyponatremia is significant in palliative care patients. A prospective study looking at the causes and clinical outcomes associated with hyponatremia in palliative care patients is needed.

  16. Prevalence of Brown Dog Tick ( Rhipicephalus Sanguineus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    79.69%) and young dogs (73.02%) were the least infested animals. The relatively high prevalence of Rhipicephalus sanguineus in the present study suggested that dogs in Lokoja metropolis were of veterinary and public health significance ...

  17. Prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension among children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension among children and adolescents in a semi-urban area of Uyo Metropolis, Nigeria. Frances Sam Okpokowuruk, Mkpouto Udeme Akpan, Enobong Emmanuel Ikpeme ...

  18. Dental caries prevalence of medieval Korean people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sun Sook; Baek, Kyung-won; Shin, Myung Ho; Kim, Jaehyup; Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Sang Jun; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2010-07-01

    Prevalence and distribution of dental caries in medieval Korean society were evaluated. Two thousand and nine hundred teeth samples of 126 individuals collected from 16th to 18th century Korean tombs. Preservation status of sample was good. The prevalence of ante- and postmortem tooth loss was 4.4% and 14.2%, respectively. The total caries prevalence was 3.9%. The tooth surface most frequently affected by dental caries was occlusal (4.5%), followed by approximal (2.1%), buccal (1.5%), and lingual (1.1%) surfaces. The prevalence of dental caries in Joseon Dynasty skeleton collection was lower than have been found in other collections of similar chronology. The low consumption of refined sugar in medieval Korean society might be a possible explanation, though the technical limitations inherent in such comparison studies preclude definitive conclusions. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors influencing the prevalence of primary dysmenorrhoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-06

    Factors influencing the prevalence of primary dysmenorrhoea amongst Abia State university medical students, South Eastern Nigeria. ... From February 6, 2012 to February 12, 2012, 132 consenting female medical students completed an anonymous questionnaire administered by research assistants at the hostels.

  20. Prevalence of dementia in Colombian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín Amaya Vargas

    Full Text Available With the gradual increase in the life expectancy of the population due to scientific progress and public health at the service of society, the prevalence of dementia has been increasing at different rates worldwide. Currently, the prevalence rates range between 5% and 7% (6.4% in the U.S. and up to 8.5 % in Latin America in subjects older than 60 years. The lowest prevalence rate (2.1% has been reported from sub-Saharan Africa, probably due to selective mortality under 60 years of age. By contrast, a very high prevalence of dementia (23.6% dementia in individuals ≥60 years was observed in the city of Neiva, Southern Colombia. We believe that this high rate could be explained by the presence of several risk factors such as very low schooling, low socio-economic strata, chronic diseases, the inclusion of geriatric homes among others, and additional unknown factors.

  1. The localised aggressive periodontitis prevalence in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaissi, F E; Cherkaoui, A; Laporte, C; Miquel, J L

    2004-03-01

    This work concerns a retrospective study of prevalence records and the clinical characteristics of localised aggressive periodontitis in the breast of consultants in the periodontitis service in Dental Medicine Faculty of Rabat (Morocco) from 1997 to 1999.

  2. prevalence & characteristics of mothers with multiple pregnancies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    PREGNANCIES AND ASSOCIATED LABOUR COMPLICATIONS AT. MUHIMBILI NATIONAL HOSPITAL, SEPTEMBER 2005. BY SIKOSANA, MAJID. L. ( MD 4 – 2005/2006). ABSTRACT. Objective: To determine the prevalence & characteristics of mothers with multiple pregnancies and associated labour complications at.

  3. Anthropometric measurements and prevalence of underweight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropometric measurements and prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adult Malawians: nationwide population based NCD STEPS survey. ... Introduction: Overweight and obesity are significant causes of increased morbidity and premature mortality from non-communicable diseases, particularly in ...

  4. Prevalence of Wheat Allergy in Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eishin Morita

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of wheat allergy in Japanese adults was found to be 0.21% by using a combination of questionnaire-based examination, skin prick test and serum omega-5 gliadin-specific IgE test.

  5. Prevalence of vernal keratoconjunctivitis: a rare disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremond-Gignac, D; Donadieu, J; Leonardi, A; Pouliquen, P; Doan, S; Chiambarretta, F; Montan, P; Milazzo, S; Hoang-Xuan, T; Baudouin, C; Aymé, S

    2008-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of vernal keratoconjuntivitis (VKC) in Europe. A cross-sectional survey was mailed to 3003 ophthalmologists from six countries (Finland, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway and Sweden) representing 151.9 million inhabitants. Results were analysed per country, and VKC prevalence for the 15 European member states in 2002 was extrapolated. Six hypotheses were used: disease duration (4 or 8 years) combined with three prevalence hypotheses for non-responding ophthalmologists. The response rate to the survey was 29.5%. The estimates of VKC prevalence in Western Europe (per 10,000 inhabitants) ranged from 1.16 to 10.55. The prevalence of VKC with corneal complications ranged from 0.30 to 2.26. The VKC prevalences per country were in the following ranges: Italy 2.4-27.8, Finland, 0.7-8.4, Sweden 1.2-8.7, The Netherlands 0.6-4.6, France 0.7-3.3 and Norway 0.3-1.9. VKC with corneal complications were: Italy 0.4-4.8, Sweden 0.3-2.4, Finland 0.2-2.8, The Netherlands 0.2-1.6, France 0.3-1.4 and Norway 0.1-1.0. Based on the most likely hypotheses concerning disease duration and non-responding ophthalmologists' VKC case rate, the best estimate of VKC prevalence in Western Europe is 3.2/10,000 inhabitants. The prevalence of VKC with corneal complications is 0.8/10,000 inhabitants.

  6. Diagnosis and prevalence of bacterial vaginosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saharan S

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study of 80 women was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, and to compare two methods of diagnosing the condition. Bacterial Vaginosis was detected by both Gram stain and compound criteria in 30 women. The prevalence was 37.5%. Gram stain provides a simple and inexpensive method for laboratory confirmation of bacterial vaginosis where facilities for using the compound criteria are not available.

  7. Renal Failure Prevalence in Poisoned Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better th...

  8. Malaria prevalence in endemic districts of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubydul Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM, provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT and combination therapy with Coartem. It is imperative, therefore, that baseline data on malaria prevalence and other malaria indicators are collected to assess the effectiveness of the interventions and rationalize the prevention and control efforts. The objective of this study was to obtain this baseline on the prevalence of malaria and bed net use in the thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2007, BRAC and ICDDR,B carried out a malaria prevalence survey in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used and 9750 blood samples were collected. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT were used for the diagnosis of malaria. The weighted average malaria prevalence in the thirteen endemic districts was 3.97%. In five south-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was 6.00% and in the eight north-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was (0.40%. The highest malaria prevalence was observed in Khagrachari district. The majority of the cases (90.18% were P. falciparum infections. Malaria morbidity rates in five south-eastern districts was 2.94%. In eight north-eastern districts, morbidity was 0.07%. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Bangladesh has hypoendemic malaria with P. falciparum the dominant parasite species. The malaria situation in the five north-eastern districts of Bangladesh in particular warrants urgent attention. Detailed maps of the

  9. Prevalence of oppositional defiant disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villalobos, José Antonio; Andrés-De Llano, Jesús María; Rodríguez-Molinero, Luis; Garrido-Redondo, Mercedes; Sacristán-Martín, Ana María; Martínez-Rivera, María Teresa; Alberola-López, Susana; Sánchez-Azón, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, defiant, disobedient and hostile behavior toward authority figures. ODD is one of the most frequent reasons for clinical consultation on mental health during childhood and adolescence. ODD has a high morbidity and dysfunction, and has important implications for the future if not treated early. To determine the prevalence of ODD in schoolchildren aged 6-16 years in Castile and Leon (Spain). Population study with a stratified multistage sample, and a proportional cluster design. Sample analyzed: 1,049. Cases were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. An overall prevalence rate of 5.6% was found (95% CI: 4.2%-7%). Male gender prevalence=6.8%; female=4.3%. Prevalence in secondary education=6.2%; primary education=5.3%. No significant differences by gender, age, grade, type of school, or demographic area were found. ODD prevalence without considering functional impairment, such as is performed in some research, would increase the prevalence to 7.4%. ODD cases have significantly worse academic outcomes (overall academic performance, reading, maths and writing), and worse classroom behavior (relationship with peers, respect for rules, organizational skills, academic tasks, and disruption of the class). Castile and Leon has a prevalence rate of ODD slightly higher to that observed in international publications. Depending on the distribution by age, morbidity and clinical dysfunctional impact, an early diagnosis and a preventive intervention are required for health planning. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Back pain prevalence in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J; Müller, S; Stoll, J; Fröhlich, K; Otto, C; Mayer, F

    2017-04-01

    The research aimed to investigate back pain (BP) prevalence in a large cohort of young athletes with respect to age, gender, and sport discipline. BP (within the last 7 days) was assessed with a face scale (face 1-2 = no pain; face 3-5 = pain) in 2116 athletes (m/f 61%/39%; 13.3 ± 1.7 years; 163.0 ± 11.8 cm; 52.6 ± 13.9 kg; 4.9 ± 2.7 training years; 8.4 ± 5.7 training h/week). Four different sports categories were devised (a: combat sports, b: game sports; c: explosive strength sport; d: endurance sport). Analysis was described descriptively, regarding age, gender, and sport. In addition, 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. About 168 (8%) athletes were allocated into the BP group. About 9% of females and 7% of males reported BP. Athletes, 11-13 years, showed a prevalence of 2-4%; while prevalence increased to 12-20% in 14- to 17-year olds. Considering sport discipline, prevalence ranged from 3% (soccer) to 14% (canoeing). Prevalences in weight lifting, judo, wrestling, rowing, and shooting were ≥10%; in boxing, soccer, handball, cycling, and horse riding, ≤6%. 95% CI ranged between 0.08-0.11. BP exists in adolescent athletes, but is uncommon and shows no gender differences. A prevalence increase after age 14 is obvious. Differentiated prevention programs in daily training routines might address sport discipline-specific BP prevalence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Prevalence of asthma in college student population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović-Ristić Snežana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bronchial asthma is common chronic disease among young people and prevalence of this condition has been constantly growing over past two decades throughout the world. Objective: To establish the prevalence of asthma in student population of Belgrade University and to determine the frequency distribution in regard to their permanent residence. Method: Data obtained from annual physical examinations of 118 342 students (age 19-23 years treated at the Student’s Health Care Institute between 1996-2001 were analyzed. Affirmative answer to the question: "Are you currently treated", or "Have you ever been treated for asthma" indicated diagnosis of asthma. Data on student’s age, gender, permanent residence, and smoking habits were collected. Results: The prevalence of asthma was 3680/100.000 and mildly growing trend was noted over the last several years (from 2.96% to 4.05% (F=42.427; df=4; p<0.01. Asthma was more prevalent in females (57% than among males (43% (χ2=91.189; df=1; p<0.01. Several regions with increased asthma incidence were identified and the causes of such findings still need to be clarified. Cigarette smoking was common in students (χ2=236.781; df=1; p<0.01, but also among asthmatics [one out of three students was a smoker (χ2=8.141; df=1; p<0.01]. Conclusion: The prevalence of asthma in student population is 3.68% with mildly growing trend over the last years. The disease is more prevalent in females. Cigarette smoking is common in students as well as among asthmatics. To our knowledge, this is the first study on prevalence of asthma in young adult population in our country.

  12. Prevalence of hyperhidrosis among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Fernando Luiz; de Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Neves; Lima, Luiz Carlos; de Carvalho, Bruna Cecília Neves; Padilla, Rodrigo; Araújo, Katiúscia Karla Lêdo

    2011-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of hyperhidrosis among medical students of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. We conducted an observational, transversal, survey which examined the prevalence of primary hyperhidrosis among medical students of the Federal University of Amazonas and its relation to body mass index (BMI) and stress. Students were weighed and interviewed. We used questionnaires with questions recommended by the International Hyperhidrosis Society to relate hyperhidrosis to the daily activities of each person. Results were given by calculating the prevalence ratios and confidence intervals. Among the 293 students examined, it was found that a total of 16 (5.5%) students had barely tolerable or intolerable excessive sweating, interfering with daily activities. None had known causes of hyperhidrosis and 50% had family history. In all suffering from the condition the disease was bilateral, the mainly affected locations being: hands (35.7%), legs (21.4%), axilla (17.9), face (10 7%), back (7.1%), chest (3.6%) and abdomen (3.6%). There was no predominance regarding gender, age or BMI. We found a positive relationship with BMI and observed a prevalence ratio of 2.48 higher in overweight students than in normal weight or underweight ones. The prevalence of primary hyperhidrosis among medical students of Manaus was 5.5%. There is a positive non-statistical relationship with overweight and obesity. It was further noted an observational relationship with stress.

  13. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Vilela, María Elena; Quílez Pina, Raquel María; Bonafonte Marteles, José Luis; Morlanes Navarro, Teresa; Calvo Gracia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) according to the definitions of the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and its relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in hospitalized elderly patients. This descriptive and prospective study (February-March 2011) included 200 consecutive patients hospitalized in a Geriatric Department. Sociodemographic, clinical and biochemical data was collected. The prevalence of MS was 65% (NCEP-ATP III) and 67.5% (IDF) and was greater in women (NCEP-ATP III=72.8%, IDF=73.6%) than in men (NCEP-ATP III=50.7%; IDF=56.3%). The mean age of patients diagnosed with MS by both diagnostic criteria were similar: 84.7 years. MS was not associated with an increased prevalence of CVD. MS is highly prevalent in elderly hospitalized patients, being higher in women, with both diagnostic criteria (NCEP- ATP III and IDF). In our population the MS was not associated with an increased prevalence of CVD. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in healthy Indian doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdi, Sandesh P; Palkar, Prashant

    2013-01-01

    Currently, hyperhomocysteinemia is a well-known risk factor for variety of vascular diseases. Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia increases with age. Hence, the present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in healthy upper socio-economic class population in India. Total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration was determined in 1243 (906 men & 337 women) healthy Indian doctors with different age group. Using Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) study criteria, the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia was 92.85% among men (>11.4 µmol/L) and 81.60% among women (>10.4 µmol/L). The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia was higher among men with mean tHcy concentration (21.96 ± 0.38 µmol/L) significantly higher (P<0.0001) than women (15.90 ± 0.39 µmol/L) (95% CI, 4.733- 7.376). Our study showed very high prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia which may point to the future risk for various pathologies in the present subset of population. Further studies to look at the plasma levels of homocysteine lowering vitamins are warranted to prevent the future risk of vascular diseases. PMID:23519236

  15. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in European cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Dalgaard, Paw

    2017-01-01

    Both in Europe and worldwide cheese has caused important outbreaks of listeriosis and can be a vehicle for transmission of Listeria monocytogenes to consumers. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted using scientific literature and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reports...... to summarize available data on the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in different types of cheeses produced in Europe. Meta-analysis models were used to estimate mean prevalence of the pathogen and to compare prevalence among types of cheeses (fresh, ripened, veined, smear and brined) and cheeses produced using.......5-1.1%). The prevalence differed among types of cheeses including fresh (0.8%; CI: 0.3-1.9%), ripened (2.0%; CI: 0.8-4.9%), veined (2.4%; CI: 0.9-6.3%), smear (5.1%; CI: 1.9-13.1%) and brined (11.8%; CI: 3.5-33.3%). Mean prevalence of L. monocytogenes in soft/semi-soft cheeses were not significantly different (P > 0...

  16. Prevalence of genetic renal disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jeffery; McDonald, Stephen; Alexander, Stephen I

    2013-02-01

    Genetic etiology comprises a significant proportion of renal disease in childhood. Completion of the Human Genome Project and increased genetic testing has assisted with the increased recognition of a genetic basis to many renal disorders. Australia and New Zealand have a relatively stable but diverse population, with eight major pediatric nephrology referral centers, which allow ascertainment of disease frequency. To determine prevalence, pediatric nephrologists at the eight centers in Australia and New Zealand were surveyed on their estimated number of patients with renal disease of genetic etiology over a 10-year period. Disease prevalence was calculated using combined national population data. The overall prevalence of genetic kidney disease in children in Australia and New Zealand is 70.6 children per million age-representative population. Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) are the most frequent, with a prevalence of 16.3 and 10.7, respectively, per million children. We find a similar prevalence of genetic renal disorders in Australia and New Zealand to those reported in other countries. This is likely to be due to inclusion of children with all forms of renal disease rather than being limited to those with renal impairment.

  17. Prevalence of food allergies in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakali, Schweta R; Green, Todd D; Dinakar, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the published medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergies in South Asia. A PubMed search was performed using the keywords India and food allergy, Asia and food allergy, and South Asia and food allergy for any period. Articles cited in selected studies were reviewed for their appropriateness of inclusion into this review. Publications were included that were original research and fit the topic of food allergy and South Asia. South Asia is defined as region inclusive of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. A total of 169 articles were initially identified, and 47 were reviewed in detail for inclusion in this review. The primary focus was placed on 10 studies that consisted of case reports of newly reported or documented food allergy, survey studies that investigated food allergy prevalence in specific demographics, and prospective and cross-sectional studies with case controls, all of which investigated food allergy prevalence by allergy testing in a selected population. The medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergy in South Asia indicates that there is a variety of unusual and unique allergens and an overall low incidence of food allergy. There is also an association of increased food allergy prevalence in individuals who live in metropolitan regions or who migrate to communities that have adopted westernization. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of maternal chronic diseases during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølving, Line Riis; Nielsen, Jan; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is substantial evidence of a negative impact of maternal chronic disease during pregnancy on reproductive outcomes. Knowledge of the prevalence of chronic diseases during pregnancy is limited, but essential for a focused preventive effort regarding optimal disease control during...... pregnancy. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of chronic diseases during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This register-based cohort study included all women giving birth in Denmark between 1989 and 2013 based on data from Danish health registers. Maternal chronic diseases included 23 disease categories...... of both physical and mental health conditions recorded within a period of 10 years before childbirth. RESULTS: We included 1 362 200 childbirths during the study period. The overall prevalence of maternal chronic disease increased from 3.71% in 1989 to 15.76% in 2013. The most frequently registered...

  19. Prevalence of generalized retinal dystrophy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Jensen, Hanne; Bregnhøj, Jesper F

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to examine the prevalence and diagnostic spectrum of generalized retinal dystrophy in the Danish population. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study with data from the Danish Retinitis Pigmentosa Registry that comprises all patients in Denmark with generalized retinal....... RESULTS: Of the 5,602,628 Danish citizens on January 1, 2013, 1622 patients were registered as having a generalized retinal dystrophy and were alive and living in Denmark, corresponding to a prevalence of 1:3,454. In 28% of cases the eye condition was part of a syndrome, while the remaining 72% had eye...... disease only. Aside from simplex cases (45%), the most common hereditary pattern was autosomal recessive (23%). CONCLUSION: This epidemiological survey demonstrates that the prevalence of generalized retinal dystrophy in the Danish population is 1:3454. Many of the dystrophies are the subjects of clinical...

  20. Prevalence of burnout among musculoskeletal radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Felix S.; Porrino, Jack A.; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Relyea-Chew, Annemarie [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Mulcahy, Michael J. [Central Washington University, Department of Sociology, Ellensburg, WA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Burnout is a job-related psychological syndrome with three aspects: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and perceived lack of personal accomplishment. Burnout is associated with deleterious effects on both workers and their work. When burnout affects physicians, their well-being, longevity, and care of patients are at risk. Recent studies concerning physician burnout treat specialists such as radiologists as one group. We studied burnout in musculoskeletal (MSK) subspecialist radiologists. An institutional review board exemption was obtained. Society of Skeletal Radiology members received invitations to an anonymous survey that included questions from the Maslach Burnout Inventory trademark (MBI) measuring all three aspects of burnout. The response rate was 36.4% (433/1190). The prevalence of emotional exhaustion was 61.7% (255/413), of depersonalization 53.3% (219/411), and of perceived lack of personal accomplishment 39.6% (161/407). Only 19.5% (79/405) of MSK radiologists reported no burnout, while 80.5% (326/405) reported burnout along one or more dimensions. For all three dimensions, the prevalence was higher and the mean severity was worse for private practice compared with academic practice. The prevalence of burnout was affected more by practice setting than by gender. Burnout prevalence and severity also varied systematically with years since completion of training. Among MSK radiologists, we found a much higher prevalence and greater severity of burnout than has been previously reported for radiologists and other physicians. There were differences in prevalence and severity of burnout among practice settings, genders, and longevity cohorts. (orig.)

  1. Prevalence of burnout among musculoskeletal radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, Felix S.; Porrino, Jack A.; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Relyea-Chew, Annemarie; Mulcahy, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a job-related psychological syndrome with three aspects: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and perceived lack of personal accomplishment. Burnout is associated with deleterious effects on both workers and their work. When burnout affects physicians, their well-being, longevity, and care of patients are at risk. Recent studies concerning physician burnout treat specialists such as radiologists as one group. We studied burnout in musculoskeletal (MSK) subspecialist radiologists. An institutional review board exemption was obtained. Society of Skeletal Radiology members received invitations to an anonymous survey that included questions from the Maslach Burnout Inventory trademark (MBI) measuring all three aspects of burnout. The response rate was 36.4% (433/1190). The prevalence of emotional exhaustion was 61.7% (255/413), of depersonalization 53.3% (219/411), and of perceived lack of personal accomplishment 39.6% (161/407). Only 19.5% (79/405) of MSK radiologists reported no burnout, while 80.5% (326/405) reported burnout along one or more dimensions. For all three dimensions, the prevalence was higher and the mean severity was worse for private practice compared with academic practice. The prevalence of burnout was affected more by practice setting than by gender. Burnout prevalence and severity also varied systematically with years since completion of training. Among MSK radiologists, we found a much higher prevalence and greater severity of burnout than has been previously reported for radiologists and other physicians. There were differences in prevalence and severity of burnout among practice settings, genders, and longevity cohorts. (orig.)

  2. [Prevalence of arterial hypertension in Cushing's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, D; Barros, L; Ruas, L; Gomes, L; Geraldes, E; Ruas, M C

    1997-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of hypertension (HT) in patients with Cushing's syndrome. We studied 23 patients with Cushing's syndrome, 17 women (mean +/- SD age = 42.8 +/- 15.6 years) and 6 men (mean +/- SD age = 34.8 +/- 10.2 years). The etiologies were: 16-Cushing's disease, 3-suprarenal adenoma, 2-suprarenal carcinoma and 2-iatrogenic. Blood pressure (BP) was measured at least three times and we consider hypertension when systolic BP > or = 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP > or = 90 mmHg. The prevalence of HT, at diagnosis, was 73.9% (64.7% in women and 100% in men) and the mean BP was 163 +/- 25/100 +/- 16 mmHg (158 +/- 26/97 +/- 15 mmHg in women and 182 +/- 5/114 +/- 10 mmHg in men). From the 16 patients with Cushing's disease, 13 (81%) had HT; all the patients (n = 3) with suprarenal adenoma had HT; none with suprarenal carcinoma (n = 2) had HT and only 1 of the 2 patients with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome had HT. After treatment, 14 patients entered remission, 6 persisted with active disease and 1 was missed during the follow-up. In the group of patients that entered remission, the prevalence of HT at diagnosis was 78.5% (n = 11), 57.1% (n = 8) being after treatment. In this study, we found a high prevalence of HT at diagnosis (73.9%). After treatment and in the patients that entered remission, the prevalence of HT remained high (78.5% vs 57.1%). The high prevalence of HT in Cushing's syndrome, suggests its importance as a morbidity factor and also as an important diagnostic indicator, when present.

  3. Prevalence of raised body mass indices and the association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-11

    Jun 11, 2013 ... prevalence rate from age < 20 to the age group 50-59 year-olds. High BP prevalence rates remained high when overweight and hyperglycaemia prevalence rates decreased from the age of 60. Prevalence rate relationships between age, obesity, total high BP and hyperglycaemia for females are indicated ...

  4. Prevalence and genetic basis of tooth agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Shimizu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tooth agenesis or hypodontia is one of the most common anomalies of the human dentition, characterized by the developmental absence of one or more teeth. Many studies have reported that the prevalence of congenital absence of permanent teeth varies from 3% to 11% among European and Asian populations. Recent advances in the fields of molecular biology and human genetics have improved our understanding of the cause of tooth agenesis. In this review, we assess the previous literature on prevalence of tooth agenesis comparing the Japanese with other racial populations, and describe the recent genetic studies associated with hypodontia in human and mouse models.

  5. Prevalence of health risk factors among fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    AND fisherman OR fishing and only those with precise prevalence estimation were included. Results One Turkish, Scottish, Spanish, Greek and a Danish study were found. The prevalence rate for current smoking varied from 40 % - 82 % in the countries. Daily alcohol use also varied with 80%, 78% and 68 % among...... and accompanied by moderate–high alcohol consumption. On many vessels, food was limited to coffee, sandwiches and occasionally fruit on board. 66% of the Greek fishing workers did not perform any kind of exercise outside work. Obesity (Body mass index > 30.0) was found for 33 % of the Greek fishermen...

  6. Bochdalek hernia: prevalence and CT characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, M.E.

    1985-08-01

    The chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans of 940 patients were reviewed to determine the prevalence of Bochdalek hernias and to evaluate the widely held concept that left-sided hernias occur more than nine times as often as right-sided hernias. Sixty Bochdalek hernias were identified in 52 patients, a prevalence of 6%, which is more than 100 times more frequent than previously reported. Left-sided hernias were found approximately twice as often as right-sided hernias. The Bochdalek hernia is a much more common congenital anomaly in the asymptomatic adult than previously thought and frequently can be identified on routine chest and abdominal CT images.

  7. Prevalent mutations in fatty acid oxidation disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Andresen, B S; Bross, P

    2000-01-01

    : the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene; the short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) gene; the long-chain 3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) gene and the carnitine-palmitoyl-CoA transferase II (CPT II) gene. In MCAD deficiency the analysis confirms the conventional wisdom that individuals...... carrying the prevalent 985A > G mutation are at risk of developing life-threatening attacks. In SCAD/ethylmalonic aciduria, on the other hand, the presence of the prevalent susceptibility variations, 625A and 511T, in the SCAD gene seems to require additional genetic and cellular factors to be present...

  8. The prevalence of congenital anomalies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolk, Helen; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester

    2010-01-01

    EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) is the network of population-based registers of congenital anomaly in Europe, with a common protocol and data quality review, covering 1.5 million annual births in 22 countries. EUROCAT recorded a total prevalence of major congenital anomalies...... anomalies overwhelmingly concern children surviving the early neonatal period, who have important medical, social or educational needs. The prevalence of chromosomal anomalies was 3.6 per 1,000 births, contributing 28% of stillbirths/fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation with congenital anomaly, and 48...

  9. 4 Prevalence of Snail.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    to infection (Webbe, 1981) and about 131 million infected in Sub-Saharan Africa alone. The disease is endemic in Ghana and its public health importance was reported by. McCullough (1954), who noted then that approximately 20% of the total population of. Prevalence of Snail Vectors of Schistosomiasis in the Kpong.

  10. Prevalence of Depression in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Afshari; Manochehri; Tadayon; Kianfar; Haghighizade

    2015-01-01

    Background Every woman during different stages of her growth faces various crises, and one of these crises, menopause, may create different problems. In modern societies, psychological disorders and particularly depression is one of the problems of menopausal women. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depression in postmenopausal women referred to selected health centers of Ahvaz in 2014. ...

  11. SHORT COMMUNICATION Prevalence of hypertension and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2. SHORT COMMUNICATION. Prevalence of hypertension and variation of blood pressure with age among adolescents in ... The mean diastolic blood pressure increased by 1.55 mmHg and 1.42mmHg per year, respectively. The age ... and increased expectation of life, non-communicable life style related diseases are.

  12. Relative prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides and Entamoeba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted among school children in Yauri Emirate of Nigeria to determine the relative prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides and Entamoeba histolytica infections. Between May and September 2005 a total of 327 faecal samples from children were collected and examined using formal-ether concentration ...

  13. SACHET WATER: PREVALENCE OF USE, PERCEPTION AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zamzar

    ABSTRACT. Background: Sachet water is a phenomenon that has gained widespread use as an alternative to the insufficient provision of potable water. It is an alternative that is readily available, affordable but not without concerns about its purity. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of use, perception ...

  14. Prevalence, histopathological findings and aerobic bacteria flora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aerobic bacteria isolated from the lungs with pneumopathies were E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mannheimia haemolytica, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris and Pasteurella multocida. E. coli with a prevalence rate of 73.5% was the most predominant isolate. There was ...

  15. Anaemia prevalence and factors associated with haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on social-clinical characteristics, cancer type and associated factors as well as haemoglobin level before and after radiation were obtained. The prevalence of anaemia was determined as a proportion and linear regression was used to determine factors associated with haemoglobin change. Results: A total of ...

  16. Prevalence of nutrient deficiencies in bariatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Seok Yee; Zarshenas, Nazy; Jorgensen, John

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of nutrient deficiencies in patients who present for bariatric surgery, assess nutritional status after surgery, and compare these with preoperative levels. A retrospective study was conducted to identify preoperative and 1-year postoperative nutrition deficiencies in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The screening included serum ferritin, vitamin D, vitamin B(12), homocysteine, folate, red blood cell folate, and hemoglobin. Results were available for 232 patients preoperatively and 149 patients postoperatively. Two-tailed chi(2) tests and paired-sample t tests were used. Preoperatively, vitamin D deficiency was noted at 57%. The prevalence of abnormalities 1 year after roux-en-Y gastric bypass was higher compared with preoperative levels (P surgery, anemia was detected in 17%, elevated homocysteine levels (women only) in 29%, low ferritin in 15%, low vitamin B(12) in 11%, and low RBC folate in 12%. Mean hemoglobin, ferritin, and RBC folate levels deteriorated significantly but remained well within normal ranges. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiencies decreased, but not significantly. In sleeve gastrectomy patients, mean ferritin levels decreased (P deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency is common among morbidly obese patients seeking bariatric surgery. Because the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies persists or worsens postoperatively, routine nutrition screening, recommendation of appropriate supplements, and monitoring adherence are imperative in this population.

  17. Prevalence of nutrition associated ponderal outcomes among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and 7.6%, respectively, in the urban subjects and 1.5%, 2.3% and 20.3%, respectively, in the rural subjects. Conclusion: The prevalence of underweight among rural school children and adolescents is high, thus a need for nutritional intervention. Keywords: Ebonyi state, nutritional, obesity, overweight, South‑East Nigeria, ...

  18. High prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Desouki, Mahmoud I.; Sulimani, Riyadh A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in healthy Saudi men. We randomly recruited 429 Saudi men from the community. The recruited Saudi men were subjected to an interview to reveal their lifestyle parameters, calcium intake and level of activity. Bone densitometry was assessed at lumbar spine (L-4) and the femoral neck. The dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was carried out in the Nuclear Medicine at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from September 2002 to December 2004. The World Health Organization definition of low bone mineral density was used. Poor oral calcium intake and low level of daily activity were noted. The overall prevalence of osteopenia for the lumbar spine in the whole group was 35.7% while osteoporosis was present in 21.4% of the subjects. In the femoral neck, osteopenia was noted in 38% and osteoporosis in 11.4%. When either lumbar spine or femoral neck osteoporosis is used for diagnosis, the prevalence of osteoporosis rises to 23.5%. Within the whole group, osteopenia and osteoporosis were more common in individuals above the age of 50 than those below 50 years old. Low bone mineral density occurs with high frequency in Saudi men. Lumbar spine appears to be affected to a higher degree. The reason for the high prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men is unclear. Possible underlying causes include nutritional, life style and genetic factors. (author)

  19. The Prevalence of Inflammatory and Developmental Odontogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of odontogenic jaw cysts in a Libyan population and to compare the data with previously published ... cysts in different ethno-geographic backgrounds is essential for the early diagnosis and management of these benign yet potentially destructive lesions.

  20. Prevalence of stuttering in African American preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C; Zhang, Jie

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual interactions with each child, teacher identification, and parent identification of stuttering. No statistically significant difference for stuttering was found between AA and EA children. Using the investigator and teacher method of identification, the prevalence of stuttering was 2.52% for the entire sample. For both racial groups, boys exhibited a higher prevalence of stuttering than girls. Of the 3 predictors (age, race, sex) of stuttering, only sex was a significant predictor. AA 2- to 5-year-olds are not overrepresented in the stuttering population for this age group. When data are combined for both racial groups, the prevalence of stuttering is 2.52%. More boys than girls stuttered in this sample of preschoolers.

  1. Prevalence of Physical, Verbal and Nonverbal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    90.4% and 80.0%, respectively, while the prevalence rate of psychological distress among students who ... A survey study in a school in America revealed that more than 80%. 1Department of Psychology, College of Education and Behavioral Sciences, Jimma University, ... 52(13.5%) from Social Science and Law, 38.

  2. Factors Associated with Prevalent Tuberculosis Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Tuberculosis (TB) causes significant morbidity/mortality among human immunodeficiency virus‑infected individuals in Africa. Reducing TB burden in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a public health priority. Aim: We determined the factors associated with prevalent TB among ...

  3. Neonatal hypoglycaemia: prevalence and clinical manifestations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neonatal hypoglycaemia is associated with significant long term neuro-developmental sequelae. The signs and symptoms are often non-specific. Some are completely asymptomatic. Many cases therefore remain undiagnosed. This study was therefore designed to determine the prevalence, obstetric and ...

  4. Antisocial personalities: Measuring prevalence among offenders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The identification of offenders who meet the criteria for psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder or dissocial personality disorder could be of significant value to help address the violent crime crisis in South Africa. A sample of 500 male maximum security offenders was selected to determine the prevalence of these ...

  5. immunological arthritis Prevalence of biochemical and abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormali- ties was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39 ...

  6. Prevalence, types and factors associated with echocardiographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non invasive identification of cardiac abnormalities, such as Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH), diastolic and systolic dysfunction, is not part of diabetes complications surveillance programs in Uganda and there is limited data on this problem. This study sought to determine the prevalence, types and factors associated with ...

  7. Risk assessment: Prevalent occupational hazards in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In terms of human suffering and related economic costs, the magnitude of global impact of occupational accidents and diseases, as well as major industrial disasters, has been a long-standing source of concern at the international, national, and workplace level. Objective: To define the prevalent hazards in the ...

  8. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrom, Lars; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Angold, Adrian; Egger, Helen Link; Solheim, Elisabet; Sveen, Trude Hamre

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many disorders in childhood and adolescence were already present in the preschool years. However, there is little empirical research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young children. A true community study using structured diagnostic tools has yet to be published. Methods: All children born in 2003 or 2004 in the city of…

  9. Prevalence, types and psychopathologic consequences of female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using GHQ-12, Psychopathologic consequence of FGC was assessed among those who underwent FGC. Results: The prevalence of FGC among respondents in this study was 22.5%. Type 2a (removal of labia minora only) was the predominant type of FGC among respondents accounting for 64.6%; this was followed by ...

  10. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was seen. Conclusion: The prevalence of H. pylori infection is significantly high in rural and suburban population of Ernakulam district, Kerala. Early detection and prompt treatment are essential for prevention of serious complications. Keywords: Gastrointestinal complications, Helicobacter pylori infection, Histopathological ...

  11. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among adult patients with dyspepsia in northern Tanzania. ... Endoscopy (EGD) for initial work up. Study on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of H. pylori is recommended to guide choices for evidence based treatment option.

  12. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus among immunocompromised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B is an infectious inflammatory illness of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) which is transmitted to a large population through blood transfusion or by exposure to other body fluids. HBV is a member of the family Hepadnaviridae and also a DNA virus. In this study, the prevalence of hepatitis B infection ...

  13. Prevalence of hypocalcaemia and maternal complications among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plasma Calcium level is not a routine laboratory test conducted during pregnancy. The role of calcium supplementation to prevent maternal complications of pregnancy such as pre-eclampsia and pregnancy induced leg cramps is conflicting. Objective: To determine the prevalence of hypocalcaemia and ...

  14. Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for transfusion at the UNTH blood bank alone where a higher standard of ensuring safe blood transfusions is expected. Sexually active adults were included in the Lagos study and this may mean an additional risk factor for HIV transmission through sex. In contrast, the 1.6% sero-prevalence among the control group in this ...

  15. Prevalence and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Candidal vulvovaginitis causes extreme discomfort and affects the well being of women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Candida infections among women attending gynaecological clinic at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Kumasi and the antifungal susceptibility patterns of the ...

  16. Original Paper Prevalence of Arcobacter, Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-12

    Apr 12, 2011 ... Prevalence of Arcobacter, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and ... species by selective cultural procedures and for Escherichia coli, Salmonella species and Staphylococcus aureus enriched ... Point System monitoring of critical contamination points used in meat production to ensure food safety in.

  17. Prevalence and associated characteristics of cytomegalovirus (CMV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The screening for cytomegalovirus (CMV) specific antibodies is not routine in our setting, thus the transfusion of blood portends high risk for susceptible individuals. Objective: To determine the prevalence of IgG and IgM specific antibodies and associated characteristics in blood donors seen at a referral ...

  18. Prevalence of accommodative insufficiency and accommodative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of accommodative dysfunctions among Junior High School students in the Sunyani Municipality in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana. All the 204 students who were present in the randomly selected Junior High School on the day of the data collection participated in the study.

  19. Prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries among adolescent squash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries among adolescent squash players in the Western Cape. Design. A retrospective descriptive survey was conducted during the first week of May 2006. Three schools were randomly selected from a list of the top 10 schools in the. Western Cape high school ...

  20. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and Giardia intestinalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptosporidium species and Giardia intestinalis cause diarrheal infections in humans and other vertebrate animals globally and are considered to be of great public health importance. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence Cryptosporidium species and G. intestinalis infections among patients attending ...

  1. Prevalence of Campylobacter foetus and Trichomonas foetus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... 2Zoonotic Diseases Section, Agricultural Research Council-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (ARC-OVI), 100 Old. Soutpan Road ... abortion. The aim of this retrospective study was to estimate the prevalence of C. foetus and T. foetus .... These include Brucella spp, Listeria monocytogenes,. Leptospira spp.

  2. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  3. Prevalence factors associated with Hypertension in Rukungiri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypertension is a growing public health problem in Uganda and Africa as a whole. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence and identify factors associated withy hypertension among residents of the rural district of Rukungiri, Uganda. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study design was ...

  4. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders: data review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco ALCANTUD MARÍN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Published data on the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders point to a significant increase in this indicator. This increase is being studied in numerous publications of analysis, meta-analysis and systematic reviews. The prevalence indicates the proportion of people who suffer at a given time or are diagnosed with a disease. The consequences of the increasing prevalence are relevant from the point of health, social and educational, but especially relevant when as is the case, the cause of the disorder is unknown. It is in this sense that the prevalence study gains importance in order to delimit various circumstances that may give clues to the possible cause or causes that generate disorder. This article reviews studies, summarizes the last data, and reflects on them and possible causes that justify the increased reporting. It looks like these epidemiological indicators can or are influenced by possible methodological flaws behind, which can explain the variations between studies and others. It concludes by stating the need population studies and monitoring that allows us to know the reality of the evolution of these disorders in order to provide reliable information to those responsible for the institutions involved in the detection and treatment of ASD.

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to determine the pattern, prevalence and correlates of psychiatric disorders among the residents of a juvenile justice facility in Nigeria and to speculate appropriate policy responses. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional comparative study design, 60 consecutive residents of the Ibadan juvenile Remand home ...

  6. Prevalence and characterization of verotocytoxin producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important agent of haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome in children less than five years old and elderly people. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of verotocytoxin producing E. coli 0157 (VTEC O157) among human patients with diarrhoea in ...

  7. Prevalence and temporal distribution of Schistosoma haematobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-18

    Oct 18, 2010 ... (2003 and 2004). Occurrence of S. haematobium among hospital patients, university students and primary school children. The analysis of the urine samples collected from the hospitals indicated even higher prevalence of schisto- somiasis among out-patients visiting the hospitals for urinary tract infections.

  8. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF MALARIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The roles of causative factors responsible for prevalence of malaria in the village of Solana, India, were studied. Mosquitoes and larvae density in and around the area were measured by process of random sampling and counting their numbers under microscopy. Malaria in population of the village was diagnosed by ...

  9. The prevalence of electroencephalographic abnormalities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-05-20

    May 20, 2004 ... South African studies. There is little South African data examining either prevalence or usefulness of EEG abnormalities among adult psychiatric patients. Some work has been done in adolescents. Szabo1 reviewed all admissions to the adolescent inpatient unit at Tara. Hospital between 1990 and 1995.

  10. TABLE PREVALENCE OF GIT NEMATODES IN CATTLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A study was carried out on the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes infection in naturally infected cattle in Ogbomoso area of Oyo State using standard parasitological techniques. The results indicated that out of the 1000 cattle examined, 30(3%) were infected and parasites identified were Haemonchus contortus.

  11. Prevalence, knowledge attitude and practices associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this survey, the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) and prevalence of onchocerciasis were evaluated. For the KAP aspect of this survey, Interviewers administered questionnaire was used as instrument for collecting information from Respondents who participated in the skin snipping exercise. Skin snips were ...

  12. Prevalence and Susceptibility of extended spectrum beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extended spectrum beta – lactamases (ESBLs) are on the rise in hospital settings across the globe. The presence of ESBLs significantly affects the outcome of an infection and poses a challenge to the management of infection worldwide. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence and ...

  13. Prevalence, aetiology and antibiotic sensitivity profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Escherichia coli were the common organism isolated at 38.8%. The majority of the organisms were sensitive to imipenem and gentamycin. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of ASB among pregnant women included in the study from the Nairobi county clinics. Therefore, routine ASB screening of pregnant women is ...

  14. Prevalence of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes of small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from December, 2014 to May, 2015 on 914 animals (345 sheep and 569 goats) at Jalingo abattoir, Taraba State, Nigeria based on faecal examination. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes in slaughtered small ...

  15. Bullying in Academe: Prevalent, Significant, and Incessant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Macgorine A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the top-down perspective of bullying and mobbing of professors by analyzing why it is prevalent, significant, and incessant and then proposes a framework to produce a caring, respectful, and safe environment for professors to engage in their teaching, scholarship, and service. The author suggests that the failure of…

  16. Prevalence of keratoconus in an adolescent population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Valdez-García

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Through this study, we found that our statistics matched those of internationally published reports concerning the early age of onset of the disease and its corresponding bilateralism. However, contrary to the international reports, it was evident that this condition was more prevalent among the females in our study sample, and no other associated pathologies were found.

  17. Cofactors Influencing Prevalence and Intensity of Schistosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urine samples were collected from 657 individuals and analyzed by centrifugation, and the number of ova was determined by microscopy. ... Cattle rearing (OR=9.01; CI=4.00-20.75; P=0.00) and farming (OR=3.14; CI=1.82-5.43; P=0.00) showed significant association with the prevalence and intensity of the disease.

  18. Prevalence And Factors Associated With Chronic Diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A substantial proportion of patients with diabetes develop long-term macrovascular and microvascular complications. Many risk factors have identified for development and progression of these complications. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of these complications ...

  19. Prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries among young squash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries sustained by young squash players in Malaysia. This study was conducted retrospectively by using. Standardized Nordic Questionnaire (NSQ) during SUKMA 2016 at Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. The questionnaires were distributed to the ...

  20. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive airways disease and several cancers. There is little data about the prevalence and determinants of smoking among adolescents in southern Africa. This study aimed to determine the ...

  1. PREVALENCE OF BIRD LOUSE, MENACANTHUS CORNUTUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... Keywords: Bird Louse, Kano Sub-urb areas, Menacanthus cornutus, Poultry, Prevalence ... including retarded growth, low egg production and ..... Bush, S. E. and Clayton, D. H.. (2005). Correlated evolution of host and parasite body size: Tests of Harrison's rule using birds and lice. Evolution, 59: 1744-.

  2. Prevalence of behavioral changes in senile dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Jeronimo Svicero

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Owing to improvements in animal welfare, such as in nutrition, preventive medicine, and diagnostic tools, older dogs have become increasingly more prevalent than before. Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of dogs presenting behavioral changes correlated with this growth in the geriatric population. However, many of these owners consider these signs as normal for old age. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of clinical signs related with behavioral changes in the canine geriatric population admitted to the Veterinary Hospital of the Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science College of Universidade Estadual Paulista. The owners of 800 old dogs completed a questionnaire about disorientation, changes in social interaction, loss of training (house soiling, changes in the wake-sleep cycle, physical activity, memory, learning, consciousness, and perception. The results showed that the prevalence of behavioral changes in the canine geriatric population was 90.7% of dogs that presented at least one of these behavioral changes, and 22.3% with at least six changes, and with changes in physical activity (58.5% and loss of acquired training (30.2% being the highest percentage groups that were reported by the owners. We concluded that the prevalence of behavioral changes related with aging in the canine geriatric population was high, and that it was important to include questions about behavioral changes during regular veterinary clinical appointments to identify these clinical signs earlier and investigate the possible causes of the cognitive impairment, including neurological diseases, such as Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome.

  3. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a multidrug resistant bacterium that threatens the continued effectiveness of antibiotics worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MRSA and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern in patients with burns and bedsore. This was a cross- sectional ...

  4. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus is the leading overall cause otf nosocomial infections with increasing resistance to β lactam antibiotics. This study was carried out to study the current resistant/susceptibility pattern of S. aureus to β lactam antibiotics and prevalence of Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the studied population.

  5. Prevalence of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of ODH increased with age, professional grade, nature of work, gender and reported alcohol use. Smoking 10 or more cigarettes per day increased risk of ... biomedical and behavioral risk factors. A NCD prevention program and close monitoring of disease and risk factors trends are needed in this population.

  6. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome components, individually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome components, individually and in combination, in male patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome, without previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. ... They were categorized according to the specific criteria stated in the latest joint statement for the global definition of MS. Results: ...

  7. Prevalence Of Sleep Disturbances Among Primary Informal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Caregivers are at almost thrice the risk of sleep disturbances than the noncaregivers (OR = 2.7, CI= 1.26-1.74). Periodic screening of caregivers should be done with specific sleep instruments especially for those of them who operate dangerous machinery and commercial vehicles. Keywords: Prevalence, Sleep ...

  8. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in symptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... Chlamydia trachomatis is a ubiquitous human pathogen that is responsible for the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Studies show that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is more sensitive than cellular culture for detection of C. trachomatis infections. The aim of this study is to.

  9. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive erectile dysfunction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary illness is that of depression, with ED a symptom of the depressive disorder. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in men with erectile dysfunction. K Pankhurst, MB ChB. G Joubert, BA, MSc. P J Pretorius, MB ChB, MMed (Psych). Departments of Psychiatry and Biostatistics,. University of the Free State ...

  10. Prevalence and Predictors of Hypertension History among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypertension is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity around the world and has become a public health problem. Meanwhile, information on predictors of hypertension in Ghana seldom focuses on men. This study, therefore, sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of hypertension ...

  11. THE PREVALENCE OF CHILD ABUSE AMONG UNIVERSITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is an investigation into the prevalence of child psychological, physical, emotional, and ritualistic abuse among a sample of university students. A retrospective self-rating questionnaire was completed by 722 University of the North undergraduate students (South Africa) in a classroom setting. The questionnaire ...

  12. Prevalence of naevi in school children

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma N; Sharma R

    1991-01-01

    The prevalence of naevi in general and pigmented (melanocytic) naevi in particular was studied in school children. Naevi were seen in 73.6% of the examined children, while 73.1% of them had pigmented naevi. The average number of naevi was 5.4 per child with slight male preponderance. There was complete absence of naevi over palms and soles.

  13. Prevalence and susceptibility pattern of methicillinresistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multi-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MMRSA) has been commonly reported to be one of the commonest causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Also, recent reports describe methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage in persons in the community. The study investigated its prevalence in urine ...

  14. Prevalence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS predisposes to malnutrition. Malnutrition exacerbates HIV/AIDS progression resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. The magnitude of malnutrition in HIV/AIDS patients has not been well studied in Ethiopian setup. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated ...

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with anthropometric failure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Under nutrition is a problem of severe magnitude in low income countries like Nigeria. Adolescent school children might also be vulnerable. The dearth of data hinders planning of school health and nutrition programmes for school children. Objective: To determine the prevalence of stunting, thinness; vitamin A ...

  16. Prevalence of sleepwalking in an adult population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-07

    Jan 7, 2010 ... Prevalence of sleepwalking in an adult population. Celestine Okorome Mume*. Department of Mental Health, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun. State, Nigeria. Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities.

  17. Prevalence of Microalbuminuria among secondary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... DM and in one subject with sickle cell anemia. Conclusion: The prevalence of microalbuminuria in Nigerian adolescents is high. We recommend routine screening for microalbuminuria in adolescents for early detection and prevention of renal damage. Key words: microalbuminuria, obesity, hypertension, children, Nigeria ...

  18. Depression and anxiety in multisomatoform disorder: Prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Multisomatoform disorder (MSD) is characterised by ≥3 medically inexplicable, troublesome physical symptoms, together with a ≥2-year history of somatisation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in a South African sample MSD, and to compare demographic ...

  19. Prevalence of Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self‑reporting work related questionnaire on MSDs were distributed, including information on the location of MSD symptoms in the past 12 months and the pain experienced. Results: Musculoskeletal pain was most prevalent among dentists 61% (61/100), followed by surgeons 37% (37/100) and physicians 20% (20/100).

  20. Prevalence And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern Of Methicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial pathogen. We report the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of MRSA in Amravati, Maharashtra state (India). A total of 150 healthcare-associated (HA) sources (doctors mobiles phone and wound/pus swabs), and 160 ...

  1. Obsessive compulsive disorder- prevalence in Xhosaspeaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obsessive compulsive disorder- prevalence in Xhosaspeaking schizophrenia patients. ... No concordance for OCD was noted in the sibship group. Our findings differ from those in other parts of the world, and if replicated, might suggest unique protective environmental or genetic factors for OCD in certain ethnic groups.

  2. prevalence of schistosomiasis among secondary school boarding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emmy

    the study area. Keywords: Prevalence, Schistosomiasis, Boarding students, Potiskum, North-Eastern Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Schistosomiasis is the most common parasite transmitted through contact with fresh water. It is endemic in more than 70 low income countries where it occurs in rural areas and the fringes of cities.

  3. Prevalence of Sleepwalking in an Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mume, Celestine Okorome

    2010-01-01

    Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may be simple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. In children, episodes of sleepwalking are rarely violent; in adults, however, sleepwalking might include violence, which could endanger the patient or others and might precipitate legal issues. There is inadequate information on the prevalence and demographic correlates of sleepwalking in Nigeria. One objective of this study was to determine the lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking in an adult population in Ile-Ife, in Southwestern Nigeria. Another objective was to determine the age and sex distribution of sleepwalking among those who have experienced it at least once in their lifetime. A random sample of 228 healthy individuals aged 18-60 years was obtained and the members were asked to fill out a survey form about lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking. The overall lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking was 7% (16 of 228 participants). It was 10.4% in males and 3.5% in females, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). This study has shown that sleepwalking is common in the population. In view of the psychological effects of sleepwalking and the potential physical and legal problems associated with it, adequate efforts should be made for early detection and prompt management of the condition.

  4. Prevalence of schistosomiasis infection among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the prevalence of schistosomiasis infection was carried out among primary schools pupils in Awgu LGA, Enugu State, Nigeria. The primary schools include; Central Primary School Agbaogugu, Akegbi Primary School, Ogbaku Primary School, Ihe Primary School and Owelli-Court Primary School between ...

  5. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection among Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis has emerged as one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. The infection may lead to an important complication in pregnancy, as it has been related with prematurity and low birth weight. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis ...

  6. Prevalence of inappropriate prescribing in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnhøj, Lisbeth; Thirstrup, Steffen; Kristensen, Mogens Brandt

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of inappropriate prescribing in primary care in Copenhagen County, according to the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) and to identify the therapeutic areas most commonly involved. SETTING: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 212 elderly ( >65 years...

  7. Nationwide prevalence of groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Jakob; Pedersen, Michael; Bisgaard, Thue

    2013-01-01

    Groin hernia repair is a commonly performed surgical procedure in the western world but large-scaled epidemiologic data are sparse. Large-scale data on the occurrence of groin hernia repair may provide further understanding to the pathophysiology of groin hernia development. This study was undert...... was undertaken to investigate the age and gender dependent prevalence of groin hernia repair....

  8. Prevalence of Malocclusion among School children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tope

    measurement between the labio-incisal edge of the most prominent ... incisal edges of the maxillary incisors did not overlap the incisal edges ... (Table III). Prevalence of Malocclusion among School children in ...............61. Table II: DISTRIBUTION OF OVERJET AND OVERBITE. Overjet. Overbite n. % n. %. Normal. 301. 68.3.

  9. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    and Gram-positive bacteria. KEY WORDS: Antenatal women, antibiotic resistance, asymptomatic bacteriuria, prevalence, risk factors. INTRODUCTION. Urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy is classified as either symptomatic or asymptomatic. Symptomatic UTI are divided into lower tract (acute cystitis) and upper ...

  10. Prevalence of potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The high prevalence of zoonotic parasites detected in dog faeces from Ibadan metropolis showed that infected stray dogs roam the streets and constitute potential risk to human health. This study suggests the need for enforcement of laws restraining roaming or straying dogs and proper veterinary care of dogs.

  11. Prevalence of Campylobacter foetus and Trichomonas foetus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichomoniasis and campylobacteriosis are diseases caused by Trichomonas foetus and Campylobacter foetus respectively. These diseases pose economic losses due to infertility and abortion. The aim of this retrospective study was to estimate the prevalence of C. foetus and T. foetus among southern African cattle.

  12. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poultry are recognized as a main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, longitudinal studies investigating the persistence of Campylobacter on broilers and retail chciekn meat in Tanzania are rare. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. isolated ...

  13. Prevalence, severity and factors associated with peripheral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: To determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) among newly diag- nosed diabetes mellitus patients in ... socio-demographics, age, duration of symptoms and history of diabetic ulcer were analyzed using a multiple logistic regression. A p-value <0.05 was considered ...

  14. Prevalence and Severity of Depression among Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To highlight the prevalence and severity of depression among undergraduate students in public and private ... mental health effect of university education on undergraduate students, especially female students. Keywords: Depression ..... Kim YS, Koh YJ, Leventhal B. School bullying and suicidal risk in Korean ...

  15. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of schistosomiasis especially among school children in our environment. The inclusion of health education package aimed at changing behavior of school children from adverse water contact practices was recommended. Keywords: prevalence, urinary schistosomiasis, secondary school students. The Tropical Journal of ...

  16. SHORT COMMUNICATION High prevalence of Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    Abstract. Malaria and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections are major public health problems in Sub-Saharan. Africa. Their overlapping geographical distribution and co-existence often result into high morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to establish the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria ...

  17. Cystic echinococcosis: prevalence and economic significance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 at ELFORA export abattoir to determine the prevalence, cyst viability, organ distribution and economic significance of small ruminant cystic echinococcosis. A total of 850 small ruminants (400 sheep and 450 goats), were examined for the presence of ...

  18. Molar incisor hypomineralization, prevalence, and etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allazzam, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alaki, Sumer Madani; El Meligy, Omar Abdel Sadek

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the prevalence and possible etiological factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among a group of children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A group of 8-12-year-old children were recruited (n = 267) from the Pediatric Dental Clinics at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Children had at least one first permanent molar (FPM), erupted or partially erupted. Demographic information, children's medical history, and pregnancy-related data were obtained. The crowns of the FPM and permanent incisors were examined for demarcated opacities, posteruptive breakdown (PEB), atypical restorations, and extracted FPMs. Children were considered to have MIH if one or more FPM with or without involvement of incisors met the diagnostic criteria. Results. MIH showed a prevalence of 8.6%. Demarcated opacities were the most common form. Maxillary central incisors were more affected than mandibular (P = 0.01). The condition was more prevalent in children with history of illnesses during the first four years of life including tonsillitis (P = 0.001), adenoiditis (P = 0.001), asthma (P = 0.001), fever (P = 0.014), and antibiotics intake (P = 0.001). Conclusions. The prevalence of MIH is significantly associated with childhood illnesses during the first four years of life including asthma, adenoid infections, tonsillitis, fever, and antibiotics intake.

  19. Prevalence of Amoebiasis Infection amongst Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the prevalence of amoebiasis amongst primary school children in Uli, Ihiala Local Government Area, Anambra State. One hundred (100) randomly selected children from four schools, aged 4-15 years of both sexes were screened. Questionnaires were distributed and information on each child was ...

  20. Prevalence of smear positive tuberculosis among outpatient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is paucity of data on the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among out-patient attendees from individual Institutions and Health Care Facilities performing sputum smear microscopy in Ghana. This retrospective study analyzed sputum smear microscopy results among pulmonary TB suspected patients ...

  1. Campylobacter prevalence in retail chicken liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been linked to undercooked chicken liver. It is unknown how commonly chicken livers are contaminated with Campylobacter. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter on chicken livers available at retail. For each of five weeks, t...

  2. Prevalence Of Asymptomatic Significant Bacteriuria In Schoolgirls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enterococcus faecalis was found to be the predominant bacteria cause instead of Escherichia coli as reported in some literature. Girls in the age group 11 – 12 years had the highest prevalence of asymptomatic significant bacteriuria. Prevention of asymptomatic significant bacteriuria in schoolgirls rely on strict and proper ...

  3. Prevalence of urinary Schistosomiasis in Umuowele, Agulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used for snail species identification. Results: Haematuria revealed 48.1% prevalence rate among the pupils while PCR showed 58.3%. Three snails were also positive for schistosome infection one of which was identified as Bulinus truncatus while the other two belonged to ...

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with anthropometric failure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and factors associated with anthropometric failure, vitamin A and iron deficiency among adolescents in a Nigerian urban community. Rufina NB Ayogu, Ngozi M Nnam, Onyinye Ibemesi, Franca Okechukwu. University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Abstract. Background: Under nutrition is a problem of severe magnitude in ...

  5. Cyberaggression among Adolescents: Prevalence and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-García, David; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Núñez, José-Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to analyse the prevalence of cyber-aggression and cyber-victimization among adolescents in Asturias (Spain) and to identify possible gender differences. To this end, 3,175 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years were randomly selected from the student population attending compulsory secondary education in Asturias and…

  6. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoan Parasites Infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among primary school pupils in four communities of Bosso Local Government Area in Niger State, Nigeria. Stool samples from 250 pupils were collected and examined for Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia using ...

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of coagulase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of coagulase negative Staphylococci isolated from pigs and in-contact humans in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria. ... (53/401) of the isolates were CoNS species based on confirmatory test with Microgen biochemical kit and were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing.

  8. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization, Prevalence, and Etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Mohammed Allazzam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the prevalence and possible etiological factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH among a group of children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A group of 8-12-year-old children were recruited (n=267  from the Pediatric Dental Clinics at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Children had at least one first permanent molar (FPM, erupted or partially erupted. Demographic information, children’s medical history, and pregnancy-related data were obtained. The crowns of the FPM and permanent incisors were examined for demarcated opacities, posteruptive breakdown (PEB, atypical restorations, and extracted FPMs. Children were considered to have MIH if one or more FPM with or without involvement of incisors met the diagnostic criteria. Results. MIH showed a prevalence of 8.6%. Demarcated opacities were the most common form. Maxillary central incisors were more affected than mandibular (P=0.01. The condition was more prevalent in children with history of illnesses during the first four years of life including tonsillitis (P=0.001, adenoiditis (P=0.001, asthma (P=0.001, fever (P=0.014, and antibiotics intake (P=0.001. Conclusions. The prevalence of MIH is significantly associated with childhood illnesses during the first four years of life including asthma, adenoid infections, tonsillitis, fever, and antibiotics intake.

  9. Pharmacoepidemiology and prevalence of epileptic seizures in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish an estimated number of people living with epilepsy in southeastern Nigeria, to determine the prevalence and the utilization pattern of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). A cross sectional, observational survey was used in the study. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select ...

  10. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-29

    Jun 29, 2016 ... Introduction: The intestinal protozoa Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. are ... prevalence rate of the three organisms was found according to gender, but most of infections were observed in children aged 10 ..... In developing countries, poor hygiene and the use of untreated ...

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with Trichomonas vaginalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted parasitic infection known to cause vaginitis especially in women of child bearing age. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with T. vaginalis among pregnant women attending public health facilities in Mwanza City, ...

  12. Prevalence and Parasite Density of Asymptomatic Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria in pregnancy has contributed significantly to maternal morbidity and mortality in our environment. Aim: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, and parasite density of asymptomatic malaria parasitemia among unbooked paturients at Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki. Subjects and ...

  13. Antibiotic susceptibilities of Salmonella species prevalent among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Salmonella species among children having diarrhea in Katsina State, Nigeria. A total of 220 diarrhea stool samples of children aged five years and below (0-5 years) were collected and screened for Salmonella species using culture technique. Presumptively positive ...

  14. Prevalence of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cite as: Orish VN, Onyeabor OS, Boampong JN , Afoakwah R, Nwaefuna E, Acquah S, et al. Prevalence of intermittent preventive treat- ment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) use ..... by the increase of SP drug resistance in pregnant wom- en in Ghana since the adoption and implementation of. IPTp-SP policy35.

  15. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Headaches among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... 42.5%). Based on age, TTH was the most prevalent head subtype reported by 60.4% of students below 21 years followed by migrainous headache in 69.5% of students. The other headache types by their age and sex distribution are shown in Table 3. Majority of the students (90.2%) used acetaminophen.

  16. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  17. Knowledge and prevalence of Human African Trypanosomiasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and prevalence of Human African Trypanosomiasis among residents of Kachia grazing reserve, Kachia local government area, Kaduna state, ... Knowledge of HAT was scored 0-5 and categorized good (3-5) and poor (0-2) based on score, predisposition to risk of HAT as exposure to ≥two risk factors and, ...

  18. General morbidity prevalence in the Delhi slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the sickness prevalence in the slums of a metropolitan city? Objectives: To estimate the morbidity prevalence with reference to a socio-economic and demographic perspective of the slum population of Delhi. Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted and data were collected by a two-stage random sampling method. In the first stage, slum locations were selected and in the second stage households were selected. Participants: Data were collected from 1049 households consisting of 5358 individuals′ information. Results: The overall morbidity prevalence is 15.4%. It is 14.7 and 16.3% for males and females, respectively but the differences are not statistically significant. The reported higher morbidity prevalence and the illiteracy status are significantly associated. Diseases of the respiratory system appear to be very high among slum dwellers. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the number of years of staying in the slum area, presence of a separate kitchen, type of house, it being Pucca or Kuccha, types of toilet pits or open defecation are the important environmental factors for the reports of higher morbidity patterns from the slum area.

  19. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection among Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection was investigated among 100 women attending infertility clinics and compared with another subset of 100 pregnant women who served as control. Chlamydia trachomatis antigen detection cassette supplied by Biomil Diagnostics was used to detect the presence of ...

  20. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in symptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a ubiquitous human pathogen that is responsible for the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Studies show that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is more sensitive than cellular culture for detection of C. trachomatis infections. The aim of this study is to compare different ...

  1. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world with severe complications. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors of C. trachomatis in Kano. There is dearth of information on this subject in this locality. Method: Urine samples ...

  2. Factors Associated with Prevalent Tuberculosis Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) causes significant morbidity/mortality among human immunodeficiency virus‑infected individuals in Africa. Reducing TB burden in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a public health priority. Aim: We determined the factors associated with prevalent TB among patients ...

  3. Prevalence of concurrent balantidosis and giardoosis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no variation (P > 0.05) among sex or age groups except in the young chimpanzees (< 12 months) of age that showed higher prevalence of infection (P ... can occur synergistically in captive primates and may also be a source of parasitic zoonosis to human attendants on one hand and tourist on the other hand.

  4. PREVALENCE OF HYPOSPADIAS, ABDOMINAL AND PENO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of hypospadias, patent processus vaginalis, umbilical hernia, splenomegaly and cryptorchidism in primary school boys of a Nigerian community. Patients and Methods A community-based observational study using the cluster-sampling method was done. One thousand and ninety-six ...

  5. Prevalence and Psychological Characterization of Smoking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and Psychological Characterization of Smoking amongst University Students in Abbottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. ... symptoms associated with withdrawal include mood disturbance (16.1 %), headache (9.9 %), tiredness (7.5 %), constipation (11.3 %), dry mouth (10.4 %), sleep disturbance (6.9 %) ...

  6. 65 PREVALENCE, PREDISPOSING FACTORS AND ANTIBIOGRAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the prevalence and predisposing factors of swine skin abscess in selected farms in Ibadan, ... all isolates were resistant to Cloxacillin. Among the sensitive .... Table 3: Overall sensitivity and resistance profiles of bacterial spp. isolated from swine skin abscesses. S/No Antibiotics. No. of sensitive isolates. Sensitivity. %. No of.

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Soil Contamination Rate, Prevalence, Intensity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... January 2018. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v28i1.8. 64. INTRODUCTION. Soil contamination with parasite eggs, infective larvae, cysts and oocysts constitutes the most important risk factor for some human parasitic .... 0.05 since no report was recorded for infection prevalence of intestinal parasitic ...

  8. Prevalence, perceptions and practices surrounding neonatal breast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These lead to increased morbidity such as abscess formation and cellulitis. Objective: To document prevalence of, and perceptions about neonatal breast enlargement in newborns and interventions if any in south east Nigeria. Results: Neonatal breast enlargement was present in 50.8% of the target population with females ...

  9. Original Research Prevalence and distribution of Schistosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the current prevalence and distribution of S. haematobium infection in school children along the southwestern shores of Lake Malawi and examine the control interventions present in the area. Methods. This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in primary schools. School children ...

  10. The prevalence and factors associated with musculoskeletal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a condition characterized by a predominance of haemoglobin S (hbss) in the red blood cells. Musculoskeletal involvement is one of the commonest clinical manifestations of SCA. There is limited information on the prevalence, patterns and factors associated with Musculoskeletal ...

  11. Anaemia prevalence and factors associated with haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    felix mmassy

    cancer type and associated factors as well as haemoglobin level before and after radiation were obtained. The prevalence of .... Table 1: Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with cancers by sex. Variable ... colorectal cancer was 100% and dropped to 50% after radiotherapy (Table 2). Figure 2: ...

  12. Prevalence of ectoparasites attacking helmet guineafowl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectoparatises fluctuated seasonally with overall prevalence higher in the hot dry season (p<0.01) and warm wet season (p<0.05) than the cool dry harmattan season. It was striking that classical clinical infestations were seldom seen despite widespread occurrence of heavy burdens. Keywords: ectoparasites, guineafowls ...

  13. 8. Prevalence of Epistaxis among Patients Receiving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The aim of this study was thus to determine the prevalence, aetiology and treatment modalities of epistaxis among patients receiving otorhinolaryngology services at MNH and MOI. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, hospital based study was done to 427 patients at Muhimbili. National Hospital (MNH) and Muhimbili.

  14. 63 - 66 Manga - SERO-PREVALENCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. Infection with cytomegalo virus (CMV), especially in pregnancy may cause pregnancy complications such as congenital infection, non-hereditary deafness, intrauterine growth restriction and other high defects. This study was to evaluate the prevalence of CMV in pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinics at ...

  15. Prevalence of common food allergies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaru, B I; Hickstein, L; Panesar, S S

    2014-01-01

    Allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish constitutes the majority of food allergy reactions, but reliable estimates of their prevalence are lacking. This systematic review aimed to provide up-to-date estimates of their prevalence in Europe.Studies published...... interval: 5.7-6.4), 2.5% (2.3-2.7), 3.6% (3.0-4.2), 0.4% (0.3-0.6), 1.3% (1.2-1.5), 2.2% (1.8-2.5), and 1.3% (0.9-1.7), respectively. The prevalence of food-challenge-defined allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish was 0.6% (0.5-0.8), 0.2% (0.2-0.3), 0.1% (0...... to compare the estimates of soy and wheat allergy between the age groups. Allergy to most foods, except soy and peanut, appeared to be more common in Northern Europe. In summary, the lifetime self-reported prevalence of allergy to common foods in Europe ranged from 0.1 to 6.0%. The heterogeneity between...

  16. Prevalence of obesity recorded in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Angulo, María Luisa; Amenabar Azurmendi, Miren Dolores; Cuesta Solé, María Lourdes; Prieto Esteban, Irene; Mancebo Martínez, Sara; Iglesias Alonso, Amparo

    2014-11-01

    To ascertain the prevalence of obesity and overweight recording in primary care (PC) clinical records. A descriptive, cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in three urban, primary care centers in Gipuzkoa. 620 computerized clinical records randomly selected from a population of 63,820. Patient age older than 14 years was the only inclusion criterion. Recording of the clinical episode referring to obesity and/or overweight. Other variables included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, comorbidity (diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, among others), and variability of the record made by healthcre professionals at each center. Statistical analysis included a Chi-square test or a Fisher's test for low frequencies. A value of P<.05 was considered significant. Analysis was performed using SPSS(®) v.21 software. Prevalence of recorded obesity was 6%, and 78.4% of those with recorded obesity were women. Overweight was recorded in 3% of subjects, of which 33.2% were women. BMI was recorded in 170 cases (27%). At least one comorbidity was found in 241 subjects (39%). Association of BMI with presence of comorbidity was statistically significant (P=.0001). Recording of obesity was associated to presence of comorbidity (P =.0002). This study confirmed that prevalence of obesity is underestimated, mainly because it is inadequately recorded in clinical histories; that prevalence increases in the presence of other risk factors; and that there is a significant variability in data collection between healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4 had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2 smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8 smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use

  18. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  19. Decomposing Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Chelsea R.; Affuso, Olivia; Sen, Bisakha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Racial disparities in obesity exist at the individual and community levels. Retail food environment has been hypothesized to be associated with racial disparities in obesity prevalence. This study aimed to quantify how much food environment measures explain racial disparities in obesity at the county level. Methods Data from 2009 to 2010 on 3,135 U.S. counties were extracted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Environment Atlas and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and analyzed in 2013. Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition was used to quantify the portion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high and low proportion of African American residents is explained by food environment measures (e.g., proximity to grocery stores, per capita fast food restaurants). Counties were considered to have a high African American population if the percentage of African American residents was >13.1%, which represents the 2010 U.S. Census national estimate of percentage African American citizens. Results There were 665 counties (21%) classified as a high African American county. The total gap in mean adult obesity prevalence between high and low African American counties was found to be 3.35 percentage points (32.98% vs 29.63%). Retail food environment measures explained 13.81% of the gap in mean age-adjusted adult obesity prevalence. Conclusions Retail food environment explains a proportion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high proportion of African American residents and counties with a low proportion of African American residents. PMID:26507301

  20. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among elderly Mexicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodríguez, María Araceli; Yáñez-Velasco, Lucía; Carnevale, Alessandra; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Bernal, Demetrio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Rojas, Rosalba; Villa, Antonio; Tur, Josep A

    2017-11-01

    One of the most prevalent chronic diseases among elderly population is the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MetS and associated factors among Mexican elderly people. Cross-sectional survey carried out in Mexico (2007). A random sample (n=516) of the elderly population (≥65years; 277 female, 239 male) was interviewed. Anthropometric and analytical measurements, and a general questionnaire incorporating questions related to socio-demographic and life-style factors were used. MetS definition AHA/NHLBI/IDF was applied. The prevalence of MetS in the elderly (≥65years) was of 72.9% (75.7% men; 70.4% women). Participants with values above MetS cut-off points were 92.4% (hypertension), 77.8% (hypertriglyceridemia), 77.1% (low HDL-cholesterol), 71.1% (hyperglycaemia), and 65.4% (central obesity). People with MetS showed higher values of anthropometric and biochemical variables than those without MetS, except for the height, cholesterol and creatinine. Mid-high education level (9-12 years), no smokers and former smokers, and Central-Western inhabitants of Mexico were associated with MetS components. BMI status was the main determinant of MetS prevalence and MetS components. The reported prevalence of MetS among the elderly Mexican population was higher than those previously obtained in the geographical area, showing a major public health problem in Mexican elders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of infectious keratitis in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The baseline data pertaining to the national epidemiological survey of infectious keratitis remain scarce in China, and currently there is no corneal blindness control strategy developed by the nation. Methods Geographically defined cluster sampling was used to randomly select a cross-section of residents from representative urban and rural populations in Hubei Province. Participants were selected from village registers, followed by door-to-door household visits. The assessment items included a structured interview, visual acuity testing, external eye examination, and anterior segment examination using slit lamp. Causes and sequelae of corneal disease were identified according to uniform customized protocol. Results The prevalence of presenting corneal diseases was 0.8% (211/26 305), while the prevalence of infectious keratitis was 0.148% (39/26 305). The prevalences of viral, bacterial, and fungal keratitis were 0.065, 0.068, and 0.015%, respectively. There were no significant differences found between the prevalences of viral (accounting for 43.6%) and bacterial (accounting for 46.2%) corneal ulcers. cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis were not found. Infectious keratitis was the leading cause of corneal blindness (85.7%), and the prevalence of blindness in at least one eye resulting from infected corneas was 0.091% (95% CI: 0.067-0.127%). Conclusions Viral and bacterial mechanisms constitute the most important risk factors for infectious corneal ulcers in Central China. To reduce the rate and severity of infectious keratitis, he public health care policy should be focused on designing cost-effective strategies and operational programs for the prevention and prompt treatment of infectious corneal ulcers. PMID:24690368

  2. Teens' distracted driving behavior: Prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Pnina; Zhu, Chunming; Klauer, Sheila G; Dingus, Tom; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Teen drivers' over-involvement in crashes has been attributed to a variety of factors, including distracted driving. With the rapid development of in-vehicle systems and portable electronic devices, the burden associated with distracted driving is expected to increase. The current study identifies predictors of secondary task engagement among teenage drivers and provides basis for interventions to reduce distracted driving behavior. We described the prevalence of secondary tasks by type and driving conditions and evaluated the associations between the prevalence of secondary task engagement, driving conditions, and selected psychosocial factors. The private vehicles of 83 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with Data Acquisition Systems (DAS), which documented driving performance measures, including secondary task engagement and driving environment characteristics. Surveys administered at licensure provided psychosocial measures. Overall, teens engaged in a potentially distracting secondary task in 58% of sampled road clips. The most prevalent types of secondary tasks were interaction with a passenger, talking/singing (no passenger), external distraction, and texting/dialing the cell phone. Secondary task engagement was more prevalent among those with primary vehicle access and when driving alone. Social norms, friends' risky driving behaviors, and parental limitations were significantly associated with secondary task prevalence. In contrast, environmental attributes, including lighting and road surface conditions, were not associated with teens' engagement in secondary tasks. Our findings indicated that teens engaged in secondary tasks frequently and poorly regulate their driving behavior relative to environmental conditions. Practical applications: Peer and parent influences on secondary task engagement provide valuable objectives for countermeasures to reduce distracted driving among teenage drivers. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and

  3. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  4. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  5. In developed countries male circumcision prevalence is inversely related to HIV prevalence

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Brian J.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    A study by Chemtob and co-workers found significantly lower prevalence of HIV amongst heterosexual men and women in Israel compared with the Netherlands and France. Risk factors for heterosexual HIV infection in these countries were similar, apart from one, namely, a strikingly higher prevalence of male circumcision (MC) in Israel compared with the Netherlands and France. It is now well established that MC protects heterosexual men against becoming infected with HIV during sexual intercourse ...

  6. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimagham, Hamidreza; Haghighi, Anousheh; Tayebi, Mehdi; Jenabi, Arya; Arabi, Mohsen; Kianmehr, Nahid

    2014-05-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome and to identify whether fibromyalgia was associated with various clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters in hemodialysis patients. One hundred and forty-eight hemodialysis patients were examined for fibromyalgia symptoms according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Demographic characteristics, as well as causes of kidney failure, dialysis duration, and symptoms related to fibromyalgia were investigated. Of 148 patients, 18 (12.2%) were diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Patients with fibromyalgia had significantly poorer sleeping satisfaction than the control group (P = .02).The Beck Depression Inventory score was higher in 77.8% of the fibromyalgia patients than that in the control group (P = .006), but there was no significant difference in the anxiety score between the two groups (P = .86).In conclusion, there was a higher prevalence of fibromyalgia in hemodialysis patients than previously reported. Sleep disturbances and depression levels correlated with fibromyalgia.

  7. [Orthorectic eating behaviour - nosology and prevalence rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthels, Friederike; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2012-12-01

    Orthorectic eating behaviour is characterised by a fixation on a healthy diet and rigidity regarding self-imposed nutrition standards. Besides malnutrition, subjective distress and social isolation might be consequences of clinical relevance. So far there are few reliable data about nosology and prevalence rates, so that it is not yet possible to evaluate the clinical significance of orthorectic eating behaviour. This article discusses nosological classifications of orthorexia and presents prevalence rates of extremely healthy eating behaviour in general population as well as in several specific subgroups. To summarise, orthorectic eating behaviour seems to be most likely an eating disorder with healthy dieting as an overvalued idea. Data on prevelance of orthorectic eating behaviour, assessed with the recently developed Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala, suggest a rate of 1 to 2% in general population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Prevalence of falls in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor, Priscila Regina Rorato; de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Kovaleski; Kohler, Renan; Winter, Gabriele Regiane; Rodacki, Cintia; Krause, Maressa Priscila

    2015-01-01

    To verify prevalence of falls and fear of falling, and to compare functional fitness among elderly women fallers and non-fallers. Seventy-eight elderly women participated in this study. Cases of falls and the fear of falling were self-reported by the elderly women, while the functional fitness was measured by a set of functional tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample. Independent t-test was used to compare functional fitness between groups. The prevalence of falls in this sample was 32.4%. Among women fallers, 40% self-reported a high fear of falling. It is recommended that functional and resistance exercises are included in the preventive strategies for reducing risk factors for falls and its determinants in elderly women. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic-Prospective Study.

  9. Prevalence of Domestic Violence Among Trauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Khalil, Mazhar; Zangbar, Bardiya; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Orouji, Tahereh; Pandit, Viraj; O'Keeffe, Terence; Tang, Andrew; Gries, Lynn; Friese, Randall S; Rhee, Peter; Davis, James W

    2015-12-01

    Domestic violence is an extremely underreported crime and a growing social problem in the United States. However, the true burden of the problem remains unknown. To assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients. A 6-year (2007-2012) retrospective analysis of the prospectively maintained National Trauma Data Bank. Trauma patients who experienced domestic violence and who presented to trauma centers participating in the National Trauma Data Bank were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes (995.80-995.85, 995.50, 995.52-995.55, and 995.59) and E codes (E967.0-E967.9). Patients were stratified by age into 3 groups: children (≤18 years), adults (19-54 years), and elderly patients (≥55 years). Trend analysis was performed on April 10, 2014, to assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence over the years. Trauma patients presenting to trauma centers participating in the National Trauma Data Bank. To assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients. A total of 16 575 trauma patients who experienced domestic violence were included. Of these trauma patients, 10 224 (61.7%) were children, 5503 (33.2%) were adults, and 848 (5.1%) were elderly patients. The mean (SD) age was 15.9 (20.6), the mean (SD) Injury Severity Score was 10.9 (9.6), and 8397 (50.7%) were male patients. Head injuries (46.8% of patients) and extremity fractures (31.2% of patients) were the most common injuries. A total of 12 515 patients (75.1%) were discharged home, and the overall mortality rate was 5.9% (n = 980). The overall reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients was 5.7 cases per 1000 trauma center discharges. The prevalence of domestic violence increased among children (14.0 cases per 1000 trauma center discharges in 2007 to 18.5 case per 1000 trauma center discharges in 2012; P = .001) and adults (3.2 cases per 1000 discharges in 2007 to 4.5 cases per

  10. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Chemicals used for the manufacturing of rubber are known causes of allergic contact dermatitis on the hands. Recent European studies have suggested a decrease in thiuram contact allergy. Moreover, while an association with hand dermatitis is well established, we have recently observed...... several clinical cases with allergic facial dermatitis to rubber. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate temporal trends of contact allergy to rubber accelerators from the European baseline series in a tertiary patch test clinic in Denmark, and examine associations with anatomical locations of dermatitis. METHODS: Patch.......0%, mercaptobenzothiazole 2.0% and mercapto mix 1.0%. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of contact allergy to rubber accelerators was 3.1% with no significant change during the study period (Ptrend = 0.667). Contact allergy to thiuram mix was the most prevalent and was significantly associated with occupational contact...

  11. Serogroup prevalence of Shigellae in Bombay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonawala M

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Shigellae serotypes in Bombay was studied from June 1988 to May 1991. A total of 2758 faecal specimens were collected from paediatric patients (< 12 yrs with acute gastroenteritis. A total of 90 Shigella were isolated giving the isolation rate of 3.2%. Shigella flexneri was the predominant serogroup (73.3% followed by Shigella dysenteriae (16.6%. All the isolates were sensitive to nalidixic acid. Eighty percent of the Shigellae were multidrug resistant. Present data were compared with the study carried out during the period of 1983-87 from the same institute. A change in the serogroup prevalence was noted wherein Shigella flexneri dominated over Shigella dysenteriae since 1985. Increase in resistance to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole was seen in Shigella flexneri strains as compared to previous years.

  12. Pakistan prevalence survey in acute pharyngitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathi, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of Group A beta haemolytic Streptococcus in patients with acute pharyngitis and correlation of Modified Centor Score and Rapid Antigen Detection Test. Methods: The multi-centre, prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 major cities of Pakistan between June 2012 and February 2013, and comprised patients presenting with acute pharyngitis. The subjects were above 3 years of age presenting to primary care physician with sore throat, temperature over 100.4 (degree) F, tonsillar exudates and/or cervical adenopathy (duration of symptoms 4. Conclusion: The prevalence of Group A beta haemolytic Streptococcus as a cause of acute pharyngitis was 25.3%. Modified Centor Score had a strong positive correlation with Rapid Antigen Detection Test in identifying Group A beta haemolytic Streptococcus as a cause of acute pharyngitis. (author)

  13. Postcoital Dysphoria: Prevalence and Psychological Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Schweitzer, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The findings confirm that PCD is under‐recognized and under‐researched. There appears to be no relationship between PCD and intimacy in close relationships. Further research is necessary to understand the subjective experience of PCD and to inform the development of a reliable measure. Schweitzer RD, O'Brien J, and Burri A. Postcoital dysphoria: Prevalence and psychological correlates. Sex Med 2015;3:229–237.

  14. Motion sickness prevalence in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Isadora Ferreira; Douglas de Oliveira, Dhelfeson Willya; Oliveira-Ferreira, Fernanda; Andrade, Peterson M O

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of motion sickness in schoolchildren and related the finding to the postural balance and quality of life. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out with 831 children aged 7 to 12 years. The frequency of motion sickness was evaluated based on the Motion Sickness Susceptibility Questionnaire-Short (MSSQ-short). Postural balance was assessed using the Romberg test under different sensory conditions. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory was used in order to assess the quality of life. The statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Spearman correlation tests. The prevalence of motion sickness was 43.4 % in car, 43.2 % on bus, 11.7 % on park swing, and 11.6 % on Ferris wheel. Mean unadjusted scores on the MSSQ-short ranged from 5.0 (SE = 0.5) for 10-year-olds to 6.8 (SE = 0.5) for 9-year-olds. The most prevalent symptoms following the balance tests were dizziness (89.2 %), vertigo (54.9 %), headache (10.6 %), and nausea (8.2 %). Significant correlations were found between the MSSQ-short score and all postural balance tests. Significant correlations were found between the MSSQ and modified DHI (Dizziness Handicap Inventory) at all ages. The prevalence of motion sickness in schoolchildren is greater when in a car or on a bus. An association was found between motion sickness and postural balance tests and motion sickness and quality of life.

  15. Colour blindness-A rural prevalence survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natu Maya

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Colour vision is important for aeroplane pilots, motor drivers, seamen and signal men for their professional work Not much of attention has been paid to population studies of colour blindness as there is no interference with daily routine in majority of persons However there is a need to undertake community wide prevalence surveys which could be useful in study of other genetically transmitted diseases

  16. The etiology and prevalence of gingival recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Moawia M; Cohen, Robert E

    2003-02-01

    Gingival recession in its localized or generalized form is an undesirable condition resulting in root exposure. The result often is not esthetic and may lead to sensitivity and root caries. Exposed root surfaces also are prone to abrasion. The purpose of this article is to describe the prevalence, etiology and factors associated with gingival recession. The authors reviewed cross-sectional epidemiologic studies of gingival recession and found that they correlated the prevalence of recession to trauma, sex, malpositioned teeth, inflammation and tobacco consumption. The recent surveys they reviewed revealed that 88 percent of people 65 years of age and older and 50 percent of people 18 to 64 years of age have one or more sites with recession. The presence and extent of gingival recession also increased with age. More than 50 percent of the population has one or more sites with gingival recession of 1 mm or more. The prevalence of gingival recession was found in patients with both good and poor oral hygiene. It has been proposed that recession is multifactorial, with one type being associated with anatomical factors and another type with physiological or pathological factors. Recession has been found more frequently on buccal surfaces than on other aspects of the teeth. Dentists should be knowledgeable about the etiology, prevalence and associating factors of gingival recession, as well as treatment options, so that appropriate treatment modalities can be offered to patients. Treatments for gingival recession include gingival grafting, guided tissue regeneration and orthodontic therapy. Such treatments typically result in esthetic improvement, elimination of sensitivity and a decreased risk of developing root caries.

  17. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites of Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worthy of note, was the recovery of Heterophid flukes in this study which have not been previously reported in Nigeria and pose a great zoonotic threat. It was observed that fishes of standard length range of 20- 30cm (82.4%) were more infected than those of 30-40cm (65.0%) and 40-50cm (61.5%). The highest prevalence ...

  18. Increasing Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Soo; Shin, Hayley; Song, Jung Han; Kwak, Soo Heon; Kang, Seon Mee; Won Yoon, Ji; Choi, Sung Hee; Cho, Sung Il; Park, Kyong Soo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Jang, Hak Chul; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The number of people with metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide, and changes in socioenvironmental factors contribute to this increase. Therefore, investigation of changes in metabolic syndrome and its components in South Korea, where rapid socioenvironmental changes have occurred in recent years, would be foundational in setting up an effective strategy for reducing this increasing trend. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We compared the prevalence and pattern of metabolic syndrome ...

  19. Forecasting Diabetes Prevalence in California: A Microsimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Lu; van Meijgaard, Jeroen; Fielding, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Setting a goal for controlling type 2 diabetes is important for planning health interventions. The purpose of this study was to explore what may be a feasible goal for type 2 diabetes prevention in California. Methods We used the UCLA Health Forecasting Tool, a microsimulation model that simulates individual life courses in the population, to forecast the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in California's adult population in 2020. The first scenario assumes no further increases in ave...

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of aggressive periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Diatri Nariratih; Janti Rusjanti; Agus Susanto

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive Periodontitis is one of periodontal disease that generally affects individuals less than 30 years old, with a rapid attachment loss and alveolar bone destruction. Special features of the disease are affected incisors and first molars with symmetrical bilateral destruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Aggressive Periodontitis at Student Clinics, Faculty of Dentistry Padjadjaran University on May to July 2010. Based on accidentally...

  1. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization, Prevalence, and Etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Allazzam, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alaki, Sumer Madani; El Meligy, Omar Abdel Sadek

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the prevalence and possible etiological factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among a group of children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A group of 8-12-year-old children were recruited (n = 267) from the Pediatric Dental Clinics at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Children had at least one first permanent molar (FPM), erupted or partially erupted. Demographic information, children's medical history, and pregnancy-related data wer...

  2. Prevalence of multimorbidity in medical inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Florian; Kaplan, Vladimir; Rodak, Roksana; Battegay, Edouard; Holzer, Barbara

    2012-03-09

    To validate the estimates of the prevalence of multimorbidity based on administrative hospital discharge data, with medical records and chart reviews as benchmarks. Retrospective cohort study. Medical division of a tertiary care teaching hospital. A total of 170 medical inpatients admitted from the emergency unit in January 2009. The prevalence of multimorbidity for three different definitions (≥2 diagnoses, ≥2 diagnoses from different ICD-10 chapters, and ≥2 medical conditions as defined by Charlson/Deyo) and three different data sources (administrative data, chart reviews, and medical records). The prevalence of multimorbidity in medical inpatients derived from administrative data, chart reviews and medical records was very high and concurred for the different definitions of multimorbidity (≥2 diagnoses: 96.5%, 95.3%, and 92.9% [p = 0.32], ≥2 diagnoses from different ICD-10 chapters: 86.5%, 90.0%, and 85.9% [p = 0.46], and ≥2 medical conditions as defined by Charlson/Deyo: 48.2%, 50.0%, and 46.5% [p = 0.81]). The agreement of rating of multimorbidity for administrative data and chart reviews and administrative data and medical records was 94.1% and 93.0% (kappa statistics 0.47) for ≥2 diagnoses; 86.0% and 86.5% (kappa statistics 0.52) for ≥2 diagnoses from different ICD-10 chapters; and 82.9% and 85.3% (kappa statistics 0.69) for ≥2 medical conditions as defined by Charlson/Deyo. Estimates of the prevalence of multimorbidity in medical inpatients based on administrative data, chart reviews and medical records were very high and congruent for the different definitions of multimorbidity. Agreement for rating multimorbidity based on the different data sources was moderate to good. Administrative hospital discharge data are a valid source for exploring the burden of multimorbidity in hospital settings.

  3. Prevalence of Becker Nevus in Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Karabacak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Becker nevus (BN, characterized by sharply and irregularly bordered, unilaterally localized, hyperpigmented macules and patches which can go along with hypertrichosis, is a kind of hamartomatous lesion that predominantly affects males 4-6 times more frequently than females. It is usually seen in peripubertal period. There are scarce epidemiological data on BN and the prevalence in our country is also unknown. In this prospective, cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of BN among young adult males in Turkey.Materials and Methods: 8207 male candidates from different regions of Turkey who would be selected as a student in a governmental school and were referred to the dermatology outpatient clinic between March 2012 and August 2012, were included in our study. In addition to comprehensive medical examination, candidates were also inspected for the presence of BN, its localization, the asociation with hypertrichosis, and the findings were recorded.Results: The mean age of the candidates was 20.02±1.40 (range: 18-22 years and the mean age at BN onset was 12.2. BN was detected in 68 out of 8207 candidates (two different localizations in one subject. The prevalence of BN was calculated as 0.82%. The distribution of BN localization was as follows: mostly on the pectoral region ( 24.64%, and in decreasing order, on the scapular region (23.18%, shoulder (18.84%, infrascapular region (17.39%, arm (5.80%, abdomen (5.80% and the thigh (4.35%. Hypertrichosis was present on 34 out of 69 BN (49.2% that were found in 68 subjects.Conclusion: In our study, it was determined that BN was mainly localized on the pectoral and scapular regions, the prevalence was 0.82% and, 49,2% of the lesions were hypertrichotic.

  4. Prevalence of osteoporosis in Thai men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongchaiyakul, Chatlert; Apinyanurag, Chalermchai; Soontrapa, Supasil; Soontrapa, Sugree; Pongchaiyakul, Choowong; Nguyen, Tuan V; Rajatanavin, Rajata

    2006-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a growing health problem not only in women but also in men. However, there is a scarcity of epidemiologic data to study osteoporosis in Thai men. To examine the bone mineral density (BMD) and to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in Thai men. A total of 412 men (159 from Bangkok and 253 from Khon Kaen, respectively) averaging 51 +/- 16 years of age, were measured for BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (LUNAR Corporation, WI, USA). The peak BMD was observed in men 20-29 years of age at both the femoral neck (mean +/- SD, 1.10 +/- 0.15 g/cm2) and lumbar spine (mean +/- SD, 1.17 +/- 0.13 g/cm2). The prevalence of osteoporosis in the entire group of subjects was 12.6, 4.6 and 3.9 per cent at the femoral neck, lumbar spine and both sites, respectively. The prevalence of osteoporosis increased with advancing age and was significantly higher at the femoral neck in urban men than rural men (18.2 vs 9.2 per cent, p men.

  5. PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN GRANITE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srilakshmi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS has significantly increased over the last few decades and has become a main health challenge worldwide. Prevalence of MS is quickly rising in developing countries due to changing lifestyle. It was considered worthwhile to study MS and its components in granite workers since granite factories are situated in and around Khammam area. Moreover, no studies of MS in granite workers have been reported in literature. OBJECTIVES: Aim of our study is to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in granite workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 210 male workers in the age group of 20 - 50 working in granite industries located in and around the Khammam town of Telangana State are selected for the present study. Blood pressures (BP, waist circumference (WC were measured. Fasting blood samples were collected for the estimation of glucose and lipids. RESULTS: 69 subjects out of 210 were identified as having MS based on updated National cholesterol education programme - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP - ATP III guidelines. CONCLUSION: MS should be identified and remedial measures may be suggested, so that the risk of hypertension, cardiovascular risk, diabetes and the resultant morbidity is minimized and can be delayed

  6. Prevalence of Migraine Headache in Epileptic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayena Jabbehdari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders which a physician might come across in his career life. On the other hand, migraine is common disorders in society chronic headache such as migraine in epileptic patients give ride to difficulties in seizure treatment due to altering the sleeping pattern and calmness disarrangement. Therefore, early diagnosis and suitable treatment in epileptic patients is definitely inevitable, and it will help in a more desirable patients' treatment. So we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of migraine in epileptic patients and relation between these two disorders. Number of 150 epileptic patients attended to neurology clinic of Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital and Iranian Epilepsy Association between June 2010 to May 2011 were fulfilled the questionnaire, and the data has been assessed by SPSS software. In this study, we used MS-Q (migraine screening -questionnaire designed for early diagnosis of migraine in the general population. From all patients filling the questionnaire, the prevalence of migraine (with or without aura was as follows: 23 persons had criteria compatible with migraine with aura; 26 patients had migraine without aura. Migraine was more common in these patients: persons with academic degrees, women, patients who were used 2 antiepileptic drugs, and patients with high BMI. In this study, we showed that migraine in epileptic patients is more prevalent than the general population. Thus, early diagnosis and efficient treatment of migraine headache in these patients is mandatory. More studies are needed for evaluation of this issue.

  7. Prevalence and Associations of Anisometropia in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuan Yuan; Wu, Jian Feng; Lu, Tai Liang; Wu, Hui; Sun, Wei; Guo, Da Dong; Jiang, Wen Jun; Wang, Xing Rong; Jonas, Jost B; Bi, Hong Sheng

    2016-03-01

    To describe prevalence and associations of anisometropia in children. The cross-sectional school-based study included children aged 4 to 18 years. The study included 6025 (94.7%) of 6364 eligible children. Mean refractive anisometropia was 0.37 ± 0.57 diopters (median: 0.25 diopters; range: 0-7.88 diopters; prevalence [≥1 diopter]: 7.0% ± 0.3%). In multivariate analysis (regression coefficient r: 0.66), higher refractive anisometropia was associated with older age (P Refractive anisometropia showed a U-shaped correlation with refractive error. Higher anisomyopia was associated (r: 0.57) with older age (P = 0.001; β: 0.05; B: 0.006; 95% CI: 0.002-0.009), higher level of paternal education (P = 0.001; β: 0.01; B: 0.01; 95% CI: 0.01-0.02), more total time spent indoors reading or writing (P = 0.01; β: 0.03; B: 0.01; 95% CI: 0.00-0.01), larger intereye difference in axial length (P refractive error (P prevalence [≥1 diopter]: 3.7% ± 0.2%) increased with higher refractive anisometropia (P refractive error (P children, refractive anisometropia and anisomyopia increased with systemic parameters such as age, parental education level, and lifestyle of the children, for example, more time spent indoors reading or writing. In contrast, hyperopic anisometropia and cylindrical anisometropia were not related with lifestyle parameters.

  8. Prevalence of fatigue in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, W; Kearney, Y; Bury, G

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue is an important symptom in general practice due to its association with physical, psychological and social problems. To determine the prevalence of fatigue as an unsolicited symptom during general practice consultations. A random sample of GPs practising in Ireland was invited to provide data on consultations held over one day. Data were recorded on the presence of fatigue as a main or supporting symptom, social and demographic characteristics. Data were recorded by 89 GPs on 1,428 consultations. The prevalence of fatigue was 25%. It was the main reason for attending the doctor in 6.5% and a secondary reason in 19%. Sixty-two per cent of patients were female and 48% were eligible for free GP services. The mean age was 47.1 years. The presence of fatigue was associated with: attending a female GP, being female, attending a GP who had been qualified for fewer years and attending the GP frequently. The prevalence of fatigue reported in this study is over three times higher than that reported in earlier work. Doctor characteristics appear to be as important as patient characteristics in determining fatigue.

  9. Prevalence of Sleepwalking in an Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mume CO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may besimple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking isa disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. In children, episodes of sleepwalking are rarely violent; inadults, however, sleepwalking might include violence, which could endanger the patient or others and might precipitate legalissues. There is inadequate information on the prevalence and demographic correlates of sleepwalking in Nigeria.Objectives: One objective of this study was to determine the lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking in an adult populationin Ile-Ife, in Southwestern Nigeria. Another objective was to determine the age and sex distribution of sleepwalking amongthose who have experienced it at least once in their lifetime. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 228 healthyindividuals aged 18 – 60 years was obtained and the members were asked to fill out a survey form about lifetime prevalencerate of sleepwalking. Results: The overall lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking was 7% (16 of 228 participants. It was10.4% in males and 3.5% in females, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This studyhas shown that sleepwalking is common in the population. In view of the psychological effects of sleepwalking and thepotential physical and legal problems associated with it, adequate efforts should be made for early detection and promptmanagement of the condition.

  10. [Prevalence of pathological gambling in Lebanese students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etel, C; Tabchi, S; Bou Khalil, R; Hlais, S; Richa, S

    2013-02-01

    Pathological gambling is a behavioral dependency on hazard games that is classified, in the DSM-IV, among impulse control disorders. According to many studies, the international prevalence of pathological ranges between 2 and 6%. This disorder is often accompanied by a considerable impact on patients' life as well as on the life of people surrounding them. Adolescents and young adults are considered to be a population at risk to develop this kind of behavioral dependency. The problem of pathological gambling is one of the major problems from which the Lebanese population of university students in Lebanese society suffers. The prevalence of pathological gambling in the Lebanese population of university students is lacking from the contemporary medical literature. In our study, five of the biggest private universities in Lebanon (Notre-Dame University of Louaizé [NDU], Lebanese American University [LAU], American University of Beirut [AUB], Saint-Joseph University [USJ] and Holy Spirit University of Kaslik [USEK]) were surveyed. Each questionnaire was based essentially on the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Four hundred and seventy-seven questionnaires were completed in these universities. Among the 477 students that completed the questionnaire, 5.87% appeared to be suffering from pathological gambling; 25.15% of responding students presented some problems related to gambling while the rest of them, corresponding to 68.92%, had no problems related to gambling. This is the first study of its kind conducted in the Lebanon. Its interest lies in that it offers an important evaluation of the prevalence of pathological gambling in the Lebanese population of university students. According to this study, the prevalence of pathological gambling in Lebanese university students is high. Prevention programs and sensitization strategies are needed in order to prevent the occurrence of this disorder in the Lebanese young. More studies are needed in this domain in order to

  11. A Study of Prevalence of Psychoactive Substance Use And Birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . While there is continued efforts to determine factors associated, there would be need to examine if birth order influences its prevalence. Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence of psychoactive substance use among ...

  12. Prevalence of risk factors for sudden cardiac death in competitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) of which 18 were female and 11 male. Irregular heart rhythms were the most prevalent cardiac risk in both males and females with a family history of cardiovascular disease the second most prevalent amongst both males and females.

  13. Prevalence and predictive factors of post-traumatic hypopituitarism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, M; Juul, A; Poulsgaard, L

    2007-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and predictive factors of hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury (TBI).......To estimate the prevalence and predictive factors of hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury (TBI)....

  14. Prevalence Of Metastrongylosis In Slaughtered Pigs In Eruwa And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Nigeria, for serum antibodies to Metastrongylus species using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. An overall prevalence of 94.8% was observed among the pig population with 99.1% prevalence recorded in pigs slaughtered ...

  15. In developed countries male circumcision prevalence is inversely related to HIV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian J; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    A study by Chemtob and co-workers found significantly lower prevalence of HIV amongst heterosexual men and women in Israel compared with the Netherlands and France. Risk factors for heterosexual HIV infection in these countries were similar, apart from one, namely, a strikingly higher prevalence of male circumcision (MC) in Israel compared with the Netherlands and France. It is now well established that MC protects heterosexual men against becoming infected with HIV during sexual intercourse with an infected woman. In epidemic settings, such as countries in sub-Saharan Africa, in which heterosexual contact is the primary driver for HIV infection, MC is being implemented to reduce HIV prevalence. The results of the new study by Chemtob and co-workers support the evidence and recent polices in the United States advocating MC to reduce the spread of HIV. While prevalence in developed countries is generally low, it is rising. In the long term, neonatal MC is the most desirable option, since not only is it simpler, safer, cheaper and more convenient than MC later, it provides immediate protection from infections, penile inflammation, genital cancers and physical problems. It is also cost-effective. European countries have not supported MC for its public health benefits. The new findings add to calls for European and other countries with low MC prevalence to consider developing evidence-based policies favoring MC in order to reduce HIV and other infections and diseases and at the same time reduce suffering, mortality and the cost of treating these.

  16. Prevalence of Hypertension in School going Adolescents in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of hypertension seems to be increasing in children and adults in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Different studies have been carried out on the prevalence of hypertension amongst adolescents living in urban areas reflecting this seeming increase in the prevalence of hypertension. However ...

  17. Sero-prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no significant differences between prevalence recorded and agegroups but these were significant associations between risk factors namely tribal marks/tattooing, types of marriages and prevalence of hepatitis infection. The prevalence of hepatitis B antigen among pregnant women suggests that vertical ...

  18. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Individual Criteria in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Jill; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is present in young adults and because coronary heart disease (CHD) is likely, screening to determine MetS prevalence and its criteria is critical. Objective: To determine MetS prevalence and most prevalent criteria in a sample of first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students between 18 and 24…

  19. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Type 58 in Women With or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicago Il, USA). Results: Overall HPV prevalence was 65.2% (277/425), with 85.9% (238/277) single and 14.1% (39/277) multiple infection. The most prevalent HPV types were HPVs 16, 58, 18, 31, and 45. HPV 16 was the most prevalent ...

  20. The prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in adult hypertensive Nigerians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The prevalence of hypertension ranges between 10 to 20% in Nigeria. Studies elsewhere have revealed left ventricular diastolic dysfunction to be highly prevalent in hypertension. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in adult hypertensive Nigerians. Patients and Methods: One hundred ...

  1. Schistosoma haematobium: Prevalence and socio-economic factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infections was assessed among 160 students of Twohofo Holy International School, Cape Coast, Ghana. Overall prevalence was 34.4%, with males and females having prevalence of 32.3% and 35.8% respectively. Age group 6-8 years had 30% while 24.2% were infected in age ...

  2. The Prevalence and Pattern of Vaginal Candidiasis in Pregnancy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of vaginal candidiasis was 42.9%. It was commoner in the younger women between the ages of 21 – 30 years and in primigravida. The attack rate was higher in the third trimester of pregnancy. There was no clear relationship between weight and prevalence. A comparatively high prevalence is reported.

  3. Prevalence, sources and patterns of stress among university students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress was found to be highly prevalent among students; most prevalent among Nursing students (72.5%), followed by Human Physiology students (68.9%), then Human Anatomy students (64%) and finally Medical students (62.4%), it was also more prevalent among female-(75.3%) than male-(61.4%) students. Results ...

  4. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of cattle in Abeokuta, Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis revealed significant (p<0.05) difference between the prevalence of nematodes and trematode as well as the mean faecal egg count of the cattle sampled in the abattoir and the University farm. In conclusion, gastrointestinal parasites are prevalent in cattle in the study area with Eimeria spp being most prevalent.

  5. malaria prevalence in under five children utilising insecticide treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ITNs are useful since the overall five percent prevalence of malaria is less than expected in Mtwara region which had the prevalence of 33.6 percent in 2007 and less to the overall national prevalence of seven percent in under fives in urban areas in 2009. Plasmodium falciparum species is still a notorious cause of the ...

  6. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Edo State | Mordi | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    questionnaire, factors which disposed to increase in the prevalence of intestinal parasites were investigated between. April 2007 and March 2008. Results: High prevalence (11.3%) of intestinal parasites was recorded in the study. Those drinking well water had the highest prevalence, followed by those who used tap water

  7. Changes in the prevalence of dental caries in primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of tooth decay and the prevalence of untreated tooth decay were calculated for the two years, that is, 2000 and 2003. Also the degree of unmet treatment need among the population with caries experience was measured. Differences in the prevalence and severity of dental caries in the primary and ...

  8. The prevalence of known diabetes in eight European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, D.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Casteren, V. van

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes has been proposed as a European Community Health Indicator. The prevalence of diabetes known to general practitioners (GPs) in different European countries has been investigated and the usefulness of sentinel practice networks in delivering prevalence data on diabetes has

  9. CKD Prevalence Varies across the European General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brück, Katharina; Stel, Vianda S.; Gambaro, Giovanni; Hallan, Stein; Völzke, Henry; Ärnlöv, Johan; Kastarinen, Mika; Guessous, Idris; Vinhas, José; Stengel, Bénédicte; Brenner, Hermann; Chudek, Jerzy; Romundstad, Solfrid; Tomson, Charles; Gonzalez, Alfonso Otero; Bello, Aminu K.; Ferrieres, Jean; Palmieri, Luigi; Browne, Gemma; Capuano, Vincenzo; van Biesen, Wim; Zoccali, Carmine; Gansevoort, Ron; Navis, Gerjan; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Nitsch, Dorothea; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J.

    2016-01-01

    CKD prevalence estimation is central to CKD management and prevention planning at the population level. This study estimated CKD prevalence in the European adult general population and investigated international variation in CKD prevalence by age, sex, and presence of diabetes, hypertension, and

  10. Prevalence of camel tuberculosis and associated risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels and assess the association of risk factors with the prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels using single intra-dermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT). Of the total of 387 camels investigated, overall camel tuberculosis prevalence of 9.82% (95% CI: 6.84%-12.8%) at a cut off value ≥ ...

  11. High tuberculosis prevalence in a psychiatric hospital in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duc, L.; Vree, M.; Cobelens, F. G.; Phuc, L. T.; Sy, D. N.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in psychiatric hospitals in Vietnam, but prevalence may be higher than in the general population. We assessed the TB prevalence among in-patients of a psychiatric hospital in 2005 in Danang City, Vietnam. Of 300 in-patients, 70 had an abnormal X-ray

  12. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight. Keywords: Obesity; overweight; prevalence; Uganda; young adults. African Health Sciences ...

  13. Autism Prevalence Trends Over Time in Denmark: Changes in Prevalence and Age at Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parner, Erik; Schendel, Diana; Thorsen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of changing age at diagnosis on the diagnosed prevalence of autism among different birth cohorts. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Children were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry and psychiatric outcomes were obtained via linkage...... with the Danish National Psychiatric Register. PARTICIPANTS: All children born in Denmark from January 1, 1994, through December 31, 1999 (N = 407 458). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The age-specific prevalence, hazard ratio, and relative risk by age. RESULTS: Statistically significant shifts in age at diagnosis were...... prevalence of autism in young children in the more recent cohorts compared with the oldest cohort. This study supports the argument that the apparent increase in autism in recent years is at least in part attributable to decreases in the age at diagnosis over time....

  14. Metabolic disorders prevalence in sudden deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Oiticica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to establish the frequency of metabolic disorders among patients with sudden deafness and to compare this frequency with data from population surveys. INTRODUCTION: No consensus has been reached regarding the prevalence of metabolic disorders among sudden deafness patients or their influence as associated risk factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled all sudden deafness patients treated in the Otolaryngology Department of the University of São Paulo between January 1996 and December 2006. Patients were subjected to laboratory exams including glucose and cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction, triglycerides, free T4 and TSH. RESULTS: The sample comprised 166 patients. We observed normal glucose levels in 101 (81.5% patients and hyperglycemia in 23 (18.5% patients, which is significantly different (p < 0.0001 compared to the diabetes mellitus prevalence (7.6% in the Brazilian population. Cholesterol levels were normal in 78 patients (49.7% and abnormal in 79 (50.3% patients, which is significantly different compared to the Brazilian population (p = 0.0093. However, no differences were observed in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction (p = 0.1087 or triglyceride levels (p = 0.1474 between sudden hearing loss patients and the Brazilian population. Normal levels of thyroid hormones were observed in 116 patients (78.4%, and abnormal levels were observed in 32 (21.6% patients. Compared with the prevalence of thyroid disorders in the general population (10%, statistical analysis revealed a significant difference (p = 0.0132 between these two groups. DISCUSSION: Among sudden deafness patients, we observed frequencies of hyperglycemia and thyroid disorders that were more than twice those of the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycemia and thyroid disorders are much more frequent in patients with sudden deafness than in the general population and should be

  15. Prevalence of Os Trigonum on CT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiers, Ruben; Baltes, Thomas P A; Opdam, Kim T M; Wiegerinck, Johannes I; van Dijk, C Niek

    2018-03-01

    The os trigonum is known as one of the main causes of posterior ankle impingement. In the literature, a wide variation of occurrence has been reported. All foot and/or ankle computed tomography (CT) scans made between January 2012 and December 2013 were reviewed. CT images were assessed, blinded for patient characteristics, for the presence of an os trigonum, size of the os trigonum, and type of os trigonum. In addition, the shape of the lateral tubercle of the posterior talar process was assessed. A total of 628 patients (1256 ankles) were included. In 32.5% of the patients of the cohort, an os trigonum was present. In 14.3% of these patients, it was present bilaterally. In a subgroup of patients without posterior ankle impingement the prevalence was 30.3%. Of the nonaffected ankles, an os trigonum was present in 23.7%. Patients with posterior ankle impingement were more likely to have an os trigonum (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.86). Afro-Caribbean/Surinamese/Central African origin was associated with a lower rate of occurrence of os trigonum (adjusted OR 0.43). In the ankles without an os trigonum, an enlarged lateral tubercle of the posterior talar process was found in 34.9% and 36.5% of the ankles. This study showed that os trigonum is a common accessory bone. With a prevalence of 30.3% in a population of patients with CT imaging of both ankles and 23.7% of the nonaffected ankles, the os trigonum is more common than previously reported. Patients with posterior ankle impingement complaints had a higher prevalence of an os trigonum. In one-third of the patients without an os trigonum, there was an enlarged lateral tubercle of the posterior talar process. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  16. Prevalence of insomnia and related impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjavong, Manchumad; Limpawattana, Panita; Mairiang, Pisaln; Anutrakulchai, Sirirat

    2016-08-01

    Background Sleep problem is a common geriatric condition that can result in various outcomes, both physical and mental, that reduce quality of life. The studies regarding the prevalence and impact of insomnia on daily activities in Thailand in pre-elderly and elderly adults are few. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of insomnia among pre-elderly and elderly populations and the secondary objective was to study the impact of insomnia on their daily lives. Methods This study included the participants from the urban middle class in the pre-retirement age of 50 years or older adults who worked for Khon Kaen University (KKU), Khon Kaen, Thailand, and their elderly relatives. Information on baseline characteristics, sleep problems, and outcomes were collected. Descriptive analytical statistics were used to analyze baseline data. Multivariate analysis was used to analyze associated factors of the impact of insomnia. Results A total of 491 participants were recruited. The prevalence of insomnia was 60%. The significant consequences related to insomnia were feeling unrefreshed (adjusted odds ratio (AOD) 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44-3.04), daytime sleepiness (AOD 2.04, 95% CI 1.29-3.22), need for a sedative drug (AOD 4.23, 95% CI 2.09-8.55), depression (AOD 4.74, 95% CI 1.73-13), and impaired attention (AOD 2.29, 95% CI 1.52-3.45). Conclusions Insomnia was found in the majority of pre-elderly and elderly participants and resulted in several poor outcomes. Early detection of insomnia may prevent some inevitable outcomes.

  17. Prevalence of Malaria Plasmodium in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonko, I. O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the prevalence of malaria caused by plasmodium between genders in Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun State located in the forest zone of southwestern Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2004. Blood film examination for malaria parasites in 708 patients; 366 males and 342 females. Microscopic examination of thick films techniques was employed for this study. Of the 708 (100% patients examined, 577 (81.5% were Plasmodium-positive. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 81.5% was noted in this study. Female subjects were more infected (42.4% than males (41.9% however, there was no significant difference in the sex of the subjects studied (p=0.05. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 86.9% was noted in samples collected in year 2003 than in other years studied. There was significant difference in the years under study (p=0.05. This study shows that a good percentage of people were infested by malaria Plasmodium. This could be attributed to lack of adequate accommodation and poor sanitary conditions in the area under study. Although several efforts have been made to effectively control the high incidence of malaria in Nigeria, these have been largely unsuccessful due to a number of reasons such as irrigated urban agriculture which can be the malaria vector’s breeding ground in the city, stagnant gutters and swamps in our environment where mosquitoes breed in millions, and lack of political will and commitment of the government in its disease management program, low awareness of the magnitude of malaria problem, poor health practices by individuals and communities and resistance to drugs. Therefore, future interventions in Nigeria should be directed toward controlling malaria in the context of a moderate transmission setting; thus, large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets or widespread use of indoor residual spraying may be less cost-effective than enhanced surveillance with effective case management or

  18. Prevalence of Gender Nonconformity in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caenegem, Eva; Wierckx, Katrien; Elaut, Els; Buysse, Ann; Dewaele, Alexis; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2015-07-01

    Gender nonconformity refers to the extent to which a person's gender identity, gender role and/or gender expression differs from the cultural norms prescribed for people of a particular sex, within a certain society and era. Most data on gender nonconformity focus on the prevalence of gender dysphoria (which also includes a distress factor) or on the number of legal sex changes. However, not every gender nonconforming individual experiences distress or applies for treatment. Population-based research on the broad spectrum of gender nonconformity is scarce and more information on the variance outside the gender binary is needed. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of gender incongruence (identifying stronger with the other sex than with the sex assigned at birth) and gender ambivalence (identifying equally with the other sex as with the sex assigned at birth) based on two population-based surveys, one of 1,832 Flemish persons and one of 2,472 sexual minority individuals in Flanders. In the general population, gender ambivalence was present in 2.2 % of male and 1.9 % of female participants, whereas gender incongruence was found in 0.7 % of men and 0.6 % of women. In sexual minority individuals, the prevalence of gender ambivalence and gender incongruence was 1.8 and 0.9 % in men and 4.1 and 2.1 % in women, respectively. With a current Flemish population of about 6 million, our results indicate a total of between 17,150 and 17,665 gender incongruent men and between 14,473 and 15,221 gender incongruent women in Flanders.

  19. [Prevalence of anosognosia in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turró-Garriga, Oriol; Conde-Sala, Josep Lluís; Reñé-Ramírez, Ramón; López-Pousa, Secundino; Gascón-Bayarri, Jordi; Garre-Olmo, Josep

    2014-07-07

    Anosognosia is a disorder that affects the clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD), increasing in frequency with the evolution of AD. The objective was to determine the prevalence of anosognosia and analyze the associated factors and predictors. Multicenter transversal and observational study of 345 AD patients. Anosognosia was assessed by Anosognosia Questionnaire-Dementia and the evolutionary stage with the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS). Tests used were Mini-Mental State Examination, Disability Assessment for Dementia and Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess cognition, functional status and neuropsychiatric symptoms, respectively. We adjusted linear regression models to determine the associated variables and binary logistic regression (RLog) to identify predictors of anosognosia. The overall prevalence of anosognosia was 46.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 41.3 to 52.1). The prevalence in stages was 28.4% (GDS 4), 64.6% (GDS 5) and 91.4% (GDS 6). The RLog identified as predictors older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.09), lower functional capacity (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.93-0.98), lower cognitive level (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.88-0.99), and greater apathy (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.03-1.18), disinhibition (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.09-1.50), irritability (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.09-1.50) and motor disorders (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.09-1.50). Anosognosia increases with further deterioration. In patients with a mild impairment, predictor variables were apathy, disinhibition and motor disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of footrot in Swedish slaughter lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Ann-Kristin J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Footrot is a world-wide contagious disease in sheep and goats. It is an infection of the epidermis of the interdigital skin, and the germinal layers of the horn tissue of the feet. The first case of footrot in Swedish sheep was diagnosed in 2004. Due to difficulties in distinguishing benign footrot from early cases of virulent footrot and because there is no possibility for virulence testing of strains of Dichelobacter nodosus in Sweden, the diagnosis is based of the presence or absence of clinical signs of footrot in sheep flocks. Ever since the first diagnosed case the Swedish Animal Health Service has worked intensively to stop the spread of infection and control the disease at flock level. However, to continue this work effectively it is important to have knowledge about the distribution of the disease both nationally and regionally. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of footrot in Swedish lambs at abattoirs and to assess the geographical distribution of the disease. Methods A prevalence study on footrot in Swedish lambs was performed by visual examination of 2000 feet from 500 lambs submitted from six slaughter houses. Each foot was scored according to a 0 to 5 scoring system, where feet with score ≥2 were defined as having footrot. Moreover, samples from feet with footrot were examined for Dichelobacter nodosus by culture and PCR. Results The prevalence of footrot at the individual sheep level was 5.8%, and Dichelobacter nodosus was found by culture and PCR in 83% and 97% of the samples from feet with footrot, respectively. Some minor differences in geographical distribution of footrot were found in this study. Conclusions In a national context, the findings indicate that footrot is fairly common in Swedish slaughter lambs, and should be regarded seriously.

  1. Prevalence of falls in elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor,Priscila Regina Rorato; Oliveira,Ana Carolina Kovaleski de; Kohler,Renan; Winter,Gabriele Regiane; Rodacki,Cintia; Krause,Maressa Priscila

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify prevalence of falls and fear of falling, and to compare functional fitness among elderly women fallers and non-fallers. METHODS: Seventy-eight elderly women participated in this study. Cases of falls and the fear of falling were self-reported by the elderly women, while the functional fitness was measured by a set of functional tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample. Independent t-test was used to compare functional fitness between groups. RES...

  2. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 行男; 村上, 賢

    2006-01-01

    A total of 291 fecal samples from 252 wild reptiles and 39 pet reptiles were examined for the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Japan. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 29 (11.5%) of 252 wild reptiles and 22 (55.6%) of 39 pet reptiles. The isolates were identified into subspecies I to IV. The majority of isolates (43.6%) belonged to subspecies I and these isolates could be identified into 9 serovars. The serovars isolated were found to be S. Newport, S. Litchifield and S. Thompson which cause...

  3. Prevalence of Salmonella in Australian reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelings, T Franciscus; Lightfoot, Dianne; Holz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    From January 2007 until June 2008, 504 reptiles of four families and 57 species were examined for Salmonella by using cloacal or intestinal swabs. Salmonella was identified in 139 (28%) of the 504 animals tested. Of the 504 reptiles examined, 210 were captive and 294 were wild. Ninety-eight (47%) of the captive reptiles were shedding Salmonella at the time of sampling. In contrast, only 41 (14%) of the wild reptiles were shedding Salmonella. The higher prevalence of Salmonella in captive reptiles was statistically significant (Preptiles in Australia are not natural carriers of Salmonella and that diet and captivity may influence Salmonella excretion in other species.

  4. Prevalence of Ovine Haemonchosis in Wukro, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidya Gebresilassie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Haemonchosis caused by Haemonchus contortus is a predominant, highly pathogenic, and economically important disease of sheep and goats. Objective. Assessing the prevalence of Haemonchus parasite and its associated risk factors in sheep slaughtered at different restaurants of Wukro. Methods. Cross-sectional study using random sampling from November 2013 to April 2014 in a total of 384 sheep was conducted and SPSS version 20 software using descriptive statistics was used for data analysis and P0.05. Conclusion. The current finding revealed that significant numbers of sheep were affected by the parasites. Hence strategic deworming with good husbandry practice should be implemented.

  5. Prevalence of Violence Tendency in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem HASKAN AVCI; İbrahim YILDIRIM

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the extensiveness of violence tendency to depending on individual and family factors in adolescents. For this purpose, information has been collected from 899 high school students educated in state schools located in Adana province. Violence Tendency Scale (VTS) developed by Haskan and Yıldırım (2012) has been used in order to determine the violence tendency levels of the students. The prevalence of students’ tendency has been tested with chi-square. When a...

  6. The serum bank of EuroPrevall - the prevalence, cost and basis of food allergy across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieths, Stefan; Reese, Gerald; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K.; Beyer, Kerstin; Burney, Peter; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Summers, Collin; Ree, Ronald van; Mills, Clare

    2008-01-01

    EuroPrevall is an EU-funded multidisciplinary project including 62 institutions from 22 countries. EuroPrevall studies the prevalence and distribution of food allergies in infants, children, adolescents, and adults in Europe, threshold doses for allergenic foods, the role of the environment in food

  7. Prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    Discussed in this paper is the prevalence of allergy and intolerance to foods in Europe. Prevalence of allergy to food additives is not included. A fully reliable estimate of the prevalence of food allergy/intolerance does not exist. Prevalence changes with age, as does the relative importance...... of the most common food allergens. The cumulative prevalence of allergy and intolerance to cow's milk during the first year of life is approximately 2%. The total prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in children is not as well documented. In 18-month-old infants the Danish estimate is 6.5%. The high...... prevalence of peanut allergy (0.5%) in British children is not reflected in the results from other European countries. Milk, egg, fish and oranges seem to be the most common causes of allergy and intolerance in European infants and children. Results from epidemiological studies combined with the knowledge...

  8. Prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    on pollen and latex cross-reactivity, systemic reactions to contact allergens and coeliac disease point to a prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in the adult European population of approximately 5%. A mild itch in the mouth and lactose intolerance are not included in this estimate which is a qualified......Discussed in this paper is the prevalence of allergy and intolerance to foods in Europe. Prevalence of allergy to food additives is not included. A fully reliable estimate of the prevalence of food allergy/intolerance does not exist. Prevalence changes with age, as does the relative importance...... of the most common food allergens. The cumulative prevalence of allergy and intolerance to cow's milk during the first year of life is approximately 2%. The total prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in children is not as well documented. In 18-month-old infants the Danish estimate is 6.5%. The high...

  9. Prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    Discussed in this paper is the prevalence of allergy and intolerance to foods in Europe. Prevalence of allergy to food additives is not included. A fully reliable estimate of the prevalence of food allergy/intolerance does not exist. Prevalence changes with age, as does the relative importance...... of the most common food allergens. The cumulative prevalence of allergy and intolerance to cow's milk during the first year of life is approximately 2%. The total prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in children is not as well documented. In 18-month-old infants the Danish estimate is 6.5%. The high...... on pollen and latex cross-reactivity, systemic reactions to contact allergens and coeliac disease point to a prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in the adult European population of approximately 5%. A mild itch in the mouth and lactose intolerance are not included in this estimate which is a qualified...

  10. Prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of ankyloglossia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Lauren M.; Stephenson, Randolph; Dawes, Martin; Feldman, Perle

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the diagnostic criteria for, the prevalence of, and the effectiveness of frenotomy for treatment of ankyloglossia. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE and CINAHL databases were searched for articles suitable for a methodologic review of studies on various aspects of ankyloglossia. STUDY SELECTION Studies that presented data on patients and addressed ankyloglossia in relation to breastfeeding were selected. Case reports, case series, retrospective studies, prospective controlled studies, and randomized controlled trials were included in the analysis. Opinion pieces, literature reviews, studies without data on patients, studies that did not focus on breastfeeding, position statements, and surveys were excluded. SYNTHESIS There is no well-validated clinical method for establishinga diagnosis of ankyloglossia. Five studies using different diagnostic criteria found a prevalence of ankyloglossia of between 4% and 10%. The results of 6 non-randomized studies and 1 randomized study assessing the effectiveness of frenotomy for improving nipple pain, sucking, latch, and continuation of breastfeeding all suggested frenotomy was beneficial. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION Diagnostic criteria for ankyloglossia are needed to allow for comparative studies of treatment. Frenotomy is likely an effective treatment, but further randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this. A reliable frenotomy decision rule is also needed. PMID:17872781

  11. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Office Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valipour Noroozi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Musculoskeletal disorders are among common occupational diseases in the world, which have high prevalence not only among hard and hurtful jobs, but also in office works. Objectives The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs among office workers of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods This study carried out intermittently among 392 individuals of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences office workers by Nordic questionnaire from October 2013 to December 2013. Study population included office workers of different departments as well as central organization and library. We use descriptive statistic, t test and chi-square test for data analysis. Results The mean and standard deviation of participants’ age was 35.4 ± 6.7 years and their work experience was 9.7 ± 6.65 years, respectively. Most signs (51% were in back region, which forced 18.9% of individuals to withdraw from daily activities. Statistical analysis also showed 36.7% neck disorders in office workers, which demonstrated significant association with age and work experience (P < 0.001. Conclusions Significant association of work experience and age with musculoskeletal disorders shows that individual’s education and knowledge improvements with regard to ergonomics risk factors and correction of work postures are very important and ought to follow management and technical practices in the organization.

  12. Active commuting: prevalence, barriers, and associated variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kelly Samara; Vasques, Daniel Giordani; Martins, Caroline de Oliveira; Williams, Laura Ashley; Lopes, Adair S

    2011-08-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents who actively commute have higher levels of physical activity (PA), which have declined precipitously over the past 30 years. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of active commuting to school; and to identify barriers associated with active commuting. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1672 students (46.8% boys and 53.2% girls) from 11 to 17 years of age in Caxias do Sul/RS, Brazil. The students were asked to answer questionnaires about active transport, PA, and sedentary behaviors. They also completed a cardiovascular fitness test and body composition measurements. The study used a multivariate Poisson regression analysis. A total of 62.5% of students were observed to actively commute and the prevalence ratio (PR) of not actively commuting was associated with the type of school (Private: 2.41; 1.47, 3.95) and the time spent on commuting (>20 min: 1.93; 1.23, 3.03). The associated barriers to passive commuting were distance (3.02; 1.95, 4.71), crime/danger (2.65; 1.82, 3.85), and traffic (1.75; 1.19, 2.58). This study showed that environmental variables were strongly associated with active commuting. However, no alterations in body composition or other behavioral variables were observed after adjustment.

  13. Prevalence of colorectal polyps in pediatric colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Kalpesh; Alsarraj, Abeer; Fong, Emily; Holub, Jennifer L; Gilger, Mark A; El Serag, Hashem B

    2012-04-01

    The available data regarding the prevalence, types, and clinical determinants of colonic polyps in children is limited. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of colorectal polyps in a large cohort of children. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the presence, number, and location of colorectal polyps reported in all children (0-20 years) who underwent colonoscopy at 14 pediatric facilities between January 2000 and December 2007 recorded in Pediatric Endoscopy Database System Clinical Outcomes Research Initiative (PEDS-CORI). We compared procedures with and without polyps with respect to procedure indication, age, sex, and race. We also reviewed a sample of histopathologic reports from one participating center. We analyzed 13,115 colonoscopy procedures performed in 11,637 patients. Colorectal polyps were reported in 810 procedures (6.1%; 95% CI: 5.7-6.5%) performed in 705 patients, and in 12% of patients with lower GI bleeding. Children with colorectal polyps were significantly younger (8.9 years vs. 11.9 years; p children without polyps. In a sample of 122 patients with polyps from a single center, the histological types were solitary juvenile in 91 (70.5%), multiple juvenile in 20 (15.5%), adenoma in 14 (10.9%) and hyperplastic polyps in four patients (3.1%). Colorectal polyps are detected in 6.1% overall and in 12.0% among those with lower gastrointestinal bleeding during pediatric colonoscopy. Approximately 26% are multiple juvenile or adenoma.

  14. Prevalence of obesity in Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, C; Khan, S A; Ansari, S H; Garg, M

    2010-02-01

    Comparison of two major studies conducted by National family health survey (NFHS-2) in 1998-1999 and NFHS-3 in 2005-2006 shows that prevalence of obesity among Indian women has elevated from 10.6% to 12.6% (increased by 24.52%). The prevalence is more profound in the women of age between 40-49 years (23.7%), residing in cities (23.5%), having high qualification (23.8%), belonging to Sikh community (31.6%) and households in the highest wealth quintile (30.5%). Highest percentage of obese women is found in Punjab (29.9%). Although this number seems small in the international perspective, it is significant because of the sheer size of population in India. While the problem of under-nutrition still exists in many parts of India, the additional burden of obesity due to increasing sedentary lifestyle, junk food habits in some urban and economically sound areas is really alarming. Prevention and control of this serious problem through awareness programmes to adopt diversified nutritional food and healthy lifestyle are strongly recommended.

  15. Prevalence of atypical swallowing: a kinesiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, A; Cattaneo, R; Spadaro, A; Marchetti, E; Barone, A

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of kinesiographic coincidence between the most cranial position during deglutition of mandible and habitual occlusal position and to evaluate the distribution of clinical diagnosis according to the kinesiographic pattern of deglutition. 201 random patients in waiting list for dental treatment and classified as orthodontic patients, prosthetic patients, TMD patients and control patients, were evaluated. Kinesiographic records were acquired using K7I and positioning a magnetic sensor frame integral with the head and with the sensory field balanced on an artificial magnet adhering to the mucosa covering the roots of the lower mandibular incisors. The kinesiographic occlusal position was compared to the kinesiographic most cranial position of the mandible during swallowing. 99 patients displayed a discrepancy between the most cranial position during swallowing and the occlusal position. 102 patients did not show any discrepancy. In this group the kinesiographic most cranial position during swallowing coincided with the occlusal position. The finding suggests that computerised kinesiography could be useful to study deglutition, detecting in a reliable way the movement pattern. Atypical deglutition seems to be less atypical than previously though in dental patient population and, despite these data confirm its correlation with malocclusion, we noted an inverse correlation with necessity of prosthetic treatment and no higher prevalence in TMD patients.

  16. Smoking prevalence among monks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Charoenca, Naowarut; Kengganpanich, Tharadol; Kusolwisitkul, Wilai; Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Kerdmongkol, Patcharaporn; Silapasuwan, Phimpan; Hamann, Stephen L; Arpawong, Thalida Em

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies among Buddhist monks in Thailand have reported smoking rates to be as high as 55%. Because 95% of Thais are Buddhist, monks are highly influential in establishing normative behavioral patterns. As the first population-based study on smoking among Buddhist monks in Thailand, this study aims to determine the smoking prevalence in six regions of the country, and to examine smoking knowledge, risk perceptions, behaviors, and associated demographics among full-fledged and novice monks (n = 6,213). Results demonstrated that the overall prevalence for current smoking monks is 24.4% (95% confidence interval [24.453, 24.464]), with regional differences ranging from 14.6% (North) to 40.5% (East). Findings suggest that integrating prevention and cessation programming into religious courses may be one avenue for reaching many incoming monks. Further, involving monks in tobacco control education and setting a nonsmoking standard among them is vital to the success of reducing smoking rates among the general population in Thailand.

  17. Prevalence of congenital muscular dystrophy in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Alessandra; Bianco, Flaviana; D'Amico, Adele; Moroni, Isabella; Messina, Sonia; Bruno, Claudio; Pegoraro, Elena; Mora, Marina; Astrea, Guja; Magri, Francesca; Comi, Giacomo P.; Berardinelli, Angela; Moggio, Maurizio; Morandi, Lucia; Pini, Antonella; Petillo, Roberta; Tasca, Giorgio; Monforte, Mauro; Minetti, Carlo; Mongini, Tiziana; Ricci, Enzo; Gorni, Ksenija; Battini, Roberta; Villanova, Marcello; Politano, Luisa; Gualandi, Francesca; Ferlini, Alessandra; Muntoni, Francesco; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Bertini, Enrico; Pane, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We provide a nationwide population study of patients with congenital muscular dystrophy in Italy. Methods: Cases were ascertained from the databases in all the tertiary referral centers for pediatric neuromuscular disorders and from all the genetic diagnostic centers in which diagnostic tests for these forms are performed. Results: The study includes 336 patients with a point prevalence of 0.563 per 100,000. Mutations were identified in 220 of the 336 (65.5%). The cohort was subdivided into diagnostic categories based on the most recent classifications on congenital muscular dystrophies. The most common forms were those with α-dystroglycan glycosylation deficiency (40.18%) followed by those with laminin α2 deficiency (24.11%) and collagen VI deficiency (20.24%). The forms of congenital muscular dystrophy related to mutations in SEPN1 and LMNA were less frequent (6.25% and 5.95%, respectively). Conclusions: Our study provides for the first time comprehensive epidemiologic information and point prevalence figures for each of the major diagnostic categories on a large cohort of congenital muscular dystrophies. The study also reflects the diagnostic progress in this field with an accurate classification of the cases according to the most recent gene discoveries. PMID:25653289

  18. Prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Laura W; Grocott, Olivia R; Kunz, Portia A; Larson, Anna M; Zella, Garrett; Ganguli, Kriston; Thibert, Ronald L

    2017-10-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, expressive speech impairment, movement disorder, epilepsy, and a happy demeanor. Children with AS are frequently reported to be poor feeders during infancy and as having gastrointestinal issues such as constipation, reflux, and abnormal food related behaviors throughout their lifetime. To assess the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with AS, we retrospectively analyzed medical records of 120 individuals seen at the Angelman Syndrome Clinic at Massachusetts General Hospital and 43 individuals seen at the University of North Carolina Comprehensive Angelman Clinic. The majority of patients' medical records indicated at least one symptom of gastrointestinal dysfunction, with constipation and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) the most common. Other gastrointestinal issues reported were cyclic vomiting episodes, difficulty swallowing, excessive swallowing, and eosinophilic esophagitis. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as GERD, swallowing difficulties, cyclic vomiting, and eosinophilic esophagitis were more common in those with deletions and uniparental disomy, likely related to the involvement of multiple genes and subsequent hypotonia. The frequency of constipation is consistent among all genetic subtypes while early feeding issues appear to mainly affect those with deletions. Caregivers and healthcare providers should be aware of the high prevalence of these issues, as proper treatment may improve not only gastrointestinal dysfunction but also sleep and behavioral issues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A prevalência de fibromialgia: uma revisão de literatura The prevalence of fibromyalgia: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alane B. Cavalcante

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVO: este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre a prevalência da fibromialgia (FM na população a partir dos critérios propostos pelo American College of Rheumatology (ACR. MÉTODOS: foi realizado levantamento bibliográfico do período de 1990 a 2005 nas bases de dados MedLine, Lilacs, Embase e ISI. Foram utilizadas as palavras-chave "fibromialgia" e "prevalência" e as correspondentes em inglês, "fibromyalgia" e "prevalence". Foram selecionados 97 artigos e, após leitura dos resumos, foram excluídos os que se referiam à prevalência em doenças. Somente 30 abordavam o tema prevalência da fibromialgia na população. Os artigos selecionados foram agrupados em cinco categorias: a prevalência da FM em populações adultas; b prevalência da FM em mulheres; c prevalência da FM em crianças e adolescentes; d prevalência da FM em populações específicas; e prevalência de dor crônica e difusa na população, segundo os critérios do ACR. RESULTADOS: a literatura aponta a prevalência da FM na população com valores entre 0,66 e 4,4%, sendo mais prevalente em mulheres do que em homens, especialmente na faixa etária entre 35 e 60 anos. Os estudos com crianças e adolescentes e em grupos especiais são escassos e pouco conclusivos. A prevalência de dor crônica difusa na população em geral também tem poucos estudos, com valores entre 11 e 13%. CONCLUSÃO: mais estudos sobre prevalência de dor crônica e difusa devem ser estimulados, assim como os de prevalência na população adulta, crianças e jovens.INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the literature concerning of the prevalence of fibromyalgia in general population using the criteria from the American College of Rheumatology (ACR. METHODS: The literature envolved the period of 1990 to 2005, in the databases Medline, Lilacs, Embase and ISI. The keywords "fibromialgia" and "prevalência" and

  20. Prevalence of undiagnosed acute and chronic HIV in a lower-prevalence urban emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschella, Phillip C; Hart, Kimberly W; Ruffner, Andrew H; Lindsell, Christopher J; Wayne, D Beth; Sperling, Matthew I; Trott, Alexander T; Fichtenbaum, Carl J; Lyons, Michael S

    2014-09-01

    We estimated the seroprevalence of both acute and chronic HIV infection by using a random sample of emergency department (ED) patients from a region of the United States with low-to-moderate HIV prevalence. This cross-sectional seroprevalence study consecutively enrolled patients aged 18 to 64 years within randomly selected sampling blocks in a Midwestern urban ED in a region of lower HIV prevalence in 2008 to 2009. Participants were compensated for providing a blood sample and health information. After de-identification, we assayed samples for HIV antibody and nucleic acid. There were 926 participants who consented and enrolled. Overall, prevalence of undiagnosed HIV was 0.76% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30%, 1.56%). Three participants (0.32%; 95% CI = 0.09%, 0.86%) were nucleic acid-positive but antibody-negative and 4 (0.43%; 95% CI = 0.15%, 1.02%) were antibody-positive. Even when the absolute prevalence is low, a considerable proportion of undetected HIV cases in an ED population are acute. Identification of acute HIV in ED settings should receive increased priority.

  1. Prevalence of Undiagnosed Acute and Chronic HIV in a Lower-Prevalence Urban Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschella, Phillip C.; Hart, Kimberly W.; Ruffner, Andrew H.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Wayne, D. Beth; Sperling, Matthew I.; Trott, Alexander T.; Fichtenbaum, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the seroprevalence of both acute and chronic HIV infection by using a random sample of emergency department (ED) patients from a region of the United States with low-to-moderate HIV prevalence. Methods. This cross-sectional seroprevalence study consecutively enrolled patients aged 18 to 64 years within randomly selected sampling blocks in a Midwestern urban ED in a region of lower HIV prevalence in 2008 to 2009. Participants were compensated for providing a blood sample and health information. After de-identification, we assayed samples for HIV antibody and nucleic acid. Results. There were 926 participants who consented and enrolled. Overall, prevalence of undiagnosed HIV was 0.76% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30%, 1.56%). Three participants (0.32%; 95% CI = 0.09%, 0.86%) were nucleic acid–positive but antibody-negative and 4 (0.43%; 95% CI = 0.15%, 1.02%) were antibody-positive. Conclusions. Even when the absolute prevalence is low, a considerable proportion of undetected HIV cases in an ED population are acute. Identification of acute HIV in ED settings should receive increased priority. PMID:25033145

  2. Anemia do lactente: etiologia e prevalência Anemia in infancy: etiology and prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claret C.M. Hadler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar a prevalência de anemia, anemia ferropriva e deficiência de ferro em lactentes, de unidade pública de saúde, no município de Goiânia, Brasil, analisar e correlacionar as variáveis bioquímicas e hematológicas. Métodos: realizou-se estudo transversal. De 120 mães entrevistadas, foram incluídos 110 lactentes de 6 a 12 meses de idade, a termo e não gemelares. Dados socioeconômicos e hematológicos foram obtidos. Colheu-se sangue venoso dos lactentes em jejum para realização do hemograma completo por contagem eletrônica, ferro sérico, ferritina sérica e proteína C-reativa, os quais foram utilizados na avaliação da etiologia ferropriva nos anêmicos. Crianças com hemoglobina Objective: To verify the prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency anemia and iron deficiency in infants, at a Public Health Unit in the city of Goiânia - Brazil; to analyze and to correlate the hematologic and biochemical variables. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out. One hundred and ten full-term infants of the 120 mothers interviewed were included. The infants aged between six and twelve months and there were not twins. Socioeconomic and hematologic data was obtained. Venous blood was taken from fasting infants in order to carry out a complete hemogram through electronic cell counting, serum iron, serum ferritin and C-reactive protein, which were used in the evaluation of the etiology of iron deficiency in the anemic infants. Children with hemoglobin < 11g/dL were considered anemic. Results: The prevalence of anemia was 60.9%. In the diagnosis of the iron deficiency etiology in infants without an inflammation process, when considering the alteration of hemoglobin plus two more indices among mean corpuscular volume (MCV or mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH or serum ferritin or serum iron, the prevalence of the iron deficiency was 87%. Nevertheless, when red cell distribution width (RDW was included in the indices, the

  3. Prevalência de asma em escolares Prevalence of asthama in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Amorim

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a prevalência dos sintomas e da doença de asma em crianças, em razão da alta freqüência de pacientes pediátricos com sintomas sugestivos da doença e da falta de dados de prevalência nesta população. MÉTODOS: Num estudo transversal, foram avaliados 2.735 escolares na faixa etária de 6-7 anos (crianças e 3.509 na de 13-14 anos (adolescentes, escolhidos por amostragem aleatória. Os dados foram coletados em 1998-99 utilizando-se o questionário escrito traduzido do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC, previamente testado e validado. O questionário dirigido às crianças foi respondido pelos seus responsáveis, enquanto os adolescentes responderam em sala de aula. Os dados foram transcritos e analisados pelo programa EPI-info. RESULTADOS: Taxa de devolução: 73,2% (6-7 anos e 94% (13-14 anos. Prevalência dos sintomas nas crianças e adolescentes: sibilos alguma vez, 46,7% e 44,3% (p OBJECTIVE: to assess the prevalence of asthma symptoms and of asthma in children due to the high frequency of pediatrics patients with symptoms suggestive of the disease and to the lack of data regarding prevalence of asthma in this population. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study with 2,735 school-age children aged 6-7 years and 3,509 adolescents aged 13-14 years selected by random sampling. Data were collected between 1998 and 1999 using a translated version of the questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children, which has been previously tested and approved. Guardians were responsible for answering the questionnaire of younger children, whereas adolescents answered their own, in classroom. The data were computed and analyzed using EPI-info software. RESULTS: The response rates for questionnaires were 73.2% (6-7-years old and 94% (13-14 years old. The prevalence of symptoms in children and adolescents were, respectively: wheezing ever 46.7% and 44.3% (P<0.05; wheezing

  4. Prevalence of ataxia in children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Kristin E; Stoyanov, Cristina T; Marasigan, Rhul; Jenkins, Mary E; Konczak, Jürgen; Morton, Susanne M; Bastian, Amy J

    2014-01-07

    To estimate the prevalence of childhood ataxia resulting from both genetic and acquired causes. A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) statement. Five databases were searched for articles reporting a frequency measure (e.g., prevalence, incidence) of ataxia in children. Included articles were first grouped according to the World Health Organization (WHO) regions and subsequently classified according to etiology (genetic, acquired, or mixed). Each article was assessed for its risk of bias on the domains of sampling, measurement, and analysis. Incidence values were converted to prevalence estimates whenever possible. European prevalence estimates for different etiologies of ataxia were summed to gauge the overall prevalence of childhood ataxia. One hundred fifteen articles were included in the review. More than 50% of the data originated from the Europe WHO region. Data from this region also showed the least susceptibility to bias. Little data were available for Africa and Southeast Asia. The prevalence of acquired ataxias was found to vary more greatly across regions than the genetic ataxias. Ataxic cerebral palsy was found to be a significant contributor to the overall prevalence of childhood ataxia across WHO regions. The prevalence of childhood ataxias in Europe was estimated to be ∼26/100,000 children and likely reflects a minimum prevalence worldwide. The findings show that ataxia is a common childhood motor disorder with a higher prevalence than previously assumed. More research concerning the epidemiology, assessment, and treatment of childhood ataxia is warranted.

  5. Prevalence of alcohol problems in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Todisco, N; Gluud, C

    1996-01-01

    The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and the response to a question about heavy alcohol consumption were used to assess the prevalence of alcohol problems in consecutive patients (77 males and 46 females) consulting a general practitioner in an urban area in the South of Italy...... (Castellammare di Stabia). Alcohol problems, which were defined by a cut-off score of 5 on the MAST and/or by heavy alcohol consumption (corresponding to at least 60 g of ethanol daily for males and 36 g of ethanol daily for females for at least 2 years), were identified in 54 patients [43.9%; 95% confidence...... heavy alcohol consumption had a predictive negative value of 97.2% (95% CI 90.2-99.7%) and a predictive positive value of 73.1% (95% CI 59.0-84.4%) in relation to MAST positive patients. It is suggested that general practitioners should incorporate this question about heavy alcohol consumption...

  6. Predictors of undiagnosed prevalent type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltberg, Andreas Søndergaard; Andersen, John Sahl; Sandholdt, Håkon

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate how self-reported risk factors (including socioeconomic status) predict undiagnosed, prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To externally validate Leicester Risk Assessment Score (LRAS), Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and Danish Diabetes Risk Score (DDRS...... prediction models reporting ROC-curves for undiagnosed T2DM, pre-diabetes and SCORE. RESULTS: More than 20% of people with T2DM were undiagnosed. The 7 most important self-rated predictors in sequential order were high BMI, antihypertensive-therapy, age, cardiovascular disease, waist-circumference, fitness...... are important risk factors for undiagnosed T2DM. LRAS performed better than DDRS and FINDRISC in prediction of undiagnosed T2DM and SCORE≥5%. SCORE performed best in predicting pre-diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserve...

  7. Fibromyalgia: Prevalence, epidemiologic profiles and economic costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo-Meseguer, Asensi; Cerdá-Olmedo, Germán; Trillo-Mata, José Luis

    2017-11-22

    Fibromyalgia is an idiopathic chronic condition that causes widespread musculoskeletal pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. This review aims to approach the general epidemiology of fibromyalgia according to the most recent published studies, identifying the general worldwide prevalence of the disease, its basic epidemiological profiles and its economic costs, with specific interest in the Spanish and Comunidad Valenciana cases. Fibromyalgia affects, on average, 2.10% of the world's population; 2.31% of the European population; 2.40% of the Spanish population; and 3.69% of the population in the Comunidad Valenciana. It supposes a painful loss of the quality of life of the people who suffer it and the economic costs are enormous: in Spain is has been estimated at more than 12,993 million euros annually. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Bullying - effects, prevalence and strategies for detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Gregg, Michael; Manocha, Ramesh

    2011-03-01

    The mental, physical, social and academic consequences of bullying have an enormous impact on human and social capital. This article describes the effects and prevalence of bullying on young people and presents strategies for its detection. Strategies for the facilitation of a multidisciplinary approach to bullying in adolescents are also presented. Given the existing high rate of bullying, assessment should be incorporated into a standard psychosocial screening routine in the general practitioner's clinic. Effective management is a multidisciplinary effort, involving parents, teachers and school officials, the GP, and mental health professionals. Given the variable effectiveness of schools in tackling bullying, GPs play an important role in identifying at risk patients, screening for psychiatric comorbidities, counselling families about the problem, and advocating for bullying prevention in their communities.

  9. Prevalence of Asthma in Southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryum Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAsthma is exaggerated response of immune system which is a leading cause of death in the third world. Main causes of asthma are allergy, smoking, drugs like NSAID (Aspirin and family history. Objective of study was to check the prevalence of asthma in different age groups and its impact on socioeconomical behaviors of the peoples of southern Punjab, by developing a questionnaire. Incidence of asthmatic attack in the age group of 20 to 60 years was more than in age group of 20 years, furthermore the incidence was found to be more common in females as compare to males. The smokers were at more risk to develop the disease as compared to the nonsmokers.

  10. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Idiazabal cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrese, E; Arroyo-Izaga, M

    2012-01-01

    Raw-milk cheese has been identified in risk assessment as a food of greater concern to public health due to listeriosis. To determine the prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes in semi-hard Idiazabal cheese manufactured by different producers in the Basque Country at consumer level. A total of 51 Idiazabal cheese samples were obtained from 10 separate retail establishments, chosen by stratified random sampling. Samples were tested using the official standard ISO procedure 11290-1 for detection and enumeration methods. All cheese samples tested negative for L. monocytogenes. However, 9.8% tested positive for Listeria spp., different from L. monocytogenes. Positive samples came from two brands, two were natural and three were smoked. The presence of Listeria spss. suggests that the cheese making process and the hygiene whether at milking or during cheese making could be insufficient.

  11. GENITAL CONDYLOMAS. PREVALENCE, ETIOLOGY, TREATMENT AND PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Aslamazyan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the papilloma virus infection. As it became known in October 2008, the nobel prize in the field of medicine and physiology this year is awarded to the German doctor of Harald Zur Hausen who has proved the role of the human papilloma virus as causative factor of the cervical carcinoma. This is epoch making discovery because of human papilloma virus is most frequent of sexually transmitted infections. The authors demonstrated the high HPV prevalence. One of the most frequent manifestations of this infection is in more details presented pointed condy loma, clinical course of the disease and differential diagnostics of its various forms. Considering treatment inefficiency, the authors convincingly demonstrate that the only opportunity available to keep a human from the illness development is a specific immune prevention.Key words: papillomavirus infection, pointed condylomas, precancers, prevention.

  12. Vitamin D -prevalence, mortality and bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durup, Darshana Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    without hyperparathyroidism had decreased mortality compared to subjects suffering from hypovitaminosis D and raised serum PTH. Among 21.195 patients who had serum parathyroid hormone and serum calcium measured besides 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 10.5% of suffered from hyperparathyroidism secondary to vitamin D...... vitamin D level and mortality was reverse J-shaped. In the same population, prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and hyperparathyroidism secondary to vitamin D deficiency was 54.4% and 10.5%, respectively. These patients have potentially risked of suffering from or getting osteomalacia accompanying bone...... includes 12 women in the age 18-50 years, premenopausal and all suffering from bone pain, vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism. The recruitment is done through Copenhagen General Practitioners' Laboratory, which analyzes vitamin D samples daily. The study comprise of 6 visits; screening and 5...

  13. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans.Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy. The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol.Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests.Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.

  14. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  15. Epidemiological Study of Smoking Prevalence among Teenagers

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    A.A. Fialkovskaia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to clarify the prevalence and status of smoking among today’s teenagers according to the survey. Materials and methods. There was carried out the study of the prevalence of smoking among adolescents in the Dnipro (n = 2299 individuals. Results. According to the results of the survey, there were 20.8 % active smokers among adolescents, among them 89.1 % adolescents smoked every day, including 24.9 % boys and 14.6 % girls. On average, adolescents begin smoking regularly at the age of 14.4 ± 0.1 year. The average length of smoking in adolescents was to 3.4 ± 0.1. The average number of cigarettes adolescents smoked per day made up of 9.1 ± 0.3 units. Studying the type of tobacco products 48.6 % of adolescents were found to smoke light cigarettes. The average index of smoker was 109.1 ± 3.3 and was significantly higher in boys (125.5 ± 4.9 than in girls (91.9 ± 4.0 (p < 0.001. Study of the motivation to quit smoking found that only 20.3 % of teenagers are highly motivated to quit, whereas about 31.7 % of adolescents have no motivation to quit smoking. Conclusions. The study showed that the problem of tobacco use remains highly relevant: in the city every fifth teenager smokes. The findings necessitate widespread introduction of antismoking programs among adolescents, which should be directed first to reduce the intensity of smoking and increase motivation to quit smoking, promote healthy lifestyles, as well as thorough clinical examination of adolescent smokers with the aim of identifying risk groups for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  16. Concussion Prevalence in Competitive Ultimate Frisbee Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Damien J.; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D.; Tybor, David J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ultimate Frisbee (ultimate) is a fast-growing, popular sport played nationally by over 4 million athletes. While several studies have examined injury rates in ultimate, no work has investigated the prevalence of concussions specifically or players’ knowledge and management of those injuries. Purpose: To estimate the lifetime prevalence of concussions in ultimate and to assess players’ knowledge of concussions as well as their concussion management behaviors. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: From June to November 2015, we collected ultimate-related concussion data via an anonymous web-based survey, the Concussion in Ultimate Frisbee Survey, from a convenience sample of 787 male and female ultimate players across the United States. Results: There were 553 male and 234 female respondents included in the analysis; 26.58% of men and 24.79% of women reported that they had sustained at least 1 concussion while playing ultimate, with 45.58% and 43.10% of those men and women, respectively, reporting multiple concussions. A total of 67.81% of men and 78.21% of women stated that they would remove themselves from play after sustaining a given concussion, although 45.99% of men and 37.62% of women indicated that they had returned to play in the same game or practice. Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that concussions do commonly occur in competitive ultimate and that better education and management of concussions in ultimate athletes are needed. This study is an important first step in deepening our understanding of these issues. PMID:29552572

  17. Prevalence of induced ischemia by mental distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbirato, Gustavo Borges; Félix, Renata; de Azevedo, Jader Cunha; Corrêa, Patrícia Lavatori; de Nóbrega, Antônio Claudio Lucas; Coimbra, Alexandro; Volschan, André; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Dohmann, Hans Fernando Rocha; Mesquita, Cláudio Tinoco

    2010-03-01

    The myocardial radionuclide imaging with mental distress seems to induce ischemia through a particular physiopathology when compared to radionuclide imaging with physical or pharmacological distress. To assess the prevalence of induced myocardial ischemia by mental distress in patients with thoracic pain and radionuclide imaging with normal conventional distress, with 99mTc-Sestamibi. Twenty-two patients were admitted with thoracic pain at emergency or were referred to the nuclear medicine service of our institution, where myocardial radionuclide imaging of distress or rest without ischemic alterations was carried out. The patients were, then, invited to go through an additional phase with mental distress induced by color conflict (Strop Color Test) with the objective of detecting myocardial ischemia. Two cardiologists and nuclear physicians performed the blind analysis of perfusional data and consequent quantification through Summed Difference Score (SDS), punctuating the segments that were altered after mental distress and comparing it to the rest period image. The presence of myocardial ischemia was considered if SDS > or = 3. The prevalence of mental distress-induced myocardial ischemia was 40% (9 positive patients). Among the 22 studied patients, there were no statistical differences with regard to the number of risk factors, mental distress-induced hemodynamic alterations, usage of medications, presented symptoms, presence or absence of coronary disease and variations of ejection fraction and final systolic volume of Gated SPECT. In a selected sample of patients with thoracic pain and normal myocardial radionuclide imaging, the research of myocardial ischemia induced by mental distress through radionuclide imaging may be positive in up to 40% of cases.

  18. Specific learning disorder: prevalence and gender differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Moll

    Full Text Available Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.

  19. Prevalence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Katrin; Marlow, Thomas; Jensen, Christer; Skoog, Ingmar; Wikkelsø, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in elderly persons in a large population-based sample using radiologic and clinical examinations. Methods: We examined representative elderly populations aged 70 years and older that had undergone neuropsychiatric evaluations and CT of the brain between 1986 and 2000 (n = 1,238). Gait was evaluated by clinical examination and history of walking difficulty. Cognitive function was evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination and urinary incontinence by self-report. iNPH was diagnosed in concordance with the American-European iNPH guidelines. Exclusion criteria were history of meningitis, severe head trauma, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Results: The prevalence of probable iNPH was 0.2% in those aged 70–79 years (n = 2) and 5.9% (n = 24) in those aged 80 years and older, with no difference between men and women. Only 2 of these persons had been treated for iNPH. Hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement, i.e., a CT image consistent with NPH, was found in 56 persons (4.5%). An Evans Index >0.3 was found in 256 (20.7%) and occluded sulci at the high convexity in 67 persons (5.4%). All of these findings were more common in the older age groups. Conclusions: Many elderly possess clinical and imaging features of iNPH, especially those older than 80 years. The number of persons with iNPH is probably much higher than the number of persons currently treated. PMID:24682964

  20. PREVALENCE OF TRICHOMONIASIS IN WOMEN: ISFAHAN 1995

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    M BAGHAEI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trichomoniasis (infection with Trichomonas vaginalis is the second cause of vaginitis after bacterial infections and the most prevalent non virel sexually transmitted disease. Considering the differences in the prevalence of infection in other countries and the lack of any study of frequency of infection in Isfahan in the last 20 years in this survey the frequency of infection with T. vaginalis in women attending to health care centers and the relationship between infection and demoghraphic factors and clinical signs was studied. Methods: The diagnosis of Trichomoniasis was made by wet mount examination and culture of vaginal discharge in 470 women attending to three health care centers in Isfahan. The relationship between the results obtained and clinical signs and demographics factors determined by questionnaires, interviews, and physical examinations was investigated. Results: From 470 women, in 7 (1.49 percent and 9 (1.92 percent cases indentified T.vaginalis in wet mount and culture respectively. Statistical methods showed no significant relationship between Trichomoniasis and age, Use of specific contraceptive method, and vaginal pH (for those with no clinical signs (P > 0.05. However, a statistically significant relationship was observed between Trichomoniasis and pruritus, irritation of vulva, frothy discharge, vaginitis and vaginal pH (in women with clinical signs. (P<0.05. Discussion: A comparison between the results of the present study and the previous ones showed a significant decrease in the frequency of T.vaginalis in Isfahan. This dicrease may be due to some changes in the social behaviors and more comitment to the Islamic principles. It seems that there is no direct relationship between Trichomoniasis and age but pH changes may be one of the factors involved in Trichomoniasis.

  1. Smoking uptake and prevalence in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: Developing countries are at high risk of epidemic increases in tobacco smoking, but the extent of this problem is not clearly defined because few collect detailed smoking data. We have surveyed tobacco smoking in the Ashanti region of Ghana, a rapidly developing African country with a long-established tobacco industry. Methods: We took a random sample of 30 regional census enumeration areas, each comprising about 100 households, and a systematic sample of 20 households from each. These were visited, a complete listing of residents obtained and questionnaire interviews on current and past smoking, age at smoking uptake, sources of cigarettes and other variables carried out in all consenting residents aged 14 or over. Results: Of 7096 eligible individuals resident in the sampled households, 6258 (88%; median age 31 (range 14–105) years; 64% female) participated. The prevalence of self-reported current smoking (weighted for gender differences in response) was 3.8% (males 8.9%, females 0.3%) and of ever smoking 9.7% (males 22.0%, females 1.2%). Smoking was more common in older people, those of Traditionalist belief, those of low educational level, the unemployed and the less affluent. Smokers were more likely to drink alcohol and to have friends who smoke. About 10% of cigarettes were smuggled brands. About a third of smokers were highly or very highly dependent. Conclusions: Despite rapid economic growth and a sustained tobacco industry presence, smoking prevalence in Ghana is low, particularly among younger people. This suggests that progression of an epidemic increase in smoking has to date been avoided. PMID:19581276

  2. Malaria in South Asia: Prevalence and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chery, Laura; Biswas, Chinmoy; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Dutta, Prafulla; Dua, Virendra Kumar; Kacchap, Mridula; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Khandeparkar, Anar; Kour, Dalip; Mahajanj, Satish N.; Maji, Ardhendu; Majumder, Partha; Mohanta, Jagadish; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K.; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Roy, Krishnangshu; Shastri, Jayanthi; Valecha, Neena; Vikash, Rana; Wani, Reena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2013-01-01

    The “Malaria Evolution in South Asia” (MESA) program project is an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. This US–India collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the Indian subcontinent. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. In this first of two reviews, we highlight malaria prevalence in India. In particular, we draw attention to variations in distribution of different human-parasites and different vectors, variation in drug resistance traits, and multiple forms of clinical presentations. Uneven malaria severity in India is often attributed to large discrepancies in health care accessibility as well as human migrations within the country and across neighboring borders. Poor access to health care goes hand in hand with poor reporting from some of the same areas, combining to possibly distort disease prevalence and death from malaria in some parts of India. Corrections are underway in the form of increased resources for disease control, greater engagement of village-level health workers for early diagnosis and treatment, and possibly new public–private partnerships activities accompanying traditional national malaria control programs in the most severely affected areas. A second accompanying review raises the possibility that, beyond uneven health care, evolutionary pressures may alter malaria parasites in ways that contribute to severe disease in India, particularly in the NE corridor of India bordering Myanmar Narayanasamy et al., 2012. PMID:22248528

  3. Antiepileptic drugs prescribed in pregnancy and prevalence of major congenital malformations: comparative prevalence studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersen I

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Irene Petersen,1,2 Shuk-Li Collings,1,3 Rachel L McCrea,1 Irwin Nazareth,1 David P Osborn,4 Phil J Cowen,5 Cormac J Sammon1 1Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London, London, UK; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus N, Denmark; 3OXON Epidemiology, London, UK; 4Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, UK; 5University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of major congenital malformations associated with antiepileptic drug (AED treatment in pregnancy.Patients and methods: Using data from The Health Improvement Network, we identified women who have given live birth and their offspring. Four subgroups were selected based on the AED treatment in early pregnancy, valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine and women not receiving AED treatment. We compared the prevalence of major congenital malformations within children of these four groups and estimated prevalence ratios (PRs using Poisson regression adjusted for maternal age, sex of child, quintiles of Townsend deprivation score and indication for treatment.Results: In total, 240,071 women were included in the study. A total of 229 women were prescribed valproate in pregnancy, 357 were prescribed lamotrigine and 334 were prescribed carbamazepine and 239,151 women were not prescribed AEDs. Fifteen out of 229 (6.6% women prescribed valproate gave birth to a child with a major congenital malformation. The figures for lamotrigine, carbamazepine and women not prescribed AEDs were 2.7%, 3.3% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of major congenital malformation was similar for women prescribed lamotrigine or carbamazepine compared to women with no AED treatment in pregnancy. For women prescribed valproate in polytherapy, the prevalence was fourfold higher. After adjustments, the effect of estimates attenuated, but the prevalence remained two- to

  4. Prevalence of sleep bruxism in children: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Eduardo; Dal-Fabbro, Cibele; Cunali, Paulo Afonso; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB) in children is subject to discussions in the literature. OBJECTIVE: This study is a systematic literature review aiming to critically assess the prevalence of SB in children. METHODS: Survey using the following research databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO, from January 2000 to February 2013, focusing on studies specifically assessing the prevalence of SB in children. RESULTS: After applying the inclusion criteria, four studies were retrieved. Among the selected articles, the prevalence rates of SB ranged from 5.9% to 49.6%, and these variations showed possible associations with the diagnostic criteria used for SB. CONCLUSION: There is a small number of studies with the primary objective of assessing SB in children. Additionally, there was a wide variation in the prevalence of SB in children. Thus, further, evidence-based studies with standardized and validated diagnostic criteria are necessary to assess the prevalence of SB in children more accurately. PMID:25628080

  5. Prevalence of sleep bruxism in children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Eduardo; Dal-Fabbro, Cibele; Cunali, Paulo Afonso; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB) in children is subject to discussions in the literature. This study is a systematic literature review aiming to critically assess the prevalence of SB in children. Survey using the following research databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO, from January 2000 to February 2013, focusing on studies specifically assessing the prevalence of SB in children. After applying the inclusion criteria, four studies were retrieved. Among the selected articles, the prevalence rates of SB ranged from 5.9% to 49.6%, and these variations showed possible associations with the diagnostic criteria used for SB. There is a small number of studies with the primary objective of assessing SB in children. Additionally, there was a wide variation in the prevalence of SB in children. Thus, further, evidence-based studies with standardized and validated diagnostic criteria are necessary to assess the prevalence of SB in children more accurately.

  6. Caries prevalence in skeletal series: is it possible to compare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Wesolowski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the relationship with subsistence, dental caries is a central issue in paleopathological research. Usually, comparisons between caries prevalence exhibited in different skeletal series are made. Dietary variation is the most common explanation for cavities prevalence. The aim of this paper is to verify if it is possible to compare caries prevalence reported on papers for archaeological skeletal series. Another goal is to determine if other factors besides diet are implicated in dental cavity prevalence explanation. Twenty six papers about dental health with caries prevalences published from 1999 to 2004 were analyzed for completeness. This assessment includes carious lesion diagnosis and characteristics, age, sex and size characteristics of samples, and prevalence calculation method. The majority of the analyzed papers do not provide adequate information in the topics listed above. Only very few implicated factors other than diet as a contributor to caries lesions development.

  7. CKD Prevalence Varies across the European General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stel, Vianda S.; Gambaro, Giovanni; Hallan, Stein; Völzke, Henry; Ärnlöv, Johan; Kastarinen, Mika; Guessous, Idris; Vinhas, José; Stengel, Bénédicte; Brenner, Hermann; Chudek, Jerzy; Romundstad, Solfrid; Tomson, Charles; Gonzalez, Alfonso Otero; Bello, Aminu K.; Ferrieres, Jean; Palmieri, Luigi; Browne, Gemma; Capuano, Vincenzo; Van Biesen, Wim; Zoccali, Carmine; Gansevoort, Ron; Navis, Gerjan; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Nitsch, Dorothea; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J.

    2016-01-01

    CKD prevalence estimation is central to CKD management and prevention planning at the population level. This study estimated CKD prevalence in the European adult general population and investigated international variation in CKD prevalence by age, sex, and presence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. We collected data from 19 general-population studies from 13 European countries. CKD stages 1–5 was defined as eGFR30 mg/g, and CKD stages 3–5 was defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. CKD prevalence was age- and sex-standardized to the population of the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU27). We found considerable differences in both CKD stages 1–5 and CKD stages 3–5 prevalence across European study populations. The adjusted CKD stages 1–5 prevalence varied between 3.31% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.30% to 3.33%) in Norway and 17.3% (95% CI, 16.5% to 18.1%) in northeast Germany. The adjusted CKD stages 3–5 prevalence varied between 1.0% (95% CI, 0.7% to 1.3%) in central Italy and 5.9% (95% CI, 5.2% to 6.6%) in northeast Germany. The variation in CKD prevalence stratified by diabetes, hypertension, and obesity status followed the same pattern as the overall prevalence. In conclusion, this large-scale attempt to carefully characterize CKD prevalence in Europe identified substantial variation in CKD prevalence that appears to be due to factors other than the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. PMID:26701975

  8. Prevalence and growth of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lasse Vigel; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes contamination of seafood varies with product category. The highest prevalence was found in cold- smoked fish (34-60%), while the lowest was found in heat- treated and cured seafood (4-12%). The prevalence of L. monocytogenes differed greatly in cold-smoked salmon between...... production sites, ranging from repeated sampling. The results indicate that it is possible to produce cold-smoked salmon with a low prevalence of L. monocytogenes. The organism showed moderate growth...

  9. Prevalence of mental health risk factors among students in lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Pranckevičiūtė, Lina

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of Mental Health Risk Factors among Students in Lithuania There are a numberof studiesin Lithuania and whole world about depression among young people. However, the prevalence of several risk factors (mental health literacy, sense of coherence, depressiveness, suicidal thoughts, social support) among universities, colleges, vocational studentsin Lithuania has not been studied. Aim of the study – to assess mental health risk factors prevalence among Lithuanian students. Objectives: ...

  10. Ecological correlates of feather mite prevalence in passerines

    OpenAIRE

    Figuerola, Jordi

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between host ecology and feather mite prevalence was analysed in birds. Feather mites are small arthropods (fam. Pterolichoidea and Analgoidea) commonly found on birds, although the nature of their interactions with the host (commensalism, mutualism or parasitism), still remains unclear. Host body mass and migratory behaviour were unrelated to feather mite prevalence. Contrary to expecta- tion, there was no differences in mite prevalence between colonial and so...

  11. [Polycystic ovary syndrome: is there a rise in the prevalence?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Ruiz, Israel Obed; Saucedo-de la Llata, Eric; Moraga-Sánchez, María Rosa; Romeu-Sarró, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) according to the three major diagnostic criteria previously described in an unselected group of women from Spain and to identify the most common phenotypes of the disease. An observational, transversal prevalence study was carried out between July 1 2014 and October 31 2014. All participants received a questionnaire and underwent a physical and trans-vaginal ultrasound examination. Blood samples were also collected for analysis of metabolic markers and hormones. PCOS was diagnosed according to three major criteria: NIH, Rotterdam and AE-PCOS criteria. Following diagnosis women with PCOS were assigned to one of four phenotypes. A total of 242 women were involved in the study. The prevalence for each major criteria was as follows: National Institute of Health (NIH) criteria had a prevalence of 1 4.88%, Rotterdam criteria had a prevalence of 29.34% and Androgen Excess and PCOS Society criteria presented a prevalence of 17.36%. The prevalence for each phenotype was: A, 40.85%; B, 25.35%; C, 8.45%; and D, 25.35%. PCOS women had more prevalence of hirsutism (36.61 %), infertility (25.35%), obesity (21.1 2%) and metabolic syndrome (11 .26%) than controls (7.01%, 6.43%, 5.84% and 2.33% respectively). There is a rise in the prevalence of PCOS in Caucasian population with the classic phenotype (oligo-anovulation, hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries) being the most common presentation of the syndrome.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among emergency department workers and bacterial contamination on touch surfaces in Erciyes University Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey.

  13. Birth prevalence of cleft lip and palate in Sucre, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Niall M H; Urioste, Marcelo L Arana; Saeed, Nadeem R

    2004-03-01

    To determine the birth prevalence of cleft lip and palate (CL +/- P) in the municipality of Sucre, Bolivia. To ascertain whether the birth prevalence in this region differs significantly from birth prevalence reported in similar populations and other racial groups. Twenty-eight clefts were identified among 22,746 live births between the years 1995 and 2001 in three maternity hospitals in the city. The total birth prevalence of CL +/- P was 1.23/1000 live births per year. There were 12 clefts of the lip alone (birth prevalence 0.53/1000 per year), 15 cleft lip and palate (0.66/1000 per year), and one cleft palate only (0.04/1000 per year). The birth prevalence was not significantly different from birth prevalence published previously in South American populations, although it is lower than previously published data from Bolivia. The birth prevalence of CL +/- P in this South American population was similar to published data in white subjects and between those found in black and oriental groups. The sex ratio and birth prevalence of simultaneous congenital malformations also did not differ from previously published figures.

  14. Research Paper Prevalence of enuresis in a community sample of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Paper Prevalence of enuresis in a community sample of children and adolescents referred for outpatient clinical psychological evaluation: Psychiatric comorbidities and association with intellectual functioning.

  15. STRESS FRACTURE PREVALENCE IN ELITE FIGURE SKATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Dubravcic-Simunjak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Figure skating is a physically demanding sport that requires a unique combination of artistic ability, speed, agility, flexibility and power. During the last decades not only the competitive schedule has become tougher, but after introduction of the new judging system in 2003, also more emphasis is put on difficult technical elements, jumps, steps and spins (ISU Rules, 2006. More studies about possible increasing prevalence of stress fractures in figure skaters and contributing factors are lacking (Dubravcic-Simunjak et al., 2003; Moran, 2000; Pecina et al., 1990. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain data about the current stress fracture cumulative risk among elite junior and senior figure skaters, as well as possible factors that may contribute to stress fracture incidence. An anonymous questionnaire, divided into 5 sections, inquired about the prevalence of stress fracture were mailed and distributed to all 62 International Skating Union (ISU members by the ISU headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland. The guidelines of the Helsinki declaration 2004 were followed. From the 644 skaters who received the questionnaire, 412 completed ones were returned from 110 female juniors (78 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 135 female seniors (97 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers and from 79 male juniors (47 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 88 male seniors (50 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers, coming from different ISU members. The response rate was 62% in females and 67% in males. The median age for female skaters was 16 years and for males 18 years (range 12-25 years. All participants started to skate between 3 and 6 years of age and started to compete in national and international competitions when they were between 5 and 7 years old. At the time of this analysis, they had been skating between 9 and 20 years.In females 41 (16.7%, and in males 25 (13.8% figure skaters

  16. Renal failure prevalence in poisoned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen

    2014-03-01

    Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better therapeutic strategies to minimize the mortality associated with drug poisoning induced renal failure. This cross-sectional study surveyed 1500 poisoned patients referred to the Emergency Department of Baharloo Hospital in Tehran during 2010. Demographic data including age and gender as well as clinical data including type of medication, duration of hospital stay, and presence of renal failure were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared statistics were used to analyze the results. A total number of 435 patients were poisoned with several drugs, 118 patients were intoxicated with sedative-hypnotic drugs, 279 patients were exposed to opium, and 478 patients were administered to other drugs. The method of intoxication included oral 84.3%, injective 9%, inhalation 4.3% and finally a combination of methods 2.3%. Laboratory results revealed that 134 cases had renal failure and 242 had rhabdomyolysis. The incidence of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure increased significantly with age, and also with time of admission to the hospital. Renal failure was reported in 25.1% of patients exposed to opium, vs. 18.2% of patients poisoned with aluminum phosphide, 16.7% of those with organophosphate, 8% with multiple drugs, 6.7% with alcohol, heavy metals and acids, and 1.7% with sedative hypnotics. Based on the findings of this study, there is a high probability of renal failure for patients poisoned with drugs such as opium, aluminum phosphide, and multiple drugs as well as the patients with delayed admission to

  17. Influence of country-level differences on COPD prevalence

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    Aaron SD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Shawn D Aaron,1 Andrea S Gershon,2 Yuan Gao,1 Jenna Yang,1 GA Whitmore1,3 On behalf of the Canadian Respiratory Research Network 1Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, 2Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, ON, 3Desautels Faculty of Management, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada Purpose: Studies suggest that COPD prevalence may vary between countries. We conducted an ecological study of data from COPD prevalence articles to assess the influence of differences in country-level risk factors on COPD prevalence. Patients and methods: Our study covered English language articles published during 2003–2014. Qualified articles used spirometry to assess COPD prevalence and used representative samples from national or subnational populations. Stepwise binomial regression was used to analyze associations between study- and country-level factors and COPD prevalence. Results: Eighty articles provided 1,583 measures of COPD prevalence for subjects in different sex, age, and smoking categories for 112 districts in 41 countries. Adjusted prevalence rates for COPD were significantly lower for Australia/New Zealand and the Mediterranean and significantly higher for Latin America, compared to North America, Southeast Asia, and Northern Europe. Country-level socioeconomic development variables had an uneven and mixed association with COPD prevalence. High elevation above sea level was shown to be a protective factor for COPD. Study-level variables for the established risk factors of sex, age, and smoking explained 64% of variability in COPD prevalence. Country-level risk factors raised the explanatory power to 72%. Approximately 28% of worldwide variability in COPD prevalence remained unexplained. Conclusion: Our study suggests that COPD prevalence varies across world regions, even after adjustment for established risk factors. Major country-level risk factors contributing to the worldwide epidemic of COPD remain

  18. Prevalence of smoking in northwest Iran: a meta-analysis

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    Mahmood Moosazadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco addiction is a major cause of preventable death worldwide. Thus, efforts to eliminate its use have the potential of producing significant health benefits. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among people in the age range of 15 to 64. The specific objective of this meta-analysis was to provide valid data that policy makers can use to make evidence-based decisions. Methods: To determine the prevalence of smoking among the adult population in northwest Iran, we used reports published by the surveillance system used to assess the risk factors for non-communicable diseases in different provinces in northwest Iran for the years 2004 and 2006-2009. Several variables were extracted, including the years of study, gender, ages, and smoking prevalence. Based on the heterogeneity of the results, we used fixed or random effects models to estimate the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking. The analyses were performed using Stata 11 software. Results: A total of 28,436 subjects (14,248 males and 14,188 females in five age groups, i.e., 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, and 55-64, were interviewed. Meta-analysis in men showed that, across the age groups, the lowest prevalence was 22.9%, the highest prevalence was 26.5%, and the average prevalence was 24.7%. Among women, the lowest prevalence was 0.3%, the highest prevalence was 0.8%, and the average prevalence was 0.5%. Conclusion: We found that approximately one-fourth of males in the age range of 15-64 in northwest Iran smoked cigarettes daily. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct effective interventions to reduce the prevalence of addiction to tobacco in this area.

  19. Prevalence of wounds in a community care setting in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott-Scales, L; Cowman, S; Gethin, G

    2009-10-01

    To establish the prevalence of wounds and their management in a community care setting. A multi-site, census point prevalence wound survey was conducted in the following areas: intellectual disability, psychiatry, GP practices, prisons, long-term care private nursing homes, long-term care, public nursing homes and the community/public health (district) nursing services on one randomly selected day. Acute services were excluded. Formal ethical approval was obtained. Data were collected using a pre-piloted questionnaire. Education was provided to nurses recording the tool (n=148). Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. A 97.2% response rate yielded a crude prevalence rate of 15.6% for wounds across nursing disciplines (290/1,854 total census) and 0.2% for the community area (290/133,562 population statistics for the study area). Crude point prevalence ranged from 2.7% in the prison services (7/262 total prison population surveyed) to 33.5% in the intellectual disability services (72/215 total intellectual disability population surveyed). The most frequent wounds recorded were pressure ulcers (crude point prevalence 4%, 76/1,854 total census; excluding category l crude point prevalence was 2.6%, 49/1,854 total census), leg ulcers (crude point prevalence 2.9%, 55/1,854 total census), self-inflicted superficial abrasions (crude point prevalence 2.2%, 41/1,854 total census) and surgical wounds (crude point prevalence 1.7%, 32/1,854 total census). These results support previous international research in that they identify a high prevalence of wounds in the community. The true community prevalence of wounds is arguably much higher, as this study identified only wounds known to the nursing services and excluded acute settings and was conducted on one day.

  20. Smoking prevalence increases following Canterbury earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Nick; Daley, Vivien; Stevenson, Sue; Rhodes, Bronwen; Beckert, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit Canterbury in September 2010. This earthquake and associated aftershocks took the lives of 185 people and drastically changed residents' living, working, and social conditions. To explore the impact of the earthquakes on smoking status and levels of tobacco consumption in the residents of Christchurch. Semistructured interviews were carried out in two city malls and the central bus exchange 15 months after the first earthquake. A total of 1001 people were interviewed. In August 2010, prior to any earthquake, 409 (41%) participants had never smoked, 273 (27%) were currently smoking, and 316 (32%) were ex-smokers. Since the September 2010 earthquake, 76 (24%) of the 316 ex-smokers had smoked at least one cigarette and 29 (38.2%) had smoked more than 100 cigarettes. Of the 273 participants who were current smokers in August 2010, 93 (34.1%) had increased consumption following the earthquake, 94 (34.4%) had not changed, and 86 (31.5%) had decreased their consumption. 53 (57%) of the 93 people whose consumption increased reported that the earthquake and subsequent lifestyle changes as a reason to increase smoking. 24% of ex-smokers resumed smoking following the earthquake, resulting in increased smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption levels increased in around one-third of current smokers.

  1. Veterans' fall risk profile: a prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Patricia A; Palacios, Polly; Spehar, Andrea M

    2006-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) serves the health care needs of an adult, predominantly male, and aging population. The aging profile of VHA patients is 25% greater than the civilian sector (DVA 2001). Aged patients are at higher risk for falls. In February 2002, 6 VHA medical centers profiled their inpatients' fall risk profile as one aspect of program initiatives targeted at reducing veterans' fall risk and fall-related injuries, participating in a one-day collection of fall risk measurement using the Morse Fall Scale (MFS) for all inpatients (n = 1819), acute and long-term care units. Data results are reported for age, MFS score, and the relationship between age and score, and by type of ward/unit, ie, predominately acute and critical care or long-term care. The results of this prevalence study documented that the veteran inpatient population are at high-risk for anticipated physiological falls. This Veteran Integrated Services Network-wide Deployment of an Evidence-based Program to Prevent Patient Falls study was completed as part of a nationally funded clinical initiative, National Program Initiative 20-006-1.

  2. Prevalent vegetation growth enhancement in urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhou, Decheng

    2016-05-31

    Urbanization, a dominant global demographic trend, leads to various changes in environments (e.g., atmospheric CO2 increase, urban heat island). Cities experience global change decades ahead of other systems so that they are natural laboratories for studying responses of other nonurban biological ecosystems to future global change. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth are not well understood. Here, we developed a general conceptual framework for quantifying the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth and applied it in 32 Chinese cities. Results indicated that vegetation growth, as surrogated by satellite-observed vegetation index, decreased along urban intensity across all cities. At the same time, vegetation growth was enhanced at 85% of the places along the intensity gradient, and the relative enhancement increased with urban intensity. This growth enhancement offset about 40% of direct loss of vegetation productivity caused by replacing productive vegetated surfaces with nonproductive impervious surfaces. In light of current and previous field studies, we conclude that vegetation growth enhancement is prevalent in urban settings. Urban environments do provide ideal natural laboratories to observe biological responses to environmental changes that are difficult to mimic in manipulative experiments. However, one should be careful in extrapolating the finding to nonurban environments because urban vegetation is usually intensively managed, and attribution of the responses to diverse driving forces will be challenging but must be pursued.

  3. The Prevalence of Longevity Among Leading Brands

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    Bradford T. Hudson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The longevity of brands is embedded in scholarship involving brand processes that evolve over time such as brand equity, loyalty, nostalgia, and lifecycle. It is also an important conceptual element in the emerging topic of brand heritage. This paper offers new insight regarding the prevalence of brand longevity in a variety of industries, based on historical research about 148 leading brands ranked in prior studies by the consulting firm Interbrand. The author finds that a significant proportion (64 brands representing 43% of the total number are aged 100 years or more. The oldest brands are grouped in the food industry, while some of the youngest brands are grouped in the hospitality industry. The author applies the principles of scale and scope from the work of business historian Alfred Chandler to explain the timing of this industry emergence. The advanced age of many leading brands suggests the need for stewardship to preserve and protect the equity that resides in historic brands, and supports the argument that further attention should be directed toward the study of brand heritage effects.

  4. Trichotillomania Among Young Adults: Prevalence and Comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesiak, Magdalena; Reich, Adam; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Hadryś, Tomasz; Pacan, Przemysław

    2017-04-06

    Trichotillomania is an impulse control disorder characterized by repetitive pulling out of one's hair. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of trichotillomania in young adults and its association with anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). A total of 339 individuals completed a questionnaire to determine the presence of trichotillomania. OCD and anxiety disorders were diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria of the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10), based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Twelve persons (3.5%) reported hair pulling during their lifetime, but only 8 of them met the criteria of trichotillomania according to the ICD-10. Four individuals had stopped their behaviour prior to the study participation. The lifetime anxiety disorders were diagnosed in 5 participants with trichotillomania (62.5%), while in the group without trichotillomania, 67 persons (20.2%) met the diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders (p trichotillomania, among participants without trichotillomania, 14 persons (4.2%) reported symptoms of OCD.

  5. Prevalence of hypodontia in Chinese orthodontic patients

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    Pambudi Rahardjo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypodontia is a phenomenon of congenitally missing teeth in human. A thousand and twelve panoramic radiographs of Chinese orthodontic patients were examined for agenesis of permanent teeth including third molars. The patients with missing teeth were divided into four group: the patients with missing less than 4 molars, missing all third molars, hypodontia and oligodontia. The result revealed, 210 patients affected one or more teeth agenesis with a total of 455 teeth missing. The prevalence of tooth agenesis was maxillary third molar 259 (56.9%, mandibular third molar 143 (31.4%, mandibular second premolar 15 (3.3%, mandibular lateral incisors 13 (2.8%, maxillary lateral incisors 8 (1.7%, maxillary second premolars 7 (1.5%, other teeth 10 (2.2% respectively. Of the mesial mandibular first permanent molar, mandibular second premolars were the most frequent missing teeth. Although hypodontia did not represent a public health problem, from orthodontic point of view it might cause esthetic and masticatory function disorders as well as more complex mechanotherapy of a patient.

  6. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in poultry meat

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    Mehmet ELMALI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe objectives of this study were i to isolate Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in broiler wing meat samples, ii to confirm the isolates by PCR, based on prs and hly A gene sequences, iii to determine the seasonal and monthly distribution of the isolates. A total of 120 broiler wing meat samples (60 packaged pieces wrapped using strech film in styrofoam plates and 60 unpackaged pieces bought from different markets in Hatay province were analysed. Listeria spp. was isolated from 57 (47.5% out of 120 samples. Fifty-four, out of 57 Listeria spp. isolates were identified as L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes was isolated from the samples collected during the spring, winter, summer, and autumn at the levels of 26.6%, 40%, 53.3%, 60%, respectively. In this study, the isolation rates were found to be the highest in autumn, while the isolation rates were found to be the lowest in spring. As a consequence, high prevalence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in poultry wing meat samples may pose a risk for human health. We consider that with obeying the rules of good hygiene practices (GHP, good manufacturing practices (GMP and HACCP can minimize the contamination with Listeria spp.

  7. Prevalent vegetation growth enhancement in urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhou, Decheng

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization, a dominant global demographic trend, leads to various changes in environments (e.g., atmospheric CO2 increase, urban heat island). Cities experience global change decades ahead of other systems so that they are natural laboratories for studying responses of other nonurban biological ecosystems to future global change. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth are not well understood. Here, we developed a general conceptual framework for quantifying the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth and applied it in 32 Chinese cities. Results indicated that vegetation growth, as surrogated by satellite-observed vegetation index, decreased along urban intensity across all cities. At the same time, vegetation growth was enhanced at 85% of the places along the intensity gradient, and the relative enhancement increased with urban intensity. This growth enhancement offset about 40% of direct loss of vegetation productivity caused by replacing productive vegetated surfaces with nonproductive impervious surfaces. In light of current and previous field studies, we conclude that vegetation growth enhancement is prevalent in urban settings. Urban environments do provide ideal natural laboratories to observe biological responses to environmental changes that are difficult to mimic in manipulative experiments. However, one should be careful in extrapolating the finding to nonurban environments because urban vegetation is usually intensively managed, and attribution of the responses to diverse driving forces will be challenging but must be pursued. PMID:27185955

  8. Prevalence of Oral Lesions in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minic, I; Pejcic, A; Kostic, M; Krunic, N; Mirkovic, D; Igic, M

    2016-02-09

    Geriatric dentistry refers to dealing with oral diseases including prevention and treatment in old individuals. The aim of this investigation was to examine the types and frequency of oral lesions in the elderly. The study involved 75 elderly persons. The clinical diagnosis was established by correlating the aetiological factor associated with the lesion and by systematic examination of the oral mucosa and classifying those alterations according to the epidemiological guidelines for the diagnosis of oral mucosal diseases. During the clinical examination, the following elements were analysed: features of the lesion, anatomical location, extension, aetiological factors or related factors, dental status, alcohol, tobacco, trauma, use of prosthesis and if such were well adapted. Sixty lesions were diagnosed in 75 patients. These were classified according to clinical, histopathological and microbiological diagnosis and were distributed into 15 different clinical entities. The more prevalent pathologies were inflammatory, reactive and associated with long-term use of prostheses or ill-adapted prostheses, since 67% of the patients with lesions were using prostheses. Of the lesions related to prosthesis use, denture stomatitis was the most common one, representing 20 cases (33.3%). The second most frequent lesion was erythematous candidiasis (10%). The other most frequent lesions in this study were lingua plicata, xerostomia and pseudomembranous candidiasis. Oral and perioral tissues undergo different functional and structural changes with ageing. The role of the dentist and stomatologist includes the management of systemic, nutritional and pharmacological oral manifestations in order to establish an early diagnosis and subsequent accurate treatment.

  9. Prevalence of primary immunodeficiency in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jung Woo; Kim, Kyung Hyo; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Bong Seong; Kim, Jung Soo; Kim, Chang Hwi; Kim, Hwang Min; Park, Hee Ju; Pai, Ki Soo; Son, Byong Kwan; Shin, Kyung Sue; Oh, Moo Young; Woo, Young Jong; Yoo, Young; Lee, Kun Soo; Lee, Kyung Yil; Lee, Chong Guk; Lee, Joon Sung; Chung, Eun Hee; Choi, Eun Hwa; Hahn, Youn Soo; Park, Hyun Young; Kim, Joong Gon

    2012-07-01

    This study represents the first epidemiological study based on the national registry of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) in Korea. Patient data were collected from 23 major hospitals. A total of 152 patients with PID (under 19 yr of age), who were observed from 2001 to 2005, have been entered in this registry. The period prevalence of PID in Korea in 2005 is 11.25 per million children. The following frequencies were found: antibody deficiencies, 53.3% (n = 81), phagocytic disorders, 28.9% (n = 44); combined immunodeficiencies, 13.2% (n = 20); and T cell deficiencies, 4.6% (n = 7). Congenital agammaglobulinemia (n = 21) and selective IgA deficiency (n = 21) were the most frequently reported antibody deficiency. Other reported deficiencies were common variable immunodeficiencies (n = 16), X-linked agammaglobulinemia (n = 15), IgG subclass deficiency (n = 4). Phagocytic disorder was mostly chronic granulomatous disease. A small number of patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, hyper-IgE syndrome, and severe combined immunodeficiency were also registered. Overall, the most common first manifestation was pneumonia. This study provides data that permit a more accurate estimation PID patients in Korea.

  10. Epidemiologic analysis of prevalence of the hyperhidrosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevan, Fernanda Alvarenga; Wolosker, Marina Borri; Wolosker, Nelson; Puech-Leão, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Background The present paper aims to study the prevalence of the various manifestations of hyperhidrosis in patients who sought treatment in a specialized ambulatory in the state of São Paulo. Objectives Opposite to previous studies, this paper studies the different combinations of sweating sites, not being restricted to the main complaint site of the patients, but taking into consideration secondary complaints patients may present. Methods This was a retrospective approach of a database containing more than 1200 patients in which were mapped: combination of sweating sites, age of onset, age spectrum, mean age, body mass index and gender of patients. Patients were categorized into four groups based on their main sweating site - palmar, plantar, axillary and facial. Results We concluded that hyperhidrosis appears frequently in more than one site, being the main complaint that affects the most patients palmar hyperhidrosis, which appears early in the patients during adolescence. When there are two sites of sweating, the most frequent combination is palmar + plantar, and when there are three sites of sweating the most frequent combinations are palmar + plantar + axillary and axillary + palmar + plantar. Study limitations This research has casuistics limited to a single care service for patients with hyperhidrosis. Conclusion It is necessary to keep in mind that the disease manifests itself mainly in more than one location, with different intensities in each of the patients, generating a significant impairment of their quality of life. PMID:29166497

  11. Epidemiologic analysis of prevalence of the hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevan, Fernanda Alvarenga; Wolosker, Marina Borri; Wolosker, Nelson; Puech-Leão, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    The present paper aims to study the prevalence of the various manifestations of hyperhidrosis in patients who sought treatment in a specialized ambulatory in the state of São Paulo. Opposite to previous studies, this paper studies the different combinations of sweating sites, not being restricted to the main complaint site of the patients, but taking into consideration secondary complaints patients may present. This was a retrospective approach of a database containing more than 1200 patients in which were mapped: combination of sweating sites, age of onset, age spectrum, mean age, body mass index and gender of patients. Patients were categorized into four groups based on their main sweating site - palmar, plantar, axillary and facial. We concluded that hyperhidrosis appears frequently in more than one site, being the main complaint that affects the most patients palmar hyperhidrosis, which appears early in the patients during adolescence. When there are two sites of sweating, the most frequent combination is palmar + plantar, and when there are three sites of sweating the most frequent combinations are palmar + plantar + axillary and axillary + palmar + plantar. This research has casuistics limited to a single care service for patients with hyperhidrosis. It is necessary to keep in mind that the disease manifests itself mainly in more than one location, with different intensities in each of the patients, generating a significant impairment of their quality of life.

  12. [Psychogenic tics: clinical characteristics and prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Piotr; Milanowski, Lukasz; Szejko, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Clinical characteristics and the prevalence of psychogenic tics (PT) METHODS: 268 consecutively examined patients aged 4 to 54 years (221 men, 47 females; 134 children, 134 adults) with tic phenotype: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS, n = 255), chronic motor tics (n = 6), chronic vocal tics (n= 1), transient tics (n = 1), tics unclassified (n = 2), PT (n= 5) were analyzed. The diagnosis of tic disorders was made on the DSM-IV-TR criteria and mental disorders by psychiatrists. PT were found in 5 patients (1.9%), aged 17 to 51 years, four men and one woman. The phenotype included vocalizations and complex movements. In none of the patients simple motor facial tics, inability to tic suppress, unchanging clinical pattern, peak severity from the beginning of the disease, lack of concern about the disease were present. The absence of premonitory urges, regression in unexpected positions, and the presence of atypical for GTS mental disorders were found in two persons. PT occurred in three persons in whom organic tics were present in childhood. Pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy were unsuccessful. In two persons spontaneous resolution occurred, in two patients the tics persist, in one person the course of PT is unknown. PT are rare and may occur in patients with organic tics. The most typical features of PT are: early onset in adulthood, lack of simple motor tics, inability to tic suppress. The diagnosis is established if a few atypical symptoms for organic tics occur.

  13. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease after preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes van Balen, Veronica Agatha; Spaan, Julia Jeltje; Cornelis, Tom; Spaanderman, Marc Erich August

    2017-06-01

    Preeclampsia (PE), an endothelial disease that affects kidney function during pregnancy, is correlated to an increased future risk of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. The Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2012 guideline emphasizes the combined role of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria in determining the frequency of monitoring of kidney function. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of CKD in women with a history of PE. We investigated how many seemingly healthy women required monitoring of kidney function according to the KDIGO guideline. We included 775 primiparous women with a history of PE. They were at least 4 months postpartum, and had no pre-existing hypertension, diabetes or kidney disease. We estimated GFR by the CKD-Epidemiology equation and urinary albumin loss by albumin creatinine ratio in a 24-h urine collection. Most women, 669 (86.3 %), had a normal GFR and absent albuminuria. Based on the KDIGO guideline, 13.7 % would require at least yearly monitoring of kidney function. Only 1.4 % were classified to be at high risk for kidney function deterioration. Monitoring of kidney function seems relevant for about one in seven women with a history of PE, mainly due to albuminuria. Albuminuria should be evaluated postpartum to identify those women that need further monitoring of kidney function.

  14. Smoking Prevalence Increases following Canterbury Earthquakes

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    Nick Erskine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit Canterbury in September 2010. This earthquake and associated aftershocks took the lives of 185 people and drastically changed residents’ living, working, and social conditions. Aim. To explore the impact of the earthquakes on smoking status and levels of tobacco consumption in the residents of Christchurch. Methods. Semistructured interviews were carried out in two city malls and the central bus exchange 15 months after the first earthquake. A total of 1001 people were interviewed. Results. In August 2010, prior to any earthquake, 409 (41% participants had never smoked, 273 (27% were currently smoking, and 316 (32% were ex-smokers. Since the September 2010 earthquake, 76 (24% of the 316 ex-smokers had smoked at least one cigarette and 29 (38.2% had smoked more than 100 cigarettes. Of the 273 participants who were current smokers in August 2010, 93 (34.1% had increased consumption following the earthquake, 94 (34.4% had not changed, and 86 (31.5% had decreased their consumption. 53 (57% of the 93 people whose consumption increased reported that the earthquake and subsequent lifestyle changes as a reason to increase smoking. Conclusion. 24% of ex-smokers resumed smoking following the earthquake, resulting in increased smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption levels increased in around one-third of current smokers.

  15. Injuries prevalence in elite male artistic gymnasts

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    Natália Batista Albuquerque GOULART

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the injuries prevalence in men elite artistic gymnasts. Twenty Brazilian senior gymnasts, aged 23.1 ± 6.5 years, 13.9 ± 5.0 years of practice and 36.5 ± 4.7 hours per week training, participated in this study. The athletes answered a morbidity questionnaire, formulated according to studies from the literature, for information on the injuries’ characteristics and circumstances. Information about the injury circumstances (gymnastic apparatus, overload training and physical exercises, the anatomic site injured, the affect biological tissue and the return to training after injury treatment were evaluated. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, absolute and relative frequencies. The training overload, and floor, pommel horse and vault were the events that presented higher injuries frequency. In relation to anatomic site, ankle, hands/fingers and shoulder were the most cited regions. The ligament, bone and articular capsule were the most affected biological tissues. In relation to gymnasts’ return to their sports activities, 56% of them reported a better condition at return, 33% reported to have returned at the same fitness level and 10% indicated that they were in a worse condition when they returned to the sports activities. The men’s artistic gymnastics injuries are related to the mechanical demands of this sport. The analysis of risk factors helps in understanding the injuries mechanisms in gymnastics, and provides relevant information that can assist in effective prevention strategies.

  16. Prevalence of disability in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, Banurekha; Kangusamy, Boopathi; Mehendale, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Information on disability is essential for the government to formulate policies, allocate adequate resources and implement appropriate programmes. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of disability and describe the types of disability by gender, age and geographical regions in Tamil Nadu, India. We analysed the 2011 Census cross-sectional survey data of Tamil Nadu. Age-adjusted disability rates and disability rates per 100 000 population were calculated. There were 1 179 963 disabled individuals in Tamil Nadu in 2011, a disability rate of 1635 per 100 000 population. Disability in movement, hearing and sight individually accounted for 24%, 19% and 11% of the total disability, respectively. Sixteen districts had disability rates above the state average. As age advanced, disability rates increased; the highest disability rate of 2533 per 100 000 was among people aged 60 years and above. The disability rates were higher in males compared to females (1819 v. 1451 per 100 000). Rural areas had higher disability areas compared to urban (1670 v. 1599 per 100 000). Currently married, working populations and literate populations had lower disability rates. Disability rate in the Scheduled Castes was higher at 1763 per 100 000 compared to the Scheduled Tribes and other social groups. Multiple disability was high in the age groups 0-19 years and 60 years and above. Physical or mental disability was observed in 1.6% of the population of Tamil Nadu. Research is warranted to identify underlying causes and interventions to reduce the burden of disability in the state.

  17. Prevalence and causes of abnormal PSA recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Noémie; Müntener, Michael; Zanoni, Paolo; Saleh, Lanja; Saba, Karim; Umbehr, Martin; Velagapudi, Srividya; Hof, Danielle; Sulser, Tullio; Wild, Peter J; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Poyet, Cédric

    2018-01-26

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is of paramount importance as a diagnostic tool for the detection and monitoring of patients with prostate cancer. In the presence of interfering factors such as heterophilic antibodies or anti-PSA antibodies the PSA test can yield significantly falsified results. The prevalence of these factors is unknown. We determined the recovery of PSA concentrations diluting patient samples with a standard serum of known PSA concentration. Based on the frequency distribution of recoveries in a pre-study on 268 samples, samples with recoveries 120% were defined as suspect, re-tested and further characterized to identify the cause of interference. A total of 1158 consecutive serum samples were analyzed. Four samples (0.3%) showed reproducibly disturbed recoveries of 10%, 68%, 166% and 4441%. In three samples heterophilic antibodies were identified as the probable cause, in the fourth anti-PSA-autoantibodies. The very low recovery caused by the latter interference was confirmed in serum, as well as heparin- and EDTA plasma of blood samples obtained 6 months later. Analysis by eight different immunoassays showed recoveries ranging between PSA which however did not show any disturbed PSA recovery. About 0.3% of PSA determinations by the electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA) of Roche diagnostics are disturbed by heterophilic or anti-PSA autoantibodies. Although they are rare, these interferences can cause relevant misinterpretations of a PSA test result.

  18. Incidence and prevalence of psoriasis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Skov, Lone; Gislason, Gunnar H.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and temporal trends of psoriasis in Denmark between 2003 and 2012 were examined. There was a female predominance ranging between 50.0% (2007) and 55.4% (2009), and the mean age at time of diagnosis was 47.7-58.7 years. A total of 126,055 patients with psoriasis (prevalence 2.2%) were...... identified. Incidence rates of psoriasis (per 100,000 person years) ranged from 107.5 in 2005 to a peak incidence of 199.5 in 2010. Incidence rates were higher for women, and patients aged 60-69 years, respectively. Use of systemic non-biologic agents, i.e. methotrexate, cyclosporine, retinoids, or psoralen...... plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) increased over the study course, and were used in 15.0% of all patients. Biologic agents (efalizumab, etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, or ustekinumab) were utilized in 2.7% of patients. On a national level, incidence of psoriasis fluctuated during the 10- year study course...

  19. Prevalence of asymptomatic chondrocalcinosis in the pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensby, James Derek [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Barnes Jewish Hospital, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Lawrence, David A. [Progressive Radiology, Falls Church, VA (United States); Patrie, James T.; Gaskin, Cree M. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    To determine trends in incidentally detected age- and gender-associated chondrocalcinosis on pelvic CT. Twenty patients of each gender at the center of each decade of life who underwent a CT scan of the pelvis performed 2009-2013 were identified and selected for a total of 400 pelvic CTs. Images were reviewed independently by two radiologists for the presence or absence of chondrocalcinosis within the pelvis. Patients with hip or low back pain, known CPPD arthropathy or any known predisposing condition, prior hip arthroplasty, or articular fracture were excluded. Logistic regression was used to predict the presence/absence of chondrocalcinosis as a function of patient age and gender. The presence/absence of chondrocalcinosis was found to be associated with patient age (p = 0.016) but not patient gender (p = 0.929). In the pelvis, chondrocalcinosis was most frequently identified at the pubic symphysis. Incidental chondrocalcinosis was not identified in any patients under 50 years of age. Chondrocalcinosis increased in frequency from 12.5 at 55 years of age to 27.5 % of patients 95 years of age. Chondrocalcinosis is common and more prevalent in late adulthood, occurs without a gender predilection, and is infrequently identified in patients younger than 50 years of age. (orig.)

  20. Why fast magnetic reconnection is so prevalent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2018-02-01

    Evolving magnetic fields are shown to generically reach a state of fast magnetic reconnection in which magnetic field line connections change and magnetic energy is released at an Alfvénic rate. This occurs even in plasmas with zero resistivity; only the finiteness of the mass of the lightest charged particle, an electron, is required. The speed and prevalence of Alfvénic or fast magnetic reconnection imply that its cause must be contained within the ideal evolution equation for magnetic fields, , where is the velocity of the magnetic field lines. For a generic , neighbouring magnetic field lines develop a separation that increases exponentially, as \\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E(\\ell ,t)}$ with the distance along a line. This exponentially enhances the sensitivity of the evolution to non-ideal effects. An analogous effect, the importance of stirring to produce a large-scale flow and enhance mixing, has been recognized by cooks through many millennia, but the importance of the large-scale flow to reconnection is customarily ignored. In part this is due to the sixty-year focus of recognition theory on two-coordinate models, which eliminate the exponential enhancement that is generic with three coordinates. A simple three-coordinate model is developed, which could be used to address many unanswered questions.

  1. Influence of Helicobacter pylori infection on the prevalence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-03

    May 3, 2016 ... Aim: We embarked on this study to evaluate if H. pylori infection played any significant role in the prevalence and patterns ... Conclusion: Infection with H. pylori does not appear, from the results of this study, to influence the prevalence and patterns ... area of the hospital referral base is statewide (and even.

  2. Family planning use: prevalence, pattern and predictors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: High fertility,high birth rates and low family planning prevalence rate is a common feature in developing countries with consequent rapid population growth. Family planning has saved the lives and protected the health of millions of women and children. This study aims to ascertain prevalence, pattern and ...

  3. Trends in the Prevalence of Dementia in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Hiroko H.; Buracchio, Teresa J.; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Meguro, Kenichi; Tanizaki, Yumihiro; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding trends in dementia and its subtype prevalence in Japan. Our aims in the current paper are to: (1) summarize epidemiological studies of dementia in Japan including relevant details of study protocol and diagnostic criteria, (2) compare the age-specific prevalence of all-cause dementia among studies, and (3) assess the trends in Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus vascular dementia (VaD) over time. We reviewed diagnostic criteria, all-cause dementia prevalence, and the AD/VaD ratio from 8 large population studies of dementia in Japan. Compared with the Okinawa 1992 study, studies conducted in 1994, 1998, 2005, and 2008 had a higher prevalence of all-cause dementia using Poisson regression models, after controlling for age and sex. In contrast to the US and some European countries, all-cause dementia prevalence is increasing in Japan. The prevalence of AD as opposed to VaD seems to be increasing over time, but large variability in diagnostic criteria, possible regional variability, and differences in prevalence of subtypes of dementia between men and women make it difficult to draw a conclusion about this trend at the national level. Further studies, for example, comparing the population attributable risk of vascular diseases to the prevalence and incidence of dementia could help to clarify the regional variations in etiological subtypes. PMID:23091769

  4. Trends in the Prevalence of Dementia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko H. Dodge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data regarding trends in dementia and its subtype prevalence in Japan. Our aims in the current paper are to: (1 summarize epidemiological studies of dementia in Japan including relevant details of study protocol and diagnostic criteria, (2 compare the age-specific prevalence of all-cause dementia among studies, and (3 assess the trends in Alzheimer's disease (AD versus vascular dementia (VaD over time. We reviewed diagnostic criteria, all-cause dementia prevalence, and the AD/VaD ratio from 8 large population studies of dementia in Japan. Compared with the Okinawa 1992 study, studies conducted in 1994, 1998, 2005, and 2008 had a higher prevalence of all-cause dementia using Poisson regression models, after controlling for age and sex. In contrast to the US and some European countries, all-cause dementia prevalence is increasing in Japan. The prevalence of AD as opposed to VaD seems to be increasing over time, but large variability in diagnostic criteria, possible regional variability, and differences in prevalence of subtypes of dementia between men and women make it difficult to draw a conclusion about this trend at the national level. Further studies, for example, comparing the population attributable risk of vascular diseases to the prevalence and incidence of dementia could help to clarify the regional variations in etiological subtypes.

  5. Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety patients were positive for vaginal candidiasis thus, giving a prevalence rate of 30%. The pregnant women aged 26 to 30 recorded the highest prevalence (13.669; df = 5) which is statistically significant (p<0.05). The women who were in their third trimester of pregnancy were mostly infected (6.163; df = 2) and the ...

  6. Environmental factors affecting malaria parasite prevalence in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria parasite prevalence (P=0.001) and parasite density (P=0.03) were higher in the individuals of wooden plank houses than those of cement brick houses. Inhabitants of houses surrounded by bushes or garbage heaps and swamps or stagnant water showed higher malaria parasite prevalence and densities compared ...

  7. Prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity in adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of obesity in developing countries is more noticeable in urban areas with as much as 20-50% of the urban population of African countries estimated to be either overweight or obese. Studies investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in developing countries have mainly been concentrated in the ...

  8. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies, Israel, 2009?2010

    OpenAIRE

    Mor, Orna; Bassal, Ravit; Michaeli, Michal; Wax, Marina; Ram, Daniela; Cohen-Ezra, Oranit; Cohen, Dani; Mendelson, Ella; Ben-Ari, Ziv; Shohat, Tamy

    2015-01-01

    We investigated prevalence of hepatitis E virus in a sample of the population of Israel. The overall seroprevalence of antibodies to the virus was 10.6% (95% CI 8.4%?13.0%); age-adjusted prevalence was 7.6%. Seropositivity was associated with age, Arab ethnicity, low socioeconomic status, and birth in Africa, Asia, or the former Soviet Union.

  9. Prevalence of malaria parasite infection in pregnant women in three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of anaemia (PVC<31%) was 53.4% on the first antenatal visit, 50.0% on the second and 28.2% on the third antenatal visit. The prevalence was higher among primigravidae, single women and women less than or equal to 20years of age than in multigravidae, married women and women above 20years of ...

  10. Prevalence of malaria parasite infection in pregnant women in three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of anaemia (PVC<31%) was 53.4% on the first antenatal visit, 50.0% on the second and. 28.2% on the third antenatal visit. The prevalence was higher among primigravidae, single women and women less than or equal to 20years of age than in multigravidae, married women and women above 20years of ...

  11. Prevalence of helminthiasis among school children in some rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These included Ascaris lumbricoides (8.2%), hookworm (5.1%) and Trichuris trichiura (3.9%). Multiple infections were however observed in individuals. Of the 338 stool samples examined, 256 were infected giving a prevalence of 75.7%. The prevalence of STHs was significantly higher in males than females in age group 5 ...

  12. A Prevalence Study of Intestinal Parasites in Southern Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-15

    protozoa in Toledo district, southern Beli ze . . . 18 Results of logistic regression analyses of Ascaris Lumbricoides prevalence in 5 villages of Toledo...selected by the forward stepwise methods. . . 20 Results of logistic regression analyses of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence in 5 villages of Toledo...are listed) .................•................. 47 Summary of risk factors for being positive for Ascaris lumbricoides infection. Data from contingency

  13. Prevalence Of Intestinal Worm Infections Among Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trichiura infections. Conclusion: Prevalence of total, single and multiple infections showed a downward trend when compared to the previous studies with Ascaris lumbricoides persisting with the highest prevalence. Keywords: Intestinal worms, infections, school children, Nairobi City East African Journal of Public Health Vol.

  14. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the associated behavioral risks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The prevalence of type 2 Diabetes is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, hence the need for early identification of risk factors. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the associated behavioral risks among secondary school staff in Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

  15. Psychological well-being: The contributions of perceived prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) results showed that participants differed significantly in their psychological well-being with participants high in perception of prevalence of financial crime reporting poorer health than those with low perception of prevalence of financial crime. Participants high in socioeconomic ...

  16. Socio-Economic Status and Malaria Prevalence among Infants: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Economic Status and Malaria Prevalence among Infants: The Case of Uganda. ... African Journal of Economic Review ... In conclusion, it was observed that malaria prevalence is not a case of household socioeconomic conditions but rather it's a communal disease as exemplified by the significance of region and ...

  17. Prevalence of Human Intestinal Helminthiasis in Njikoka Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These included: Ancyclostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoiides,Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides steroralis, Taenia spp, and Schistosoma mansoni. Of the 1,059 stool specimens examined, 527 were infected giving a prevalence of 49.7%. The prevalence of intestinal helminth ...

  18. [Reasons and prevalence of body image dissatisfaction in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Edio Luiz; Pelegrini, Andreia; Glaner, Maria Fátima

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of body image (BI) dissatisfaction in adolescents. The study enrolled 641 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the town of Saudades, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of BI dissatisfaction was 60.4% (males = 54.5%, females = 65.7%; p vigorexia).

  19. Prevalence of bovine brucellosis and analysis of risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information about the prevalence and risk factors for the disease in resident cattle herds in the North Central Zone of Nigeria is however lacking. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis and the risk factors associated with the disease in Kanke Local Government Area (LGA) of ...

  20. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children aged 10-15 years in Nairobi province, Kenya. The study was carried out in two phases. A cross-sectional design was used in the first phase to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity using BMI.

  1. Prevalence and antenatal determinants of orofacial clefts in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence and antenatal determinants of cleft lip and palate were determined. Result: Cleft lip and palate were often encountered in clinical practice in Benin City with a prevalence of 1.35%. The results showed that orofacial clefts were commoner in females and that the combined unilateral cleft lip and palate was the ...

  2. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients seeking medical care at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a key metabolic endocrine disorder escalating in the course of rapid population growth, aging, urbanization, and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. This study was conducted to assess prevalence of DM and associated risk factors among outpatients seeking ...

  3. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients seeking medical care at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KINIMI

    Abstract. Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a key metabolic endocrine disorder escalating in the course of rapid population growth, aging, urbanization, and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. This study was conducted to assess prevalence of DM and associated risk factors among outpatients.

  4. Prevalence of Refractive Error Among school children in Meseret ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of visual impairment among school children is so prevalent that it greatly reduces children's ability to study and attend classes finally leading to a grave socio economic burden to the society. The study determined the prevalence of refractive error among school children of Meseret General Primary School, ...

  5. Brugada syndrome ECG is highly prevalent in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Marieke T.; Cohen, Dan; Seldenrijk, Adrie; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Nijpels, Giel; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Tan, Hanno L.

    2014-01-01

    The causes of increased risk of sudden cardiac death in schizophrenia are not resolved. We aimed to establish (1) whether ECG markers of sudden cardiac death risk, in particular Brugada-ECG pattern, are more prevalent among patients with schizophrenia, and (2) whether increased prevalence of these

  6. HIV prevalence and trends among pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In the last decade there had been efforts to halt and reverse the high and increasing trends in HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. There is need to analyze trends in HIV prevalence to ascertain the current course of the HIV epidemic in our society. HIV prevalence among pregnant women attending Antenatal ...

  7. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State. ... The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of DM in the rural southern Free State and to investigate the contribution of risk ... A need for intervention regarding the identification and treatment of DM in these rural areas has been identified.

  8. Prevalence and determinants of glucose intolerance among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ±SD age of 38±15 years were HAARTtreated; while 200 (61 males and 139 females) with mean±SD age of 33±17 years were HAART-naive. Overall, the prevalence of GI was 40.4% (IFG) 19.5%, IGT 11.5% and DM 9.4%. The prevalence of ...

  9. The prevalence and age distribution of peripheral pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This autopsy-based study defined the prevalence and age distribution of peripheral pulmonary hamartomas in 47635 southern African miners examined between 1975 and 1988. The prevalence rate for white miners was 7,5/1000 and for black miners 1,1/1 000. When directly standardised to the white men in the general ...

  10. Prevalence of camel tuberculosis and associated risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional abattoir based study was conducted from February 2014 to October, 2015 on camels slaughtered at Akaki municipality abattoir to determine the prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels and assess the association of risk factors with the prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels using single intra-dermal ...

  11. Prevalence of myopia amongst patients with refractive error in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    prevalence estimate of males is higher than females which are in contrast with a number of studies that report of a higher prevalence in girls than in boys. (Zadnik et al., 2003; Ip et al., 2008; Rudnicka et al., 2008). ... engineering students and microscopist (Zadnik and Mutti, 1987; McBrien and Adams, 1997;. Kinje et al., 2000 ...

  12. Prevalence of Undiagnosed Hypertension Among Traders at A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypertension is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide which often remains undiagnosed and subsequently untreated. Data from diverse populations on the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension therefore become imperative. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors of ...

  13. Prevalence and assessment of factors contributing to adverse drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions account for the highest proportion among the causes of morbidity and mortality in clinical wards and are posing a considerable challenge. Hence, the objective of this study was to find out the prevalence of adverse drug reactions and the factors which contribute to their prevalence.

  14. Prevalence of active trachoma two years after control activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of TF/TI showed significant reduction (p-value <0.001) in all five districts and overall in the two regions. Conclusion: Trachoma control activities over a two-year period in two regions in Ghana had led to significant reduction in the prevalence of active disease. Integrated surveillance and active monitoring will ...

  15. Decline in the prevalence HIV among pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Tanzania National AIDS Control Programme has established HIV sentinel surveillance among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees as one of the methods for collecting data on HIV prevalence. This article provides trends on HIV prevalence for 92 sentinel sites that have constantly been part of the surveillance ...

  16. Prevalence of low back pain among filling stations attendants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low back pain has been found to be common among workers of some certain industries and occupation, however little is known about its prevalence among filling stations attendants who are perceived to belong to the group that are exposed to high occupational risk. This study was designed to determine the prevalence ...

  17. Prevalence and correlates of auditory vocal hallucinations in middle childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels-Velthuis, A.A.; Jenner, J.A.; van de Willige, G.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.

    Background Hearing voices occurs in middle childhood, but little is known about prevalence, aetiology and immediate consequences. Aims To investigate prevalence, developmental risk factors and behavioural correlates of auditory vocal hallucinations in 7- and 8-year-olds. Method Auditory vocal

  18. Sero-prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and seven (307) healthy blood donors aged 18 – 55 years were used to determine the sero-prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Yola, Nigeria. The association between donors' age, occupation and marital status and the prevalence of the infections among blood ...

  19. Prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV are common blood-borne infections unevenly distributed across regions in Nigeria. Few population-based prevalence studies have been done in Nigeria. Objective. To determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV and risk factors for infection with ...

  20. Prevalence of HIV/Sputum AFB positivity among patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: prevalence, TB, HIV, co-infection, Nigeria. LA PREVALENCE DE LA POSITIVITE DU VIH/EXPECTORATIONS AFB CHEZ LES PATIENTS QUI FREQUENT L'UNIVERSITE HOPITAL D'ENSEIGNEMENT DE BENIN (UBTH), BENIN CITY, NIGERIA. Le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine(VIH) et la tuberculose ...

  1. Prevalence And Intensity Of Ectoparasites Of Livestock In Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... intensity of livestock ectoparasites was highest in Mushin and Badagry areas. Health education was carried out as a strategy to control the prevalence of ectoparasites in Lagos areas. There was compliance to the health interventions. Keywords: kEctoparasites, Lagos, Ticks, Lice, prevalence, intensity. The Zoologist Vol.

  2. Prevalence of Rhesus Negative Gene and Awareness of its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of the Rhesus negative gene was 7.5%. Only 5% were aware of the implications of Rhesus status. The prevalence is comparable with previous reports, the use of anti-D immunoglobulin is advised when appropriate. Key Words: Rhesus negative, genotype anti-D immunoglobulin. Jnl of Medical Investigation ...

  3. The prevalence of anaemia in rural primary school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaemia is a public health problem affecting children with potential consequences on physical and mental development. Children living in resource poor countries where micro-nutrient deficiency and infections are prevalent are mostly affected. Objective: To determine the prevalence of anaemia in a rural ...

  4. Prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them

  5. Prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its origin is in childhood, but information on its prevalence and associated risk factors in children are scarce. Objective: This study assessed the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors among adolescents in Ondo town. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 965 respondents selected ...

  6. The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the severity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No African-based studies have reported the prevalence or severity of injuries, risk factors associated with injuries or return-to-play (RTP) time. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of injuries and associated risk factors, as well as severity of injuries sustained by professional male MMA athletes competing at the Extreme ...

  7. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain and Health seeking Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is work-related and common among occupational drivers (ODs). Data on MSP among occupational drivers in Nigeria are few. This study therefore aimed at determining the 12-month prevalence, body distribution of MSP, influence of socio-demographics on the prevalence of MSP and illness ...

  8. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-11-13

    Nov 13, 2008 ... Background: A worldwide increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been reported and an even further increase is expected as a result of lifestyle changes. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of DM in the rural southern Free State and to investigate the contribution ...

  9. Prevalence and anthelmintic resistance of strongyle parasites in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of infection and level of anthelmintic resistance (AR) of strongyle nematodes to ivermectin (IV), albendazole (AB) and levamisole (LV) in Dorper lambs were determined. The overall prevalence was 67.0% and mean eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces was 357. Infection was light in 92.5%, moderate in 4.5% and high ...

  10. Decline in the prevalence HIV among pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZoomUser

    Specifically, the HIV prevalence among 15-24 years' pregnant women significantly declined from 7.8% in. 2001/2002 to 4% in ... Keywords: HIV/AIDS, prevalence, surveillance, pregnant women, antenatal care, Tanzania. Introduction ... From 2003-04 to 2011 ANC surveillance, a drop (100 µl) of leftover whole blood from ...

  11. The Prevalence of Hydatidosis in Slaughtered Livestock in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are still under the Ministry of Health and the records are in the custody of this ministry. The prevalence of hydatid cysts in various animal organs was determined. Cattle showed the highest overall prevalence (50.4%), followed by sheep with 48.8%, goats with 34.3% and lastly pigs with 2.4%. cattle, sheep and goats ...

  12. Investigating Achilles and patellar tendinopathy prevalence in elite athletics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Ina; van der Worp, Henk; Hensing, Sjoerd; Zwerver, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Although injury surveillance in athletics is routinely conducted, discipline-specific Achilles and patellar tendinopathy prevalence remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore discipline-specific tendinopathy prevalence and identify whether injury-specific risk factors differed in

  13. Prevalence of parasitic helminthes among ruminants in Etiti Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nematode infection was consistently high in all the animal hosts and had a mean prevalence rate of 76.8%, while trematodes and cestodes recorded 15.5% and 7.7% respectively. Oesophagostomum species were responsible for the highest prevalence rates in all the animals with, O. columbianum posting 28.6% and ...

  14. Prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug use progression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug use progression: findings from the South African Stress and Health Study. ... This paper attempts to address this gap by examining the prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug progression among South Africans. Method: Data on substance use and other ...

  15. Prevalence of low back pain in alpine ski instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Nola; Walker, James A; Fogg, Reed; Dudley, Kurt

    2005-02-01

    Mailed survey to random sample of a specific population. To examine the lifetime and point prevalence of low back pain among alpine ski instructors. The lifetime prevalence for back pain is up to 60% among some athletes. Published literature documents back pain among athletes participating in many sports. However, the prevalence of low back pain among alpine ski instructors has not been established. Surveys were mailed to 500 randomly selected members of the Professional Ski Instructors of America. The lifetime and point prevalence were determined by respondents' report regarding history of low back pain and current back pain. Two hundred four (75% of the 272 respondents) reported a history of low back pain. Eighty-five of those who responded (31%) reported current back pain. Over 9% of respondents missed 10 or more days of work because of back pain. The lifetime prevalence of back pain among respondents was similar to the general population. The respondents reported more lifetime prevalence of back pain than athletes of many other sports. The high prevalence of back pain among ski instructors may increase cost and decrease revenue for the employer. Prevention training in this population may decrease the prevalence of back pain and lessen costs to the employer and the alpine ski instructor.

  16. Prevalence of overweight in Dutch children with Down Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M. van; Dommelen, P. van; Schönbeck, Y.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.; Wouwen, J.P. van; Buitendijk, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of overweight in children is increasing, causing various health problems. This study aims to establish growth references for weight and to assess the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in a nationwide sample of Dutch children with Down syndrome (DS), taking into account the

  17. Prevalence of Dental Caries in a Nigerian Rural Community: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dental caries is the most prevalent oral disease of childhood; however, not much attention has been given to studies on this among the rural Nigerian children. Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with dental caries in secondary school children residing in the ...

  18. HIV / AIDS prevalence testing - merits, methodology and outcomes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV / AIDS prevalence testing - merits, methodology and outcomes of a survey conducted at a large mining organisation in South Africa. ... These baseline prevalence data also provide an opportunity for monitoring of proposed interventions using cross-sectional surveys at designated intervals in the future. South African ...

  19. Prevalence, antibiotic-resistance properties and enterotoxin gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, antibiotic-resistance properties and enterotoxin gene profile of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from milk-based baby foods. ... Conclusion: Considerable prevalence of resistant and toxigenic B. cereus and high consumption of milk-based infant foods in Iran, represent an important public health issue which ...

  20. Lipid profile frequency and the prevalence of dyslipidaemia from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypercholesterolemia correlated significantly with age and sex. Conclusion: Our study showed a relatively low request rate for lipid profile and a high prevalence of dyslipidaemia hence the importance of conducting a major study on the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated factors in the Senegalese population.

  1. Prevalence of oral diseases/conditions in Uganda | Muwazi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the severity of malocclusion varied between age groups and districts. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 3% and 4% for children and adults, respectively. All subjects in Arua district were fluorosis-free. Tetracycline enamel staining was less than 1% in both age groups. Enamel attrition was more prevalent in ...

  2. High Prevalence of Esophageal Dysmotility in Asymptomatic Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Côté-Daigneault

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is an important health problem affecting >500 million people worldwide. Esophageal dysmotility is a gastrointestinal pathology associated with obesity; however, its prevalence and characteristics remain unclear. Esophageal dysmotilities have a high prevalence among obese patients regardless of gastrointestinal symptoms.

  3. Strong Country Level Correlation between Syphilis and HSV-2 Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Richard Kenyon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Syphilis is curable but Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2 is not. As a result, the prevalence of syphilis but not HSV-2 may be influenced by the efficacy of national STI screening and treatment capacity. If the prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is found to be correlated, then this makes it more likely that something other than differential STI treatment is responsible for variations in the prevalence of both HSV-2 and syphilis. Methods. Simple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between national antenatal syphilis prevalence and HSV-2 prevalence in women in two time periods: 1990–1999 and 2008. Adjustments were performed for the laboratory syphilis testing algorithm used and the prevalence of circumcision. Results. The prevalence of syphilis was positively correlated with that of HSV-2 for both time periods (adjusted correlations, 20–24-year-olds: 1990–99: R2=0.54, P<0.001; 2008: R2=0.41, P<0.001 and 40–44-year-olds: 1990–99: R2=0.42, P<0.001; 2008: R2=0.49, P<0.001. Conclusion. The prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is positively correlated. This could be due to a common set of risk factors underpinning both STIs.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of chronic kidney disease among civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a public health problem with rising incidence and prevalence ... Conclusion: The prevalence of CKD among Nigerian civil servants was fairly high and was associated with advancing ... including Nigeria, hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus.

  5. Prevalence of rubella antibody in pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:- There is a dearth of information on the incidence and prevalence of rubella infection in Nigeria. The risk of congenital rubella in sero-negative pregnant women has been found to produce congenital abnormalities even in developed countries. Objective:- The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of ...

  6. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Depression in adolescents is a matter of concern because of its high prevalence, potential recurrence and impairment of functioning in the affected individual. The study sought to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Nairobi (Kenya) public secondary schools; make a ...

  7. Prevalence of chlamydia trachomatis in patients attending the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study objective: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in patients presenting for termination of pregnancy. Chlamydia trachomatis is associated with severe morbidity and determining the prevalence would be a big step forward towards possible instituting a screening process or a universal ...

  8. Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of autism among children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence and socio-economic determinants of autism among children attending primary and secondary schools in South East, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that assessed the prevalence and socio-economic pattern of childhood autism ...

  9. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of prevalence, knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous gland disorder affecting mostly teenagers. Most Nigerian youths attend secondary schools during the teen-age period yet information on the prevalence, knowledge and perceptions of acne vulgaris among them is scanty. The present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence, ...

  10. Prevalence of iron deficiency in children with cyanotic heart disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence of iron deficiency was found to be 16.9% (95% CI 9.8- 24.1%). Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of iron deficiency among patients with congenital heart disease with cyanosis in the two institutions. Routine screening for iron deficiency is recommended for these children and those found to be ...

  11. Tuberculous anal fistulas – prevalence and clinical features in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculous anal fistulas – prevalence and clinical features in an endemic area. D Stupart, P Goldberg, A Levy, D Govender. Abstract. Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in anal fistulas at a referral hospital in Cape Town, and to document the clinical features and course of ...

  12. Prevalence and Predictors of Depression among the Elderly in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    In the international scene, a descriptive cross- sectional study was done among elderly community residents in Kerala, India.14That study aimed to estimate the prevalence of depression disorders as well as to identify factors associated with later-life depression. The result elicited a depression prevalence rate of 39.1%.

  13. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in elderly Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erke, Maja G; Bertelsen, Geir; Peto, Tunde

    2012-01-01

    To describe the sex- and age-specific prevalence of drusen, geographic atrophy, and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).......To describe the sex- and age-specific prevalence of drusen, geographic atrophy, and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD)....

  14. Prevalence and incidence of precocious pubertal development in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete; Pedersen, Carsten; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2005-01-01

    To our knowledge, no population-based epidemiologic studies on the incidence and prevalence of precocious pubertal development have been published. Danish national registries provide sufficient data for estimating the prevalence and incidence of this condition. The aim of this study was to estima...

  15. [Using log-binomial model for estimating the prevalence ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Rong; Gao, Yan-hui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Yue

    2010-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence ratios, using a log-binomial model with or without continuous covariates. Prevalence ratios for individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation associated with smoking status, estimated by using a log-binomial model were compared with odds ratios estimated by logistic regression model. In the log-binomial modeling, maximum likelihood method was used when there were no continuous covariates and COPY approach was used if the model did not converge, for example due to the existence of continuous covariates. We examined the association between individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation and smoking status in men and women. Prevalence ratio and odds ratio estimation provided similar results for the association in women since smoking was not common. In men however, the odds ratio estimates were markedly larger than the prevalence ratios due to a higher prevalence of outcome. The log-binomial model did not converge when age was included as a continuous covariate and COPY method was used to deal with the situation. All analysis was performed by SAS. Prevalence ratio seemed to better measure the association than odds ratio when prevalence is high. SAS programs were provided to calculate the prevalence ratios with or without continuous covariates in the log-binomial regression analysis.

  16. The prevalence of exercise-induced asthma among school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is one of the major factors that affect optimal performance in sport. The prevalence of EIA is reported to be on the increase among school children worldwide. The aim of this study was to indicate EIA prevalence among primary-school children in South Africa. A field study determined the ...

  17. A retrospective study of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples were smeared on glass slides, stained using Ziehl Neelsen Stain and later observed under light (oil immersion) microscopy. The results showed that were positive for tuberculosis had prevalence of 541 (14.7%) out of 3679 subjects. The age group 30-43 years had the highest prevalence of 145 (17.0%) out of 858 ...

  18. Prevalence of gastroduodenal lesions in chronic nonsteroidal anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At endoscopy, only 10 (13.9%) patients had normal gastroduodenal mucosa. Gastritis was the most prevalent lesion occurring in 50% of the patients. Peptic ulcer disease had a point prevalence of 30.5% (duodenal ulcers 22.2%, and gastric ulcers 8.3%). Other lesions at endoscopy were duodenitis 16.7%, gastric erosions ...

  19. Geographical Heterogeneity of Multiple Sclerosis Prevalence in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivot, Diane; Debouverie, Marc; Grzebyk, Michel; Brassat, David; Clanet, Michel; Clavelou, Pierre; Confavreux, Christian; Edan, Gilles; Leray, Emmanuelle; Moreau, Thibault; Vukusic, Sandra; Hédelin, Guy; Guillemin, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Geographical variation in the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is controversial. Heterogeneity is important to acknowledge to adapt the provision of care within the healthcare system. We aimed to investigate differences in prevalence of MS in departments in the French territory. We estimated MS prevalence on October 31, 2004 in 21 administrative departments in France (22% of the metropolitan departments) by using multiple data sources: the main French health insurance systems, neurologist networks devoted to MS and the Technical Information Agency of Hospitalization. We used a spatial Bayesian approach based on estimating the number of MS cases from 2005 and 2008 capture-recapture studies to analyze differences in prevalence. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of MS per 100,000 inhabitants ranged from 68.1 (95% credible interval 54.6, 84.4) in Hautes-Pyrénées (southwest France) to 296.5 (258.8, 338.9) in Moselle (northeast France). The greatest prevalence was in the northeast departments, and the other departments showed great variability. By combining multiple data sources into a spatial Bayesian model, we found heterogeneity in MS prevalence among the 21 departments of France, some with higher prevalence than anticipated from previous publications. No clear explanation related to health insurance coverage and hospital facilities can be advanced. Population migration, socioeconomic status of the population studied and environmental effects are suspected.

  20. Prevalence of dementia and major subtypes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, A; Launer, L J; Fratiglioni, L

    2000-01-01

    The last comparison of prevalence figures of dementia across European studies was 10 years ago. Using studies conducted in the 1990s, the authors compare the age- and sex-specific prevalence of dementia, AD, and vascular dementia (VaD) across European population-based studies of persons 65 years ...

  1. Prevalence of HIV infection among trauma patients admitted to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV infection, a major health problem worldwide, has been reported to be prevalent in trauma patients, thus presents an occupational hazard to health care workers who care for these patients. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of HIV among trauma patients in our setting and to compare the outcome ...

  2. Refusal bias in the estimation of HIV prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Wendy; van der Gaag, Jacques; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Tanović, Zlata

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, UNAIDS corrected estimates of global HIV prevalence downward from 40 million to 33 million based on a methodological shift from sentinel surveillance to population-based surveys. Since then, population-based surveys are considered the gold standard for estimating HIV prevalence. However,

  3. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among school children in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Epidemiological information on the prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections in different regions/localities is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren found in a rural area ...

  4. Prevalence and Costs of Five Chronic Conditions in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gabrielle F.; Coffield, Edward; Leroy, Zanie; Wallin, Robin

    2016-01-01

    The objective is to examine the prevalence and health-care costs associated with asthma, epilepsy, hypertension, food allergies, and diabetes in children aged 0-18 years. Prevalence was calculated using 2005-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data, a population-based, nationally representative sample. Using MEPS, two-part models…

  5. High prevalence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The coloured population has the second-highest prevalence of diabetes in South Africa. However, the data were based on a study conducted almost 20 years ago in a peri-urban coloured population of the Western Cape. We aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome in an ...

  6. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yau, Joanne W Y; Rogers, Sophie L; Kawasaki, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes.......To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes....

  7. Prevalence of Hydatid Disease in Cattle and Camel Slaughtered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prevalence study of hydatidosis among cattle and came slaughtered at Damaturu abattoir, Yobe State, Nigeria, from 2003 to 2006 was conducted using slaughter records and post-mortem inspection of organs. Out of 8, 592 cattle and camel inspected, 0.6% was positive with specific prevalence of 0.4% in cattle and 6.3% ...

  8. Twenty Six Years Retrospective Studies Of The Prevalence Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worms or eggs recovered from these necropsied animals were used to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths. The prevalences of different helminths identified are as follows: Spirocerca lupi, 25 (4.64%), Haemonchus contortus, 223 (41.37%), Toxocara canis, 17 (3.13%), Ancylostoma caninum, 24 (4.45%), ...

  9. Chronic mucus hypersecretion: prevalence and risk factors in younger individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Lotte; Thomsen, S F; Ingebrigtsen, Truls

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals.......Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  10. Prevalence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Borno State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 37 outbreaks of CBPP were reported during the period under review with highest outbreak (8) occurring in 1990. Seasonal prevalence of the ... The disease is still endemic in Borno State and vaccination coverage was grossly inadequate. Keywords: CBPP, cattle, AGPT, prevalence, vaccination. Nigerian Veterinary ...

  11. Prevalence of helminth parasites of dogs and owners awareness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections of dogs in Ambo, Ethiopia, examination of 70 fecal samples and 52 necropsies were conducted from November 2007 to April 2008. The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths was 86.54% and 52.86% as detected by post mortem and coproscopical ...

  12. Short Communication: Prevalence of hypertension and variation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of hypertension was 2.9% (31) and highest prevalence (5.6%) was observed in the age group of 18-19 years. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was higher in males than females. Among males and females, average increase of mean systolic blood pressure was found to be 2.26mmHg and ...

  13. Stroke prevalence amongst sickle cell disease patients in Nigeria: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stroke is a life-changing, debilitating complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). Previous studies had recorded high stroke prevalence amongst this group of patients. Nigeria has a large population of people affected by this condition and this study aims to assess the stroke prevalence in this large population.

  14. Prevalence and predictors of smoking in Butajira town, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Abstract. Background: In order to design effective tobacco control policy in low income countries, it is essential to understand smoking prevalence and predictors. In Ethiopia, most of what is known on the prevalence of smoking comes from studies in larger towns. Little is known about predictors of smoking in any Ethiopian ...

  15. Prevalence of very mild to severe dementia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K; Lolk, A; Nielsen, H

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of dementia has been estimated in several countries and a meta-analysis has shown moderate and severe dementia in people aged 65 years and older to be between 4% and 6%. The Odense study is aiming to estimate the prevalence and incidence of dementia and to identify risk factors....

  16. prevalence and predictors of intestinal helminthiasis among school

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    2011-11-03

    Nov 3, 2011 ... Gilgel Gibe Hydroelectric Power to determine the prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitic infections among school children. This study is conducted as sub-study to the main study; the objective of which was to determine the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis, and related factors such as risk ...

  17. Prevalence of Skin Infections and Hygiene Practices among Pupils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skin diseases are among the common childhood problems of public health importance in Nigeria. Poor personal hygiene practices especially among children are believed to be contributory to its prevalence. This study assessed the prevalence of skin infections and practices in relation to hygiene among public primary ...

  18. The prevalence of malnutrition in children admitted to a general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The prevalence of malnutrition, an important contributor to childhood mortality, is poorly described in hospitalised South African (SA) children, many of whom are HIV-exposed or HIV-infected. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of malnutrition in infants and children <14 years of age admitted to a general ...

  19. The prevalence of HIV infection among cannabis-abused psychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of HIV infection among cannabis-abused psychiatric patients: the case of federal psychiatric hospital, Calabar. ... called “Prevalence of HIV infection and Cannabis-Abused Questionnaire” (P.H.I.C.Q.), while data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using contingency chi-square (X2) technique.

  20. Prevalence of asthma among school children in Gaborone, Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asthma prevalence is high (>10%) in developed countries and although data is still missing for most of Africa, rates are increasing in developing regions as they become more westernized. We investigated the prevalence of asthma in school children in Gaborone, Botswana. Methods: This was a cross sectional ...

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity and high blood pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of diet-related chronic diseases like hypertension and obesity among others has become a public health concern. Risk factors for these diseases have been well studied in high income countries but less studied in developing countries. Objective: The study was to document the prevalence and ...

  2. The Prevalence of Obesity as Indicated by BMI and Waist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in most developed countries and in urban areas of many less developed countries has been increasing markedly over the past twenty years. This study\\'s aims were to determine the prevalence of obesity using BMI and waist circumference among Nigerian adults ...

  3. The prevalence and Predictors of generalised obesity in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases has become a global epidemic even in the developing nations of the world. Epidemiologic transition with rapid urbanisation is important variable implicated in the rising prevalence of obesity. The prevalence of this major risk factor for ...

  4. Socio-economic background and prevalence of visual defects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thrust of this study is to examine the socio-economic background and prevalence of visual defects among students in public and private secondary schools in Calabar municipality in Cross River State. The main objective of the study is to screen for and present information on the prevalence of visual defects amongst the ...

  5. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Type 58 in Women With or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    most sexually active individuals are exposed to and acquire infection from this virus at some phase in their lives.[2,3] HPV infection is most prevalent in young adults, at the beginning of their sexual activity, with a subsequent decline in the prevalence with increasing age, likely a result of the development of an immune ...

  6. Recent trends in smoking prevalence in South Africa - Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To estimate trends in smoking prevalence among different demographic and income segments for the period 1993- 2000. Methodology. Annual data were obtained from a commercially generated database focusing on product usage. Using regression techniques, trends in smoking prevalence were estimated.

  7. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder among South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    14 items ... [3] These researchers reported higher prevalence of BDD among male students. Compared .... Relationships between categorical variables (gender, age groups, race, and sexual orientation) and the prevalence of BDD were determined using χ2 analyses. ... as gay or lesbian and 6 (1.5%) as bisexual. Six (1.5%) ...

  8. Prevalence of echinococcosis in dogs and wild carnivores in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prevalence study on echinococcosis in dogs and wild carnivores was conducted in northen Tanzania. Copro-antigen ELISA was used to screen 442 dog faecal samples from Magu, Bariadi and Ngorongoro districts, together with 88 wild carnivore samples from Serengeti National Park. Overall prevalence of E. granulosus ...

  9. Prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sena, Marina Fernandes de; Mesquita, Késsia Suênia F. de; Santos, Fernanda Regina R.; Silva, Francisco Wanderley G. P.; Serrano, Kranya Victoria D.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in children and adolescents, verifying the methodological variations. DATA SOURCES: Research conducted in Medline, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO databases, including manuscripts (except reviews and case reports) published from 1990 to 2012. The descriptors were "temporomandibular joint syndrome", "temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome", "temporomandibular joint disorders", "prevalence studies", and "cross-sectional ...

  10. Studies on prevalence of malaria and management practices of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prevalence survey of malaria was carried out in Azia, a rural community in Ihiala Local Government Area of Anambra State, southeast Nigeria. Thick blood films of 1000 individuals attending local hospitals in the community were used to determine the prevalence. Also, structured questionnaire was administered to 1000 ...

  11. The prevalence and correlates of hallucinations in a general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the prevalence of psychotic-like experiences and symptoms. The prevalence and correlates of hallucinations in a general population sample: findings from the South African Stress and. Health Study. H Temmingh1, DJ Stein1, S Seedat2, DR Williams3. 1Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, ...

  12. The intramyocardial left anterior descending artery: Prevalence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intramyocardial left anterior descending artery: Prevalence and surgical considerations in coronary artery bypass grafting. ... The left anterior descending (LAD) artery is the most commonly bridged vessel. Its prevalence ... Techniques are described to address this anatomical variation when it is encountered at surgery.

  13. Hypertension prevalence and awareness among a health workforce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    prevalence of hypertension and related risk factors and to assess the level of awareness of ... Treatment of systemic hypertension (JNC-7) is .... of diabetic mellitus. The prevalence of obesity was. 9.9% in the study population (Table 2). Of the 324 subjects 79.9% were normotensive while 20.1% were hypertensive. Thus the.

  14. Study on the prevalence of ectoparasite infestation of ruminanats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This could be attributed to management and differences in the epidemiology of sampling sites. The prevalence of Amblyomma and. Boophilus in the cattle were 28.33% and 11.25% respectively. The higher prevalence of tick in cattle in this study was due to managemental and epidemiological factors. Ticks require moisture ...

  15. An investigation into the prevalence of water borne diseases in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water-borne diseases are the most prevalent infectious diseases in the developing countries especially in new settlements along the river. The present investigation was carried out to assess the prevalence rate of water-borne diseases among people residing near the left bank of River Ravi. This study has a descriptive ...

  16. Prevalence Of Intestinal Helminthiasis In Nursery And Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Intestinal helminthiasis affect the nutritional status of school aged children. Objective: o determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis in nursery and primary school children in Enugu. Methods: A cross-sectional survey on 460 nursery and primary school children from Enugu metropolis. The prevalence of ...

  17. Sex Prevalence of Schistosomiasis among School Children in Five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken among school children in 5 communities in the lower Volta Basin in South eastern Ghana to assess sex prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among the children. Results obtained showed that the disease prevalence was higher among the female pupils (64%) than their male counterparts ...

  18. Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colijn, Johanna M.; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H. S.; Prokofyeva, Elena; Alves, Dalila; Cachulo, Maria L.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Cougnard-Gregoire, Audrey; Merle, Bénédicte M. J.; Korb, Christina; Erke, Maja G.; Bron, Alain; Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios; Meester-Smoor, Magda A.; Segato, Tatiana; Piermarocchi, Stefano; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Topouzis, Fotis; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Bertelsen, Geir; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Fletcher, Astrid E.; Foster, Paul J.; Silva, Rufino; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Delcourt, Cécile; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Ajana, Soufiane; Arango-Gonzalez, Blanca; Arndt, Verena; Bhatia, Vaibhav; Bhattacharya, Shomi S.; Biarnés, Marc; Borrell, Anna; Bühren, Sebastian; Calado, Sofia M.; Cougnard-Grégoire, Audrey; Dammeier, Sascha; de Jong, Eiko K.; de la Cerda, Berta; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Diaz-Corrales, Francisco J.; Diether, Sigrid; Emri, Eszter; Endermann, Tanja; Ferraro, Lucia L.; Garcia, Míriam; Heesterbeek, Thomas J.; Honisch, Sabina; Hoyng, Carel B.; Kersten, Eveline; Kilger, Ellen; Langen, Hanno; Lengyel, Imre; Luthert, Phil; Maugeais, Cyrille; Meester-Smoor, Magda; Monés, Jordi; Nogoceke, Everson; Peto, Tunde; Pool, Frances M.; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Ueffing, Marius; Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Verzijden, Timo; Zumbansen, Markus; Acar, Niyazi; Anastosopoulos, Eleftherios; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto; Bergen, Arthur; Binquet, Christine; Bird, Alan; Brétillon, Lionel; Buitendijk, Gabrielle; Cachulo, Maria Luz; Chakravarthy, Usha; Chan, Michelle; Chang, Petrus; Colijn, Johanna; Cumberland, Philippa; Cunha-Vaz, José; Daien, Vincent; Deak, Gabor; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; den Hollander, Anneke; Dietzel, Martha; Erke, Maja Gran; Fauser, Sascha; Finger, Robert; Fletcher, Astrid; Foster, Paul; Founti, Panayiota; Göbel, Arno; Gorgels, Theo; Grauslund, Jakob; Grus, Franz; Hammond, Christopher; Helmer, Catherine; Hense, Hans-Werner; Hermann, Manuel; Hoehn, René; Hogg, Ruth; Holz, Frank; Hoyng, Carel; Jansonius, Nomdo; Janssen, Sarah; Khawaja, Anthony; Klaver, Caroline; Lamparter, Julia; Le Goff, Mélanie; Leal, Sergio; Lechanteur, Yara; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lotery, Andrew; Leung, Irene; Mauschitz, Matthias; Merle, Bénédicte; Meyer Zu Westrup, Verena; Midena, Edoardo; Miotto, Stefania; Mirshahi, Alireza; Mohan-Saïd, Sadek; Mueller, Michael; Muldrew, Alyson; Nunes, Sandrina; Oexle, Konrad; Rahi, Jugnoo; Raitakari, Olli; Ribeiro, Luisa; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte; Sahel, José; Salonikiou, Aggeliki; Sanchez, Clarisa; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Schweitzer, Cédric; Shehata, Jasmin; Silvestri, Giuliana; Simader, Christian; Souied, Eric; Springelkamp, Henriet; Tapp, Robyn; Verhoeven, Virginie; Von Hanno, Therese; Vujosevic, Stela; Williams, Katie; Wolfram, Christian; Yip, Jennifer; Zerbib, Jennyfer; Zwiener, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a frequent, complex disorder in elderly of European ancestry. Risk profiles and treatment options have changed considerably over the years, which may have affected disease prevalence and outcome. We determined the prevalence of early and late AMD in

  19. Prevalence of gingivitis among school attendees in Qazvin, Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: In present study the frequency of gingivitis was found to be higher. According to the high prevalence of gingivitis the most prevalent areas of plaque and gingivitis identified in this study should be taken in consideration during oral hygiene instructions, which should be given to children, parents, and teachers ...

  20. Prevalence of β thalassemia carrier state in Sindhi community of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of β thalassemia in Sindhi community of Wardha and evaluation of risk factors. To give genetic counseling to those diagnosed as carriers. Study Design: Cross‑sectional (prevalence study). Setting: Sindhi community residing in and around Wardha. Study Period: 18 months. Materials ...