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Sample records for prevalent g152fs g161r

  1. High Frequency of Alkaptonuria in Slovakia: Evidence for the Appearance of Multiple Mutations in HGO Involving Different Mutational Hot Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatková, Andrea; de Bernabé, Daniel Beltrán Valero; Poláková, Helena; Zvarík, Marek; Feráková, Eva; Bošák, Vladimir; Ferák, Vladimír; Kádasi, L'udovít; de Córdoba , Santiago Rodríguez

    2000-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase (HGO) activity. AKU shows a very low prevalence (1:100,000–250,000) in most ethnic groups. One notable exception is in Slovakia, where the incidence of AKU rises to 1:19,000. This high incidence is difficult to explain by a classical founder effect, because as many as 10 different AKU mutations have been identified in this relatively small country. We have determined the allelic associations of 11 HGO intragenic polymorphisms for 44 AKU chromosomes from 20 Slovak pedigrees. These data were compared to the HGO haplotype data available in our laboratory for >80 AKU chromosomes from different European and non-European countries. The results show that common European AKU chromosomes have had only a marginal contribution to the Slovak AKU gene pool. Six of the ten Slovak AKU mutations, including the prevalent G152fs, G161R, G270R, and P370fs mutations, most likely originated in Slovakia. Data available for 17 Slovak AKU pedigrees indicate that most of the AKU chromosomes have their origins in a single very small region in the Carpathian mountains, in the northwestern part of the country. Since all six Slovak AKU mutations are associated with HGO mutational hot spots, we suggest that an increased mutation rate at the HGO gene is responsible for the clustering of AKU mutations in such a small geographical region. PMID:11017803

  2. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  3. Prevalence of stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfert, A R; Rosenfield, D B

    1978-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering in a university population was 2.1%; 3.4% were former stutterers. More men than women stuttered. Right handed female stutterers were less likely to have "lost" their stutter than were right handed males. Stutterers, past stutterers, and questionable stutterers all had a family history of stuttering. The significant prevalence of stuttering, the increased prevalence among males, the lack of a decline of this disorder over the past few decades despite the increased number of speech clinicians and data concerning handedness, emphasise the need to investigate organic causes of stuttering. PMID:731247

  4. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    408 heads of cattle to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and assess its public health implications. A comparative ..... (78.6%) of the respondents consume raw and poorly heat ... compromises related to certain stress factors.

  5. Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Yazan

    2016-01-01

    One of the main ways in transmitting parasites to humans is through consuming contaminated raw vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitological contamination (helminthes eggs, Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica cysts) of salad vegetables sold at supermarkets and street vendors in Amman and Baqa’a – Jordan. A total of 133 samples of salad vegetables were collected and examined for the prevalence of parasites. It was found that 29% of the samples were contaminated with different parasites. Of the 30 lettuce, 33 tomato, 42 parsley and 28 cucumber samples examined the prevalence of Ascaris spp. eggs was 43%, 15%, 21% and 4%; Toxocara spp. eggs was 30%, 0%, 0% and 4%; Giardia spp. cysts was 23%, 6%, 0% and 0%; Taenia/Echinococcus eggs was 20%, 0%, 5% and 0%; Fasciola hepatica eggs was 13%, 3%, 2% and 0%; and E. histolytica cysts was 10%, 6%, 0% and 0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of parasite in salad vegetables either between supermarkets and street vendors, or between Amman and Baqa’a, Ascaris spp. was found to be the highest prevalent parasite in salad vegetables from supermarkets and street vendors and from Amman and Baqa’a. Our results pointed out that, the parasitic contamination of salad vegetables found in our study might be caused by irrigating crops with faecal contaminated water. We concluded that salad vegetables sold in Amman and Baqa’a may cause a health risk to consumers.

  6. prevalence and risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-12-26

    Dec 26, 2012 ... increase the frequency of occurrence of hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia is a ... not only in increased frequency of falciparum malaria, but also .... of illness before presentation. Table 3: Prevalence of hypoglycaemia according to time of last meal. Table 4, shows the higher the parasite density the greater.

  7. Prevalence of Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhavan Karbasi Sedighah

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformation (CM will begin to emerge as one of the major childhood health problems .Treatment and rehabilitation of children with congenital malformations are costly and complete recovery is usually impossible. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of CM in Yazd central city of the Islamic Republic of Iran to find out if there has been any difference in the rate and types of CM in this area. This descriptive-observational study carried on 4800 births delivered at all maternity hospitals in Yazd from October 2003 to June 2004. Prevalence of CM was 2.83% (2.86 % in male and 2.68 % in female out of the 136 cases 69(51.88% were males and 64 (48.12% were females and 3 with ambiguous genitalia. Positive family history of CM in sibling was in only 6 cases (4.41%.Overall, musculoskeletal (0.83%, central nerv-ous system (0.47% and genital system (0.37% were accounted as the most common. Frequency of CM was more seen in still birth (12.5% as in comparison to live birth (2.71%. There was not statistical difference be-tween prevalence of CM and neonatal's gender, gestational age, birth order and mother's age, drug ingestion, illness and parental consanguinity. In this study the overall prevalence of congenital malformation among the newborn was higher than those previous reported in Iran and determining the causes of this difference needs more extensive studies.

  8. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  9. Prevalence of congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique T

    2017-05-01

    Congenital amusia (commonly known as tone deafness) is a lifelong musical disorder that affects 4% of the population according to a single estimate based on a single test from 1980. Here we present the first large-based measure of prevalence with a sample of 20 000 participants, which does not rely on self-referral. On the basis of three objective tests and a questionnaire, we show that (a) the prevalence of congenital amusia is only 1.5%, with slightly more females than males, unlike other developmental disorders where males often predominate; (b) self-disclosure is a reliable index of congenital amusia, which suggests that congenital amusia is hereditary, with 46% first-degree relatives similarly affected; (c) the deficit is not attenuated by musical training and (d) it emerges in relative isolation from other cognitive disorder, except for spatial orientation problems. Hence, we suggest that congenital amusia is likely to result from genetic variations that affect musical abilities specifically.

  10. Prevalence of schizophrenia: recent developments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long held view that schizophrenia affects about 1% of the population has been shown to be an overestimate and in fact derived from incorrect data.1 Also, for many years, it was believed that the prevalence of schizophrenia varied little between sites.2,3 It is in fact the case that the estimates of the prevalence of ...

  11. Prevalence of Food Additive Intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence estimates vary with a factor 100. As the results vary so do the study populations. 6 If the different study populations are accounted for, a common conclusion can be drawn: Food additive intolerance is found in adults with atopic symptoms from the respiratory tract and skin. The prevalence......1 The existing prevalence estimates of food additive intolerance(1-4) are being reviewed. 2 In the EEC report the estimated frequency of food additive intolerance is 0.03% to 0.15% based on data from patient groups. 3 The British population study results in a prevalence estimate of 0.......026%. The challenged population is 81 children and adults with a history of reproducible clinical symptoms after ingestion of food additives. 4 In the Danish population study a prevalence of 1-2% is found in children age 5-16. In this study a total of 606 children mainly with atopic disease have been challenged. 5...

  12. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess addictive eating and how prevalent addictive eating patterns were in the respective studies. It is concluded that the prevalence of food addiction is increased in obese individuals and even more so in obese patients with binge eating disorder. However, prevalence of food addiction is not sufficient to account for the obesity epidemic. Conversely, an arguably high prevalence of food addiction can also be found in under-, normal-, and overweight individuals. Future studies may investigate which factors are associated with addictive eating in non-obese individuals.

  13. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study......, to investigate the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities. METHODS: 6236 people participated. All non-asthmatic participants aged 35 years or older with adequate lung...... function data were included for the final prevalence analyses (n = 5,299). COPD staging was done according to the GOLD criteria. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of COPD was 17.4%. The prevalence increased with age and was higher among males. 6.2% had mild COPD, 9.2% had moderate COPD, and 2.0% had severe...

  14. Prevalence of occupational disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhouse, M.L.

    1976-12-01

    When discussing the prevalence of occupational disease, both the prescribed diseases and the diseases where occupation has an important etiological component should be considered. Available statistics indicate that there has been a substantial improvement in the control of important prescribed diseases such as lead poisoning and pneumoconiosis. In the United Kingdom in 1900 there were 1000 cases of lead poisoning with 38 fatalities. This number decreased to 49 cases in 1956 when the number again increased due to a change from clinical diagnosis to diagnosis on biochemical evidence. The number of cases of coal workers' pneumoconiosis has declined since the 1950s but the number of coal miners has also been reduced by more than /sup 1///sub 3/. Industrial dermatitis is still a considerable problem. Vibration induced white fingers was mentioned as a disease with a very large occupational component but which for a variety of reasons is not prescribed for industrial injury benefit. Illnesses due to injuries to the back, to sciatica, disc disease or lumbago cause a very large amount of sickness and are often associated with heavy manual labor particularly if an awkward posture has to be adopted for the job. The average absence after a back injury in the London Docks was 61 days. Chronic bronchitis is the biggest single cause of sickness absence. Many studies have shown that the etiology is multifactorial but that hard physical work and a dusty environment in the work place are important adverse factors. Improved control of the working environment and methods of work may influence the development of chronic disease in the older worker.

  15. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, to investigate...... the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities....

  16. Hepatitis B prevalence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Hay, G; Cowan, S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Denmark is not clear. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in Denmark. The capture–recapture method was used to estimate the total population diagnosed with chronic HBV infection......, and the capture–recapture estimate of the total population diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B was 7,112 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6,953–10,747). Only 17% of the identified patients attended recommended clinical care according to national guidelines. Including undiagnosed patients, the current population...

  17. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Joan K; Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    .01). CONCLUSIONS: EUROCAT could detect increases in the prevalence of microcephaly from the Zika virus of a similar magnitude to those observed in Brazil. Because of the rarity of microcephaly and discrepant diagnostic criteria, however, the smaller increases expected in Europe would probably not be detected...

  18. [Rotator cuff tear athropathy prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Soriano, F; Encalada-Díaz, M I; Ruiz-Suárez, M; Valero-González, F S

    2017-01-01

    Glenohumeral arthritis secondary to massive rotator cuff tear presents with a superior displacement and femoralization of the humeral head with coracoacromial arch acetabularization. The purpose of this study was to establish prevalence of rotator cuff tear artropathy (CTA) at our institution. Four hundred electronic records were reviewed from which we identified 136 patients with rotator cuff tears. A second group was composed with patients with massive cuff tears that were analized and staged by the Seebauer cuff tear arthropathy classification. Thirty four patients with massive rotator cuff tears were identified, 8 male and 26 female (age 60.1 ± 10.26 years). Massive rotator cuff tear prevalence was 25%. CTA prevalence found in the rotator cuff group was 19 and 76% in the massive cuff tears group. Patients were staged according to the classification with 32% in stage 1a, 11% 1b, 32% 2a and 0% 2b. CTA prevalence in patients with rotator cuff tears and massive cuff tears is higher than the one reported in American population. We consider that a revision of the Seebauer classification to be appropriate to determine its reliability.

  19. Pain prevalence in hospitalized children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Larsen, S; Pedersen, M T; Friis, S M

    2017-01-01

    admitted the same day. The single most common painful procedure named by the children was needle procedures, such as blood draw and intravenous cannulation. CONCLUSION: This study reveals high pain prevalence in children across all age groups admitted to four Danish university hospitals. The majority......BACKGROUND: Pain management in hospitalized children is often inadequate. The prevalence and main sources of pain in Danish university hospitals is unknown. METHODS: This prospective mixed-method cross-sectional survey took place at four university hospitals in Denmark. We enrolled 570 pediatric...... patients who we asked to report their pain experience and its management during the previous 24 hours. For patients identified as having moderate to severe pain, patient characteristics and analgesia regimes were reviewed. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirteen children (37%) responded that they had experienced...

  20. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    of long-term sick leave. Method Data from 508 employed pregnant women seeking antenatal care was collected by questionnaires from August 2015 to March 2016. The questionnaires, which were filled in at 20 and 32 weeks of gestation, provided information on maternal characteristics, the number of days spent...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  1. Prevalent knee pain and sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of knee pain in active athletes and to investigate potential associations to type, amount and duration of sports participation. MEASUREMENTS: 339 athletes gave information about occupation, sports activity and different features of knee pain, based...... on a self-filled questionnaire. MAIN RESULTS: The prevalence of knee pain within the preceding 12 months, constant or recurrent knee pain, absence from sport and absence from work due to knee pain, was 54%, 34%, 19% and 4%, respectively. Knee pain was positively associated with years of jogging...... and with weekly hours of participation in competitive gymnastics but negatively with weekly hours of tennis. Constant or recurrent knee pain was positively associated with years of swimming. Absence from sport due to knee pain was positively associated with weekly hours of soccer participation. CONCLUSIONS: Knee...

  2. Insomnia: prevalence and associated factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Cátia; Lopes, Daniela; Ferreira, Sofia; Correia, Teresa; Pinto, Isabel C.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays sleep disorders are very common and affect most of the population, the most common may be insomnia. Insomnia is defined as the difficulty of initiating or maintaining sleep it, may also be reflected in an early wake up and by the presence of a non-restful sleep and it is associated with impairment in social and occupational functioning of the individual. Knowing the prevalence and the associated factors of insomnia. This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study. The pop...

  3. Food allergy: is prevalence increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mimi L K; Mullins, Raymond J

    2017-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the prevalence of food allergy has been increasing in recent decades, particularly in westernised countries, yet high-quality evidence that is based on challenge confirmed diagnosis of food allergy to support this assumption is lacking because of the high cost and potential risks associated with conducting food challenges in large populations. Accepting this caveat, the use of surrogate markers for diagnosis of food allergy (such as nationwide data on hospital admissions for food anaphylaxis or clinical history in combination with allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) measurement in population-based cohorts) has provided consistent evidence for increasing prevalence of food allergy at least in western countries, such as the UK, United States and Australia. Recent reports that children of East Asian or African ethnicity who are raised in a western environment (Australia and United States respectively) have an increased risk of developing food allergy compared with resident Caucasian children suggest that food allergy might also increase across Asian and African countries as their economies grow and populations adopt a more westernised lifestyle. Given that many cases of food allergy persist, mathematical principles would predict a continued increase in food allergy prevalence in the short to medium term until such time as an effective treatment is identified to allow the rate of disease resolution to be equal to or greater than the rate of new cases. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  4. Increasing Autism Prevalence in Metropolitan New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-01-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder,…

  5. Prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    period 1987 - 1989. Prevalence rates were low to moderate with an overaJl prevalence of 42%. These ranged from approximately 10% in the low-prevalence ... PH. DC. C. C. Appieton. PI-lD. Department of Zoology, University of Tr

  6. [Pedophilia. Prevalence, etiology, and diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokros, A; Osterheider, M; Nitschke, J

    2012-03-01

    Pedophilia is a disorder of sexual preference that increases the risk for committing sexual offenses against children. Consequently, pedophilia is not only relevant in psychiatric therapy and prognostics, but also greatly influences the public attitude towards criminality. Public opinion seems to equate pedophilia with child sexual abuse and vice versa which leads to stigmatization of patients and may impede treatment. The present paper provides information on recent studies on the potential origins of the disorder and introduces new diagnostic methods. Moreover, the article presents estimates on the prevalence of pedophilic sexual interest.

  7. Prevalência do aleitamento materno Prevalence of breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Pinto da Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os indicadores de aleitamento materno em consultórios particulares e centros de saúde no município de Lins, SP, e comparar a prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo dessa região com a encontrada em outras pesquisas. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal com amostra aleatória de 255 crianças de quatro a doze meses de idade, estratificada por sexo, condição socioeconômica e escolaridade dos pais. Foram avaliados os indicadores de aleitamento materno em dois grupos de crianças: as acompanhadas em consultórios particulares e as acompanhadas em centros de saúde. Foram utilizados questionários respondidos pelos responsáveis. Os dados desta pesquisa foram comparados aos de outros estudos. RESULTADOS: Apesar de haver diferenças significativas nas condições de renda, estrato social e escolaridade dos pais, não houve diferença significativa nos índices de aleitamento materno entre os dois grupos. No grupo total, a prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo aos quatro meses foi de 61,1% e a mediana de aleitamento materno exclusivo foi de 120 dias. Os resultados foram superiores aos dos demais estudos consultados. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram diferenças relacionadas às condições socioeconômicas, porém, os índices de aleitamento materno foram semelhantes entre os dois grupos. Os resultados de aleitamento materno exclusivo foram superiores aos das demais pesquisas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the breastfeeding indicators registered for two groups of infants in the city of Lins, São Paulo, Brazil. To compare the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in this area with data found in other studies. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a random sample of 255 infants between 4 and 12 months of age, found in two groups: the infants attended at private medical offices, and those attended at the county health care centers of the city of Lins. The subjects were stratified by sex, parental socioeconomic class and

  8. SOCIAL PHOBIA PREVALENCE IN YOUNGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD REZA ZAMANI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The most common psychiatric disorder of new communities are the anxiety disorders. In this survey Isfahans' high school students' social phobia were assessed as an important part of anxiety disorders. Methods & Materials: In this cross sectional study, 500 high school students (250 male, 250 female whom selected by multi-stage cluster and simple random sampling, were enrolled into study. Data collection performed by multiple choice question are and analysis were done by SPSS software with 0.05 significance level. Results: 11 percents of selected students with mean age about 16 Yrs, have had Social Phobia (male=56.4%, female=43.6 % . Parents' education of affected group were higher than non-affected, and birth rank had significant relation with Social Phobia (P = 0.043. Conclusions: Unfortunately in spite of high prevalence of social phobia, It's remain unknown and affected students would have numerous educational and communicational problems because of this disorder, therefore for complications' prevention and on time treatment, its need to inform people and physicians about this disorder and its' diagnose.

  9. Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of ... manage and associated with severe sequelae. Key Words: – Prevalence; Chlamydia trachomatis; ... genital infection during pregnancy increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, premature delivery and ...

  10. Dutch diabetes prevalence estimates (DUDE-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, Nanne; Landman, Gijsw. D.; Van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; Meulepas, Marianne; Romeijnders, Arnold; Rutten, Guy E. H.; Klomp, Maarten; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    Background: Recent decades have seen a constant upward projection in the prevalence of diabetes. Attempts to estimate diabetes prevalence rates based on relatively small population samples quite often result in underestimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the Dutch

  11. Dutch diabetes prevalence estimates (DUDE-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, Nanne; Landman, Gijsw. D.; Van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; Meulepas, Marianne; Romeijnders, Arnold; Rutten, Guy E. H.; Klomp, Maarten; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent decades have seen a constant upward projection in the prevalence of diabetes. Attempts to estimate diabetes prevalence rates based on relatively small population samples quite often result in underestimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the Dutch

  12. Increasing autism prevalence in metropolitan New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-02-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder, between 2002 and 2006. The cohorts included 30,570 children, born in 1998 and 28,936 children, born in 1994, residing in Hudson, Union, and Ocean counties, New Jersey. Point prevalence estimates by sex, ethnicity, autism spectrum disorder subtype, and previous autism spectrum disorder diagnosis were determined. For 2006, a total of 533 children with autism spectrum disorder were identified, consistent with prevalence of 17.4 per 1000 (95% confidence interval = 15.9-18.9), indicating a significant increase in the autism spectrum disorder prevalence (p autism spectrum disorder was broad, affecting major demographic groups and subtypes. Boys with autism spectrum disorder outnumbered girls by nearly 5:1. Autism spectrum disorder prevalence was higher among White children than children of other ethnicities. Additional studies are needed to specify the influence of better awareness of autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates and to identify possible autism spectrum disorder risk factors. More resources are necessary to address the needs of individuals affected by autism spectrum disorder.

  13. The prevalence of stalking in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, S.; Kunst, M.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Over eight years after the enactment of the Dutch anti-stalking provisions there are still no figures detailing the prevalence of stalking in The Netherlands. This article aims to estimate the lifetime and annual prevalence of this form of victimization within the Dutch population. Questionnaires

  14. Prevalence of gestrointestinal symptoms in pregnancy | Audu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of gestrointestinal symptoms in pregnancy. BM Audu, SK Mustapha. Abstract. Objectives: This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms among healthy pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. Methods: Questionnaires were ...

  15. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macur Mirna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia.

  16. Prevalence, Progression and Associated Risk Factors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) ranges between 4.5% and 57% and is independently associated with cardiovascular disease burden irrespective of symptoms. Two thirds of cases are thought to be asymptomatic and may go unrecognised. Local prevalence and natural progression of ...

  17. Tuberculosis prevalence surveys: rationale and cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaziou, P.; van der Werf, M. J.; Onozaki, I.; Dye, C.; Borgdorff, M. W.; Chiang, C.-Y.; Cobelens, F.; Enarson, D. A.; Gopi, P. G.; Holtz, T. H.; Kim, S. J.; van Leth, F.; Lew, W.-J.; Lonnroth, K.; van Maaren, P.; Narayanan, P. R.; Williams, B.

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first of the educational series 'Assessing tuberculosis (TB) prevalence through population-based surveys'. The series will give overall guidance in conducting cross-sectional surveys of pulmonary TB (PTB) disease. TB prevalence surveys are most valuable in areas where

  18. Measures of Disease Frequency: Prevalence and Incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Dekker, Friedo W.; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.

    2010-01-01

    To describe how often a disease or another health event occurs in a population, different measures of disease frequency can be used. The prevalence reflects the number of existing cases of a disease. In contrast to the prevalence, the incidence reflects the number of new cases of disease and can be

  19. SHORT COMMUNICATION High prevalence of Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    Volume 20, Number 1, January 2018. 1. SHORT COMMUNICATION ... This study was designed to establish the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among HIV infected populations. ... The prevalence of P. falciparum was high among HIV seropositive individuals in the Lake Victoria Zone, which calls for additional ...

  20. The Prevalence of Intraventricular Haemorrhage and Associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Prevalence of Intraventricular Haemorrhage and Associated Risk Factors in Preterm Neonates in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the University Teaching ... any-IVH generated at the time of analysis was used in determining the prevalence of IVH and also as the dependent variable in multivariate logistic regression.

  1. Constipation prevalence in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Álvaro de Freitas Lins Neto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of constipation in diabetic patients treated at the endocrinology outpatient clinic at Hospital Universitário Professor Alberto Antunes and PAM Salgadinho, from April to August 2013. Methods: a descriptive and cross-sectional study, carried out through a questionnaire using the Rome III criteria in 372 patients treated at the outpatient endocrinology clinic. Results: of 372 patients evaluated, the frequency of constipation found was 31.2% among diabetic patients. Females predominated in the sample (72.8% as well as for the frequency of constipation (80.2%. The incidence of type II diabetes was 97.3% and it was observed that 80.2% of the sample was older than 50 years. One hundred and twelve patients with inadequate glycemic control (HgA1c ≥ 7 had an association with constipation. Conclusion: there was an increased frequency of constipation in patients with diabetes mellitus according to the Rome III criteria, in relation to the general population. The inadequate glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus increases the frequency of constipation and it is necessary to perform studies that allow the confirmation of this association to demonstrate this hypothesis. Resumo: Objetivo: analisar a prevalência da constipação intestinal em pacientes diabéticos atendidos no ambulatório de endocrinologia do Hospital Universitário Professor Alberto Antunes e no PAM Salgadinho (HUPAA, de abril de 2013 a agosto 2013. Método: estudo descritivo e transversal, realizado através da aplicação de um questionário com os critérios de Roma III no ambulatório de endocrinologia do HUPAA. Resultado: em 372 pacientes, 271 feminino, 101 masculino, 162 de etnia branca, 55 negros e 155 pardos, 297 pacientes estavam acima de 50 anos, houve uma frequência de constipação de 31,2% nos pacientes diabéticos. O gênero feminino prevaleceu na amostra (73% assim como no índice de frequ

  2. The prevalence of stroke and associated disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, P G; Thomson, R G; Dobson, R; Rodgers, H; James, O F

    1999-06-01

    There are limited data available on the prevalence of stroke in the United Kingdom. Such data are important for the assessment of the health needs of the population. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of stroke and the prevalence of associated dependence in a district of northern England. This was a two-stage point prevalence study. A valid screening questionnaire was used to identify stroke survivors from an age- and sex-stratified sample of the population aged 45 years and over in a family health services authority district. This was followed by assessment of stroke patients with scales of disability and handicap. The overall prevalence of stroke was found to be 17.5/1000 (95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 17.0, 18.0). The prevalence of stroke-associated dependence was 11.7/1000 (95 per cent CI 11.3, 12.1). Self-reported comorbidity was most commonly due to circulatory and musculoskeletal disorders. The prevalence of stroke in this district is considerably higher than current guidelines and previous results suggest. Nevertheless, the result from this study combined with that from a previous study in another district in the United Kingdom should allow those interested in epidemiologically based health needs assessment to make reasonable estimates of the burden of stroke in their area.

  3. Prevalence and course of pseudothrombocytopenia in outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froom, Paul; Barak, Mira

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and course of pseudothrombocytopenia in outpatients is uncertain. In a cohort study of 687,955 members of a health maintenance organization, we extracted 36,780 consecutive automated complete blood count test results and determined the point prevalence of pseudothrombocytopenia during a one-month period. We also calculated a retrospective cumulative prevalence over the past 5 years. There were 1105 (2.7%) patients with platelet counts of 100-149×10(9)/L and 304 (0.8%) with counts values, or the reference limit value should be lowered to 100×10(9)/L.

  4. Prevalence of Wheat Allergy in Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eishin Morita

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of wheat allergy in Japanese adults was found to be 0.21% by using a combination of questionnaire-based examination, skin prick test and serum omega-5 gliadin-specific IgE test.

  5. Prevalence and factors contributing to musculoskeletal disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 9, No 5S (2017) > ... Method used in this study is standard Nordic questionnaire (SNQ) Malay version for 150 garage workers ... Keywords: vehicle maintenance; musculoskeletal disorder; ache, pain, discomfort; prevalence ...

  6. Prevalence of clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.W. Ojewola

    2017-04-29

    Apr 29, 2017 ... Subjects and methods: This is a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted ... and BPH among countries, possibly arising from cultural or lin- ..... reported prevalence 21.0% in Jeju Island, South Korea [5] and of.

  7. Prevalence of Physical, Verbal and Nonverbal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of various forms of sexual harassment were higher and strongly associated with ..... Social Science and Law students, respectively, adjusted for ... depression, anxiety, and ill-health accompanying harassments.

  8. Prevalence of somatisation and psychologisation among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-16

    Jun 16, 2010 ... Conclusion: The prevalence of somatised mental disorder was little higher than the psychologised mental ... hypothesised to be an expression of personal and social .... psychiatric illness; generalised anxiety disorder, depres-.

  9. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The prevalence of H. pylori infection is significantly high in rural and suburban population of Ernakulam district, Kerala. Early detection and prompt treatment are essential for prevention of serious complications. Keywords: Gastrointestinal complications, Helicobacter pylori infection, Histopathological ...

  10. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia , and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The intestinal protozoa Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. are the causative agents of giardiasis, amebiasis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively. Adequate knowledge of the geographical distribution of parasites and the demographic variables that influence their prevalence is ...

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders among Residents of a ... mental healthcare resources, availability of data on mental health needs of children ... gender-matched school going adolescents were evaluated for the presence of ...

  12. PREVALENCE OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE DURING PREGNANCY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    *Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Delta State University,. Abraka, Delta State ... cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence, .... and emotionally attached to cultural- associated .... Chinese community.

  13. Prevalence of psychoactive substance use among commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence, health and social ... use, impact on health status, motor cycle riding experience and work performance. ... Keeping awake, suppression of fatigue, and peer group effect were the ...

  14. Investigation into the prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation into the prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility patterns of aeromonas and plesiomonas species isolated from children with diarrhoea in Amuwo-Odofin and Surulere Local Government areas of Lagos, Nigeria.

  15. Prevalence of hyponatremia in palliative care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoba Nair

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Prevalence of hyponatremia is significant in palliative care patients. A prospective study looking at the causes and clinical outcomes associated with hyponatremia in palliative care patients is needed.

  16. Prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis among symptomatic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Naguib M. Massoud

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... has been associated with cases of travelers. The parasite is commonly ... designed to address the prevalence and risk factors for infec- ..... infection in young children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Melbourne ...

  17. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients attending infertility and sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria. ... A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of ...

  18. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria. ... A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of ... Key words: Chlamydia trachomatis, Prevalence, risk factors, Infertility, STD, Kano.

  19. Prevalence of placenta Plasmodium parasitemia and pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-05

    Jul 5, 2014 ... Sixty-seven (31.9%) women had anemia and malaria parasitemia was ... high prevalence of poverty, poor nutrition, illiteracy, and poor health ..... atypical presentation: A case report from low transmission area in India. Malar.

  20. 2. PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. ... Results: In our study specimens, the prevalence of MRSA was 42.7% and .... Our result also revealed excellent performance by vancomycin as all.

  1. Prevalence of chronic conditions in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Harrison

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate prevalence of chronic conditions among patients seeing a general practitioner (GP, patients attending general practice at least once in a year, and the Australian population. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A sub-study of the BEACH (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health program, a continuous national study of general practice activity conducted between July 2008 and May 2009. Each of 290 GPs provided data for about 30 consecutive patients (total 8,707 indicating diagnosed chronic conditions, using their knowledge of the patient, patient self-report, and patient's health record. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimates of prevalence of chronic conditions among patients surveyed, adjusted prevalence in patients who attended general practice at least once that year, and national population prevalence. RESULTS: Two-thirds (66.3% of patients surveyed had at least one chronic condition: most prevalent being hypertension (26.6%, hyperlipidaemia (18.5%, osteoarthritis (17.8%, depression (13.7%, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (11.6%, asthma (9.5% and Type 2 diabetes (8.3%. For patients who attended general practice at least once, we estimated 58.8% had at least one chronic condition. After further adjustment we estimated 50.8% of the Australian population had at least one chronic condition: hypertension (17.4%, hyperlipidaemia (12.7%, osteoarthritis (11.1%, depression (10.5% and asthma (8.0% being most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: This study used GPs to gather information from their knowledge, the patient, and health records, to provide prevalence estimates that overcome weaknesses of studies using patient self-report or health record audit alone. Our results facilitate examination of primary care resource use in management of chronic conditions and measurement of prevalence of multimorbidity in Australia.

  2. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Macur, Mirna; Kir?ly, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Nagygy?rgy, Katalin; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia. Methods Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ...

  3. [Prevalence and diagnosis of depression in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belló, Mariana; Puentes-Rosas, Esteban; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Lozano, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    To present the prevalence of depressive episodes, as well as the percentage of the population with medical diagnosis. The definition of depression was based on a schedule with DSM IV diagnostic criteria. Using data from the 2002-2003 National Assessment Performance Survey, the prevalence of depression was estimated at the national level, by sex, age, education, size of residence community, and state. The percentage of individuals with medically diagnosed depression and the percentage of those under treatment were also estimated. The national prevalence of depression was 4.5%: 5.8% in women and 2.5% in men. The prevalence of depression increased with age and decreased with higher education. Among males, the prevalence was higher in rural than urban communities. A large percentage of affected individuals have no medical diagnosis. Depression is a frequent disease in adults.A higher prevalence is associated with social vulnerability. The low percentage of diagnosis represents a challenge for mental health service planning and provision.

  4. Seasonal variation in the prevalence of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Janani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension in pregnancy is one of the three factors of maternal mortality. Etiology of the disease is unknown, but the many factors contributing to the identification and control of it can be taken a step to prevent and reduce the symptoms of the disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of preeclampsia (high-blood pressure in different seasons of the year. Methods: The present retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on more than 8,000 pregnant women visiting Assali specialized hospital from 2011 to 2013. Required data was collected through questionnaire checklist. The Chi-square test with multiple comparisons was used to compare the frequencies of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH according to the month of year, and adjustment of multiplicity was conducted using Bonferroni's method. Student's t-test was used to compare the means of PIH prevalence rates. In all analyses, P < 0.05 was taken to indicate statistical significance. Results: In these 8000 woman admitted to labor, overall prevalence of PIH was 3.8 ± 0.6%. The prevalence rate of PIH was highest in the summer (4.5% and lowest frequent in the winter (2.7%, respectively. In July, the prevalence rate was significantly higher than those for any other month (4.7%, and in March, it was lower prevalence than for any month (2.2%, respectively. Using the Chi-square test, a significant difference between the incidence of disease was observed in summer and winter (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of PIH was higher for delivery in summer and early spring and lowest for winter delivery among Khorramabad women based on these results; it seems that changes in temperature and humidity in different seasons can affect preeclampsia, and preeclampsia increases with increasing frequency temperature.

  5. Prevalence of oppositional defiant disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villalobos, José Antonio; Andrés-De Llano, Jesús María; Rodríguez-Molinero, Luis; Garrido-Redondo, Mercedes; Sacristán-Martín, Ana María; Martínez-Rivera, María Teresa; Alberola-López, Susana; Sánchez-Azón, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, defiant, disobedient and hostile behavior toward authority figures. ODD is one of the most frequent reasons for clinical consultation on mental health during childhood and adolescence. ODD has a high morbidity and dysfunction, and has important implications for the future if not treated early. To determine the prevalence of ODD in schoolchildren aged 6-16 years in Castile and Leon (Spain). Population study with a stratified multistage sample, and a proportional cluster design. Sample analyzed: 1,049. Cases were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. An overall prevalence rate of 5.6% was found (95% CI: 4.2%-7%). Male gender prevalence=6.8%; female=4.3%. Prevalence in secondary education=6.2%; primary education=5.3%. No significant differences by gender, age, grade, type of school, or demographic area were found. ODD prevalence without considering functional impairment, such as is performed in some research, would increase the prevalence to 7.4%. ODD cases have significantly worse academic outcomes (overall academic performance, reading, maths and writing), and worse classroom behavior (relationship with peers, respect for rules, organizational skills, academic tasks, and disruption of the class). Castile and Leon has a prevalence rate of ODD slightly higher to that observed in international publications. Depending on the distribution by age, morbidity and clinical dysfunctional impact, an early diagnosis and a preventive intervention are required for health planning. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of dental anomalies in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Santosh; Doni, Bharati; Kaswan, Sumita; Rahman, Farzan

    2013-10-01

    Developmental anomalies of the dentition are not infrequently observed by the dental practitioner. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in the Indian population. A retrospective study of 4133 panoramic radiographs of patients, who attended the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital between September 2008 to December 2012 was done. The ages of the patients ranged from 13 to 38 years with a mean age of 21.8 years. The orthopantomographs (OPGs) and dental records were examined for any unusual finding such as congenitally missing teeth, impactions, ectopic eruption, supernumerary teeth, odontoma, dilacerations, taurodontism, dens in dente, germination and fusion, among others. 1519 (36.7%) patients had at least one dental anomaly. The congenitally missing teeth 673 (16.3%) had the highest prevalence, followed by impacted teeth 641 (15.5%), supernumerary teeth 51 (1.2%) and microdontia 41 (1.0%). Other anomalies were found at lower prevalence ranging from transposition 7 (0.1%) to ectopic eruption 30 (0.7%). The most prevalent anomaly in the Indian population was congenitally missing teeth (16.3%), and the second frequent anomaly was impacted teeth (15.5%), whereas, macrodontia, odontoma and transposition were the least frequent anomalies, with a prevalence of 0.2%, 0.2% and 0.1% respectively. While the overall prevalence of these anomalies may be low, the early diagnosis is imperative for the patient management and treatment planning. Key words:Dental anomaly, prevalence, panoramic radiography.

  7. Prevalence of Mathematic Disability in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Talepasand

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One of the issues that have consistently been the concern for the health affair specialists and cure and massive social governors in health fields is the rate of disorders prevalence, diseases and the related subjects to epidemiology. Purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mathematic disability amongst primary schools of Karaj. Methods: Totally 432 students were selected with multi-stage sampling method. Participants completed Raven test, Frostig Visual-Perception test and Wepman Auditory discrimination test, Rutter behavioral questionnaire and Iran Key-math test. In order to diagnosis mathematic disability, inter criterion was normal quotient intelligence and out criteria were to have one of visual perception, auditory and behavioral problems. The participants whose total standard scores in Iran Key-math test were one standard deviation below the mean were selected as a mathematical disability (MD. Results: The mathematic disability prevalence in primary students was estimated 0.46%. In addition, proportion of mathematic disability prevalence was not function of gender or grade. Discussion: The findings demonstrated that the prevalence of mathematic disability is much less than the previous researches. A possible explanation was that inappropriate screening co morbid disorders with the mathematic disability. The theoretical implications of findings are discussed in detail.

  8. Prevalence of urticaria in Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés Miranda-Machado

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Colombia, there have been studies on the prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Prevalence studies of urticaria in Colombia are scarce. Objective: Our objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of urticaria in Cartagena (Colombia in order to contribute to national epidemiological estimates of disease. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional study in the city of Cartagena was conducted and 547 patients aged 1-58 years treated at the Allergy specialist consultation in care centers selected for this study between April and July 2015 were included, through non-probabilistic sampling. Results: The prevalence of urticaria in the care centers selected of city of Cartagena (Colombia was 7.1 % (4 % children and adults 3.1 %. 3.4 % prevalence of acute urticaria and 3.6 % of chronic urticaria was estimated. Conclusion: 46.1 % reported having a poor quality of life associated with urticaria.

  9. Prevalence of Mood Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Pouretemad

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To study the prevalence and demographic characteristics of mood disorders among Iranian adults. Method: In this cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study (age > 18 in Iran, 25180 individuals were selected through a randomized cluster sampling method for a diagnosis using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS. They were then interviewed at home by 250 trained clinical psychologists. Results: The estimated lifetime prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and Minor Depressive Disorder (mDD were 3.1% and 0.3% respectively. Also, the estimated lifetime prevalence of Bipolar Mood disorder (BMD type I and type II were 0.1% and 0.7% respectively. The current prevalence of MDD, mDD, BMD-I, and BMD-II were 1.8%, 0.2%, 0.04%, and 0.3% respectively. Mood disorders were associated with female gender, lower education, being married, being middle-aged, living in cities, and not being a homemaker. Conclusion: The prevalence of mood disorders was lower among Iranian adults than reported in Western studies, and a number of demographic associations differed from those reported in Western studies. Important cultural differences in the nature or manifestation of depression are implied by these results.

  10. Prevalence of food allergies in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakali, Schweta R; Green, Todd D; Dinakar, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the published medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergies in South Asia. A PubMed search was performed using the keywords India and food allergy, Asia and food allergy, and South Asia and food allergy for any period. Articles cited in selected studies were reviewed for their appropriateness of inclusion into this review. Publications were included that were original research and fit the topic of food allergy and South Asia. South Asia is defined as region inclusive of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. A total of 169 articles were initially identified, and 47 were reviewed in detail for inclusion in this review. The primary focus was placed on 10 studies that consisted of case reports of newly reported or documented food allergy, survey studies that investigated food allergy prevalence in specific demographics, and prospective and cross-sectional studies with case controls, all of which investigated food allergy prevalence by allergy testing in a selected population. The medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergy in South Asia indicates that there is a variety of unusual and unique allergens and an overall low incidence of food allergy. There is also an association of increased food allergy prevalence in individuals who live in metropolitan regions or who migrate to communities that have adopted westernization. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihangir Erem

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem affecting an important proportion of the Turkish population. The prevalence of obesity has significantly increased among adult Turkish population over the past 20 years. In 1990, 18.8% of the adult population was obese (28.5% among women and 9% among men, and the prevalence increased to 36% in 2010 (44% among women and 27% among men. From the data, we found that the prevalence of obesity in Turkey has increased steadily from 1990 to 2010 in both genders. Adult obesity-associated risk factors are age, gender, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking cessation, alcohol consumption, high household income, low education level and physical activity, occupation, marital status and a family of selected medical conditions (e.g. obesity, diabetes and hypertension. To control obesity, necessary precautions should urgently be taken. The precautions include serious public health education encouraging a well-balanced diet and increasing physical activity.

  12. Prevalence of burnout among musculoskeletal radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Felix S.; Porrino, Jack A.; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Relyea-Chew, Annemarie [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Mulcahy, Michael J. [Central Washington University, Department of Sociology, Ellensburg, WA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Burnout is a job-related psychological syndrome with three aspects: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and perceived lack of personal accomplishment. Burnout is associated with deleterious effects on both workers and their work. When burnout affects physicians, their well-being, longevity, and care of patients are at risk. Recent studies concerning physician burnout treat specialists such as radiologists as one group. We studied burnout in musculoskeletal (MSK) subspecialist radiologists. An institutional review board exemption was obtained. Society of Skeletal Radiology members received invitations to an anonymous survey that included questions from the Maslach Burnout Inventory trademark (MBI) measuring all three aspects of burnout. The response rate was 36.4% (433/1190). The prevalence of emotional exhaustion was 61.7% (255/413), of depersonalization 53.3% (219/411), and of perceived lack of personal accomplishment 39.6% (161/407). Only 19.5% (79/405) of MSK radiologists reported no burnout, while 80.5% (326/405) reported burnout along one or more dimensions. For all three dimensions, the prevalence was higher and the mean severity was worse for private practice compared with academic practice. The prevalence of burnout was affected more by practice setting than by gender. Burnout prevalence and severity also varied systematically with years since completion of training. Among MSK radiologists, we found a much higher prevalence and greater severity of burnout than has been previously reported for radiologists and other physicians. There were differences in prevalence and severity of burnout among practice settings, genders, and longevity cohorts. (orig.)

  13. Prevalence of burnout among musculoskeletal radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, Felix S.; Porrino, Jack A.; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Relyea-Chew, Annemarie; Mulcahy, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a job-related psychological syndrome with three aspects: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and perceived lack of personal accomplishment. Burnout is associated with deleterious effects on both workers and their work. When burnout affects physicians, their well-being, longevity, and care of patients are at risk. Recent studies concerning physician burnout treat specialists such as radiologists as one group. We studied burnout in musculoskeletal (MSK) subspecialist radiologists. An institutional review board exemption was obtained. Society of Skeletal Radiology members received invitations to an anonymous survey that included questions from the Maslach Burnout Inventory trademark (MBI) measuring all three aspects of burnout. The response rate was 36.4% (433/1190). The prevalence of emotional exhaustion was 61.7% (255/413), of depersonalization 53.3% (219/411), and of perceived lack of personal accomplishment 39.6% (161/407). Only 19.5% (79/405) of MSK radiologists reported no burnout, while 80.5% (326/405) reported burnout along one or more dimensions. For all three dimensions, the prevalence was higher and the mean severity was worse for private practice compared with academic practice. The prevalence of burnout was affected more by practice setting than by gender. Burnout prevalence and severity also varied systematically with years since completion of training. Among MSK radiologists, we found a much higher prevalence and greater severity of burnout than has been previously reported for radiologists and other physicians. There were differences in prevalence and severity of burnout among practice settings, genders, and longevity cohorts. (orig.)

  14. Estimating the prevalence of infertility in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnik, Tracey; Cook, Jocelynn L.; Yuzpe, A. Albert; Tough, Suzanne; Collins, John

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in Canada, however, little is known about the overall prevalence of infertility in the population. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of current infertility in Canada according to three definitions of the risk of conception. METHODS Data from the infertility component of the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed for married and common-law couples with a female partner aged 18–44. The three definitions of the risk of conception were derived sequentially starting with birth control use in the previous 12 months, adding reported sexual intercourse in the previous 12 months, then pregnancy intent. Prevalence and odds ratios of current infertility were estimated by selected characteristics. RESULTS Estimates of the prevalence of current infertility ranged from 11.5% (95% CI 10.2, 12.9) to 15.7% (95% CI 14.2, 17.4). Each estimate represented an increase in current infertility prevalence in Canada when compared with previous national estimates. Couples with lower parity (0 or 1 child) had significantly higher odds of experiencing current infertility when the female partner was aged 35–44 years versus 18–34 years. Lower odds of experiencing current infertility were observed for multiparous couples regardless of age group of the female partner, when compared with nulliparous couples. CONCLUSIONS The present study suggests that the prevalence of current infertility has increased since the last time it was measured in Canada, and is associated with the age of the female partner and parity. PMID:22258658

  15. 156 ORIGINAL ARTICLE PREVALENCE OF BACTERIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    reproductive age with a prevalence of 9-37%, depending on the .... 82 (100). 161 (100). BV, bacterial vaginosis: score of 7-10; I, intermediate: score of 4-6; N, normal: score of 0-3 .... based study of reproductive tract infections among ever ...

  16. Original Research Prevalence and distribution of Schistosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control. As prevalence falls, diagnostics can identify high transmission areas, monitor disease trends, and guide evidence-based control strategies. Introduction ..... Fever. 255. 0.50. Abdominal pain. 295. 0.015. Blurred vision. 26. 0.44. Blood in ...

  17. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus among immunocompromised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B is an infectious inflammatory illness of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) which is transmitted to a large population through blood transfusion or by exposure to other body fluids. HBV is a member of the family Hepadnaviridae and also a DNA virus. In this study, the prevalence of hepatitis B infection ...

  18. ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTIONS Prevalence and Social Correlates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global School-based Health Survey, injury, prevalence, social correlates, school ... factors including age, sex, residence and socioeconomic status, all of which are ... attitudes, concepts, beliefs and habits that may have long-term influences ... theories offer different explanations for the relationship between development.

  19. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization, Prevalence, and Etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Mohammed Allazzam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the prevalence and possible etiological factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH among a group of children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A group of 8-12-year-old children were recruited (n=267  from the Pediatric Dental Clinics at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Children had at least one first permanent molar (FPM, erupted or partially erupted. Demographic information, children’s medical history, and pregnancy-related data were obtained. The crowns of the FPM and permanent incisors were examined for demarcated opacities, posteruptive breakdown (PEB, atypical restorations, and extracted FPMs. Children were considered to have MIH if one or more FPM with or without involvement of incisors met the diagnostic criteria. Results. MIH showed a prevalence of 8.6%. Demarcated opacities were the most common form. Maxillary central incisors were more affected than mandibular (P=0.01. The condition was more prevalent in children with history of illnesses during the first four years of life including tonsillitis (P=0.001, adenoiditis (P=0.001, asthma (P=0.001, fever (P=0.014, and antibiotics intake (P=0.001. Conclusions. The prevalence of MIH is significantly associated with childhood illnesses during the first four years of life including asthma, adenoid infections, tonsillitis, fever, and antibiotics intake.

  20. Antibiotic susceptibilities of Salmonella species prevalent among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Salmonella species among children having diarrhea in Katsina State, Nigeria. A total of 220 diarrhea stool samples of children aged five years and below (0-5 years) were collected and screened for Salmonella species using culture technique. Presumptively positive ...

  1. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders: data review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco ALCANTUD MARÍN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Published data on the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders point to a significant increase in this indicator. This increase is being studied in numerous publications of analysis, meta-analysis and systematic reviews. The prevalence indicates the proportion of people who suffer at a given time or are diagnosed with a disease. The consequences of the increasing prevalence are relevant from the point of health, social and educational, but especially relevant when as is the case, the cause of the disorder is unknown. It is in this sense that the prevalence study gains importance in order to delimit various circumstances that may give clues to the possible cause or causes that generate disorder. This article reviews studies, summarizes the last data, and reflects on them and possible causes that justify the increased reporting. It looks like these epidemiological indicators can or are influenced by possible methodological flaws behind, which can explain the variations between studies and others. It concludes by stating the need population studies and monitoring that allows us to know the reality of the evolution of these disorders in order to provide reliable information to those responsible for the institutions involved in the detection and treatment of ASD.

  2. prevalence and severity of pterygium among commer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... 1Department of Ophthalmology, Federal medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, ... ies so as to reduce the prevalence of these disorders. ... It is speculated to be associated with corneal and con- ... A number of risk factors have been identified for the ... glaucoma, cataract, refractive errors were referred to the eye ...

  3. Prevalence & Correlates of Intimate Partner physical violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the reproductive, physical and mental well-being of women. In Ethiopia however, knowledge of the prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence against women is ... socio-economic, relationship and behavioral factors increase women's risk of being victimized. Thus .... exchange are the main types of marriage.

  4. Prevalence of common food allergies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaru, B I; Hickstein, L; Panesar, S S

    2014-01-01

    Allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish constitutes the majority of food allergy reactions, but reliable estimates of their prevalence are lacking. This systematic review aimed to provide up-to-date estimates of their prevalence in Europe.Studies published...... synthesis and 42 studies in the meta-analyses. Although there were significant heterogeneity between the studies, the overall pooled estimates for all age groups of self-reported lifetime prevalence of allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish were 6.0% (95% confidence...... interval: 5.7-6.4), 2.5% (2.3-2.7), 3.6% (3.0-4.2), 0.4% (0.3-0.6), 1.3% (1.2-1.5), 2.2% (1.8-2.5), and 1.3% (0.9-1.7), respectively. The prevalence of food-challenge-defined allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish was 0.6% (0.5-0.8), 0.2% (0.2-0.3), 0.1% (0...

  5. Prevalence of sleepwalking in an adult population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-07

    Jan 7, 2010 ... Prevalence of sleepwalking in an adult population. Celestine Okorome Mume*. Department of Mental Health, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun. State, Nigeria. Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities.

  6. Prevalence of Microalbuminuria among secondary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... DM and in one subject with sickle cell anemia. Conclusion: The prevalence of microalbuminuria in Nigerian adolescents is high. We recommend routine screening for microalbuminuria in adolescents for early detection and prevention of renal damage. Key words: microalbuminuria, obesity, hypertension, children, Nigeria ...

  7. Prevalence and susceptibility pattern of methicillinresistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multi-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MMRSA) has been commonly reported to be one of the commonest causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Also, recent reports describe methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage in persons in the community. The study investigated its prevalence in urine ...

  8. High prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Desouki, Mahmoud I.; Sulimani, Riyadh A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in healthy Saudi men. We randomly recruited 429 Saudi men from the community. The recruited Saudi men were subjected to an interview to reveal their lifestyle parameters, calcium intake and level of activity. Bone densitometry was assessed at lumbar spine (L-4) and the femoral neck. The dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was carried out in the Nuclear Medicine at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from September 2002 to December 2004. The World Health Organization definition of low bone mineral density was used. Poor oral calcium intake and low level of daily activity were noted. The overall prevalence of osteopenia for the lumbar spine in the whole group was 35.7% while osteoporosis was present in 21.4% of the subjects. In the femoral neck, osteopenia was noted in 38% and osteoporosis in 11.4%. When either lumbar spine or femoral neck osteoporosis is used for diagnosis, the prevalence of osteoporosis rises to 23.5%. Within the whole group, osteopenia and osteoporosis were more common in individuals above the age of 50 than those below 50 years old. Low bone mineral density occurs with high frequency in Saudi men. Lumbar spine appears to be affected to a higher degree. The reason for the high prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men is unclear. Possible underlying causes include nutritional, life style and genetic factors. (author)

  9. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among adult patients with dyspepsia in northern Tanzania. ... Endoscopy (EGD) for initial work up. Study on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of H. pylori is recommended to guide choices for evidence based treatment option.

  10. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was seen. Conclusion: The prevalence of H. pylori infection is significantly high in rural and suburban population of Ernakulam district, Kerala. Early detection and prompt treatment are essential for prevention of serious complications. Keywords: Gastrointestinal complications, Helicobacter pylori infection, Histopathological ...

  11. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive airways disease and several cancers. There is little data about the prevalence and determinants of smoking among adolescents in southern Africa. This study aimed to determine the ...

  12. Prevalence of keratoconus in an adolescent population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Valdez-García

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Through this study, we found that our statistics matched those of internationally published reports concerning the early age of onset of the disease and its corresponding bilateralism. However, contrary to the international reports, it was evident that this condition was more prevalent among the females in our study sample, and no other associated pathologies were found.

  13. Prevalence of potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The high prevalence of zoonotic parasites detected in dog faeces from Ibadan metropolis showed that infected stray dogs roam the streets and constitute potential risk to human health. This study suggests the need for enforcement of laws restraining roaming or straying dogs and proper veterinary care of dogs.

  14. PREVALENCE OF INFECTION WITH HUMAN HERPESVIRUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human herpesvirus 8 (HHV 8): Distribution of infection in Kaposi's sarcoma risk groups and evidence of sexual transmission. Nat Med 1996; 2: 918-924. 14. Kedes OH, Ganem 0, Ameli N, Bacchetti p. Greenblatt R The prevalence of serum antibody to human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma-associated hepesvirus) among ...

  15. Prevalence and determinants of resistant hypertension among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... among hypertensive patients attending a cardiology clinic in China: a ... leading cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) ... Hypertension in present study was defined as ... patients who were currently smoking at least one .... prevalence of RHT by Ma et al [19] than us might.

  16. Anaemia prevalence and factors associated with haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on social-clinical characteristics, cancer type and associated factors as well as haemoglobin level before and after radiation were obtained. The prevalence of anaemia was determined as a proportion and linear regression was used to determine factors associated with haemoglobin change. Results: A total of ...

  17. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  18. Prevalence and determinants of resistant hypertension among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Prevalence and determinants of resistant hypertension among hypertensive patients attending a cardiology clinic in ... Obese patients and those suffering from diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  19. Socioeconomic factors associated with asthma prevalence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    higher prevalence of childhood asthma,[5,6] or no association.[7] In contrast, the ... resource-limited countries such as India and Brazil have identified ... health and education. .... school teachers/principals, religious leaders, ..... Wright G. Findings from the Indicators of Poverty and Social Exclusion Project: A Profile of Poverty.

  20. Prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries among young squash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries sustained by young squash players in Malaysia. This study was conducted retrospectively by using. Standardized Nordic Questionnaire (NSQ) during SUKMA 2016 at Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. The questionnaires were distributed to the ...

  1. Prevalence and factors associated with anthropometric failure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Under nutrition is a problem of severe magnitude in low income countries like Nigeria. Adolescent school children might also be vulnerable. The dearth of data hinders planning of school health and nutrition programmes for school children. Objective: To determine the prevalence of stunting, thinness; vitamin A ...

  2. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and Giardia intestinalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptosporidium species and Giardia intestinalis cause diarrheal infections in humans and other vertebrate animals globally and are considered to be of great public health importance. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence Cryptosporidium species and G. intestinalis infections among patients attending ...

  3. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection among Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis has emerged as one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. The infection may lead to an important complication in pregnancy, as it has been related with prematurity and low birth weight. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis ...

  4. The prevalence of electroencephalographic abnormalities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-05-20

    May 20, 2004 ... South African studies. There is little South African data examining either prevalence or usefulness of EEG abnormalities among adult psychiatric patients. Some work has been done in adolescents. Szabo1 reviewed all admissions to the adolescent inpatient unit at Tara. Hospital between 1990 and 1995.

  5. Knowledge and prevalence of Human African Trypanosomiasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and prevalence of Human African Trypanosomiasis among residents of Kachia grazing reserve, Kachia local government area, Kaduna state, ... Knowledge of HAT was scored 0-5 and categorized good (3-5) and poor (0-2) based on score, predisposition to risk of HAT as exposure to ≥two risk factors and, ...

  6. Campylobacter prevalence in retail chicken liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been linked to undercooked chicken liver. It is unknown how commonly chicken livers are contaminated with Campylobacter. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter on chicken livers available at retail. For each of five weeks, t...

  7. Antisocial personalities: Measuring prevalence among offenders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The identification of offenders who meet the criteria for psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder or dissocial personality disorder could be of significant value to help address the violent crime crisis in South Africa. A sample of 500 male maximum security offenders was selected to determine the prevalence of these ...

  8. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection among Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection was investigated among 100 women attending infertility clinics and compared with another subset of 100 pregnant women who served as control. Chlamydia trachomatis antigen detection cassette supplied by Biomil Diagnostics was used to detect the presence of ...

  9. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in symptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a ubiquitous human pathogen that is responsible for the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Studies show that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is more sensitive than cellular culture for detection of C. trachomatis infections. The aim of this study is to compare different ...

  10. Factors Associated with Prevalent Tuberculosis Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) causes significant morbidity/mortality among human immunodeficiency virus‑infected individuals in Africa. Reducing TB burden in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a public health priority. Aim: We determined the factors associated with prevalent TB among patients ...

  11. Prevalence and associated factors of incidentally diagnosed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... prostate specific antigen and Biopsy results were analyzed using STATA 11. The prevalence of incidental prostatic cancer was calculated and logistic regression ... had PSA >10 ng/mL and in total; 33 (21.71%) had incidental prostatic carcinoma. ... prostatectomy for presumed benign prostatic hyperplasia in Tanzania with ...

  12. The prevalence of congenital anomalies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolk, Helen; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester

    2010-01-01

    EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) is the network of population-based registers of congenital anomaly in Europe, with a common protocol and data quality review, covering 1.5 million annual births in 22 countries. EUROCAT recorded a total prevalence of major congenital anomali...

  13. Neonatal hypoglycaemia: prevalence and clinical manifestations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neonatal hypoglycaemia is associated with significant long term neuro-developmental sequelae. The signs and symptoms are often non-specific. Some are completely asymptomatic. Many cases therefore remain undiagnosed. This study was therefore designed to determine the prevalence, obstetric and ...

  14. Bullying in Academe: Prevalent, Significant, and Incessant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Macgorine A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the top-down perspective of bullying and mobbing of professors by analyzing why it is prevalent, significant, and incessant and then proposes a framework to produce a caring, respectful, and safe environment for professors to engage in their teaching, scholarship, and service. The author suggests that the failure of…

  15. Cofactors Influencing Prevalence and Intensity of Schistosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urine samples were collected from 657 individuals and analyzed by centrifugation, and the number of ova was determined by microscopy. ... Cattle rearing (OR=9.01; CI=4.00-20.75; P=0.00) and farming (OR=3.14; CI=1.82-5.43; P=0.00) showed significant association with the prevalence and intensity of the disease.

  16. Obsessive compulsive disorder- prevalence in Xhosaspeaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obsessive compulsive disorder- prevalence in Xhosaspeaking schizophrenia patients. ... No concordance for OCD was noted in the sibship group. Our findings differ from those in other parts of the world, and if replicated, might suggest unique protective environmental or genetic factors for OCD in certain ethnic groups.

  17. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Headaches among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... headache on students' daily physical activity, whether they have seen a doctor on ... Table 3: Comparison of some clinical characteristics by headache .... the prevalence was 3.4% in women and 1.5% in men. The findings of ...

  18. prevalence of schistosomiasis among secondary school boarding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emmy

    the study area. Keywords: Prevalence, Schistosomiasis, Boarding students, Potiskum, North-Eastern Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Schistosomiasis is the most common parasite transmitted through contact with fresh water. It is endemic in more than 70 low income countries where it occurs in rural areas and the fringes of cities.

  19. Depression and anxiety in multisomatoform disorder: Prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Multisomatoform disorder (MSD) is characterised by ≥3 medically inexplicable, troublesome physical symptoms, together with a ≥2-year history of somatisation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in a South African sample MSD, and to compare demographic ...

  20. 8. Prevalence of Epistaxis among Patients Receiving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The aim of this study was thus to determine the prevalence, aetiology and treatment modalities of epistaxis among patients receiving otorhinolaryngology services at MNH and MOI. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, hospital based study was done to 427 patients at Muhimbili. National Hospital (MNH) and Muhimbili.

  1. Prevalence of pregnancy anxiety and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girija Kalayil Madhavanprabhakaran

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: During the transition to motherhood, the risk factors and timing of heightened pregnancy-specific anxiety differ. Higher prevalence of pregnancy anxiety among nulliparous and younger pregnant women necessitates an integrated routine screening of PSA during prenatal care. Early detection, prevention and management of pregnancy anxiety will enable women to cope with the challenges of pregnancy.

  2. Prevalence of urinary Schistosomiasis in Umuowele, Agulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used for snail species identification. Results: Haematuria revealed 48.1% prevalence rate among the pupils while PCR showed 58.3%. Three snails were also positive for schistosome infection one of which was identified as Bulinus truncatus while the other two belonged to ...

  3. Cystic echinococcosis: prevalence and economic significance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 at ELFORA export abattoir to determine the prevalence, cyst viability, organ distribution and economic significance of small ruminant cystic echinococcosis. A total of 850 small ruminants (400 sheep and 450 goats), were examined for the presence of ...

  4. General morbidity prevalence in the Delhi slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the sickness prevalence in the slums of a metropolitan city? Objectives: To estimate the morbidity prevalence with reference to a socio-economic and demographic perspective of the slum population of Delhi. Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted and data were collected by a two-stage random sampling method. In the first stage, slum locations were selected and in the second stage households were selected. Participants: Data were collected from 1049 households consisting of 5358 individuals′ information. Results: The overall morbidity prevalence is 15.4%. It is 14.7 and 16.3% for males and females, respectively but the differences are not statistically significant. The reported higher morbidity prevalence and the illiteracy status are significantly associated. Diseases of the respiratory system appear to be very high among slum dwellers. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the number of years of staying in the slum area, presence of a separate kitchen, type of house, it being Pucca or Kuccha, types of toilet pits or open defecation are the important environmental factors for the reports of higher morbidity patterns from the slum area.

  5. Prevalence & consequences of anaemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, K

    2009-11-01

    Prevalence of anaemia in India is among the highest in the world. Prevalence of anaemia is higher among pregnant women and preschool children. Even among higher income educated segments of population about 50 per cent of children, adolescent girls and pregnant women are anaemic. Inadequate dietary iron, folate intake due to low vegetable consumption, perhaps low B12 intake and poor bioavailability of dietary iron from the fibre, phytate rich Indian diets are the major factors responsible for high prevalence of anaemia. Increased requirement of iron during growth and pregnancy and chronic blood loss contribute to higher prevalence in specific groups. In India, anaemia is directly or indirectly responsible for 40 per cent of maternal deaths. There is 8 to 10-fold increase in MMR when the Hb falls below 5 g/dl. Early detection and effective management of anaemia in pregnancy can contribute substantially to reduction in maternal mortality. Maternal anaemia is associated with poor intrauterine growth and increased risk of preterm births and low birth weight rates. This in turn results in higher perinatal morbidity and mortality, and higher infant mortality rate. A doubling of low birth weight rate and 2 to 3 fold increase in the perinatal mortality rates is seen when the Hb is anaemia contributes to intergenerational cycle of poor growth in the offspring. Early detection and effective management of anaemia in pregnancy can lead to substantial reduction in undernutrition in childhood, adolescence and improvement in adult height.

  6. Pharmacoepidemiology and prevalence of epileptic seizures in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish an estimated number of people living with epilepsy in southeastern Nigeria, to determine the prevalence and the utilization pattern of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). A cross sectional, observational survey was used in the study. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select ...

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of coagulase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of coagulase negative Staphylococci isolated from pigs and in-contact humans in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria. ... (53/401) of the isolates were CoNS species based on confirmatory test with Microgen biochemical kit and were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing.

  8. Prevalence And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern Of Methicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial pathogen. We report the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of MRSA in Amravati, Maharashtra state (India). A total of 150 healthcare-associated (HA) sources (doctors mobiles phone and wound/pus swabs), and 160 ...

  9. The prevalence and factors associated with musculoskeletal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a condition characterized by a predominance of haemoglobin S (hbss) in the red blood cells. Musculoskeletal involvement is one of the commonest clinical manifestations of SCA. There is limited information on the prevalence, patterns and factors associated with Musculoskeletal ...

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Prevalence and morphological types of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-02

    Dec 2, 2009 ... However, anaemia in Africa has multiple causes, with infectious diseases ... not a common cause of anaemia among medical patients in Malawi.19 In Uganda the ..... Prevalence and risk factors for anaemia in pregnant women of ... Iron deficiency anaemia, assessment, prevention and control: a guide for ...

  11. Dental erosion: prevalence, incidence, and distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.H.J.; Amaechi, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    Dental erosion is one of the most common dental diseases and it is a growing problem. Numerous epidemiological studies have investigated the prevalence of dental erosion. For these studies different cross sections of the population are investigated. Large differences were found between countries,

  12. Prevalence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS predisposes to malnutrition. Malnutrition exacerbates HIV/AIDS progression resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. The magnitude of malnutrition in HIV/AIDS patients has not been well studied in Ethiopian setup. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated ...

  13. Prevalence and distribution of Schistosoma haematobium infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A questionnaire was administered to 3 health facilities on diagnosis and treatment of schistosomiasis, as well as the control interventions against it. Results: Four ... Mass chemotherapy, health education, and improved water supply and sanitation were some of the interventions that contributed to lower prevalence rates in ...

  14. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  15. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  16. Periodontal Bacteria and Prediabetes Prevalence in ORIGINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, R.T.; Jacobs, D.R.; Singh, R.; Zuk, A.; Rosenbaum, M.; Papapanou, P.N.; Desvarieux, M.

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated. The relationship between periodontal microbiota and early diabetes risk has not been studied. We investigated the association between periodontal bacteria and prediabetes prevalence among diabetes-free adults. ORIGINS (the Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance Study) cross sectionally enrolled 300 diabetes-free adults aged 20 to 55 y (mean ± SD, 34 ± 10 y; 77% female). Prediabetes was defined as follows: 1) hemoglobin A1c values ranging from 5.7% to 6.4% or 2) fasting plasma glucose ranging from 100 to 125 mg/dL. In 1,188 subgingival plaque samples, 11 bacterial species were assessed at baseline, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Actinomyces naeslundii. Full-mouth clinical periodontal examinations were performed, and participants were defined as having no/mild periodontitis vs. moderate/severe periodontitis per the definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / American Academy of Periodontology. Modified Poisson regression evaluated prediabetes prevalence across bacterial tertiles. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for third vs. first tertiles are presented. All analyses were adjusted for cardiometabolic risk factors. All results presented currently arise from the baseline cross section. Prediabetes prevalence was 18%, and 58% of participants had moderate/severe periodontitis. Prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) summarizing associations between bacterial levels and prediabetes were as follows: A. actinomycetemcomitans, 2.48 (1.34, 4.58), P = 0.004; P. gingivalis, 3.41 (1.78, 6.58), P = 0.0003; T. denticola, 1.99 (0.992, 4.00), P = 0.052; T. forsythia, 1.95 (1.0, 3.84), P = 0.05; A. naeslundii, 0.46 (0.25, 0.85), P = 0.01. The prevalence ratio for prediabetes among participants with moderate/severe vs. no/mild periodontitis was 1.47 (0.78, 2.74), P

  17. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4 had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2 smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8 smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use

  18. Prevalence of asthma in regional Victorian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, C F; Bishop, J; Dalton, M; Caust, J; Nolan, T M; Olinsky, A; Phelan, P D

    1992-06-15

    To determine whether the high prevalence of reported asthma in Melbourne schoolchildren is seen in rural Victoria. A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was distributed to children to be completed by parents and returned to the school. Results were compared with a previous Melbourne study. Two hundred and twenty-seven government and non-government primary schools in five rural regions of Victoria: coast, wheatbelt, riverland, highland and Latrobe valley. All children enrolled in grade 2 were invited to join the study. Parents completed questionnaires for 4661 children after 4886 questionnaires were distributed (response rate, 95%). History of wheeze in the past 12 months. The overall prevalence of wheeze in the last 12 months was 23.6%. There was a significant difference overall in this rate across the five rural areas and Melbourne, with the Latrobe Valley (26.2%) and highland areas (25.0%) having the highest rate, and the wheatbelt the lowest (19.6%). The spectrum of severity of asthma was similarly distributed across rural regions, although severe episodes were significantly more frequently reported by parents from rural areas than by parents in Melbourne. The reported use of bronchodilators and diagnosis of asthma showed a similar pattern of variation to that of the 12-month prevalence of wheeze. The prevalence of asthma in 7-year-old children is similar for rural Victoria as a whole compared with Melbourne, but there is variability in asthma prevalence in individual rural areas which is difficult to account for in terms of known environmental precipitants.

  19. Teens' distracted driving behavior: Prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Pnina; Zhu, Chunming; Klauer, Sheila G; Dingus, Tom; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Teen drivers' over-involvement in crashes has been attributed to a variety of factors, including distracted driving. With the rapid development of in-vehicle systems and portable electronic devices, the burden associated with distracted driving is expected to increase. The current study identifies predictors of secondary task engagement among teenage drivers and provides basis for interventions to reduce distracted driving behavior. We described the prevalence of secondary tasks by type and driving conditions and evaluated the associations between the prevalence of secondary task engagement, driving conditions, and selected psychosocial factors. The private vehicles of 83 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with Data Acquisition Systems (DAS), which documented driving performance measures, including secondary task engagement and driving environment characteristics. Surveys administered at licensure provided psychosocial measures. Overall, teens engaged in a potentially distracting secondary task in 58% of sampled road clips. The most prevalent types of secondary tasks were interaction with a passenger, talking/singing (no passenger), external distraction, and texting/dialing the cell phone. Secondary task engagement was more prevalent among those with primary vehicle access and when driving alone. Social norms, friends' risky driving behaviors, and parental limitations were significantly associated with secondary task prevalence. In contrast, environmental attributes, including lighting and road surface conditions, were not associated with teens' engagement in secondary tasks. Our findings indicated that teens engaged in secondary tasks frequently and poorly regulate their driving behavior relative to environmental conditions. Practical applications: Peer and parent influences on secondary task engagement provide valuable objectives for countermeasures to reduce distracted driving among teenage drivers. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and

  20. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among elderly Mexicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodríguez, María Araceli; Yáñez-Velasco, Lucía; Carnevale, Alessandra; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Bernal, Demetrio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Rojas, Rosalba; Villa, Antonio; Tur, Josep A

    2017-11-01

    One of the most prevalent chronic diseases among elderly population is the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MetS and associated factors among Mexican elderly people. Cross-sectional survey carried out in Mexico (2007). A random sample (n=516) of the elderly population (≥65years; 277 female, 239 male) was interviewed. Anthropometric and analytical measurements, and a general questionnaire incorporating questions related to socio-demographic and life-style factors were used. MetS definition AHA/NHLBI/IDF was applied. The prevalence of MetS in the elderly (≥65years) was of 72.9% (75.7% men; 70.4% women). Participants with values above MetS cut-off points were 92.4% (hypertension), 77.8% (hypertriglyceridemia), 77.1% (low HDL-cholesterol), 71.1% (hyperglycaemia), and 65.4% (central obesity). People with MetS showed higher values of anthropometric and biochemical variables than those without MetS, except for the height, cholesterol and creatinine. Mid-high education level (9-12 years), no smokers and former smokers, and Central-Western inhabitants of Mexico were associated with MetS components. BMI status was the main determinant of MetS prevalence and MetS components. The reported prevalence of MetS among the elderly Mexican population was higher than those previously obtained in the geographical area, showing a major public health problem in Mexican elders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Decomposing Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Chelsea R.; Affuso, Olivia; Sen, Bisakha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Racial disparities in obesity exist at the individual and community levels. Retail food environment has been hypothesized to be associated with racial disparities in obesity prevalence. This study aimed to quantify how much food environment measures explain racial disparities in obesity at the county level. Methods Data from 2009 to 2010 on 3,135 U.S. counties were extracted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Environment Atlas and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and analyzed in 2013. Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition was used to quantify the portion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high and low proportion of African American residents is explained by food environment measures (e.g., proximity to grocery stores, per capita fast food restaurants). Counties were considered to have a high African American population if the percentage of African American residents was >13.1%, which represents the 2010 U.S. Census national estimate of percentage African American citizens. Results There were 665 counties (21%) classified as a high African American county. The total gap in mean adult obesity prevalence between high and low African American counties was found to be 3.35 percentage points (32.98% vs 29.63%). Retail food environment measures explained 13.81% of the gap in mean age-adjusted adult obesity prevalence. Conclusions Retail food environment explains a proportion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high proportion of African American residents and counties with a low proportion of African American residents. PMID:26507301

  2. The prevalence of thyrotoxicosis-related seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tae-Jin; Kim, Sun-Jung; Kim, Gyu Sik; Choi, Young-Chul; Kim, Won-Joo

    2010-09-01

    Central nervous system dysfunction, such as hyperexcitation, irritability, and disturbance of consciousness, may occur in patients with thyrotoxicosis. There are also a few case reports of seizures attributed to thyrotoxicosis. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of seizures that appeared to be related to the thyrotoxic state in patients with thyrotoxicosis. We retrospectively determined the prevalence and clinical features of seizures in 3382 patients with hyperthyroidism. Among patients with seizures, we excluded those with other causes of seizures or a history of epilepsy. We did not exclude two patients in whom later work-up showed an abnormal magnetic resonance imaging, as their seizures resolved after they became euthyroid. Among the 3382 patients with hyperthyroidism, there were seven patients (0.2%) with seizures who met our criteria. Primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures occurred in four patients (57%), complex partial seizures with secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures occurred in two patients (29%), and one patient had a focal seizure (14%). The initial electroencephalography (EEG) was normal in two patients (29%), had generalized slow activity in four patients (57%), and had diffuse generalized beta activity in one patient (14%). On magnetic resonance imaging, one patient had diffuse brain atrophy, and one had an old basal ganglia infarct. After the patients became euthyroid, the EEG was repeated and was normal in all patients. During follow-up periods ranging from 18 to 24 months, none of the patients had seizures. Hyperthyroidism is the precipitating cause of seizures in a small percentage of these patients. In these patients, the prognosis is good if they become euthyroid. The prevalence of thyrotoxicosis-related seizures reported here can be used in conjunction with the prevalence of thyrotoxicosis in the population to estimate the prevalence of thyrotoxicosis-related seizures in populations.

  3. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Chigres Kuschnir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA. The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9, being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0 when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2 in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7 when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4. It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1, and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7. The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5, and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1; higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2, and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3. It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8, and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9. We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in

  4. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  5. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Refractory Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, Pedro; Calhoun, David A; Oliveras, Anna; Blanch, Pedro; Vinyoles, Ernest; Banegas, Jose R; Gorostidi, Manuel; Segura, Julián; Ruilope, Luis M; Dudenbostel, Tanja; de la Sierra, Alejandro

    2017-12-07

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of refractory hypertension (RfH) and to determine the clinical differences between these patients and resistant hypertensives (RH). Secondly, we assessed the prevalence of white-coat RfH and clinical differences between true- and white-coat RfH patients. The present analysis was conducted on the Spanish Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Registry database containing 70 997 treated hypertensive patients. RH and RfH were defined by the presence of elevated office blood pressure (≥140 and/or 90 mm Hg) in patients treated with at least 3 (RH) and 5 (RfH) antihypertensive drugs. White-coat RfH was defined by RfH with normal (<130/80 mm Hg) 24-hour blood pressure. A total of 11.972 (16.9%) patients fulfilled the standard criteria of RH, and 955 (1.4%) were considered as having RfH. Compared with RH patients, those with RfH were younger, more frequently male, and after adjusting for age and sex, had increased prevalence of target organ damage, and previous cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of white coat RfH was lower than white-coat RH (26.7% versus 37.1%, P <0.001). White-coat RfH, in comparison with those with true RfH, showed a lower prevalence of both left ventricular hypertrophy (22% versus 29.7%; P =0.018) and microalbuminuria (28.3% versus 42.9%; P =0.047). The prevalence of RfH was low and these patients had a greater cardiovascular risk profile compared with RH. One out of 4 patients with RfH have normal 24-hour blood pressure and less target organ damage, thus indicating the important role of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in guiding antihypertensive therapy in difficult-to-treat patients. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  6. Prevalence and underlying etiologies of neonatal hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najati, N; Saboktakin, L

    2010-08-01

    This study aims at determining the prevalence of neonatal hypoglycemia and its underlying causes. In this prospective study 14168 newborns delivered in Tabriz Alzahra Hospital during 2 years were evaluated in regard to blood glucose level at first 24 h of life. Glucose oxidase method with 4-aminophenazone with a Greiner G-300 was the used method for determining the blood glucose level. Cases with blood glucose causes of this condition, as well as the short-term mortality rate were determined. Prevalence of neonatal hypoglycemia was 0.4% (52 newborns). Underlying causes of hypoglycemia were prematurity (61.5%), diabetic mother (13.6%), septicemia (9.6%), perinatal asphyxia (9.6%), stress (3.8%) and neonatal hyperinsulinism (1.9%). The mortality rate was 53.8%, with prematurity as the leading cause of death.

  7. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D

    2016-01-01

    several clinical cases with allergic facial dermatitis to rubber. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate temporal trends of contact allergy to rubber accelerators from the European baseline series in a tertiary patch test clinic in Denmark, and examine associations with anatomical locations of dermatitis. METHODS: Patch...... test and clinical data collected in a Danish tertiary dermatology clinic in Gentofte, Herlev, Copenhagen between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2014 were analysed. The following rubber accelerators or mixtures in petrolatum from the European baseline patch test series were included: thiuram mix 1.......0%, mercaptobenzothiazole 2.0% and mercapto mix 1.0%. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of contact allergy to rubber accelerators was 3.1% with no significant change during the study period (Ptrend = 0.667). Contact allergy to thiuram mix was the most prevalent and was significantly associated with occupational contact...

  8. Pornographic imagery and prevalence of paraphilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, P E; Evans, B

    1982-11-01

    The authors classified 1,760 heterosexual pornographic magazines according to the imagery of the cover photographs. Covers depicting only a woman posed alone predominated in 1970 but constituted only 10.7% of the covers in 1981. Bondage and domination imagery was the most prevalent nonormative imagery and was featured in 17.2% of the magazines. Smaller proportions of material were devoted to group sexual activity (9.8%), tranvestism and transsexualism (4.4%), and other nonnormative imagery. The authors suggest that pornographic imagery is an unobtrusive measure of the relative prevalence of those paraphilias associated with preferences for specific types of visual imagery and for which better data are lacking.

  9. Prevalence of falls in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor, Priscila Regina Rorato; de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Kovaleski; Kohler, Renan; Winter, Gabriele Regiane; Rodacki, Cintia; Krause, Maressa Priscila

    2015-01-01

    To verify prevalence of falls and fear of falling, and to compare functional fitness among elderly women fallers and non-fallers. Seventy-eight elderly women participated in this study. Cases of falls and the fear of falling were self-reported by the elderly women, while the functional fitness was measured by a set of functional tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample. Independent t-test was used to compare functional fitness between groups. The prevalence of falls in this sample was 32.4%. Among women fallers, 40% self-reported a high fear of falling. It is recommended that functional and resistance exercises are included in the preventive strategies for reducing risk factors for falls and its determinants in elderly women. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic-Prospective Study.

  10. Prevalence of health risk factors among fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that fishermen have a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and accidents. The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by external risk factors such as the diet, tobacco, alcohol and lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper...... was to review the available information on the prevalence of these preventable risk factors in order to strengthen the preventive strategies. Methods A search for the last decade was done via Medline, Google and Google Scholar with the keywords "diet, tobacco, alcohol, physical exercise, overweight....... Of the Danish fishermen 25%-, 34% and 37% were obese in the 18-24, 25-44 and 45-64 years age groups. Conclusion Health risk factors among fishermen need to be highlighted and further investigated as they represent occupational risks of major impact to chronic diseases prevalence with projections to quality...

  11. Serogroup prevalence of Shigellae in Bombay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonawala M

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Shigellae serotypes in Bombay was studied from June 1988 to May 1991. A total of 2758 faecal specimens were collected from paediatric patients (< 12 yrs with acute gastroenteritis. A total of 90 Shigella were isolated giving the isolation rate of 3.2%. Shigella flexneri was the predominant serogroup (73.3% followed by Shigella dysenteriae (16.6%. All the isolates were sensitive to nalidixic acid. Eighty percent of the Shigellae were multidrug resistant. Present data were compared with the study carried out during the period of 1983-87 from the same institute. A change in the serogroup prevalence was noted wherein Shigella flexneri dominated over Shigella dysenteriae since 1985. Increase in resistance to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole was seen in Shigella flexneri strains as compared to previous years.

  12. Prevalence of Domestic Violence Among Trauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Khalil, Mazhar; Zangbar, Bardiya; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Orouji, Tahereh; Pandit, Viraj; O'Keeffe, Terence; Tang, Andrew; Gries, Lynn; Friese, Randall S; Rhee, Peter; Davis, James W

    2015-12-01

    Domestic violence is an extremely underreported crime and a growing social problem in the United States. However, the true burden of the problem remains unknown. To assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients. A 6-year (2007-2012) retrospective analysis of the prospectively maintained National Trauma Data Bank. Trauma patients who experienced domestic violence and who presented to trauma centers participating in the National Trauma Data Bank were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes (995.80-995.85, 995.50, 995.52-995.55, and 995.59) and E codes (E967.0-E967.9). Patients were stratified by age into 3 groups: children (≤18 years), adults (19-54 years), and elderly patients (≥55 years). Trend analysis was performed on April 10, 2014, to assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence over the years. Trauma patients presenting to trauma centers participating in the National Trauma Data Bank. To assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients. A total of 16 575 trauma patients who experienced domestic violence were included. Of these trauma patients, 10 224 (61.7%) were children, 5503 (33.2%) were adults, and 848 (5.1%) were elderly patients. The mean (SD) age was 15.9 (20.6), the mean (SD) Injury Severity Score was 10.9 (9.6), and 8397 (50.7%) were male patients. Head injuries (46.8% of patients) and extremity fractures (31.2% of patients) were the most common injuries. A total of 12 515 patients (75.1%) were discharged home, and the overall mortality rate was 5.9% (n = 980). The overall reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients was 5.7 cases per 1000 trauma center discharges. The prevalence of domestic violence increased among children (14.0 cases per 1000 trauma center discharges in 2007 to 18.5 case per 1000 trauma center discharges in 2012; P = .001) and adults (3.2 cases per 1000 discharges in 2007 to 4.5 cases per

  13. Pakistan prevalence survey in acute pharyngitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathi, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of Group A beta haemolytic Streptococcus in patients with acute pharyngitis and correlation of Modified Centor Score and Rapid Antigen Detection Test. Methods: The multi-centre, prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 major cities of Pakistan between June 2012 and February 2013, and comprised patients presenting with acute pharyngitis. The subjects were above 3 years of age presenting to primary care physician with sore throat, temperature over 100.4 (degree) F, tonsillar exudates and/or cervical adenopathy (duration of symptoms 4. Conclusion: The prevalence of Group A beta haemolytic Streptococcus as a cause of acute pharyngitis was 25.3%. Modified Centor Score had a strong positive correlation with Rapid Antigen Detection Test in identifying Group A beta haemolytic Streptococcus as a cause of acute pharyngitis. (author)

  14. Prevalence of computer vision syndrome in Erbil

    OpenAIRE

    Dler Jalal Ahmed; Eman Hussein Alwan

    2018-01-01

    Background and objective: Nearly all colleges, universities and homes today are regularly using video display terminals, such as computer, iPad, mobile, and TV. Very little research has been carried out on Kurdish users to reveal the effect of video display terminals on the eye and vision. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of computer vision syndrome among computer users. Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Ophthalmology Department of Rizgary...

  15. Postcoital Dysphoria: Prevalence and Psychological Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Schweitzer, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The findings confirm that PCD is under‐recognized and under‐researched. There appears to be no relationship between PCD and intimacy in close relationships. Further research is necessary to understand the subjective experience of PCD and to inform the development of a reliable measure. Schweitzer RD, O'Brien J, and Burri A. Postcoital dysphoria: Prevalence and psychological correlates. Sex Med 2015;3:229–237.

  16. Prevalence of lower extremity venous duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson William

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This retrospective study was performed to determine the prevalence of lower extremity venous duplication using duplex ultrasound in the patient population of a large urban medical center. Materials and Methods: The reports of all lower extremity venous ultrasound examinations performed at our institution between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 were reviewed. Ultrasound examinations that were performed for purposes other than the detection of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis were excluded. The prevalence of duplication and its specific location were recorded. In addition, the prevalence of thrombus and its specific location were also recorded. Results: A total of 3118 exams were performed in 2664 patients. Of the 2664 patients, 2311 had only one examination performed during the study period; 353 patients had more than one examination performed. We found that 10.1% of patients (270/2664 had at least one venous segment duplicated and 5.4% of patients (143/2664 had a thrombus in at least one venous segment. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of both duplication and thrombus with a change in venous segment. Only 0.4% of patients (11/2664 had thrombus within a duplicated segment. Of those who had more than one examination performed, 15.3% (54/353 had the same venous segment(s seen on one examination but not another. Conclusion: Lower extremity venous duplication is a frequent anatomic variant that is seen in 10.1% of patients, but it may not be as common as is generally believed. It can result in a false negative result for deep vein thrombosis.

  17. Prevalence of gender nonconformity in Flanders, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Van Caenegem, Eva; Wierckx, Katrien; ELAUT, ELS; Buysse, Ann; Dewaele, Alexis; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Gender nonconformity refers to the extent to which a person’s gender identity, gender role and/or gender expression differs from the cultural norms prescribed for people of a particular sex, within a certain society and era. Most data on gender nonconformity focus on the prevalence of gender dysphoria (which also includes a distress factor) or on the number of legal sex changes. However, not every gender nonconforming individual experiences distress or applies for treatment. Population-based ...

  18. Prevalence of workplace bullying and risk groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortega, Adriana; Høgh, Annie; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of bullying and to identify risk groups in a representative population sample. METHODS: The data for this study was taken from the second Danish Psychosocial Work Environment Study (DPWES). The sample consisted of 3,429 employees between 20 and 59-years......: These findings suggest that types of work and gender ratio are risk factors in the onset of workplace bullying. Future studies should take into account the type of work and the gender ratio of the organization....

  19. Prevalence of mobile dependency and adolescence aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyebeh Khazaie; Alireza Saadatjoo; Samaneh Dormohamadi; Mansooreh Soleimani; Marzieh Toosinia; Fatemeh Mullah Hassan Zadeh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Various studies indicate that increasing and complicating use of cell phones in all age groups and in both sexes is associated with aggression. Despite the widespread use of mobile phones in Iran, psychological and behavioral effects of addiction to it and the consequences have not been investigated yet. The present study aimed at determining prevalence of mobile dependency and its relationship with aggression during adolescence in Birjand in 2011. Materials and Methods...

  20. Parkinson's disease in Russia: prevalence and incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razdorskaya V.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the regional studies on the frequency of Parkinson's disease (PD and the incidence of it in Russia have been generalized, the main factors that determine the quality of the estimates of this disease epidemiological indicators have been identifyd. The article summarizes data from 19 original studies on the epidemiology of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease in Russia published between 2005-2015. Due to the statistical heterogeneity of the primary results computational analytics was not applied to the data; however, data consolidation allowed to perform a trend analysis of epidemiological indicators. The methodological basis of the majority of studies was medical aid appealabil-ity; two of the studies used door-to-door surveys. One of the studies returned questionably low epidemiological indicators obtained from the medical records, and the rest showed the standardized prevalence of 30.0-139.9/100,000 and incidence of 7.63-21.8/100,000 per year. Contribution of Parkinson's disease to the nosological structure of parkinsonism was >61.3%. Estimate of the number of patients with PD in Russia is approximately 210,000 people. Conclusions are made regarding the prevalence of PD in Russia according to the cross-cutting research on the level of indicators in the Western countries. The prevalence of PD by appealability is 2-3 times less than the prevalence in continuous research, both national and foreign. The incidence of PD, demonstrated in half of the studies, is stable from region to region and is comparable with the universally recognized values.

  1. Prevalence of alcohol problems in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Todisco, N; Gluud, C

    1996-01-01

    The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and the response to a question about heavy alcohol consumption were used to assess the prevalence of alcohol problems in consecutive patients (77 males and 46 females) consulting a general practitioner in an urban area in the South of Italy (Castellam...... as a screening question in order to detect alcohol problems and give advice regarding reduction of alcohol consumption....

  2. Prevalence of dental anomalies in Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh, Patil; Bharati, Doni; Sumita, Kaswan; Farzan, Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Developmental anomalies of the dentition are not infrequently observed by the dental practitioner. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in the Indian population. Study Design: A retrospective study of 4133 panoramic radiographs of patients, who attended the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital between September 2008 to December 2012 was done. The ages of the patients ranged from 13 to 38 year...

  3. Prevalence of multimorbidity in medical inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Florian; Kaplan, Vladimir; Rodak, Roksana; Battegay, Edouard; Holzer, Barbara

    2012-03-09

    To validate the estimates of the prevalence of multimorbidity based on administrative hospital discharge data, with medical records and chart reviews as benchmarks. Retrospective cohort study. Medical division of a tertiary care teaching hospital. A total of 170 medical inpatients admitted from the emergency unit in January 2009. The prevalence of multimorbidity for three different definitions (≥2 diagnoses, ≥2 diagnoses from different ICD-10 chapters, and ≥2 medical conditions as defined by Charlson/Deyo) and three different data sources (administrative data, chart reviews, and medical records). The prevalence of multimorbidity in medical inpatients derived from administrative data, chart reviews and medical records was very high and concurred for the different definitions of multimorbidity (≥2 diagnoses: 96.5%, 95.3%, and 92.9% [p = 0.32], ≥2 diagnoses from different ICD-10 chapters: 86.5%, 90.0%, and 85.9% [p = 0.46], and ≥2 medical conditions as defined by Charlson/Deyo: 48.2%, 50.0%, and 46.5% [p = 0.81]). The agreement of rating of multimorbidity for administrative data and chart reviews and administrative data and medical records was 94.1% and 93.0% (kappa statistics 0.47) for ≥2 diagnoses; 86.0% and 86.5% (kappa statistics 0.52) for ≥2 diagnoses from different ICD-10 chapters; and 82.9% and 85.3% (kappa statistics 0.69) for ≥2 medical conditions as defined by Charlson/Deyo. Estimates of the prevalence of multimorbidity in medical inpatients based on administrative data, chart reviews and medical records were very high and congruent for the different definitions of multimorbidity. Agreement for rating multimorbidity based on the different data sources was moderate to good. Administrative hospital discharge data are a valid source for exploring the burden of multimorbidity in hospital settings.

  4. Prevalence and causes of corneal blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijing; Zhang, Yaoguang; Li, Zhijian; Wang, Tiebin; Liu, Ping

    2014-04-01

    The study aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of corneal blindness in a rural northern Chinese population. Cross-sectional study. The cluster random sampling method was used to select the sample. This population-based study included 11 787 participants of all ages in rural Heilongjiang Province, China. These participants underwent a detailed interview and eye examination that included the measurement of visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy and direct ophthalmoscopy. An eye was considered to have corneal blindness if the visual acuity was blindness and low vision. Among the 10 384 people enrolled in the study, the prevalence of corneal blindness is 0.3% (95% confidence interval 0.2-0.4%). The leading cause was keratitis in childhood (40.0%), followed by ocular trauma (33.3%) and keratitis in adulthood (20.0%). Age and illiteracy were found to be associated with an increased prevalence of corneal blindness. Blindness because of corneal diseases in rural areas of Northern China is a significant public health problem that needs to be given more attention. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  5. PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN GRANITE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srilakshmi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS has significantly increased over the last few decades and has become a main health challenge worldwide. Prevalence of MS is quickly rising in developing countries due to changing lifestyle. It was considered worthwhile to study MS and its components in granite workers since granite factories are situated in and around Khammam area. Moreover, no studies of MS in granite workers have been reported in literature. OBJECTIVES: Aim of our study is to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in granite workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 210 male workers in the age group of 20 - 50 working in granite industries located in and around the Khammam town of Telangana State are selected for the present study. Blood pressures (BP, waist circumference (WC were measured. Fasting blood samples were collected for the estimation of glucose and lipids. RESULTS: 69 subjects out of 210 were identified as having MS based on updated National cholesterol education programme - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP - ATP III guidelines. CONCLUSION: MS should be identified and remedial measures may be suggested, so that the risk of hypertension, cardiovascular risk, diabetes and the resultant morbidity is minimized and can be delayed

  6. Prevalence and determinants of sunburn in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carla; Kvaskoff, Marina; DiSipio, Tracey; Youlden, Danny; Whiteman, David; Eakin, Elizabeth; Youl, Philippa H; Aitken, Joanne; Fritschi, Lyn

    2009-08-01

    Australia records the highest incidence of skin cancer in the world. In response to this, public education campaigns have incorporated messages about reducing sun exposure and avoiding sunburn. This study sought to describe the prevalence of and factors associated with sunburn in Queensland residents. The Queensland Cancer Risk Study was a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 9,298 respondents conducted via computer-assisted telephone interview during 2004. Sunburn prevalence and its association with socio-demographics and skin cancer risk variables were examined. More than two-thirds (70.4%) of respondents reported at least one episode of sunburn in the past 12 months, and one in 10 respondents reported at least one episode of severe sunburn in the past 12 months. Experiences of sunburn on two or more occasions were reported more frequently by males than females (57.6% versus 46.5%, psunburn were strongly associated with being male (OR=2.20 95%CI 1.84-2.63) and being aged 20 to 39 years compared to 60 to 75 years (OR=9.79, 95%CI=7.66-12.50). Sunburn remains highly prevalent among Queensland residents particularly among men and in the younger age groups.

  7. Prevalence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyun Chang; Bae, Geum Dong; Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Kun Sang

    1990-01-01

    Controversy exists about the lumbosacral transitional vertebrae(LSTV) causing low back pain and lumbar disk abnormalities such as herniated nucleus pulposus(HNP), early disk degeneration or annulus bulging. The prevalence of the lumbosacral transitional vertebrae were evaluated. The classification of LSTV is presented based upon the radiomorphological changes of transverse process of the last presacral vertebra. The type I is dysplastic transverse process, type II is incomplete lumbarization/ sacralization, type III is complete lumbarization/ sacralization, and type IV is mixed is mixed (type II and type III). Simple radiographic findings of (804 patients including) 300 patients without low back pain. 400 patients with low back pain and 104 patients with disk abnormalities on CT scan have been analyzed. The prevalence of LSTV were 51.5% in normal control group, 40.8% in low back pain group and 46.2% in disk abnormality group. The type I is regarded as the forerunner of a true transitional vertebra and the prevalence of the true LSTB (type II, III, IV) were 11.6%, 18.3% and 13.5% on each groups. The type II and III in low back pain group and type II in disk abnormality group were relatively increased in incidence of LSTV than in normal control group. A patient with the type II or III of the LSTV may show low back pain more frequently than a patient without such a LSTV. The type II of LSTV may cause lumbar disk abnormalities more frequently

  8. Prevalence of fatigue in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, W; Kearney, Y; Bury, G

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue is an important symptom in general practice due to its association with physical, psychological and social problems. To determine the prevalence of fatigue as an unsolicited symptom during general practice consultations. A random sample of GPs practising in Ireland was invited to provide data on consultations held over one day. Data were recorded on the presence of fatigue as a main or supporting symptom, social and demographic characteristics. Data were recorded by 89 GPs on 1,428 consultations. The prevalence of fatigue was 25%. It was the main reason for attending the doctor in 6.5% and a secondary reason in 19%. Sixty-two per cent of patients were female and 48% were eligible for free GP services. The mean age was 47.1 years. The presence of fatigue was associated with: attending a female GP, being female, attending a GP who had been qualified for fewer years and attending the GP frequently. The prevalence of fatigue reported in this study is over three times higher than that reported in earlier work. Doctor characteristics appear to be as important as patient characteristics in determining fatigue.

  9. [Prevalence of pathological gambling in Lebanese students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etel, C; Tabchi, S; Bou Khalil, R; Hlais, S; Richa, S

    2013-02-01

    Pathological gambling is a behavioral dependency on hazard games that is classified, in the DSM-IV, among impulse control disorders. According to many studies, the international prevalence of pathological ranges between 2 and 6%. This disorder is often accompanied by a considerable impact on patients' life as well as on the life of people surrounding them. Adolescents and young adults are considered to be a population at risk to develop this kind of behavioral dependency. The problem of pathological gambling is one of the major problems from which the Lebanese population of university students in Lebanese society suffers. The prevalence of pathological gambling in the Lebanese population of university students is lacking from the contemporary medical literature. In our study, five of the biggest private universities in Lebanon (Notre-Dame University of Louaizé [NDU], Lebanese American University [LAU], American University of Beirut [AUB], Saint-Joseph University [USJ] and Holy Spirit University of Kaslik [USEK]) were surveyed. Each questionnaire was based essentially on the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Four hundred and seventy-seven questionnaires were completed in these universities. Among the 477 students that completed the questionnaire, 5.87% appeared to be suffering from pathological gambling; 25.15% of responding students presented some problems related to gambling while the rest of them, corresponding to 68.92%, had no problems related to gambling. This is the first study of its kind conducted in the Lebanon. Its interest lies in that it offers an important evaluation of the prevalence of pathological gambling in the Lebanese population of university students. According to this study, the prevalence of pathological gambling in Lebanese university students is high. Prevention programs and sensitization strategies are needed in order to prevent the occurrence of this disorder in the Lebanese young. More studies are needed in this domain in order to

  10. Prevalence of tuberculosis in Kotli, Azad Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mohammad; Ahmad, Waseem; Jamshed, Fareeda; Sarwar, Javed; Gul, Nasreen

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in Pakistan. It is a contagious disease and causes a lot of morbidity and mortality. Its treatment is costly especially for poor countries like Pakistan. But fortunately it is a preventable disease. Objective of this study was to analyse various epidemiological features of tuberculosis in District Kotli, a remote area of Northern Pakistan. This cross sectional study was conducted in District Kotli, Azad Kashmir from January to December 2009. Data was collected from eight national TB centres of District Kotli. It included all the diagnosed cases of tuberculosis, registered there during the study period. Various epidemiological aspects of these patients were analysed. Total number patients registered during the study period were 752. Of these 579 (76.99%) were pulmonary and 173 (23%) were extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPT). Total prevalence of tuberculosis was found to be 100.27 per 100,000. Prevalence of pulmonary TB was 77.2 while that of EPT was 23.07 per 100,000. There were 405 males (53.85%) and 347 females (46.14%). Most patients were 61-75 years of age (220, 29.25%). Overall 417 (55.44%) were 46-75 years. Housewives were affected most frequently (324, 43.08%). Labourers were also commonly involved (40.82%). All cause mortality was 29 (3.85%). Mortality due to tuberculosi as was 11 (1.04%). Among pulmonary tuberculosis, 259 (44.78%) were sputum smear positive and 320) (55.26%) were sputum smear negative. In EPT, most frequent was pleural effusion (74, 42%) and least frequent was skin involvement (3, 1.73%). Prevalence of tuberculosis in Kotli was lower than the overall prevalence in Pakistan. Male to female ratio was lower than that generally observed in Southeast Asia. It was more common in middle to old age population. Frequency was higher in housewives and labourers. Very significant proportion of pulmonary TB was sputum smear positive. Among EPT, pleural effusion was the most common mode of presentation.

  11. Studies on the Prevalence, Knowledge, and Practices Toward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Teenagers (10-19yrs) had the highest malaria prevalence rate and were followed by ... Keywords: Cluster sampling, Malaria, Prevalence, Knowledge, Practices, ... annual rainfall and humidity were relatively .... Alcohol/ Don't.

  12. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... while statistical analysis was done using STATA soft- ware version 8 (STATA Corp., College station, TX). Prevalence of G6PD and HbAS in bivariate variables ... Multivariate logis- .... technique (Enevold et al., 2007) found prevalence of.

  13. A Study of Prevalence of Psychoactive Substance Use And Birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . While there is continued efforts to determine factors associated, there would be need to examine if birth order influences its prevalence. Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence of psychoactive substance use among ...

  14. Prevalence and predictive factors of post-traumatic hypopituitarism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, M; Juul, A; Poulsgaard, L

    2007-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and predictive factors of hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury (TBI).......To estimate the prevalence and predictive factors of hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury (TBI)....

  15. Prevalence of major skin diseases of cattle and associated risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dermatophilosis was significantly (p<0.05) higher in animals 2-5 years of age, cross breed and semi-intensively managed cattle. Generally, the prevalence of tick was high, that of lice and mange mite was moderate prevalence whereas the prevalence of dermatophillosis, skin wart, LSD and photosensitization was low.

  16. Prevalence of Hypertension in School going Adolescents in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of hypertension seems to be increasing in children and adults in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Different studies have been carried out on the prevalence of hypertension amongst adolescents living in urban areas reflecting this seeming increase in the prevalence of hypertension. However ...

  17. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Individual Criteria in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Jill; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is present in young adults and because coronary heart disease (CHD) is likely, screening to determine MetS prevalence and its criteria is critical. Objective: To determine MetS prevalence and most prevalent criteria in a sample of first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students between 18 and 24…

  18. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Type 58 in Women With or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicago Il, USA). Results: Overall HPV prevalence was 65.2% (277/425), with 85.9% (238/277) single and 14.1% (39/277) multiple infection. The most prevalent HPV types were HPVs 16, 58, 18, 31, and 45. HPV 16 was the most prevalent ...

  19. HIV prevalence and trends among pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV prevalence and trends among pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria: a 5-year ... trends in HIV prevalence to ascertain the current course of the HIV epidemic in ... Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and its ...

  20. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight. Keywords: Obesity; overweight; prevalence; Uganda; young adults. African Health Sciences ...

  1. Snacking Is Prevalent in Mexico123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Rivera, Juan A.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Snacking has increased globally, but little is known about how Mexicans consume foods outside meals. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and patterns of snacking behavior among Mexicans. Methods: We used data from children and adults (aged ≥2 y; n = 9937) from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 and the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) 2012 to examine the prevalence of snacking as well as amount (kcal) and contribution of snacks to total energy intake per day. Snacking was defined as eating outside of the 3 main meals. We calculated per capita (among the total population) and per consumer (“snackers”) estimates of the number of snacks per day, kilocalories per snack, kilocalories per day from snacks, and the percentage of energy from snacks. Top foods consumed during snack occasions were also examined for the NHNS 2012. All results were weighted to account for survey design and to be nationally representative. Results: In 2012, an estimated 73% of the population consumed snacks on a given day, with estimates ranging from 70% among ≥59 y olds to 77% among 2–11 y olds. An average of 1.6 snacks/d were consumed by the population. This value was slightly higher (2.1 snacks/d) among snackers. Snacks provided an average of 343 kcal/d per snacker (17% of total energy/d). Fruit was the most commonly consumed snack food by all ages except for 12–18 y olds. Salty snacks, sweet snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and milk were frequently in the top 5 categories across age groups. Differences were observed between age groups. Conclusions: Snacking is prevalent in the Mexican population. Many, but not all, of the foods consumed during snack occasions are foods considered “foods to limit” in the United States. PMID:25332484

  2. Prevalence of footrot in Swedish slaughter lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Ann-Kristin J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Footrot is a world-wide contagious disease in sheep and goats. It is an infection of the epidermis of the interdigital skin, and the germinal layers of the horn tissue of the feet. The first case of footrot in Swedish sheep was diagnosed in 2004. Due to difficulties in distinguishing benign footrot from early cases of virulent footrot and because there is no possibility for virulence testing of strains of Dichelobacter nodosus in Sweden, the diagnosis is based of the presence or absence of clinical signs of footrot in sheep flocks. Ever since the first diagnosed case the Swedish Animal Health Service has worked intensively to stop the spread of infection and control the disease at flock level. However, to continue this work effectively it is important to have knowledge about the distribution of the disease both nationally and regionally. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of footrot in Swedish lambs at abattoirs and to assess the geographical distribution of the disease. Methods A prevalence study on footrot in Swedish lambs was performed by visual examination of 2000 feet from 500 lambs submitted from six slaughter houses. Each foot was scored according to a 0 to 5 scoring system, where feet with score ≥2 were defined as having footrot. Moreover, samples from feet with footrot were examined for Dichelobacter nodosus by culture and PCR. Results The prevalence of footrot at the individual sheep level was 5.8%, and Dichelobacter nodosus was found by culture and PCR in 83% and 97% of the samples from feet with footrot, respectively. Some minor differences in geographical distribution of footrot were found in this study. Conclusions In a national context, the findings indicate that footrot is fairly common in Swedish slaughter lambs, and should be regarded seriously.

  3. Prevalence of Gender Nonconformity in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caenegem, Eva; Wierckx, Katrien; Elaut, Els; Buysse, Ann; Dewaele, Alexis; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2015-07-01

    Gender nonconformity refers to the extent to which a person's gender identity, gender role and/or gender expression differs from the cultural norms prescribed for people of a particular sex, within a certain society and era. Most data on gender nonconformity focus on the prevalence of gender dysphoria (which also includes a distress factor) or on the number of legal sex changes. However, not every gender nonconforming individual experiences distress or applies for treatment. Population-based research on the broad spectrum of gender nonconformity is scarce and more information on the variance outside the gender binary is needed. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of gender incongruence (identifying stronger with the other sex than with the sex assigned at birth) and gender ambivalence (identifying equally with the other sex as with the sex assigned at birth) based on two population-based surveys, one of 1,832 Flemish persons and one of 2,472 sexual minority individuals in Flanders. In the general population, gender ambivalence was present in 2.2 % of male and 1.9 % of female participants, whereas gender incongruence was found in 0.7 % of men and 0.6 % of women. In sexual minority individuals, the prevalence of gender ambivalence and gender incongruence was 1.8 and 0.9 % in men and 4.1 and 2.1 % in women, respectively. With a current Flemish population of about 6 million, our results indicate a total of between 17,150 and 17,665 gender incongruent men and between 14,473 and 15,221 gender incongruent women in Flanders.

  4. Prevalence of Malaria Plasmodium in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonko, I. O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the prevalence of malaria caused by plasmodium between genders in Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun State located in the forest zone of southwestern Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2004. Blood film examination for malaria parasites in 708 patients; 366 males and 342 females. Microscopic examination of thick films techniques was employed for this study. Of the 708 (100% patients examined, 577 (81.5% were Plasmodium-positive. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 81.5% was noted in this study. Female subjects were more infected (42.4% than males (41.9% however, there was no significant difference in the sex of the subjects studied (p=0.05. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 86.9% was noted in samples collected in year 2003 than in other years studied. There was significant difference in the years under study (p=0.05. This study shows that a good percentage of people were infested by malaria Plasmodium. This could be attributed to lack of adequate accommodation and poor sanitary conditions in the area under study. Although several efforts have been made to effectively control the high incidence of malaria in Nigeria, these have been largely unsuccessful due to a number of reasons such as irrigated urban agriculture which can be the malaria vector’s breeding ground in the city, stagnant gutters and swamps in our environment where mosquitoes breed in millions, and lack of political will and commitment of the government in its disease management program, low awareness of the magnitude of malaria problem, poor health practices by individuals and communities and resistance to drugs. Therefore, future interventions in Nigeria should be directed toward controlling malaria in the context of a moderate transmission setting; thus, large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets or widespread use of indoor residual spraying may be less cost-effective than enhanced surveillance with effective case management or

  5. Chronic disease prevalence among elderly Saudi men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquib, Nazmus; Saquib, Juliann; Alhadlag, Abdulrahman; Albakour, Mohamad Anas; Aljumah, Bader; Sughayyir, Mohammed; Alhomidan, Ziad; Alminderej, Omar; Aljaser, Mohamed; Al-Mazrou, Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    Saudi demographic composition has changed because of increased life expectancy and decreased fertility rates. Little data are available about health conditions among older adults in Saudi Arabia, who are expected to represent 20% of the population by 2050. The study aim was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for chronic conditions among older Saudi men. The sample pertained to 400 men (age ≥55 years) from Buraidah, Al-Qassim. Research assistants recruited participants in all the mosques from the randomly selected neighborhoods (16 of 95). They administered a structured questionnaire that assessed self-reported disease history (heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, gastric/peptic ulcer, and cancer), and medication use; participants' height, weight, blood pressure, and random blood glucose (glucometer) were measured. Multinomial logistic regressions were employed to assess correlates of number of chronic diseases. The mean and standard deviation for age and body mass index (BMI) were 63.0 ± 7.5 years and 28.9 ± 4.8 (kg/m 2 ), respectively. 78% (77.8%) were overweight or obese, 35.0% were employed, 54.5% walked daily, 9.3% were current smokers, and 85.0% belonged to the middle class. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, asthma, ulcer, and cancer were: 71.3% 27.3%, 16.4%, 9.7%, 8.9%, and 2.0%, respectively. Of the participants, 31.0% had one, 34.5% had two or more, and 34.5% did not have any chronic diseases. The likelihood of chronic diseases increased with increased age, higher BMI, and current smoking. The chronic disease prevalence among the Saudi elderly men is substantial.

  6. [Prevalence of anosognosia in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turró-Garriga, Oriol; Conde-Sala, Josep Lluís; Reñé-Ramírez, Ramón; López-Pousa, Secundino; Gascón-Bayarri, Jordi; Garre-Olmo, Josep

    2014-07-07

    Anosognosia is a disorder that affects the clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD), increasing in frequency with the evolution of AD. The objective was to determine the prevalence of anosognosia and analyze the associated factors and predictors. Multicenter transversal and observational study of 345 AD patients. Anosognosia was assessed by Anosognosia Questionnaire-Dementia and the evolutionary stage with the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS). Tests used were Mini-Mental State Examination, Disability Assessment for Dementia and Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess cognition, functional status and neuropsychiatric symptoms, respectively. We adjusted linear regression models to determine the associated variables and binary logistic regression (RLog) to identify predictors of anosognosia. The overall prevalence of anosognosia was 46.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 41.3 to 52.1). The prevalence in stages was 28.4% (GDS 4), 64.6% (GDS 5) and 91.4% (GDS 6). The RLog identified as predictors older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.09), lower functional capacity (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.93-0.98), lower cognitive level (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.88-0.99), and greater apathy (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.03-1.18), disinhibition (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.09-1.50), irritability (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.09-1.50) and motor disorders (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.09-1.50). Anosognosia increases with further deterioration. In patients with a mild impairment, predictor variables were apathy, disinhibition and motor disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Peripheral phlebitis: a point-prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Georgita T; Barrett, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine the factors influencing peripheral phlebitis in the adult medical-surgical population. The authors would then be able to use those data to determine whether a change in practice was warranted. Data collection and analysis of 188 intravenous sites revealed that females with higher doses of medications in intravenous sites of longer dwell times and suboptimal nutrition were at greater risk of developing peripheral phlebitis. The point prevalence was greater than the recommended 5%, which led the authors to review their facility's patient care and documentation practices.

  8. Prevalence of Salmonella in Australian reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelings, T Franciscus; Lightfoot, Dianne; Holz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    From January 2007 until June 2008, 504 reptiles of four families and 57 species were examined for Salmonella by using cloacal or intestinal swabs. Salmonella was identified in 139 (28%) of the 504 animals tested. Of the 504 reptiles examined, 210 were captive and 294 were wild. Ninety-eight (47%) of the captive reptiles were shedding Salmonella at the time of sampling. In contrast, only 41 (14%) of the wild reptiles were shedding Salmonella. The higher prevalence of Salmonella in captive reptiles was statistically significant (Preptiles in Australia are not natural carriers of Salmonella and that diet and captivity may influence Salmonella excretion in other species.

  9. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 行男; 村上, 賢

    2007-01-01

    A total of 291 fecal samples from 252 wild reptiles and 39 pet reptiles were examined for the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Japan. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 29 (11.5%) of 252 wild reptiles and 22 (55.6%) of 39 pet reptiles. The isolates were identified into subspecies I to IV. The majority of isolates (43.6%) belonged to subspecies I and these isolates could be identified into 9 serovars. The serovars isolated were found to be S. Newport, S. Litchifield and S. Thompson which cause...

  10. Prevalence of falls in elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor,Priscila Regina Rorato; Oliveira,Ana Carolina Kovaleski de; Kohler,Renan; Winter,Gabriele Regiane; Rodacki,Cintia; Krause,Maressa Priscila

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify prevalence of falls and fear of falling, and to compare functional fitness among elderly women fallers and non-fallers. METHODS: Seventy-eight elderly women participated in this study. Cases of falls and the fear of falling were self-reported by the elderly women, while the functional fitness was measured by a set of functional tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample. Independent t-test was used to compare functional fitness between groups. RES...

  11. Prevalence of maternal chronic diseases during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølving, Line Riis; Nielsen, Jan; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is substantial evidence of a negative impact of maternal chronic disease during pregnancy on reproductive outcomes. Knowledge of the prevalence of chronic diseases during pregnancy is limited, but essential for a focused preventive effort regarding optimal disease control during...... chronic diseases were chronic lung diseases/asthma (1.73%), thyroid disorders (1.50%) and anxiety and personality disorders (1.33%). Taking increasing maternal age at birth into account, the relative risk for women to have a chronic disease from 2009 to 2013 was 4.14 (95% CI 4.05-4.22), compared...

  12. Prevalent mutations in fatty acid oxidation disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Andresen, B S; Bross, P

    2000-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The mutational spectrum in a given disease-associated gene is often comprised of a large number of different mutations, of which a single or a few are present in a large proportion of diseased individuals. Such prevalent mutations are known in four genes of the fatty acid oxidation...... of the disease in question and determination of the carrier frequency in the general population may help in elucidating the penetrance of the genotype. This is exemplified in disorders of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation....

  13. Prevalence of Ovine Haemonchosis in Wukro, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidya Gebresilassie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Haemonchosis caused by Haemonchus contortus is a predominant, highly pathogenic, and economically important disease of sheep and goats. Objective. Assessing the prevalence of Haemonchus parasite and its associated risk factors in sheep slaughtered at different restaurants of Wukro. Methods. Cross-sectional study using random sampling from November 2013 to April 2014 in a total of 384 sheep was conducted and SPSS version 20 software using descriptive statistics was used for data analysis and P0.05. Conclusion. The current finding revealed that significant numbers of sheep were affected by the parasites. Hence strategic deworming with good husbandry practice should be implemented.

  14. Cholesteatoma labyrinthine fistula: prevalence and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosito, Letícia P Schmidt; Canali, Inesângela; Teixeira, Adriane; Silva, Mauricio Noschang; Selaimen, Fábio; Costa, Sady Selaimen da

    2018-03-09

    Labyrinthine fistula is one of the most common complications associated with cholesteatoma. It represents an erosive loss of the endochondral bone overlying the labyrinth. Reasons for cholesteatoma-induced labyrinthine fistula are still poorly understood. Evaluate patients with cholesteatoma, in order to identify possible risk factors or clinical findings associated with labyrinthine fistula. Secondary objectives were to determine the prevalence of labyrinthine fistula in the study cohort, to analyze the role of computed tomography and to describe the hearing results after surgery. This retrospective cohort study included patients with an acquired middle ear cholesteatoma in at least one ear with no prior surgery, who underwent audiometry and tomographic examination of the ears or surgery at our institution. Hearing results after surgery were analyzed according to the labyrinthine fistula classification and the employed technique. We analyzed a total of 333 patients, of which 9 (2.7%) had labyrinthine fistula in the lateral semicircular canal. In 8 patients, the fistula was first identified on image studies and confirmed at surgery. In patients with posterior epitympanic and two-route cholesteatomas, the prevalence was 5.0%; and in cases with remaining cholesteatoma growth patterns, the prevalence was 0.6% (p=0.16). In addition, the prevalence ratio for labyrinthine fistula between patients with and without vertigo was 2.1. Of patients without sensorineural hearing loss before surgery, 80.0% remained with the same bone conduction thresholds, whereas 20.0% progressed to profound hearing loss. Of patients with sensorineural hearing loss before surgery, 33.33% remained with the same hearing impairment, whereas 33.33% showed improvement of the bone conduction thresholds' Pure Tone Average. Labyrinthine fistula must be ruled out prior to ear surgery, particularly in cases of posterior epitympanic or two-route cholesteatoma. Computed tomography is a good diagnostic

  15. The serum bank of EuroPrevall - the prevalence, cost and basis of food allergy across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieths, Stefan; Reese, Gerald; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K.; Beyer, Kerstin; Burney, Peter; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Summers, Collin; Ree, Ronald van; Mills, Clare

    2008-01-01

    EuroPrevall is an EU-funded multidisciplinary project including 62 institutions from 22 countries. EuroPrevall studies the prevalence and distribution of food allergies in infants, children, adolescents, and adults in Europe, threshold doses for allergenic foods, the role of the environment in food

  16. Variation of a test's sensitivity and specificity with disease prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeflang, Mariska M G; Rutjes, Anne W S; Reitsma, Johannes B; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M M

    2013-08-06

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that the sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic test may vary with disease prevalence. Our objective was to investigate the associations between disease prevalence and test sensitivity and specificity using studies of diagnostic accuracy. We used data from 23 meta-analyses, each of which included 10-39 studies (416 total). The median prevalence per review ranged from 1% to 77%. We evaluated the effects of prevalence on sensitivity and specificity using a bivariate random-effects model for each meta-analysis, with prevalence as a covariate. We estimated the overall effect of prevalence by pooling the effects using the inverse variance method. Within a given review, a change in prevalence from the lowest to highest value resulted in a corresponding change in sensitivity or specificity from 0 to 40 percentage points. This effect was statistically significant (p disease prevalence; there was no such systematic effect for sensitivity. The sensitivity and specificity of a test often vary with disease prevalence; this effect is likely to be the result of mechanisms, such as patient spectrum, that affect prevalence, sensitivity and specificity. Because it may be difficult to identify such mechanisms, clinicians should use prevalence as a guide when selecting studies that most closely match their situation.

  17. Prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    Discussed in this paper is the prevalence of allergy and intolerance to foods in Europe. Prevalence of allergy to food additives is not included. A fully reliable estimate of the prevalence of food allergy/intolerance does not exist. Prevalence changes with age, as does the relative importance...... of the most common food allergens. The cumulative prevalence of allergy and intolerance to cow's milk during the first year of life is approximately 2%. The total prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in children is not as well documented. In 18-month-old infants the Danish estimate is 6.5%. The high...... prevalence of peanut allergy (0.5%) in British children is not reflected in the results from other European countries. Milk, egg, fish and oranges seem to be the most common causes of allergy and intolerance in European infants and children. Results from epidemiological studies combined with the knowledge...

  18. Social phobia and depression: prevalence and comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Schatzberg, Alan F

    2010-03-01

    Social phobia may seriously impair the functioning of affected individuals. It is frequently associated with other mental disorders. To estimate the co-occurrence of social phobia with major depressive disorder (MDD) and to analyze their interaction. Subjects were 18,980 individuals, aged 15 years or older, representative of the general population of the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal, who were interviewed by telephone. DSM-IV diagnoses were made with the Sleep-EVAL system. The point prevalence for social phobia was 4.4% (95% confidence interval: 4.1-4.7%) of the sample. It was higher in women (odds ratio: 1.6) and decreased with age. MDDs were found in 19.5% of participants with social phobia. Co-occurrence of another anxiety disorder was high and increased when a MDD was present (65.2%). The odds of developing a major depressive episode 2 years after the appearance of the social phobia was of 5.74. Social phobia is highly prevalent in the general population. It increases the risk of developing a MDD and has a high comorbidity with other mental disorders. Social phobia is often present in the course of depression, more obviously during remission period of MDD. Physicians must explore and treat more systematically this frequent pathology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Consanguinity in Lebanon: prevalence, distribution and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Bernadette; Salameh, Pascale

    2009-07-01

    The union of individuals with a common ancestor may lead to serious health consequences in their offspring. Consanguinity is high in Middle Eastern communities; it was around 26% in 1988. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of consanguinity in Beirut and other Lebanese regions, and its associated factors in different subgroups. The cross-sectional study was performed on a convenience sample of married women in Lebanon. The women were administered a standardized questionnaire in a face-to-face interview by independent enquirers. Among 1556 women, the overall prevalence of consanguineous marriages was 35.5%, and the consanguinity coefficient was 0.020; 968 marriages (62.2%) were not consanguineous, 492 (31.6%) were first cousin, 61 (3.9%) were second cousin and 36 (2.3%) had lower degrees of consanguinity. Beirut suburb dwelling, low education subgroups, women working in the home and non-Christian religion presented the highest rates of consanguinity (pwomen thinking that consanguinity would not lead to serious diseases. Consanguinity is therefore still a prevailing problem in Lebanon. Specific health education, and genetic counselling in particular, are suggested to explain the consequences of consanguinity to the general population and to help couples make informed choices.

  20. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in metabolic syndrome

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    Sonia María López C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression has been related with alterations of glucose metabolism, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, adiposity and dislipidemias, which constitute the metabolic syndrome (m s. Objective: to determine the frequency of depressive symptoms in patients with m s. Material and methods: an observational, descriptive, transverse study was carried out in 101 patients with m s(69 women and 32 men. The Beck inventory for depression was applied. Vasodilatation in the brachial artery and the thickness of the carotid intimae-media were evaluated by means of ultrasonographic measurement. Abdominal perimeter, trygliceridemia, cholesterolemia and insulin resistance were calculated. The statistic treatment was performed by means of descriptive and inferential through mean, standard deviation, and correlation proofs. Insulin resistance was calculated by the h o m a method. Results:prevalence of depressive symptoms: 46.34% between patients with m s (correlation of 0.42 significative at p = 0.05. A higher number of components of the syndrome correlates with higher severity of the depression. Depressive symptoms were associated to a higher insulin resistance, low levels of c- h d l, hypertension and carotid atherosclerosis. Conclusion: depression has a high prevalence in the m s and its associates with a higher number of metabolic and vascular disturbances

  1. Smoking prevalence among monks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Charoenca, Naowarut; Kengganpanich, Tharadol; Kusolwisitkul, Wilai; Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Kerdmongkol, Patcharaporn; Silapasuwan, Phimpan; Hamann, Stephen L; Arpawong, Thalida Em

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies among Buddhist monks in Thailand have reported smoking rates to be as high as 55%. Because 95% of Thais are Buddhist, monks are highly influential in establishing normative behavioral patterns. As the first population-based study on smoking among Buddhist monks in Thailand, this study aims to determine the smoking prevalence in six regions of the country, and to examine smoking knowledge, risk perceptions, behaviors, and associated demographics among full-fledged and novice monks (n = 6,213). Results demonstrated that the overall prevalence for current smoking monks is 24.4% (95% confidence interval [24.453, 24.464]), with regional differences ranging from 14.6% (North) to 40.5% (East). Findings suggest that integrating prevention and cessation programming into religious courses may be one avenue for reaching many incoming monks. Further, involving monks in tobacco control education and setting a nonsmoking standard among them is vital to the success of reducing smoking rates among the general population in Thailand.

  2. Caries prevalence among schoolchildren in Zagreb, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukić, Walter; Delija, Barbara; Lulić Dukić, Olga

    2011-12-15

    To investigate the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in schoolchildren aged 7-14 years from Zagreb. Dental examinations based on the World Health Organization criteria were performed on 1168 children in the period 2009-2010. The teeth were clinically examined with standard dental instruments using visual-tactile method under standard dental light. We recorded the clinical indexes of decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT and dmft; upper-case letters refer to permanent and lower-case letters to primary teeth) and decayed, missed, and filled surfaces (DMFS), as well as the significant caries index (SiC). The median DMFT and DMFS of all children were 3 and 4, respectively. The median DMFT and DMFS of 12-year-old children were 4 and 5, respectively. The highest median DMFT score of 7 was found among 14-year-old children. There was a significant difference between age groups (7-10 years and 11-14 years) in DMFT and DMFS. Among 8-year-old children, the median dmft index was the highest (5.5) and SiC index was 7.4. As far as the location of caries on the surface of the first permanent molar is concerned, caries occurred mostly in the central occlusal surface (27.6%). Our results showed a high caries prevalence among schoolchildren in Zagreb, indicating a need for an extensive program of primary oral health care.

  3. Prevalence of oral lesions in pan vendor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Gadodia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being a portal of entry to various smoking and smokeless tobacco products, oral cavity is prone to deleterious effects. Present study consist of epidemiological survey to elucidate oral lesions in pan vendors. Aims and objectives: To detect oral lesions in pan vendors and compare it with controls. To detect habit pattern and prevalence of OSMF and other lesions in pan vendors as compared to controls- To identify, recognize and evaluate the possible etiology for OSMF, encompassing various chewing and smoking habits. Materials and methods: Study population consist of 170 pan vendors with age ranging from 15 to 55 years and equal number of sex matched controls selected randomly. Results: Prevalence of oral lesions in pan vendors is statistically significantly higher as compared to controls. The habit of arecanut chewing in various forms was present in all cases. The habit of smoking and smokeless tobacco products was present in all cases. Conclusion: Pan vendors are at higher risk for oral lesions than controls. There is increase in relative risk with increase in duration and frequency of habit.

  4. Prevalence of delusional jealousy in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, Michael; Schmidt, Peggy

    2011-03-01

    Delusional jealousy is a known risk factor for violence and homicide, but little is known about its prevalence in psychiatric disorders. We therefore reviewed retrospectively the psychopathological symptoms at admission and discharge, assessed with the AMDP system, of all patients admitted to the Psychiatric Hospital, University of Munich, Germany, from January 2000 through December 2008 (n=14,309). We identified 72 cases of delusional jealousy (0.5% of the whole sample). The prevalence was highest in schizophrenia and other psychoses (1.3%), and more of the patients with delusional jealousy were men (43 of 72, 59.7%). One-fifth (15 of 72, 20.8%) of the patients with delusional jealousy were aggressive at admission (vs. 6.2% of the total sample). We conclude that delusional jealousy is a comparatively rare phenomenon that is most frequent in schizophrenia and related psychoses. Quite a number of affected patients are aggressive, which may indicate a risk of future violence. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Prevalence of cardiovascular morbidities in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Ko Ko; Nwe, Nwe; Hlaing, Su Su

    2017-02-15

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are now in a rising trend in South East Asia including Myanmar due to increase in major cardiovascular risk factors in both urban and rural areas, such as smoking, obesity and diabetes mellitus. It is necessary to determine CVD morbidities in Myanmar for planning of prevention and control activities for CVDs. The cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 2012 with 600 people aged 40 years and above in four townships (Kyauk-Tan, Mawlamyaing, Pathein and Pyay) and used face-to-face interview with standard questionnaire [Rose Angina Questionnaire and Questionnaire by European Cardiovascular Indicators Surveillance Set (EUROCISS) Research Group] to determine the level of reported CVD morbidities in adult population. Age of the study population ranged from 40 to 99 years with the mean age of 56 years. Seventy-one percent of the study population was women. Nine percent of the study population have suffered from angina according to Rose Angina Questionnaire. Prevalence of possible heart attack, stroke and heart failure was 7.5, 1.5 and 2.8%. Prevalence of hypertension was 51%. The CVD morbidities are high. There is a need for strengthening prevention and control activities of CVDs.

  6. Prevalence of atypical swallowing: a kinesiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, A; Cattaneo, R; Spadaro, A; Marchetti, E; Barone, A

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of kinesiographic coincidence between the most cranial position during deglutition of mandible and habitual occlusal position and to evaluate the distribution of clinical diagnosis according to the kinesiographic pattern of deglutition. 201 random patients in waiting list for dental treatment and classified as orthodontic patients, prosthetic patients, TMD patients and control patients, were evaluated. Kinesiographic records were acquired using K7I and positioning a magnetic sensor frame integral with the head and with the sensory field balanced on an artificial magnet adhering to the mucosa covering the roots of the lower mandibular incisors. The kinesiographic occlusal position was compared to the kinesiographic most cranial position of the mandible during swallowing. 99 patients displayed a discrepancy between the most cranial position during swallowing and the occlusal position. 102 patients did not show any discrepancy. In this group the kinesiographic most cranial position during swallowing coincided with the occlusal position. The finding suggests that computerised kinesiography could be useful to study deglutition, detecting in a reliable way the movement pattern. Atypical deglutition seems to be less atypical than previously though in dental patient population and, despite these data confirm its correlation with malocclusion, we noted an inverse correlation with necessity of prosthetic treatment and no higher prevalence in TMD patients.

  7. Active commuting: prevalence, barriers, and associated variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kelly Samara; Vasques, Daniel Giordani; Martins, Caroline de Oliveira; Williams, Laura Ashley; Lopes, Adair S

    2011-08-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents who actively commute have higher levels of physical activity (PA), which have declined precipitously over the past 30 years. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of active commuting to school; and to identify barriers associated with active commuting. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1672 students (46.8% boys and 53.2% girls) from 11 to 17 years of age in Caxias do Sul/RS, Brazil. The students were asked to answer questionnaires about active transport, PA, and sedentary behaviors. They also completed a cardiovascular fitness test and body composition measurements. The study used a multivariate Poisson regression analysis. A total of 62.5% of students were observed to actively commute and the prevalence ratio (PR) of not actively commuting was associated with the type of school (Private: 2.41; 1.47, 3.95) and the time spent on commuting (>20 min: 1.93; 1.23, 3.03). The associated barriers to passive commuting were distance (3.02; 1.95, 4.71), crime/danger (2.65; 1.82, 3.85), and traffic (1.75; 1.19, 2.58). This study showed that environmental variables were strongly associated with active commuting. However, no alterations in body composition or other behavioral variables were observed after adjustment.

  8. Prevalence of multiple birth in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Yazdekhasti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to increasing rate of using assisted reproductive technology (ART which result in higher rates of multiple birth and natal difficulties, we aimed to determine the prevalence rate of multiple birth pregnancies. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study evaluating birth files in 2009–2010 of main hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. Results: Among 31640 files' studies, 614 cases of multiple birth pregnancies were investigated. The product of these pregnancies were 1286 (50.2% females infants including 557 twins (17.6/1000, 56 triplets (1.8/1000, and one case of quadruple (0.03/1000. Infants weigh <2500 g were 84.9% of all. Mothers had a mean age of 27.9 ± 4.9 which 30.4% of them had a positive history of using ART. Conclusion: The prevalence of multiple birth pregnancies is growing. The need for more mother and child care is important. Using ART world wide is leading more multiple birth which could be a cause for more complicated pregnancies.

  9. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Office Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valipour Noroozi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Musculoskeletal disorders are among common occupational diseases in the world, which have high prevalence not only among hard and hurtful jobs, but also in office works. Objectives The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs among office workers of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods This study carried out intermittently among 392 individuals of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences office workers by Nordic questionnaire from October 2013 to December 2013. Study population included office workers of different departments as well as central organization and library. We use descriptive statistic, t test and chi-square test for data analysis. Results The mean and standard deviation of participants’ age was 35.4 ± 6.7 years and their work experience was 9.7 ± 6.65 years, respectively. Most signs (51% were in back region, which forced 18.9% of individuals to withdraw from daily activities. Statistical analysis also showed 36.7% neck disorders in office workers, which demonstrated significant association with age and work experience (P < 0.001. Conclusions Significant association of work experience and age with musculoskeletal disorders shows that individual’s education and knowledge improvements with regard to ergonomics risk factors and correction of work postures are very important and ought to follow management and technical practices in the organization.

  10. A prevalência de fibromialgia: uma revisão de literatura The prevalence of fibromyalgia: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alane B. Cavalcante

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVO: este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre a prevalência da fibromialgia (FM na população a partir dos critérios propostos pelo American College of Rheumatology (ACR. MÉTODOS: foi realizado levantamento bibliográfico do período de 1990 a 2005 nas bases de dados MedLine, Lilacs, Embase e ISI. Foram utilizadas as palavras-chave "fibromialgia" e "prevalência" e as correspondentes em inglês, "fibromyalgia" e "prevalence". Foram selecionados 97 artigos e, após leitura dos resumos, foram excluídos os que se referiam à prevalência em doenças. Somente 30 abordavam o tema prevalência da fibromialgia na população. Os artigos selecionados foram agrupados em cinco categorias: a prevalência da FM em populações adultas; b prevalência da FM em mulheres; c prevalência da FM em crianças e adolescentes; d prevalência da FM em populações específicas; e prevalência de dor crônica e difusa na população, segundo os critérios do ACR. RESULTADOS: a literatura aponta a prevalência da FM na população com valores entre 0,66 e 4,4%, sendo mais prevalente em mulheres do que em homens, especialmente na faixa etária entre 35 e 60 anos. Os estudos com crianças e adolescentes e em grupos especiais são escassos e pouco conclusivos. A prevalência de dor crônica difusa na população em geral também tem poucos estudos, com valores entre 11 e 13%. CONCLUSÃO: mais estudos sobre prevalência de dor crônica e difusa devem ser estimulados, assim como os de prevalência na população adulta, crianças e jovens.INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the literature concerning of the prevalence of fibromyalgia in general population using the criteria from the American College of Rheumatology (ACR. METHODS: The literature envolved the period of 1990 to 2005, in the databases Medline, Lilacs, Embase and ISI. The keywords "fibromialgia" and "prevalência" and

  11. Anemia do lactente: etiologia e prevalência Anemia in infancy: etiology and prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claret C.M. Hadler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar a prevalência de anemia, anemia ferropriva e deficiência de ferro em lactentes, de unidade pública de saúde, no município de Goiânia, Brasil, analisar e correlacionar as variáveis bioquímicas e hematológicas. Métodos: realizou-se estudo transversal. De 120 mães entrevistadas, foram incluídos 110 lactentes de 6 a 12 meses de idade, a termo e não gemelares. Dados socioeconômicos e hematológicos foram obtidos. Colheu-se sangue venoso dos lactentes em jejum para realização do hemograma completo por contagem eletrônica, ferro sérico, ferritina sérica e proteína C-reativa, os quais foram utilizados na avaliação da etiologia ferropriva nos anêmicos. Crianças com hemoglobina Objective: To verify the prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency anemia and iron deficiency in infants, at a Public Health Unit in the city of Goiânia - Brazil; to analyze and to correlate the hematologic and biochemical variables. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out. One hundred and ten full-term infants of the 120 mothers interviewed were included. The infants aged between six and twelve months and there were not twins. Socioeconomic and hematologic data was obtained. Venous blood was taken from fasting infants in order to carry out a complete hemogram through electronic cell counting, serum iron, serum ferritin and C-reactive protein, which were used in the evaluation of the etiology of iron deficiency in the anemic infants. Children with hemoglobin < 11g/dL were considered anemic. Results: The prevalence of anemia was 60.9%. In the diagnosis of the iron deficiency etiology in infants without an inflammation process, when considering the alteration of hemoglobin plus two more indices among mean corpuscular volume (MCV or mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH or serum ferritin or serum iron, the prevalence of the iron deficiency was 87%. Nevertheless, when red cell distribution width (RDW was included in the indices, the

  12. Prevalência de asma em escolares Prevalence of asthama in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Amorim

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a prevalência dos sintomas e da doença de asma em crianças, em razão da alta freqüência de pacientes pediátricos com sintomas sugestivos da doença e da falta de dados de prevalência nesta população. MÉTODOS: Num estudo transversal, foram avaliados 2.735 escolares na faixa etária de 6-7 anos (crianças e 3.509 na de 13-14 anos (adolescentes, escolhidos por amostragem aleatória. Os dados foram coletados em 1998-99 utilizando-se o questionário escrito traduzido do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC, previamente testado e validado. O questionário dirigido às crianças foi respondido pelos seus responsáveis, enquanto os adolescentes responderam em sala de aula. Os dados foram transcritos e analisados pelo programa EPI-info. RESULTADOS: Taxa de devolução: 73,2% (6-7 anos e 94% (13-14 anos. Prevalência dos sintomas nas crianças e adolescentes: sibilos alguma vez, 46,7% e 44,3% (p OBJECTIVE: to assess the prevalence of asthma symptoms and of asthma in children due to the high frequency of pediatrics patients with symptoms suggestive of the disease and to the lack of data regarding prevalence of asthma in this population. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study with 2,735 school-age children aged 6-7 years and 3,509 adolescents aged 13-14 years selected by random sampling. Data were collected between 1998 and 1999 using a translated version of the questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children, which has been previously tested and approved. Guardians were responsible for answering the questionnaire of younger children, whereas adolescents answered their own, in classroom. The data were computed and analyzed using EPI-info software. RESULTS: The response rates for questionnaires were 73.2% (6-7-years old and 94% (13-14 years old. The prevalence of symptoms in children and adolescents were, respectively: wheezing ever 46.7% and 44.3% (P<0.05; wheezing

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Central Venous Stenosis among Prevalent Hemodialysis Patients, a Single Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Osama O; El-Magzoub, Abdul-Rahman A; Elamin, Sarra

    2014-01-01

    Central vein stenosis (CVS) is a common complication of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion. In this study we evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of CVS among hemodialysis (HD) patients in a single center in Sudan, using Doppler ultrasound as a screening tool. The study included 106 prevalent HD patients. For every patient, we performed Duplex Doppler for the right and left jugular, subclavian and femoral veins. A patient was considered to have hemodynamically significant stenosis if the pre-stenosis to the post-stenosis velocities ratio was ≥ 2.5 or they had complete vein occlusion. Overall, 28.3% of patients had Doppler detected CVS, including 25.5% with hemodynamically significant stenosis and 2.8% with compromised flow. The prevalence of CVS was 68.4% among symptomatic patients compared to 19.5% in asymptomatic patients. The prevalence of CVS among patients with history of 0-1, 2-3 and ≥ 4 central venous catheters was 3.4%, 29.4% and 53.8% respectively (p=0.00). CVS was not more common in patients with history of previous/current jugular or femoral vein catheterization compared to no catheter placement in these veins (28.3% vs 28.6% and 35% vs 26.7% respectively; p >0.1). However, CVS was significantly more common in patients with previous/ current subclavian vein catheterization compared to no catheter placement in this vein (47.8% vs 22.9%, p = 0.02). CVS is highly prevalent among studied HD patients, particularly in the presence of suggestive clinical signs. The number of HD catheter placements and subclavian vein utilization for dialysis access impose a significantly higher risk of CVS.

  14. Estimating the global prevalence of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington‐Cruz, Márcia; Botteman, Marc F.; Carter, John A.; Chopra, Avijeet S.; Hopps, Markay; Stewart, Michelle; Fallet, Shari; Amass, Leslie

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: This study sought to estimate the global prevalence of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (ATTR‐FAP). Methods: Prevalence estimates and information supporting prevalence calculations was extracted from records yielded by reference‐database searches (2005–2016), conference proceedings, and nonpeer reviewed sources. Prevalence was calculated as prevalence rate multiplied by general population size, then extrapolated to countries without prevalence estimates but with reported cases. Results: Searches returned 3,006 records; 1,001 were fully assessed and 10 retained, yielding prevalence for 10 “core” countries, then extrapolated to 32 additional countries. ATTR‐FAP prevalence in core countries, extrapolated countries, and globally was 3,762 (range 3639–3884), 6424 (range, 1,887–34,584), and 10,186 (range, 5,526–38,468) persons, respectively. Discussion: The mid global prevalence estimate (10,186) approximates the maximum commonly accepted estimate (5,000–10,000). The upper limit (38,468) implies potentially higher prevalence. These estimates should be interpreted carefully because contributing evidence was heterogeneous and carried an overall moderate risk of bias. This highlights the requirement for increasing rare‐disease epidemiological assessment and clinician awareness. Muscle Nerve 57: 829–837, 2018 PMID:29211930

  15. Prevalence of generalized retinal dystrophy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Jensen, Hanne; Bregnhøj, Jesper F

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to examine the prevalence and diagnostic spectrum of generalized retinal dystrophy in the Danish population. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study with data from the Danish Retinitis Pigmentosa Registry that comprises all patients in Denmark with generalized retinal......PURPOSE: Generalized retinal dystrophy is a frequent cause of visual impairment and blindness in younger individuals and a subject of new clinical intervention trials. Nonetheless, there are few nation-wide population-based epidemiological data of generalized retinal dystrophy. The purpose...... and chorioretinal dystrophies from the 19th century to the present. Among 3076 registered cases, the primary diagnosis of generalized retinal dystrophy was assessed by chart review, including fundus photographs and electroretinograms. Demographic data on the Danish population were retrieved from Statistics Denmark...

  16. Increased prevalence of autoimmunity in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K H; Cleemann, L; Hjerrild, B E

    2009-01-01

    and karyotype. In conclusion, TS girls and women face a high prevalence of autoimmunity and associated disease with a preponderance towards hypothyroidism and CD. Thus, health care providers dealing with this patient group should be observant and test liberally for these conditions even before clinical symptoms......Individuals with Turner syndrome (TS) are prone to develop autoimmune conditions such as coeliac disease (CD), thyroiditis and type 1 diabetes (T1DM). The objective of the present study was to examine TS of various karyotypes for autoantibodies and corresponding diseases. This was investigated...... hypothyroid. Overall, 18% (19) presented with CD autoantibodies, of whom 26% (five) had CD. Anti-TPO and CD autoantibodies co-existed in 9% (10). Immunoglobulin A deficiency was found in 3% (three) of patients, who all had CD autoantibodies without disease. Among four patients with anti-GAD-65 none had T1DM...

  17. Predictors of undiagnosed prevalent type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltberg, Andreas Søndergaard; Andersen, John Sahl; Sandholdt, Håkon

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate how self-reported risk factors (including socioeconomic status) predict undiagnosed, prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To externally validate Leicester Risk Assessment Score (LRAS), Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and Danish Diabetes Risk Score (DDRS......), and to investigate how these predict a European Heart SCORE≥5% in a Danish population study. METHODS: We included 21,205 adults from the Danish General Suburban Population Study. We used relative importance calculations of self-reported variables in prediction of undiagnosed T2DM. We externally validated established...... prediction models reporting ROC-curves for undiagnosed T2DM, pre-diabetes and SCORE. RESULTS: More than 20% of people with T2DM were undiagnosed. The 7 most important self-rated predictors in sequential order were high BMI, antihypertensive-therapy, age, cardiovascular disease, waist-circumference, fitness...

  18. Prevalence of Asthma in Southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryum Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAsthma is exaggerated response of immune system which is a leading cause of death in the third world. Main causes of asthma are allergy, smoking, drugs like NSAID (Aspirin and family history. Objective of study was to check the prevalence of asthma in different age groups and its impact on socioeconomical behaviors of the peoples of southern Punjab, by developing a questionnaire. Incidence of asthmatic attack in the age group of 20 to 60 years was more than in age group of 20 years, furthermore the incidence was found to be more common in females as compare to males. The smokers were at more risk to develop the disease as compared to the nonsmokers.

  19. Online deception: prevalence, motivation, and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Avner; Gorsky, Paul

    2006-02-01

    This research has three goals: first, to find out how prevalent online deception is within a sample of Israeli users, second, to explore the underlying motivations to deceive online, and third, to discover the emotions that accompany online deception. A web-based survey was distributed in 14 discussion groups, and the answers of 257 respondents were analyzed. It was found that, while most of the respondents believe that online deception is very widespread, only about one-third of them reported engaging in online deception. Frequent users deceive online more than infrequent users, young users more than old, and competent users more than non-competent. The most common motivations to deceive online were "play" on the one hand and privacy concerns on the other. Most people felt a sense of enjoyment while engaging in online deception. The results are discussed in light of a possible mechanism for changing personal moral standards.

  20. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans

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    Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans.Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy. The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol.Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests.Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.

  1. Prevalence of consanguineous marriages among Iranian Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Laleh; Saadat, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Consanguineous marriage--marriage between relatives--has received a great deal of attention as a potential risk factor for many adverse health outcomes. The present cross-sectional study was done in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages among Iranian Georgians living in Frydoonshahr (Isfahan province, central Iran). Data on consanguineous marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in this study was 646. Consanguineous marriage was classified by the degree of relationship between couples. First cousin marriages (14.2%) were the most common type of consanguineous marriages, followed by second cousin (7.0%), beyond second cousin (1.5%) and first cousin once removed (0.6%). The mean inbreeding coefficient (α) was calculated as 0.0104 for the population. The present study shows that the study population, as other Iranian populations, has a high level of consanguinity.

  2. Vitamin D -prevalence, mortality and bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durup, Darshana Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    includes 12 women in the age 18-50 years, premenopausal and all suffering from bone pain, vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism. The recruitment is done through Copenhagen General Practitioners' Laboratory, which analyzes vitamin D samples daily. The study comprise of 6 visits; screening and 5....../bone surface constituted 33% (CI: 26-40)). The dietary change also affected several of the calcium metabolic and bone turnover biomarkers including significantly suppressed serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (p... vitamin D level and mortality was reverse J-shaped. In the same population, prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and hyperparathyroidism secondary to vitamin D deficiency was 54.4% and 10.5%, respectively. These patients have potentially risked of suffering from or getting osteomalacia accompanying bone...

  3. GENITAL CONDYLOMAS. PREVALENCE, ETIOLOGY, TREATMENT AND PREVENTION

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    L.K. Aslamazyan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the papilloma virus infection. As it became known in October 2008, the nobel prize in the field of medicine and physiology this year is awarded to the German doctor of Harald Zur Hausen who has proved the role of the human papilloma virus as causative factor of the cervical carcinoma. This is epoch making discovery because of human papilloma virus is most frequent of sexually transmitted infections. The authors demonstrated the high HPV prevalence. One of the most frequent manifestations of this infection is in more details presented pointed condy loma, clinical course of the disease and differential diagnostics of its various forms. Considering treatment inefficiency, the authors convincingly demonstrate that the only opportunity available to keep a human from the illness development is a specific immune prevention.Key words: papillomavirus infection, pointed condylomas, precancers, prevention.

  4. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in European cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Dalgaard, Paw

    2017-01-01

    , respectively, pasteurized or un-pasteurized milk. Data from a total of 130,604 samples were analysed. Mean prevalence for presence during 2005-2015 estimated from scientific literature (2.3% with confidence interval (CI): 1.4-3.8%) was more than three times higher than results from EFSA reports (0.7%; CI: 0.......05) for cheeses produced from pasteurized (0.9%; CI: 0.4-1.9%) or un-pasteurized (1.0%; CI: 0.4-2.2%) milk. For cheese samples reported by EFSA 0.2% CI: 0.1-0.4% had concentration of L. monocytogenes above the critical European limits of 100 cfu/g. In addition, this systematic review focused on groups...

  5. Fibromyalgia: Prevalence, epidemiologic profiles and economic costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo-Meseguer, Asensi; Cerdá-Olmedo, Germán; Trillo-Mata, José Luis

    2017-11-22

    Fibromyalgia is an idiopathic chronic condition that causes widespread musculoskeletal pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. This review aims to approach the general epidemiology of fibromyalgia according to the most recent published studies, identifying the general worldwide prevalence of the disease, its basic epidemiological profiles and its economic costs, with specific interest in the Spanish and Comunidad Valenciana cases. Fibromyalgia affects, on average, 2.10% of the world's population; 2.31% of the European population; 2.40% of the Spanish population; and 3.69% of the population in the Comunidad Valenciana. It supposes a painful loss of the quality of life of the people who suffer it and the economic costs are enormous: in Spain is has been estimated at more than 12,993 million euros annually. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of computer vision syndrome in Erbil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dler Jalal Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Nearly all colleges, universities and homes today are regularly using video display terminals, such as computer, iPad, mobile, and TV. Very little research has been carried out on Kurdish users to reveal the effect of video display terminals on the eye and vision. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of computer vision syndrome among computer users. Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Ophthalmology Department of Rizgary and Erbil teaching hospitals in Erbil city. Those used computers in the months preceding the date of this study were included in the study. Results: Among 173 participants aged between 8 to 48 years (mean age of 23.28±6.6 years, the prevalence of computer vision syndrome found to be 89.65%. The most disturbing symptom was eye irritation (79.8%, followed by blurred vision(75.7%. Participants who were using visual display terminals for more than six hours per day were at higher risk of developing nearly all symptoms of computer vision syndrome. Significant correlation was found between time-consuming on computer and symptoms such as headache (P <0.001, redness (P <0.001, eye irritation (P <0.001, blurred vision (P <0.001 and neck pain (P <0.001. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that more than three-fourths of the participants had one of the symptoms of computer vision syndrome while working on visual display terminals. Keywords: Computer vision syndrome; Headache; Neck pain; Blurred vision.

  7. The prevalence of personality disorders in hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Reiko; Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Nolido, Nyryan V; Barsky, Arthur J

    2010-01-01

    Although Axis I hypochondriasis is closely related to certain personality characteristics, the nature and extent of personality dysfunction in these patients still needs clarification. This study assessed the prevalence of personality disorders observed in hypochondriacal patients, described the types and comorbidity of personality disorders, and compared the psychological distress of patients with and without the most common comorbid personality disorder. One hundred fifteen patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for hypochondriasis completed self-administered assessments, including the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+), the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Whiteley Index, and the Somatic Symptom Inventory. These data were taken from a study conducted between September 1997 and November 2001. Eighty-eight patients (76.5%) had 1 or more personality disorders, whereas 27 patients (23.5%) had no personality disorders. Fifty-one patients (44.3%) had more than 3 personality disorders. The most common personality disorder in the hypochondriacal patients was obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD; 55.7%), followed by avoidant personality disorder (40.9%). The comorbidity of OCPD and avoidant personality disorder was 53.1% (34 of 64 patients with OCPD). The total PDQ-4+ score of the 64 patients with OCPD was significantly higher than that of the 51 patients without OCPD. On the SCL-90-R, the 64 patients with OCPD showed significantly higher scores on all of 3 global indices and 7 of 10 primary symptom dimensions (paranoid ideation, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, and psychoticism) on the SCL-90-R compared to the 51 patients without OCPD. The high prevalence of personality disorders, particularly OCPD, among patients with hypochondriasis suggests that consideration of personality features is important in assessment and

  8. High prevalence of COPD in atherosclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuleta I

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Izabela Tuleta, Tarik Farrag, Laura Busse, Carmen Pizarro, Christian Schaefer, Simon Pingel, Georg Nickenig, Dirk Skowasch, Nadjib Schahab Department of Internal Medicine II – Cardiology, Pulmonology and Angiology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany Abstract: Atherosclerosis and COPD are both systemic inflammatory diseases that may influence each other. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of COPD in patients with cerebral and/or peripheral artery disease and to assess factors associated with the presence of COPD. Following the diagnosis of cerebral and/or peripheral artery disease by means of duplex sonography, 166 consecutive patients underwent body plethysmography with capillary blood gas analysis. Thereafter, blood tests with determination of different parameters such as lipid profile, inflammatory and coagulation markers were conducted in remaining 136 patients who fulfilled inclusion criteria of the study. Thirty-six out of 136 patients suffered from COPD, mostly in early stages of the disease. Residual volume indicating emphysema was increased (162.9%±55.9% vs 124.5%±37.0%, p<0.05 and diffusion capacity was decreased (55.1%±19.5% vs 75.3%±18.6%, p<0.05 in COPD patients vs non-COPD group. In capillary blood gas analysis, COPD patients had lower partial pressure of oxygen (70.9±11.5 vs 75.2±11.0 mmHg, p<0.05 and higher partial pressure of carbon dioxide (36.8±7.5 vs 34.4±4.4 mmHg, p<0.05 compared with non-COPD individuals. Presence of COPD was associated with predominance of diabetes mellitus, interleukin-8-related systemic neutrophilic inflammation and anemia. In conclusion, COPD is highly prevalent in patients with atherosclerotic artery disease. Keywords: cerebral artery disease, peripheral artery disease, lung function, capillary blood gas, diabetes mellitus, inflammation, interleukin-8, anemia

  9. Specific learning disorder: prevalence and gender differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Moll

    Full Text Available Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.

  10. Prevalence of aspergillosis in chronic lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty eight patients of chronic lung diseases (CLD attending TB and Chest department of J.N. Medical college Hospital were studied to find out the prevalence of Aspergillus in Broncho-alveolar Lavage (BAL and anti- aspergillus antibodies in their sera. Direct microscopy and fungal culture of BAL was done. Antibodies were studied by immunodiffusion (ID and Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Dot blot assay for anti-aspergillus antibodies was also performed in sera of patients which were either positive by ID or by ELISA. Aspergillus was isolated in culture from 13(14.7% cases of CLD, while, 30.6% cases showed anti-aspergillus antibodies by serological methods. Aspergillus fumigatus was the predominant species isolated. 17(19.3% cases of CLD showed antibody against Aspergillus by ID, 22(25% by ELISA, while 19 of 27 seropositive cases also showed positive results by Dot Blot assay. In cases of bronchogenic carcinoma and pulmonary tuberculosis, anti-aspergillus antibodies were detected equally by ID and ELISA in 21.42% and 21.05% cases respectively. In bronchial asthma, the antibodies could be detected in 60% cases by ELISA, while, in only 10% cases by ID. ELISA was found more sensitive than ID for detection of anti-aspergillus antibodies. The sensitivity of Dot Blot lies some what between ID and ELISA. It is concluded that prevalence of Aspergillosis is quite high in chronic lung diseases, culture and serological test should be performed in conjunction and more than one type of serological tests should be performed to establish the diagnosis.

  11. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macur, Mirna; Király, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2016-09-01

    Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia. Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) was included in European Health Interview Study (EHIS) on representative Slovenian sample. The frequency of Internet use and problematic Internet use were both assessed. 59.9% of Slovenian adult population uses the Internet daily, and 3.1% are at risk of becoming problematic Internet users, 11% in the age group from 20 to 24 years. Those being at risk for becoming problematic Internet users are younger (mean age 31.3 vs. 48.3 for non-problematic users), more likely to be males (3.6% of males, whereas 2.6% of females are affected), students (12.0%), unemployed (6.3%) or unable to work (8.7%), single (6.5%), with high education (4.5%). Regression analysis revealed that the strongest predictor of being at risk for problematic Internet use is age (ß=-0.338, p<0.001); followed by high educational level (ß=0.145; p<0.001) and student status (ß=0.136; p<0.001). 3.1% of Slovenian adult population are at risk of becoming problematic Internet users, whereas 3 out of 20 Slovenian adolescents aged from 18 to 19 years are at risk (14.6%). Prevention programs and treatment for those affected are paramount, especially for the young generation.

  12. Concussion Prevalence in Competitive Ultimate Frisbee Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Damien J.; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D.; Tybor, David J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ultimate Frisbee (ultimate) is a fast-growing, popular sport played nationally by over 4 million athletes. While several studies have examined injury rates in ultimate, no work has investigated the prevalence of concussions specifically or players’ knowledge and management of those injuries. Purpose: To estimate the lifetime prevalence of concussions in ultimate and to assess players’ knowledge of concussions as well as their concussion management behaviors. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: From June to November 2015, we collected ultimate-related concussion data via an anonymous web-based survey, the Concussion in Ultimate Frisbee Survey, from a convenience sample of 787 male and female ultimate players across the United States. Results: There were 553 male and 234 female respondents included in the analysis; 26.58% of men and 24.79% of women reported that they had sustained at least 1 concussion while playing ultimate, with 45.58% and 43.10% of those men and women, respectively, reporting multiple concussions. A total of 67.81% of men and 78.21% of women stated that they would remove themselves from play after sustaining a given concussion, although 45.99% of men and 37.62% of women indicated that they had returned to play in the same game or practice. Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that concussions do commonly occur in competitive ultimate and that better education and management of concussions in ultimate athletes are needed. This study is an important first step in deepening our understanding of these issues. PMID:29552572

  13. Malaria in South Asia: Prevalence and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chery, Laura; Biswas, Chinmoy; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Dutta, Prafulla; Dua, Virendra Kumar; Kacchap, Mridula; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Khandeparkar, Anar; Kour, Dalip; Mahajanj, Satish N.; Maji, Ardhendu; Majumder, Partha; Mohanta, Jagadish; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K.; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Roy, Krishnangshu; Shastri, Jayanthi; Valecha, Neena; Vikash, Rana; Wani, Reena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2013-01-01

    The “Malaria Evolution in South Asia” (MESA) program project is an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. This US–India collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the Indian subcontinent. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. In this first of two reviews, we highlight malaria prevalence in India. In particular, we draw attention to variations in distribution of different human-parasites and different vectors, variation in drug resistance traits, and multiple forms of clinical presentations. Uneven malaria severity in India is often attributed to large discrepancies in health care accessibility as well as human migrations within the country and across neighboring borders. Poor access to health care goes hand in hand with poor reporting from some of the same areas, combining to possibly distort disease prevalence and death from malaria in some parts of India. Corrections are underway in the form of increased resources for disease control, greater engagement of village-level health workers for early diagnosis and treatment, and possibly new public–private partnerships activities accompanying traditional national malaria control programs in the most severely affected areas. A second accompanying review raises the possibility that, beyond uneven health care, evolutionary pressures may alter malaria parasites in ways that contribute to severe disease in India, particularly in the NE corridor of India bordering Myanmar Narayanasamy et al., 2012. PMID:22248528

  14. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  15. Prevalence of sleep bruxism in children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Eduardo; Dal-Fabbro, Cibele; Cunali, Paulo Afonso; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB) in children is subject to discussions in the literature. This study is a systematic literature review aiming to critically assess the prevalence of SB in children. Survey using the following research databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO, from January 2000 to February 2013, focusing on studies specifically assessing the prevalence of SB in children. After applying the inclusion criteria, four studies were retrieved. Among the selected articles, the prevalence rates of SB ranged from 5.9% to 49.6%, and these variations showed possible associations with the diagnostic criteria used for SB. There is a small number of studies with the primary objective of assessing SB in children. Additionally, there was a wide variation in the prevalence of SB in children. Thus, further, evidence-based studies with standardized and validated diagnostic criteria are necessary to assess the prevalence of SB in children more accurately.

  16. The prevalence of childhood asthma in China: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzong Yangzong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that the prevalence of asthma has been reported to increase in many places around the world during the last decades. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify and review studies of asthma prevalence among children in China and address time trends and regional variation in asthma. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI databases. Selected articles had to describe an original study that showed the prevalence of asthma among children aged 0−14 years. Results A total of 74 articles met the inclusion criteria. The lifetime prevalence of asthma varied between 1.1% in Lhasa (Tibet and 11.0% in Hong Kong in studies following the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC protocol. The prevalence was 3% or lower in most articles following Chinese diagnostic criteria. One article reported the results from two national surveys and showed that the current average prevalence of asthma for the total study population had increased from 1990 to 2000 (0.9% to 1.5%. The lowest current prevalence was found in Lhasa (0.1% in 1990, 0.5% in 2000. Conclusions The prevalence of childhood asthma was generally low, both in studies following the ISAAC and Chinese diagnostic criteria. Assessment of time trends and regional variations in asthma prevalence was difficult due to insufficient data, variation in diagnostic criteria, difference in data collection methods, and uncertainty in prevalence measures. However, the findings from one large study of children from 27 different cities support an increase in current prevalence of childhood asthma from 1990 to 2000. The lowest current prevalence of childhood asthma was found in Tibet.

  17. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne L. McLean; Remo G. Lobetti; Johan P. Schoeman

    2014-01-01

    Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s) of this common disease is or are no...

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among emergency department workers and bacterial contamination on touch surfaces in Erciyes University Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey.

  19. The prevalence of predisposing deformity in osteoarthritic hip joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Jakob; Gosvig, Kasper; Jacobsen, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    relationship in both sexes with the clinical presentation. The study cohort which fulfilled these inclusion criteria consisted of 322 females (149 right hips and 173 left hips) and 162 males (77 right hips and 85 left hips) with osteoarthritis. We found an overall prevalence of predisposing hip deformities...... in females of 62.4% and in males of 78.9%. Minor and major deformities showed the same prevalence. Both sexes had a comparable prevalence of minor and major hip joint deformity, except for pistol grip deformity, which was more prevalent in men. We concluded that 'idiopathic osteoarthritis' is uncommon......, and that even minor predisposing deformities are associated with hip osteoarthritis....

  20. Regional variation in asthma symptom prevalence in Latin American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu; Baeza-Bacab, Manuel; Aguirre-Camposano, Viviana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates the distribution pattern of asthma symptom prevalence in Latin American children aged 13-14 years. A randomized, cross-sectional and multicentric study on the prevalence and severity of asthma symptoms (lifetime asthma, current wheezing, and frequent sleep disturbance by wheezing) was conducted in 165,917 schoolchildren from 56 centers in 17 Latin American countries, as part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), Phase Three. The prevalence of lifetime asthma prevalence ranged from 1.2% to 33.1%, whereas current wheezing went from 3.9% to 30.8% and frequent sleep disturbance from 0.6% to 6.1%. An important proportion of centers (55%) reported a prevalence of asthma symptoms over 15%. There was no significant correlation between asthma symptom prevalence and latitude, altitude, or tropical setting. At country level, the prevalence of asthma was not associated with gross national income (GNI), proportion of population under the poverty line, or ancestry. This study suggests that ecological interactions, probably typical for each locality, may be the main determinants for the large variability of asthma prevalence in Latin America. The high prevalence of asthma symptoms found in children living in areas with low socioeconomic development would challenge the protective role against asthma of factors related to low hygiene and poverty; contrarily, in this region they would act as risk factors.

  1. prevalence and impact of socio-economic/enviromental factors on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    2014-06-30

    structured, researcher .... ongoing public health programs such as Integrated Management of ... Assessment of the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and associated risk factors ... Edinburgh Building Cambridge UK. pg.

  2. A systematic review of the prevalence of schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Saha

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the prevalence of schizophrenia has important implications for both health service planning and risk factor epidemiology. The aims of this review are to systematically identify and collate studies describing the prevalence of schizophrenia, to summarize the findings of these studies, and to explore selected factors that may influence prevalence estimates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Studies with original data related to the prevalence of schizophrenia (published 1965-2002 were identified via searching electronic databases, reviewing citations, and writing to authors. These studies were divided into "core" studies, "migrant" studies, and studies based on "other special groups." Between- and within-study filters were applied in order to identify discrete prevalence estimates. Cumulative plots of prevalence estimates were made and the distributions described when the underlying estimates were sorted according to prevalence type (point, period, lifetime, and lifetime morbid risk. Based on combined prevalence estimates, the influence of selected key variables was examined (sex, urbanicity, migrant status, country economic index, and study quality. A total of 1,721 prevalence estimates from 188 studies were identified. These estimates were drawn from 46 countries, and were based on an estimated 154,140 potentially overlapping prevalent cases. We identified 132 core studies, 15 migrant studies, and 41 studies based on other special groups. The median values per 1,000 persons (10%-90% quantiles for the distributions for point, period, lifetime, and lifetime morbid risk were 4.6 (1.9-10.0, 3.3 (1.3-8.2, 4.0 (1.6-12.1, and 7.2 (3.1-27.1, respectively. Based on combined prevalence estimates, we found no significant difference (a between males and females, or (b between urban, rural, and mixed sites. The prevalence of schizophrenia in migrants was higher compared to native-born individuals: the migrant-to-native-born ratio median (10

  3. Autism Prevalence Trends Over Time in Denmark: Changes in Prevalence and Age at Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parner, Erik; Schendel, Diana; Thorsen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of changing age at diagnosis on the diagnosed prevalence of autism among different birth cohorts. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Children were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry and psychiatric outcomes were obtained via linkage...... risk comparing the 1998-1999 birth cohort with the 1994-1995 birth cohort at age 3 years was 1.69 (95% CI, 1.24-2.31), which decreased to 1.23 (95% CI, 1.11-1.37) at age 11 years. Similar results were observed for childhood autism. CONCLUSIONS: Shifts in age at diagnosis inflated the observed...... prevalence of autism in young children in the more recent cohorts compared with the oldest cohort. This study supports the argument that the apparent increase in autism in recent years is at least in part attributable to decreases in the age at diagnosis over time....

  4. STRESS FRACTURE PREVALENCE IN ELITE FIGURE SKATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Dubravcic-Simunjak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Figure skating is a physically demanding sport that requires a unique combination of artistic ability, speed, agility, flexibility and power. During the last decades not only the competitive schedule has become tougher, but after introduction of the new judging system in 2003, also more emphasis is put on difficult technical elements, jumps, steps and spins (ISU Rules, 2006. More studies about possible increasing prevalence of stress fractures in figure skaters and contributing factors are lacking (Dubravcic-Simunjak et al., 2003; Moran, 2000; Pecina et al., 1990. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain data about the current stress fracture cumulative risk among elite junior and senior figure skaters, as well as possible factors that may contribute to stress fracture incidence. An anonymous questionnaire, divided into 5 sections, inquired about the prevalence of stress fracture were mailed and distributed to all 62 International Skating Union (ISU members by the ISU headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland. The guidelines of the Helsinki declaration 2004 were followed. From the 644 skaters who received the questionnaire, 412 completed ones were returned from 110 female juniors (78 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 135 female seniors (97 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers and from 79 male juniors (47 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 88 male seniors (50 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers, coming from different ISU members. The response rate was 62% in females and 67% in males. The median age for female skaters was 16 years and for males 18 years (range 12-25 years. All participants started to skate between 3 and 6 years of age and started to compete in national and international competitions when they were between 5 and 7 years old. At the time of this analysis, they had been skating between 9 and 20 years.In females 41 (16.7%, and in males 25 (13.8% figure skaters

  5. Influence of country-level differences on COPD prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron SD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Shawn D Aaron,1 Andrea S Gershon,2 Yuan Gao,1 Jenna Yang,1 GA Whitmore1,3 On behalf of the Canadian Respiratory Research Network 1Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, 2Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, ON, 3Desautels Faculty of Management, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada Purpose: Studies suggest that COPD prevalence may vary between countries. We conducted an ecological study of data from COPD prevalence articles to assess the influence of differences in country-level risk factors on COPD prevalence. Patients and methods: Our study covered English language articles published during 2003–2014. Qualified articles used spirometry to assess COPD prevalence and used representative samples from national or subnational populations. Stepwise binomial regression was used to analyze associations between study- and country-level factors and COPD prevalence. Results: Eighty articles provided 1,583 measures of COPD prevalence for subjects in different sex, age, and smoking categories for 112 districts in 41 countries. Adjusted prevalence rates for COPD were significantly lower for Australia/New Zealand and the Mediterranean and significantly higher for Latin America, compared to North America, Southeast Asia, and Northern Europe. Country-level socioeconomic development variables had an uneven and mixed association with COPD prevalence. High elevation above sea level was shown to be a protective factor for COPD. Study-level variables for the established risk factors of sex, age, and smoking explained 64% of variability in COPD prevalence. Country-level risk factors raised the explanatory power to 72%. Approximately 28% of worldwide variability in COPD prevalence remained unexplained. Conclusion: Our study suggests that COPD prevalence varies across world regions, even after adjustment for established risk factors. Major country-level risk factors contributing to the worldwide epidemic of COPD remain

  6. Smoking prevalence: a comparison of two American surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodu, B; Cole, P

    2009-09-01

    To compare smoking prevalence estimates from two nationally representative surveys in the USA. Smoking prevalence estimates derived from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) for the period 1998-2005. Comparisons according to age (18-34 or 35+ years) and according to smoking frequency (every day or some days). In 1998, the prevalence of smoking in both surveys was nearly identical at 24%. From 1999 to 2005, a divergence occurred in smoking prevalence found by the NSDUH and the NHIS. By 2005, NHIS prevalence had declined to 20.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 20.3-21.5], but the NSDUH estimate was 25.4% (95%CI 24.6-26.2), amounting to 9.1 million more smokers. In 1999, prevalence among 18-34 year olds in the NSDUH was only 18% (95%CI 13-22) higher than that in the NHIS, but that difference had doubled by 2005, when smoking prevalence among 18-34 year olds was 36% (95%CI 30-41) higher in the NSDUH than in the NHIS. NSDUH and NHIS prevalence among 35+ year olds were similar in 1999 and 2001, but the difference was 13% (95%CI 9-18) in 2005. Higher smoking prevalence estimates in the NSDUH were largely due to much higher estimates for some-day smoking in that survey, although every-day smoking prevalence among 18-34 year-olds was also higher in the NSDUH than in the NHIS. These results raise doubt about the recent decline in smoking prevalence described by the NHIS. Further investigation of the NSDUH/NHIS discrepancy may lead to better surveys and to a clearer picture of smoking trends in the USA.

  7. [Prevalence of pain in Andalusian public hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria Moreno, M; Ortega Garcia, J L; Herrera Silva, J; Galvez Mateo, R; Torres Morera, L M; de la Torre Liebanas, R

    2014-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of pain in medical and surgical patients admitted to reference hospitals in Andalusia, as well as their features and the most population groups most affected. A cross-sectional, multicenter epidemiological study was conducted simultaneously on the population admitted to 5 hospitals. Using a structured questionnaire the demographics, hospital area, presence of pain at the time of the interview, and pre- and post-variables related to the intensity of pain and its treatment at 24h were investigated. All patients over 18 years old were included, except those patients with difficulty in understanding the questionnaire, and psychiatric and obstetric patients. Pain intensity was assessed by simple verbal scale. Of the 1,236 patients included, 54.2% were male, with 51.1% of patients aged 65 years, and 69.17% were admitted to medical areas. Pain was observed in 52.9% of patients admitted to the surgical area compared to 29.4% in the medical area. Of the 19.4% who reported having had pain in the last 24h prior to the questionnaire, 57.7% of them were surgical patients and 32% were medical, PDolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease after preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes van Balen, Veronica Agatha; Spaan, Julia Jeltje; Cornelis, Tom; Spaanderman, Marc Erich August

    2017-06-01

    Preeclampsia (PE), an endothelial disease that affects kidney function during pregnancy, is correlated to an increased future risk of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. The Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2012 guideline emphasizes the combined role of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria in determining the frequency of monitoring of kidney function. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of CKD in women with a history of PE. We investigated how many seemingly healthy women required monitoring of kidney function according to the KDIGO guideline. We included 775 primiparous women with a history of PE. They were at least 4 months postpartum, and had no pre-existing hypertension, diabetes or kidney disease. We estimated GFR by the CKD-Epidemiology equation and urinary albumin loss by albumin creatinine ratio in a 24-h urine collection. Most women, 669 (86.3 %), had a normal GFR and absent albuminuria. Based on the KDIGO guideline, 13.7 % would require at least yearly monitoring of kidney function. Only 1.4 % were classified to be at high risk for kidney function deterioration. Monitoring of kidney function seems relevant for about one in seven women with a history of PE, mainly due to albuminuria. Albuminuria should be evaluated postpartum to identify those women that need further monitoring of kidney function.

  9. Smoking prevalence increases following Canterbury earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Nick; Daley, Vivien; Stevenson, Sue; Rhodes, Bronwen; Beckert, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit Canterbury in September 2010. This earthquake and associated aftershocks took the lives of 185 people and drastically changed residents' living, working, and social conditions. To explore the impact of the earthquakes on smoking status and levels of tobacco consumption in the residents of Christchurch. Semistructured interviews were carried out in two city malls and the central bus exchange 15 months after the first earthquake. A total of 1001 people were interviewed. In August 2010, prior to any earthquake, 409 (41%) participants had never smoked, 273 (27%) were currently smoking, and 316 (32%) were ex-smokers. Since the September 2010 earthquake, 76 (24%) of the 316 ex-smokers had smoked at least one cigarette and 29 (38.2%) had smoked more than 100 cigarettes. Of the 273 participants who were current smokers in August 2010, 93 (34.1%) had increased consumption following the earthquake, 94 (34.4%) had not changed, and 86 (31.5%) had decreased their consumption. 53 (57%) of the 93 people whose consumption increased reported that the earthquake and subsequent lifestyle changes as a reason to increase smoking. 24% of ex-smokers resumed smoking following the earthquake, resulting in increased smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption levels increased in around one-third of current smokers.

  10. Prevalence of hypodontia in Chinese orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pambudi Rahardjo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypodontia is a phenomenon of congenitally missing teeth in human. A thousand and twelve panoramic radiographs of Chinese orthodontic patients were examined for agenesis of permanent teeth including third molars. The patients with missing teeth were divided into four group: the patients with missing less than 4 molars, missing all third molars, hypodontia and oligodontia. The result revealed, 210 patients affected one or more teeth agenesis with a total of 455 teeth missing. The prevalence of tooth agenesis was maxillary third molar 259 (56.9%, mandibular third molar 143 (31.4%, mandibular second premolar 15 (3.3%, mandibular lateral incisors 13 (2.8%, maxillary lateral incisors 8 (1.7%, maxillary second premolars 7 (1.5%, other teeth 10 (2.2% respectively. Of the mesial mandibular first permanent molar, mandibular second premolars were the most frequent missing teeth. Although hypodontia did not represent a public health problem, from orthodontic point of view it might cause esthetic and masticatory function disorders as well as more complex mechanotherapy of a patient.

  11. Celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujral, Naiyana; Freeman, Hugh J; Thomson, Alan BR

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common diseases, resulting from both environmental (gluten) and genetic factors [human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genes]. The prevalence of CD has been estimated to approximate 0.5%-1% in different parts of the world. However, the population with diabetes, autoimmune disorder or relatives of CD individuals have even higher risk for the development of CD, at least in part, because of shared HLA typing. Gliadin gains access to the basal surface of the epithelium, and interact directly with the immune system, via both trans- and para-cellular routes. From a diagnostic perspective, symptoms may be viewed as either “typical” or “atypical”. In both positive serological screening results suggestive of CD, should lead to small bowel biopsy followed by a favourable clinical and serological response to the gluten-free diet (GFD) to confirm the diagnosis. Positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody or anti-endomysial antibody during the clinical course helps to confirm the diagnosis of CD because of their over 99% specificities when small bowel villous atrophy is present on biopsy. Currently, the only treatment available for CD individuals is a strict life-long GFD. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of CD allows alternative future CD treatments to hydrolyse toxic gliadin peptide, prevent toxic gliadin peptide absorption, blockage of selective deamidation of specific glutamine residues by tissue, restore immune tolerance towards gluten, modulation of immune response to dietary gliadin, and restoration of intestinal architecture. PMID:23155333

  12. Injuries prevalence in elite male artistic gymnasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Batista Albuquerque GOULART

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the injuries prevalence in men elite artistic gymnasts. Twenty Brazilian senior gymnasts, aged 23.1 ± 6.5 years, 13.9 ± 5.0 years of practice and 36.5 ± 4.7 hours per week training, participated in this study. The athletes answered a morbidity questionnaire, formulated according to studies from the literature, for information on the injuries’ characteristics and circumstances. Information about the injury circumstances (gymnastic apparatus, overload training and physical exercises, the anatomic site injured, the affect biological tissue and the return to training after injury treatment were evaluated. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, absolute and relative frequencies. The training overload, and floor, pommel horse and vault were the events that presented higher injuries frequency. In relation to anatomic site, ankle, hands/fingers and shoulder were the most cited regions. The ligament, bone and articular capsule were the most affected biological tissues. In relation to gymnasts’ return to their sports activities, 56% of them reported a better condition at return, 33% reported to have returned at the same fitness level and 10% indicated that they were in a worse condition when they returned to the sports activities. The men’s artistic gymnastics injuries are related to the mechanical demands of this sport. The analysis of risk factors helps in understanding the injuries mechanisms in gymnastics, and provides relevant information that can assist in effective prevention strategies.

  13. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in poultry meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ELMALI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe objectives of this study were i to isolate Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in broiler wing meat samples, ii to confirm the isolates by PCR, based on prs and hly A gene sequences, iii to determine the seasonal and monthly distribution of the isolates. A total of 120 broiler wing meat samples (60 packaged pieces wrapped using strech film in styrofoam plates and 60 unpackaged pieces bought from different markets in Hatay province were analysed. Listeria spp. was isolated from 57 (47.5% out of 120 samples. Fifty-four, out of 57 Listeria spp. isolates were identified as L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes was isolated from the samples collected during the spring, winter, summer, and autumn at the levels of 26.6%, 40%, 53.3%, 60%, respectively. In this study, the isolation rates were found to be the highest in autumn, while the isolation rates were found to be the lowest in spring. As a consequence, high prevalence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in poultry wing meat samples may pose a risk for human health. We consider that with obeying the rules of good hygiene practices (GHP, good manufacturing practices (GMP and HACCP can minimize the contamination with Listeria spp.

  14. Prevalence of asymptomatic chondrocalcinosis in the pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensby, James Derek; Lawrence, David A.; Patrie, James T.; Gaskin, Cree M.

    2016-01-01

    To determine trends in incidentally detected age- and gender-associated chondrocalcinosis on pelvic CT. Twenty patients of each gender at the center of each decade of life who underwent a CT scan of the pelvis performed 2009-2013 were identified and selected for a total of 400 pelvic CTs. Images were reviewed independently by two radiologists for the presence or absence of chondrocalcinosis within the pelvis. Patients with hip or low back pain, known CPPD arthropathy or any known predisposing condition, prior hip arthroplasty, or articular fracture were excluded. Logistic regression was used to predict the presence/absence of chondrocalcinosis as a function of patient age and gender. The presence/absence of chondrocalcinosis was found to be associated with patient age (p = 0.016) but not patient gender (p = 0.929). In the pelvis, chondrocalcinosis was most frequently identified at the pubic symphysis. Incidental chondrocalcinosis was not identified in any patients under 50 years of age. Chondrocalcinosis increased in frequency from 12.5 at 55 years of age to 27.5 % of patients 95 years of age. Chondrocalcinosis is common and more prevalent in late adulthood, occurs without a gender predilection, and is infrequently identified in patients younger than 50 years of age. (orig.)

  15. Prevalence of asymptomatic chondrocalcinosis in the pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensby, James Derek [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Barnes Jewish Hospital, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Lawrence, David A. [Progressive Radiology, Falls Church, VA (United States); Patrie, James T.; Gaskin, Cree M. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    To determine trends in incidentally detected age- and gender-associated chondrocalcinosis on pelvic CT. Twenty patients of each gender at the center of each decade of life who underwent a CT scan of the pelvis performed 2009-2013 were identified and selected for a total of 400 pelvic CTs. Images were reviewed independently by two radiologists for the presence or absence of chondrocalcinosis within the pelvis. Patients with hip or low back pain, known CPPD arthropathy or any known predisposing condition, prior hip arthroplasty, or articular fracture were excluded. Logistic regression was used to predict the presence/absence of chondrocalcinosis as a function of patient age and gender. The presence/absence of chondrocalcinosis was found to be associated with patient age (p = 0.016) but not patient gender (p = 0.929). In the pelvis, chondrocalcinosis was most frequently identified at the pubic symphysis. Incidental chondrocalcinosis was not identified in any patients under 50 years of age. Chondrocalcinosis increased in frequency from 12.5 at 55 years of age to 27.5 % of patients 95 years of age. Chondrocalcinosis is common and more prevalent in late adulthood, occurs without a gender predilection, and is infrequently identified in patients younger than 50 years of age. (orig.)

  16. Prevalence of disability in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, Banurekha; Kangusamy, Boopathi; Mehendale, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Information on disability is essential for the government to formulate policies, allocate adequate resources and implement appropriate programmes. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of disability and describe the types of disability by gender, age and geographical regions in Tamil Nadu, India. We analysed the 2011 Census cross-sectional survey data of Tamil Nadu. Age-adjusted disability rates and disability rates per 100 000 population were calculated. There were 1 179 963 disabled individuals in Tamil Nadu in 2011, a disability rate of 1635 per 100 000 population. Disability in movement, hearing and sight individually accounted for 24%, 19% and 11% of the total disability, respectively. Sixteen districts had disability rates above the state average. As age advanced, disability rates increased; the highest disability rate of 2533 per 100 000 was among people aged 60 years and above. The disability rates were higher in males compared to females (1819 v. 1451 per 100 000). Rural areas had higher disability areas compared to urban (1670 v. 1599 per 100 000). Currently married, working populations and literate populations had lower disability rates. Disability rate in the Scheduled Castes was higher at 1763 per 100 000 compared to the Scheduled Tribes and other social groups. Multiple disability was high in the age groups 0-19 years and 60 years and above. Physical or mental disability was observed in 1.6% of the population of Tamil Nadu. Research is warranted to identify underlying causes and interventions to reduce the burden of disability in the state.

  17. Prevalence and predictors of sunburn among beachgoers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Troya-Martín, Magdalena; de Gálvez-Aranda, María Victoria; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Blázquez-Sánchez, Nuria; Fernández-Morano, Maria Teresa; Padilla-España, Laura; Herrera-Ceballos, Enrique

    2018-03-01

    Painful sunburns at any age are one of the main risk factors for skin cancer. To determine the prevalence and predictors of sunburn among beachgoers. A cross-sectional health survey was conducted at the beach during the summer. Adults >18 years with an understanding of Spanish were interviewed using a questionnaire about behaviours, attitudes and knowledge related to sun exposure at the beach. A descriptive analysis was performed, and a log-binomial regression model was used to determine predictors of sunburn. The survey was completed by 1054 beachgoers, with a mean age of 43.8 (SD: 18.7) years, 61.2% women, skin phototypes i (13.6%), ii (22.3%), iii (34.0%) and iv (30.2%). 46.9% of responders reported at least one painful sunburn during the previous summer. Age, sex, education, skin phototype, midday sun exposure, sun protection habits, attitudes towards tanning and knowledge about skin cancer were identified as independent predictors of sunburn. It is necessary to develop photoprotection campaigns aimed at beachgoers, particularly in young people, men, those with skin phototypes I-III and secondary or university education. Educational strategies should be aimed at discouraging sun exposure at midday, changing attitudes towards tanning and improving knowledge about skin cancer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Incidence and prevalence of psoriasis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Skov, Lone; Gislason, Gunnar H.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and temporal trends of psoriasis in Denmark between 2003 and 2012 were examined. There was a female predominance ranging between 50.0% (2007) and 55.4% (2009), and the mean age at time of diagnosis was 47.7-58.7 years. A total of 126,055 patients with psoriasis (prevalence 2.2%) were...... identified. Incidence rates of psoriasis (per 100,000 person years) ranged from 107.5 in 2005 to a peak incidence of 199.5 in 2010. Incidence rates were higher for women, and patients aged 60-69 years, respectively. Use of systemic non-biologic agents, i.e. methotrexate, cyclosporine, retinoids, or psoralen...... plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) increased over the study course, and were used in 15.0% of all patients. Biologic agents (efalizumab, etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, or ustekinumab) were utilized in 2.7% of patients. On a national level, incidence of psoriasis fluctuated during the 10- year study course...

  19. Prevalence and causes of abnormal PSA recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Noémie; Müntener, Michael; Zanoni, Paolo; Saleh, Lanja; Saba, Karim; Umbehr, Martin; Velagapudi, Srividya; Hof, Danielle; Sulser, Tullio; Wild, Peter J; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Poyet, Cédric

    2018-01-26

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is of paramount importance as a diagnostic tool for the detection and monitoring of patients with prostate cancer. In the presence of interfering factors such as heterophilic antibodies or anti-PSA antibodies the PSA test can yield significantly falsified results. The prevalence of these factors is unknown. We determined the recovery of PSA concentrations diluting patient samples with a standard serum of known PSA concentration. Based on the frequency distribution of recoveries in a pre-study on 268 samples, samples with recoveries 120% were defined as suspect, re-tested and further characterized to identify the cause of interference. A total of 1158 consecutive serum samples were analyzed. Four samples (0.3%) showed reproducibly disturbed recoveries of 10%, 68%, 166% and 4441%. In three samples heterophilic antibodies were identified as the probable cause, in the fourth anti-PSA-autoantibodies. The very low recovery caused by the latter interference was confirmed in serum, as well as heparin- and EDTA plasma of blood samples obtained 6 months later. Analysis by eight different immunoassays showed recoveries ranging between PSA which however did not show any disturbed PSA recovery. About 0.3% of PSA determinations by the electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA) of Roche diagnostics are disturbed by heterophilic or anti-PSA autoantibodies. Although they are rare, these interferences can cause relevant misinterpretations of a PSA test result.

  20. Why fast magnetic reconnection is so prevalent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2018-02-01

    Evolving magnetic fields are shown to generically reach a state of fast magnetic reconnection in which magnetic field line connections change and magnetic energy is released at an Alfvénic rate. This occurs even in plasmas with zero resistivity; only the finiteness of the mass of the lightest charged particle, an electron, is required. The speed and prevalence of Alfvénic or fast magnetic reconnection imply that its cause must be contained within the ideal evolution equation for magnetic fields, , where is the velocity of the magnetic field lines. For a generic , neighbouring magnetic field lines develop a separation that increases exponentially, as \\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E(\\ell ,t)}$ with the distance along a line. This exponentially enhances the sensitivity of the evolution to non-ideal effects. An analogous effect, the importance of stirring to produce a large-scale flow and enhance mixing, has been recognized by cooks through many millennia, but the importance of the large-scale flow to reconnection is customarily ignored. In part this is due to the sixty-year focus of recognition theory on two-coordinate models, which eliminate the exponential enhancement that is generic with three coordinates. A simple three-coordinate model is developed, which could be used to address many unanswered questions.

  1. [Psychogenic tics: clinical characteristics and prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Piotr; Milanowski, Lukasz; Szejko, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Clinical characteristics and the prevalence of psychogenic tics (PT) METHODS: 268 consecutively examined patients aged 4 to 54 years (221 men, 47 females; 134 children, 134 adults) with tic phenotype: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS, n = 255), chronic motor tics (n = 6), chronic vocal tics (n= 1), transient tics (n = 1), tics unclassified (n = 2), PT (n= 5) were analyzed. The diagnosis of tic disorders was made on the DSM-IV-TR criteria and mental disorders by psychiatrists. PT were found in 5 patients (1.9%), aged 17 to 51 years, four men and one woman. The phenotype included vocalizations and complex movements. In none of the patients simple motor facial tics, inability to tic suppress, unchanging clinical pattern, peak severity from the beginning of the disease, lack of concern about the disease were present. The absence of premonitory urges, regression in unexpected positions, and the presence of atypical for GTS mental disorders were found in two persons. PT occurred in three persons in whom organic tics were present in childhood. Pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy were unsuccessful. In two persons spontaneous resolution occurred, in two patients the tics persist, in one person the course of PT is unknown. PT are rare and may occur in patients with organic tics. The most typical features of PT are: early onset in adulthood, lack of simple motor tics, inability to tic suppress. The diagnosis is established if a few atypical symptoms for organic tics occur.

  2. Incidence and Prevalence of Psoriasis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Skov, Lone; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and temporal trends of psoriasis in Denmark between 2003 and 2012 were examined. There was a female predominance ranging between 50.0% (2007) and 55.4% (2009), and the mean age at time of diagnosis was 47.7-58.7 years. A total of 126,055 patients with psoriasis (prevalence 2.2%) were...... identified. Incidence rates of psoriasis (per 100,000 person years) ranged from 107.5 in 2005 to a peak incidence of 199.5 in 2010. Incidence rates were higher for women, and patients aged 60-69 years, respectively. Use of systemic non-biologic agents, i.e. methotrexate, cyclosporine, retinoids, or psoralen...... plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) increased over the study course, and were used in 15.0% of all patients. Biologic agents (efalizumab, etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, or ustekinumab) were utilized in 2.7% of patients. On a national level, incidence of psoriasis fluctuated during the 10-year study course...

  3. The Prevalence of Longevity Among Leading Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T. Hudson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The longevity of brands is embedded in scholarship involving brand processes that evolve over time such as brand equity, loyalty, nostalgia, and lifecycle. It is also an important conceptual element in the emerging topic of brand heritage. This paper offers new insight regarding the prevalence of brand longevity in a variety of industries, based on historical research about 148 leading brands ranked in prior studies by the consulting firm Interbrand. The author finds that a significant proportion (64 brands representing 43% of the total number are aged 100 years or more. The oldest brands are grouped in the food industry, while some of the youngest brands are grouped in the hospitality industry. The author applies the principles of scale and scope from the work of business historian Alfred Chandler to explain the timing of this industry emergence. The advanced age of many leading brands suggests the need for stewardship to preserve and protect the equity that resides in historic brands, and supports the argument that further attention should be directed toward the study of brand heritage effects.

  4. The prevalence of plant food allergies: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidmeer, Laurian; Goldhahn, Klaus; Rona, Roberto J.; Gislason, David; Madsen, Charlotte; Summers, Colin; Sodergren, Eva; Dahlstrom, Jorgen; Lindner, Titia; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T.; McBride, Doreen; Keil, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty regarding the prevalence of allergies to plant food. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of allergies to plant food according to the different subjective and objective assessment methods. METHODS: Our systematic search of population-based studies (since 1990) in the

  5. Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Academic Corruption in Rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the prevalence, causes and effects of academic corruption in Rivers State universities, Nigeria. Data were collected from 400 respondents using a 'Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Academic Corruption Questionnaire' (PCEACQ). The data were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages.

  6. Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of autism among children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence and socio-economic determinants of autism among children attending primary and secondary schools in South East, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that assessed the prevalence and socio-economic pattern of childhood autism ...

  7. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome: A community survey in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: IBS as diagnosed by the Rome II criteria has a high prevalence in the African rural ... It has been shown that 15% of adults in the ... showed 30% prevalence in a select population of .... health care at primary health facilities within Jos, ... Previous workers have .... at the Palace Hotel in San Francisco, Carlifornia.

  8. The prevalence of encopresis in a multicultural population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, M. F.; Benninga, M. A.; Hirasing, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Population-based studies on the prevalence of encopresis in children are scarce and generally outdated. Prevalence estimates based on clinical studies are unreliable because parents tend to be reticent to seek medical help for this problem. Professional help is necessary, however,

  9. Prevalence and correlates of auditory vocal hallucinations in middle childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels-Velthuis, A.A.; Jenner, J.A.; van de Willige, G.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.

    Background Hearing voices occurs in middle childhood, but little is known about prevalence, aetiology and immediate consequences. Aims To investigate prevalence, developmental risk factors and behavioural correlates of auditory vocal hallucinations in 7- and 8-year-olds. Method Auditory vocal

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of articular manifestations in human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and characteristics of articular manifestations in human immune virus infection. ... Objectives: To determine the prevalence, types and characteristics of articular manifestations in the anti-retroviral treatment naive HIV infected patients. Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: Comprehensive care clinic ...

  11. Sero-prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and seven (307) healthy blood donors aged 18 – 55 years were used to determine the sero-prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Yola, Nigeria. The association between donors' age, occupation and marital status and the prevalence of the infections among blood ...

  12. Prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV are common blood-borne infections unevenly distributed across regions in Nigeria. Few population-based prevalence studies have been done in Nigeria. Objective. To determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV and risk factors for infection with ...

  13. Prevalence of blood parasites in seabirds - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quillfeldt Petra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction While blood parasites are common in many birds in the wild, some groups seem to be much less affected. Seabirds, in particular, have often been reported free from blood parasites, even in the presence of potential vectors. Results From a literature review of hemosporidian prevalence in seabirds, we collated a dataset of 60 species, in which at least 15 individuals had been examined. These data were included in phylogenetically controlled statistical analyses of hemosporidian prevalence in relation to ecological and life-history parameters. Haemoproteus parasites were common in frigatebirds and gulls, while Hepatozoon occurred in albatrosses and storm petrels, and Plasmodium mainly in penguins. The prevalence of Haemoproteus showed a geographical signal, being lower in species with distribution towards polar environments. Interspecific differences in Plasmodium prevalence were explained by variables that relate to the exposure to parasites, suggesting that prevalence is higher in burrow nesters with long fledgling periods. Measures of Plasmodium, but not Haemoproteus prevalences were influenced by the method, with PCR-based data resulting in higher prevalence estimates. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that, as in other avian taxa, phylogenetic, ecological and life-history parameters determine the prevalence of hemosporidian parasites in seabirds. We discuss how these relationships should be further explored in future studies.

  14. Prevalence of very mild to severe dementia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K; Lolk, A; Nielsen, H

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of dementia has been estimated in several countries and a meta-analysis has shown moderate and severe dementia in people aged 65 years and older to be between 4% and 6%. The Odense study is aiming to estimate the prevalence and incidence of dementia and to identify risk factors....

  15. Prevalence of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, Silvia A.; Endert, Erik; Fliers, Eric; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Autoimmune hypophysitis can result in GH deficiency (GHD) and is associated with other autoimmune endocrine diseases like Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Recent studies suggest a high prevalence (5%) of GHD in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Objective: Our objective was to establish the prevalence of GHD

  16. HIV / AIDS prevalence testing - merits, methodology and outcomes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV / AIDS prevalence testing - merits, methodology and outcomes of a survey conducted at a large mining organisation in South Africa. ... These baseline prevalence data also provide an opportunity for monitoring of proposed interventions using cross-sectional surveys at designated intervals in the future. South African ...

  17. Prevalence of overweight in Dutch children with Down Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M. van; Dommelen, P. van; Schönbeck, Y.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.; Wouwen, J.P. van; Buitendijk, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of overweight in children is increasing, causing various health problems. This study aims to establish growth references for weight and to assess the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in a nationwide sample of Dutch children with Down syndrome (DS), taking into account the

  18. The Prevalence of Obesity as Indicated by BMI and Waist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in most developed countries and in urban areas of many less developed countries has been increasing markedly over the past twenty years. This study\\'s aims were to determine the prevalence of obesity using BMI and waist circumference among Nigerian adults ...

  19. The prevalence and Predictors of generalised obesity in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases has become a global epidemic even in the developing nations of the world. Epidemiologic transition with rapid urbanisation is important variable implicated in the rising prevalence of obesity. The prevalence of this major risk factor for ...

  20. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide and has implications for a variety of diseases. This has been due to various causes such as poor nutrition, inactivity or both. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary ...

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity and high blood pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of diet-related chronic diseases like hypertension and obesity among others has become a public health concern. Risk factors for these diseases have been well studied in high income countries but less studied in developing countries. Objective: The study was to document the prevalence and ...

  2. prevalence and predictors of intestinal helminthiasis among school

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    2011-11-03

    Nov 3, 2011 ... Gilgel Gibe Hydroelectric Power to determine the prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitic infections among school children. This study is conducted as sub-study to the main study; the objective of which was to determine the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis, and related factors such as risk ...

  3. Prevalence of asthma among school children in Gaborone, Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asthma prevalence is high (>10%) in developed countries and although data is still missing for most of Africa, rates are increasing in developing regions as they become more westernized. We investigated the prevalence of asthma in school children in Gaborone, Botswana. Methods: This was a cross sectional ...

  4. original article prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of ampc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    (10/50 or /20%), and E. coli (47/247 or 19.3%) while Amp C producers were detected more in Klebsiella pneumoniae (4%) and E. coli (2.8%). Of the specimens screened, distribution varies between ESBL and AmpC producers, but more prevalent in urinary tract pathogens in both. Highest prevalence of ESBLs and AmpC ...

  5. The prevalence of HIV infection among cannabis-abused psychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of HIV infection among cannabis-abused psychiatric patients: the case of federal psychiatric hospital, Calabar. ... called “Prevalence of HIV infection and Cannabis-Abused Questionnaire” (P.H.I.C.Q.), while data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using contingency chi-square (X2) technique.

  6. Birth prevalence of Prader-Willi syndrome in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A; Egan, J; Ridley, G; Haan, E; Montgomery, P; Williams, K; Elliott, E

    2003-03-01

    This is the first population based study to estimate the birth prevalence of DNA proven Prader-Willi syndrome. Thirty infants were reported to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit between 1998 and 2000, a prevalence of 4 per 100,000 live births or approximately 1/25,000 live births per annum.

  7. An investigation into the prevalence of water borne diseases in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water-borne diseases are the most prevalent infectious diseases in the developing countries especially in new settlements along the river. The present investigation was carried out to assess the prevalence rate of water-borne diseases among people residing near the left bank of River Ravi. This study has a descriptive ...

  8. The Prevalence of Encopresis in a Multicultural Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, M.F.; Benninga, M.A.; Hira Sing, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Population-based studies on the prevalence of encopresis in children are scarce and generally outdated. Prevalence estimates based on clinical studies are unreliable because parents tend to be reticent to seek medical help for this problem. Professional help is necessary, however,

  9. Prevalence of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Related Symptoms among Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome among 1,474 nurses was addressed through a mailed questionnaire (202 respondents). Demographic characteristics, symptoms, and possible prevalence rates are presented and discussed. Implications of these findings are considered, and the methodology used is analyzed. Suggestions are made for conducting…

  10. Prevalence of camel tuberculosis and associated risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional abattoir based study was conducted from February 2014 to October, 2015 on camels slaughtered at Akaki municipality abattoir to determine the prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels and assess the association of risk factors with the prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels using single intra-dermal ...

  11. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State. ... The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of DM in the rural southern Free State and to investigate the contribution of risk ... A need for intervention regarding the identification and treatment of DM in these rural areas has been identified.

  12. Prevalence and determinants of glucose intolerance among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ±SD age of 38±15 years were HAARTtreated; while 200 (61 males and 139 females) with mean±SD age of 33±17 years were HAART-naive. Overall, the prevalence of GI was 40.4% (IFG) 19.5%, IGT 11.5% and DM 9.4%. The prevalence of ...

  13. The prevalence and age distribution of peripheral pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This autopsy-based study defined the prevalence and age distribution of peripheral pulmonary hamartomas in 47635 southern African miners examined between 1975 and 1988. The prevalence rate for white miners was 7,5/1000 and for black miners 1,1/1 000. When directly standardised to the white men in the general ...

  14. Lipid profile frequency and the prevalence of dyslipidaemia from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypercholesterolemia correlated significantly with age and sex. Conclusion: Our study showed a relatively low request rate for lipid profile and a high prevalence of dyslipidaemia hence the importance of conducting a major study on the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated factors in the Senegalese population.

  15. Prevalence and anthelmintic resistance of strongyle parasites in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of infection and level of anthelmintic resistance (AR) of strongyle nematodes to ivermectin (IV), albendazole (AB) and levamisole (LV) in Dorper lambs were determined. The overall prevalence was 67.0% and mean eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces was 357. Infection was light in 92.5%, moderate in 4.5% and high ...

  16. Infection prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and associated risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    prevalence rate, identifying risk factors of infection and high-risk groups. ... other hand, the highest (31.2%) prevalence was recorded in children with ages ranging from 10 ..... School children and their teachers were acknowledged for ... transmission and infection with S. mansoni in village in the South eastern Brazil. Mem.

  17. Prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them

  18. How to identify tuberculosis cases in a prevalence survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, M. J.; Enarson, D. A.; Borgdorff, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    The identification of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases in a prevalence Survey is a challenge, as diagnostic methods are labour-intensivc and large numbers of individuals need to be screened because the prevalence rate is low (almost never greater than 1200 per 100000 population). Three testing

  19. Prevalence of active trachoma two years after control activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of TF/TI showed significant reduction (p-value <0.001) in all five districts and overall in the two regions. Conclusion: Trachoma control activities over a two-year period in two regions in Ghana had led to significant reduction in the prevalence of active disease. Integrated surveillance and active monitoring will ...

  20. Clinical Profile and HIV/AIDS Prevalence of Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Clinical features of HIV/AIDS and various malignancies are similar. Clinical profiles and HIV/AIDS prevalence in Nigerian cancer patients have been poorly documented. Aim: To identify the patterns of clinical presentations in patients with malignancies and to determine the prevalence of HIV infection in cancer ...

  1. Prevalence, antibiotic-resistance properties and enterotoxin gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, antibiotic-resistance properties and enterotoxin gene profile of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from milk-based baby foods. ... Conclusion: Considerable prevalence of resistant and toxigenic B. cereus and high consumption of milk-based infant foods in Iran, represent an important public health issue which ...

  2. Studies on the Prevalence of Trichomoniasis among Women in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexually Transmitted Diseases(STDs) have been prevalent human infections and is on the increase in most tropical and sub-tropical African countries including Nigeria. A survey of the prevalence of Trichomoniasis, was carried out in Jos-North Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria in 2010. A total of 300 women ...

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of workplace violence against health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Emergency department is one of the high-risk areas, where violence against health care workers (HCWs) is a prevalent and serious problem. Violence has negative effects on HCWs, and therefore on the quality of care provided in emergency department. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, types, ...

  4. Prevalence of Rhesus Negative Gene and Awareness of its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of the Rhesus negative gene was 7.5%. Only 5% were aware of the implications of Rhesus status. The prevalence is comparable with previous reports, the use of anti-D immunoglobulin is advised when appropriate. Key Words: Rhesus negative, genotype anti-D immunoglobulin. Jnl of Medical Investigation ...

  5. [Reasons and prevalence of body image dissatisfaction in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Edio Luiz; Pelegrini, Andreia; Glaner, Maria Fátima

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of body image (BI) dissatisfaction in adolescents. The study enrolled 641 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the town of Saudades, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of BI dissatisfaction was 60.4% (males = 54.5%, females = 65.7%; p vigorexia).

  6. [Using log-binomial model for estimating the prevalence ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Rong; Gao, Yan-hui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Yue

    2010-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence ratios, using a log-binomial model with or without continuous covariates. Prevalence ratios for individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation associated with smoking status, estimated by using a log-binomial model were compared with odds ratios estimated by logistic regression model. In the log-binomial modeling, maximum likelihood method was used when there were no continuous covariates and COPY approach was used if the model did not converge, for example due to the existence of continuous covariates. We examined the association between individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation and smoking status in men and women. Prevalence ratio and odds ratio estimation provided similar results for the association in women since smoking was not common. In men however, the odds ratio estimates were markedly larger than the prevalence ratios due to a higher prevalence of outcome. The log-binomial model did not converge when age was included as a continuous covariate and COPY method was used to deal with the situation. All analysis was performed by SAS. Prevalence ratio seemed to better measure the association than odds ratio when prevalence is high. SAS programs were provided to calculate the prevalence ratios with or without continuous covariates in the log-binomial regression analysis.

  7. Tinnitus and the prevalence of co-morbid psychological stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three (3.2) patients had both depression and anxiety. Eighty three (90.2%) patients were in the active and productive age group with 13 patients (prevalence of 14.1%) having depression and 20 patients (prevalence of 21.7%) with anxiety. Conclusion: We recommend the screening or assessment for psychological distress ...

  8. Prevalence of gastroduodenal lesions in chronic nonsteroidal anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At endoscopy, only 10 (13.9%) patients had normal gastroduodenal mucosa. Gastritis was the most prevalent lesion occurring in 50% of the patients. Peptic ulcer disease had a point prevalence of 30.5% (duodenal ulcers 22.2%, and gastric ulcers 8.3%). Other lesions at endoscopy were duodenitis 16.7%, gastric erosions ...

  9. Family planning use: prevalence, pattern and predictors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: High fertility,high birth rates and low family planning prevalence rate is a common feature in developing countries with consequent rapid population growth. Family planning has saved the lives and protected the health of millions of women and children. This study aims to ascertain prevalence, pattern and ...

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of latent Tuberculosis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    termine the risk factors of prevalent LTBI. We used a mixed effects binomial model with a logarithmic link function to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for risk fac- tors of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Ethical consideration. The study was approved by the Makerere University. School of Public Health–Higher Degrees and ...

  11. Prevalence and risk factors associated with retinopathy in diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetic retinopathy is the fifth leading cause of blindness worldwide accounting for nearly 5% of all blindness. However, most of the prevalence and incidence data is from developed countries, with very limited information from sub-Saharan Africa. The study sought to determine the prevalence of, and factors associated ...

  12. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the associated behavioral risks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The prevalence of type 2 Diabetes is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, hence the need for early identification of risk factors. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the associated behavioral risks among secondary school staff in Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

  13. Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colijn, Johanna M.; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H. S.; Prokofyeva, Elena; Alves, Dalila; Cachulo, Maria L.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Cougnard-Gregoire, Audrey; Merle, Bénédicte M. J.; Korb, Christina; Erke, Maja G.; Bron, Alain; Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios; Meester-Smoor, Magda A.; Segato, Tatiana; Piermarocchi, Stefano; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Topouzis, Fotis; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Bertelsen, Geir; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Fletcher, Astrid E.; Foster, Paul J.; Silva, Rufino; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Delcourt, Cécile; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Ajana, Soufiane; Arango-Gonzalez, Blanca; Arndt, Verena; Bhatia, Vaibhav; Bhattacharya, Shomi S.; Biarnés, Marc; Borrell, Anna; Bühren, Sebastian; Calado, Sofia M.; Cougnard-Grégoire, Audrey; Dammeier, Sascha; de Jong, Eiko K.; de la Cerda, Berta; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Diaz-Corrales, Francisco J.; Diether, Sigrid; Emri, Eszter; Endermann, Tanja; Ferraro, Lucia L.; Garcia, Míriam; Heesterbeek, Thomas J.; Honisch, Sabina; Bergen, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a frequent, complex disorder in elderly of European ancestry. Risk profiles and treatment options have changed considerably over the years, which may have affected disease prevalence and outcome. We determined the prevalence of early and late AMD in

  14. Refusal bias in the estimation of HIV prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Wendy; van der Gaag, Jacques; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Tanović, Zlata

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, UNAIDS corrected estimates of global HIV prevalence downward from 40 million to 33 million based on a methodological shift from sentinel surveillance to population-based surveys. Since then, population-based surveys are considered the gold standard for estimating HIV prevalence. However,

  15. Prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt: associations with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Research on the prevalence of suicidal ideation, attempt, and cormorbid psychiatric disorders in post-conflict areas is still limited. Aim: We explored the prevalence of suicidal ideation, attempt, associated psychiatric disorders and HIV/AIDS in post-conflict Northern Uganda, an area that experienced civil strife ...

  16. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in an African, Urban inner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The object of this community based study was to determine the prevalence of selected cardiovascular risk factors in an urban inner city community which had been followed up prospectively from 1993 to 1998. Results show that the prevalence of hypertension (Blood Pressure BP > 160/95 mm Hg) was 12.4 percent with an ...

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Maternal Anemia in Rural Sidama ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to assess the prevalence and correlates of prenatal anemia, a survey was conducted among 700 randomly selected pregnant women in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia. The prevalences of anemia, Iron Deficiency (ID) and ID anemia were 31.6%, 17.4% and 8.7%, respectively. The burden of anemia was ...

  18. Pathogen Prevalence From Traditional Cage and Free Range Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview: A study was conducted to determine if differences in pathogen prevalence occurred between a sister flock of conventional cage and free range laying hens. Both environmental and egg microbiology was monitored throughout 20 – 79 weeks of age. Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Listeria preval...

  19. Contraceptive prevalence and factors associated with usage of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 72% of the female respondents and 36.6% of the male respondents knew more than one method of family planning. The overall modern contraceptive prevalence rate was 28.6%(35.5% urban and 11% rural). Modern Contraceptive prevalence among married women was 32.1%. Injectable contraceptives were used ...

  20. Prevalence and factors affecting use of long acting and permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: In Ethiopia, knowledge of contraceptive methods is high though there is low contraceptive prevalence rate. This study was aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Jinka town, southern Ethiopia. Methods: Community based cross sectional ...

  1. Prevalence of gingivitis among school attendees in Qazvin, Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: In present study the frequency of gingivitis was found to be higher. According to the high prevalence of gingivitis the most prevalent areas of plaque and gingivitis identified in this study should be taken in consideration during oral hygiene instructions, which should be given to children, parents, and teachers ...

  2. Sex Prevalence of Schistosomiasis among School Children in Five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken among school children in 5 communities in the lower Volta Basin in South eastern Ghana to assess sex prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among the children. Results obtained showed that the disease prevalence was higher among the female pupils (64%) than their male counterparts ...

  3. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yau, Joanne W Y; Rogers, Sophie L; Kawasaki, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes.......To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes....

  4. Short Communication: Prevalence of hypertension and variation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Prevalence of hypertension and variation of blood pressure with age among adolescents in Chetla, India. I Saha, B Paul, A Dasgupta. Abstract. This community-based cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of hypertension and variation of blood pressure with age among ...

  5. Variation of a test's sensitivity and specificity with disease prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, Mariska M. G.; Rutjes, Anne W. S.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that the sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic test may vary with disease prevalence. Our objective was to investigate the associations between disease prevalence and test sensitivity and specificity using studies of diagnostic accuracy. We used data from 23

  6. Socio-economic background and prevalence of visual defects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thrust of this study is to examine the socio-economic background and prevalence of visual defects among students in public and private secondary schools in Calabar municipality in Cross River State. The main objective of the study is to screen for and present information on the prevalence of visual defects amongst the ...

  7. Prevalence and Costs of Five Chronic Conditions in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gabrielle F.; Coffield, Edward; Leroy, Zanie; Wallin, Robin

    2016-01-01

    The objective is to examine the prevalence and health-care costs associated with asthma, epilepsy, hypertension, food allergies, and diabetes in children aged 0-18 years. Prevalence was calculated using 2005-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data, a population-based, nationally representative sample. Using MEPS, two-part models…

  8. The Prevalence of Depression among patients and its detection by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Little information is available on the prevalence of depression in Malawi in primary health care settings and yet there is increased number of cases of depression presenting at tertiary level in severe form. Aim The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of depression among patients and its detection ...

  9. prevalence and age distribution of peripheral hamartomas in adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-07-24

    Jul 24, 1990 ... distribution of peripheral pulmonary hamartomas in 47635 southern African miners ... The prevalence rate for white miners was 7,5/1000 and for ..... in childhood and are never seen at birth.14 The peak prevalence is reported ...

  10. Association of HIV prevalence and concurrency of sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of HIV prevalence and concurrency of sexual partnerships in South Africa's language groups: An ecological analysis. C Kenyon. Abstract. Background. There is considerable variation in HIV prevalence between different language groups in South Africa (SA). Sexual partner concurrency has been linked to the ...

  11. Strong Country Level Correlation between Syphilis and HSV-2 Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris Richard; Tsoumanis, Achilleas

    2016-01-01

    Background. Syphilis is curable but Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) is not. As a result, the prevalence of syphilis but not HSV-2 may be influenced by the efficacy of national STI screening and treatment capacity. If the prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is found to be correlated, then this makes it more likely that something other than differential STI treatment is responsible for variations in the prevalence of both HSV-2 and syphilis. Methods. Simple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between national antenatal syphilis prevalence and HSV-2 prevalence in women in two time periods: 1990–1999 and 2008. Adjustments were performed for the laboratory syphilis testing algorithm used and the prevalence of circumcision. Results. The prevalence of syphilis was positively correlated with that of HSV-2 for both time periods (adjusted correlations, 20–24-year-olds: 1990–99: R 2 = 0.54, P < 0.001; 2008: R 2 = 0.41, P < 0.001 and 40–44-year-olds: 1990–99: R 2 = 0.42, P < 0.001; 2008: R 2 = 0.49, P < 0.001). Conclusion. The prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is positively correlated. This could be due to a common set of risk factors underpinning both STIs. PMID:27069710

  12. The prevalence of food allergy: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rona, Roberto J.; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin; Gislason, David; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Sodergren, Eva; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T.; Lindner, Titia; Goldhahn, Klaus; Dahlstrom, Jorgen; McBride, Doreen; Madsen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish, and an overall estimate of food

  13. Post-operative pain prevalence, predictors, management practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MWASHAMBWA

    developing countries however, the prevalence of post-operative pain is relatively very high and pain control strategies ... Keywords: post-operative pain, prevalence, predictors, pain management, satisfaction, Tanzania. Introduction ..... perception and patterns of cerebral activation during noxious heat stimulation in humans.

  14. Influence of gender on prevalence of overweight and obesity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight and obesity are serious health concerns for children. However, only a few studies have investigated the influence of gender on prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to investigate gender influence on prevalence of overweight and obesity ...

  15. Prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Owerri Municipal council area in Imo State, Nigeria between December 2001 and October 2002. Of 250 women examined, 200 women were pregnant. Of the 200 pregnant women examined, 22 (11.0%) had malaria parasitaemia. Prevalence ...

  16. Prevalence of Preinvasive Lesions of the Cervix in Maiduguri, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the prevalence of pre-invasive lesions of the cervix. A 15year review of Papanicolau smear for cervical cytology carried out from January 1993 to December 2007. Of the 2082 cervical cytology reports, 162 smears showed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), thus giving 7.8% as the prevalence of CIN.

  17. Prevalence of Human Rhinovirus Infection in Children with Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    RESULTS. Demographic characteristics revealed that the prevalence of rhinovirus infection in children showed 38% positivity of which 20 (10.0%) were males while 17 (8.5%) were females. Children between the ages ofO-24 months have the highest prevalence of 45.9% while those older than 96 months have the least.

  18. Prevalence of low back pain among filling stations attendants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 12 months prevalence of LBP prior to the study, severity of LBP, history of LBP, causative factors and management of LBP and its effect on filling stations attendant's activities and activities of daily living. It was adapted from a previous study Titled Prevalence of Low Back Pain among Traffic Warden in Lagos state. The data ...

  19. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Type 58 in Women With or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    most sexually active individuals are exposed to and acquire infection from this virus at some phase in their lives.[2,3] HPV infection is most prevalent in young adults, at the beginning of their sexual activity, with a subsequent decline in the prevalence with increasing age, likely a result of the development of an immune ...

  20. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Lanzarote (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J R; Rodriguez, S; Sosa Henriquez, M; Batista, E; Corujo, E; Font de Mora Turon, A; Hernandez Hernandez, D; Betancor Leon, P

    1989-02-01

    In the island of Lanzarote of the Province of Las Palmas, which is part of the Spanish archipelago of the Canary Islands, the prevalence of multiple sclerosis is 15 per 100,000. The prevalence of MS in Lanzarote seems related more to ethnic conditions than to geography.

  1. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients seeking medical care at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a key metabolic endocrine disorder escalating in the course of rapid population growth, aging, urbanization, and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. This study was conducted to assess prevalence of DM and associated risk factors among outpatients seeking ...

  2. Prevalence and awareness of type 2 diabetes mellitus among adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence is increasing rapidly around the world. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and awareness of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mwanza city, Tanzania. A multistage random sampling technique was used to obtain representative subjects. Information ...

  3. Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colijn, Johanna M; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Prokofyeva, Elena

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a frequent, complex disorder in elderly of European ancestry. Risk profiles and treatment options have changed considerably over the years, which may have affected disease prevalence and outcome. We determined the prevalence of early and late AMD...

  4. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in elderly Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erke, Maja G; Bertelsen, Geir; Peto, Tunde

    2012-01-01

    To describe the sex- and age-specific prevalence of drusen, geographic atrophy, and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).......To describe the sex- and age-specific prevalence of drusen, geographic atrophy, and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD)....

  5. Prevalence of Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in Finnish Slaughter Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen Ibañez, T; Laukkanen-Ninios, R; Hakkinen, M; Johansson, T; Vilar, M; Korkeala, H

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was determined in tonsil and intestinal content samples from 388 healthy fattening pigs at the four biggest Finnish slaughterhouses. These slaughterhouses process 73% of pigs in Finland. Tonsil samples were tested by PCR targeted for yadA, and intestinal samples were cultured. All pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates represented bioserotype 4/O:3. The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil samples was 60% (95% confidence limit, 55.4 to 65.1%), and its prevalence in intestinal samples was 26% (95% confidence limit, 22.1 to 31.2%). The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil and intestinal samples varied between the four slaughterhouses. The tonsil prevalence of Y. enterocolitica was higher in slaughterhouse B, and the prevalence in intestinal content was higher in slaughterhouse C. There were more positive results in both tonsil and intestinal samples in pigs coming from fattening farms than in pigs coming from farrowing-and-fattening farms. A seasonal variation was observed in the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in intestinal samples, with the highest prevalence during July and August, but no seasonal variation was detected in tonsil samples.

  6. The prevalence of malnutrition in children admitted to a general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The prevalence of malnutrition, an important contributor to childhood mortality, is poorly described in hospitalised South African (SA) children, many of whom are HIV-exposed or HIV-infected. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of malnutrition in infants and children <14 years of age admitted to a general ...

  7. Prevalence of astigmatism in Native American infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Messer, Dawn H; Miller, Joseph M

    2010-06-01

    To describe the prevalence of high astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. SureSight autorefraction measurements were obtained for 1461 Tohono O'odham children aged 6 months to 8 years. The prevalence of astigmatism >2.00 diopters was 30% in Tohono O'odham children during infancy (6 months to O'odham infants show a high prevalence of astigmatism, which decreases in the second year of life. However, the prevalence of high astigmatism in Tohono O'odham children increases by age 2 to <3 years to a level near that seen in infancy and remains at that level until at least age 8 years. Longitudinal data are needed to determine whether the increase in high astigmatism after infancy occurs in infants who had astigmatism as infants or is due to the development of high astigmatism in children who did not show astigmatism during infancy.

  8. The impact of different diagnostic criteria on PTSD prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja; Lasgaard, Mathias; Spindler, Helle

    2007-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria for PTSD have undergone several changes in the last two decades. This may in part explain the great variance in PTSD prevalence found in existing research. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of different diagnostic criteria and different combinations...... of criteria on PTSD prevalence. A sample of 242 Danish social work students (M =29.2 years) completed a list of potentially traumatizing events, major life events and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. A considerable difference in PTSD prevalence as a result of different diagnostic criteria of PTSD was found....... Future meta-analyses and reviews of PTSD prevalence must take into account the impact of changing criteria on prevalence. Clinicians also need to address this issue when assessing PTSD...

  9. Recreational nitrous oxide use: Prevalence and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nabben, Ton; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O; laughing gas) is clinically used as a safe anesthetic (dentistry, ambulance, childbirth) and appreciated for its anti-anxiety effect. Since five years, recreational use of N2O is rapidly increasing especially in the dance and festival scene. In the UK, N2O is the second most popular recreational drug after cannabis. In most countries, nitrous oxide is a legal drug that is widely available and cheap. Last month prevalence of use among clubbers and ravers ranges between 40 and almost 80 percent. Following one inhalation, mostly from a balloon, a euphoric, pleasant, joyful, empathogenic and sometimes hallucinogenic effect is rapidly induced (within 10 s) and disappears within some minutes. Recreational N2O use is generally moderate with most users taking less than 10 balloons of N2O per episode and about 80% of the users having less than 10 episodes per year. Side effects of N2O include transient dizziness, dissociation, disorientation, loss of balance, impaired memory and cognition, and weakness in the legs. When intoxicated accidents like tripping and falling may occur. Some fatal accidents have been reported due to due to asphyxia (hypoxia). Heavy or sustained use of N2O inactivates vitamin B12, resulting in a functional vitamin B12 deficiency and initially causing numbness in fingers, which may further progress to peripheral neuropathy and megaloblastic anemia. N2O use does not seem to result in dependence. Considering the generally modest use of N2O and its relative safety, it is not necessary to take legal measures. However, (potential) users should be informed about the risk of vitamin B12-deficiency related neurological and hematological effects associated with heavy use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Aminoacidopathies: Prevalence, Etiology, Screening, and Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasim, Muhammad; Awan, Fazli Rabbi; Khan, Haq Nawaz; Tawab, Abdul; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ayesha, Hina

    2018-04-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are a group of inherited metabolic disorders which are caused by mutations in the specific genes that lead to impaired proteins or enzymes production. Different metabolic pathways are perturbed due to the deficiency or lack of enzymes. To date, more than 500 IEMs have been reported with most of them being untreatable. However, fortunately 91 such disorders are potentially treatable, if diagnosed at an earlier stage of life. IEMs have been classified into different categories and one class of IEMs, characterized by the physiological disturbances of amino acids is called as aminoacidopathies. Out of 91 treatable IEM, thirteen disorders are amino acid related. Aminoacidopathies can be detected by chromatography and mass spectrometry based analytical techniques (e.g., HPLC, GC-MS, LC-MS/MS) for amino acid level changes, and through genetic assays (e.g., PCR, TaqMan Genotyping, DNA sequencing) at the mutation level in the corresponding genes. Hence, this review is focused to describe thirteen common aminoacidopathies namely: Phenylketonuria (PKU), Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD), Homocystinuria/Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) deficiency, Tyrosinemia type II, Citrullinemia type I and type II, Argininosuccinic aciduria, Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase I (CPS) deficiency, Argininemia (arginase deficiency), Hyperornithinemia-Hyperammonemia-Homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome, N-Acetylglutamate Synthase (NAGS) deficiency, Ornithine Transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency, and Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH) complex deficiency. Furthermore, the etiology, prevalence and commonly used analytical techniques for screening of aminoacidopathies are briefly described. This information would be helpful to researchers and clinicians especially from developing countries to initiate newborn screening programs for aminoacidopathies.

  11. Prevalence of consanguineous marriages in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Hasan; Saadat, Mostafa

    2009-09-01

    Consanguineous marriage is the union of individuals having at least one common ancestor. The present cross-sectional study was done in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages in the Syrian Arab Republic. Data on consanguineous marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in this study was 67,958 (urban areas: 36,574 couples; rural areas: 31,384 couples) from the following provinces: Damascus, Hamah, Tartous, Latakia, Al Raqa, Homs, Edlep and Aleppo. In each province urban and rural areas were surveyed. Consanguineous marriage was classified by the degree of relationship between couples: double first cousins (F=1/8), first cousins (F=1/16), second cousins (F=1/64) and beyond second cousins (Fconsanguinity was 30.3% in urban and 39.8% in rural areas. Total rate of consanguinity was found to be 35.4%. The equivalent mean inbreeding coefficient (alpha) was 0.0203 and 0.0265 in urban and rural areas, respectively. The mean proportion of consanguineous marriages ranged from 67.5% in Al Raqa province to 22.1% in Latakia province. The alpha-value ranged from 0.0358 to 0.0127 in these two provinces, respectively. The western and north-western provinces (including Tartous, Lattakia and Edlep) recorded lower levels of inbreeding than the central, northern and southern provinces. The overall alpha-value was estimated to be about 0.0236 for the studied populations. First cousin marriages (with 20.9%) were the most common type of consanguineous marriages, followed by double first cousin (with 7.8%) and second cousin marriages (with 3.3%), and beyond second cousin was the least common type.

  12. Prevalence of plagiarism among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić-Zulle, Lidija; Frković, Vedran; Turk, Tamara; Azman, Josip; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2005-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of plagiarism among medical students in writing essays. During two academic years, 198 second year medical students attending Medical Informatics course wrote an essay on one of four offered articles. Two of the source articles were available in an electronic form and two in printed form. Two (one electronic and one paper article) were considered less complex and the other two more complex. The essays were examined using plagiarism detection software "WCopyfind," which counted the number of matching phrases with six or more words. Plagiarism rate, expressed as the percentage of the plagiarized text, was calculated as a ratio of the absolute number of matching words and the total number of words in the essay. Only 17 (9%) of students did not plagiarize at all and 68 (34%) plagiarized less than 10% of the text. The average plagiarism rate (% of plagiarized text) was 19% (5-95% percentile=0-88). Students who were strictly warned not to plagiarize had a higher total word count in their essays than students who were not warned (P=0.002) but there was no difference between them in the rate of plagiarism. Students with higher grades in Medical Informatics exam plagiarized less than those with lower grades (P=0.015). Gender, subject source, and complexity had no influence on the plagiarism rate. Plagiarism in writing essays is common among medical students. An explicit warning is not enough to deter students from plagiarism. Detection software can be used to trace and evaluate the rate of plagiarism in written student assays.

  13. The Prevalence of Glaucoma in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Amini

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of glaucoma in adults 40 years of age or older in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This stratified random-sampling cross-sectional population survey was performed on residents of Tehran, the capital of Iran, aged 40 years and older in the year 2001. Refraction, best-corrected visual acuity, slitlamp biomicroscopy, Goldmann applanation tonometry, funduscopy, and gonioscopy were performed in all subjects. Automated perimetry was performed in selected cases. RESULTS: Out of 4418 sampled subjects, 2184 individuals (49.4% participated in the survey. Eventually data from 2160 individuals including 814 (38% male and 1346 (62% female subjects with mean age of 55.1±10.2 (range 40-92 years were analyzed. The overall prevalence of glaucoma was 1.44% (95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.94 including primary open angle glaucoma 0.46%, chronic angle closure glaucoma 0.33%, normal tension glaucoma 0.28%, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma 0.23%, and other types of glaucoma 0.14%. More than 80% of affected subjects were unaware of their condition. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of glaucoma in adults 40 years of age or older in Tehran is 1.44%, which is in the lower range

  14. Prevalence of food sensitization and probable food allergy among adults in India: the EuroPrevall INCO study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahesh, P. A.; Wong, Gary W. K.; Ogorodova, L.; Potts, J.; Leung, T. F.; Fedorova, O.; Holla, Amrutha D.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Clare Mills, E. N.; Kummeling, I.; Versteeg, S. A.; van Ree, R.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Burney, P.

    2016-01-01

    Data are lacking regarding the prevalence of food sensitization and probable food allergy among general population in India. We report the prevalence of sensitization and probable food allergy to 24 common foods among adults from general population in Karnataka, South India. The study was conducted

  15. The EuroPrevall surveys on the prevalence of food allergies in children and adults: background and study methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummeling, I.; Mills, E. N. C.; Clausen, M.; Dubakiene, R.; Pérez, C. Farnãndez; Fernández-Rivas, M.; Knulst, A. C.; Kowalski, M. L.; Lidholm, J.; Le, T.-M.; Metzler, C.; Mustakov, T.; Popov, T.; Potts, J.; van Ree, R.; Sakellariou, A.; Töndury, B.; Tzannis, K.; Burney, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The epidemiological surveys in children and adults of the EU-funded multidisciplinary Integrated Project EuroPrevall, launched in June 2005, were designed to estimate the currently unknown prevalence of food allergy and exposure to known or suspected risk factors for food allergy across

  16. A multilevel model for cardiovascular disease prevalence in the US and its application to micro area prevalence estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congdon Peter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of disease prevalence for small areas are increasingly required for the allocation of health funds according to local need. Both individual level and geographic risk factors are likely to be relevant to explaining prevalence variations, and in turn relevant to the procedure for small area prevalence estimation. Prevalence estimates are of particular importance for major chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease. Methods A multilevel prevalence model for cardiovascular outcomes is proposed that incorporates both survey information on patient risk factors and the effects of geographic location. The model is applied to derive micro area prevalence estimates, specifically estimates of cardiovascular disease for Zip Code Tabulation Areas in the USA. The model incorporates prevalence differentials by age, sex, ethnicity and educational attainment from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Influences of geographic context are modelled at both county and state level, with the county effects relating to poverty and urbanity. State level influences are modelled using a random effects approach that allows both for spatial correlation and spatial isolates. Results To assess the importance of geographic variables, three types of model are compared: a model with person level variables only; a model with geographic effects that do not interact with person attributes; and a full model, allowing for state level random effects that differ by ethnicity. There is clear evidence that geographic effects improve statistical fit. Conclusion Geographic variations in disease prevalence partly reflect the demographic composition of area populations. However, prevalence variations may also show distinct geographic 'contextual' effects. The present study demonstrates by formal modelling methods that improved explanation is obtained by allowing for distinct geographic effects (for counties and states and for

  17. Prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis, prevalence of malaria and nutritional status of school going children in honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Franco Garcia, Dora Nelly; Fontecha Sandoval, Gustavo Adolfo; Hernandez Santana, Adriana; Singh, Prabhjot; Mancero Bucheli, Sandra Tamara; Saboya, Martha; Paz, Mirian Yolanda

    2014-10-01

    Many small studies have been done in Honduras estimating soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) prevalence but a country-wide study was last done in 2005. The country has the highest burden of malaria among all Central American countries. The present study was done to estimate country-wide STH prevalence and intensity, malaria prevalence and nutritional status in school going children. A cross-sectional study was conducted following PAHO/WHO guidelines to select a sample of school going children of 3rd to 5th grades, representative of ecological regions in the country. A survey questionnaire was filled; anthropometric measurements, stool sample for STH and blood sample for malaria were taken. Kato-Katz method was used for STH prevalence and intensity and rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for malaria parasite detection. A total of 2554 students were studied of which 43.5% had one or more STH. Trichuriasis was the most prevalent (34%) followed by ascariasis (22.3%) and hookworm (0.9%). Ecological regions II (59.7%) and VI (55.6%) in the north had the highest STH prevalence rates while IV had the lowest (10.6%). Prevalence of one or more high intensity STH was low (1.6%). Plasmodium vivax was detected by PCR in only 5 students (0.2%), all of which belonged to the same municipality; no P. falciparum infection was detected. The majority of children (83%) had normal body mass index for their respective age but a significant proportion were overweight (10.42%) and obese (4.35%). Biannual deworming campaigns would be necessary in ecological regions II and VI, where STH prevalence is >50%. High prevalence of obesity in school going children is a worrying trend and portends of future increase in obesity related diseases. Malaria prevalence, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, was low and provides evidence for Honduras to embark on elimination of the disease.

  18. Prevalence and patterns of HIV transmitted drug resistance in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Ríos, Santiago; Mejía-Villatoro, Carlos R; García-Morales, Claudia; Soto-Nava, Maribel; Escobar, Ingrid; Mendizabal, Ricardo; Girón, Amalia; García, Leticia; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    To assess human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diversity and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in Guatemala. One hundred forty-five antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients referred to the Roosevelt Hospital in Guatemala City were enrolled from October 2010 to March 2011. Plasma HIV pol sequences were obtained and TDR was assessed with the Stanford algorithm and the World Health Organization (WHO) TDR surveillance mutation list. HIV subtype B was highly prevalent in Guatemala (96.6%, 140/145), and a 2.8% (4/145) prevalence of BF1 recombinants and 0.7% (1/145) prevalence of subtype C viruses were found. TDR prevalence for the study period was 8.3% (12/145) with the Stanford database algorithm (score > 15) and the WHO TDR surveillance mutation list. Most TDR cases were associated with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) (83.3%, 10/12); a low prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors was observed in the cohort (Guatemala. TDR prevalence in Guatemala was at the intermediate level. Most TDR cases were associated with NNRTIs. Further and continuous TDR surveillance is necessary to gain more indepth knowledge about TDR spread and trends in Guatemala and to optimize treatment outcomes in the country.

  19. [Prevalence of asthma and determination of symptoms as risk indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Hernández, Eleazar; Medina-Ávalos, Miguel Alejandro; Barnica-Alvarado, Raúl Humberto; Soto-Candia, Diego; Guerrero-Venegas, Rosario; Zecua-Nájera, Yahvéh

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease whose prevalence has increased, especially in developed countries; the results of studies of asthma prevalence vary in different populations and even within the same country; in Mexico we observed fluctuations in prevalence of asthma from 7% to 33%. To determine the prevalence of asthma and severity of symptoms as risk indicators in school population in cities in various states of Mexico. A descriptive study of detection of asthma prevalence and analytical-comparative observational study of determination of symptoms of asthma. The surveys were applied to preschool, elementary, middle and high school population, in the cities of Puebla, Puebla; Tulancingo, Hidalgo; Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala, and Cancún, Quintana Roo; new validated questionnaire was used as instrument: Asthma Diagnostic Questionnaire for Epidemiologic Studies, consisting of eight questions with summation value for diagnosis. 8,754 surveys showed a 14% prevalence in Puebla, 17% in Tulancingo, 7% in Tlaxcala, and 14% in Cancún; average in four cities surveyed was 13%; the strength of association with asthma symptoms in descending order with significant odds ratio were: recurrent wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, recurrent cough, cough cold, recurrent cold symptoms, predominantly nocturnal cough, cough that increases with exercise. The average prevalence of asthma in the surveyed cities was 13% and the main symptoms indicators of risk of asthma in school children were: recurrent wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness and recurrent cough.

  20. Anisometropia prevalence in a highly astigmatic school-aged population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E

    2008-07-01

    To describe prevalence of anisometropia, defined in terms of both sphere and cylinder, examined cross-sectionally, in school-aged members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Cycloplegic autorefraction measurements, confirmed by retinoscopy and, when possible, by subjective refraction were obtained from 1041 Tohono O'odham children, 4 to 13 years of age. Astigmatism > or =1.00 diopter (D) was present in one or both eyes of 462 children (44.4%). Anisometropia > or =1.00 D spherical equivalent (SE) was found in 70 children (6.7%), and anisometropia > or =1.00 D cylinder was found in 156 children (15.0%). Prevalence of anisometropia did not vary significantly with age or gender. Overall prevalence of significant anisometropia was 18.1% for a difference between eyes > or =1.00 D SE or cylinder. Vector analysis of between-eye differences showed a prevalence of significant anisometropia of 25.3% for one type of vector notation (difference between eyes > or =1.00 D for M and/or > or =0.50 D for J0 or J45), and 16.2% for a second type of vector notation (between-eye vector dioptric difference > or =1.41). Prevalence of SE anisometropia is similar to that reported for other school-aged populations. However, prevalence of astigmatic anisometropia is higher than that reported for other school-aged populations.

  1. Geographical differences in the prevalence of hypospadias in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aho, Martti Olavi; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Juhani Tammela, Teuvo Leo; Auvinen, Anssi-Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies but the etiology is not fully understood. There seem to be genetic, endocrinological, and environmental factors involved. Great geographical variation in the prevalence of hypospadias has been reported both between and within countries. We studied the determinants of geographical variation in the prevalence of hypospadias in Finland. All patients treated for hypospadias in 1970-1996 before the age of 9 years among boys born in 1970-1986 were identified in the national hospital discharge registry. Prevalence of hypospadias was calculated for each of the 355 municipalities in Finland. Demographic data were obtained from Statistics Finland. Association of the explanatory factors with prevalence of hypospadias was assessed using Poisson regression methods. The prevalence of operated hypospadias varied between provinces and between university hospital districts, from a ratio of 0.65 to a ratio of 1.01. An association between the prevalence of hypospadias and the remoteness from the closest city was observed. There was no association with level of education, social class, or occupation. The observed differences in the prevalence of operated hypospadias in Finland may have several explanations. Different levels of ascertainment and both genetic and environmental factors can not be ruled out

  2. Gender differences in asthma prevalence: variations with socioeconomic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Taylor, Anne W; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Gill, Tiffany K; Grant, Janet F; Adams, Robert J; Wilson, David H; Ruffin, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in health have been shown to vary for different diseases and by gender. This study aimed to examine gender differences in associations between asthma and socioeconomic disadvantage. Socioeconomic variables were assessed among men and women in the North West Adelaide Health Study, a representative population cohort (n = 4060) aged 18 years and over in metropolitan South Australia. Asthma was determined from spirometry and self-reported doctor diagnosis. The prevalence of asthma was 12.0% (95% CI: 11.1-13.1), and was significantly higher among women (13.5%) than men (10.5%). For participants aged 18-64 years a higher prevalence of asthma was associated with an education level of secondary school or lower, or not being in the paid labour force among men, and with a gross annual household income of $20,000 or less among women. Among socioeconomically advantaged groups, the prevalence of asthma was significantly higher among women than men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with higher asthma prevalence, although this varied by gender depending on the indicator of socioeconomic position used. Men with low education or those not employed in the paid labour force had higher asthma prevalence than more socioeconomically advantaged men. Women with low income had higher asthma prevalence than those with higher income. Among all socioeconomically advantaged groups, and also the low-income group, women experienced a higher prevalence of asthma than men.

  3. High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Michael I; Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Ventura, Emily E

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate, from a global and ecological perspective, the relationships between availability of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using published resources, country-level estimates (n =43 countries) were obtained for: total sugar, HFCS and total calorie availability, obesity, two separate prevalence estimates for diabetes, prevalence estimate for impaired glucose tolerance and fasting plasma glucose. Pearson's correlations and partial correlations were conducted in order to explore associations between dietary availability and obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes prevalence was 20% higher in countries with higher availability of HFCS compared to countries with low availability, and these differences were retained or strengthened after adjusting for country-level estimates of body mass index (BMI), population and gross domestic product (adjusted diabetes prevalence=8.0 vs. 6.7%, p=0.03; fasting plasma glucose=5.34 vs. 5.22 mmol/L, p=0.03) despite similarities in obesity and total sugar and calorie availability. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity.

  4. Correlation between caries prevalence and chronic perodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Entezari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Periodontitis and dental caries may be synergistically associated, negatively associated, or completely independent.The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between these two diseases and investigate the prevalence of dental caries in periodontitis. Methods: This cross- sectional study has been performed in 180 samples in two groups: periodontal and control group during 2012-2013 in Babol Dental School.All 180 patients were divided into two groups, including 90 cases with chronic periodontitis as the periodontal group (PG and 90 cases with healthy gums as the control group ( probing depth between 2- 3 mm (HG.Clinical measurments including Gingival Index ( GI, Bleeding Index( BI, Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL, Periodontal Pocket Depth (PPD were used to assess the severity of periodontal disease . The clinical features of control group were healthy gums , probing less than 3 mm in depth, and CAL< 1mm . The examination to measure AL was conducted using a Williams’s periodontal probe .In chronic periodontitis group , the patients had GI≥1 and CAL ≥ 1 .The assessment of caries of patients was conducted using bitewing radiography for proximal caries detection , dent on the use of explorer and direct observation. A p-value≤0.05 is considered as significant. Results: The results of this study showed that the mean number of decayed and filled teeth (DFT in periodontal group was 4.32 ± 0.17, and in healthy group was 2.16 ± 0.17.DFT in males with periodontitis was 4.85 ± 0.17 and in females was 4.3 ± 0.17 ,while the healthy males was 2.54 ± 0.17, and females was 2.25 ± 0.17 therefore, the mean DFT in the periodontal group was more than the healthy group (p≤0.05 . Conclusion : Based on our findings, in patients with periodontitis, more dental carries were more significant than the healthy group.

  5. Prevalence of Depression in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Every woman during different stages of her growth faces various crises, and one of these crises, menopause, may create different problems. In modern societies, psychological disorders and particularly depression is one of the problems of menopausal women. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depression in postmenopausal women referred to selected health centers of Ahvaz in 2014. Patients and Methods This study was cross-sectional study. In this study, 1280 postmenopausal women aged between 40 and 65 years old who were referred to selected health centers of Ahvaz in 2014 were randomly enrolled. Hamilton depression scale and demographic questionnaire were used for gathering information. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics and analytical statistics (Independent t test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation and logistic regression were carried out (CI 95%. Results The mean ± SD score of depression for the subjects was 9.37 ± 4.62. The results showed that 59.8% of the 1280 samples were depressed; in particular, 39.8% had mild depression, 16% moderate depression, and 4% severe depression. There is a significant and inverse relation between variables of age, exposure to cigarette smoking, and the relationship with their spouses and the level of their depression, so higher age, more exposure to smoking, and better relation with their husbands, lead to the less depression. The results showed that the level of education is associated with depression. The highest rate of depression was in illiterate women; the finding also showed that there is a relationship between income and the severity of depression (Regression Log. T test showed that the mean depression level of employed postmenopausal women is higher than housewives postmenopausal women, and this difference is statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusions A significant percentage of women in their menopause experience

  6. Prevalence of bone and soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücetürk, Güven; Sabah, Dündar; Keçeci, Burçin; Kara, Ahmet Duran; Yalçinkaya, Selçuk

    2011-01-01

    Multidisciplinary approach is a necessity for the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of bone and soft tissue tumors. The Ege University Musculoskeletal Tumor Council offers consultation services to other hospitals in the Aegean region. Since 1988 the Council has met weekly and spent approximately 1,500 hours evaluating almost 6,000 patients with suspected skeletal system tumors. Our objective was to present the data obtained from this patient group. A total of 5,658 patients, suspected to have a musculoskeletal tumor, were evaluated retrospectively. Multiple records of the patients due to multiple attendance to the Council were excluded. The prevalance of the bone and soft tissue tumors in these patients were analysed. Malignant mesenchymal tumors accounted for 39.7% of the total patients, benign tumors for 17%, tumor-like lesions for 17.8% and metastatic carsinomas for 8.6%. Malignant bone tumors were 50.2% and malignant soft tissue tumors were 49.8% of all the sarcomas. Among the malignant bone tumors the most common was osteosarcomas at a rate of 33.6%, followed by Ewing-PNET at 25.5%, chondrosarcomas at 19.4% and haematopoietic tumors at 17.6%. Pleomorphic sarcomas (24.5%), liposarcoma (16.4%), synovial sarcoma (13%) and undifferential sarcomas (8.8%) were the most common types of malignant sof tissue tumors. Benign soft tissue tumors (48%), benign cartilage tumors (28%), giant cell tumor (15%) and osteogenic tumors (9%) were found among the benign tumors. Hemangioma, lipoma, agressive fibromatosis, enchondroma, solitary chondroma and osteoid osteoma were the most common tumors in their groups. Lung (27%), breast (24%), gastrointestinal system (10.5%) and kidney (8.2%) carcinomas were the most common primary sites of the bone metastasis. Turkey still lacks a comprehensive series indicating the incidence and diagnostic distribution of bone and soft tissue tumors. The presented data would add to our knowledge on the specific rates of the bone and soft tissue

  7. Prevalence of sleep disturbance in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, S; Karaman, T; Dogru, S; Onder, Y; Citil, R; Bulut, Y E; Tapar, H; Sahin, A; Arici, S; Kaya, Z; Suren, M

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is a vital function for human beings, which can be affected by several factors. Chronic pain is one of these factors where it is the most frequent cause for seeking medical care in combination with insomnia. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and relationship between sleep disturbance and chronic pain. After approval, a total of 85 Family Medicine Units from over 170 in Tokat were randomly selected using a 50% sampling. A sample of 2635 subjects, over the age of 19 years, who were registered with the selected Family Medicine Units, were assessed due to gender, age group, and the urban/rural population size of Tokat using the stratified sampling method. The sample size distribution was calculated as 1515 urban subjects, 1120 rural subjects; 1345 female subjects, 1290 male subjects; 1123 subjects between 20-39 years of age, 1103 subjects between the ages of 40-64, and 409 subjects over 64 years of age. After sampling, subjects were invited to participate in the study via an invitation letter, and agreeing individuals were taken to the Family Medicine Unit for face-to-face meetings. Written, informed consent was obtained, along with demographic data. The presence of chronic pain was recorded. According to the presence of chronic pain, all subjects were separated into two groups as Group Chronic Pain and Group Non-Chronic Pain. The visual analog scale for pain intensity, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index for sleep quality, were performed with all subjects. A multiple linear regression model was used to assess the predictors of sleep quality. Analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences program (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA), version 20.0. The statistical significance for all analyses was set at p 5. A moderate positive correlation was found between the global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Visual Analog Scale scores (r = 0.310, p < 0.01). A multiple linear regression analysis showed that age, gender, income, Visual

  8. PREVALENT DISEASES AND OVERALL MORTALITY IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahir-ud-Din, F .R. Durrani, M.A. Mian, N. Chand and J. Ahmed1

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Records from 62-broiler farms located in Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP, Pakistan were, collected during the year 1998 to investigate prevalent diseases and overall mortality in broilers. Losses due Hydro-pericardium syndrome (HPS were the highest (17.05 ± 2.08% and the lowest due to coccidiosis 9.39 ± 3.82%. Non-significant differences existed in mortality caused by Newcastle, IBD and yolk sac infection. Differences in losses caused by infectious coryza, enteritis and coccidiosis were also non- significant. Average overall mortality was 13.05 ± 1.16%, representing 7.59 ± 0.46% losses from day-1 to day 14 and 18.52 ± 0.95% from day-15 till marketing of broilers (42-50 days. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was observed in broilers reared on well-finished concrete floors (12.43 ± 1.45 % than in those on brick+mud made floors (14.36 ± 1.55. Higher (p<0.05 overall mortality was found in overcrowded houses 5.60 ± 5.62% than in optimally utilized houses (10.69 ± 1.51%. Overall mortality was higher (p<0.05 in flocks under substandard vaccination schedule (15.92 ± 1.55% than in those maintained under standard lancination schedule (10.20 ± 1.21%. Overall mortality was higher (21.11 ± 3.39% when the interval between two batches was ≤ 7 days than 16-20 days (5.72 ± 3.01%. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was und in broilers maintained under good hygienic ( 11.59 ±1.93% and sanitary conditions ( 10.82 ± 1.16% compared to those under poor hygienic and sanitary conditions (14.12 ± 2.81% and 15.15 ± 1.68 %respectively. Maintenance of broilers under good hygienic conditions on well finished concrete floor, providing the required space/broiler, following recommended vaccination schedule without HPS vaccine and keeping 8.20 days interval between two batches were suggested as key factors in reducing mortality among broilers in Swat

  9. Prevalence of Stuttering in Javanroud\\'s Bilingual Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiva Mohammadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Study of prevalence of stuttering in Iranian bilingual societies is essential for determine the effects of linguistic factors in stuttering and therapy demands in these bilingual societies. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of stuttering among Javanrud’s bilingual students. Materials & Methods: In this cross- sectional, descriptive and analytical study, all of bilingual students of Javanrud’s schools were examined and in order to this purpose, teacher referral method was used for the primary screening of speech disorders at all. Essential information about speech disorders specifically stuttering had been given to teachers before this primary step. Then researcher diagnosed stuttering students based on personal interview, reading, spontaneous speech and description of serial images that tell a story in Kurdish and Persian. Data were analysed by statistical tests such as Chi-square and Logistic Regression. Results: Among 11425 bilingual students of Javanrud’s schools, 129 students were identified as stutterers. These findings indicated that overall prevalence of stuttering in this population is 1/13 percent. Among primary, guidance and high school students the prevalence of stuttering was 2/06, 0/87 and 0/5 percent respectively. Prevalence of stuttering among boys was 1/35 and among girls was 0/88 percent. An overall male/female ratio was 1/5. Prevalence of stuttering in primary, guidance and high school was differ from each other significantly (P<0/001. Prevalence of stuttering in male was higher than female significantly (P=0/034. Conclusion: Prevalence of stuttering among Javanrood’s bilingual students was higher than accepted prevalence in monolinguals (1%. Risk of being stuttering in male was higher than female.

  10. Prevalence of Anemia in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Brito, Alex; López de Romaña, Daniel; Ríos-Castillo, Israel; Coris, Héctor; Olivares, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, anemia has been a public health problem that affects mainly women of childbearing age and children under 6 years of age. However, the current prevalence of anemia in this region is unknown. To examine the latest available prevalence data on anemia in Latin America and the Caribbean. A systematic review was conducted in 2011 and updated in 2014. Studies determining the prevalence of anemia conducted in apparently healthy populations with national or regional representativeness were included in the review. The lowest prevalence rates of anemia among children under 6 years of age were found in Chile (4.0%), Costa Rica (4.0%), Argentina (7.6%), and Mexico (19.9%). In Nicaragua, Brazil, Ecuador, El Panama, and Honduras, anemia was a moderate public health problem, with prevalence ranging Salvador, Cuba, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Peru, from 20.1% to 37.3%. Anemia was a severe public health problem in Guatemala, Haiti, and Bolivia. The prevalence of anemia among women of childbearing age was lowest in Chile (5.1%). In Colombia, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Honduras, and Argentina, anemia was a mild public health problem, with prevalence ranging from 7.6% to 18.7%. In Guatemala, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Bolivia, anemia was a moderate public health problem, with prevalence ranging from 21.4% to 38.3%. Panama and Haiti had the highest reported prevalence rates (40.0% and 45.5%, respectively), and anemia was considered a severe public health problem in those countries. Anemia remains a public health problem in children under 6 years of age and women of childbearing age in most Latin America and Caribbean countries for which data are available.

  11. Prevalence of myasthenia gravis in the Catalan county of Osona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, J M; Altimiras, J; Roura, P; Alonso, F; Bufill, E; Munmany, A; Alfonso, S; Illa, I

    The reported prevalence of myasthenia gravis ranges between 5 and 24 cases per 100,000, and people over 65years account for less than 50% of all cases. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of myasthenia gravis in the county of Osona were studied in patients younger and older than 65. The study draws from the county-based prospective myasthenia gravis register implemented by the Neurology Department at Hospital General de Vic in 1991. The prevalence of myasthenia gravis was 32.89×10 5 inhabitants (95%CI, 23.86-41.91). The standardized prevalence (European population) was 35.47×10 5 inhabitants (95%CI, 26.10-44.84). The ratio of women to men was 1.3. Overall, the group of patients older than 65 accounted for 62.75% of all cases. The prevalence of myasthenia gravis increased considerably in older age groups. No cases were registered among patients under 25years old, prevalence was 21.87×10 5 in the 25 to 64 age group, and prevalence in patients over 65 years increased to 122.35×10 5 . The clinical characteristics prior to treatment and at the cut-off date are similar (P>.05) in patients younger than 65 and those aged 65 and older. These figures show the highest prevalence rate reported to date. This high prevalence is due to the rate observed among patients older than 65. These results provide a new warning that myasthenia gravis may be underdiagnosed in the elderly population. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of incidental paranasal sinus opacification in dental paediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of sinus opacification among dental paediatric patients. Two hundred and eight Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans of dental patients under the age of 18 were reviewed for sinus opacification. Patients with any sinus-related signs or symptoms were excluded. The overall prevalence of sinus opacification was 48.1%. The ethmoid (28.4%) and maxillary (27.8%) sinuses were most frequently affected. There were no statistically significant differences for both age and gender. The high prevalence of sinus opacification in asymptomatic children emphasizes the necessity of clinical correlation.

  13. The prevalence of food allergy: A meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rona, Roberto J.; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. Objective: To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. Methods: The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish....... The meta-analysis included only original studies. They were stratified by age groups: infant/preschool, school children, and adults. Results: A total of 934 articles were identified, but only 51 were considered appropriate for inclusion. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was very high compared...

  14. Prevalence and growth of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lasse Vigel; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes contamination of seafood varies with product category. The highest prevalence was found in cold- smoked fish (34-60%), while the lowest was found in heat- treated and cured seafood (4-12%). The prevalence of L. monocytogenes differed greatly in cold-smoked salmon between...... production sites, ranging from monocytogenes. The organism showed moderate growth...... in naturally contaminated cold-smoked, and 'gravad', fish while the growth appeared faster in hot smoked fish. Thus L. monocytogenes is not under control in these products. Finally, the prevalence and growth of L. monocytogenes in naturally contaminated cold-smoked salmon are discussed in relation...

  15. Prevalência de comportamentos alimentares disfuncionais em mulheres idosas

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Fabiana Vanessa Silva

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Psicologia Aplicada (área de especialização em Psicologia Clínica e da Saúde) Comportamentos alimentares disfuncionais são frequentes em jovens, mas pouco se sabe sobre a sua prevalência em mulheres idosas. Este estudo consiste em estudar a prevalência pontual de comportamentos alimentares disfuncionais em mulheres com 65 anos ou mais. Estudo de prevalência constituído por um momento de avaliação de duas fases com 342 mulheres entre os 65 e 94 anos...

  16. The Prevalence of Antithyroid Autoantibodies in Normal Korean Population*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Shik; Lee, Dong Soo; Han, Jin Suk; Cho, Bo Youn; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Munho

    1986-01-01

    The prevalence of antithyroid autoantibodies and the relationship between the presence of autoantibodies and thyroid functions were studied in 848 apparently normal Korean adults with tanned red cell agglutination technique. Results are summarized as follows: 1) The prevalence of antimicrosimal antibody (MCHA) and antithyroglobulin antibody (TGHA) were 4.4% and 1.9% in 458 males, and 12.4% and 5.0% in 390 females, respectively. Both autoantibodies were more prevalent in female (pantithyroid autoantibody of high titer (⩾1:1002) was related to alteration of thyroid functions suggesting the existence of “subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis” state. PMID:15759373

  17. The EuroPrevall-INCO surveys on the prevalence of food allergies in children from China, India and Russia: the study methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, G. W. K.; Mahesh, P. A.; Ogorodova, L.; Leung, T. F.; Fedorova, O.; Holla, A. D.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Clare Mills, E. N.; Kummeling, I.; van Ree, R.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Burney, P.

    2010-01-01

    P>Background: Very little is known regarding the global variations in the prevalence of food allergies. The EuroPrevall-INCO project has been developed to evaluate the prevalence of food allergies in China, India and Russia using the standardized methodology of the EuroPrevall protocol used for

  18. The serum bank of EuroPrevall - the prevalence, cost and basis of food allergy across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieths, Stefan; Reese, Gerald; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Beyer, Kerstin; Burney, Peter; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Summers, Collin; Ree, Ronald van; Mills, Clare

    2008-10-01

    EuroPrevall is an EU-funded multidisciplinary project including 62 institutions from 22 countries. EuroPrevall studies the prevalence and distribution of food allergies in infants, children, adolescents, and adults in Europe, threshold doses for allergenic foods, the role of the environment in food allergy, the socioeconomic impact of food allergy, and novel diagnostic tools for food allergies. The EuroPrevall serum bank (EPASB), containing samples from approximately 70,000 subjects, is a major tool to achieve these goals. EPASB is coordinated by the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Langen, Germany. Local sera collections are administered at the University of Amsterdam (NL), the University Hospital of Manchester (UK), Charité Hospital (DE) and the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut. The EPASB coordinator and managing partners distribute samples for experimental work and regulate access. The overall aim is to provide sera to fulfil EuroPrevall research goals. The EPASB coordinator and managing partners suggest appropriate sera for addressing specific scientific and diagnostic questions. The serum bank will be maintained after termination of the project, but subsequent investigations must be in accordance with the original research goals of EuroPrevall. Thus, the contributors of the sera retain control over their future use. This rule prevents investigation of questions outside the scope of EuroPrevall, e.g. the allergenicity of genetically-modified foods.

  19. Analysis of self-reported versus biomarker based smoking prevalence: methodology to compute corrected smoking prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of smoking is needed to estimate the need for future public health resources. To compute and compare smoking prevalence rates by using self-reported smoking statuses, two serum cotinine (SCOT) based biomarker methods, and one urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) based biomarker method. These estimates were then used to develop correction factors to be applicable to self-reported prevalences to arrive at corrected smoking prevalence rates. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2007-2012 for those aged ≥20 years (N = 16826) were used. Self-reported prevalence rate for the total population computed as the weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by weighted number of all participants was 21.6% and 24% when computed by weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by the weighted number of self-reported smokers and nonsmokers. The corrected prevalence rate was found to be 25.8%. A 1% underestimate in smoking prevalence is equivalent to not being able to identify 2.2 million smokers in US in a given year. This underestimation, if not corrected, could lead to serious gap in the public health services available and needed to provide adequate preventive and corrective treatment to smokers.

  20. Prevalence and co-prevalence of comorbidities among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglay, Kristy; Hannachi, Hakima; Joseph Howie, Patrick; Xu, Jinfei; Li, Xueying; Engel, Samuel S; Moore, Lori M; Rajpathak, Swapnil

    2016-07-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) often have multiple comorbidities which may impact the selection of antihyperglycemic therapies. The purpose of this study was to quantify the prevalence and co-prevalence of common comorbidities. A retrospective study was conducted using the Quintiles Electronic Medical Record database. Adult patients with T2DM who had ≥1 encounter from July 2014 to June 2015 (index period) with ≥1 year medical history available were included. The index date was defined as the most recent encounter date during the 1 year index period. Comorbid conditions were assessed using all data available prior to and including the index date. Patient characteristics, laboratory measures, and comorbidities were summarized via descriptive analyses, overall and by subgroups of age (condition in addition to T2DM and 88.5% had at least two. The comorbidity burden tended to increase in older age groups and was higher in men than women. The most common conditions in patients with T2DM included hypertension (HTN) in 82.1%; overweight/obesity in 78.2%; hyperlipidemia in 77.2%; chronic kidney disease (CKD) in 24.1%; and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 21.6%. The highest co-prevalence was demonstrated for the combination of HTN and hyperlipidemia (67.5%), followed by overweight/obesity and HTN (66.0%), overweight/obesity and hyperlipidemia (62.5%), HTN and CKD (22.4%), hyperlipidemia and CKD (21.1%), HTN and CVD (20.2%), hyperlipidemia and CVD (20.1%), overweight/obesity and CKD (19.1%) and overweight/obesity and CVD (17.0%). Limitations include the potential for misclassification/underreporting due to the use of diagnostic codes, drug codes, or laboratory measures for identification of medical conditions. The vast majority of patients with T2DM have multiple comorbidities. To ensure a comprehensive approach to patient management, the presence of multimorbidity should be considered in the context of clinical decision making.

  1. Prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish populations: A reanalysis of dementia prevalence surveys, 1990-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boix Raquel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish elderly. Methods We identified screening surveys, both published and unpublished, in Spanish populations, which fulfilled specific quality criteria and targeted prevalence of dementia in populations aged 70 years and above. Surveys covering 13 geographically different populations were selected (prevalence period: 1990-2008. Authors of original surveys provided methodological details of their studies through a systematic questionnaire and also raw age-specific data. Prevalence data were compared using direct adjustment and logistic regression. Results The reanalyzed study population (aged 70 year and above was composed of Central and North-Eastern Spanish sub-populations obtained from 9 surveys and totaled 12,232 persons and 1,194 cases of dementia (707 of Alzheimer's disease, 238 of vascular dementia. Results showed high variation in age- and sex-specific prevalence across studies. The reanalyzed prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in women; increased with age, particularly for Alzheimer's disease; and displayed a significant geographical variation among men. Prevalence was lowest in surveys reporting participation below 85%, studies referred to urban-mixed populations and populations diagnosed by psychiatrists. Conclusion Prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Central and North-Eastern Spain is higher in females, increases with age, and displays considerable geographic variation that may be method-related. People suffering from dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Spain may approach 600,000 and 400,000 respectively. However, existing studies may not be completely appropriate to infer prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in Spain until surveys in Southern Spain are conducted.

  2. Repeated simple sedimentation technique and prevalence of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breed of cattle managed under the traditional husbandry system. All study .... Analysis results revealed variation in prevalence of schistosomosis of cattle was observed .... M., Armour, J., Duncan, J.L. and Jenning, F.W. (1997). Veterinary.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of aggression among psychiatric in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A total of 300 subjects satisfied the inclusion criteria, but only 298 were assessed because two ... The prevalence of aggression in this study was 19.5%. ... Most of the aggressive behavior occurred without provocation (63.3%).

  4. Prevalence of common gastro-intestinal nematode infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    (GIN) infection and identified the common GIN parasites in commercial goat production in. Central Uganda. .... Table 1. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in goats in Central Uganda .... ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. pp. 40-76.

  5. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease in Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (48.5 %), fatty food consumption (47.5 %), obesity (38 %) and smoking (37 %), respectively. Other less ... Keywords: Risk factors, Prevalence, Coronary artery disease, Diabetes, Southern Punjab ... developing world, including Pakistan [1]. The.

  6. Prevalence, distribution and risk factors associated with taeniid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, distribution and risk factors associated with taeniid cestode infections of trade dogs, in Dawaki, Plateau State, Nigeria. ... and the control of these cestode infections requires improved management practices and public education.

  7. Prevalence of chronic diseases in private healthcare sector of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of chronic diseases in private healthcare sector of South Africa: A threat to public health. Lourens Johannes Rothmann, Martha Susanna Lubbe, Jan Hendrik Philippus Serfontein, Jan Jakobus Gerber, Madeeha Malik ...

  8. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES HIV/AIDS prevalence testing – merits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-18

    Jan 18, 2006 ... individuals.2 The annual national antenatal surveillance survey in 20033 ... groups, the antenatal survey prevalence figures do not reflect the lower overall ... employees with antiretroviral therapy. .... versus the sample taken.

  10. 1. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates for Mental Illness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Conclusions: A high prevalence of mental health ... 1 Clinical Care Department, Chainama Hills College Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia ... depression; and 65% of men and 42% of women had ... affective disorders, alcohol related problems and.

  11. Frailty in Chinese Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: Prevalence and Prognostic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Kit-Chung Ng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Previous studies showed that frailty is prevalent in both pre-dialysis and dialysis patients. However, the prevalence and prognostic implication of frailty in Chinese peritoneal dialysis (PD patients remain unknown. Methods: We used a validated questionnaire to determine the Frailty Score of 193 unselected prevalent PD patients. All patients were then followed for 2 years for their need of hospitalization and mortality. Results: Amongst the 193 patients, 134 (69.4% met the criteria of being frail. Frailty Score significantly correlated with Charlson's comorbidity score (r = 0.40, p Conclusions: Frailty is prevalent among Chinese PD patients. Frail PD patients have a high risk of requiring hospitalization and their hospital stay tends to be prolonged. Early identification may allow timely intervention to prevent adverse health outcomes in this group of patients.

  12. Prevalence of Gender Discrepancy in Internet Use in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    essence, the research sought to determine the prevalence of gender discrepancies in .... that the proportion of women Internet users in developing countries is much smaller than that of ..... equality: a contradiction in terminis? Computers in ...

  13. Prevalence of psoriasis in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, A M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol use has been implicated as a risk factor in the development of psoriasis, particularly in men. Despite this, little is known of the incidence or prevalence of psoriasis in patients who misuse alcohol. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psoriasis in patients with alcoholic liver disease. METHODS: In total, 100 patients with proven alcoholic liver disease were surveyed for a history of psoriasis and a full skin examination was performed if relevant. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients, 15 reported a history of psoriasis and another 8 had evidence of current activity, suggesting a prevalence (past or present) of 15% in this group of patients. CONCLUSION: It would appear that the prevalence of psoriasis in patients who misuse alcohol is much higher than the 1-3% variously quoted in the general population.

  14. prevalence of fasciolosis in small ruminants slaughtered at yola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    managed under extensive management system by the local farmers. .... prevalent problem of small ruminants in Yola,. Adamawa ... Bailliere Tindal and Company London 800 –. 809. Umar ... Urquhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, J.L., Dunn, A.M..

  15. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction among females in a university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-29

    Jun 29, 2014 ... A self-administered structured pretested questionnaire on sexual activity was administered (the Female ... Results: The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSFI score ≤ 26.50) was 53.3%. ..... Sample size determination.

  16. The prevalence, bacteriology and drug sensitivity of asymptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria (AsB) and the ... education sessions on AsB and urinary tract infection during pregnancy. ... by the researcher for appropriate treatment according to their drug sensitivities.

  17. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients seeking medical care at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KINIMI

    rapid population growth, aging, urbanization, and increasing prevalence of obesity ... causing gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and cardiovascular symptoms and sexual dysfunction ..... in men older than 60 years of age (Kautzky et al., 2016).

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of anemia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristie Regine Klotz Zuffo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: In terms of public health, the prevalence of anemia is characterized as a moderate problem in the studied population and demonstrates the need for coordination of interdisciplinary actions for its reduction in CMEI nurseries.

  19. Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae : A cause for community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae : A cause for community‑acquired ... Atypical pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of ... microscopic and biochemical studies for better diagnosis of these pathogens.

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Brucellosis in Jazan Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of brucellosis in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia and assess the ... Conclusion: These results indicate the need for a vaccination program in Jazan Province and for public .... from blue to yellow.

  1. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in Nigeria, 1994–2015 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Abdulkadir

    2017-03-14

    Mar 14, 2017 ... Introduction: The Global significance of schistosomiasis started waning ... prevalence of schistosomiasis in Nigeria, and its six geo-political zones. ...... schistosomiasis in a rural community in Edo state, Nigeria: eosinophil-.

  2. prevalence of malarial parasites in pregnant women attending sir

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keyword: Prevalence, Malarial Parasite, Pregnant Women, Kano. INTRODUCTION ... protective semi-immunity against plasmodium falciparum is acquired during the first 10-. 15 years of life and .... hiding place for the mosquito? It is therefore ...

  3. Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in Wemberma district of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From three peasant associations in the district (one from the midland and two from lowland), 384 cattle ... to 2212 meter above sea level (masl). Based on altitude ... for prevalence study from infinite population with 95% confidence level, 5 % of.

  4. Voluntary Counseling and Testing and Prevalence of HIV Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary Counseling and Testing and Prevalence of HIV Infection Amongst Patients Booked for Surgical Operations. ... The effectiveness (yield) of lay counseling in HIV testing by resident doctors who have not ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. The Prevalence of Dental Anxiety and Validation of the Modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , not much work has been documented on dental anxiety. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of dental anxiety and determine the reliability and validity of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) in screening for ...

  6. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in HIV patients in the Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was used for the analysis. ... and mania) and anxiety disorders (General anxiety, agoraphobia, social phobia, ... Keywords: Prevalence, Psychiatric disorder, HIV infection, Mental challenges ...

  7. The Decreasing Prevalence of Nonrefractive Visual Impairment in Older Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delcourt, Cécile; Le Goff, Mélanie; von Hanno, Therese

    2018-01-01

    TOPIC: To estimate the prevalence of nonrefractive visual impairment and blindness in European persons 55 years of age and older. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Few visual impairment and blindness prevalence estimates are available for the European population. In addition, many of the data collected...... in European population-based studies currently are unpublished and have not been included in previous estimates. METHODS: Fourteen European population-based studies participating in the European Eye Epidemiology Consortium (n = 70 723) were included. Each study provided nonrefractive visual impairment...... and blindness prevalence estimates stratified by age (10-year strata) and gender. Nonrefractive visual impairment and blindness were defined as best-corrected visual acuity worse than 20/60 and 20/400 in the better eye, respectively. Using random effects meta-analysis, prevalence rates were estimated according...

  8. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among Nigerian patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pylori positive. Conclusion: The prevalence of H. pylori among dyspeptics using biopsy based methods is high in the South-Western part of Nigeria. It is therefore important to test and treat H. pylori among Nigerians with dyspepsia.

  9. Prevalence of HBsAg Among Prospective Blood Donors and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Hepatitis B, Prevalence, Liver function test, Kebbi State. .... determine Total Protein (Weichselbaum, 1946), Albumin. (Doumas et al., 1971), ... and mechanical transfers are also possible means of ..... Biuret method of serum total.

  10. The prevalence and causes of autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, Terry

    Autism and autistic spectrum disorders are still relatively poorly understood. This article outlines the results of new research into the prevalence of autism and into the causes of the condition and highlights implications for nurses from the findings.

  11. 82_Dogara et al.,_FINALDOGARA-PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user pc

    are frequently transmitted by unhygienic habits t include direct transfer of ova or ... infection has been modifying both the epidemiology and outcome aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal paras ong women patients with ...

  12. The prevalence of hypertension and its modifiable risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension among the lecturers in the medical school was lower than that in the general .... pressures that serve as the blood pressure of the subject. The subjects were ..... Secondary. 25. 17.7.

  13. Prevalence of Hypertension among Teenage Students in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Hypertension among Teenage Students in Kano, Nigeria. ... of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors among secondary school ... Seventy of the students had systolic blood pressure140mmHg and/or diastolic ...

  14. Hypertension prevalence and awareness among a health workforce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    prevalence of hypertension and related risk factors and to assess the level of awareness of hypertensive ... blood pressure, weight and height were carried out and body mass indices were .... primary and secondary education) which was.

  15. rapid assessment of polio virus antibodies prevalence amongst

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 1597-6343. Polio Virus Antibodies Prevalence Amongst Children In Kano State ... poliovirus serotypes (types 1, 2 or 3) which cause poliomyelitis. They are spread by ..... all those that have contributed to the overall success of this work.

  16. Sero-prevalence of infectious bursal disease in backyard chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SINIDU

    2015-02-04

    Feb 4, 2015 ... Mekelle University College of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia. Received ... 2012 to determine the sero-prevalence and risk factors of IBD infection .... Avian pathology of industrial poultry farms in. Ethiopia ...

  17. An overview of the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An overview of the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in post-war Iraq. Noor Abdulhaleem, Aliyu Mahmuda, Al-Zihiry Khalid Jameel Khadim, Roslaini Abd Majid, Leslie Than Thian Lung, Wan Omar Abdullah, Zasmy Unyah ...

  18. Prevalence of the insulin resistance syndrome in obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Viner, R; Segal, T; Lichtarowicz-Kryn..., E; Hindmarsh, P

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To assess prevalence of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS: obesity, abnormal glucose homoeostasis, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension) in obese UK children and adolescents of different ethnicities and to assess whether fasting data is sufficient to identify IRS in childhood obesity.

  19. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No significant gender difference in prevalence between boys. (67.8%) ... species were identified in DRSTP school children, of which 9 species were pathogenic and the remaining 3 were ... with lower scores on tests of mental performance and.

  20. The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms and syndromes in Kenyan children and adolescents. David M Ndetei, Lincoln Khasakhala, Lambert Nyabola, Francisca Ongecha-Owuor, Soraya Seedat, Victoria Mutiso, Donald Kokonya, Gideon Odhiambo ...

  1. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Intimate Partner Violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    among Married Women in an Urban Community in Lagos State,. Nigeria. 1 ... Keywords: Intimate partner violence, women, prevalence, risk factors. Résumé ...... Patriarchy and Gender Inequality in. Nigeria: ... based study of women in India.

  2. Brief communication: Low prevalence of HIV infection, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brief communication: Low prevalence of HIV infection, and knowledge, ... History of sexually transmitted diseases was reported by 10.7% of the sexually active students. ... Continued health education is needed to bring behavioral changes.

  3. [Prevalence of ankyloglossia in newborns in Asturias (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Jiménez, D; Costa Romero, M; Riaño Galán, I; González Martínez, M T; Rodríguez Pando, M C; Lobete Prieto, C

    2014-08-01

    The prevalence of ankyloglossia has been estimated at around 4% of live births. Its prevalence at national level is unknown. Multicenter, prospective observational study. Six hospitals in Asturias took part. All newborns were examined on Sundays, Tuesdays and Thursdays for 3 months. Coryllos and Hazelbaker criteria were used to diagnose ankyloglossia. The prevalence in the 667 newborns examined was 12.11% (95% CI: 9.58 to 14.64), of whom 62% were male. One in 4 children with ankyloglossia had a family history. According to Coryllos' classification, type II was the most common (54%). The prevalence of ankyloglossia in Asturias was 2 to t3 times higher than expected. The diagnostic criteria for ankyloglossia needs to be unified, and further studies are required to determine the association with breastfeeding difficulties and other health problems. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Binge drinking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Kuntsche, S.; Thrul, J.; Gmel, G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Binge drinking (also called heavy episodic drinking, risky single-occasion drinking etc.) is a major public health problem. This paper provides an overview of recently published evidence concerning the definition and measurement, prevalence rates, health impact, demographic and

  5. PREVALENCE OF TRACHOMA IN SIX DISTRICTS OF KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-04-01

    Apr 1, 2006 ... Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years ... (CEH) (London), Lecturer, Department of Ophthalmology, College ..... Lindsay S.W. Human and other faeces as breeding.

  6. Prevalence of Concomitant Onchocerciasis-Malaria Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012 to April 2014 to ascertain the prevalence of onchocerciasis-malaria co-infec on. Four hundred and ... features with ophthalmic signs often presen ng several years .... breeding of both Simulium damnosum and Anopheles mosquitoes ...

  7. Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection among medical students and healthcare workers in Johannesburg, South Africa. A van Rie, K McCarthy, L Scott, A Dow, WDF Venter, WS Stevens ...

  8. Angiographic prevalence and pattern of coronary artery disease in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhumalai, Babu; Jayaraman, Balachander

    2014-01-01

    There are not many studies describing the prevalence and pattern of "coronary artery disease" (CAD) in women undergoing "coronary angiography" (CAG). Hence, uncertainty thrives with regard to the angiographic prevalence and pattern of CAD in women. Our objective was to study the prevalence and pattern of CAD among women undergoing CAG. Data of 500 women who underwent CAG for suspected CAD over 3 years were retrospectively analyzed. They were classified into young group (age right coronary artery. Bifurcation lesion involving distal left main coronary artery is the most prevalent pattern of LMD. There has been a change with regard to clinical presentation and onset of risk factors for CAD at young age, but the load of atherosclerotic burden and pattern of involvement of coronary arteries have not changed in women. Copyright © 2014 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Global patterns of Leptospira prevalence in vertebrate reservoir hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie U.; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Jensen, Per Moestrup

    2016-01-01

    leptospirosis requires more detailed information on animal reservoirs that are the source of human infection. We evaluated the prevalence of Leptospira in vertebrates worldwide and its association with taxonomy, geographic region, host biology, ambient temperature, and precipitation patterns. A multivariate...

  10. Dementia prevalence, care arrangement, and access to care in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, Kieu T T; Chaaya, Monique; Prince, Martin

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In North Africa and the Middle East, studies about dementia prevalence are scarce. A pilot study was conducted in Lebanon to assess dementia prevalence, using the Arabic-validated 10/66 Dementia Research Group (DRG) diagnostic assessment for case ascertainment. The study also examined...... care arrangement and access to care. METHODS: A random sample of 502 persons older than 65 years and their informant were recruited from Beirut and Mount Lebanon governorates through multistage cluster sampling. RESULTS: The crude and age-standardized dementia prevalences were 7.4% and 9.......0%, respectively. People with dementia were mainly cared for by relatives at home. Access to formal care was very limited. DISCUSSION: Dementia prevalence in Lebanon ranks high within the global range of estimates. These first evidence-based data about disease burden and barriers to care serve to raise awareness...

  11. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Denmark 1950-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Joan; Meulengracht Flachs, Esben; Stenager, Egon

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system of unknown aetiology. Its prevalence varies by ethnicity and place: persons of northern European descent are at increased risk while persons living at lower latitudes appear to be protected against the disease. The Danish...... Multiple Sclerosis Registry is a national registry established in 1956 after a population-based survey which receives information from numerous sources. It is considered to be more than 90% complete, with a validity of 94%. Using data from the Registry, we calculated prevalences per 100,000 inhabitants....... The standardized prevalence of multiple sclerosis increased from 58.8 (95% confidence interval: 54.9-62.7) in 1950 to 154.5 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval: 148.8-160.2) in 2005, and the female to male ratio increased from 1.31 in 1950 to 2.02 in 2005. The increase in prevalence is due to both increased...

  12. Knowledge and prevalence of risk factors for hypertension among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and prevalence of risk factors for hypertension among workers in the banking industry in ... Tropical Journal of Health Sciences ... hours, with little physical activity could predispose bank workers to developing hypertension.

  13. Prevalence of work-related injuries among workers of bottling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of work-related injuries among workers of bottling industries in Benin city, ... job descriptions and activities which constitute health hazards for the individual. ... with the major work-related injuries and illness being physical injuries.

  14. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococci isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , often causing therapeutic impasses. Our study was conducted at the Bacteriology Laboratory of Kolea (Tipaza, Algeria) Hospital. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of staphylococci in clinical purulent, sepsis and urinary ...

  15. Prevalence of Rotavirus in shellfish from Southern Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vysakh Mohan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of Rotavirus in shellfish from Southern Kerala. Materials and Methods: The shellfish samples after processing was concentrated using proteinase K. RNA was isolated from the concentrated samples using phenol chloroform method. Rota viral RNA was detected using reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. Results: A low prevalence of 2.5% (5/200 was obtained during the study. Rotavirus was detected in 2 out of 60 brown mussels (3.33%, 2 out of 70 yellow clams (2.86% and 1 out of 70 black clams (1.43%. Conclusion: Low prevalence of Rotavirus was obtained in our study. A more extensive study need to be conducted to estimate the prevalence of enteric virus in shellfish.

  16. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in children by noninvasive stool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in children by noninvasive stool Antigen Enzyme Immunoassay. Augustine O. Ebonyi, Emeka Ejeliogu, Stanley T. Odigbo, Martha Omoo Ochoga, Stephen Oguche, Anejo-Okopi A. Joseph ...

  17. Prevalence of anterior teeth fracture among visually impaired individuals, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of dental injuries in a group of individuals with blind. This should alert caregivers to carry out a profound investigation of the events and suggest methods to reduce this type of morbidity.

  18. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in breeding kennel dogs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Kimura, Yuya; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio

    2015-03-01

    The present study is the first to show overall prevalences of intestinal parasites among breeding kennel dogs in Japan. A total of 573 fresh fecal samples were collected from dogs at 12 breeding kennels. Giardia-specific coproantigen was examined by ELISA kit (SNAP(®) Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Maine, USA). Other intestinal parasites were determined microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. Overall prevalences of two genera of protists, Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp., were 25.7 and 1.2 %, respectively. The prevalence of helminthes was recorded as: Toxocara canis 0.2 %, Toxascaris leonina 0.9 %, Ancylostoma caninum 0.2 %, Trichuris vulpis 2.1 %, and Spirometra erinacei 0.4 %. According to age categories, Giardia spp., Cystoisospora spp., and T. leonina in parasite infections were found at the high prevalent, ranging from 16.0 to 70.0 %.

  19. Prevalence and Predictors of Antibiotic Administration during Pregnancy and Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy and birth is very common. In this study, we describe the estimated prevalence of antibiotic administration during pregnancy and birth in the COPSAC2010 pregnancy cohort, and analyze dependence on social and lifestyle-related factors....

  20. Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending antenatal ... Majigo Mtebe, Nyambura Moremi, Jeremiah Seni, Stephen E. Mshana. Abstract. In developing countries there is no routine screening of hepatitis B virus ...

  1. The prevalence of paediatric skin conditions at a dermatology clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conditions such as atopic dermatitis (AD) may be associated with negative psychosocial ... Direct costs of major skin conditions were calculated based on average cost of .... likely caused the reduction in HIV prevalence in children. Infections.

  2. Prevalence of early childhood caries and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier Aguilar-Ayala

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: due to the high prevalence of white spots, is necessary to create prevention programs that educate mothers or caregivers about the caries risk factors and its control, promoting self-care as a preven- tion strategy.

  3. Prevalence of Strongyle ova in Goats and comparative studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-01-16

    Jan 16, 2018 ... Keywords: Goats, Strongyle ova, Faecal Culture Techniques, Prevalence,. The Nigerian goat ... km located in the North eastern corner of Nigeria ... teaching and research farm, Maiduguri metropolitan ... West African Dwarf. 5.

  4. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease in Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAD) in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted for the prevalence of risk factors for CAD among 200 patients admitted at the different hospitals of Southern Punjab, Pakistan from December 2012 to April ...

  5. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and factors associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EPHA USER33

    with kyphosis among pedestrian back-loading women in Bench-Maji zone. Methods: The study was ... prevalence of work related musculoskeletal disorder was 57.1%. ..... local government to empower women and search for other source of ...

  6. prevalence and risk factors for vaginal candidiasis among women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2005-03-01

    Mar 1, 2005 ... Conculsion: The high prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among women with genital infections ... complaints of either abnormal vaginal discharge, lower abdominal or pelvic ..... is in keeping with the reports in literature (8). The.

  7. Prevalence of feline haemoplasma in cats in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenqvist, Maja Benedicte; Meilstrup, Ann-Katrine Helene; Larsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Background Infections with the three feline haemotropic mycoplasmas Mycoplasma haemofelis, Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum and Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis cause feline infectious anemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of carriage of feline haemoplasma in Danis...

  8. prevalence of and factors associated with overweight and obesity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birir Family

    determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among nursery school children aged 3-6 ... These risk factors may operate through the association ... traditional food systems and habits have been preferred over western type cereal based.

  9. The prevalence of burnout and depression in medical doctors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of burnout and depression in medical doctors working in the Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality community healthcare clinics and district hospitals of the Provincial Government of the Western Cape: a cross-sectional study.

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Urrutia‐Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of smoking among adolescents in Uruguaiana is high. The implementation of measures to reduce/stop tobacco use and its new forms of consumption, such as electronic cigarettes and hookah, are urgent and imperative in schools.

  11. 7__35 - 39__Omoruyi_Prevalence OF TRICHOS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Kano ... management of infected animals. ... prevalence of these parasites in human seems to be ..... (1982): Helminths, Arthropods and. Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. 7th. Edition, London. 39.

  12. Prevalence of Low Back Pain among Adolescent Students in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oyewoleye

    KEYWORDS: low back pain, prevalence, adolescent students, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Low-back ... content validity of the questionnaire was assessed among ten experienced ... in the orthopaedic ward and out-patient physiotherapy clinic.

  13. Prevalence of depression and low self-esteem among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of depression and low self-esteem among medical students in the ... and predisposes students to a range of negative psychological reactions. ... Anxiety and Stress Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, to investigate the ...

  14. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and obesity among college students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hana T. AlMajed

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... The relation between overweight/obesity and dyslipidemia has been approved. Objective: .... was considered if the participant is currently under medication .... Childhood obesity in Kuwait: prevalence and trends. Fam Med.

  15. Decline in the prevalence HIV among pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decline in the prevalence HIV among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Tanzania, 2001-2011. ... Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (2017) > ... as age, marital status, parity, education level and duration of stay at present residence.

  16. Poverty Mapping Project: Global Subnational Prevalence of Child Malnutrition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Subnational Prevalence of Child Malnutrition dataset consists of estimates of the percentage of children with weight-for-age z-scores that are more than...

  17. A Prevalence Study of Intestinal Parasites in Southern Belize

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aimpun, Pote

    2000-01-01

    A biomedical survey of stool specimens from 82% of the population (n=672) of S villages in Toledo District, Belize were examined by the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique for the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections...

  18. Comparative milk production and prevalence study of parasites and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: dairy cattle, feeding, season, mastitis, prevalence, parasites, milk .... Fecal samples for parasitological examination were collected from the rectum ... 1 considered negative, while those with CMT scores above of 1 were considered.

  19. The Prevalence of food hypersensitivity in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerballe, Morten; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Hansen, Tine Kjær

    2009-01-01

    by questionnaire, skin prick test (SPT) and histamin release (HR) followed by oral challenge to the most common allergenic foods. FHS was divided into primary and secondary FHS. Primary FHS was defined as being independent of pollen sensitization, whereas secondary FHS was defined as reactions to pollen related......Osterballe M, Mortz CG, Hansen TK, Andersen KE, Bindslev-Jensen C. The Prevalence of food hypersensitivity in young adults. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2009. (c) 2009 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SA rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity (FHS) and severe allergic...... reactions to foods have been reported in the last decade. However, little is known on the prevalence in young adults. This study estimated the prevalence of FHS to the most common allergenic foods in an unselected population of young adults. We investigated a cohort of 1272 young adults 22 years of age...

  20. Prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based prevalence studies have been done in Nigeria. ... of Health had earlier adopted population-based voluntary counselling .... value of 1) with HBV, HCV and HIV infections were excluded in the .... 27-year age group being worst affected.

  1. Prevalence of bovine mastitis and multi-antibiotic resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of bovine mastitis and multi-antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus and ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... their antibiotic sensitivities and management practices of sahiwal and dairy cattle kept at a centre of Kenya ...

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in prolonged fever ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ifiable risk factors for the infection in humans in post conflict Northern Uganda. Methods: The study ... human brucellosis control. Keywords: Brucellosis, human, fever, prevalence, Uganda, zoonosis. ..... lution and taxonomy. Vet Microbiol. 2002 ...

  3. Prevalence and pattern of prescription errors in a Nigerian kidney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: Kidney Care Centre is a public Specialist hospital. ... Main outcome measures: Prevalence of prescription errors, pattern of prescription errors, pharmacist's intervention. ... A medication quality assurance unit is needed in our hospitals.

  4. The Prevalence of Hepatitis B (Australia) Antigen in Southern Mrica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bushmen) or rural Blacks indicated that geographical environment might be one of the factors influencing antigenaemia in healthy persons. The prevalence was highest in persons originating from the west coast regions of Southern Africa, ...

  5. isolation and identification of the microorganisms most prevalent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    problems presenting in eye clinics on a daily basis. With one or two ... microorganisms most prevalent in external eye infections in Owerri urban (as seen Mercy Eye clinic). With the aid of sterile .... through personal contacts. Consequently, the.

  6. The prevalence of umbilical and epigastric hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, J; Pedersen, M S; Pommergaard, H-C

    2015-01-01

    in Denmark on December 31st, 2010 was performed. Within this population all umbilical and epigastric hernia repairs from January 1st, 2006 to December 31st, 2010 were identified using data from the Danish National Hospital Register, and 5-year prevalence estimates were calculated. RESULTS: The study...... hernia repairs was seen in males aged 60-70 years with a 5-year prevalence of 0.53 % (95 % CI 0.51-0.56 %) and the highest age-specific 5-year prevalence of epigastric hernia repair was seen in 40-50 year females with a 5-year prevalence of 0.086 % (95 % CI 0.077-0.095 %). CONCLUSION: The gender and age...

  7. The Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    rate in pregnancy and the prevalence of HIV in pregnant women in labour with previously unknown status. HIV testing and .... laboratory was used to certify the kit performance before use. .... married men thereby reducing risk of HIV.

  8. Prevalence of leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis: A study of rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence of toxoplasmosis in child-bearing women in rural Sudan is even higher ranging ... crops. Animal trapping. Live rodents and shrews were captured in cultivated ..... P., Hodný, Z. & Vondrová, M. (2011) Fatal attraction phenomenon in.

  9. Prevalence of sickle cell, malaria and glucose-6-phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PD) deficiency are relatively common genetic disorders in population exposed to malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The prevalence of these two genetic disorders differs between different malaria transmission areas. Objectives: This cross ...

  10. Prevalence of HIV infection among trauma patients admitted to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of HIV infection among trauma patients admitted to Bugando Medical Centre, ... This was a descriptive cross sectional study involving trauma patients aged 11 years and ... A total of 250 trauma patients were recruited and studied.

  11. The prevalence and risk factors associated with anaemia among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence and risk factors associated with anaemia among HIV patients ... haematological complications of HIV, and most of the studies in Nigeria and outside ... Methods: This was a cross – sectional study conducted over a period of 6 ...

  12. [Prevalence of psychoactive drug consumption in an obese population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá Esteve, Maria A; Barral Tafalla, Diego; Gudelis, Mindaugas; Goday, Albert; Farre Albaladejo, Magi; Cano, Juan F

    2010-04-01

    To establish the prevalence of psychoactive drug consumption in an obese population. We collected data from the clinical records of obese patients attending the Endocrinology and Nutrition Department and Psychiatry Department of Hospital del Mar between June 2005 and May 2006 (n=259). We recorded anthropometric, epidemiological and toxicological data. We also investigated the prevalence of concomitant diseases in this population. Psychoactive drugs were consumed by 37% of obese patients, mainly antidepressants (27%), anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics, and anticonvulsants. Moreover, 15% of all patients received combination treatment with two or more psychoactive drugs, mostly the association of an antidepressant and an antiepileptic drug. The prevalence of psychoactive drug consumption in our sample was higher than prevalence data observed in the general population, with antidepressant consumption being three-fold higher. Copyright 2009 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and determinants of burnout syndrome among primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and determinants of burnout syndrome among primary healthcare ... Background: General practitioners (GPs) in particular are prone to developing ... Fatigue, the use of analgesics and irritability were the most common symptoms.

  14. Prevalence of Refractive errors among Primary School Pupils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Effective management of blindness due to refractive errors is readily available in developed countries. 1 ... Key words: Refractive errors, Children, Prevalence, Kenya. 165 .... financial support towards the funding of this study. REFERENCES. 1.

  15. The Prevalence of Osteoporosis among Antenatal Clinic Attendees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... a high prevalence of osteoporosis among pregnant women in Southeast Nigeria. This may be due to the predominant poor adherence and low dose of calcium .... India,[26,27] the study participants in this study were only.

  16. Prevalence of Hookworm Infection Among Patients Attending Aminu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    The above prevalence rate of infection could become higher in years to come ... majority of the infected individuals live in poverty- ... pregnant women in developing countries are suffering .... Darjeeling, India with 42.8% (Pal et al., 2007),.

  17. Prevalence of self-reported medical conditions among dental patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhatar A Javali

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of our study found a high prevalence of medical conditions among patients seeking periodontal treatment, thereby highlighting the need to record patients' medical and dental care history in detail.

  18. prevalence and correlates of job stress among junior doctors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Introduction: Doctors respond differently to their complex work environment, ... Conclusion: The prevalence of stress in this study is high, and job dissatisfaction and poor ..... Stansfeld S, Head J, Marmot M. Work related factors and ...

  19. ADHD in Tunisian Adolescents: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhalla, Ahmed; Guedria, Asma; Brahem, Takoua; Amamou, Badii; Sboui, Wiem; Gaddour, Naoufel; Gaha, Lotfi

    2018-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of ADHD in a population of high school students and to explore the factors associated with this disorder. This was a cross-sectional study that had included 447 high school students. The diagnosis of ADHD was made by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale translated in Arabic language. The sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated by a preestablished questionnaire. The self-esteem was assessed by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The prevalence of ADHD was 18.1%. The logistic regression analysis showed an association between the diagnosis of ADHD and the bad relationships with parents (odds ratio [OR] = 16.43; p antecedents (OR = 12.16; p antecedents (OR = 3.16; p = .009). The prevalence of ADHD in this study was one of the highest prevalence reported. The factors associated with ADHD may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  20. Erectile dysfunction: prevalence, risk factors and involvement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... Abstract. Purpose: To explore the literature regarding prevalance, risk factors and the involvement of ..... Cigarette smoking and other vascular risk factors in vasculogenic impotence. Urology.

  1. Patterns of Perception of Causes and Prevalence of Anaemia at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of Perception of Causes and Prevalence of Anaemia at Booking in Tropical ... of pregnant women attending antenatal clinic on common causes of anaemia. ... half (53.3%) knew its mode of transmission and 33.5% knew its prevention.

  2. Prevalence and causes of thrombocytopenia in an academic state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    threatening pathological conditions. To establish the cause, appropriate laboratory investigation is required. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and causes of platelet counts <100 × 109/L in state health facilities in Johannesburg, South ...

  3. Prevalence and correlates of hunger among primary and secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    data on the prevalence and associated factors of hunger among school children in Malawi. ... children in Malawi, we carried out this study to provide such information. .... due to the protection against hunger that children who are normally in ...

  4. Prevalence and Analysis of Factors Related to Occurrence of Pulp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    between pulp stone and pristine posterior teeth, chronic periodontitis and posterior teeth ... Conclusion: It is recommended that researchers should pay special care in case selections, and ... (1982) reported a PS prevalence rate of 20.7 % in.

  5. the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among active sportsmen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. This study sought to establish the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among active .... Table 1: General characteristic of the studied population stratified by exercise. Parameters ..... Prolonged adaptation to fat- rich diet ...

  6. Prevalence of human cysticercosis and taeniasis in rural Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, S H; Motghare, D D; Ferreira, A M; Kulkarni, M S; Vaz, F S

    2008-06-01

    A cross sectional study among 450 individuals selected by strafified random sampling was carried out in rural Goa to find out the prevalence of cysticercosis and taeniasis, as well as to study the role of various factors associated with this diseases. The study participants were administered a pre-tested structured questionnaire and subsequently blood and stool samples were examined. SPSS software was used to analyze the data statistically. The sero-prevalence of cysterosis was 22.4%, which increased with age. Prevalence of taeniasis was 9.7% by stool examination. Individuals with taeniasis were thrice more likely to have cysticercosis; however no association between sero-positivity for cysterosis and pork consumption as well as religion could be established. The study confirmed a high sero-prevalence of cysticercosis in Goa underscoring the need to general awareness about good cooking habits and sanitation.

  7. [Prevalence and aetiopathogenesis of neuropathic pain in elderly cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón-Gutiérrez, Luis; Custodio-Cabello, Sara; Khosravi-Shahi, Parham

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of neuropathic pain is difficult to estimate as most studies evaluating chronic pain do not differentiate neuropathic from nociceptive pain. There are only a few studies of neuropathic pain in the elderly, specifically in the oncology population. This article is a non-systematic review of the relevant evidence on the prevalence and aetiopathogenesis of neuropathic cancer pain in the elderly. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Menstrual characteristics and prevalence of dysmenorrhea in college going girls

    OpenAIRE

    MoolRaj Kural; Naziya Nagori Noor; Deepa Pandit; Tulika Joshi; Anjali Patil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea is a common gynecological condition with painful menstrual cramps of uterine origin. Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea is not yet clearly studied in central India. Objective: To study prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea in young girls and to evaluate associated clinical markers of dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, data was collected among 310 girls (18?25 years) on age at menarche, presence and absence of dysmenorrhea, dysmenorrhea durat...

  9. Small area variation in diabetes prevalence in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, Edward F.; Burrows, Nilka R.; Barker, Lawrence E.; Beckles, Gloria L.; Boyle, James P.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Kirtland, Karen A.; Thompson, Theodore J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the 2009 prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in Puerto Rico among adults ≥ 20 years of age in order to gain a better understanding of its geographic distribution so that policymakers can more efficiently target prevention and control programs. METHODS: A Bayesian multilevel model was fitted to the combined 2008-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 2009 United States Census data to estimate diabetes prevalence for each of the 78 municipios (counties) in Puert...

  10. Prevalence of childhood asthma in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigemi Yoshihara

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The asthma prevalence in Mongolian children was higher than that in the world and Asia–Pacific countries reported by ISAAC. The higher prevalence was probably attributable to households' (especially mothers smoking in draft-free houses designed for the cold area and severe air-pollution due to rapid industrialization and urbanization in Mongolia. Smoking prohibition in the mother (including family members and a reduction of exposure to air pollutants are urgently needed to prevent developing childhood asthma.

  11. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referre...

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with suicidal ideation among university students

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo G., José M.; Sánchez P., Ricardo; Tejada, Paola A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To quantify the prevalence of suicidal ideation in a population of university students, to characterize groups in connection with ideation and suicidal behavior, and to determine the variables associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Methods: Observational, analytic and cross-sectional study of a probabilistic sample of the population studied. An instrument for measuring suicide risk and associated variables was applied to this sample. Results: The prevalence of the...

  13. The prevalence of primary hereditary hemochromatosis in central Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Halit; Güven, Kadri; Önal, Müge; Gürsoy, Şebnem; Başkol, Mevlüt; Özkul, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with the HFE genes. Early identification and diagnosis is important as end stage organ damage may occur if treatment is delayed.. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of hereditary hemochromatosis in Kayseri and surroundings known as Central Anatolia. 2304 participants (1220 males, 1084 females) who were older then the age of 17 were included in the study conducted between December 2005 and December 2006 in Kayseri, Turkey. Transferin saturation was measured from overnight fasting blood samples. Serum iron, total iron binding capacity, and transferin saturation were measured. Serum ferritin levels and hereditary hemochromatosis genetic analysis were also performed after an overnight fasting blood samples from participants whose transferin saturation results were more than 50% in man and more than 45% in women. The homozygote C282Y mutation and heterozygote C282Y mutation prevalences were found as 0.08% (1/1220) and 0.08% (1/1220) in male participants, respectively. The heterozygote H63D mutation prevalence was found in 0.09% (1/1084) of female participants. Calculated prevalences in general population are as follows; The homozygote C282Y mutation prevalence is 0.043% (1/2304), the heterozygote C282Y mutation prevalence is 0.043% (1/2304) and the heterozygote H63D mutation prevalence is 0.043% (1/2304). The prevalence of hereditary hemochromatosis in Central Anatolia is 0.043% (1/2304). Because of the relatively low frequency, population screening studies are not cost-effective.

  14. GOOD HOMOSEXUAL BEHAVIOUR DECREASE PREVALENCE OF SEXUAL TRANSMITTED DISSEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The homosexual behaviour were become indicators of sexually transmitted diseases’s (STDs prevalencies. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual community was very high but until recently study it was conducted sporadically. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation of homosexual behaviour with prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in Mobile Clinic Community Centre of IGAMA collaborating with Public Health Centre Sumberpucung of Malang Regency. Method:  Analytic design with cross sectional methode was used in this study. The population were all visitors of Mobile Clinic Community Centre of IGAMA collaborating with Public Health Centre Sumberpucung of Malang Regency (353 people. Sample were 40 people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was homosexual behaviour and the dependent variable was prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Data for homosexual behaviour were collected by using questionnaire and indhept interview with content analyze and data for prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs were collected by using laboratorium test for STDs. Result: The research result was presented in the form diagram, table of cross tabulation and analyzed by using Spearman Rho with significance level ρ=0.005. The result showed that there was correlation of homosexual knowledge (ρ=0.001, attitude (ρ=0.000 and  practice (ρ=0.000 with prevalence of STDs. Dsicussion:  It can be concluded that the better knowledge, attitude and practice of homosexual could be decrease prevalence of STDs. Futher studies are recomended to analyze the correlation between homosexual behaviour and prevalence of STDs with Health Believe approach.

  15. Prevalence of and Predictors of Substance Use Among Adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the school adolescents, more males than females reported being alcohol drinkers (16.7% versus 9.2%; odds ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95%CI, 1.17 - 3.29). The prevalence proportions of cigarette smoking were 26.2% for men and 15.5% for women while prevalence proportions of marijuana smoking were 4.1% for men and 3.0% ...

  16. Prevalence Rates of Mental Disorders in Chilean Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Adrian P.; Alvarado, Rubén; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Poblete, Catalina; Villagra, Carolina; Kastner, Sinja; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Objective High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. Method A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. Results Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1) for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0) for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8) for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1) for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2) for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3) for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, pprison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; pprison population than in the general population. Conclusions Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders. PMID:23894415

  17. Prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction in Santos, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Júnior,Edson Duarte; Bestane,Walter Jorge; Bartolo,Elaine Bestane; Fittipaldi,João Antônio Saraiva

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT: Recent population-based surveys suggest that the prevalence of erectile dysfunction is between 30% and 56% among men over the age of 40. Most of these studies, however, are from the United States or Europe. We need estimates of erectile dysfunction from samples of Brazilian populations, as societies that differ ethnically, culturally, and economically may also differ with respect to potential risk factors for erectile dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of erectile dy...

  18. Prevalence of Injuries during Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Training

    OpenAIRE

    Alex R. McDonald; Fred A. Murdock; Josh A. McDonald; Christopher J. Wolf

    2017-01-01

    Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a martial art that focuses on groundwork, joint locks, and chokeholds. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of injuries sustained during BJJ training. A 27-question research survey was e-mailed to 166 BJJ gyms in the United States. Demographic information, belt level, weight class, training hours, competition experience, and injury prevalence data were collected. The majority of respondents were Caucasian (n = 96) males (n = 121) with an averag...

  19. Human papilloma virus prevalence in a multiethnic screening population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang Mei; Stephen, Josena K; Ghanem, Tamer; Stachler, Robert; Gardner, Glendon; Jones, Lamont; Schweitzer, Vanessa P; Hall, Francis; Divine, George; Worsham, Maria J

    2013-03-01

    The goal was to determine the prevalence of high-risk HPV16 using saliva in a screening population in Detroit, Michigan. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to detect HPV16 in saliva DNA from 349 screening subjects without head and neck cancer (HNC), 156 with HNC, and 19 controls. Cut points for human papilloma virus (HPV) positivity were >0 and >0.001 copy/cell. Proportions were compared between groups using exact χ(2) or Fisher exact tests (P 0, each group had an overall HPV prevalence of more than 5%, with a higher prevalence of 30.8% in the HNC patient group. At a cut point >0.001, the prevalence was lower: 0% in the control, 1.2% in the screening, and 16.7% in the HNC group. In the latter, for both cut points, HPV prevalence was different across sites (0, women in the screening group had a higher prevalence of HPV than did men (P = .010), and at >0.001, the prevalence was higher for men in the HNC group than for women (P = .035). In the screening group, at >0, only African Americans had a higher prevalence than Caucasian Americans (P = .025). In the screening group, a 6.9% and 1.2% screening rate was noted at cut points >0 and >0.001, respectively. The results provide data to inform public health considerations of the feasibility of saliva as a screening tool in at-risk populations with the long-term goal of prophylactic vaccination against oral HPV.

  20. Evaluating the prevalence and effectiveness of breed-specific legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Trembath, Felicia E

    2016-01-01

    Dog bites pose a persistent public health problem, which some jurisdictions pass breed-specific legislation (BSL) to address. However, very little non-anecdotal evidence regarding the efficacy of BSL has been presented. Currently, BSL research is hampered by the absence of standard terminology, an established prevalence, or a scientific consensus on its effectiveness. The purpose of this study is to propose standardized terminology for BSL, establish the prevalence of each type of BSL in the ...